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An inkblot from the Rorschach inkblot test, the most well-known and widely used of the projective tests
In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an "objective test" in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam). The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. Projective tests in general rely heavily on clinical judgement, lack reliability andvalidity and many have no standardized criteria to which results may be compared. These tests are still used frequently, however, despite the lack of scientific evidenceto support them and their continued popularity has been referred to as the "projective paradox". Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness. The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report measures" and "free response measures" are suggested, rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests," respectively.
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1 Theory 2 Common variants 2.1 Rorschach 2.2 Thematic apperception test
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2.3 Draw-A-Person test 2.4 Sentence completion test 3 Uses in marketing 4 See also 5 References 6 Footnotes
Theory The general theoretical position behind projective tests is that whenever a specific question is asked, the response will be consciously-formulated and socially determined. These responses do not reflect the respondent's unconscious or implicit attitudes or motivations. The respondent's deep-seated motivations may not be consciously recognized by the respondent or the respondent may not be able to verbally express them in the form demanded by the questioner. Advocates of projective tests stress that the ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the tests allow subjects to express thoughts that originate on a deeper level than tapped by explicit questions. Projective tests lost some of their popularity during the 1980s and 1990s in part because of the overall loss of popularity of the psychoanalytic method and theories. Despite this, they are still used quite frequently. Common
Rorschach Main article: Rorschach inkblot test The best known and most frequently used projective test is the Rorschach inkblot test, in which a subject is shown a series of ten irregular but symmetrical inkblots, and asked to explain what they see. The subject's responses are then analyzed in various ways, noting not only what was said, but the time taken to respond, which aspect of the drawing was focused on, and how single responses compared to other responses for the same drawing. For example, if someone consistently sees the images as threatening and frightening, the tester might infer that the subject may suffer from paranoia.
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(Redirected from Rorschach inkblot test)
"Rorschach Test" redirects here. For the band, see Rorschach Test (band).
The first of the ten cards in the Rorschach test, with the occurrence of the most statistically frequent details indicated. The images themselves are only one component of the test, whose focus is the analysis of the perception of the images.
The Rorschach test (German pronunciation: [ˈʁoɐʃax]; also known as the Rorschach inkblot test or simply the Inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. The test takes its name from that of its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. In a national survey in the U.S., the Rorschach was ranked eighth among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health facilities. It is the second most widely used test by members of the Society for Personality Assessment, and it is requested by psychiatrists in 25% of forensic assessmentcases, usually in a battery of tests that often include the MMPI-2 and the MCMI-III.
In surveys, the use of Rorschach ranges from a low of 20% by correctional psychologists to a
high of 80% by clinical psychologists engaged in assessment services, and 80% of psychology graduate programs surveyed teach it. Although the Exner Scoring System (developed since the 1960s) claims to have addressed and often refuted many criticisms of the original testing system with an extensive body of research,
some researchers have raised questions about the objectivity of psychologists administrating
the test; inter-rater reliability; the verifiability and general validity of the test; bias of the test's pathology scales towards greater numbers of responses; the limited number of psychological conditions which it accurately diagnoses; the inability to replicate the test's norms; its use in court-ordered evaluations; and the proliferation of the ten inkblot images, potentially invalidating the test for those who have been exposed to them.
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1 History 2 Method 2.1 Features or categories
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2.1.1 Content 2.1.2 Location 2.1.3 Determinants 2.2 Exner scoring system 2.3 Cultural differences 2.4 Neurology
3 The ten inkblots 4 Prevalence 4.1 United States 5 Controversy 5.1 Test materials 5.2 Tester projection 5.3 Validity 5.4 Reliability 5.5 Population norms 5.6 Applications 5.7 Protection of test items and ethics 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links
 After studying 300 mental patients and 100 control subjects. French psychologist Alfred Binet had also experimented with inkblots as a creativity test. After Rorschach's death. the original test scoring system was improved by Samuel Beck. In 1927. Rorschach's. with aims such as studying imagination and consciousness. however. Hogrefe AG. in 1857. The work has been described as "a densely written piece couched in dry. was the first systematic approach of this kind. the newly-founded Hans Huber publishing house purchased Rorschach's book Psychodiagnostikfrom the inventory of Ernst Bircher. Bruno Klopfer and others. Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society. Interpretation of inkblots was central to a game from the late 19th century. scientific terminology".
It has been suggested that Rorschach's use of inkblots may have been inspired by German doctorJustinus Kerner who. with Rorschach a registered trademark of Swiss publisher Verlag Hans Huber. each of which was inspired by an accidental inkblot. John E. Huber has remained the publisher of the test and related book. after the turn of the century. had published a popular book of poems.Hermann Rorschach created the Rorschach inkblot test in 1921. psychological experiments where inkblots were utilized multiplied. Exnersummarized some of these later developments in
Using interpretation of "ambiguous designs" to assess an individual's personality is an idea that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. in 1921 Rorschach wrote his bookPsychodiagnostik. he selected a set of ten for their diagnostic value). which was to form the basis of the inkblot test (after experimenting with several hundred inkblots. but he died the following year. Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared.
 The most widely used method in the United States is based on the work of Exner. and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked.the comprehensive system. cognitive operations. at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous. affectivity. Methods of interpretation differ. by means of projected images. a separate location chart. each printed on a separate white card. The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets. and that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method
. on a white background. such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohm. no matter how trivial. The general goal of the test is to provide data about cognition and personality variables such as motivations. while in Europe other methods sometimes dominate. may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment. and personal/interpersonal perceptions. Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and. approximately 18x24 cm in size. has also occasionally been performed. if required. conflicts. The Exner system remains very popular in the United States. Whether the cards are rotated. but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes. which is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles. Test administration is not to be confused with test interpretation:
"The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. and including needs. Five inkblots are of black ink. Administration of the test to a group of subjects. with the tester slightly behind the subject. Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations. After the test subject has seen and responded to all of the inkblots (free association phase). Rorschach scoring systems have been described as a system of pegs on which to hang one's knowledge of personality. This is to facilitate a "relaxed but controlled atmosphere". the tester then presents them again one at a time in a set sequence for the subject to study: the subject is asked to note where he sees what he originally saw and what makes it look like that (inquiry phase). As the subject is examining the inkblots. Each of the blots has near perfect bilateral symmetry. base motives. The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them. There are ten official inkblots.[citation
The tester and subject typically sit next to each other at a table. the psychologist writes down everything the subject says or does. two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored. response tendencies.
content response can be controlled consciously by the subject. "nature". and may be elicited by very disparate factors. as well as by any comments the subject may make in addition to providing a direct response. conversely. originality). but in general content cannot be analyzed outside of the context of the entire test record.. information about determinants (the aspects of the inkblots that triggered the response. and some information can at times be obtained by analyzing thematic trends in the whole set of content responses (which is only feasible when several responses are available). Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months.
. In particular. the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: for instance. "Popularity" and "originality" of responses  can also be considered as basic dimensions in the analysis."
Features or categories
The interpretation of the Rorschach test is not based primarily on the contents of the response. etc. with certain individuals. although there is contrasting evidence. information is provided by the time taken before providing a response for a card can be significant (taking a long time can indicate "shock" on the card).
This section requires expansion. However. even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years. as well as for statistical popularity (or.
Content is classified in terms of "human". what the individual sees in the inkblot (the content). More than any other feature in the test.e.specifically. or the negative spacearound or within the inkblot. such as form and color) and location(which details of the inkblots triggered the response) is often considered more important than content. In fact. content responses may potentially be interpreted directly. i. a detail (either a commonly or an uncommonly selected one). which makes it difficult to use content alone to draw any conclusions about the subject's personality. "abstract". "animal".
The basis for the response is usually the whole inkblot..
