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AGING, DISADVANTAGE AND CONSUMER CREDIT ISSUES - INVOLVING STUDENTS IN
Frances Gibson La Trobe University
Australia has an aging population which is increasingly reliant on credit and financial services. Although many older people are well off relative to the rest of the community, older people as a group are not homogeneous and there are many older people who are financially disadvantaged. For these people consumer credit issues and financial problems can be significant. What are the financial services and consumer credit issues which have the potential to affect disadvantaged older consumers? There is clearly a lack of research data in relation to problems faced by older consumers and this presentation outlines a research project on this topic which has developed as a partnership between La Trobe University Bendigo and the Loddon Campaspe Community Legal Centre involving law students enrolled in the University's new clinical course Rural and Regional Issues in Justice. Issues that arise when involving students in research will be discussed.
COMPULSORY CLINICAL: IS THERE A WAY? Judy Harrison The Australian National University
This paper argues that 'clinical' should be a compulsory part of the curriculum running the length of the law degree for each student. The paper argues that the issue isn't 'why do it', it is 'how can Australian law schools achieve it?'.
The paper considers graduate attributes in law, flexible learning, students' construction of knowledge and reflective practice. It suggests that the answer to 'how' lies in instructional design. This would locate students' lives, aspirations and at least modest community
service aspects, as the 'learning environment'. The paper gives examples of typical intended learning outcomes, which are recognisably 'clinical'.
The paper is interposed with discussion points aimed at promoting critical evaluation of the ideas expressed in the paper.
ADVOCACY TRAINING KIT: AN
EXERCISE FOR STUDENTS IN SELF-DIRECTED,
EXPERIMENTAL AND BLENDED LEARNING
Robert Hayes & Francine Feld University of Western Sydney
Robert Hayes and Francine Feld are co-authors of The Advocacy Training Kit (2007), published by the Law Students Association of the University of Western Sydney. The Kit draws upon the experience and expertise of UWS Law Alumni, experienced judges and practitioners, and the law student body itself. Proceeds from the sale of the Kit go entirely to the LSA, to fund its provision to the student body of advocacy and other skills training.
Effective advocacy training requires participation of experienced advocates, who may not be available in sufficient numbers to allow timetabling of regular training sessions in weekday class times over the course of the entire semester. The Kit facilitates a strategy whereby students can work in small groups in their own time in preparation for a weekend training session conducted by one senior advocate, and presided over by a judicial officer, in which the students can both be tested on, and further develop the knowledge and skills base required for, researching and presenting matters in the six key areas which are its focus. These are set out in Part one: • • • • • Tendering a document Making an application Preparing and presenting a case Plea in mitigation Written advocacy: appeal against sentence
The Kit contains, in relation to each of the six nominated areas, the following: • • • • A practice exercise Written instructional material DVDs of instructors speaking about and engaging with students in presentation of the exercises Written and DVD recorded commentary on the ethics of advocacy.
The Kit thus facilitates a strategy whereby students can work in self-directed mode, on blended learning materials, in preparation for their experience of presenting, under instruction from an experienced practitioner, in a moot court presided over by a current judicial officer, over a single weekend session, six exercises paralleling each of those matters covered in Part one. The Kit contains 12 exercises, namely, the six systematically deconstructed in Part one of the Kit, and the parallel exercises which the students would be required to prepare and present in the weekend training and assessment session.
Robert Hayes and Francine Feld will discuss use the Kit to demonstrate their use of student-centred, self-directed, experiential and blended learning strategies in advocacy training.
COMMERCIAL AND CONSUMER PROTECTION
A New Personal Property Securities Law for Australia Barry Allan University of Otago
In April 2007 the Council of Australian Governments agreed in-principle to implement a nationwide law for the recognition and registration of security interests in personal property, based upon a model used in the USA, Canada and New Zealand. The most significant impact of this law, if adopted, will be upon those who presently rely upon
The Incorporation of Contractual Terms in Unsigned Documents-Time for a Realistic. When a person enters a transaction and receives a ticket .Friendly approach? Aviva YM Freilich The University of Western Australia The law about the contractual status of terms in unsigned documents is that they are incorporated by the doctrine of reasonable notice. In the ticket scenario. the contract will be concluded after that time and will include all the terms on the ticket. Rather than using established principles to determine the time of formation of the contract and incorporation of the ticket’s terms. Consumer. (If a particular term is onerous. the judge 4 . that these tickets are rarely read. the law has developed based on nineteenth century cases exemplified by Parker v South Eastern Railway (1877 ) 2CPD416 . EBay International AG v Creative Festival Entertainment Pty Ltd FCA1768 which involved over the counter sales of tickets to a rock concert.ownership of personal property to secure rights to be paid. as long as they are aware there is writing on it. consignment and lease transactions. (ii) the extended protection given to proceeds of same and (iii) the protection given to foreign interests upon arrival of collateral into the jurisdiction. This paper examines the treatment of such transactions under the New Zealand Personal Property Securities Act 1999. the person’s attention must be drawn to it for it to be incorporated). the court departed from this analysis. under retention of title. hire purchase. (now confirmed by the results of behavioural research). with specific attention given to (i) the Purchase Money Security Interest. In a recent case. if they retain it for long enough to read it. Their status is likely to be re-characterised as that of a secured creditor. The theory is that if they don’t agree with the terms they can hand back the ticket and there is no contract. This objective principle was developed as part of the classical contract default rules in the interests of certainty and efficiency but also in the face of knowledge.
the concept of merchantable quality( s71(1) and s66(3) of the Trade Practices Act). 5 . The case as a precedent is not weighty (single judge. arrangement or understanding that has the purpose or effect of fixing the price of any goods or services they supply. The inherently anti-competitive nature of such conduct is reflected in the fact that price fixing is deemed by the TPA to substantially lessen competition in the market in which it occurs. Rares J referred to the fact that the buyer did not have “… the astuteness of an experienced commercial lawyer dealing with ticket cases ( who could) recognize the ability to return the ticket and demand a refund….realistically used the perceptions of “the ordinary reasonable person”. If it were this would clearly have a desirable impact on the format of tickets and ticket sales as well as the practices and protocols of ticket sellers. unreported decision) but it serves as a reminder of the gap between rule and reality.) This preferable subjective standard should also be applied as a determinant of incorporation of terms in the context of unsigned documents. COLLUSION OR NOT? PITFALLS IN PROVING PRICE FIXING UNDER THE TRADE PRACTICES ACT Brenda Marshall Bond University Corporate competitors in Australia are prohibited by ss 45 and 45A of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) from making or giving effect to a contract.” His honour downplayed “the precise contractual analysis” of the transactions but rather emphasized the fact that they were “consumer transactions mainly effected with young people who were not experienced in the commercial world” and they would interpret the transaction as one they could not get out of. rendering the conduct illegal per se. The test of the reasonable expectation of the consumer is applied usefully and without difficulty to. It is about time that the reasonable expectations of the non-drafting consumer were applied in this branch of consumerrelated contract law as they are in other areas. inter alia. and the concept of what constitutes a defective good ( Part VA of the Trade Practices Act.
Against the background of price fixing litigation in Australia. The paper considers the judicial interpretation of the terms ‘contract. focusing on the implications of these decisions for the ACCC in its prosecution of price fixing agreements. PROMOTING FAIRER CONSUMER CONTRACTS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ALTERNATIVE REGULATORY MODELS Frank Zumbo The University of New South Wales With the Productivity Commission currently reviewing Australia’s consumer policy framework. actions brought by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission for alleged price fixing within a range of industries have frequently failed on this point. arrangement or understanding’ to fix prices can be shown to exist between competitor corporations. Indeed. needed to prove that a ‘contract. In reviewing the operation of the existing concepts of unconscionability particular attention will be given to how the courts have increasingly emphasized procedural unconscionability 6 . arrangement or understanding’ and the evidence. in particular. In doing so.Establishing a breach of the price fixing provisions of the TPA depends therefore on the apparently simple requirement that a ‘contract. arrangement or understanding’ to fix prices exists. proof of the necessary ‘contract. Recent defeats suffered by the ACCC include the dismissal of its price fixing allegations against various petrol retailers in APCO Service Stations Pty Ltd v ACCC  FCAFC 161 and ACCC v Leahy Petroleum Pty Ltd  FCA 794. it is opportune to consider the issue of unfair terms in consumer contracts and. both direct and circumstantial. to assess the alternative regulatory models available to deal with this issue. arrangement or understanding’ can be problematic. this paper analyses the recent APCO and Leahy decisions. However. the paper will consider why the issue of unfairness in contract terms arises and whether or not existing concepts of unconscionability have offered consumers an appropriate framework for dealing with potentially unfair contract terms.
released the 'Insider Trading Position and Consultation Paper' with the aim of providing greater protection for investors against insider trading. either directly or indirectly. Chris Pearce.under such concepts thereby reducing significantly the impact that those concepts may have had in promoting fairer contract terms. 7 . the availability of alternative regulatory models for promoting fairer contract terms will be explored and an assessment made of their effectiveness. along with clear guidance from the relevant enforcement agency. enhance certainty of consumer contracts by promoting transparency. COMPANY LAW POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN CONTINUOUS DISCLOSURE POLICY DEVELOPMENTS AND INSIDER TRADING: PROVISIONS FOR THE FUTURE Josephine Coffey The University of Sydney The Australian Government. through the Department of the Treasury. With this in mind. On the 2 March 2007. One such alternative model involves enacting a new legislative framework for dealing directly with allegedly unfair contract terms in a timely and targeted manner and in a way that does not undermine the certainty of consumer contracts. In this way consumers would be less likely to question the operation or fairness of contractual terms as they would have available to them a readily accessible mechanism for having potentially unfair contract terms scrutinized for their clarity or potential for shifting contractual risks or obligations disproportionately onto the consumer. This was followed on 5 March 2007 by two more important papers: 'Review of Sanctions in Corporate Law' and 'Review of the Operation of the Infringement Notice Provisions of the Corporations Act 2001'. affects the implementation or enforcement of the continuous disclosure and insider trading provisions of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasurer. clarity and fairness of contractual terms in a way that the existing concepts of unconscionability have been unable to do so. has issued in rapid succession since the beginning of March 2007 a number of consultation papers. Each of these papers. Such a new legislative framework can.
.to assess new investigation techniques. In particular..both exchange traded products and over-the-counter markets for equities. the one ranked third would be monitoring and enforcing laws relating to insider trading. in the vanguard of a public backlash if there is a market downturn. that 'a special team is being established to determine what additional actions ASIC (in cooperation with ASX) can take in the areas of continuous disclosure. derivatives and other financial products'? STATUTORY DEBT SUBORDINATION IN AUSTRALIA AND HONG KONG AND THE IMPACT OF SONS OF GWALIA: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE Anil Hargovan The University of New South Wales Australia and Hong Kong share a common legal heritage in the area of corporate and insolvency law. The incoming Chairman of ASIC. Some commentators fear that the elevation of shareholder claims in Sons of Gwalia may have significant implications for ordinary unsecured creditors in corporate insolvencies in Hong Kong. there are identical statutory debt subordinations provisions in both jurisdictions which subordinate shareholder claims in favour of ordinary creditors. Is it in anticipation of tougher policies. continuous disclosure and market manipulation. are a likely agenda to follow these reviews... building on best practice overseas. 8 . asserted that the focus would be on six priorities. The recent landmark High Court decision in Sons of Gwalia Ltd v Margaretic (2007) has altered the topography of modern Australian insolvency law by recognising distributive equality in the treatment of shareholder and ordinary unsecured creditor claims in certain circumstances.Public comments regarding all three papers were submitted in June 2007 and policy changes. Tony D'Aloisio. presented to the Senate Standing Committee on Economics on the 30 May 2007. with legislative amendments to be administered by ASIC. in his 'Opening Statement on ASIC's Priorities for the Next 12 Months'.
This issue is topical as recent decisions have suggested that the statutory duties of directors and officers are limited in their scope to protecting the interests of shareholders. unless accompanied by other significant law reform. A comparative assessment is made. We contest that viewpoint and argue that. The general law and statutory duties of directors and officers reflect this “shareholder primacy norm”. at least in relation to statutory duties. if any. & The University of New South Wales The conventional view of corporate regulation is that corporations are to be managed for the benefit of their shareholders. noting material differences in the commercial landscape between the two jurisdictions. This paper considers what role the public interest should in enforcing statutory duties and whether such a role represents a challenge to the dominant shareholder primacy norm of corporate law. the general law and statutory duties are not identical. with duties formulated to prevent directors acting otherwise than in the interests of shareholders. Anil Hargovan & Janet Austin University of Technology Sydney. 9 . leading to the conclusion that the impact on creditors in Hong Kong will be minimal. SHAREHOLDER PRIMACY REVISITED: DOES THE PUBLIC INTEREST HAVE ANY ROLE IN STATUTORY DUTIES? Jason Harris. directors and officers have obligations that extend beyond the narrow conception of the protection of shareholder wealth. of the impact of Sons of Gwalia in the legal treatment of shareholder claims in corporate insolvencies in Hong Kong. The remedies and enforcement mechanisms differ considerably. even to the detriment of the public interest.This paper assesses the prospects of the ramifications. However. if any. which raises the question as to whether the public enforcement of statutory duties carries with it a public interest mandate that general law duties do not.
which empower the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) to issue infringement notices. An argument will be formulated concluding that determinations by the ASIC to issue infringement notices is an exercise of judicial power by a Commonwealth administrative body. A brief overview of the rationale for the introduction of infringement notices into the legislation will be given. clearly focusing on Parliament’s purpose for introducing this provision. An analysis of the ASIC’s power to issue infringement notices within the Federal context of the Corporations law will be provided indicating that the present regime raises serious questions as to the scheme’s Constitutional validity. 10 . which is not permitted under the Constitution.THE CONSTITUTIONALITY CRITICAL APPRAISAL Margaret Hyland OF ASIC'S POWER TO ISSUE INFRINGEMENT NOTICES: A University of Western Sydney The proposed paper will examine whether or not the current statutory provisions under Part 9. The critical analysis will support the argument that infringement notices under the Corporations Act 2001(Cth) are constitutionally invalid and that the provision should be either repealed or amended to bring it within power. are constitutionally valid. The ASIC’s powers will be examined within the context of the doctrine of separation of powers and the constitutional limitations imposed on administrative bodies and Parliament within the commonwealth sphere.4AA of the Corporations Act 2001(Cth).
This paper.THE POWER OF THE AUSTRALIAN SECURITIES AND INVESTMENTS COMMISSION TO ACCEPT ENFORCEABLE UNDERTAKINGS: AIMS AND CURRENT PRACTICES Marina Nehme University of Western Sydney An enforceable undertaking is one of the many sanctions that are available to the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC). Accordingly. An enforceable undertaking is a promise enforceable in court. The paper also surveys the promises given in an enforceable undertaking and the goals that may be achieved by these promises. It observes the instances under which ASIC enters into an enforceable undertaking and the alleged offences that lead to the acceptance of an enforceable undertaking. known as the promisor. The alleged offender. This sanction is widely used in the regulatory community for it allows the regulators to reach plausible solutions to alleged offences without spending the resources of their agencies or the resources of the courts. PIERCING THE VEIL OF INCORPORATION: DOES IT ONLY APPLY TO SHAREHOLDERS? David Parker Victoria University Piercing of the veil is one of the metaphorical terms used to describe the process whereby courts examine what is in reality occurring within the corporate entity in terms of control. use of the entity and its interaction with others. The paper also considers the origin of enforceable undertakings and takes into account the enforceable undertakings accepted by ASIC from 1998 (the date this sanction became available to this regulator) to 2006. will promise the regulator to do or not to do certain actions. the result achieved in the enforceable undertaking will reflect the compromise that is agreed upon by the parties involved. this paper reflects on the action that may be taken by ASIC if an enforceable undertaking is not complied with. This paper looks at the use of the enforceable undertakings by ASIC. Lastly. while acknowledging the 11 .
traditional application of piercing between the entity and shareholders, proposes that piercing has a wider application to various company participants. Those participants include the company controllers and managers who might otherwise have cloaked their activities, or least have taken the protection of the separate entity.
This paper draws on the lifting and piercing of the veil distinction to demonstrate that the principle may be described as something of a methodology, which is used to analyse what is occurring within the company. Piercing might be described as an invasion or probing of the company entity. The piercing process in some instances might be called a lifting of the veil in order to assess the activities, or even the culture of the company, to find controllers of the company, or even the company itself liable for what has occurred within that entity.
MAKING GREATER USE OF CIVIL SANCTIONS FOR BREACHES OF CORPORATE LAW. Michelle Welsh Monash University
The Department of Treasury is currently conducting a review of sanctions in Corporate Law. One of the consultation issues is whether or not greater use should be made of civil sanctions for breaches of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). The civil sanctions that are the subject of the Department of Treasury’s review are contained in the civil penalty regime in Part 9.4B Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). This paper contains an evaluation of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission’s (ASIC’s) use of the civil penalty regime between 1993, when the regime was introduced, and 2006. Based on this
evaluation it is recommended that greater use be made of the civil penalty regime for breaches of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). While greater use should be made of the civil penalty regime it must be recognized that these enforcement provisions will not be suitable for all breaches of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).
COMPARATIVE AND ASIAN LAW
LAW AND PUBLIC POLICY: TAMING THE UNRULY HORSE? Mr Kanaga Dharmananda & Mr John Southalan The University of Western Australia
What guidance on judicial independence in Australia can we draw from the 1995 Beijing Principles and other countries in the Asia Pacific? This question is addressed by considering three issues: what are the key criteria for judicial independence from the Beijing Principles and from other countries in the region; what is the position of judicial independence in Australia; and for those areas identified as requiring attention, what legal and public policy issues ought be considered in addressing these areas?
In 1995 the Beijing Principles on Independence of the Judiciary were adopted by Chief Justices in the Asia-Pacific region, addressing matters such as judicial appointment, tenure, dismissal and disciplinary procedures, jurisdiction, justiciability, and resourcing. The Principles claim to 'represent the minimum standards necessary to be observed in order to maintain the independence and effective functioning of the judiciary'. The paper summarises the Principles main provisions, before noting relevant developments in the Asia-Pacific region. From this, the paper identifies five key contemporary criteria for judicial independence: the appointment process, guaranteed terms, supremacy of court jurisdiction, financial autonomy and societal stability.
Judicial independence in Australia is strong, but questions remain on long-standing issues such as the appointment process and the restructuring of courts. Judicial independence is shaped by four forces: the Constitution, legislation, the common law, and practice (of judges, governments, the media, and others in society). Each of these is summarised in relation to the key criteria identified earlier.
Public policy's varying demands, with the ever-present financial framework, provide a somewhat vague and changing context within which to fix the law of judicial independence. By studying the situation and laws in other countries, and reflecting on Australian developments, the paper proposes some common and possibly universal themes for judicial independence in Australia.
APOLOGY AND THE ADVERSARIAL CRIMINAL PROCESS – AUSTRALIA AND JAPAN Francine Feld University of Western Sydney
Last year, Mr Pantic, a “person of interest” in the coronial inquiry into the death of Dianne Brimble on a cruise ship in 2002, made an apology to the family of Mrs Brimble. According to newspaper reports, Mr Pantic, after finishing giving evidence, asked to meet the Brimble family. He then tearfully apologised to them in person for not having done more to help at the time he realised Mrs Brimble was in distress.
The newspaper reports were surprising: an early expression of remorse by a person who may potentially be the subject of criminal prosecution is rare in a country such as ours, with an adversarial system of criminal justice. But in a country such as Japan where “apology is an integral part of every resolution of conflict”, such newspaper reports might be commonplace.
What is unusual and interesting about Mr Pantic’s apology is that it was not made in the context of a plea in mitigation of sentence. Rather, it was in the context of one of the few non-adversarial court processes in Australia – the coronial inquest.
