Tube Bending The primary objective of tube bending is to produce a desired shape [113].

Tube bending is a forming process that produces the permanent plastic deformation of the tube material by applying mechanical forces through tooling in either cold or hot conditions. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section I, does not specifically address tube bends. All tubing approved for ASME B&PV construction is bendable. There are several interrelated tube-forming factors: y y y y The utility company or manufacturer¶s bending quality requirements The tube material and its mechanical properties, for example, ductility The desired bend radius The tube OD and wall thickness

Bends are made using a variety of hot- or cold-guided bend processes. The bending process produces thinning of the wall at the outside (extrados) of the bend and thickening of the wall at the inside (intrados) of the bend. A simple acceptable method to estimate the wall thickness in a tube bend is to compare the equations for hoop stress in a torus with that in a cylinder. For example, in a thin-walled torus, the hoop stress is:

Where P = pressure OD = tube outside diameter t intrados, t extrados = wall thickness RB = bend radius (measured to the tube centerline) A study of these equations indicates that the hoop stress at a bend intrados is higher than then hoop stress away from the bend. The hoop stress at the extrados of the bend is, however, somewhat less than the hoop stress away from the bend. To prevent the tube from rupturing at a bend, an evaluation shall be made to determine if the thickness in the vicinity of the tube bend was sufficient. This can be done by determining the wall thickness at the bend intrados and extrados that would produce the same hoop stress as the tube away from the bend.

of tubing after bending measured on the tube OD shall not exceed 10% as determined by the formula: y Ovality = 100 x (Dmax . The bending process shall be adjusted after each bend until acceptable accuracy is being produced without subsequent pointing. y . Other commonly used general tube bending requirements in the industry include: y The wall thickness at any point in a completed bend shall be not less than 90% of the design minimum wall thickness as determined by calculation in accordance with ASME Code. Bending of tubes shall not cause buckling or undue stretching of the tube wall. Tube-bending criteria may be inherited from each fabricator¶s past experience. should be considered as one limiting factor to establish the bending radius. the tube shall be rejected and replaced. or mm) Dmin = minimum OD after bending or forming (in. When bending results in wrinkling or flattening. Out-of-roundness. which is a major consideration in fatigue damage. The initial bent tubes shall be checked on a full-scale layout. Section I or evaluated based on torus formulas as described previously. The strain limits. or mm) y The manufacturer shall write tube-bending procedures and submit them to the utility company for review and acceptance. that is.Another important factor in the tube bending is the strain criterion. or ovality. Using old-bending criteria applied to the new less ductile material has created painful failure lessons in the past. It is extremely important to review these criteria and evaluate its applicability when dealing with new material with no previous experience. or mm) Dmax = maximum OD after bending or forming (in.Dmin) / Do Where Do = nominal tube OD (in. 2% plastic strain.