This section requires expansion.
indeed. while also assessing which of the two constituted the primary contributor (e.Determinants
Systems for Rorschach scoring generally include a concept of "determinants": these are the factors that contribute to establish the similarity between the inkblot and the subject's content response about it. Rorschach's original work used only form. More than one determinant can contribute to the formation of the subject's percept. objective. color and movement. and is related to intellectual processes. a concise description of what would be later called "the Exner system". and they can represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes. and subsequently recognized as significant by Rorschach himself. currently. both in definition and interpretation: Rorschach originally disregarded shading (which was originally not even present on the cards. and he considered movement as only actual experiencing of motion. color responses often provide direct insight into emotional life. It has been extensively validated and shows high inter-rater reliability. The key components of the Exner system are the clusterization of Rorschach variables and a sequential search strategy to determine the order in which to analyze them. It was developed in the 1960s by Dr. but ultimately different methods were in common use at the time. with a sizeable minority of examiners not employing any recognized method at all. while others have widened the scope of this determinant. being a result of the print process).
which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing of the inkblots (which originally featured
uniform saturation). framed in the context of standardized administration. taking it to mean that the subject sees something "going on". or arbitrarily mixing characteristics of the various standardized systems. In 1969. is the standard method for interpreting the Rorschach test. showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world. the most accepted full description of his system. Exner. another major determinant considered is shading. It is. Form is the most common determinant. from the relation and balance among determinants that personality can be most readily inferred. Creation of the new system was prompted by the realization that at least five related. "form-color" implies a more refined control of impulse than "color-form"). as a more rigorous system of analysis. also known as the Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS). reliable coding and a representative normative
. John E.g. Exner published The Rorschach Systems. basing instead their judgment on subjective assessment. He later published a study in multiple volumes called The Rorschach: A Comprehensive system. Shading and movement have been considered more ambiguously. and fusion of two determinants is taken into account.
Exner scoring system
The Exner scoring system.
 The system places a lot of emphasis on a cognitive triad of information processing. and there are fewer "good form" responses. some of which impact important variables. while others (such as the average number of responses) coincide. which of a variety of determinants is used to produce the response (i. to the point where schizophrenia may be suspected if data were correlated to the North American norms. the examiner then performs a series of calculations producing a structural summary of the test data. Form is
. Beck (1944 and 1961).database. With the Rorschach plates (the ten inkblots). This system was in turn based upon Klopfer's (1942) work. Using the scores for these categories. J. It has been reported that popular responses on the first card include bat. the contents of the response (what the respondent actually sees in the blot). For instance. and ideation.. Exner settled upon the area coding system promoted by S. what makes the inkblot look like what it is said to resemble). There were many different methods for coding the areas of the blots. especially in Europe.e. a concept of "form quality" was present from the earliest of Rorschach's works. the Exner system solely defines "good form" as a matter of word occurrence frequency.
Comparing North American Exner normative data with data from European and South American subjects showed marked differences in some features. in accordance with the system. the form quality of the response (to what extent a response is faithful to how the actual inkblot looks). badge and coat of arms. texture response is typically zero in European subjects (if interpreted as a need for closeness. the location of the response. in contrast. or incoherent aspects of responses. and any illogical. the degree of mental organizing activity that is involved in producing the response. reducing it to a measure of the subject's distance to the population average. and this concept was followed by other methods. European would seem to express it only when it reaches the level of a craving for closeness). The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses. As pertains to response form. incongruous. the area of each blot which is distinguished by the client is noted and coded – typically as "commonly selected" or "uncommonly selected". as a subjective judgment of how well the form of the subject's response matched the inkblots (Rorschach would give a higher form score to more "original" yet good form responses). cognitive mediation. In the system. related to how the subject processes input data. referring to the way information is transformed and identified. responses are scored with reference to their level of vagueness or synthesis of multiple images in the blot.
but since the equivalent term in French translates to "butterfly tie". while color is less frequent than in American subjects. Test responses should also not be translated into another language prior to analysis except possibly by a clinician mastering both languages. this difference could stem from a higher value attributed to spontaneous expression of emotions. The differences in form quality are attributable to purely cultural aspects: different cultures will exhibit different "common" objects (French subjects often identify a chameleon in card VIII. since the latter tend to be interpreted as indicators of a defensive attitude in processing affect. which is normally classed as an "unusual" response. Many of Exner's "popular" responses (those given by at least one third of the North American sample used) seem to be universally popular. and "musical instrument" on card VI is popular for Japanese people). popular content responses and locations are the only coded variables in the Exner systems that are based on frequency of occurrence. Japan and South America. as shown by samples in Europe. Form quality."
The ten inkblots
. while specifically card IX's "human" response. conversely. "Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population. cultural-dependent interpretation of test data may not necessarily need to extend beyond these components. The researchers note. therefore.also often the only determinant expressed by European subjects. in Scandinavia. a bow tie is a frequent response for the center detail of card III. and. and thus immediately subject to cultural influences. "Christmas elves" (nisser) is a popular response for card II.
Research using figure 03 have found that ‘‘unique responses’’ are produced in people with larger amygdalas. the examiner should master the language used in the test. and different languages will exhibit semantic differences in naming the same object (the figure of card IV is often called a troll by Scandinavians and an ogre by French people). this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity. color-form responses are comparatively frequent in opposition to formcolor responses. the crab or spider in card X and one of either the butterfly or the bat in card I appear to be characteristic of North America. an examiner not appreciating this language nuance may code the response differently from what is expected. as opposed to other animals like cats and dogs. The cited language differences mean that it's imperative for the test to be administered in the subject's native language or a very well mastered second language. For example.
 together with the most frequent responses for either the whole image or the most prominent details according to various authors. Responses to them can provide indications about how a subject is likely to manage feelings of anger or physical harm. according to Swiss copyright law. or 50 years after the cut-off date of 1942). Card Popular responses Beck: bat. and are the most distinctive features. moth Piotrowski: bat (53%). bear (50%. a card that is usually difficult for the subject to handle. This card can
Beck: two humans Piotrowski: four-legged animal(34%. having readily available popular responses. and questions on what they are allowed to do with the card (e. turning it) are not very significant.Below are the ten inkblots of the Rorschach test printed in Rorschach's Rorschach Test – Psychodiagnostic Plates. They have been in the public domain in Hermann Rorschach's native Switzerland since at least 1992 (70 years after the author's death. butterfly(29%) Dana (France): butterfly (39%) Comments When seeing card I. however. The red details of card II are often seen as blood. gray parts) Dana (France): animal: dog.g. elephant. it can provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. Being the first card. subjects often inquire on how they should proceed. butterfly.
They are also in the public domain under United States copyright law: all works published
before 1923 are considered to be in the public domain. It is not. gray)
skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%)
induce a variety of sexual responses. skin. and is generally perceived as a big and sometimes threatening figure. response latency may reveal struggling social interactions). rug Piotrowski: animal skin. this serves to elicit a sense of authority. gray)
Beck: animal hide. gray) Dana (France): human (76%.Beck: two humans (gray) Piotrowski: human figures (72%. compounded with the common impression of the subject being in an inferior position ("looking up") to it. and the qualities expressed by the subject may indicate attitudes toward men and
. Card IV is notable for its dark color and its shading (posing difficulties for depressed subjects). Card III is typically perceived to contain two humans involved in some interaction. The human or animal content seen in the card is almost invariably classified as male rather than female. and may provide information about how the subject relates with other people (specifically.
it is the easiest blot to generate a good quality response about. even though other cards have a greater variety of commonly seen sexual contents. its likely sexual percepts being reported more frequently than in any other card. Texture is the dominant characteristic of card VI. Containing few features that generate concerns or complicate the elaboration. moth Piotrowski: butterfly (48%). which often elicits association related to interpersonal closeness. after the previous more challenging cards. Card VII can be associated with femininity (the human figures commonly seeing in it being described as women or
. Card V is an easily elaborated card that is not usually perceived as threatening. rug Piotrowski: animal skin. bat(46%)
Beck: animal hide. it is specifically a "sex card".Beck: bat. and typically instigates a "change of pace" in the test. skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%)
Beck: human heads or faces(top) Piotrowski: heads of women or children (27%. skin. top)
authority. bat(40%) Dana (France): butterfly (48%). top) Dana (France): human head (46%. butterfly.
the card introduces new elaboration difficulties. where difficulties in responding may be related to concerns with the female figures in the subject's life. which lets them relax and respond effectively. people who find processing complex situations or emotional stimuli distressing or difficult may be uncomfortable with this card. and function as a "mother card". it represents a "change of pace".Beck: animal: not cat or dog(pink) Piotrowski: four-legged animal(94%. People often express relief about card VIII. Similar to card V. pink) Dana (France): four-legged animal(93%. The center detail is relatively often (though not popularly) identified as a vagina. which make this card also relate to feminine sexuality in particular. however.
children). being complex and the first multi-colored card in the set. Therefore.