This paper is about apology and acceptance of responsibility in our criminal justice system, and the role that non-adversarial processes have, and might potentially have, in that system. It looks at the barriers to apology inherent in the adversarial model, and compares our system with the Japanese system. It asks whether there is room in our
The ability to manipulate elections under the 13th Amendment resulting in recent chaotic events.system for a process aimed at moral persuasion – a way of persuading offenders to own up and to take responsibility for their actions earlier rather than later.M. Subsequently two general elections were held under these amendments. like many other developing countries. Such boycotts by major political parties adversely affected the economic development and gave rise to anarchy.K. Moreover. Election related violence resulted in loss of lives and property. Many elections have been boycotted by the opposition parties. The steps taken by the caretaker government were popularly seen as breaching the neutrality. The election was scheduled to be held on 22 January 2007. formal legal provisions though 15 . remains a big challenge. declaration of emergency. postponement of general election etc clearly raise questions about the adequacy of such an amendment. holding of periodic free and fair election. In order to ensure free and fair election the Thirteenth Amendment Act was passed in 1996 paving the way for a unique constitutional arrangement not replicated in any other country. Masudul Haque University of Western Sydney In Bangladesh. However election has been postponed and a state of emergency declared in the country as a result of agitations against the moves of the caretaker government constituted after the resignation of the previous government following end of its tenure in the government. In the wake of such events a new caretaker government has been appointed by the President. The proposed paper would analyse the main provisions of the amendment and raise the constitutionality of such an arrangement that created inconsistencies with the basic structure of the original constitution. FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS IN BANGLADESH AND THE ILLUSION OF NEUTRAL CARETAKER GOVERNMENT A. The appointment of the new government itself is seen by many as unconstitutional. a precondition of democracy. Both these elections were widely regarded as fair and free though the loosing side did complain about irregularities.
fake or substandard goods made in China. and. the Chinese product liability framework is comprised of the consumer protection law. For instance. as providing political resources which individuals and groups can utilise to gain their ends. From times to times. Thousands of pets in America were killed after eaten taint pet food. The pet foods in question have contained wheat flours laced with melamine which were imported from China. The pharmaceutical factory in Guangdong Province used diglycol instead of propylene glycol to manufacture the auxiliary material for injections. Together with this core legislation. and the rules and regulations formulated by various government authorities. at least 50 infants in Anhui province were killed by fake baby formula and 170 others had suffered from ‘big-head disease’.important should be seen as symbols of attempts to implement the law's underlying tasks. It concludes that enforceability of the constitution and its spirit will remain elusive unless proper institutions are in place and there is a culture developed within the political parties and civil society at large to abide by the provisions. America. Chinese consumers are not protected from defective. In 2006. 16 . major incidents regarding product safety hit the headline of local media. Hong Kong and Australia have either recalled. the advertisement law. Despite having a legal regime in place. Recently. Toxic cough syrup which claimed 51 lives in Panama has linked to a Chinese company that passed off diethylene glycol as pure glycerine. COULD THE UNRULY PRODUCT SAFETY IN CHINA BE TAMED BY LAW? Mary Ip The University of New South Wales Promulgation of the product liability law in 1993 marked the development of the product liability regime in China. in 2004. 11 patients were killed after being injected with fake medicine. banned or issued warning over toxic toothpastes made in China. Singapore. in the course of this. the drug law. The climax of the Chinese unsafe products is the dead sentence of a former Beijing regulator who took bribes to approve fake drugs. the issue of Chinese product safety is under the spotlight of overseas press. the food hygiene law.
INVESTOR PROTECTION IN CHINA’S SECURITIES MARKET Chenxia Shi Monash University China’s fulfillment of its WTO commitments since 2001 has gradually opened up China’s securities markets and brought about changes in market regulation. It firstly reviews the current regulatory framework. and then identifies flaws in the regulation of listed companies and stock exchanges caused by the tight control of China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC). only effective enforcement of securities market regulations can ultimately protect investors. Finally it proposes reforms for regulation and enforcement as their vigor and effectiveness defines the extent and strength of investor protection. China’s rapid market expansion and its interaction with the world market generate more regulatory challenges on top of old persistent regulatory problems resulting from excessive state control. the current state of investor protection. the regulation of foreign investors. Moreover. It then discusses enforcement issues affecting regulators and investors.performance of the Arab Gulf states in addressing the problem of regional copyright piracy exceeds that of many of the western countries. A fair and competitive market needs a well-structured and functional regulatory framework that protects investors and maintains their confidence in the market. This paper investigates the regulatory and enforcement issues confronting China’s securities markets and issues of investor protection. However. 17 .
The paper considers that the policy and the resultant discussion and change in the law were required to achieve economic and social change as well as changes in the law. In reviewing some of the discussion around the policy proposal that resulted in the Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (the Act). In doing so.CONSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNMENT LAW ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ACT 1999: FOR CHANGE? AN UNRULY BEAST OR A NEEDED CATALYST Lynn Du Moulin The Australian National University This paper proposes that in looking at public policy and technical law (in this case Commonwealth legislation). The paper identifies some of the outcomes and discusses whether. the paper analyses the • • • • policy announcements and subsequent debate possible agendas for that policy development of the policy and the proposed federal legislation concept of uniformity. the paper proposes that balance is required to ensure that taming does not result in legislation that supports particular ideology and agendas. a policy that may seem an ‘unruly beast’ is the change catalyst needed to bring issues out and focus discussion. particularly in relation to: o identifying competing interests o balancing those interests and (where possible) considers the role of lawyers in that debate and policy development. thereby fettering and distorting the ultimate public policy and legal outcomes. it was an ‘unruly horse’ or whether common sense and practicalities provided a balanced outcome to ‘enable business and the community to use electronic 18 . with the benefit of hindsight.
postponement of general election etc clearly raise questions about the adequacy of such an amendment. However election has been postponed and a state of emergency declared in the country as a result of agitations against the moves of the caretaker government constituted after the resignation of the previous government following end of its tenure in the government. The election was scheduled to be held on 22 January 2007. declaration of emergency. Masudul Haque University of Western Sydney In Bangladesh.communication in their dealings with government” (subsection 3(d) of the Act positioning the Act as a foundation for e-government in the public policy and law landscapes. a precondition of democracy. In order to ensure free and fair election the Thirteenth Amendment Act was passed in 1996 paving the way for a unique constitutional arrangement not replicated in any other country. Such boycotts by major political parties adversely affected the economic development and gave rise to anarchy. Both these elections were widely regarded as fair and free though the loosing side did complain about irregularities.M. The appointment of the new government itself is seen by many as unconstitutional. Many elections have been boycotted by the opposition parties.K. like many other developing countries. The ability to manipulate elections under the 13th Amendment resulting in recent chaotic events. remains a big challenge. Election related violence resulted in loss of lives and property. The steps taken by the caretaker government were popularly seen as breaching the neutrality. The proposed paper would analyse the main provisions of the amendment and raise the constitutionality of such an arrangement that created inconsistencies with the basic 19 . holding of periodic free and fair election. FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS IN BANGLADESH AND THE ILLUSION OF THE NEUTRAL CARETAKER GOVERNMENT A. In the wake of such events a new caretaker government has been appointed by the President. Subsequently two general elections were held under these amendments.
when this code did not suit their requirements. The methodology by which this occurred can be compared to a racehorse running with blinkers on. in the course of this. and. the code was described as “guidelines more than your actual rules”. It concludes that enforceability of the constitution and its spirit will remain elusive unless proper institutions are in place and there is a culture developed within the political parties and civil society at large to abide by the provisions.structure of the original constitution. formal legal provisions though important should be seen as symbols of attempts to implement the law's underlying tasks. as providing political resources which individuals and groups can utilise to gain their ends. This does not appear to be an isolated incident in the application of the Constitution. CONSTITUTIONAL REVISIONISM.WHAT RELEVANCE CONSTITUTIONAL ADVANCEMENT Ian Henry Victoria University THE PEOPLE IN RELATION TO In New South Wales v The Commonwealth  HCA 52 the High Court upheld the Commonwealth government’s right to control industrial relations through the use of the corporations power. Moreover. one group of participants in that film were bound to a particular code of conduct. This seems to be the course of action the High Court has adopted in New South Wales v the Commonwealth. In Pirates of the Caribbean – The Curse of the Black Pearl. 20 . The purpose of this article is to examine the “blinkered’ reasoning found in the decision and to suggest that in adopting this approach the High Court has usurped the role of the people expressly provided for in section 128 of the Constitution. However.
In his two later volumes he makes it explicitly clear that ‘legal moralism’ and ‘legal paternalism’ are insufficient grounds for criminalizing conduct. Brown is reconcilable with critical morality. I argue that R. The harm principle provides a necessary but not sufficient condition for criminalisation. I question the weight that Feinberg gives to the concept of consent in the criminal law. Feinberg’s harm principle differs to Mill’s in that it is not an exclusive ground for criminalising conduct. Conduct should only be criminalised when there are ‘critical’ moral reasons for doing so. v.g. Brown is reconcilable with critical morality. I am concerned with consent in the context of gross harms (e.). because there are certain rights (humanity as an end in itself) that a person cannot alienate. v. which holds that morally wrongful ‘offence to others’ is criminalisable in appropriate circumstances. In my paper. Feinberg’s principles are now the most widely accepted critical moral principles for limiting criminalisation. The critical morality is about producing ethical and normative reasons to demonstrate that something ought to be the case. 21 . Consent is not an issue when the conduct merely involves minor harm or offence.. etc. He supplements that harm principle with a further critical principle. However. I ask whether R.CRIMINAL LAW THE MORAL LIMITS OF CONSENT IN THE CRIMINAL LAW Dennis Baker University of Western Sydney The focus of my paper is on the moral limits of consent in the criminal law. consenting to broken bones. death. I outline a critical moral argument for limiting the scope of consent in the criminal law. blinding. The classical critical principle used for limiting the scope of the criminal law is John Stuart Mill’s ‘harm principle’.
22 . The unruly nature of criminal law has not occurred because the decision has been based on the toss of a coin. The unruly nature of criminal law is a serious problem for law makers who need to know what conduct should be criminalised and what conduct should not be criminalised to inform the scope of future criminal laws. immorality. trespass. this paper will contrast criminal wrongdoing from civil wrongdoing from the perspective of the wrongdoing and compensation distinction. For example. Analysing these principles will result in a greater understanding of the decision to criminalise conduct. throwing things at a sporting match. The unruly nature of criminal law has occurred because several principles underpin the decision to criminalise conduct. public and private distinction. It is also a serious problem for members of the community who need to know the minimum standards of behaviour. this paper explores the principles underpinning the decision to criminalise conduct. and the essentialist distinction. individual autonomy and the politics of lawmaking.TAMING THE UNRULY CRIMINAL LAW: WHERE DO YOU DRAW THE BOUNDARIES OF CRIMINAL CONDUCT? Kelley Burton Queensland University of Technology Criminal law is extending its boundaries to capture conduct that was previously described as civil or regulatory in nature. Rather than recommending the shrinking of the criminal law to tame it. community welfare. Making these contrasts will help determine where to draw the boundaries of criminal conduct. Such principles include harm. in some jurisdictions public nuisance. photographing people in private places without their consent and BASE jumping from a building. To further understand the unruly nature of criminal law. are criminalised.
This paper will examine the case for reform of the law of homicide in Western Australia. such as provocation or diminished responsibility. 23 . whereas murder covers cases where the offender intended grievous bodily harm. Wilful murder covers unlawful killings were the offender intended to kill the victim.THREE DEGREES OF MURDER Thomas Crofts Murdoch University The Law Reform Commission of Western Australia was commissioned in 2005 to examine and report on the law of homicide and the need for reform. focussing on wilful murder and murder. In other Australian code and common law jurisdictions the offence of murder covers both these states of mind.” One of the unique features of the West Australian Criminal Code which the commission has been particularly asked to review is the distinction between “wilful murder” and “murder”. The offence of “first degree murder” would be the same as wilful murder in Western Australia whereas the offence of “second degree murder” would be broader than the offence of murder in Western Australia and include cases of causing death where the offender intended to do serious harm. Throughout reference will be made the English Law Commission in an effort to understand why the English Commission is proposing the introduction of an offence classification similar to that existing in WA at a time when WA is considering its abolition. While the WA Law Reform Commission is examining whether to abolish the distinction between wilful murder and murder the English Law Commission is recommending the introduction of offences which are broadly similar to those existing in Western Australia. In May 2006 an Issues Paper was released which considers “whether the current categorisation of homicide offences should be retained and whether an amendments should be made to the existing law. was recklessly indifferent to causing death and where the offender killed but had a partial defence to an intentional killing.
The focus of the research described in this paper is on one aspect of this subjective/objective divide. rationality and justice. Our research. and the basis for this paper. This is Part 1. examples being reasonable forseeability as an approach to causation. to be an inconsistent and often contradictory approach taken to legal definition and application. the way in which the law uses the notion of a mythical reasonable or ordinary person as a benchmark. So-called objective tests are a component of the fault element of some offences. 24 . certain aspects of the defendant’s liability are determined. will address two principle themes. self defence and duress. the definition of dangerous for unlawful and dangerous act manslaughter and reasonable fear by a victim for psychic assault. and many of the defences.THE NOT SO ORDINARY. see for example provocation. we will attempt our own theoretical rationalization concluding whether on this basis change and/or reform is necessary. Part 2. that being. at least. While this will necessarily involve a critique of the work of others. against which. In order to begin to understand such complexities. REASONABLE PERSON OR THE MAN FROM CLAPHAM JUST GOT OFF THE BUS Ian Dobinson & Lesley Townsley University of Technology. seeks to make sense of or rationalize the various approaches taken by the criminal law where the conduct and mind of the objective person serves as the benchmark to assess the conduct and fault of the accused. Objective tests also form part of the conduct element of offences. This is not helped by what appears. note for example negligent manslaughter. the research undertakes an initial critical analysis of the criminal law as it relates to the reasonable or ordinary person. which is not yet complete. which is divided into two parts. Sydney The subjective/objective approach to criminal liability is perhaps the most difficult aspect of criminal law to understand.
his appeal against conviction to the Court of Criminal Appeal. The latter had briefly pursued the gang in his police car before he stopped at the spot where the Holden had come to an abrupt halt. s546C of the Crimes Act 1900. not Taufahema. The saga continued from a joint murder trial aborted by the illness of counsel. that failing to stop when signalled to do so by pursuing police could not constitute a “foundational offence”. and a Crown appeal to the High Court. developed to control gang participation in a so-called “foundational offence”. to which there was no demur in the High Court. and • assertion by the CCA of the proposition. to near conclusion on 27 May 07 with the DPP’s acceptance of his plea of guilty to manslaughter. failed to pull over when signalled to do so by Senior Constable Glen McEnallay. 25 . where a new trial was ordered.EXTENDED COMMON PURPOSE: NOTES TAUFAHEMA HCA 11 ON INTRIGUING SIDE ISSUES FROM R V Robert Hayes. the relevant issue was the appropriateness of the CCA’s quashing of the conviction and acquittal of the accused as opposed to ordering a new trial. a Holden. through a subsequent trial of Taufahema alone. where he was acquitted of murder. because it is no offence against the criminal law. Francine Feld & Adam Payne (research assistant) University of Western Sydney The saga of Motekai Taufahema began in March 2002 when Taufahema. by allowing members to be convicted of the most serious crime committed by a gang member (incongruously termed the “incidental offence”) in the course of the foundational offence. the following two side issues emerged: • examination of the scope of the common law doctrine of “extended common purpose”. By the time the case reached the High Court. in the course of the saga. However. and the gang members who were with him in their vehicle. and was shot dead by a gang member. in particular.
the victim who was promised to the defendant was just 14 years old and was brutally assaulted prior to anal intercourse. LAW AND PUBLIC POLICY: TAMING THE UNRULY HORSE? Andrew Hemming Charles Darwin University In Hales v Jamilmira  NTCCA 9. The writers also examine the CCA’s conclusion that failing to stop when signalled to do so by pursuing police involves no offence under criminal law in New South Wales. The Criminal Code (NT) was subsequently amended in 2004 to increase the maximum penalty from 7 to 16 years imprisonment. The side-notes on Taufahema state the boundaries of extended common purpose at their maximum possible permissible limits. indicating that they potentially cast an unacceptably wide net. they would both aspire to and expect a redefinition of “hindering” under s546C of the Crimes Act 1900 to encompass clearly the anti-social behaviour of failing to stop when signalled to do so by pursuing police.The writers examine the judgments of the CCA and High Court in Taufahema for any light which they might cast on the issue of whether the limits of extended common purpose might be set so broadly in any particular case as to raise fresh doubts that the doctrine pushes too far the boundaries of complicity based upon mere foreseeability of risk. Following a public outcry at the sentence again being suspended after one month. In The Queen v GJ  NTCCA 20. While the writers would seek but could not expect any reduction in the scope of this form of liability in the current political climate. the DPP appealed 26 . an Aboriginal person was convicted of the offence of carnal knowledge where the victim was his promised wife under sixteen years of age and on appeal was sentenced to 12 months imprisonment suspended after one month.
and the weak will be protected against personal violence insofar as it is within the power of the court to do so. the Northern Territory Government set up a Board of Inquiry to report on allegations of sexual abuse of Aboriginal children. widespread and often unreported. However.” Education is seen as the key and much of the report focuses on improving existing government programs to help Aboriginal people break the cycle of poverty and violence. that is that Aboriginal women. One of the DPP’s recommendations was that legislation be enacted to abolish the Crofts direction [Crofts v R (1996) 186 CLR 427] which provides that the Court may give a warning to a jury relating to the quality of the evidence in a case where there is long delay. children. The Board’s report has just been released (15 June 2007) and it found that child sexual abuse is serious. The Northern Territory Police Force recommended that the Bail Act be amended to include serious sexual offences against children in the presumption against bail provisions.the sentence as manifestly inadequate with one of the grounds being the sentence gave no weight to the 2004 legislative amendments which increased the penalties. The NTCCA accepted that the head sentence was manifestly inadequate and referred to R v Wurramara (1999) 105 A Crim R 512 at : “The courts have been concerned to send what has been described as ‘the correct message’ to all concerned. The Board of Inquiry found that “the answer lies not in removing the 27 .” In August 2006. “It is impossible to set communities on the path to recovery from the sexual abuse of children without dealing with the basic services and social ills. The Board of Inquiry supported such an amendment. the report did discuss submissions from the Director of Public Prosecutions and the Northern Territory Police Force.
However. These are participants who believe that there is a need for a more stringent punishment for perpetrators of sports field violence that culminates in injury to other participants. In the past. The factors a court is to take into consideration where an alleged sexual offence has been committed against a child include: the child’s age. in the context of sexual abuse of children. the focus of this paper will be to examine. While recognising that a court of law is a “blunt instrument” for dealing with widespread social problems. the need where possible to leave the child in situ. and the wellbeing of the child ( Recommendation 35). It is also becoming increasingly clear that sports participants are reluctant to accept that all of their injuries were either consented to. how legislative changes may assist the courts to meet the objective set out in R v Wurramara (supra) that “the correct message” is sent out. Malaysia The punishment of violence perpetrated by participants in sports has attracted debate in recent years. or are necessarily integral and inevitable consequences of participating in sports. In cases where the perpetrators of sports field injuries are deemed to be at fault. the criminal laws are being used to seek redress by victims of participator violence. the alleged offender’s age. the control of participator violence was the responsibility of sports governing bodies. with some calling for its control and/or elimination from sports. and disciplinary tribunals.presumption but in increasing the guidance given to the courts in how the discretion pursuant to section 24 [which sets out the criteria to be considered in bail applications] is to be applied” (at page 126). the familial relationship between them. while others perceive it as inevitable results of participation. THE INTERFACE BETWEEN CRIMINAL LAW AND SPORTS PARTICIPATOR VIOLENCE Kwame Ampofo-Boateng University Technology MARA. in recent years. they expect to receive 28 . their respective present and proposed living arrangements. referees.
Categorization of some defences as mental incapacity defences. This paper argues. properly understood. exculpation (or partial exculpation) rests on the defendant’s abnormality and. In making this argument. the intervention of the criminal law. mental incapacity defences encompass those defences in which. For example. on the other hand. or mental condition defences. and the likely results of litigation are assessed. diminished responsibility and infanticide) or broad construction (including intoxication and automatism). in some instances. This category of defences features in academic monographs and in a number of criminal law textbooks. is commonplace in criminal law scholarship.some sanction or punishment from their sports governing bodies. The need for the intervention of the criminal law in sports participator violence is questioned and evaluated to show the difficulty of applying criminal laws to resolve sports violence and the likely evolution of the law in future is highlighted. Yet. and with increasing regularity. or disciplinary tribunals. the parameters of this category of defences vary considerably. this paper draws on the UK jurisprudence on mental incapacity 29 . This means that the category of mental incapacity defences includes the defence of automatism but excludes the partial defence of provocation. the category encompasses only affirmative defences. The paper addresses the criminalization of sport participator violence that results in injury. while in other cases it extends to cover putative defences such as the ‘defence’ of intoxication. which are not structured around the reasonable person standard. What it is that unites mental incapacity defences qua mental incapacity defences seems either elusive or contested. and the defences available. on the one hand. PUTTING MENTAL INCAPACITY DEFENCES TOGETHER AGAIN Arlie Loughnan The University of Sydney Defences deny liability or responsibility (or both) for criminal offences. The criminal process. the nature and types of offences committed. The scope of exculpation (or partial exculpation) on the basis of mental condition or mental incapacity seems capable of either a narrow (perhaps limited to insanity. referees.
This paper will explore the developing body of case law arising from these cyber-crime sections and analyse these in terms of the criticisms levied at the amendments. in particular. The Davies case involved the downloading of music and legal pornography at work he was not held liable for any contravention of work place computer use policy.defences. CYBERCRIME@NZ: ‘CRIMES INVOLVING COMPUTERS’4 YEARS ON. While the courts have yet to set the limits of criminal liability they have discussed the legitimate (or otherwise) use of network resources in the Davies cases. four years on and the Courts have begun to define. Wayne Rumbles The University of Waikato New Zeland is relatively a latecomer in the criminalisation of cyber-crime. The amendments to the Crimes Act were not without criticism from both the computing and legal communities. R v Smith (Morgan)  1 AC 146. it was not until October 2003 when the Crimes Act was amended by inserting specific offences under the title of “Crimes Involving Computers” and expanding theft to include stealing of intangible property that we specifically criminalised hacking and other cyber-crime. The computer security and network engineer communities raised concerns that the amendment would criminalize legitimate activities aimed at ensuring a secure. the recent House of Lords decision. This paper will consider possible ramifications of the Davies cases in criminalizing the non-criminal use of network resources. contract and some cases expand the meaning of these statutory terms. but rather he was charged under the theft provisions of the Crimes Act for stealing internet access. 30 . vague or uncertain terms. Much of the criticism of the amendment was aimed at the use of broad. robust and stable network.