Having difficulty with processing this card may indicate trouble dealing with unstructured data. spider (37%. but aside from this there are few particular "pulls" typical of this card. blue). Card X is structurally similar to card VIII. lobster. caterpillars. and it is the least frequent of all cards. worms. spider(blue) crab. it may provide an opportunity for the subject to "sign out" by indicating what they feel their situation is like. snakes (28%. light green). but its uncertainty and complexity are reminiscent of card IX: people who find it difficult to deal with many concurrent stimuli may not particularly like this otherwise pleasant card. Being the last card. or what they desire to know. deep green) Dana (France): none
Characteristic of card IX is indistinct form and diffuse. creating a general vagueness.
. Piotrowski: rabbit head (31%. muted chromatic features. There is only one popular response.Beck: human (orange) Piotrowski: none Dana (France): none
636). 20% of correctional psychologists used the Rorschach while 80% used the MMPI. despite the appearance of more than 2. nevertheless possess “validity greater than chance” (p. while it was used less than 24% of the time by school psychologists.. Another study found that its use by clinical psychologists was only 43%. In the 1959 edition of Mental Measurement Yearbook. A 2003 report by Wood and colleagues had more mixed views: "More than 50 years of research have confirmed Lee J. In custody cases. substantial evidence justifies the use of the Rorschach as a clinical measure of intelligence and thought disorder. [. Cronbach’s (1970) final verdict: that some Rorschach scores. though falling woefully short of the claims made by proponents. McCall writes (p." In addition.000 publications about the test.] "Its value as a measure of thought disorder in schizophrenia research is well accepted. and 80% of psychology graduate programs teach its use. and. less often. as several studies suggested that conclusions reached by test administrators since the 1950s were akin to cold reading." A moratorium on its use was called for in 1999. in studies on hostility and anxiety. In a survey done in the year 2000. Lee Cronbach (former President of the Psychometric Society and American Psychological Association) is quoted in a review: "The test has repeatedly failed as a prediction of practical criteria. 154): "Though tens of thousands of Rorschach tests have been administered by hundreds of trained professionals since that time (of a previous review). Another survey found that 124 out of 161 (77%) of clinical psychologists engaging in assessment services utilize the Rorschach.
Forensic psychologists use the Rorschach 36% of the time."
The basic premise of the test is that objective meaning can be extracted from responses to blots of ink which are supposedly meaningless. There is nothing in the literature to encourage reliance on Rorschach interpretations.The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. major reviewer Raymond J.. Supporters of the Rorschach inkblot test believe that
. Furthermore. and while many relationships to personality dynamics and behavior have been hypothesized. the vast majority of these relationships have never been validated empirically [sic].
Some skeptics consider the Rorschach inkblot test pseudoscience. 23% of
psychologists use the Rorschach to examine a child. It is also used regularly in research on dependency. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.
The Rorschach test is used almost exclusively by psychologists.
and that a patient typically responds to meaningful as well as ambiguous aspects of the blots.
When interpreted as a projective test. A possible example sometimes attributed to the psychologist's subjective judgement is that responses are coded (among many other things). The Exner system of scoring (also known as the "Comprehensive System") is meant to address this. in some studies the scores obtained by two independent scorers do not match with great consistency. and has all but displaced many earlier (and less consistent) scoring systems. It makes heavy use of what factor (shading. concluding: "." Nevertheless.. That is. Another example is that the response "bra" was considered a "sex" response by male psychologists. But with the Exner system of scoring. such a response is always coded as "clothing" unless there is a clear sexual reference in the response. but a "clothing" response by females.. Third parties could be used to avoid this problem. Reber (1985) describes the blots as merely ". the vehicle for the interaction . much of the subjectivity is eliminated or reduced by use of frequency tables that indicate how often a particular response is given by the population in general. In Exner's system. Also. Several scores correlate well with generalintelligence. one such scale is R. and the clinician's write-up of the test record is still partly subjective. the total
Some critics argue that the testing psychologist must also project onto the patterns. the usefulness of the Rorschach will depend upon the sensitivity." between client and therapist. there is substantial research indicating the utility of the measure for a few scores. Reber (1985) comments ". depending on how the examiner has internalized the categories involved. color. there is essentially no evidence whatsoever that the test has even a shred of validity. results are thus poorly verifiable. whether the subject's response fits with how the blot actually looks. etc. empathy and insightfulness of the tester totally independently of the Rorschach itself.. An intense dialogue about the wallpaper or the rug would do as well provided that both parties believe. however. Interestingly. but it is not clear how this occurs.) of the inkblot leads to each of the tested person's comments. Disagreements about test validity remain: while the Exner proposed a rigorous scoring system. but the Rorschach's inter-rater reliability has been questioned. latitude remained in the actual interpretation. Superficially this might be considered a subjective judgment. for "Form Quality": in essence. recent research shows that the blots are not entirely meaningless. This conclusion was challenged in studies using large samples reported in 2002.the subject's response to an ambiguous and meaningless stimulus can provide insight into their thought processes.
It is also thought that the test's reliability can depend substantially on details of the testing procedure. this reveals the questionable side-effect that more intelligent people tend to be elevated on many pathology scales. The authors conclude that "Otherwise. personality characteristics. The same source reports that validity has also been shown for detecting such conditions as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. cites many court cases where these had not been followed. but Wood et al." 
Another area of controversy are the test's statistical norms. and Human Figure responses. There is some evidence that the Deviant Verbalizations scale relates to bipolar disorder. Jones v Apfel (1997) stated (quoting from Attorney's Textbook of Medicine) that Rorschash "results do not meet the requirements of standardization. Exner's system was thought to possess normative scores for various populations. any introductory words. it is more likely that some of these will seem "pathological". and interpretation thus is often controversial". Also correlated with intelligence are the scales for Organizational Activity.
Lillenfeld and colleagues. In State ex rel H.H. who may cut corners as a result. or validity of clinical diagnostic tests. Complexity. and personality disorders (includingborderline personality disorder). and discomfort in close relationships. have stated that this proves that
the Rorschach tends to "overpathologise normals". such as Hibbard. the Comprehensive System doesn't appear to bear a consistent relationship to psychological disorders or symptoms. thought disorders. Bogacki stated under oath "many psychologists do not believe much in the validity or effectiveness of the Rorschach test" and US v Battle (2001) ruled that the Rorschash "does not have an objective scoring system. In particular. or such health problems as cancer". (Cancer is mentioned because a small minority of Rorschach enthusiasts have claimed the test can predict cancer. Similarly.number of responses. potential for violence. discrepancies seemed to focus on indices measuring narcissism. Form Quality. Although Rorschach proponents. such as where the tester and subject are seated. US Courts have challenged Rorschach as well. beginning in the mid-1990s others began to try to replicate or update these norms and failed. the procedures for coding responses are fairly well specified but extremely time-consuming to inexperienced examiners. suggest that high rates of pathology detected by the Rorshach accurately reflect
. But. Exner has published detailed instructions. reliability. verbal and nonverbal responses to subjects' questions or comments. and how responses are recorded. since many scales do not correct for high R: if a subject gives twice as many responses overall. (1999) where under cross examination Dr. who are critical of the Rorschach. disordered thinking.
which also described the method of administering the test. (2007).One study has found that use of the test in courts has increased by three times in the decade between 1996 and 2005. if the alternative diagnoses being considered have been well conceptualized with respect to specific or defining personality characteristics".increasing psychopathology in society. and it requires that psychologists "make reasonable efforts to maintain the
. In the vast majority of cases. Weiner (co-developer with John Exner of the Comprehensive system) has stated that the Rorschach "is a measure of personality functioning. across 17 different countries. They presented an international collaborative study of 4704 Rorschach protocols. anyway. with no additional
The test is also controversial because of its common use in court-ordered evaluations. The accusation of "over-pathologising" has also been considered by Meyer et al. The blots are in the public domain in most countries. with only 2 % showing significant elevations on the index of perceptual and thinking disorder. from the limitations of the Rorschach.[citation
This controversy stems. in making official diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). the Rorschach test wasn't singled out but used as one of several in a battery of tests. in part. Irving B. the Rorschach also identifies half of all test-takers as possessing "distorted thinking". and it provides information concerning aspects of personality structure and dynamics that make people the kind of people they are.
Protection of test items and ethics
Outlines of the ten official inkblots were first made publicly available by William Poundstone in his 1983 book Big Secrets. It claims that its goals include "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work". and the testimony was ruled inadmissible in only one of those cases. The American Psychological Association (APA) has a code of ethics that supports "freedom of inquiry and expression" and helping "the public in developing informed judgments". obtained in 21 different samples. particularly those with a copyright termof up to 70 years post mortem auctoris. and despite the criticism of usage of the Rorschach in the courts. 12 % elevated on indices of depression and hypervigilance and 13% elevated on persistent stress overload—all in line with expected frequencies among nonpatient populations. Others however have found that its usage by forensic psychologists has decreased. a false positive rate unexplained by current research.000 cases in which forensic psychologists used Rorschach-based testimony. Sometimes such information about personality characteristics is helpful in arriving at a differential diagnosis. out of 8. the appropriateness of the instrument was challenged only six times. compared to the previous fifty years.