IS THE VICTIM TO BLAME? CURRENT ISSUES WITH REGARDS THE DEFENCES OF PROVOCATION AND SELF-DEFENCE IN THE CRIMINAL LAW CONTEXT Jennifer Yule Queensland University of Technology It is relevant to consider the relationship between the law and public policy. Canada and the United Kingdom are considering or have made reforms. Is there a tendency to blame the victim? There has been debate about whether the defence of provocation should be changed or abolished as well as consideration of changes to self-defence. Gender and cultural bias is also to be considered. This has been to some degree in response to cases which have caused concern amongst the public as well as governments. Other Australian jurisdictions as well as New Zealand. the influence that they have on each other and the difficulties that can arise. These cases include instances where men have successfully used the defence of provocation after killing their former female partners as well as same sex relationship issues. How much should public opinion influence law reform? In some of the discussion there is a perception that some people are just asking for trouble. There have been some examples recently which highlight the strain between the two. This paper seeks to consider whether the defences are still relevant or should be abolished or modified and reformed. Over the years both defences have undergone change through interpretation in cases and through legislative amendments. 31 . Tasmania abolished the defence of provocation in 2003 and Victoria followed in 2005. Battered woman syndrome also needs to be considered in relation to the defences of provocation and self-defence and whether the actual term is appropriate as well as relevant expert evidence.
Following the exercise students were also surveyed about the impact of the simulated on-line negotiation on the learning objectives of students. Tasmanian students were given one side of a role play and Macquarie students the other side. This paper discusses what worked well and what could be improved about the exercise. experience. TEACHING MEDIATION AS REFLECTIVE PRACTICE Samantha Hardy La Trobe University It is fairly uncontroversial to say that it is impossible to teach mediation in a didactic lecture style. very little consideration has been given to how trainers can Drawing parallels with the effectively ‘coach’ students through these role plays.DISPUTE RESOLUTION ONLINE NEGOTIATION AS A TEACHING TOOL David Spencer & Samantha Hardy Macquarie University & La Trobe University In 2006 undergraduate law students from Macquarie University Law School and the University of Tasmania law school participated in an online negotiation exercise. It also evaluates the students’ survey responses and the impact of the exercise on students’ learning outcomes. 32 . Students of mediation very rarely understand the process and the skills needed to conduct a mediation until they are sitting in the mediator’s chair and trying it out for themselves. Most mediation courses use roleplays to give students this However. They were given their opposing students’ email addresses and had one week to conduct the negotiation by email. Students submitted a record of their negotiation and a reflective journal about their experience of the process. This provided a realistic simulation of online negotiation because the students did not have any face-to-face contact prior to conducting the negotiation and did not know anything about the students with whom they are negotiating.
the European Union has already implemented an emissions trading scheme. As part of the discussion. allocation of emission allowances. including the scope of such a scheme. and compliance and enforcement. greenhouse gas permits and monitoring and reporting. with stock exchanges in Europe gaining status as major carbon traders. 33 .architectural design studio. this paper seeks to develop a model of best practice for mediation coaches. transaction registries. Meanwhile. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IDENTIFICATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AN EFFECTIVE CARBON TRADING REGIME IN AUSTRALIA: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH BETWEEN AND A THE EUROPEAN UNION EMISSION TRADING SCHEME EMISSION TRADING SCHEME Caroline Hart University of Southern Queensland POSSIBLE AUSTRALIAN Proposals for emissions trading schemes are being advanced by both the Australian Government and the State and Territory Governments. the State and Territory governments have put forward a proposal demonstrating possibility. While the Australian Government’s proposals appear hastily drafted. The European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme (referred to as the ‘EU- ETS’) is an apt model for comparison with the Australian proposals because it has been operating with some success since 1 January 2005 and has been the subject of review. Is Australia in danger of being left behind as Europe (amongst other nations) has managed to implement a carbon trading scheme as a means to deal with the effects of climate change due to increased carbon emissions? This paper discusses aspects of a legal framework necessary to establish and support an Australian carbon trading scheme. this paper identifies the institutions and property rights needed to support an emissions trading scheme.
‘INTRAGENERATIONAL EQUITY’ A KEY CONCEPT IN THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Laura Horn University of Western Sydne This paper explores the operation of the concept of ‘intragenerational equity’ in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the accompanying protocol. Part V concludes with a summary of proposed recommendations for the development of an Australian emissions trading scheme (an ‘AU-ETS’). the United Kingdom.Overview of the paper The structure of this paper is as follows: Part I provides the international context in which emissions trading schemes have been developed. This cooperative action has become more urgent due to the likely faster advance of climate change than was originally anticipated. 34 . The consideration of equity in the UNFCCC is set out in Article 3 as follows: The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind. on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Part IV analyses the implementation of the EU-ETS. Accordingly. This concept is significant because it indicates how developed and developing States will cooperate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and take action to address climate change. Part III outlines the European Union’s emissions trading scheme. Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol). Part II outlines the proposed Australian emissions trading schemes. Finally. the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and adverse effects thereof. including an example of legislation passed by Member State.
particularly as between developed and developing States. There are obligations for developing State parties to this convention such as the provision of financial assistance and the transfer of technology to developing countries. to name a few. for a range of reasons.Intragenerational equity is expressed in the UNFCCC through the concept of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ because this concept indicates the responsibilities of both developing and developed States in the UNFCCC. It is argued in this paper that the successful implementation of the UNFCCC will depend. Indeed the focus of the Tanzanian and Papua New 35 . protection legislation in these jurisdictions has been drafted with the assistance of Western Australia and Victoria. Minerals and Sustainable Development project and the Mining Certification Evaluation Project. Some argue that these initiatives are merely ‘green washing’. in part. Yet. SELF REGULATION: TAMING THE ‘UNRULY’ MINING COMPANIES? Noeleen McNamara University of Southern Queensland The last 10 years has seen a proliferation of self regulatory initiatives in the mining industry: the Global Mining Initiative. Global environmental climate protection will not succeed without the support of both developed and developing countries. respectively. To this end. and has the same sustainable development commitments. case studies of mines in Interestingly. regardless of whether the mine is situated in a developing or developed country. The mining companies argue that they are designed to achieve ‘best practice’. This paper will discuss the role of such initiatives in terms of their impact on environmental compliance. It will particularly focus on the actions of the world’s largest mining companies in developing countries. These programs have been initiated by the ‘top tier’ transnational mining companies often in partnership with transnational non-government organisations. the environmental Tanzania and Papua New Guinea will be utilised. the implementation of the legislation varies from these Australian jurisdictions. upon the resolution of the issues arising over the application of intragenerational equity. the Mining.
These purposes must be balanced against the more traditional objectives to protect the natural character of the coastal environment and to protect outstanding landscapes from inappropriate development. or independently as ‘watch dogs’ – have played in this outcome. the Resource Management Act 1991 sets out the guidelines for decision-making in respect of all development. The ongoing technical developments of wind farms have resulted in an increasing number of power companies making applications for electricity generation by wind turbines. Certain changes have been made to the purposes of the Resource Management Act to give support to the utilisation of renewable energy.Guinean governments tends to be more on the social. and the role that self regulation has played in achieving this behaviour. or can they be trusted with their ‘licence to operate’? WIND POWER CONSENTS IN NEW ZEALAND Kenneth Palmer. The paper discusses various decisions of the Environment Court which have determined whether or not consents should be granted for wind farms in particular locations. In New Zealand. The paper will consider whether the ‘major’ mining companies are complying or indeed going beyond compliance with the environmental laws in developing countries. Are the top tier miners (at least) the unruly horses that they have been portrayed as in the post Ok Tedi world. rather than environmental. whether permitted under Regional or District Plans or requiring a resource consent. impacts of the mines. It will also discuss the important role that NGOs – either working in partnership with industry. The University of Auckland The paper identifies the Kyoto Protocol as a driving force for supporting the utilisation of sources for renewable energy. 36 .
Public concern is closely associated with the “nimby” and “banana” principles. such as children. DEALING WITH PUBLIC CONCERN IN PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENT MATTERS Mark Tranter University of Southern Queensland This paper looks at the concept of public concern: the heightened response of significant members of the public to development proposals. planning instruments or the courts and tribunals should elevate public concern as a factor which. The leading case in planning law across the Australian jurisdictions being Broad v Brisbane City Council  2 Qd R 317. the weight or sincerity of public concern will not carry the day nor will the precautionary principle. The paper will look briefly at the factors which appear to contribute to public concern. should be taken into account and 37 . the exotic nature of the hazard. Such applications as mobile phone towers and electricity transmission lines and social concerns such as brothels and licensed premises are typical of the types of development which draw community protest. It is also recommended that in the long term the issue through the Minister for the Environment of a national policy statement could assist as to the choice of suitable locations and energy generation priorities. The main focus of the paper is to look at planning decisions on such topics and the weight which public concern is given in those decisions. for example. The result of this analysis is that unless the fears of the public are based on sound scientific evidence. Is this the correct approach in 21st century democracies? There is an argument that legislation. A statement could bring a degree of stability to the present competition between the various power companies in the development of wind farms. the vulnerability of those involved. the degree of scientific uncertainty. independent of scientific support.A conclusion is reached that an appropriate balance is presently being maintained between the endorsement of renewable energy sources and the protection of outstanding landscapes.
For example. The NZ Government also provided for “Negotiated Greenhouse Agreements” as a mechanism to exempt firms and industries from the proposed carbon tax that would.play a decisive role in planning decisions. CLIMATE CHANGE. Both the global scale of the issue and specific domestic responses transcend jurisdictional boundaries. 38 . There is a UK Court of Appeal decision and an Queensland Planning & Environment Court decision which point in this direction. face significant risk to their competitiveness relative to producers in jurisdictions with less stringent climate change policies. AND PUBLIC POLICY Trevor Daya-Winterbottom The University of Waikato Climate change provides a unique challenge for all governments. These are examined as well as some suggestions of how planning legislation might be amended to incorporate greater recognition of public concern. in response to the Kyoto Protocol the New Zealand Government adopted a preferred policy package in 2002 which included a commitment to introduce a low level carbon tax as part of a range of measures to give effect to New Zealand’s obligations under the Protocol. as a result of the tax. Concern about the relative competitiveness of NZ business in relation to climate change illustrates neatly the potential for law and policy to distort the economy. Similar concerns have been articulated in Europe in relation to the establishment of the “Common Market” that subsequently resulted in a the adoption by the European Community of a programme of action on the environment. which now provides the basis for environmental regulation by the member states. HARMONISATION.
The debate about them involves matters of constitutional and economic importance. This paper will therefore discuss NZ climate change policy against the backdrop of the current debate about harmonization of environmental law in Australia and New Zealand. the related constitutional and economic arguments. leaving the debate on harmonization of environmental law for bodies such as the Environmental Roundtable of Australia and New Zealand to pursue. and between Australia and New Zealand. EQUITY AND TRUSTS PROBLEMS WITH THE CLASSIFICATION OF DISCRETIONARY TRUSTS Jason Harris University of Technology. That report focused on commercial law. particularly the 39 . Can this expectational interest be treated as “property” in equity? What are the consequences of answering this question? Recent decisions in company law and taxation law have raised difficult questions about the nature of beneficial interests in different types of discretionary trusts. Sydney The law of trusts is often taught on the basis of a distinction between fixed and discretionary trusts. One of the basic assumptions that is often stated in cases and textbook commentaries is that beneficiaries under a discretionary trust hold a “mere expectancy” because they have no right to receive a distribution from the trustee. and that there are varying rights and obligations that accrue to beneficiaries under each type of trust arrangement. Safeguarding against economic distortion and reducing the barriers to trade are significant public policy issues. and the European experience in developing common policy on such matters.Most recently the Australian Commonwealth Parliament has reported on the need for harmonization of legal systems to remove barriers to trade both within Australia.
Australian law schools teach ethics-as-law.analytical problems posed by so-called “hybrid trusts”. the paper calls for the adoption of a new understanding of legal ethics as the capacity to exercise legal ethical judgment. Secondly. the paper suggests that the pervasive method should be complemented by one or more discrete subjects solely dedicated to the context and substance of the law of lawyering. law schools compress the teaching of legal ethics to one single subject in the whole of the undergraduate degree. First. the paper establishes that the majority of law schools in Australia teach legal ethics as if it were only concerned with the law of lawyering. However. and subsequently received some attention in Australian literature. PLANNING FOR PERVASIVE ETHICS LEARNING IN THE LAW CURRICULUM Michael Robertson Griffith University The argument for pervasive ethics seems to have originated in the American literature on law school ethics teaching. Further. This paper will discuss these cases for the purpose of critiquing the traditional fixed/discretionary dichotomy in trusts. Furthermore. there is little published material to demonstrate that the idea has 40 . ETHICS AND THE LEGAL PROFESSION THE TEACHING OF ETHICAL JUDGEMENT Gonzalo Villalta Puig La Trobe University This paper inquires what and how Australian law schools teach about legal ethics and suggests what and how they should teach about it. It also calls for a pervasive method of instruction that integrates legal ethics issues and the process of legal ethical judgment into every subject making up the undergraduate degree. Australian law schools teach legal ethics discretely.
for that matter). ARE LAWYERS REGULATEABLE? Duncan Webb University of Canterbury Considerable academic debate has raged over whether lawyers can or should be left to regulate themselves. and legal problems which mean that at the very least regulating lawyers is challenging. the lawyer client relationship.successfully been implemented in Australian law schools (or elsewhere. Nevertheless. 41 . This paper asks a more demanding question – are lawyers regulateable at all. There is an argument to be made that for several reasons any regulatory regime imposed on lawyers is doomed to fail. An exploration of how and if those challenges can be met will be undertaken. This paper reports on a modest proposal to create ethics learning opportunities in 10 core subjects in the legal curriculum. or that the implementation of pervasive ethics learning opportunities has led to better student learning outcomes. the rationale for across-the-curriculum ethics engagement remains compelling. especially when law graduates’ understandings of ethical responsibility remain uncertain or even doubtful. Most obviously lawyers are experts at manipulating and subverting rules. The pendulum in this respect seems to have swung away from self regulation to varying degrees and methods of state intervention. However. there are numerous other aspects of the nature of law. together with some of the difficulties in implementing such a proposal.
there was no consideration whether the shared parenting philosophy of the legislation or the processes designed to facilitate and maintain a child's cultural connections are in fact culturally appropriate. The amendments propose to provide families with better ways to resolve relationship disputes and to reduce the emotional costs to families and children of conflict and separation. This paper questions whether that 'cultural shift' will appropriately meet the needs of separating families within culturally and linguistically diverse (CAULD) communities. Will family dispute resolution practitioners reconcile the emphasis on shared parenting with cultural expectations? For some cultures it may be inappropriate to discuss family matters with strangers. 42 . In some cultures a shared parenting regime would be inconsistent with cultural expectations. The inquiries which preceded the reforms and the amendments overtly identified the importance of culture to the parenting and well being of children. This is to be achieved through mandated family dispute resolution.FAMILY LAW ‘A CULTURAL SHIFT?’ THE NEW REGIME OF FAMILY DISPUTE RESOLUTION Susan Armstrong University of Western Sydney The Family Law Amendment (Shared Parental Responsibility) Act 2006 promised to bring about a 'cultural shift in how family separation is managed'. Will FRC's be appropriately resourced to identify and meet the special needs of CAULD clients? What might be culturally appropriate family dispute resolution practice for CAULD communities? For particular CAULD clients? For example. largely undertaken by newly created Family Relationship Centres. Research suggests that separating CAULD families have not generally utilized mediated dispute resolution. However. will the concerns expressed by immigrant women's groups and others about the risks of violence to women and children separating from violence partners be appropriately addressed? This paper seeks to consider whether the 'cultural shift' intended by recent family law reforms will adequately accommodate cultural diversity.
in particular. times may be changing. to which Australia is a signatory. the ways in which parents and other carers might voluntarily support their dependants has received far less attention.MAINTAINING VULNERABLE DEPENDANTS: THE EMERGENCE SUPPORT SCHEMES Kay Maxwell University of Wollongong OF VOLUNTARY The ways in which one might best provide for the financial support and wellbeing of dependents has been a topic of social enquiry and legislative activity over many years. represents a “paradigm shift in attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities…It clarifies and qualifies how all categories of rights apply to persons with disabilities and identifies areas where adaptations have to be made for persons with disabilities to effectively exercise their rights and areas where their rights have been violated.” While the Convention is largely concerned with social aspects of these rights. 43 . and particularly to the rights of disabled children. it is significant that article 12(5) of the Convention specifically addresses the financial rights of disabled persons. The emergence in Australia of special disability trusts and other similar schemes internationally coincides with a broader approach to the rights of disabled persons. those dependents who are disabled. as evidenced in the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. However. While much of this interest has centred on social welfare and compulsory support schemes. The convention. requiring signatories to take appropriate and effective measures to ensure the equal right of persons with disabilities to own or inherit property and to control their own financial affairs. and where protection of rights must be reinforced. This paper will consider the emergence and role of voluntary schemes for the support of vunerable dependents and.
While the formula itself has been tinkered with over the last decade. including the new child support formula. 44 .REFORMING CHILD SUPPORT LAWS. What we have had for nearly two decades is a largely administrative based scheme that has probably worked much better for the country in solving a particular socio-legal problem than the traditional judicial system it replaced. the time was probably right for it to be overhauled for its third decade. the scheme has been the subject of numerous government-sponsored reviews that have resulted in change. It will then analyse the broad thrust of the reforms that have occurred over the last year as well as those proposed for next year. Big changes are planned for 2008 to help it celebrate its third decade. it would be fair to say that the scheme represents the ‘next best solution’ to help resolve a socio-legal problem that impacts upon a significant number of Australian families.WHERE TO NOW? Geoff Monahan & Lisa Young University of Technology & Murdoch University The child support scheme is no longer a ‘child’ – it has now been with us for more than 18 years. Much admired and much maligned. It is noteworthy that a number of the more recent changes are the product of recommendations that go back to the earlier years of the scheme. Despite its relative infancy. The paper will conclude with a consideration of the ramifications for children and parents of the reforms and will argue that there remain a number of areas that warrant further attention. This paper will provide a brief overview of the child support reviews that have occurred over the last two decades.
traditional family law practice. NO WORRIES? THE DISCRETION TO ALLOW THE LATE COMMENCEMENT OF FINANCIAL PROCEEDINGS FOLLOWING RELATIONSHIP BREAKDOWN Geoff Monahan University of Technology.. there is recent judicial comment that this is not mandatory and that the focus should be on ‘hardship’ issue alone. While it remains appropriate for an applicant to address the issue of the delay in the commencement of late proceedings. wherever possible. 45 . the law also provides a judicial discretion to allow an ‘out of time’ application to be determined. Sydney The current changes being implemented in the approach to and conduct of family law matters will bring great challenges to. These changes include a shift from a lawyer-focused approach to a client-centred one. with the establishment of the Family Resolution Centres (FRC) and the establishment of Family Dispute Resolution Practitioners as gatekeepers to the Family Court. This paper will examine how the courts have interpreted their discretion to allow an ‘out of time’ application following relationship breakdown. The interdisciplinary approached. CHANGES TO THE PRACTICE OF FAMILY: THE ROLE OF COLLABORATIVE FAMILY LAW PRACTICE AND THE INTERDISCIPLINARY PRACTICE POSSIBILITIES. and may even signal the eventual demise of.OUT OF TIME. The simultaneous growth of interest in and local expertise with Collaborative Family Law Practice offers a timely opportunity to develop a world-class family law/dispute resolution service in Australia. Sydney While policy currently delivers different legal outcomes for married and unmarried relationships. Marilyn Scott University of Technology. be brought to finality within a reasonable period of time after the relationship ends.. Nevertheless. one area of shared policy is that financial relationships between domestic partners should.
is dependent on professional re-tooling the way the allied professionals practice together. Ontario. It also requires a cultural change in perceptions about professional boundaries in family law practice. The FRC.premised on an emphasis on some kind of ongoing and functioning social relationship between divorcing clients and their families. The sub-contracting was put in place to utilize as fully as possible the family dispute resolution expertise and corporate histories of the two agencies in family dispute resolution – RFDR has been delivering FDR for some 12 years. guiding the arrangement. RANT and RFDR contribute substantially to the family dispute resolution service delivery for the FRC through a sub-contracting arrangement. including post-separation parenting. From 1st July 2006. reviewed quarterly. California and Cambridge (UK). 15 Family Dispute Resolution Centres (FRC) commenced operation around Australia. The Darwin FRC is run by a consortium between Relationships Australia NT (RANT) and Anglicare NT through its Resolve Family Dispute Resolution division (RFDR). including one based in Darwin. FAMILY RELATIONSHIP CENTRES: STUDY CHANGES IN FAMILY DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN APPLICATION OF FAMILY LAW ACT Usha Vidot Charles Darwin University The paper will explore a range of issues arising from the changes in Family Law dispute resolution practice. the ACT. RFDR and RANT have a Memorandum of Understanding. Subsequent to recent research conducted in New South Wales. while RANT has 46 . both in its family dispute resolution services and in its family/relationship strengthening services. The operational model for the Darwin FRC was that of community development and capacity building. this paper proposes an holistic approach to implementing the cultural changes and professional development that is anticipated for a successful transition to this new practice of family law. The latter would include referrals to appropriate agencies for relationship counselling and parental education programmes.
the shift from the previous Family Law Act modalities of mediation and conciliation to the current dispute resolution modality with its critical focus on both child inclusive practice (CIP) and child-focussed practice (CFP). For the majority of clients. The paper will explore the Darwin FRC’s experience of a previously untapped client base. INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THE LAW BALANCING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE TERRITORY Greg McIntyre University of Notre Dame In the wake of the Little Children are Sacred report to the Northern Territory government the Commonwealth government declared a ‘national emergency’ arising from the sexual abuse of Aboriginal children and announced it would introduce the following measures in Aboriginal communities in the Territory: • • • • • • • • A sixth month ban on alcohol on Aboriginal land The compulsory acquisition of Aboriginal townships for five years to improve property and public housing A ban on pornographic videos and an audit of Commonwealth computers to identify pornographic material The quarantining 50% of welfare payments so it can only be spent on essentials Linking of income support and family assistance to school attendance and providing meals to children at school which are to be paid for by parents Compulsory health checks for Aboriginal children under 16 An increase in police numbers on Aboriginal communities Engaging of the army in providing logistical support 47 . pre-FDR interviews and FDR conferences are conducted at the agencies’ premises rather than those of the FRC.done so for some 5 years. the management of FDR when there is family violence identified. the provision of FDR in highly complex cases.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. the power to make laws for the people of a race and the power to acquire property on just terms. Canada and to a lesser extent New Zealand considering such aspects as historical background. including reference to the Territories power. Promising though this legal position may sound the task of obtaining that recognition in the courts is an arduous one. recognition of native title. normative societies. In all the countries in question Indigenous people bear the burden of proof in establishing the existence of native title and in Australia the requirements of proof are particularly onerous. In this paper we compare and contrast proof of native title in Australia. ancestral homelands. the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. It will evaluate the measures in the light of International law. elements of proof of native title. particularisation of laws and customs and the bundle of rights argument.• Abolishing the entry permit system to Aboriginal reserves for common areas. CANADA AND NEW ZEALAND: HOW DO INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS FARE? Jennifer Greaney & Ruth Bohill University of New England & Southern Cross University Native title is recognised in western jurisprudence as a form of title to land pre-existing and surviving European acquisition of sovereignty. including the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. PROOF OF NATIVE TITLE IN AUSTRALIA. United States of America. road corridors and airstrips This paper will explore the executive and Constitutional power of the Commonwealth to undertake the measures announced. Any legislation introduced by the Commonwealth to authorise the measures will be examined according to those Constitutional restraints and International law standards. the Convention on Economic and Social Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. nature of native title. the external affairs power. It will be shown that historical and political 48 . changes to traditional laws and customs and continuity and abandonment.
it allows consideration of the construction of identity through privilege. in proving native title in the courts. rather than an obsessive focus on a tiny minority. Related problems can arise for 'white' teachers who do not teach the material with complete detachment: who wants to be taught by someone no more Aboriginal than I am? By contrast. And thirdly. containing considerable material on indigenous issues. This brings a depth of experience of racialised identities which is very valuable for student learning.an angle sometimes difficult to inject into 'indigenous' courses. has three advantages. At least in cities like Canberra.factors combined with jurisprudential developments have resulted in Indigenous people in Australia having a particularly difficult task. producing a classroom much more representative of the global population than usual. relatively speaking. 49 . not just discrimination and disadvantage . and this can assist majority students to understand law's role in this context. it justifies an explicit focus on the law's role in constructing and protecting 'white' identity. ANU's 'Race and the Law' course suggests that a more broadly-framed curriculum. WHY TEACHING RACE AND THE LAW IS MORE CRITICALLY EFFECTIVE THAN TEACHING INDIGENOUS LEGAL ISSUES Jennifer Clarke The Australian National University Australian law schools have had difficulty recruiting and retaining indigenous lawyers to teach courses about indigenous people. if only because of the discomfort that many Aboriginal people feel with academic priorities or Australian teaching loads. First.including. where an Aboriginal teacher deviates from those expectations. it seems to attract larger numbers of minority students. presumably. these classes seem to attract considerable numbers of 'white' students looking for an authentic or uniform experience of Aboriginality who feel frustrated if they do not encounter it . Secondly.
The first theme considers the issue of “ownership” of organic carbon under different forms of land tenure relevant to indigenous communities. the paper also concludes that this result is not possible under trading schemes bound by the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol. the requirements under the Protocol for carbon sequestration mechanisms to qualify for “credit” under the trading scheme. The paper (at this stage tentatively) concludes that the management of greenhouse “sinks” could provide a viable activity for indigenous communities that facilitates genuine economic rewards for the continuation of traditional land management skills. In particular. The first is “Aboriginal freehold” under the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 (Cth.INDIGENOUS PARTICIPATION IN GREENHOUSE EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES: INDIGENOUS CARBON SINKS – ASHES IN THE MOUTH? Matthew Storey Charles Darwin University The paper considers the issue of the potential benefit to Australian indigenous communities arising from the development of natural greenhouse “sinks”. In turn this suggests there may be need 50 . However.) on land the subject of a pastoral lease granted pursuant to the Pastoral Land Act 1992 (NT).). the paper examines whether indigenous communities can engage in a market arising from greenhouse emission trading scheme “credit” mechanisms through means of either existing or adapted land management regimes. The primary focus in this theme is the content of greenhouse gas emission trading schemes founded upon the elements of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change. This examination is pursued in two themes. Two forms of tenure are considered in particular. The second “tenure” are rights pursuant to a determination of native title under the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth. The second theme pursued in the paper positions the conclusions reached in regard to the ownership of organic carbon in the context of existing greenhouse gas emission trading schemes. Specifically.
since no Australian precedent existed that would have elucidated the operation of the rights in this instance. The case was Meskenas v ACP Publishing Pty Ltd. One possible reason for these anomalies. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MORAL RIGHTS ACTION: MESKENAS V ACP PUBLISHING PTY LTD Elizabeth Adeney Deakin University In 2006 the Federal Magistrates Court was called upon to decide the first moral rights action that has come to the point of adjudication in Australia. 51 . to make some comment on the reasoning process used in the decision-making. Indeed the degree to which public policy can or should be stated by the legislators in cases where the statute in question is designed to bring Australia into compliance with international obligations is a matter of some difficulty in itself. is that the public policy behind the introduction of moral rights has been incompletely enunciated by the Australian government. decided in August 2006 in Sydney. however. It displays some anomalies which it would be a pity to see reproduced in future cases.for any Australian emission trading scheme to depart from the terms of the Kyoto Protocol and indeed provides a basis for considering the appropriateness of the application of the terms of the existing Protocol beyond the developed “first world”. thus adding one victory to the very small number of authorial moral rights victories across the common law world. the decision is a welcome one for arts communities worldwide. the Magistrate found in favour of the applicant. In the event. and for other difficulties of statutory interpretation in this field. From that point of view. The parties and the Magistrate faced a somewhat difficult task. It is necessary.
The paper compares the Bill with ambush marketing legislation in the United Kingdom and South Africa. In particular. The Bill will apply to any event in New Zealand that is declared to be a major event. the public good. unduly restrictive and that it cannot be justified in its present form. we argue that there are sound reasons for this and that specific legislation needs to be introduced with caution. We conclude that the Bill is over-broad.EVENTS MANAGEMENT IN NEW ZEALAND: ONE LAW TO RULE THEM ALL? Susan Corbett Yvonne Van Roy Victoria University of Wellington The Major Events Management Bill (“the Bill”) is a New Zealand government bill that is intended to prevent the practice of ambush marketing in connection with “… major events that are of international significance”. COPYRIGHT AS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Geoffrey Hart The University of Sydney Since the Statute of Anne 1709. Although existing laws do not comprehensively address the practice of ambush marketing. and intellectual property laws. and state regulation. have always maintained a balance between individual freedoms. The essence of property in a modern market economy is the right to exclude others and the right to transfer the property. consumer laws. the basis of British copyright law has been property. which have traditionally been used to address marketing issues. The paper examines the competing rights and freedoms in this area of business activity and considers the underlying reasons why traditional laws do not prevent and have never prevented activities similar to those now described as ambush marketing. existing legal regimes such as competition law. 52 .
It is doubtful whether such a contrived scarcity has ever benefited the public interest. and the duration of copyright in works was extended to the author's life plus 50 years.In Australia. if it had been assigned. This raises the question of why all users of copyright materials should not be entitled to nonexclusive licences where they are prepared to pay an equitable remuneration to the copyright owner. Europe and the USA. Copyright lasted 14 years in the first instance and. Copyright. grants exclusive rights to the copyright owner (ss 31. combined with excessive duration. creates scarcity where it would otherwise not exist. the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth). The basic purpose of copyright law should be to strike a balance between the rewards granted to the creative individual and the public interest in maintaining the free flow of ideas throughout the community. The normal function of property has been to allocate resources where there is a natural scarcity. if he were still living. Instances abound where the alienation of copyright has served the interests of entrepreneurs such as publishers. however. The property concept. 53 . the rights then reverted to the author. can severely prejudice both the creative individual and the public interest. The property concept was introduced in the Statute of Anne at the behest of publishers. to the detriment of authors and the book-reading public. but it is even less justifiable today when the new technologies are making information far more accessible to the community. The Copyright Amendment Act 1980 (Cth) has introduced statutory licences to allow the production of materials for educational use subject in some cases to the payment of equitable remuneration. They sought to distinguish copyright from other monopolies which by that time had fallen into disrepute. 85-88) and also a right to alienate these (s 196). now 70 years in Australia. In subsequent statutes.
A fine line remains in progressively developing elements within the current collaborative architecture.THE EC-AUSTRALIA WINE LAW AGREEMENT. as important brand marketing tools and arguably increases the wine exporting opportunities for Australia. Theories including Neo-Classical and Institutional Perspectives have arguably significantly influenced Australian strategic policy considerations and the emphasis of trade relations has been brought to the fore in recent decades by the Australian Government. the operation and impact of the Geographical Indication regime and the significance and consequences of its implementation in the Australian wine sector. as defined by Geographical Indications which are recognised. While Australia has lead the way in policy and legislative reform amongst other ‘New World’ wine growers. A pertinent example highlighting the encouragement of the growth of economic relations is seen in the implementation of the Agreement between Australia and the European Community on Trade in Wine and Protocol 1994. policy and legal sense. and soon to be finalised Bilateral Agreement. TRIPS AUSTRALIAN WINE LAW AND TRADE RELATIONS Sarah Hinchliffe Monash University AND THEIR EFFECT ON This paper will look at the interdependency and impact of National and International environmental factors including legal and economic aspects on the Australian Wine industry. Firstly. the use of wine regions. developed by Australia. to ensure that it is viable on an International and National fore both in an economic. Australia’s strategic evolution in combining collaboration and competition as a ‘New World’ wine producer has replaced the merely competitive relationships of the past. Secondly. On an International level. 54 . there have been both negative and positive impacts resulting from the overlap and conflict between existing Trade Mark laws and Geographical Indications. including South Africa and USA. amongst other things.
the Australian Attorney-General announced in May 2006 a proposal to introduce ‘a new flexible dealing provision that will allow for… [inter alia] parody and satire’. particularly the USA. This paper explores the new parody or satire defence. amongst other signs. but that the introduction of a broader defence of ‘transformative’ use was warranted. The paper contrasts the Australian position with overseas jurisdictions. and since 1 January 2007 a defence exists if an infringement of copyright was a fair dealing for the purpose of parody or satire. where fair parodies are permissible under the US fair use defence. It considers the diverse definitions of parody or satire and the variety of practices that could (or may not) constitute parody or satire. However. recent developments in the registrability of colours as trade mark have demonstrated that the matter is far from being clearly painted. That promise was realised in the Copyright Amendment Act (Cth) 2006. 55 . 6 and 17of the Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth) provides that colour.PARODY OR SATIRE DEFENCE Jani McCutcheon The University of Western Australia Following an inquiry into the possibility of introducing a ‘fair use’ defence and other exceptions to copyright infringement. may be registered as a trade mark. ‘ALL THE COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW’: A REVIEW OF RECENT JUDICIAL DECISIONS IN RESPECT OF THE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN COLOURS AS TRADE MARKS. Two longstanding cases in particular have illustrated this ongoing volatility. David Price Charles Darwin University Ss. The paper argues that the new parody or satire defence will enhance the copyright regime by striking a better balance between the interests of authors and satirists and parodists.
This paper examines the implications for colour registrability for trademark registration. on the other hand. the courts have used public policy to find that because of a work’s content or the copyright owner’s conduct. BP recently failed before the Full Federal Court in its latest attempts to secure registration of its shade of green. under the provisions of the Trade Mark Act. drawing upon other examples from Australian. US and European jurisdictions. Its application has met with opposition from Woolworths. Notwithstanding the long tradition of using public policy to regulate copyright. no action will lie or if an action does lie. Cadbury Schweppes. BP has tried for some years to establish its right to register the colour green and ensure its exclusive use in association with its service stations and associated products. remedies may not be forthcoming.On the one hand. the 56 . The decision by the Full Federal Court in May this year ordered that an appeal by Cadbury against an earlier decision in favour of Darrell Lea be allowed and that the matter be remitted to the trial judge for further hearing. which also uses a shade of green with other colours in its supermarket fuel outlet franchises. It reviews the latest decisions in respect of the BP and Cadbury cases and other cases and considers whether colour alone is sustainable as a secured basis for registration or whether the added required element of distinctiveness acquires a special significance. In addition to the use of public policy in reading down legislation. has recently won its latest round in its longstanding battle against Darrell Lea over the exclusive use of the colour purple in respect of chocolate confectionary products. despite there often being no mention of the ability to do this under copyright legislation. THE HANDMAIDEN AND THE WHIPPING BOY: THE COURTS’ USE OF PUBLIC POLICY IN LIMITING COPYRIGHT PROTECTION Alexandra Sims The University of Auckland The courts have used public policy to deny or cut back copyright protection to a variety of things.
The arguments made against the use of public policy are many and varied: it leads to vague and arbitrary decisions. whereby paradoxically the only way that states will be able to regain their de facto sovereignty is if they cede/pool/share their de jure sovereignty. INTERNATIONAL LAW THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL SYSTEM: AN UNRULY HORSE? Michelle Sanson University of Technology. and the World Trade Organization. and the recognition that some global issues are simply beyond the power of individual states to resolve. These contemporary pressures are used to highlight the problems of the international legal system in a globalised. may serve as useful examples for the future of global governance. the increasing calls by global civil society for greater involvement. creativity will be stifled and so on.courts’ use of public policy has been criticised. the International Criminal Court. Thus is comes as no surprise that it has been argued that public policy is akin to an unruly horse: unless the courts are invited by the legislature to ride it they would be better not to do so. as it is currently viewed. which is entering the examination process. The sovereignty paradox is identified. Contemporary pressures for change from the 20th century experience are identified. including the difficulty in controlling the behaviour of global companies. this topic considers the public policy and broader political dimensions to the international legal system. It is proposed that innovative approaches to the pooling of sovereignty. the prevailing system of international law is situated historically from the development in 1648 Treaty of Westphalia of state sovereignty. It is needed now more than ever before. whereby the pooling of sovereignty is seen as an investment by states rather than an expenditure. 57 . Specifically. In this article I argue that public policy serves as a vital and legitimate release valve for copyright. Sydney Aligning with the conference theme. interdependent world. This topic is drawn from the author’s PhD research on global governance. It is proposed that a paradigmatic shift is necessary. as seen in the European Union.
and refuses to comply with legally binding decisions against it. Specific focus is given to the US-Cotton decision. Not a single dispute has been brought by an African WTO Member. showing how the United States uses its power to bully developing countries into not bringing a dispute against them through threats for removal of food aid. and (4) politics and priorities. Sydney Over 360 disputes between states over trade matters have been brought before the dispute settlement system of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in its first 11 years of existence. despite African members counting for over a quarter of its 150 strong membership. and Consultant (Moores Legal) Monash University The streamlining of the rules relating to workplace agreements was one of the main features of the ‘Work Choices’ reforms which transformed the Australian workplace 58 . this paper identifies four cumulative barriers to access for developing countries in the WTO. AIDS drugs. (3) remedies. and proposes ways in which they can be addressed. Why have none of these forty developing countries brought a dispute? Is it because they don’t have any trade problems to complain about? Or do they face obstacles in accessing the system? Access to justice is important for developing countries because interpretation of key instruments in these formative years of the WTO legal system will affect their scope and applicability in the future. These barriers are characterised as (1) cost and expertise. and trade preferences. Based on research and interviews in fifteen African countries plus at the WTO and NGOs in Geneva.THE AFRICAN EXPERIENCE OF THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM Michelle Sanson University of Technology. (2) domestic mechanisms. LABOUR LAW THE IMPACT OF THE FAIRNESS TEST ON BARGAINING Carolyn Sutherland.
au domain (as a resource). applying transaction cost analysis to explain institutional change in the .au domain industry.au policy-control body and highlights how government preference for “buying in regulation” rather than “making” it underpinned elements of that institutional change. In response to mounting community concern about the use of workplace agreements to erode employee conditions.AU This paper examines the governance of the . This paper analyses the structure of the . the Howard Government has introduced a new Fairness Test which substantially changes the legal framework for agreement-making. LAW AND COMPUTERS A NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS ANALYSIS DOMAIN NAME SPACE John Selby Macquarie University OF THE GOVERNANCE OF THE . The new rules removed the ‘no disadvantage test’ and important procedural requirements which ensured that employees had genuinely consented to agreements. which resulted in a protracted battle over control of the distribution of power and wealth inherent in the ability to influence / control policy and legal rights over that resource. 59 . The first section of the paper will briefly outline the key elements of the legal framework for agreement-making which was put in place by the Work Choices reforms. and will refer to some of the evidence which has emerged about bargaining outcomes during the first year of operation of Work Choices.au (Australian) country-code Top-Level Domain since 1986. After a relatively non-controversial start. The article will then consider the elements of the Fairness Test and the extent to which the redesigned ‘safety net’ will offer protection to employees who enter into Federal workplace agreements. this period involved a significant increase in the awareness by stakeholders of the increasing value of the .relations system in 2006.
present and future. and a revised statutory pooling procedural process. Improving outcomes and additional information for creditors. reviews by regulators and domestic courts of the notions of public benefit and detriment must consider not only the legislative enactments. through enhanced protection for employee entitlements. 4.LAW AND ECONOMICS AN UNRULY HORSE BEGINS TO GALLOP: AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE FOR AUSTRALIAN INSOLVENCY LAW John T McGrath University of Western Sydney The implications for the education of Legal and Insolvency Practitioners. 2. Deterring misconduct by corporate officers. placed before the House of Representatives on 31 may 2007. The proposed Act has five reformist themes ( and an 82 page explanatory memorandum! 1. In the legal and corporate governance contexts. with additional regulatory requirements for corporations and new insolvency practitioner information reporting provisions. of the Corporations Amendment (Insolvency) Bill 2007. including the role of the law in restructuring processes in transnational insolvencies. but also difficult concepts of sector-specific economic efficiencies. Each of these themes presents new challenges to existing corporate protocols. Enhancing the economic efficiencies of the existing Voluntary Administration procedures. 3. ASIC registration and disciplinary procedures for Insolvency Practitioners. (debate since adjourned) are considerable. This paper examines the substantial interface between the adoption of the procompetition ethos in tertiary-level economies and the strategic management of corporate insolvency. competing financial interests and the supervening complex constitutional 60 . 5. The adoption of the UNCITRAL Model Law on cross-border insolvency.
cautious academic comment and ramifications yet to be considered at the appellate court level make the current state of the law little more than a patch of calm before a storm of legal activity. LAW AND MEDICINE LOSS OF CHANCE IN MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE CASES Bill Madden & Tina Cockburn Queensland University of Technology In a system based on proof on the balance of probabilities. there has been a great acceleration of interest and court attention to recovery for 'loss of a chance'.constraints. Since the recognition of the availability of compensation for loss of a chance of a better outcome in Rufo v Hosking. This paper will discuss the decided cases on loss of chance in medical cases. REGULATING VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE Katrina George University of Western Sydney Although they remain criminal offences in Australia. The main question posed is the appropriate future proper role of the law in taming developing economic complexities. euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are still practised in this country and some research suggests at rates higher than 61 . Lawyers. however conflicting decisions overseas. Regulators and Corporate Officers will require higherlevel specialist law and economics training to implement the legislation. recovery of compensation for an outcome which 'probably' would have occurred anyway was always going to be controversial. The recent flurry of cases in NSW go some way towards creating a framework for this area. Judges. summarise the current law in this area and identify issues which remain undecided.