 A public statement by the British Psychological Society expresses similar concerns about psychological tests (without mentioning any test by name) and considers the "release of [test] materials to unqualified individuals" to be misuse if it is against the wishes of the test publisher. It has not taken a position on publication of the Rorschach plates but noted "there are a limited number of standardized psychological tests considered appropriate for a given purpose". APA ethical standard 1. a German company that sells editions of the plates. recommend that even information about the purpose of the test or any detail of its administration should be kept from the public.. compared it to the publication of the eye test chart: though people are likewise free to memorize the eye chart before an eye test. Hogrefe & Huber Publishing. The APA has also raised concerns that the dissemination of test materials might impose "very concrete harm to the general public". Controversy ensued in the psychological community in 2009 when the original Rorschach plates and research results on interpretations were published in the "Rorschach test" article on Wikipedia. it is argued that such refusals may hinder full understanding of the process by the attorneys. and listing common responses represents a serious unethical act" for psychologists and is indicative of "questionable professional judgment".
For those opposed to exposure. Psychologists have sometimes refused to disclose tests and test data to courts when asked to do so by the parties citing ethical reasons. such as the Italian Association of Strategic Psychotherapy. James Heilman. Hogrefe attempted to claim copyright over the Rorschach ink blots during fillings of a complaint with the World Intellectual Property Organization against Ney Limonge of Brazil. Dr. Other professional associations. its general usefulness as a diagnostic tool for eyesight has not diminished.23(b) states that the psychologist has a responsibility to document processes in detail and of adequate quality to allow reasonable scrutiny by the court. In his book Ethics in psychology. These complaints were denied. called the publication "unbelievably reckless and even cynical of Wikipedia" and said it was investigating the possibility of legal action.. over many
. even though "cheating" the test is held to be practically impossible. For example. and impede cross-examination of the experts. the Rorschach test is capable of detectingsuicidality. a Canadian emergency room physician involved in the debate. publication of the inkblots is described as a "particularly
painful development". given the tens of thousands of research papers which have. Koocher (1998) notes that some believe "reprinting copies of the Rorschach plates .integrity and security of test materials". 2008. Further complaints were sent to two other websites that contained information similar to the Rorschach test in May 2009 by legal firm Schluep and Degen of Switzerland. On September 9.
and what might happen afterwards. Benjamin Radford. for example. attempting to discover the conflicts." and was hopeful that publication of the test may finally hasten its demise.years. stated that the Rorschach "has remained in use more out of tradition than good evidence. which is why these are referred to as "projective tests. the subject may be asked to describe what led up to this scene. motivations and attitudes of the respondent. the emotions of the characters."Controversy over Wikipedia's publication of the inkblots has resulted in the blots being published in other locations. The examiner then evaluates these descriptions. and problemsolving abilities. it has been among the most widely used. Publication of the Rorschach images is also welcomed by critics who consider the test to be pseudoscience. Its adherents claim that it taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality. "tried to link a patient’s responses to certain psychological conditions. and is asked to describe various aspects of the scene. the free encyclopedia
The Thematic Apperception Test. Historically.
Main article: Thematic Apperception Test Another popular projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in which an individual views ambiguous scenes of people. motives and needs for achievement. or TAT. researched. is a projective psychological test. and taught of such tests.
Thematic Apperception Test
From Wikipedia. such as The Guardianand The Globe And Mail. the respondent "projects" their unconscious attitudes and motivations into the picture. In the answers. power and intimacy. editor ofSkeptical Inquirer magazine.
any card may be used with any subject. to complete the assessment each story created by a subject must be carefully analyzed to uncover underlying needs. and what the outcome of the story was. its assessment of the subject is based on what he or she projects onto the ambiguous images.• • • • • • • •
2 Scoring Systems 3 History 4 Criticisms 5 Contemporary applications of TAT 6 TAT in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links
Procedure The TAE is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous picturesabout which the subject must tell a story. including: what has led up to the event shown what is happening at the moment what the characters are feeling and thinking. or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation. some of ambiguous gender. and some show no human figures at all. Most practitioners choose a set of approximately ten cards. and patterns of reaction. There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. some both male and female figures. Therefore. attitudes. particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented. Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender. like the Rorschach test. the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly. some children. One is completely blank. some female. either using cards that they feel are generally useful.  Scoring
The TAT is a projective test in that. Some of the cards show male figures. Although most clinical practitioners do not
If these elements are omitted. some adults.
interests. projection (intermediate). due to the challenge of standardising interpretations of the stories produced by subjects). Morgan at Harvard during the 1930s to explore the underlying dynamics of personality. in the 1970s. Affect-Tone of Relationship Paradigms. Their criticisms are that the TAT is unscientific because it cannot be proved to be valid (that
it actually measures what it claims to measure). Capacity for Emotional Investment in Relationships and Moral Standards. Criticisms Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is based has caused the TAT to be criticised as false or outdated by many professional psychologists[citation
. This assesses three defense
mechanisms: denial (least mature). Murray. dominant drives. in researching the responses of subjects given photographs versus the TAT. adapted the implicit lesson of Melville’s [Moby Dick] “Doubloon” chapter to a new and larger creative. even ‘old-fashioned. and motives. Also. This assesses four different
dimensions of object relations: Complexity of Representations of People. or reliable (that it gives consistent results over time. the Human Potential Movement encouraged psychologists to use the TAT to help their clients understand themselves better and stimulate personal growth.” After World War II. According to Melville scholar Howard P Vincent. therapeutic purpose. psychologist and Melvillist . and Understanding of Social Causality. such as internal conflicts. the TAT “came into being when Dr. Some critics of the TAT cards have observed that the characters and environments are dated. Henry A. andidentification (most mature). Murray and Christiana D. Social Cognition and Object Relations SCOR scale. Later. researchers found that the TAT cards evoked more
.use formal scoring systems. Two common methods that are currently used in research are the: Defense Mechanisms Manual DMM. the TAT was adopted more broadly by psychoanalysts and clinicians to evaluate emotionally disturbed patients. History TAT was developed by the American psychologists Henry A. several formal scoring systems have been developed for analyzing TAT stories systematically and consistently.’ creating a ‘cultural or psychosocial distance’ between the patients and these stimuli that makes identifying with them less likely . A person's thoughts/feelings are projected in stories involved.
In a 2005 dissertation.. leading them to conclude that the difference was due to the differences in the characteristics of the images used as stimuli[citation
. thought disorders. Matthew Narron. "Oh.‘deviant’ stories (i. Psy. in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects. Contemporary
applications of TAT
Despite criticisms.. It's a guy and a girl and they're
. Hannibal Lecter mocks a previous attempt to administer the test to him. or to screen candidates for high-stress occupations. Daria and her sister Quinn are given a test that appears to be
the TAT by the school psychologist on their first day at their new school. Daria states that she sees "a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. then. typically without a formal scoring system. It is also commonly used in routine psychological evaluations. Sometimes it is used in a psychiatric or psychological context to assess personality disorders. Michael Crichton included the TAT in the battery of tests given to the disturbed patient
and main character Harry Benson in his novel. not ponies.e. Daria states. the TAT remains widely used as a tool for research into areas of psychology such as dreams. TAT is widely used in France and Argentina using a psychodynamic approach. I see." The psychologist tells her the picture is of two people." The psychologist explains. dear." To which Daria characteristically replies. In the MTV cartoon Daria.. fantasies. Daria and Quinn are shown a picture of two people. The Israeli army uses the test for evaluating potential officers. All right.D. more negative) than photographs. "That's a different test. attempted to address these issues by reproducing a Leopold Bellak  10 card set photographically and performing an outcome study. The results concluded that the old TAT elicited answers that included many more specific time references than the new TAT. In this test. They said they could be whatever I wanted. as a way to explore emotional conflicts and object relations . Quinn makes up a story about the two people having a discussion about popularity and dating. TAT
in popular culture
Thomas Harris' novel Red Dragon includes a scene where the imprisoned psychiatrist
and serial killer Dr. "last time I took one of these tests they told me they were clouds. mate selectionand what motivates people to choose their occupation. The Terminal Man. they're people and you tell me what they're discussing. It is also used by the Services Selection Board of India.
a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. the main character of A Clockwork Orange.
.) The TAT is administered to Alex. they ask him to pretend that it is something else. the free encyclopedia
Smiling person (combined head and body) age 4½... You got to pass it or you get bad marks [sic]"
Main article: Draw-A-Person Test The Draw-A-Person test requires the subject to draw a person. shape and complexity of the facial features. such as the size. the Rorschach test administered to Charly Gordon in Flowers for Algernon. Niemur and Strauss ask him what he "sees" on a card.
Charlie Gordon. the protagonist in Daniel Keyes' Flowers for Algernon." (Cf." As he says. the approach has very little demonstrated validity and there is evidence that therapists may attribute pathology to individuals who are merely poor artists. The results are based on a psychodynamic interpretation of the details of the drawing.
From Wikipedia. he replies that he sees an inkblot. As with other projective tests.discussing. "I dont know the frist 2 werds but I know what test means. during which Drs. and he replies that he "pretends" a tablecloth with an ink pen "leeking" all over it. A similar class of techniques is kinetic family drawing. notes in his progress report 4 on March 6th that he was given a "Thematic Appreciation Test. clothing and background of the figure.
a woman." with "blurred and unconnected lines. Nature
of the test
Test administration involves the administrator requesting children to complete three individual drawings on separate pieces of paper. could be generated from the naive beliefs of undergraduates. Dale B. DAP test.i. although the child must make a drawing of a whole person each time . e. There has been no validation of this test as indicative of schizophrenia. not just the face. or Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test) is a psychological projective personality or cognitive test used to evaluate children and adolescents for a variety of purposes. and themselves. There is no right or wrong type of drawing. And that such signs might be a patient's neglect to include "obvious anatomical parts like hands and eyes. this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test.
• • • •
1 History 2 Nature of the test 3 See also 4 Notes and References
History Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926. Children are asked to draw a man. Harris's book (1963) provides scoring scales which are used to examine and
." and that while not all schizophrenic patients have trouble drawing a person. The test has no time limit.e. No further instructions are given and the child is free to make the drawing in whichever way he/she would like.g. It is detailed in her book titled Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings." ambiguous sexuality and general distortion. Harris later revised and extended the test and it is now known as theGoodenough-Harris Drawing Test. however. in a classic study of illusory correlation.. Psychologist Julian Jaynes. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind wrote that the test is "routinely administered as an indicator of schizophrenia. showed that the scoring manual. in the 1976 book. Dr.The Draw-A-Person Test (DAP. it is very clear evidence of a disorder. Chapman and Chapman (1969). large eyes as indicative of paranoia. when they do. The revision and extension is detailed in his book Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity(1963). children rarely take longer than about 10 or 15 minutes to complete all three drawings. head to feet.
This system analyzes fourteen different aspects of the drawings. the administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance) to score the drawings. The test is completely non-invasive and non-threatening to children which is part of its appeal. This system is composed of two types of criteria.” and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. The subject's response is considered to be a projection of their conscious and/or unconscious attitudes. A separate standard score is recorded for each drawing. To evaluate intelligence. nonthreatening task to evaluate intelligence is intended to eliminate possible sources of bias by reducing variables like primary language. However. For the first type. for various criteria. such as specific body parts and clothing. motivations. the test administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: QSS (Quantitative Scoring System). The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes. In all. and sensitivity to working under pressure. or other mental states. There is debate over whether or not sentence completion tests elicit responses from
. 47 different items are considered for each drawing.score the child's drawings. detail. Any other uses of the test are merely projective and are not endorsed by the first creator. motivations. The purpose of the test is to assist professionals in inferring children's cognitive developmental levels with little or no influence of other factors such as language barriers or special needs. the free encyclopedia
Sentence completion tests are a class of semi-structured projective techniques. communication disabilities. Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences. there are 64 scoring items for each drawing. verbal skills. beliefs. eight dimensions of each drawing are evaluated against norms for the child's age group.personality characteristics. referred to as “stems. and beliefs. See
Main article: Sentence completion tests Sentence completion tests require the subject complete sentence "stems" with their own words. For the second type. who often have fewer opportunities to draw. and proportion. To assess the test-taker for emotional problems. including presence or absence. test results can be influenced by previous drawing experience. The use of a nonverbal. a factor that may account for the tendency of middle-class children to score higher on this test than lower-class children.
Sentence completion tests
From Wikipedia. and a total score for all three.
As of the 1980s. sentence completion tests have increased in usage. In recent decades. A long sentence completion test is the Forer Sentence Completion Test.
. A sentence completion test form may be relatively short. such as those used to assess personality. Ebbinghaus’s sentence completion test was used as part of an intelligence test. such as those used to assess responses to advertisements.conscious thought rather than unconscious states. which produce a wider variety of responses. The structures of sentence completion tests vary according to the length and relative generality and wording of the sentence stems. sentence completion tests were the seventh most widely used personality assessment instruments. Some sentence completion tests were developed as a way to overcome the problems associated with thematic apperception measures of the same constructs. less structured tests provide shorter stems. Another reason for the increased usage of sentence completion tests is because of their superiority to other measures in uncovering conflicted attitudes. This debate would affect whether sentence completion tests can be strictly categorized as projective tests. The tests are usually administered in booklet form where respondents complete the stems by writing words on paper. Carl Jung’s word association test may also have been a precursor to modern sentence completion tests. validity and reliability 5 References
History Herman Von Ebbinghaus is generally credited with developing the first sentence completion test in 1897. which has 100 stems. Structured tests have longer stems that lead respondents to more specific types of responses. in part because they are easy to develop and easy to administer. or much longer.
• • • • •
1 History 2 Uses 3 Examples of sentence completion tests 4 Data analysis.
attitude assessment. sentence completion tests tend to have high face validity (i.. because in many cases the sentence stems name or refer to specific objects and the respondent is provides responses specifically focused on such objects. management. and marketing. Some of the most widely used sentence completion tests include: Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (assesses personality traits. education. Washington University Sentence Completion Test (measures ego development). and measurement of other constructs. clinical applications.
analysis. and language and cognitive development tests. Compared to positivist instruments. The validity of each sentence completion test must be determined independently and this depends on the instructions laid out in the scoring manual. achievement motivation. the extent to which measurement items accurately reflect the concept being measured).Uses The uses of sentence completion tests include personality analysis. References
. This is to be expected. Examples
of sentence completion tests
There are many sentence completion tests available for use by researchers. such as intelligence tests.e. including psychology. They are used in several disciplines. validity and reliability
The data collected from sentence completion tests can usually be analyzed either quantitatively or qualitatively. Sentence completion tests usually include some formal coding procedure or manual. Miner Sentence Completion Test (measures managerial motivations). language comprehension. Sentence completion measures have also been incorporated into non-projective applications. perhaps the most widely
used of all sentence completion tests). such as Likert-type scales.
in sociology to assess the adoption of innovations. The Holtzman Inkblot Test is used primarily with students.
Objective tests (Rating scale or self-report measure)
. The application of responses is different in these disciplines than in psychology. The test consists of two alternate forms of forty-five inkblots. including TATs. and popularity. head trauma or depression. It is housed permanently at theSmithsonian Institution. are used in qualitative marketing research. form definiteness. and in anthropology to study cultural meaning. barrier. anatomy. projective tests are used to evaluate responses to advertisements. animal. is a projective personality test similar to the Rorschach test. The technique is featured as part of a travelling exhibition entitled "Psychology: Understanding Ourselves. location. shading. pathognomonicverbalization. because the responses of multiple respondents are grouped together for analysis by the organisation commissioning the research. content (human. conceived by Wayne Holtzman. balance. integration.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. space. for example to help identify potential associations betweenbrand images and the emotions they may provoke. The Holtzman Inkblot Test was invented to correct many. In advertising. hostility. or abstract).(July 2009)
The Holtzman Inkblot Test. The tests have also been used in management to assess achievement motivation and other drives. children. rejection.Projective techniques. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. penetration. form appropriateness.
oltzman Inkblot Test
From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. and with patients suffering from schizophrenia. if not all. Scoring is based on twenty-two items: reaction time. movement. originally drawn from a pool of several thousand. of the controversial issues aroused by the Rorschach Inkblot Test. color. The Holtzman Inkblot Test has been used in both experimental and clinical applications. rather than interpreting the meaning of the responses given by a single subject. Understanding Each Other" and sponsored by the American Psychological Association in partnership with the Ontario Science Centre. anxiety. sexual. Scoring takes a very long time if the test is not administered by computer.