MENTAL ILLNESS AND DANGEROUSNESS: WHY THE DANGER CRITERION IN MENTAL HEALTH ACTS MUST BE ABANDONED Robert Hayes & Matthew Large University of Western Sydney & The Mental Health Research and Training Centre This paper examines the ethical aspects and practical implications of the danger criterion in Mental Health Acts in light of advances in our understanding of psychotic illness since such Acts were formulated. where patients are at risk from a lack of medical professionalism and hidden decision making. But legalisation also carries its own risks. It takes as a starting point a hypothetical Mental Health Act with a danger criterion and a definition of metal illness and considers its impact on the treatment of schizophrenia. When the symbolism of criminal prohibition is removed the risk is an erosion of the taboo surrounding killing and a shift in values and behaviour that is difficult to control. Many argue that legalisation in some form is the better option for controlling these practices as they would be more visible. The paper finds that the danger criterion reduces access to care for those patients who are not judged to be dangerous but who may have consented 62 . The paper concludes by examining evidence of an increasing approval of non-voluntary euthanasia in the Netherlands and a movement from ‘euthanasia as the last resort’ to ‘euthanasia as choice’. This paper looks at the highly contested research about the incidence of non-voluntary euthanasia in the Netherlands where assisted death is legal. Notwithstanding its limitations. There is some evidence of a significant increase in taking life without patient request since legalisation. However. prohibition could have one advantage over legalisation: the control of ethical values concerning the taking of life. it is far from certain whether patient autonomy is any better safeguarded under prohibition. doctors more accountable and patients better protected. The evidence points to ‘a culture of deception’.in even the Netherlands.
clearly documented in a report following a WHO survey of international mental health legislation (Harding and Curran 1979). Overdue reforms in the 1970s and 1980s included requirements for procedural fairness and transparency.but for some aspects of their illnesses which reduced insight and capacity. 63 . mental health reform was both inevitable and necessary. the advent of antipsychotic medications making community management possible. that mental illness was a self serving medical myth and that psychiatric hospitals were little more than jails. Arguments for change derived from ethical concerns about custodial care without treatment. The purpose of such reforms. and measures to encourage the use of community care. and increases the rate of hospitalisation of patients who are not at risk of serious harm. Israel. as well as a large number of other countries including Canada. the cost of detaining almost one half a percent of the population. every State in the USA (Appelbaum 1997) and jurisdictions within the Commonwealth of Australia. included both a desire to “protect the public from potentially dangerous. In reality. and the widely held belief. expressed even by some psychiatrists. but in many jurisdictions world-wide. Russia and Taiwan (Appelbaum 1997). A response to these seemingly contradictory aims was to formulate legislation that required that involuntarily detained patients be a danger to themselves or others. psychotic patients” and to “reducing the numbers of chronically hospitalised patients”. In some jurisdictions there are other criteria for admission such as a need for treatment criterion. Introduction of the danger criterion to mental health law in the 1970s and 1980s was in part a reaction to particular legal precedents such as O’Connor v Donaldson in the US Supreme Court (Stromberg & Stone 1983) and the Winterwerp case in the European Court of Human Rights (Dressing & Salize 2004). and to the influential film “One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest” (1976). the right to treatment. the danger criterion is obligatory for civil commitment. The danger-criterion was adopted all but three European countries (Dressing and Salize 2004).
We conclude that the danger criteria should be removed from MHAs and its implicit requirement for risk assessment should be disregarded.In this paper we argue: that use of the danger criterion alone has resulted in inequitable access to care. that even when it is used in parallel with a treatment criterion some patients suffer civil commitment who in reality would not have harmed themselves or others. this same legislation was amended. despite 54 Recommendations having been made by a Statutory Review Committee. The Prime Minister. sensing the political mood. THERAPEUTIC CLONING IN AUSTRALIA: THE PROCESS OF APPROVAL Irene Nemes The University of New South Wales In 2002 the Australian Parliament enacted legislation which prohibited both therapeutic and reproductive embryonic cloning. the threat of a scientific brain drain. This contrasted with his decision several months earlier. which we believe is demonstrably impractical and comes with a significant opportunity cost. Just four years later. Opponents of the Bill used the “slippery slope” argument. against introducing any changes to the 2002 Act. fearing unintended consequences. reversing the prohibition on therapeutic cloning. and the modest increment to 64 . and that these reforms have had the subtle effect of reorienting psychiatric practice towards the management of risk. as they redirect treatment from those who require it because of their illness towards (1) those who are dangerous but who may benefit less from treatment. and (2) those who are merely perceived to be in class of dangerous people but may or may not be dangerous. allowed a conscience vote. Proponents of the Bill were influenced by the hope of finding cures for debilitating diseases. in December 2006. while retaining the ban on reproductive cloning.
social. or scientific factor. Gender played a vital role. The effect of that legislation was to preclude the appellant from using the frozen embryos produced by 65 . by way of an International Covenant? What is the likelihood of scientists pushing the boundaries of the prohibitions? What should be the role of law/morality in this debate? Does the legal status of a cloned embryo need further examination? What if a cloned embryo fails to be destroyed within the 14 day statutory period. either through human error or through intent? Will the embryo have a separate legal standing recognised by law? These are just some of the questions which will need addressing as the law tries to keep up with science. EVANS V THE UNITED KINGDOM ~ SOME REFLECTIONS Leonique Swart Charles Darwin University In the context of assisted reproductive technology (“ART”) are men and women equal in sex and reproduction? How do we balance the right to procreate against the right not to procreate? And where do the interests of the child fit in? This paper considers the April 2007 decision of the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in Evans v United Kingdom (“the Evans case”). as women voted overwhelmingly in favour of the Bill. A number of questions remain. retains an absolute prohibition on reproductive cloning and contains strict regulations with heavy criminal penalties. in which the appellant asked the Court to overturn sections of UK legislation requiring continuing consent by both progenitors to the use of their embryos in ART.what had been decided in 2002. Approval of the legislation had as much to do with the careful drafting of the provisions as with any rational. The Act requires a review after three years. Will Parliament be asked to extend the legislation further? Does stem cell research demand a global. rather than a local approach. The legislation is narrow in scope.
such as Davis v Davis. Such analysis of the status of the embryo is almost completely absent from the Evans case. The Evans case can be compared with US decisions. and which have produced a range of outcomes. which deal with similar disputes about frozen embryos. Kass v Kass. France. Given the range of possible avenues of resolution of similar factual scenarios in the US and UK cases. although there have been regular debates over the past few years in both 66 . LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL CASTRATION OF SEX OFFENDERS IN CRIMINAL LAW Debra Wilson Massey University The UK government recently announced a trial program for voluntary chemical castration of sex offenders. (“the Disposition Cases”). an evaluation of the equality of men and women in sex and reproduction. Analysis of the Evans case and the Disposition Cases provide insight into judicial attitudes regarding people’s right to procreate versus the right not to procreate. In addition. and the interest of children who are born as a result of ART.herself and her former partner through ART during a happier phase of their relationship. following the lead of countries including Denmark. and AZ v BZ. Sweden and the US. some cases consider whether an interest a progenitor can have in a frozen embryo can be proprietary in nature. the decision of the European Court of Human Rights evinces a reluctance to interfere in matters traditionally contained within the private sphere of relationships between men and women. More specifically. Neither New Zealand nor Australia currently offer such a program. Some of the Disposition Cases have attempted to resolve the competing interests of the progenitors via an analysis of the status of the embryo and what interest each progenitor has in the frozen embryo. Germany. this paper will also reflect upon what could potentially be the position taken by Australian courts. despite dramatic changes in their emotional and reproductive circumstances.
and it is hoped that this 67 . The New Zealand and Australian governments need to carefully consider the legal implications of introducing such a program. the paper discusses two issues that warrant careful consideration. is appropriate. If it is in fact non-voluntary then the implications of this need to be carefully considered. it is not clear whether chemical castration is therapeutic in nature. and these debates will likely increase following the introduction of the UK trial. This paper argues that chemical castration ought not to form part of the criminal law. and not be influenced by popular demand. In support of this argument. eugenics and double jeopardy. This issue involves a discussion of its effectiveness in reducing sexual offending. or as a condition of parole. If chemical castration is a punishment this raises issues of human rights.countries concerning this. the related topic of compulsory contraceptive use for females in the US. There is little doubt that this particular case was unusual. it needs to be considered whether chemical castration can legitimately be classified as voluntary when it is offered as an alternative to prison. First. Second. despite the fact that statistics released by some of the countries mentioned above show impressive drops in sexual re-offending rates following the introduction of such a program. even if classified as ‘voluntary’. Cho Seung-hui at Virginia Tech is an example of unimaginable tragedy happening within a university setting. Chemical castration appears to attract a high level of support from the public. or is actually an additional punishment to be imposed on criminals. THREATENING AND AGGRESSIVE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: IS THIS A REALITY OR JUST PARANOIA? WHAT ARE THE MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES FOR STAFF? Julie Zetler Macquarie University The recent shooting of 32 people by a Korean international student. or reports from other countries. and the extension to use for nonsexual offences. but this does not necessarily suggest that its adoption.
it nevertheless highlights for staff potential student vulnerability related to problems like stress. Less extreme but similar situations have occurred in Australia as well as other countries. Whilst this case clearly represents a situation that sits at the extreme end of the violence spectrum. problems associated with student dissatisfaction and frustration is all too apparent in some areas of university teaching.event does not repeat itself. Examples of this can be evidenced by what seems like an increase in anonymous and often ‘threatening’ e-mails to subject lecturers. it is reported that prior to the shooting. as well as inappropriate personal lecturer comments in subject evaluation forms. The questions that need to be addressed by universities include: • Are university students more threatening and aggressive than they were in the past? Is this ‘assertive’ stance engaged in by some students misconstrued as threatening or aggressive behaviour? • • Is the Virginia Tech massacre an aberration or does it contain deeper messages that the university community can no longer ignore? What are the mental health issues for staff in this area? 68 . Unfortunately. despite the gun debate factor. lack of student support and unrealistic tertiary expectations all contribute to the rise of individual stress levels of student and academic cohorts. changing management structures of universities. anger and aggressive behaviour of the perpetrator. Whatever the combinations of reasons for the resulting catastrophe. an English Professor alerted the university administration of Cho’s mental deterioration. nothing remarkable was done by the university at the time of the report. Indeed. However. it has been noted that other important psychological features were at play at the time including the increasing social isolation. international students. increased student numbers. Most media commentators analysing the Virginia Tech event largely credit the scale of the massacre as being directly linked to the availability of guns in the United States. violence and mental illness. Issues like decreased government funding. alienation.
Roger Gamble & Lyn Turner Monash University This presentation and paper will outline the process and the knowledge from a project that the authors have been undertaking since late 2006. to respond to on the exam and which problem questions are poorly answered. The insights gained from the project have been used to inform the development of on-line study exercises to provide opportunities for developing both content knowledge and study and exam preparation skills. •Conduct a discourse analysis of selected problem questions to explore the written discourse strategies used. 69 . by ‘successful’ and ‘unsuccessful’ students. LAW FOR NON LAW STUDENTS IMPROVING COMMERCE STUDENTS’ OUTCOMES IN THEIR FIRST LAW SUBJECT Mark Bender. the strategies they used for exam preparation and what additional support or direction they felt could have improved their performance. or do not choose. The aims of the project were to: •Investigate which topics (areas of law) students choose. 2006 and also included interviews with students who had not passed the subject and those who had received Distinction grades or above.This paper aims to identify and discuss some of the main issues and to engage in discussion about personal stories in this area. •Gain insights into how students gained an understanding of the content and the conventions of Business Law writing. and not used. The project involved the analysis of written exam responses of students enrolled in the first year core Business Law subject in Semester 2.
These insights have also assisted in the development of teaching strategies, student materials, and curriculum and assessment structure in the subject.
TEACHING LAW WITH GAMES AND STORIES Susan Corbett & Amanda Reilly Victoria University of Wellington
Games and stories are two of the most fundamental ways that human beings teach and learn and a growing body of educational research suggests that they are indeed powerful tools. In this paper we draw on this research to consider how we might improve our teaching of law to non law students.
We begin by clarifying the precise nature of our objectives as teachers. We note that law teachers commonly explain their teaching as comprising the transfer of on the one hand, facts and principles, or “black-letter law”, and on the other, the contextual and societal domains underpinning those facts and principles.
Having next identified any game-like and story-like aspects of our current teaching practices, we then consider these within the context of the formal educational literature on games and stories. We suggest that it is important that the practical and theoretical learning objectives in law should not be seen as discrete entities and that this should be reflected in our use of games and stories as teaching tools.
We conclude that while games and stories are, to an extent, already used in teaching law to non law students, they could be used more effectively to facilitate deeper learning and student engagement and we suggest some ways in which this might be attempted.
MAKING IBL RELEVANT TO GEN Y. Susan Fitzpatrick University of Western Sydney
This paper looks at the process of reviewing the unit Introduction to Business Law (IBL), at the University of Western Sydney (UWS) in 2007. A core first year law subject for non LLB students offered by the School of Law, IBL is taught across three to four of the UWS campuses as well as in a distance mode for external students with enrolments of over 1000 students each semester. The introduction of a new Bachelor of Business and Commerce scheduled for 2008, with IBL as a compulsory core unit provided the institutional impetus for its rejuvenation.
A range of factors have driven the process of reviewing the design and delivery of the unit. The multi campus nature of delivery of the unit and the large number of students enrolled are significant constraints on the unit. The students come from diverse backgrounds, many of whom are the first in their family to undertake tertiary education. Their expectations are also diverse. They are drawn from over twenty different UWS courses, however, for over half the students enrolled in IBL, it is a compulsory unit in their degree and for a large portion of these students, the unit has a strong professional emphasis, being the first of a sequence of law units designed to meet professional accreditation requirements.
A key feature of the review has been an examination of both the role of changing technology and its ability to provide flexibility in the unit. This has involved unravelling assumptions about the different modes of learning for “Generation Y”, a large portion of our student cohort, and a distinctive feature of the review has been an explicit focus on identifying their needs in an effort to design the unit to be relevant, engaging and contemporary.
IN LEGAL STUDIES, WHAT IS THE VALUE OF FEEDBACK? Judith McGowan & Bill Willesee Curtin University of Technology
There is an increasing expectation that law teachers will provide timely and useful feedback to students. There is much research on the effectiveness of feedback generally but this paper has a focus on feedback in the legal studies area. For here process can be as important as content. Feedback may provide comment on the student’s understanding of the course content, but it may also guide the student on broader ‘process’ issues. Which of these forms of feedback provides a better basis upon which students will refine learning and improve grades? That question is at the heart of this research.
Two law teachers/researchers, lecturers in a University Business School, have examined and evaluated the role of feedback provided by them to their students. Two separate groups of students were given an assessment task then each received different kinds of feedback. The groups were subsequently tested again on the same issue and the grade results compared. On the assumption that the comparative grade results were related to the feedback received, the researchers considered the following:
Does the method used to provide feedback impact upon its use and/or
effectiveness? 2. Does feedback need to be personal for the student to recognise its relevance to
their learning, or can generic feedback delivered via the Internet have the same impact? 3. What implications can be made concerning how students perceive and use
different kinds of feedback?
This presentation (and paper to be submitted) will report on the results of this research and make observations on the outcomes, inviting the audience to share their relevant personal experiences.
It is hoped that observations on these issues may provide preliminary insights to: 1. test the assumption that feedback is of strategic learning value to a student 72
the main point being that there should be greater sensitivity and awareness for our Chinese students. This paper outlines some of the problems that Chinese students appear to have when encountering law studies for the first time. particularly in utilising some aspects of Confucian learning.2. and hopefully a greater discussion on how their needs might be addressed. While some of these students may actually study in a law degree. The means by which law is actually taught and assessed appears to be a challenge for many of these students who may never have encountered a problem based style of teaching. identify the method that seems to optimise its application. either at an undergraduate or graduate level. A number of Law Schools have undertaken or undertaking Curriculum Reviews concerning the content and 73 . rather than reflective and independent scholars. quite often have to complete some form of law type studies as part of their course. The paper proposes some suggestions for discussion. cohort of students arriving from China to study in Australian universities. LEGAL EDUCATION LEGAL EDUCATION TODAY: TEACHING TO ENGAGE LAW STUDENTS Michael Blissenden University of Western Sydney Legal Education is currently being reviewed throughout Australia. Similarly this paper attempts to consider the debate as to whether Chinese students might be characterised simplistically as surface rote learners. The paper outlines some of the traditions of Confucian education and ponders on whether this impacts on particular student’s mode of learning. those who do commercial studies. and possibly increasing. TEACHING LAW TO CHINESE STUDENTS: SOME REFLECTIONS David Parker Victoria University There is a large.
Within that framework there has been a focus on the manner in which to teach law units of study within and outside the classroom including the use of service learning programs. especially later year students in the classroom. At the University of Western Sydney Law School such approaches have been undertaken and applied to the teaching of Revenue Law to final year students. Students have been asked for feedback to this storytelling process through questionnaires and the data from this exercise will be discussed. This in itself is not new but it is considered that only the seminal cases should be studied by students so as to appreciate the underlying legal and policy analysis that led to the decisions by the courts. This paper will review the success of this teaching methodology and provide a platform that may be utilised in other law units in a LLB degree program. At the University of Western Sydney Revenue Law is a compulsory unit of study so the student cohort covers all those studying the LLB degree program. where the legislative framework is very general. where there is a need for an understanding of the nature of a trust. I have been involved as the unit co-coordinator and lecturer of Revenue Law for a number of years and have realised that different teaching approaches need to be taken for different topics throughout the unit. Revenue Law is generally accepted by students and academic staff alike that the unit of study is a difficult one. Students are allocated particular tasks to explain aspects to the rest of the class and this adds a further dimension to the engagement of students. For other topics such as the taxation of trusts. For instance for the core areas of income and deductions.delivery of their law programs. a more structured lecture approach may be more appropriate. provides a basis for classroom discussion. In particular the use of teaching methodologies and approaches from other disciplines have been utilised in an attempt to engage law students. that the study of case law is required. In that regard the use of techniques such as storytelling by students. 74 . explaining the factual scenarios and policy processes behind the litigation between the parties.
in a method readily transferable to other subject areas and disciplines. It is a learner centred approach that assists law and legal studies students in undergraduate. The Contracts Vignettes are multimedia video presentations that provide focus and direction for students in the first year subjects Contracts A and Contracts B at QUT since semester 2. There is a also degree of scepticism concerning the need for podcasts with at least one study showing that only twenty per cent of students currently uses or wishes to use portable devices for study. In this paper we explore the use of popular culture movies to begin the PBL experience for students. and present the overwhelming positive results of a survey of students using them. Kathy Douglas & Michele Ruyters RMIT University Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a learning and teaching strategy particularly well suited to legal education. They were produced utilising ready-to-hand software for minimal cost. This paper will examine the Vignettes and their method of production. but a number of issues hinder their large scale utilisation. 2006. post graduate and practical training programs to identify problems and collaboratively and creatively provide solutions. GOING TO THE MOVIES: LEGAL EDUCATION. We reflect upon teaching at RMIT University in Evidence and Civil Procedure where we have utilised films to provide scenarios for problem solving. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND PUBLIC POLICY. Two films. Podcasts are one such form of technology. These issues include the cost of software associated with large scale usage.THE CONTRACTS VIGNETTES: COST-EFFECTIVE PODCASTING PRODUCING QUALITY LEARNING OUTCOMES IN FIRST YEAR CONTRACT LAW Des Butler Queensland University of Technology Technology offers the opportunity to facilitate learning experiences for both internal and distance students in a way that traditional lectures cannot. The Interview (1998) 75 .