The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology. or Five Factor Model of normal personality. Prominent examples of objective personality tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.Children (FFPI-C.1 MMPI 1. Barrick & Mount 1991) found consistent relationships between the Big Five personality factors and important criterion variables. the free encyclopedia
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. Another personality test based upon the Five Factor Model is the Five Factor Personality Inventory . and the Beck Depression Inventory.2 MMPI-2 1. such as the NEO-PI.4 MMPI-2 RF 2 Current scale composition 2. all of which are based on the Big Fivetaxonomy.1 RC and Clinical Scales
.2 Validity scales 2. has gained acceptance since the early 1990s when some influential meta-analyses (e. The Big Five.g.).3 Content scales 2.1 Clinical scales 2. such as allowing for true or false answers or rating using an ordinal scale. the 16PF. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III.3 MMPI-A 1. Objective personality tests can be designed for use in business for potential employees. and the OPQ (Occupational Personality Questionnaire).
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
From Wikipedia.Objective tests have a restricted response format. Child Behavior Checklist.4 PSY-5 scales 3 Scoring and interpretation 4 Criticism and controversy 4.
• o o o o • o o o o • • o
1 History and development 1..
2009) using an empirical keying approach. which means that the clinical scales were derived by selecting items that were endorsed by patients known to have been diagnosed with certain pathologies. However. MMPI-2
. C. The computer scoring programs offer a range of scoring profile choices including the extended score report. Supplementary. Handbook of Psychological Assessment. Use of the MMPI is tightly controlled for ethical and financial reasons.2 Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale
6 See also 7 External links
The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. The standardized answer sheets can be hand scored with templates that fit over the answer sheets. The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. Computer scoring programs for the current standardized version. MMPI The original MMPI was developed in 1939 (Groth Marnat. Hathaway. but most tests are computer scored. as well as a charge to install the computerized program. because the MMPI scales were created based on a group with known psychopathologies. MD. PhD. The atheoretical approach to MMPI development ostensibly enabled the test to capture aspects of human psychopathology that were recognizable and meaningful despite changes in clinical theories. the scales themselves are not atheoretical by way of using the participants' clinical diagnoses to determine the scales' contents. The extended score report also provides scores on the more traditionally used Clinical Scales as well as Content. The difference between this approach and other test development strategies used around that time was that it was atheoretical (not based on any particular theory) and thus the initial test was not aligned with the prevailing psychodynamic theories of that time. The tests are mentioned in Thomas Harris' 1988 novel The Silence of the Lambs.o • • •
4. as ones she is familiar with. by character Clarice Starling. and other subscales of potential interest to clinicians. McKinley. the MMPI-2. The clinician using the MMPI has to pay for materials and for scoring and report services. are licensed by the University of Minnesota Press to Pearson Assessments and other companies located in different countries. and J. which includes data on the newest and most psychometrically advanced scales—the Restructured Clinical Scales (RC scales).
MMPI-A A version of the test designed for adolescents. The MMPI-A has 478 items. The MMPI-2-RF builds on the foundation of the RC Scales. with a short form of 350 items. There is an infrequently used abbreviated form of the test that consists of the MMPI-2's first 370 items. The current MMPI-2 has 567 items. and address the use of the scales in a wide range of settings. Subsequent revisions of certain test elements have been published. The new MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has now been released by Pearson Assessments.  Current Clinical
Scale 1 (formerly known as the Hypochondriasis Scale) : Measures a person's perception of their health or actual injuries or health issues. which was standardized on a new national sample of adults in the United States and released in 1989. It is appropriate for use with adults 18 and over. which have been extensively researched since their publication in 2003..g.
The MMPI-2-RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a
homogenous condition that is additive. The shorter version has been mainly used in circumstances that have not allowed the full version to be completed (e. the MMPI-A. Scale 3 (formerly known as the Hysteria Scale) : Measures the emotionality of a person.The first major revision of the MMPI was the MMPI-2.. MMPI-2
A new and psychometrically improved version of the MMPI-2 has recently been developed employing rigorous statistical methods that were used to develop the RC Scales in 2003. illness or time pressure). but the scores available on the shorter version are not as extensive as those available in the 567-item version... and a wide variety of subscales was also introduced over many years to help clinicians interpret the results of the original clinical scales. including the RC Scales.. Scale 5 (formerly known as the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) : Measures a stereotype of a person and how they
. and usually takes between 1 and 2 hours to complete depending on reading level. which had been found to contain a general factor that made interpretation of scores on the clinical scales difficult. multiple published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The MMPI-2-RF produces scores on a theoretically grounded. all trueor-false format. Publications on the MMPI-2-RC Scales include book chapters. Scale 2 (formerly known as the Depression Scale) : Measures a person's discouragement level. Scale 4 (formerly known as the Psychopathic Deviate Scale) : Measures a person's need for control or their rebellion against control. hierarchically structured set of scales. The modern methods used to develop the MMPI-2-RF were not available at the time the MMPI was originally developed. was released in 1992.
compare. Anxiety. doubts. Scale 7 (formerly known as the Psychestenia Scale) : Measures whether someone made it into adulthood with or without unresolved issues. No. obsessiveness
Odd thinking and social alienation
. respect for society's 50 rules
Stereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors
Level of trust. The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era.. Scale 9 (formerly known as the Mania Scale) : Measures a person's psychic energy. sensitivity
Worry.. While the descriptions of each type were originally used in assessment.. Scale 8 (formerly known as the Schizophrenia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to have original or unique thoughts and whether they can think outside the box. For men it would be the Marlboro man. scale 0 (formerly known as the Social Introversion Scale) : Measures whether people like to be around other people. of Items
What is Measured
Concern with bodily symptoms
Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities
Conflict. struggle. suspiciousness. anger.. for women it would be June Cleaver or Donna Reed. the current practice is to use the numbers only. Scale 6 (formerly known as the Paranoia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to trust.. tension.
A new addition to the validity scales for the MMPI-2 RF includes an over reporting scale of somatic symptoms scale (Fs). TRIN). Fp. . 48). VRIN.9
Level of excitability
Codetypes are a combination of the one or two highest-scoring clinical scales (ex. and those designed to detect when test-takers are underreporting or downplaying psychological symptoms (L.8. K)). Validity
The validity scales in the MMPI-2 RF are minor revisions of those contained in the MMPI-2. Codetypes and interaction of clinical scales can be quite complex and require specialized training to properly interpret. New in version
Questions not answered
Client "faking good"
Client "faking bad" (in first half of test)
Client "faking bad" (in last half of test)
Variable Response Inconsistency
answering similar/opposite question pairs inconsistently
True Response Inconsistency answering questions all true/all false
. those designed to detect when clients are over reporting or exaggerating the prevalence or severity of psychological symptoms (F. which includes three basic types of validity measures: those that were designed to detect nonresponding or inconsistent responding (CNS. FBS). Fb.
AAS). APS. developed by Welsh after conducting a factor analysis of the original MMPI item pool. and the A (anxiety) and R (repression) scales. Dozens of content scales currently exist.F-K
F minus K
honesty of test responses/not faking good or bad
improving upon K scale. the following are some samples: Abbreviation Description
Ego Strength Scale
Over-Controlled Hostility Scale
MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale
MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale Revised
. "appearing excessively good"
Frequency of presentation in clinical setting
Infrequent Somatic Response Overreporting of somatic symptoms
To supplement these multidimensional scales and to assist in interpreting the frequently seen diffuse elevations due to the general factor (removed in the RC scales) were also developed. designed to assess the extent to which a client admits to or is prone to abusing substances. with the more frequently used being the substance abuse scales (MAC-R.
Like many standardized tests. Introversion (INTR). analysis looks at relative elevation of factors compared to the various norm groups studied. The five components were labeled Negative Emotionality (NEGE). but rather as an attempt to connect the instrument with more general trend in personality psychology. scores on the various scales of the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF are not representative of either percentile rank or how "well" or "poorly" someone has done on the test.APS
Addictions Potential Scale
Addictions Acknowledgement Scale
Social Discomfort Scale
Type A Scale
Marital Distress Scale
Unlike the Content and Supplementary scales. Test manufacturers and publishers ask test purchasers to prove they are qualified to purchase the MMPI/MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF and other tests. the PSY-5 scales were not developed as a reaction to some actual or perceived shortcoming in the MMPI-2 itself. Raw scores on the scales are transformed into a standardized metric known as T-scores (Mean or Average equals 50. making interpretation easier for clinicians. and the PSY-5 scales differ from the 5 factors identified in non-pathological populations in that they were meant to determine the extent to which personality disorders might manifest and be recognizable in clinical populations.