In the civil jurisdiction the film A Civil Action raises concerns regarding the preservation of the environment and legal regulation. This policy tension is particularly relevant given recent initiatives in Australia and globally to deal with the perceived threats of terrorism. Students can engage with public policy dilemmas such as the competing rights of the accused and the protection of society. what level of ‘criticality’ is appropriate for law students. 76 . little guidance is currently available regarding how critical thinking relates specifically to legal education and legal practice. students would develop better reasoning and arguing skills and be better practitioners. In particular. and whether and how critical legal thinking might be assessed. students able to think critically would be more aware of social injustices and deficiencies in the legal system and be more willing to participate in law reform.and A Civil Action (1998). However. Students engage with the need to deal with community concerns through such means as public policy mediation. have provided scenarios for students to solve and provided the opportunity for students to understand and have empathy with the characters through experience of storytelling. in this paper we explore the way that the two films have provided a focus for holistic problem solving for students and importantly raised public policy issues. For example. DEFINING AND ASSESSING CRITICAL LEGAL THINKING Nick James University of Queensland The learning of critical thinking skills by law students seems to be a desirable outcome of legal education for a variety of reasons: students would engage with the subject matter of the degree with more interest and enthusiasm. the film The Interview raises concerns regarding criminal justice policy and the rights of the accused. vocationally relevant. grounded in theory and oriented towards legal and social reform. This paper will draw upon scholarship and expertise from the disciplines of law and education in order to (1) construct a definition of ‘critical legal thinking’ that is doctrinally sound. and (2) identify the best methods for assessing such a form of critical legal thinking. students able to think and act independently would be more attractive as employees.
identification of the criteria for judging methods of assessing critical legal thinking. and construction of the best definition of critical legal thinking. It is anticipated that the resulting definition will embrace not only the ability to construct and analyse legal arguments but also an ability to recognise implicit power relationships in legal situations and a proclivity to question authority in all its forms. The paper will explore the fundamental tension between the desire to provoke a critical attitude within students and the need to assess critical thinking ability against a set of defined criteria. The construction of the best method for assessing critical legal thinking will be achieved in three stages: identification of the possible methods for assessing critical legal thinking. Effective strategies are expected to enhance student engagement and learning through online activities within the curriculum. This transition may be achieved through the development of blended learning environments (which make the best use of face-toface learning) and online learning formats (which may be supported by a multitude of courseware) so as to provide increasingly flexible. engaged and interactive learning experiences for students. identification of the possible definitions of critical legal thinking. identification of the criteria for judging definitions of critical legal thinking.The construction of a definition of ‘critical legal thinking’ will be achieved in four steps: identification of the relevant justifications for teaching critical legal thinking. and identification of the best methods for assessing critical legal thinking. THE CHALLENGES OF ADOPTING NEW INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES – INTEGRATING E-LEARNING AND BLENDED LEARNING INTO EXISTING LLB UNITS John Juriansz University of Western Sydney Many law schools are considering the utility of adapting their “traditional” modes of classroom delivery to include increasingly flexible modes of teaching and learning by trialling new integrated technology strategies. and improve effectiveness and efficiencies by reducing lecture time. 77 .
a project to provide online. to first year law programs. Law E-ssentials recognises that law studies in higher education is part of a ‘lifelong’ learning cycle. For law students. CDROM and hard-copy information. mid-year law. Law E-ssentials provides skills sets for each of these 78 .However. and query whether workload agreements can accommodate these changes. may question whether the quality of teaching and learning experiences will be enhanced by these new approaches. • Establishment of a pilot project for the staged introduction of blended and e-learning elements into the teaching practice of the law school. beginning with pre-entry into law (either by school-entry or individual inquiry). the challenge of fostering and encouraging the support and uptake by the academic stakeholders may be enhanced by the: • Development of a system of E-learning and Blended Learning mentorship and training within the law school. resources and links to communities for both law students and law teachers. there can be resistance to the introduction of new integrated technology strategies into a course. LIFELONG LEARNING: ENGAGING STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN LEGAL EDUCATION Claire Macken & Pamela Mulready Deakin University This paper introduces a project called ‘Law E-ssentials’. Many seasoned lecturers may doubt their ability to learn and manage new electronic technologies. penultimate and final year law students to law alumni. For institutions which have adopted a strategy on the adoption of e-learning technologies. and • Establishment of feedback and evaluation systems to measure the success and failures of the various phases of the staged process so as to ensure the most beneficial results.
and tips for law teachers.students recognising the need for flexible and lifelong learning. reading and listening skills. To fully engage both law learners and law teachers. It 79 . Law Essentials has built key resources to support the development of skills. note-taking. legal problem solving through fact analysis. such as time management and organisation. for both law students and law staff and linking to the legal profession is seen as critical to create a vibrant law community for law students to engage with each other. law teachers to engage with each other. Law E-ssentials is developing and sharing practical hints. instruction in practical legal skills and much more. the QAA in the UK places great emphasis on the external examiner system. It is envisaged that the development of online communities could create both an intra-University and cross-institutional professional environment for those involved in teaching and learning law. For law teachers. where they fit into overall assessment. legal writing and research skills. the Council of Legal Education appoints a judge or eminent practitioner to approve the examination paper in “core” courses and requires that the Law Schools exchanges a sample of scripts in all LLB courses to ensure standards are maintained. This paper considers the rationales of the systems. the roles of the examiners. In New Zealand. and the benefits and drawbacks of the two approaches. Online learning communities. as well as providing the opportunity for law teachers to engage with literature on best teaching practice in law. While there are other mechanisms for increasing the quality of marking. Law E-ssentials is also developing ‘social software’. To do this. such as anonymity of scripts and “double” or “second” marking. EXTERNAL EXAMINERS – A MEANS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE? Ken Mackinnon The University of Waikato This paper looks at the systems of external examiners in UK and NZ law schools. and for both to engage with the legal profession.
and considers whether there are equally robust alternatives.5 or higher. in particular the use of entrance tests. many of whom did not have an academic background. funding. administration. The test was used for mature-age applicants.raises some questions about their practical effectiveness as quality assurance mechanisms. Policies regarding university structure. The paper aims to provoke discussion with Australian colleagues about whether Australian law schools might benefit from such a system. 80 . An assumption underpinning the policies is the need to ensure a high quality intake of students. This paper will focus on some of the issues relating to student selection into Australian Law Schools. Testing is a science. The study found that those who sat for ALSET have performed comparably in their first year of study with those selected by ENTER scores. STUDENT SELECTION IN A TIME OF CHANGE Susan Nankervis Australian Council for Educational Research Higher Education is currently under a political spotlight and poised for significant changes in coming years. and analysis that indicates that an increase in ALSET scores is accompanied by an increase in the percentage of higher grades. discussing the diverse range of current practices. and a valid selection test should deliver the right students who can succeed in the course. both major political parties and from within the sector itself. The main discussion relates to the results of a study which examined the relationship between the Australian Law Schools Entrance Test (ALSET) and performance in first year Law studies at an Australian university. student admission and management are being proposed by DEST. The success of the ALSET students is also supported by the fact that almost half gained a GPA of 5.
from the exhibitionist to the educational. Using a handycam. unpolished broadcasting of anything a person wants. The ‘videos’ may be used in face-to-face teaching. flexible. where amateur footage is posted online on a range of subjects. purchase videos are inflexible and date quite quickly.The results illustrate how performance in tertiary study is underpinned by generic skills. The presenter is presently piloting the use of YouTube-style audio-visual recordings teaching and learning both content and skills in law. PILOTING THE USE OF THE YOUTUBE GENRE AS TEACHING AIDS IN LAW Michelle Sanson University of Technology. 81 . The evidence confirms that the test has successfully identified students who are likely to have the ability to cope with tertiary level studies. and may be edited and updated quite easily for future use. or posted on WebCT or even YouTube itself. the test adds value to a range of selection models in a time of great change for Australian universities. The YouTube genre refers to the famous website www.youtube. As a valid instrument. Microsoft Moviemaker. unregulated. recent school leavers seek out music downloads. and it is possible that adopting the genre of sites such as YouTube may be an effective tool for teaching law.com. It is essentially about an unstructured. amateur movies. webcam shots. and that those students selected by ALSET have the necessary skills to justify their place in the course. and podcast recordings for their personal amusement. and will present her experience to date as well as an example video. At present the range of videos available to assist in teaching law (content and skills) is limited. videos that may be designed and created for specific teaching tasks. effective solution to teaching videos. Adopting a YouTube genre may be a low cost. In their spare time. and a laptop with a DVD burner. and it is also sound from a teaching point of view in extending the adult concentration span through regular varying of the teaching activity. Further. Sydney Students appreciate when academics use video/DVD material as a teaching aid.
by anecdotal student feedback. by concerns as to whether the initial access and equity basis of the distance mode has been maintained. aims and motivation for studying by 82 . and by rapid changes in technology and developments in online teaching and learning. The placements have also provided students with rare opprotunities for team work. on the students. by a recent decrease in the number of applications for entry. They have embarked on such placements in lieu of writing standard legal research papers. The placements have also discolosed a number of unforseen benefits. which had lay dormant in a legal problem solving focused law curriculum. students have embraced the placements as rare opporuntities to gain practical work experience. In the absence of a clinical program. The timing of the evaluation is influenced by increased competition in the distance sector. In stage one data was gathered by means of a questionnaire administered to current distance students across all levels of study. This paper outlines and evaluates the experience and potential of placements in the law school curriculum. TOWARDS BEST PRACTICE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION Penelope Watson & Graeme Wiffen Macquarie University This paper reports on preliminary findings of a grant funded study undertaken as stage one of the evaluation and improvement of the undergraduate distance program in Law at Macquarie University. the placements have unearthed students with exceptional policy skills. their background. Participating oranizations have been grateful for the additional researchers and exciting joint projects are being discussed.PLACEMENTS: MUCH MORE THAN AN ALTERNATIVE FORM OF ASSESSMENT Daniel Stepniak The University of Western Australia For the past eight years students in my elective units “Law and Religion” and “Law and Contemporary Social Problems” have been encouraged to undertake research and writing for outside organisations on topics related to the scope of the units. By providing students with rare opportunities to work on legal policy papers.
assessment. optional quizzes which provide immediate feedback for them to measure their own level of progress. The purpose in using the technology has been to increase interaction with distance students and in larger class settings. Over the past year. The question for teachers is whether meeting this demand will actually produce increased learning benefits that compensate for the investment spent in introducing the new technology. administration. Course WebCT sites contain discussion forums for students to debate issues. A review of the literature on distance education has been partially completed. The goal of the study is to develop recommendations for improving distance delivery at Macquarie Law. This experimentation has provided highly positive results.distance. Today’s students are attracted to new technologies and demand that lecturers utilise these to assist them in their learning. resulting in close to 83 . Distance students can access online audio lecture and PowerPoint presentations. conforming to the same high pedagogical standards which would be expected for campus based delivery. and other aspects of the distance experience. and guidelines for best practice in the effective design and delivery of distance education. skills. as well as information on resources. THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE AN INTERACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR INTERNAL AND DISTANCE STUDENTS Debbie Wilson & Feona Sayles Massey University Blackboards. Internal students use personal response systems to answer multi-choice questions in lectures and tutorials. OHPs and even whiteboards have been consigned to the museum of teaching tools of the past. Focus groups of staff and students will add to the data. and comparable programs elsewhere in Australia identified. and take part in real-time online tutorials regardless of their location. and the ability to submit assignments and receive feedback online. Those not able to attend can view a replay of the tutorial at their convenience. the Business Law Group at Massey University has experimented with the use of technology.
A bottom-up approach was adopted starting with the development. From this data we have endeavoured to identify those outcomes that required more and/or less focus through the degree and in so doing ensure that the integration of outcomes in the degree is progressive and comprehensive. the formulation of a Course Outcome Statement and the mapping and integration of the outcomes appropriately and progressively across the degree. Central elements of the review were the identification of graduate outcomes. problems faced by teachers using the technologies as well as the resources required to implement these forms of teaching. and provides observations as to the benefits to students. refinement and statement of student learning outcomes at the level of individual units and progressed to the identification of student learning outcomes at the various year levels. for example. the UWA Law School embarked on a Curriculum Review of its LLB degree. the introduction of new core units and the alignment of assessments with outcomes at unit and year level. The results of this exercise informed the formulation of the Course Outcome Statement and will further assist in other aspects of the Curriculum Review. 84 .100% class participation and instant feedback for lecturers on the classes’ level of understanding. This paper discusses the use of these technologies in several law papers offered by Massey University. DEVELOPING COURSE OUTCOMES SCHOOL Normann Witzleb & Natalie Skead AND AN INTEGRATED CURRICULUM AT UWA LAW The University of Western Australia In 2006. This paper shares the process adopted in undertaking this aspect of the review and describes the results reached.
LEGAL HISTORY PRIVATE BILL LEGISLATION – HAS THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE ACTS OF PARLIAMENT IN AUSTRALIA HAD THE SAME IMPACT AS SIMILAR LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM? David Barker University of Technology Sydney This paper will examine the development of private Acts of Parliament with particular emphasis on their influence in the development of local government functions such local services as lighting. or to refer the matter to the Quarter Sessions or the Assizes. watching. riot. their goal was not punishment of the defendant. but instead the extraction of payment. Landau.It will compare these aspects of private bill legislation with those introduced in Australia under the auspices of State and Territory legislation. street paving and cleansing in the United Kingdom . 3. VIOLENCE. p507 This paper seeks to examine the role of the Kentish Justice of the Peace not as an officer to formally decide a complaint (if competent to do so). (1999) Law and History Review. or other non-felonious offences against the person. but as the focal point for an informal settlement of a criminal complaint. apology from the defendant. LOCAL MAGISTRATES AND THE INFORMAL LAW 1700-1833 Shane Sullivan The University of Queensland “When eighteenth-century prosecutors brought indictments for assault. the tools used by Kentish justices in the pursuit of such a settlement.” N. Within this context it will consider the reasons why the Senate never exercised its powers under Standing Orders to permit the introduction of similar legislation within the Commonwealth Parliament. or less frequently. This process will now be explored in terms of the impetus for such an informal resolution. 85 . “Indictment for Fun and Profit: A Prosecutor’s Reward at Eighteenth-Century Quarter Sessions”.
LEGAL RESEARCH AND COMMUNICATION LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING OTAGO STYLE Judith Ferguson University of Otago Over the last ten years the Legal Research and Writing Programme at the Otago Law School has expanded and strengthened. The paper does not purport to be an erudite exposition. the nature of the restitution involved in such a settlement. 86 . and the impact of this issue upon how work in the field is conducted. It is designed to complement the learning style and structure of the Otago LLB. but not a points weighted paper. but rather a practical insight into how things are done at Otago.the nature of the offence which formed the subject of the complaint. It is currently a compulsory component of the LLB degree. Students complete programmes in legal writing skills and in legal research skills and then apply these skills in assignments set in individual subject areas. the factors which determined the exercise of this discretion. Finally. and the typicality or otherwise of this process. is based largely on self directed learning and spans the full degree course. This paper tracks the history of the programme and the thinking behind the current structure and describes its various components. and its broader significance to the question of the motives of eighteenth and early nineteenth-century prosecutors of petty crime. I will offer some conclusions on the role and the nature of "making-up".
This is especially a problem when the facts require them to “identify 87 . This shows that students are concentrating on a transmission and regurgitation approach to learning as opposed to a deeper understanding of the legal principles. The success of these depends on many factors – the viability of the intrinsic research concept. They mistakenly think if they have spent long hours writing lecture notes that they should know the principles. Law students spend much of the semester of a subject trying to consume the content of the law. USING WRITING AS A TOOL TO DEVELOP LEGAL REASONING SKILLS FOR LAW STUDENTS Victoria Lambropoulos Deakin University This paper is motivated from a need to help law students diagnose their errors in thinking and understanding when studying law subjects. This paper examines the components of a standard Research Proposal including the Literature Review. The research proposal genre is a necessary part of training for academic writing. It also includes some reflections on considerations to be taken into account in writing a Criteria Referenced Assessment sheet. the match between the granting body’s criteria for funding and the research objectives. This often leads to a superficial or surface understanding of the legal principles. the standard of other applications to name a few. Many students at this stage go blank if the facts are not simple or they are not similar to the tutorial problems which they have been given answers for. The CRA examined establishes some standards for the genre. at the basis of each research grant application is the research proposal.THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING GENRE Terry Hutchinson AND RESEARCH GRANTS: PERSPECTIVES ON A LEGAL Queensland University of Technology The current tertiary climate requires academics to constantly churn our research grant applications. However it is only when they are faced with a fact situation where they are required to apply the law that their understanding is tested. However. It is used widely in research higher degrees and masters units.
administration and law and explains what this intersection comprises in each element. Legal writing exercises are particularly useful because they require students to reveal their thought processes on paper. politics (but apolitical). The paper considers some of the issues presented to lawyers who are legal advisers to policy teams (often the problem solver. Many lawyers are generally unaware of the extent of their actual and potential role(s) and of how they can play roles in public policy and related processes. Students eventually should be able to develop the ability to diagnose thinking problems and not be so reliant upon the lecturer’s understanding or interpretation of the legal principles. but not the policy adviser). The paper will examine the writing process as a tool to help students overcome their errors in thinking. It provides some insights into and examples of these elements. The paper positions lawyers at the intersection of policy. This can be used as an effective snapshot to examine what stage the students are at in their understanding of the legal principles they are required to study. 88 .relationships among ideas on multiple levels of abstraction and use this information to solve problems” This is what they are required to do in legal practice as clients’ problems are rarely simple. LAW. PRACTICAL LEGAL TRAINING INFLUENCING PUBLIC POLICY AND THE LAW: LAWYERS AT THE INTERSECTION OF POLICY. ADMINISTRATION AND POLITICS Lynn Du Moulin The Australian National University This paper provides an overview of the role of lawyers in the development of public policy and notes that it may be a bigger role than is often realised.
The paper touches on the opportunities provided to law students (undergraduate and in practical legal training) to obtain the knowledge and skills to help them, as lawyers, understand and work in law as well in the other elements.
In doing so, the paper asks where these opportunities are best placed: in undergraduate law courses or in practical legal training courses? It asks what are courses currently considering and informing students in relation to legal hierarchies and law as passed.
Are they considering or considering in sufficient depth • • • What happens before the law is passed (policy concepts and development of public policy) Where lawyers / clients can participate in the process of public policy leading to laws, and What it means to be at that intersection of the elements – the roles, responsibilities and professional duties of the lawyer.
The paper briefly considers, as a case study example, teaching students in this area in a practical legal training course at ANU’s Legal Workshop. The paper concludes that information and training in this area has a place in legal education.
STUDENT SELECTION IN A TIME OF CHANGE Susan Nankervis Australian Council for Educational Research
Higher Education is currently under a political spotlight and poised for significant changes in coming years. Policies regarding university structure, funding, administration, student admission and management are being proposed by DEST, both major political parties and from within the sector itself. An assumption underpinning the policies is the need to ensure a high quality intake of students.
This paper will focus on some of the issues relating to student selection into Australian Law Schools, discussing the diverse range of current practices, in particular the use of entrance tests. Testing is a science, and a valid selection test should deliver the right students who can succeed in the course.
The main discussion relates to the results of a study which examined the relationship between the Australian Law Schools Entrance Test (ALSET) and performance in first year Law studies at an Australian university. The test was used for mature-age applicants, many of whom did not have an academic background.
The study found that those who sat for ALSET have performed comparably in their first year of study with those selected by ENTER scores. The success of the ALSET students is also supported by the fact that almost half gained a GPA of 5.5 or higher, and analysis that indicates that an increase in ALSET scores is accompanied by an increase in the percentage of higher grades.
The results illustrate how performance in tertiary study is underpinned by generic skills. The evidence confirms that the test has successfully identified students who are likely to have the ability to cope with tertiary level studies, and that those students selected by ALSET have the necessary skills to justify their place in the course. As a valid instrument, the test adds value to a range of selection models in a time of great change for Australian universities.
PLACEMENT IN PLT: A THOROUGHBRED OR JUST A HACK? Paul Rogers University of Western Sydney
This paper discusses original research being undertaken with a UWS College of Business community engagement seed grant into Australian lawyer’s and the benefit or the burden of undertaking the placement of a PLT student. I discuss what is the current published position of the state admitting authorities which are responsible for setting the 90
competency standard and compliance requirements for placement in practical legal training. Further, I discuss the role and compliance or otherwise of the providers of PLT throughout Australia in relation to placement. The paper will seek to identify any common ground between admitting authorities on placement, together with if there is any common ground by the PLT providers, in light of the movement to a national profession. Finally, the paper will address the urgent need for further research to examine the causes of satisfaction or other wise of the legal profession itself with placement.
KEY ASPECTS OF THE SUCCESSION ACT 2006 (NSW) Fiona Burns The University of Sydney
The Succession Act 2006 (NSW) received assent on 27 October 2006 but is still to commence operation. It is anticipated that it will come into operation in NSW by the end of 2007. The Act implements (with modifications) the recommendations of the National Committee for Uniform Succession Laws in respect to wills. These recommendations were endorsed by the NSW Law Reform Commission in Report 85 (1998) Uniform Succession Laws: The Law of Wills.