. Disconstraint (DISC) and Aggressiveness (AGGR). Rather.Standard Deviation equals 10). The five factor model of human personality has gained great acceptance in non-pathological populations. Psychoticism (PSYC).
the RC scales are not saturated with the primary factor (demoralization.Criticism RC
and Clinical Scales
Some questions have been raised about the RC Scales and the forthcoming release of the MMPI-2-RF. which eliminates the older clinical scales entirely in favor of the more psychometrically appealing RC scales. A more basic criticism is that the MMPI-2 RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a
. Critics of the new scales argue that the removal of this common variance makes the RC scales less ecologically valid (less like real life) because real patients tend to present complex patterns of symptoms. Proponents of the RC scales assert that research has adequately addressed those issues with results indicating that the RC scales predict pathology in their designated areas better than their concordant original clinical scales while using significantly fewer items and maintaining equal to higher internal consistency reliability and validity. more pure versions of the original clinical scales because 1) the interscale correlations are greatly reduced and no items are contained in more than one RC scale and. in contrast to the original clinical scales. contain no interscale item overlap. and has warranted enough discussion to prompt a special issue of the academic Journal of Personality Assessment (Vol 87. Issue 2. further. therefore. now captured in RCdem) which frequently produced diffuse elevations and made interpretation of results difficult. this issue is addressed by being able to view elevations on other RC scales that are less saturated with the general factor and. The replacement of the original Clinical Scales with the RC scales has not been met with universal approval. However. 2) common variance spread across the older clinical scales due to a general factor common to psychopathology is parsed out and contained in a separate scale measuring demoralization (RCdem). are also more transparent and much easier to interpret. the implication being that previous research done on the clinical scales will no longer be relevant to the interpretation of the RC scales and the burden of proof should be on the RC scales to demonstrate they are clearly superior to the original clinical scales. unlike the original clinical scales. Critics of the RC scales assert they have deviated too far from the original clinical scales. Individuals in favor of retaining the older Clinical scales have argued that the new RC scales are measuring pathology which is markedly different than that measured by the original clinical scales. October 2006) to provide each side with a forum to voice their opinions regarding the old and new measures. This claim is not supported by results of research. and are not weaker at identifying the core elements of the original clinical scales. which has found the RC scales to be cleaner. the RC scales have lower interscale correlations and. finally.
The article quotes Butcher concluding:
This is great for insurance companies. Lees-Haley
"Fake Bad" Scale
The following discussion concerns the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. According to the article. One of the critics of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is retired psychologist James Butcher. which is used in courts as argument for malingering in injury litigation. The article reports that this particular "fake bad" scale was developed by psychologist Paul LeesHaley. which according to the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale meant they were malingering. who works mainly for defendants (insurance companies etc. DID are composed of defenses. In March 2008 a front page article in the Wall Street Journal exposed what it claimed to be the lack of scientific validity of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. and seemingly unrelated signs and symptoms that can not be measured by scales that were made to have high internal consistency." The scale was introduced in MMPI after a review of the literature. Butcher contends that it is unlikely that so many psychiatric patients misled doctors. Butcher's own study has been criticized on methodological and conceptual grounds. These include the F-K scale . and which have not been subject to the same kind of controversy as the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. This review was considered flawed by its critics because at least 10 of 19 studies reviewed were done by Lees-Haley or other insurance defense psychologists. there are several other "fake bad" scales (aside from the standard F and Fb scales. but not great for people. Although symptoms are mainly homogenous. which are the original "fake bad" scales) that have been in existence since 1950. the Gough Dissimilation index (Ds-r) . including the likelihood that his subject pool included many malingerers.homogenous condition that is additive. that he ignored
. PTSD. two Florida judges barred use of the scale after special hearings on its scientific validity. contradictory states. and the Wiener-Harmon Subtle and Obvious Scales (S-O) . which the Wall Street Journal described as "a small Montana-based medical journal. The article reports that in 1991 Lees-Haley paid to have an article supportive of his scale published in Psychological Reports. while 21 other studies critical of the test were excluded from the review. who found that more than 45 percent of psychiatric patients he studied had Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale scores of 20 or more. most psychodiagnostic conditions such as hysteria.) in personal injury cases.
pain clinics.e. or neurological symptoms) in settings where the base-rate of malingering is typically high (litigation. and the authors are very specific that it should not be used with the general population. including specific disorders outlined in the DSM-IV. etc.recommended gender-related cut-offs.). and used a less sensitive or specific MMPI-2 scale as his 'gold-standard. It is composed of 175 true-false questions that reportedly takes 25-30 minutes to complete. The test is modeled on four scales 14 Personality Disorder Scales 10 Clinical Syndrome Scales 5 Correction Scales: 3 Modifying Indices (which determine the patient's response style
and can detect random responding). mood. and so psychologists will often administer the test to members of the general population.  Several studies by independent Neuropsychologists have since been published in respected peer-reviewed journals supporting the Lees-Haley FBS scale as highly sensitive and specific (when proper cut-offs are used) in identifying individuals who are exaggerating somatic symptoms (as opposed to psychiatric. It was created by Theodore Millon.'  Despite the reservations of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-R authors (including James Butcher) who have a degree of proprietary control over the test. an independent professional panel recommended that the Lees-Haley FBS be included in the standard Pearson scoring system. The MCMI was developed and standardised specifically on clinical populations (i.  The Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is now regarded by some authors as a 'gold standard' in such populations. as it was designed to do. patients in psychiatric hospitals or people with existing mental health problems). However. and Seth Grossman. 
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
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(Redirected from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III)
The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) is a psychological assessment tool intended to provide information onpsychopathology. Carrie Millon. 2 Random Response Indicatiors
. there is a strong evidence base that shows that it still retains validity on non-clinical populations. Roger Davis. It is intended for adults (18 and over) with at least an 8th grade reading level.
The Validity index is an exception to this. with 60 being the median score. These are compared against each other to gain an understanding of the patient's response style.
42 Grossman Personality Facet Scales (based on Seth Grossman's theories of
personality and psychopathology) The test was normed on a sample of 998 male and female adults with a wide variety of clinical disorders. and so is scored between 0 and 3. such as whether they were keen to present themselves in a positive light (indicated by an elevation on the Desirability scale) or exaggerate the negative aspects of themselves (indicated by the Debasement scale). For instance. The Modifying indices are scored using a complex system in which the patient's responses in the other scales are compared and the raw and BR scores are taken from this. or if they were unwilling to disclose details about themselves (the Disclosure Scale). the Desirability Scale (Y) and the Debasement Scale (Z). the Disclosure Scale (X).the Validity scale (V). They are used to determine a patient's response style. elevated scores on the Disclosure and Desirability scales suggest a "cry for help" response style. Interpretation The modifying indices consist of 4 scales .
. It consists of three questions. Conversion to a Base Rate score is relatively complex. It also is used to measure whether the patient was open in the assessment.
• • • • •
1 Scoring system 2 Interpretation 3 See also 4 References 5 External links
Patients' raw scores are converted to Base Rate (BR) scores to allow comparison between the personality indices. It is not converted to a BR score. and there are certain corrections that are administered based on each patient's response style. The Base Rate scores are essentially where each score fits on a scale of 1115.
The preschool checklist (CBCL/1½-5) is intended for use with children aged 18 months to 5 years. the scale is very sensitive to random responding. usually a parent or teacher.or under-disclosed. Scores of 85 or above indicate the persistence of a personality trait or a clinical syndrome. It is a component in the Achenbach System of Emperically Based Assessment. or clinical behavior.g. Acts too young for his/her age. For each syndrome." While only consisting of 3 questions. or (for the Clinical Syndromes scales) the presence of a clinical syndrome. tables are given that determine whether the score represents normal. The school-age version (CBCL/6-18) is for children aged 6 to 18 years. problem scale and the total score. and their scores are summed to produce a score for that syndrome. Similar questions are grouped into a number of syndromes. such as "I was on the front cover of several magazines last year. Problems are identified by a respondent who knows the child well. the free encyclopedia
The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely-used method of identifying problem behavior in children. 1 = Somewhat or Sometimes True. The checklists consists of a number of statements about the child's behavior. For the Personality and Clinical Syndrome scales. Responses are recorded on a Likert scale: 0 = Not True. See
Child Behavior Checklist
From Wikipedia. There are two versions of the checklist. These categorizations are based on quantiles from a normative sample.g. A score of 2 or 3 on this scale would render the test invalid. The Validity Index consists of just three questions in which a response of "True" is extremely unlikely. The preschool checklist contains 100 questions and the school-age checklist contains 120 questions.
.The Disclosure scale is the only scale in the MCMI-III in which the raw scores are interpreted and in which a particularly low score is clinically relevant. e. A total score from all questions is also derived. borderline. scores of 75-84 are taken to indicate personality trait. Aggressive behavior. Some syndromes are further summed to provide scores for Internalizing and Externalizing problem scales. 2 = Very True or Often True. e. A raw score above 178 or below 34 is considered to not be an accurate representation of the patient's personality style as they either over.
Beck Depression Inventory
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Beck. instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts. In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over. first published in 1961 and later revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A. one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity ofdepression. BDI-II). Aaron T. By contrast.
• • o • o • • • • • •
1 Development and history 2 BDI 2.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. and lack of interest in sex. created by Dr.1 Two-factor approach to depression 4 Impact 5 Limitations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links
. weight loss.1 BDI-IA 3 BDI-II 3. the BDI was developed in a novel way for its time. Its development marked a shift among health care professionals. The BDI is widely used as an assessment tool by health care professionals and researchers in a variety of settings. and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability. by collating patients' verbatim descriptions of their symptoms and using these to structure a scale which could reflect the intensity or severity of a given symptom. who had until then viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective. depression was described in psychodynamic terms as "inverted hostility against the self". is a 21question multiple-choice self-report inventory. as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue. There are three versions of the BDI—the original BDI. published in 1996. and the BDI-II. cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished.
The student has negative thoughts about his self. ranging in intensity. first published in 1961. The development of the BDI reflects that in its structure. so he may come to believe he does
not enjoy the class. The standard cut-offs are as follows: 0–9 indicates that a person is not depressed. the future. which aims to challenge and neutralize them through techniques such as cognitive restructuring. as he may feel he does not deserve to
be in college. and often intrusive negative thoughts about the self. with items such as "I have lost all of my interest in other people" to reflect the world. "I feel discouraged about the future" to reflect the future. because he thinks he may not pass
the class. rather than being generated by depression. Each question has a set of at least four possible answer choices. it was the case that these cognitions caused depression. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. (2) I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it. Beck drew attention to the importance of "negative cognitions": sustained. which play a major role in depression.
When the test is scored. 19–29 indicates moderate-severe depression and 30–63 indicates severe depression. The student has negative thoughts about his future. and the self. (1) I feel sad. a value of 0 to 3 is assigned for each answer and then the total score is compared to a key to determine the depression's severity. and "I blame myself for everything bad that happens" to reflect the self. inaccurate. 10–18 indicates mild-moderate depression. Beck developed a triad of negative cognitions about the world. consisted of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week. An example of the triad in action taken from Brown (1995) is the case of a student obtaining poor exam results: The student has negative thoughts about the world.Throughout his work.
. The view of depression as sustained by intrusive negative cognitions has had particular application in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). For example: (0) I do not feel sad. (3) I am so sad or unhappy that I can't stand it. BDI The original BDI. In his view.
and 29–63: severe depression.
approach to depression
.93). The test was also shown to have a high one-week test–retest reliability (Pearson r =0. which changed many of the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. thoughts about suicide. 14–19: mild depression. the BDI-II also contains 21 questions.
The test also has high internal consistency (α=. only the items dealing with feelings of being punished.85. To improve ease of use. BDI-IA The BDI-IA was a revision of the original instrument. developed by Beck during the 1970s and copyrighted in 1978. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. hypochondria. and respondents were instructed to endorse how they had been feeling during the preceding two weeks. the BDI-II is positively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with aPearson r of 0.91). All but three of the items were reworded. Finally. However. and interest in sex remained the same. participants were asked to rate how they have been feeling for the past two weeks. The internal consistency for the BDI-IA was good. In this respect. sleep loss and appetite loss items were revised to assess both increases and decreases in sleep and appetite. with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of around 0. as opposed to the past week as in the original BDI. the "a and b statements" described above were removed. there are two responses under the Mood heading that score a 2: (2a) I am blue or sad all the time and I can't snap out of it and (2b) I am so sad or unhappy that it is very painful. meaning that the items on the inventory are highly correlated with each other. the BDI-IA only addressed six out of the nine DSMIII criteria for depression. and difficulty working were replaced. Fourth Edition. Like the BDI. suggesting that it was not overly sensitive to daily variations in mood. This and other criticisms were addressed in the BDI-II. developed in response to the American Psychiatric Association's publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 20–28: moderate depression. One measure of an instrument's usefulness is to see how closely it agrees with another similar instrument that has been validated against clinical interview by a trained clinician.71. this version retained some flaws. The cutoffs used differ from the original: 0–13: minimal depression. Items involving changes in body image. For instance. Also. showing good agreement. BDI-II The BDI-II was a 1996 revision of the BDI.Some items on the BDI have more than one statement marked with the same score. each answer being scored on a scale value of 0 to 3.
The affective subscale contains eight items: pessimism. If a patient is asked to fill out the form in front of other people in a clinical environment. mood) and the physical or "somatic" component (e. change in appetite. Limitations The BDI suffers from the same problems as other self-report inventories. Japanese. self-report questionnaires when analysed using techniques such as factor analysis can suggest theoretical constructs.Depression can be thought of as having two components: the affective component (e. Chinese. loss of energy. The purpose of the subscales is to help determine the primary cause of a patient's depression. Like all questionnaires. Impact The development of the BDI was an important event in psychiatry and psychology. past failures. indecisiveness. It has been translated into multiple European languages as well as Arabic.57. It also established the principle that instead of attempting to develop a psychometric tool based on a possibly invalid theory. agitation. In participants with concomitant physical illness the BDI's reliance on physical symptoms such as fatigue may artificially inflate scores due to symptoms of the illness. in 1998. guilty feelings. psychodynamic perspective. loss of interest. crying. it had been used in over 2000 empirical studies. The BDI was originally developed to provide a quantative assessment of the intensity of depression. loss of pleasure. loss of appetite). Persian. The BDI-II reflects this and can be separated into two subscales. social expectations might elicit a different response compared to administration via a postal survey. concentration difficulties.suicidal thoughts or wishes. The two subscales were moderately correlated at 0. suggesting that the physical and psychological aspects of depression are closely related rather than totally distinct. the way the instrument is administered can have an effect on the final score. tiredness and/or fatigue. irritability. to one guided by the patient's own thoughts or "cognitions".
In an effort to deal with this concern Beck and his colleagues developed the "Beck Depression
. and loss of interest in sex. Because it is designed to reflect the depth of depression. self-dislike. self-criticalness. it can monitor changes over time and provide an objective measure for judging improvement and the effectiveness or otherwise of treatment methods.g. The somatic subscale consists of the other thirteen items: sadness. rather than of depression. it represented a shift in health care professionals' view of depression from a Freudian.g. in that scores can be easily exaggerated or minimized by the person completing them. for instance. punishment feelings. and Xhosa. change in sleep patterns. The instrument remains widely used in research. and worthlessness.
. Unlike the standard BDI. Gill Nyfield. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. It is now available in more than 30 languages and uses innovative Item Response theory to shorten the questionnaire down to under 30 minutes. development. OPQ32 provides an indication of an individual’s preferred behavioural style at work. in 1984. OPQ or OPQ32. including Roger Holdsworth. the BDI is sometimes used by health care providers to reach a quick diagnosis.. (July 2009)
The Occupational Personality Questionnaires. the BDI-PC produces only a binary outcome of "not depressed" or "depressed" for patients above a cutoff score of 4. Lisa Cramp and Bill Mabey. The OPQ32 is used in selection.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The authors were Saville et al. succession planning and organisational change.Inventory for Primary Care" (BDI-PC). to help employers gauge how a candidate will fit into certain work environments. are widely-used occupational personality questionnaires. a short screening scale consisting of seven items from the BDI-II considered to be independent of physical function. the free encyclopedia
This article does not cite any references or sources. team building.
From Wikipedia. how they will work with other people and how they will cope with different job requirements. Although designed as a screening device rather than a diagnostic tool. The series included the first commercially-available Big Five instrument. and they were launched by Saville and Holdsworth Ltd.An independent review can be found below (4):