This paper will consider some of the key changes and innovations made by the Succession Act 2006 (NSW). Where appropriate, the paper will consider: • • •
the impact of the Act on the law prior to the implementation of the legislation; some important instances where the law in NSW differs from that in other states; and those amendments that may be regarded as either controversial or difficult to implement.
broadly speaking. It will be argued that even before the full impact and implementation of the Torrens system in NSW. as most ‘non-Crown’ residential and commercial land in NSW is regulated by the Torrens system. PRESCRIPTIVE AND IMPLIED EASEMENTS: DO THEY HAVE A FUTURE IN THE TORRENS SYSTEM IN NSW? Fiona Burns The University of Sydney This paper considers the extent to which prescriptive and implied easements continue to exist in the law of NSW. extrinsic evidence. necessity or are inferred or implied in favour of purchasers of land. dispensation of formal requirements by the Supreme Court. cover those easements that are based on common intention. prescriptive easements and (to a lesser extent) implied easements had been considered antithetical to the smooth operation of land law and the economic development of the state. The paper will discuss the initial impact of the Torrens system on prescriptive and implied easements and the opinions of early land law writers as to whether and to what extent such easements could co-exist within a title by registration system. Relevant amendments to the provisions of the Real Property Act 1900 (NSW) will be tracked. Prescriptive easements are easements that arose at common law due to a long established de facto enjoyment of a right over land.Topics for specific consideration will include: wills made by minors. powers of the Supreme Court to authorize the making. alteration and revocation of wills for persons lacking testamentary capacity. Special attention will be paid to the operation of the Torrens system in NSW. revocation of wills including the effect of marriage and divorce. and dispositions of property to an unincorporated association. Easements by implication. the 30-day beneficiary rule. It will be argued that significant statutory amendments to 92 .
In the paper. a title which is immune from adverse claims other than those which are specifically excepted. TAMING THE UNRULY IN PERSONAM EXCEPTION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE LIMITS OF THE IN PERSONAM EXCEPTION TO INDEFEASIBILITY OF TITLE. the impact of two groundbreaking NSW Court of Appeal decisions. One exception to indefeasibility is the fraud exception which renders a registered proprietor’s title defeasible where the registered proprietor was guilty of fraud in becoming registered. Penny Carruthers The University of Western Australia The effect of registration of an interest in Torrens land is to confer on the registered proprietor a title which is said to be indefeasible. The courts have adopted a narrow definition of fraud and accordingly the fraud exception to indefeasibility has been “tightly policed” and it is only the most egregious examples of personal dishonesty that will constitute Torrens fraud.that Act near the end of the 20th century have severely circumscribed when easements may constitute exceptions to indefeasibility of title. Williams v State Transit Authority of New South Wales  60 NSWLR 286. Over the past few decades there has been an expansion in the scope of the in personam exception with the inevitable consequence of a corresponding erosion of the principle of 93 . This restrictive interpretation of the fraud exception serves to reinforce the paramountcy of the indefeasibility of a registered proprietor’s title. and McGrath v Campbell  NSWCA 180 (7 July 2006) will be discussed. However. that is. This in turn has led to the indirect abolition of prescriptive easements in the Torrens system and cast serious doubt upon the ongoing efficacy of easements by implication. a registered proprietor’s title is also subject to the so called “in personam” exception which encompasses legal or equitable claims against a registered proprietor based on the personal obligations of the registered proprietor.
The Reid Report made numerous recommendations aimed at addressing instances of unfair business conduct identified by the Committee. s 51AC. the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Industry. and its state and territory analogues. UNFAIRNESS IN RETAIL LEASING – AN EXAMINATION OF TERMS OR CONDUCT? Eileen Webb The University of Western Australia In May 1997. including retail leasing. the resulting provision. an unconscionability standard was subsequently adopted. Finding a Balance – Towards Fair Trading In Australia (the Reid Report). has this development of the in personam exception become too unruly? The purpose of this paper is to identify the generally accepted limits of the in personam exception and to critically analyse these limits in the light of selected cases. Two alternatives will be examined: • the extension of unfair contract terms legislation to encompass retail leases.indefeasibility. the paper will also consider the recent decision of Farah Constructions Pty Ltd v Say-Dee Pty Ltd  HCA 22 in which a unanimous High Court firmly bolted the stable door on the recognition of one potential in personam claim. The Committee had examined an array of instances of unfair conduct in relation to small business transactions. The question that arises is. This paper will consider whether an extension to prohibit unfairness would better address conduct in retail leasing transactions which were the subject of criticism by the Reid Committee. had the impact on the conduct of retail leasing transactions as was generally anticipated. In answering the question posed. and 94 . To date. Science and Technology released its report. have not. arguably. Although the Reid Committee recommended the insertion of a provision prohibiting unfair conduct in small business transactions.
arguably. with the focus on procedural issues and an onerous unconscionability standard. such a development would provide an avenue for relief in instances of substantive unfairness. legislation addressing unfair contract terms in consumer contracts has gained traction in recent times. the prospect of an extension to small business leases raises concerns regarding the impact such legislation may have on the conventional course of commercial transactions. 95 . something which. is presently unachievable.1 of the Reid Report. The second alternative adopts Recommendation 6. Such a development would seem to address both procedural and substantive unfairness and. it remains controversial and is presently under consideration in yet another inquiry. On the other hand. overlap with some of the other provisions of the TPA. However. however.• the inclusion of a provision prohibiting unfair conduct in the TPA. particularly s52 and Part IVA. the implementation of a title by registration system. The ongoing efficacy and validity of such easements was not a problem when the main or predominant form of land title was old system or common law title. PRESCRIPTIVE AND IMPLIED EASEMENTS: DO THEY HAVE A FUTURE IN THE TORRENS SYSTEM IN NSW? (OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION) Fiona Burns The University of Sydney This paper considers the extent to which prescriptive easements and implied easements will continue to operate in NSW. the Productivity Commission’s investigation into the market for retail leases in Australia. In relation to the first alternative. the Torrens system whereby the title of or an interest in land is conferred by the registration process has effectively abolished prescriptive easements in NSW and thrown into some doubt whether implied easements have a future role to play in the land law of that state. While the prospect of a provision prohibiting unfair conduct in retail leasing is not new.
Two cases have highlighted the difficulties of utilising prescriptive easements and implied easements within the Torrens system in NSW: Williams v State Transit Authority of New South Wales and McGrath v Campbell. They will be discussed at the end of this paper. a title which is immune from adverse claims other than those which are specifically excepted. PRESCRIPTIVE AND IMPLIED EASEMENTS: DO THEY HAVE A FUTURE IN THE TORRENS SYSTEM IN NSW? Fiona Burns The University of Sydney This paper considers the extent to which prescriptive easements and implied easements will continue to operate in NSW. They will be discussed at the end of this paper. the law remains unclear and inconsistent. However. that is. TAMING THE UNRULY IN PERSONAM EXCEPTION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE LIMITS OF THE IN PERSONAM EXCEPTION TO INDEFEASIBILITY OF TITLE Penny Carruthers The University of Western Australia The effect of registration of an interest in Torrens land is to confer on the registered proprietor a title which is said to be indefeasible. The ongoing efficacy and validity of such easements was not a problem when the main or predominant form of land title was old system or common law title. Two cases have highlighted the difficulties of utilising prescriptive easements and implied easements within the Torrens system in NSW: Williams v State Transit Authority of New South Wales and McGrath v Campbell. One exception to 96 . However. the implementation of a title by registration system. the law remains unclear and inconsistent.However. the Torrens system whereby the title of or an interest in land is conferred by the registration process has effectively abolished prescriptive easements in NSW and thrown into some doubt whether implied easements have a future role to play in the land law of that state.
The courts have adopted a narrow definition of fraud and accordingly the fraud exception to indefeasibility has been “tightly policed” and it is only the most egregious examples of personal dishonesty that will constitute Torrens fraud. a registered proprietor’s title is also subject to the so called “in personam” exception which encompasses legal or equitable claims against a registered proprietor based on the personal obligations of the registered proprietor. However. In answering the question posed. has this development of the in personam exception become too unruly? The purpose of this paper is to identify the generally accepted limits of the in personam exception and to critically analyse these limits in the light of selected cases.indefeasibility is the fraud exception which renders a registered proprietor’s title defeasible where the registered proprietor was guilty of fraud in becoming registered. the paper will also consider the recent decision of Farah Constructions Pty Ltd v Say-Dee Pty Ltd  HCA 22 in which a unanimous High Court firmly bolted the stable door on the recognition of one potential in personam claim. This restrictive interpretation of the fraud exception serves to reinforce the paramountcy of the indefeasibility of a registered proprietor’s title. 97 . Over the past few decades there has been an expansion in the scope of the in personam exception with the inevitable consequence of a corresponding erosion of the principle of indefeasibility. The question that arises is.
It is a fundamental constitutional principle that Parliament imposes tax while the Commissioner merely has responsibility for collecting it.REVENUE LAW THE POWER TO SETTLE TAX DISPUTES – AN EXAMPLE OF PUBLIC POLICY IN PRACTICE Mark Keating The University of Auckland This paper examines the various decisions in Australia and New Zealand upholding the Commissioner’s right to settle tax disputes. Despite that principle. Initially ignoring legislative amendments specifically granting him “care and management” over the collection of taxes. New Zealand courts have confirmed the Commissioner’s power to settle tax disputes on a compromise 98 . the allocation of scarce resources and litigation risk to settle tax disputes on a compromise basis. since 1991 the Australian Federal Commissioner of Taxation has recognised the ability to negotiate settlements of tax disputes based on the “good management rule”. Finally it suggests how the power to settle tax disputes may best advance the interest of both the Revenue Authorities and the taxpayers involved. By contrast the New Zealand Commissioner of Inland Revenue was slow to take advantage of the power to settle tax disputes. It compares the ATO’s Code of Settlement Practice with the approach taken by the New Zealand courts. Section 1 of the Bill of Rights Act 1688 (UK) stipulates that the Commissioner has no “dispensing power” allowing him to waive the collection of tax properly imposed by legislation. This policy allows the ATO to take account of public policy. In a series of judgments culminating in Accent Management Ltd v CIR. the Commissioner argued he was not permitted to settle tax disputes on an “unprincipled basis”.
It arose out of a policy of reducing tax avoidance. These decisions bring IRD into line with ATO practice by allowing it to make “rational decisions” over how tax is collected and which disputes should be pursued. This absence of policy has caused uncertainty and frustration for taxpayers. and whether there is a need for an Access Card. Why the TFN system was introduced. In 2007. after the fall of the Australia Card proposal. What lessons are there to learn from this system? This paper will touch on: • • • • • The policy intent of the 1980s Australia Card proposal. the TFN system and the implications that it has on privacy are worth considering. However. resulting in unnecessary litigation. The function creep that has resulted.basis. the IRD has been slow to explain the grounds upon which it will settle disputes or establish any procedures. The underlying policy intent of privacy protections and whether these protections are effective in protecting TFN holders. why initially it received much support but was then withdrawn. A limited discussion document in 2005 on its power to settle disputes has never been confirmed. A CHANGE IN POLICY: LESSONS TO LEARN FROM THE TAX FILE NUMBER SYSTEM Christine Peacock Monash University The introduction of the Tax File Number (TFN) system as we know it now was a topical issue that sparked much interest almost twenty years ago. and the assurances that were given regarding its uses. but the uses of the TFN system were very quickly expanded so as to increase the efficiency of Government departments. and Where Australia is going in terms of identity and registration systems. as the Australian Government considers whether Australia should have an Access Card. 99 . unlike the ATO.
100 . a discussion of the United States trust attributes will be undertaken. the British roots to the concept of a trust are important and will be analysed next in the Paper. A comparative analysis will be undertaken in the United States context. This will provide an important context and backdrop to the ensuing discussion and analysis. it will be shown that the way trusts have been used in a commercial and taxation law context is quite different in the United States as compared with Australia. focusing specifically on some of the taxation implications of the use of trusts in Australia. While the concept of a trust is well understood in both jurisdictions.Darwinian Evolution of the Taxation of Trusts: A Comparative Analysis Dale Pinto & Stewart Karlinsky Curtin University of Technology This Paper will undertake a comparative analysis of the evolution of trusts in Australia and the United States. In terms of any examination of the evolution of trusts. The Paper will commence by examining the American and Australian experiences with trusts. showing how similar tax outcomes can be arrived at without using the technique of a trust. Following this. including a brief examination of how trusts are used and how many trusts file tax returns. The next part of the Paper will examine in more detail how and why trusts are used in Australia. The Paper will conclude by examining some important tax and public policy implications of the use of trusts in both Australia and the United States.
5% applicable to Maori authorities encourages greater commercial development of the asset base held by these organisations which was estimated at being worth approximately $9 billion in 2001. a view will be expressed on the question of whether the legislative regime reflects public policy considerations unique to New Zealand or would provide a model for the development of indigenous communities in other countries. 101 . The paper also discusses the administrative practice of Inland Revenue under the special tax regime. Maori Organisations. The author argues that the extensive public consultation and public policy analysis undertaken by the government and the revenue authority before passing of the Taxation (Annual rates. The lower tax rate of 19. Taxpayer Compliance and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2003 have resulted in a set of tax rules that appropriately addresses the particular land and other asset ownership structures and cultural practices unique to Maori authorities. It also acknowledges that the majority of Maori owners receiving distributions from Maori authorities are on low income. which often administer large blocks of farmland or other assets communally owned by Maori. Finally.THE TAXATION OF MAORI AUTHORITIES IN NEW ZEALAND: A UNIQUE REFLECTION OF LAW AND PUBLIC POLICY WORKING TOGETHER? Audrey Sharp The University of Auckland This paper outlines the historical background of the Maori authority tax regime in New Zealand from its introduction in 1939 to the present day and the justification for the unique tax regime applying to Maori authorities. and other Maori entities established under the Waitangi Treaty settlement process administering assets. Maori authorities subject to the specific taxing regime include various statutory organisations and trusts.
Sydney Since July 2000. the means are at hand for all this to change. for the first time. The need to adopt innovative techniques in teaching taxation law has never been higher. However. There has been recent criticism from the government that we have been supplied with the technology but have failed to adopt it in our courses. With changes to the Corporations Law and the Financial Services Reforms. Taxation Law is seen as a “service subject”. This is largely true. with the ATO itself moving towards e-returns and the internet as a client interface.TRAINING FOR TAXATION: RANDOM THOUGHTS ON TEACHING TAX LAW AFTER 30 YEARS AT UTS: A PRECIS William John Taggart University of Technology. The professional advisor is required to know each client as an individual and to provide carefully considered advice from many aspects (including tax )and for all relevant stakeholders. 102 . we can no longer afford to ignore the need to educate our students to work in a multi disciplinary environment. However. The Law Faculty’s have still to recognise the importance of taxation law and it is not included in the Priestley 11 [or is it 12]. there has been a marked growth in the number of students in our taxation law courses. there have been severe structural problems in bringing the new technology into the class room. This paper will explain what is being done and what is planned to embrace technology in the teaching of taxation law at UTS and to prepare students for their professional life in the 21st Century. Largely this has been in relation to our cross discipline students [or business students] rather than from law students. We are still seen very much as a chalk and talk subject. It happens to have been at a time of tremendous change to the tax system and increasing legislative innovation.
It traces the development of the concept of goodwill through the legal cases and it attempts to reconcile the perspectives of goodwill to be found in the disciplines of law. this issue came to a head in FC of T v Indooroopilly Childcare Services (Qld) Pty Ltd 2007 ATC 4236. including goodwill. THE ATO IS (NO LONGER) A LAW UNTO ITSELF Robin Woellner & Ms Julie Zetler James Cook University & Macquarie University Tax advisers and others have complained from time to time that officers of the Australian Taxation Office on occasions decline to apply decisions of single judges of the Federal Court with which they do not agree. Thus it analyses the legal cases and the accounting standards dealing with goodwill and it explores some of the economic literature that deals with goodwill. There should be a clear understanding of what is meant by the term ‘goodwill’ in a tax context and this paper will consider what the term means in Australia.THE CURRENT MEANING OF GOODWILL IN AUSTRALIAN TAX Michael Walpole The University of New South Wales It is critical to a tax system which includes as many rules relating to goodwill as Australia’s for there to be a clear understanding of what goodwill is and of when an asset is goodwill or something else. Recently. In that case. the lack of a clear meaning for goodwill is a serious limitation of the tax system. the ATO apparently argued in its written submission to the Full Federal Court that the fact that there were single judge decisions 103 . and in which there are several contexts in which taxpayers deal with intangible property in order to obtain optimal benefit from the tax laws. In an economy showing signs of the increasing importance of intangible property. accounting and economics. It will be argued in this paper that a clear meaning of goodwill does not currently exist under tax rules. as they are brought to bear on taxation.
indicated (obiter) that “taxpayers appeared to be in the position of seeing … the executive branch of the government. in the form of the Australian Taxation Office … ignoring the views of the [Federal Court]”. indicating in effect that the only choices for the ATO were to follow single judge Federal Court decisions. Later. The Full Court was scathing in its criticism of this perceived approach by the ATO. or seek to have Parliament change the law (the ATO in its Impact Statement subsequently indicated that it had been “unaware that it could have sought a declaration from the court” and was now seeking advice on this point). The Full Court was highly critical of this approach.on the definition of a particular aspect of a “fringe benefit” did not mean that the Commissioner was bound to follow those decisions as against taxpayers who were not party to those decisions. Allsop J (Stone and Edmonds JJ agreeing). 104 . 4255). and that the ATO had used the private ruling (which had led to the litigation now before the Court) to have the first instance decision reconsidered by the Full Court. and that it: “… is only in very confined circumstances where the Commissioner would not follow a decision of a single judge of the Federal Court”. When challenged from the bench that “a proposition … that the Commissioner does not have to obey the law as declared by the courts until he gets a decision that he likes is astonishing” (per Edmonds J. Counsel for the Commissioner submitted that this had not been intended as a general proposition. Allsop J observed that: “There was some inferential suggestion in argument that the [Commissioner] was somehow bound by legislation (not specifically identified) to conduct the administration of the relevant statute by reference to his own view of the law … rather than by following what the courts have declared…”. or else either take “other proceedings” such as declaratory orders.
SOCIAL JUSTICE PROPERTY AND LIFE:THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SPATIAL DIMENSION Paul Babie The University of Adelaide From earliest childhood property acts as a socio-cultural symbol maintaining a central. powerful. we interact with others and the world around us—space—through some form of property—private. And through 105 .Not surprisingly. On the other hand. It defines the control that we have over our own bodies. and emotional hold on our imagination. and goes to the core of what is necessary to achieve proper self-development. are therefore of central importance to Australian tax jurisprudence (and beyond). At every moment of life. the Full Court’s comments in Indooroopilly have generated considerable vigorous debate. Davies argues that the ATO’s approach was proper. there is no general declaratory power which the ATO could use to clarify the law. operates. property structures everything that we do. mythological. or public. Yet modern property theory seemingly overlooks the place. Several have argued that the ATO’s approach subverts the rights of taxpayers under the rule of law (Robertson. Bender). and are accordingly analysed in detail in the Paper. In short. and the Court’s comments. both for and against the ATO approach.particularly as. and has meaning in people’s lives. common. The Commissioner’s submissions. the Indooroopilly case raises issues of critical significance in defining the boundary between the respective roles and powers of the executive and judiciary in Australia. and merely “a means of having the matter properly and fully debated at an appropriate level in the Judiciary” . structures our relationships with others. Clearly. in his view. rhetorical. or the space in which property exists.
how it is central to and affected by human life. This paper argues that property theory does say something about space. Part III argues that that this re-structuring is important because it reveals the interwoven complexity to and inseparability and interdependence of the ontological elements of property. This re-structuring requires us to say something about the constituent elements of human life in society—social life. A re-assembly of what we already know about property reveals the implicit role of space in property theorising and its importance in understanding what property is. society. because we are part of it. and produce both physical and ‘social’ spaces. over time we continuously alter and re-structure. yet are more commonly found in the lower ranks of the profession? This question. giving space an explicit role in defining what property is.property we structure. create. It is difficult to support the argument that it is ‘just a matter of time’ before women will assume an equal status in practice. physical and social space also interacts with us and with property. And. but in an incomplete and inexplicit way. MODEL ADVOCATES OR A MODEL FOR CHANGE? Francesca Bartlett The University of Queensland The broad context of the paper is the continuing debate within feminist legal scholarship (and the profession generally) as to how best to answer to the question: why is it that women enter the profession in equal numbers to men. has produced many different answers. re-create. Part I of the paper uses the work of urban sociologist and planning theorist Edward W Soja to argue that human life comprises three components: history. and space (both physical and socially constructed). there is no agreement as 106 . which has occupied feminists since Carrie Menkel-Meadow’s essay ‘Portia in a Different Voice’. when it exists. and how it is necessary to achieving ‘spatial justice’. Part II uses Soja’s ‘ontological trialectic’ to re-assemble what we already know about property. and re-produce those physical and social spaces. This has implications for using property as a vehicle for achieving justice. However.
Given that prostitution is often referred to as one of the oldest professions it is unsurprising that the question of how to best to regulate the sex industry. The paper will discuss one possible (partial) ‘solution’ in the Model Equal Opportunity Briefing Policy for female barristers and advocates.to the deciding factors that account for the gendered disparity in status. if at all. the paper will argue that the skepticism masks a discourse prevalent in the profession which may produce gender inequality. In order to evaluate the effectiveness and the desirability of such a policy. let alone a single agreed solution. THE LICENSING MORALITY? OF SEX WORK: REGULATING AN INDUSTRY OR ENFORCING PUBLIC Thomas Crofts & Tracey Summerfield Murdoch University & The University of Western Australia In late 2006 the Attorney General of Western Australia announced that the State Government would “investigate reforms to Western Australia’s prostitution laws in a bid to decriminalise the world’s oldest profession. is one which has been continually raised across 107 . but has ‘tended to be unproblematically defined in masculinist terms’ which reflect and sustain the dominant legal culture. the speaker’s interviews with female barristers and the substantial body of literature relating to the implementation of affirmative action policies in Australia and internationally. It will draw on the work of Margaret Thornton who has argued persuasively that ‘merit’ is not a value neutral concept as it is portrayed in legal discourse.” The Government’s aim is to create a legal framework for regulating sex work which is acceptable to all parties in Parliament after the failure of earlier reform attempts in 2002 and 2003. the paper will refer to recent data on the status of female barristers. the paper will discuss the ‘merit principle’ which is commonly relied upon as the ‘fair’ basis for promotion within the profession. In particular. While numerous inquiries and reports have warned that polices that are perceived to be affirmative action are tainted by negative connotations and doomed to failure.
These two areas have become increasingly more interconnected within the uniquely Australian context of corporate managers’ increasing prerogative to regulate their workers. 108 .jurisdictions and throughout history. Part IV places the legislation under challenge within its socio-political context. The contested terrain for the regulation of labour in Australia is firstly examined. The effectiveness of any licensing model is. Finally. This illustrates that the High Court – whatever its final decision . Our paper will show that although licensing has in principle the capacity to most effectively regulate the sex industry this is undermined if the system and processes adopted have the goal of repression of the industry. Throughout the last two decades a number of Australian States and Territories and New Zealand have introduced a licensing system in respect to various aspects of the sex industry. we aim to compare the various licensing models in place in Australia and New Zealand as a contribution to the debate in WA and elsewhere. in order to illustrate that they could not answer the underlying issue. however. REALITY AND THE LIMITS OF AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Paula Darvas & Eu-Jin Monash University & University of Melbourne This article analyses the extent to which consideration of public policy in the area of the law regulating work is utilised in the judgments in New South Wales v Commonwealth. built on a moral stance which finds its equivalence in the criminalisation model. giving a critical overview of ‘Workchoices’ changes. With this in mind and in light of the ongoing reform efforts in WA. RHETORIC. contingent upon its detail. Part II and Part III places the judgments within a broader socio-political context. the public policy analysis of the majority is contrasted with the two dissenting judgments. ‘LABOUR IS NOT A COMMODITY’: WORK ‘CHOICES’.was unable to solve underlying unresolved public policy issue: effective regulation of workers in a global labour market and in a rapidly changing socio-political environment. Then concurrent changes within corporate law are examined.
The differing policy imperatives of the two countries support the argument that the problems encountered are fundamental to tax and benefit systems. All have experienced difficulties and problems in implementation (Commonwealth Ombudsman.NOT SO DISTANT COUSINS: FAMILY BENEFITS IN AUSTRALIA AND THE UK Helen Hodgson & Rebecca Boden The University of New South Wale & University of Wales Institute Western neo-liberal governments. This suggests that. rather than specific to particular policy conditions. In this paper we describe the moves towards integration in both Australia and the UK. DISCRIMINATION. Integration in this context stops short of the complete union of tax and welfare systems such as that advocated by the proponents of negative income tax. We then set out a range of generic problems with integration. HARASSMENT AND BULLYING: IS THERE A PLACE FOR THESE IN THE RULES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT? Terry Hutchinson Queensland University of Technology Previous provisions covering discrimination. 2003). with specific reference to family support mechanisms. Canada and the USA have all now introduced variants of so-called integrated tax and benefits systems. Australia. have been increasingly seeking to enhance integration between their tax and benefit systems. Results from the Queensland Law Society’s ‘Equalising Opportunities in the Law’ Committee 2003 Membership Survey would suggest that this is still an important issue in the 109 . whilst the UK and Australia have ostensibly similar systems (and indeed. such as those in Australia and the UK. as enacted by relevant legislation. sexual harassment and workplace bullying are noticeably absent from the new Queensland Rules of Professional Conduct. The UK. In this paper we examine the operation of the family tax transfer systems in each country. and describe the UK and Australian attempts to address these. they are driven by quite distinct policy goals. were largely copied from each other).
One of the impacts of the recent change is the question of how female sexual offenders should be sentenced.profession. family responsibilities. This is difficult to accurately assess in the situation of female offending as recognition of this type of offending is still in its infancy. In general the starting point for sentencing of sexual offences has depended on the nature of the physical activity. so the full impact of the harm created by these offenders is relatively unknown. including Indigenous Australians. The overall concern for sentencing is whether the punishment corresponds to the harm inflicted. Areas of concern included discrimination or harassment on the basis of gender. In recent cases involving 110 . whether there has been repeated offending. religion and disability. and the impact on the victim. race. The absence of these specific rules represents a critical gap which needs to be addressed urgently. the Report focussed on the nature and prevalence of discrimination and harassment in the Queensland legal workplace. The results of this survey firmly demonstrate that promoting diversity in the Queensland legal workplace should be made a priority. sexual preferences. the age of the victim. age. A lack of understanding as to the characteristics of the female offenders and of the impact on victims has resulted in some discrepancies in sentencing. More efforts need to be made to improve equal opportunity in the legal workplace so that all sectors of society are represented in the practising profession. In addition to collating details of the demographic and working habits of over 2500 QLS members. working parents and those with disabilities. Other states are already taking action on this issue and it is important that Queensland keep pace. ALL THINGS EQUAL? GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE SENTENCING OF GENDER-NEUTRAL SEXUAL OFFENCES FEONA SAYLES Massey University The change to gender-neutral sexual offences is still relatively new in New Zealand.
throughout the early twentieth century. judges. Although the courts have appeared to endorse full equality of sentencing between genders there are still subtle gender distinctions present. under the DSM. ECT and aversion therapy could cure homosexuality. social attitudes and mores that were transported to the colonies made life for homosexual people very difficult. the Gay Liberation Movement in Australia in the early 1970s challenged the legal and medical professions to adopt a more tolerant 111 . which was defined. PUBLIC POLICY AND PURITANISM: FROM THE CRIMINALISATION OF HOMOSEXUALITY TO THE PATHOLOGISING OF HOMOPHOBIA Melville Thomas The University of Western Australia The history of gay and lesbian people in this country dates back to early convict days. have helped shape the perceptions and misconceptions of generations of people in Australia. The story that emerges in these early years is a negative one. There also appears to be a difference between the way male and female offenders are sentenced. Influenced by English puritanism. The characteristics of male and female sexual offending will be considered and compared. the laws. both gay and straight. LAW. “gross indecency” and “sodomy”. In the 1950s and 1960s the medical profession believed that psycho-surgery. However. the police and the public at large. During this period homosexuality was severely punished as it was considered a vice of the worst kind. Words that were used by legislators. This paper looks at the considerations that should be taken into account when sentencing female sexual offenders and discusses whether there should be sentencing distinctions between the two genders. as a form of “abnormal psychology”.females as sexual offenders there appears to be marked differences as to the way they have been sentenced. such as “loitering”. Aspects such as the harm created by these offenders will also be discussed.
SOUTH PACIFIC LEGAL IMPLICATIONS ARISING FROM SUPREME COURT REFERENCE NO 2 OF 2004: SPECIAL REFERENCE PURSUANT TO CONSTITUTION SECTION 19. human rights values. social and political status of gays in Australia. and a more liberal clergy. By the 1980s. was a world-view shaped by modern psychology. academics and mainstream politicians. religion and science – had become the basis for the gradual empowerment of the gay and lesbian community. to be a product of internalised irrational fear.attitude towards homosexuals. Part One will explore first hand accounts of those involved in law reform. in nearly every Australian jurisdiction. what were once the sources of homosexual oppression – law. What informed the lawmakers. Special Reference by the Morobe Provincial Executive. This paper will focus on the changing legal. Ironically. in this new liberal age. community organizations. Psychologists also came to understand homophobia. homosexuality was decriminalised. (the ECP Case) a special reference to the Supreme Court of Papua New 112 . like racism. Throughout the 1990s anti-discrimination laws were enacted in most states (2002 in WA) thus making the perpetrators of homophobia the new “deviants” in society. The second part will assess how an increasing number of university faculties and academics in Australia are now incorporating “gay studies” in their disciplines (usually in elective units – such as “Law and Contemporary Social Problems”. including gay and lesbians activists. SPECIAL REFERENCE BY THE MOROBE PROVINCIAL EXECUTIVE Tapora Isorua University of Papua New Guinea The paper will look at Supreme Court Reference No 2 of 2004: Special Reference Pursuant to Constitution Section 19. “Law and Sexuality” etc) and what pedagogical challenges are emerging at the academic level.
The aim of this paper is to show that there still exists the chance of salvaging the ‘policing component’ of the Agreement in order for the given assistance to achieve its objective of restoring law and order. powers and immunity if any... the Government of Papua New Guinea passed the ECP Act attaching the Joint Agreement as a schedule. following several meetings between the respective governments regarding issues of assistance to Papua New Guinea in identified areas such as the implementation of public sector reforms. 2004(the Act). what are they? This is crucial as the legal status of the personal to be engaged determines the scope of the exercise of functions. The paper will conclude by suggesting which laws need to be amended or introduced if need be. Secondly the legal status of the personnel to be engaged needs to be clarified or defined. with the engagement of Australian public servants and police personal in various government departments. governance and. 113 . The Act was the result of a Joint Agreement between Australia and Papua New Guinea. the circumstances of Papua New Guinea is quite different to that of the Solomon Islands and the situation in Papua New Guinea should be handled as per its peculiar circumstances. we do need as much assistance as possible and that the policing component of the Agreement if implemented as envisaged would indeed strengthen law and order. law and order. implementation of the Agreement was well underway. At the time of the passing of the Act. to enable of police personnel from other countries to effectively address and strengthen law and order in Papua New Guinea. In July 2004. The decision of the Court (the ECP case) resulted in the repealing of the Act and subsequent withdrawal of personnel from the policing assistance part of the program The paper looks at the policing component of the program and admits that there is a general break down of law and order in Papua New Guinea. If the designated police personnel are not peacekeepers or police personnel per se. The paper will attempt to achieve this aim by arguing firstly that in terms of law and order. accorded to and exercised by such personnel.Guinea by the executive of a provincial government which questioned the Constitutional validity of the Enhanced Co-operation Agreement between Papua New Guinea and Australia Act.
The general assumption is that only matters brought before the court are legal and enforceable. The paper will concentrate on traditional or informal mechanisms. Over long period of years societies had developed ad hoc and informal mechanisms to deal with these disputes. only to be overshadowed by the introduction of the court system and formal laws by the colonial administrators. Over long years of subdued political freedom. The important question this paper set out to explore is the legality and enforceability of these ADR mechanisms under the existing laws of the country. The paper will identify the alternate dispute resolution mechanisms that exist in the Solomon Islands communities. resulting in a growing need for alternate forms of dispute resolution. 114 . the Solomon Islanders developed a natural mindset that formal courts are the only recognized institution for resolving disputes. Parties are not satisfied with the outcome of the court hearings. Even the local courts are seen as European styled courts. The paper will then offer some recommendations or steps that can be taken to give legal recognition to these traditional ADR mechanisms. The practice continued when the country attained independence in 1978. It is in this situation that this paper offers the traditional mechanisms as alternate dispute resolution mechanisms in Solomon Islands. However. Disputes and problem solving is an integral part of the communities.ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION: MEDIATION COMMUNITIES Paul Mae The University of the South Pacific IN RURAL SOLOMON ISLANDS Dispute Resolution is not a new concept to Solomon Islands societies. Findings indicate that people fail to take heed of these mechanisms because of their informal existence and their lack of legal backing from the formal laws. in recent years there is an increasing global recognition or realization that the conventional adversarial system of dispute resolution has become increasingly ill-suited for resolving disputes. though its composition may be local in nature.
115 . Suggestions of alternative reasons for the current law are offered. but they do not afford the same level of sensitivity when the reduced capacity is due to mental illness.TORTS AND CONTRACT CAPACITY IN TORT LAW – THE UNCONSIDERED SUBJECT Nikki Bromberger University of Western Sydney Capacity plays an important role in many areas of the law. It is the purpose of this paper to consider the relationship between tortious negligence and reduced capacity. with particular reference to the mentally ill. as they provide an interesting comparative base. Courts accept the reduced capacity experienced by a child as a factor to be taken into account when determining liability. as too are proposals for reform. This analysis of negligence law’s response to capacity reveals a distinct inconsistency. The paper considers the problem of accommodating capacity within the negligence structure and then examines the reasons offered by the courts deciding cases regarding the liability of the mentally ill. yet it is infrequently discussed in tort law. In analysing these reasons. unless it is in relation to consent. similar decisions relating to children will be considered. Scholarly attempts to explain negligence law’s response to the mentally ill will be considered as will the difficulty in accommodating adequately the needs of both plaintiff and defendant.
It is shown that aspects of her Honour’s judgment are problematic. It is rare for a court even to contemplate the availability of an order to apologise. in which a rape victim was traumatised by the publication of her identity by a national broadcaster. Although attracting less media attention. APOLOGY AS A REMEDY IN CONTRACT AND TORT – RICH POTENTIAL OR FALSE PROMISE? Robyn Carroll The University of Western Australia Despite the frequent lament of victims of wrongdoing that ‘all they ever wanted was an apology’ and research that establishes the importance of apologies to the process of healing. In upholding the claim. particularly in the context of current developments in protection of privacy interests and media negligence. The apology does not feature in books on remedies. Implications for the media are also considered. each of these also represented important developments of the law. The reason for this is simple: the apology is not a common law remedy. In recent years. however. Hampel J also based her decision on the alternative grounds of breach of statutory duty. Significantly. forgiveness and reconciliation. breach of confidence and breach of common law duty of care. although this time in a different context.JANE DOE V ABC AND MEDIA LIABILITY FOR DISCLOSING PERSONAL INFORMATION: FOUR MORE BOLD STEPS … IN FOUR DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS Des Butler Queensland University of Technology In April 2007 Hampel J in the Victorian County Court delivered her judgment in Jane Doe v ABC. the apology is not generally available as a legal remedy. This paper examines the decision. or in works on contracts and torts. the role of apologies in tort law has been the focus of attention in 116 . Hampel J became only the second Australian court after Skoein SJDC in Grosse v Purvis to take the bold step of recognising a claim for breach of privacy.
from a misunderstanding of the nature of the duty. There was considerable confusion demonstrated by the various judgements in Lepore over the possible application of the notion of the non delegable duty to circumstances other than the employer/employee relationship. the other two actions involved defamation and malicious falsehood. the nature of the duty itself needs to be examined. New Zealand and Canada where the apology and similar forms of relief have been the subject of judicial consideration in common law actions. It will be argued that there is potential. To ascertain the cause of this confusion the reasons surrounding the introduction of the non delegable duty. albeit limited in scope. Rich and State of Queensland & ors  HCA 4 and The Commonwealth v Introvigne (1982) 150 CLR 258. In one case the action arose out of a contractual relationship. established in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co v English  AC 57. This area of law reform has excited much debate about the morality and efficacy of protecting apologies. Samin and State of Queensland & ors. However. This paper will analyse three cases from Australia. In equal opportunity law and areas of copyright law in Australia. The problems that arise from this are clearly demonstrated in the decision of State of NSW and Lepore. It can be suggested that any confusion arises. for judicial remedies to place more emphasis on the therapeutic benefits and rights enforcement potential of this form of non-monetary relief. The notion of a non delegable duty was introduced for a very specific purpose. VICARIOUS LIABILITY AND THE NON DELEGABLE DUTY. A much less noticeable debate centres on the exercise of the discretionary powers of a court or tribunal to order a defendant to apologise.A TALE OF TWO PRINCIPLES Ian Henry Victoria University The distinction between vicarious liability and the non delegable duty seems to have blurred over time. The non delegable duty has been described 117 . in part. for example. this purpose now seems to have been largely ignored and the scope of the action broadened considerably. orders to apologise are made not infrequently.the form of civil liability rules aimed at removing legal disincentives to potential defendants to apologise for the harm they may have caused. Also. need to be considered.
administered by New South Wales and delivered by not-for-profit autonomous housing organizations. the paper will examine the transition from funding agreements to legally styled contracts as part of the changing governance framework for community housing in New South Wales. In New South Wales there has developed a strong argument supporting the transition from a funding agreement structure to the negotiation of legally styled and legally enforceable contracts between the NSW Office of Community Housing as the relevant state government regulatory 118 .A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY HOUSING Michael Nancarrow Central Queensland University This paper will be presenting research from my PhD into the regulation and governance of community housing in New South Wales. as well as a consideration of the requisite standard of duty owed. Community housing is part of the broader field of social housing and constitutes a social good funded by the Commonwealth.as a special duty of care by Mason J in Kondis v State Transport Authority 154 CLR 672 at p 687. Thus. with some minor exceptions. The purpose of this paper is to consider the legitimacy of extending the notion of non delegable duty to circumstances akin to that of vicarious liability. In so doing a comparison of the rationale for each needs to be undertaken. NEW HORIZONS IN CONTRACT LAW-APPLYING CONTRACT ANALYSIS TO THE PROVISION OF SOCIAL GOODS. Specifically. This is explicitly referred to in the CCH Tort Commentary at 50-810 where it is written “[a] more demanding duty of care than that prescribed in Donoghue v Stevenson is known as the `”non.delegable'” or “special” duty of care”. any effort to present them as alternative causes of action can only result in confusion. It should become apparent from such an analysis that the actions of vicarious liability and the non delegable duty are. Funding agreements have played a crucial role in structuring the relationships between the various participants. This suggests that a different duty (and in this it can be suggested a higher duty) is owed pursuant to the non delegable duty. the same cause of action.
impact upon the teaching of contract law to international DRINK IF YOU DARE: THE CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CONSEQUENCES FOR THE VICTIM OF INTENTIONAL DRINK SPIKING. The paper will conclude with a brief discussion of how these dimensions of contract law analysis has potential to students. With a focus on the position in Queensland this paper considers both the civil and criminal consequences of drink-spiking for the victim. The recent case of Dianne Brimble who was found naked and dead on a cruise ship has graphically illustrated the potentially lethal effects of such conduct and enlivened calls that drink spiking should be outlawed.authority and individual community housing providers. much attention has been given to the extent of drink spiking in Australia. Mandy Shircore & Malcolm Barrett James Cook University Over the past five years. The argument is contextualized within the wider debate concerning the role of contracts in public and quasi-public sector governance and the sociological dimension of contractualism. Who can a person sue if they are the victim of drink-spiking? What can they sue for? What damage will the victim need to establish in order to be compensated? 119 . interesting questions arise regarding the extent of legal protection afforded to potential victims. This paper examines the implications of this transition and contrasts the utility of classical contract theory with relational and ‘soft’ contract theory in explaining how contracts could function in structuring the relationship between an agency of government and not-for-profit nongovernment community organizations in the funding and delivery of a social good like community housing. In some Australian jurisdictions legislation has already been passed making drink-spiking a criminal offence. With the creation of new offences. and recently the Federal Minister for Justice announced plans to consider uniform laws outlawing drink and food spiking in all jurisdictions.
Of particular concern is the situation where the victims themselves behave erratically and commit tortious acts or offences after having their drink spiked. ‘Judges face choices. NERVOUS SHOCK IN EMPLOYMENT : THE HARD LINE HIGH COURT Prue Vines The University of New South Wales Koehler v Cerebos and Fahy v NSW are interesting examinations of a hard line being taken by the High Court in employment cases where psychiatric harm is in issue. While the creation of new drink spiking offences may assist in deterring offenders. In such circumstances the position under the Queensland Criminal Code is inadequate as it would not allow the victim to plead the defence of intoxication for any offence which does not involve specific intent. Judges make law…. AND PUBLIC POLICY IN THAT ORDER’: DOES IT WORK FOR WRONGFUL LIFE AND BIRTH? Penelope Watson Macquarie University According to Justice Michael Kirby. ‘COMMON SENSE. The background of the changes in personal responsibility in the civil liability acts is an interesting counterpoint to the approach to employment law and the gradual winding back of hard-won protections for employees. These cases are also interesting because they do not directly address the question of the standard of care for non-delegable duty. LEGAL PRINCIPLE. In recent decades the true debate in the law has shifted from the infantile insistence that judges should merely 120 .to deny the creative function and duty of the judiciary… is absurd. This is particularly significant in that it arises in a situation where a non-delegable duty of care has traditionally arisen which led to disputes in the past about whether the liability approaches strict or is simply the ordinary standard of care attributed in negligence. this paper considers whether the law currently provides adequate protection for the increasing number of victims of drink spiking behaviour.
When restraint is called for in the judicial decision. Drawing on this. 121 . as well as the scholarly jurisprudential literature.apply. and never make. the law to a consideration of when and why a new legal rule should be expressed by a judge.’ This paper explores the judicial law making process in novel situations. And when a new rule is justified. it proposes a framework within which to critique recent appellate decisions in the birth torts (wrongful life and birth). examining appellate judges’ conceptions of judging and decision making. in particular the use of and balance between principle and policy and common sense.