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An inkblot from the Rorschach inkblot test, the most well-known and widely used of the projective tests
In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an "objective test" in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam). The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. Projective tests in general rely heavily on clinical judgement, lack reliability andvalidity and many have no standardized criteria to which results may be compared. These tests are still used frequently, however, despite the lack of scientific evidenceto support them and their continued popularity has been referred to as the "projective paradox". Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness. The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report measures" and "free response measures" are suggested, rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests," respectively.
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1 Theory 2 Common variants 2.1 Rorschach 2.2 Thematic apperception test
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2.3 Draw-A-Person test 2.4 Sentence completion test 3 Uses in marketing 4 See also 5 References 6 Footnotes
Theory The general theoretical position behind projective tests is that whenever a specific question is asked, the response will be consciously-formulated and socially determined. These responses do not reflect the respondent's unconscious or implicit attitudes or motivations. The respondent's deep-seated motivations may not be consciously recognized by the respondent or the respondent may not be able to verbally express them in the form demanded by the questioner. Advocates of projective tests stress that the ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the tests allow subjects to express thoughts that originate on a deeper level than tapped by explicit questions. Projective tests lost some of their popularity during the 1980s and 1990s in part because of the overall loss of popularity of the psychoanalytic method and theories. Despite this, they are still used quite frequently. Common
Rorschach Main article: Rorschach inkblot test The best known and most frequently used projective test is the Rorschach inkblot test, in which a subject is shown a series of ten irregular but symmetrical inkblots, and asked to explain what they see. The subject's responses are then analyzed in various ways, noting not only what was said, but the time taken to respond, which aspect of the drawing was focused on, and how single responses compared to other responses for the same drawing. For example, if someone consistently sees the images as threatening and frightening, the tester might infer that the subject may suffer from paranoia.
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(Redirected from Rorschach inkblot test)
"Rorschach Test" redirects here. For the band, see Rorschach Test (band).
The first of the ten cards in the Rorschach test, with the occurrence of the most statistically frequent details indicated. The images themselves are only one component of the test, whose focus is the analysis of the perception of the images.
The Rorschach test (German pronunciation: [ˈʁoɐʃax]; also known as the Rorschach inkblot test or simply the Inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. The test takes its name from that of its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. In a national survey in the U.S., the Rorschach was ranked eighth among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health facilities. It is the second most widely used test by members of the Society for Personality Assessment, and it is requested by psychiatrists in 25% of forensic assessmentcases, usually in a battery of tests that often include the MMPI-2 and the MCMI-III.
In surveys, the use of Rorschach ranges from a low of 20% by correctional psychologists to a
high of 80% by clinical psychologists engaged in assessment services, and 80% of psychology graduate programs surveyed teach it. Although the Exner Scoring System (developed since the 1960s) claims to have addressed and often refuted many criticisms of the original testing system with an extensive body of research,
some researchers have raised questions about the objectivity of psychologists administrating
the test; inter-rater reliability; the verifiability and general validity of the test; bias of the test's pathology scales towards greater numbers of responses; the limited number of psychological conditions which it accurately diagnoses; the inability to replicate the test's norms; its use in court-ordered evaluations; and the proliferation of the ten inkblot images, potentially invalidating the test for those who have been exposed to them.
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1 History 2 Method 2.1 Features or categories
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2.1.1 Content 2.1.2 Location 2.1.3 Determinants 2.2 Exner scoring system 2.3 Cultural differences 2.4 Neurology
3 The ten inkblots 4 Prevalence 4.1 United States 5 Controversy 5.1 Test materials 5.2 Tester projection 5.3 Validity 5.4 Reliability 5.5 Population norms 5.6 Applications 5.7 Protection of test items and ethics 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links
Bruno Klopfer and others. he selected a set of ten for their diagnostic value). Hogrefe AG. but he died the following year. Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society. Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared. in 1921 Rorschach wrote his bookPsychodiagnostik. John E. Rorschach's. however. after the turn of the century. French psychologist Alfred Binet had also experimented with inkblots as a creativity test. each of which was inspired by an accidental inkblot. After Rorschach's death. Exnersummarized some of these later developments in . the original test scoring system was improved by Samuel Beck. with Rorschach a registered trademark of Swiss publisher Verlag Hans Huber. Huber has remained the publisher of the test and related book. psychological experiments where inkblots were utilized multiplied. had published a popular book of poems. In 1927. The work has been described as "a densely written piece couched in dry. scientific terminology".Hermann Rorschach created the Rorschach inkblot test in 1921. which was to form the basis of the inkblot test (after experimenting with several hundred inkblots. in 1857. Using interpretation of "ambiguous designs" to assess an individual's personality is an idea that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. and. Interpretation of inkblots was central to a game from the late 19th century.  It has been suggested that Rorschach's use of inkblots may have been inspired by German doctorJustinus Kerner who. with aims such as studying imagination and consciousness. was the first systematic approach of this kind. the newly-founded Hans Huber publishing house purchased Rorschach's book Psychodiagnostikfrom the inventory of Ernst Bircher. After studying 300 mental patients and 100 control subjects.
Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and. and including needs. and that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations. and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked. on a white background. Five inkblots are of black ink. at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous. Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations. Administration of the test to a group of subjects. Each of the blots has near perfect bilateral symmetry. such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohm. a separate location chart. and personal/interpersonal perceptions. with the tester slightly behind the subject. There are ten official inkblots.the comprehensive system. while in Europe other methods sometimes dominate. This is to facilitate a "relaxed but controlled atmosphere". As the subject is examining the inkblots. The general goal of the test is to provide data about cognition and personality variables such as motivations. each printed on a separate white card. Methods of interpretation differ. The Exner system remains very popular in the United States. conflicts. but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes. may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment. approximately 18x24 cm in size. has also occasionally been performed. affectivity. The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets. the psychologist writes down everything the subject says or does. The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them. base motives. if required. Rorschach scoring systems have been described as a system of pegs on which to hang one's knowledge of personality. Whether the cards are rotated. Test administration is not to be confused with test interpretation: "The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. no matter how trivial. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method . Method The tester and subject typically sit next to each other at a table. which is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles. After the test subject has seen and responded to all of the inkblots (free association phase). by means of projected images. cognitive operations. two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored. the tester then presents them again one at a time in a set sequence for the subject to study: the subject is asked to note where he sees what he originally saw and what makes it look like that (inquiry phase). The most widely used method in the United States is based on the work of Exner. response tendencies.
 as well as by any comments the subject may make in addition to providing a direct response. and may be elicited by very disparate factors. what the individual sees in the inkblot (the content). More than any other feature in the test." Features or categories The interpretation of the Rorschach test is not based primarily on the contents of the response. However. although there is contrasting evidence. The basis for the response is usually the whole inkblot. "Popularity" and "originality" of responses  can also be considered as basic dimensions in the analysis. originality).e. content response can be controlled consciously by the subject. Content is classified in terms of "human".. i. Content This section requires expansion.. a detail (either a commonly or an uncommonly selected one). content responses may potentially be interpreted directly. Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months. and some information can at times be obtained by analyzing thematic trends in the whole set of content responses (which is only feasible when several responses are available). etc. "animal". but in general content cannot be analyzed outside of the context of the entire test record. conversely. which makes it difficult to use content alone to draw any conclusions about the subject's personality. In fact. information about determinants (the aspects of the inkblots that triggered the response. Location This section requires expansion. information is provided by the time taken before providing a response for a card can be significant (taking a long time can indicate "shock" on the card). the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: for instance. "abstract". In particular. as well as for statistical popularity (or.specifically. with certain individuals. such as form and color) and location(which details of the inkblots triggered the response) is often considered more important than content. or the negative spacearound or within the inkblot. even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years. "nature". .
being a result of the print process). but ultimately different methods were in common use at the time. currently. The key components of the Exner system are the clusterization of Rorschach variables and a sequential search strategy to determine the order in which to analyze them. with a sizeable minority of examiners not employing any recognized method at all. objective. and they can represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes. Exner published The Rorschach Systems. color and movement. John E. He later published a study in multiple volumes called The Rorschach: A Comprehensive system. It is. taking it to mean that the subject sees something "going on". "form-color" implies a more refined control of impulse than "color-form"). a concise description of what would be later called "the Exner system". indeed. showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world. Rorschach's original work used only form. In 1969. as a more rigorous system of analysis. Exner. More than one determinant can contribute to the formation of the subject's percept. or arbitrarily mixing characteristics of the various standardized systems. while also assessing which of the two constituted the primary contributor (e. framed in the context of standardized administration. reliable coding and a representative normative . Form is the most common determinant. is the standard method for interpreting the Rorschach test.  which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing of the inkblots (which originally featured uniform saturation). Shading and movement have been considered more ambiguously. Creation of the new system was prompted by the realization that at least five related.Determinants Systems for Rorschach scoring generally include a concept of "determinants": these are the factors that contribute to establish the similarity between the inkblot and the subject's content response about it. also known as the Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS).g. and subsequently recognized as significant by Rorschach himself. It has been extensively validated and shows high inter-rater reliability. and fusion of two determinants is taken into account. and he considered movement as only actual experiencing of motion. the most accepted full description of his system. both in definition and interpretation: Rorschach originally disregarded shading (which was originally not even present on the cards. Exner scoring system The Exner scoring system. color responses often provide direct insight into emotional life. and is related to intellectual processes. another major determinant considered is shading. It was developed in the 1960s by Dr. basing instead their judgment on subjective assessment. while others have widened the scope of this determinant. from the relation and balance among determinants that personality can be most readily inferred.
This system was in turn based upon Klopfer's (1942) work. There were many different methods for coding the areas of the blots. and this concept was followed by other methods. while others (such as the average number of responses) coincide. the contents of the response (what the respondent actually sees in the blot). the degree of mental organizing activity that is involved in producing the response. Using the scores for these categories. the area of each blot which is distinguished by the client is noted and coded – typically as "commonly selected" or "uncommonly selected". Exner settled upon the area coding system promoted by S. incongruous. the form quality of the response (to what extent a response is faithful to how the actual inkblot looks). related to how the subject processes input data. in accordance with the system. Form is . badge and coat of arms. and any illogical.database. J. Cultural differences Comparing North American Exner normative data with data from European and South American subjects showed marked differences in some features. which of a variety of determinants is used to produce the response (i. and there are fewer "good form" responses. Beck (1944 and 1961). some of which impact important variables. in contrast. the examiner then performs a series of calculations producing a structural summary of the test data. For instance. or incoherent aspects of responses. As pertains to response form. the location of the response. and ideation. responses are scored with reference to their level of vagueness or synthesis of multiple images in the blot. as a subjective judgment of how well the form of the subject's response matched the inkblots (Rorschach would give a higher form score to more "original" yet good form responses). With the Rorschach plates (the ten inkblots). texture response is typically zero in European subjects (if interpreted as a need for closeness. The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses. European would seem to express it only when it reaches the level of a craving for closeness).e. to the point where schizophrenia may be suspected if data were correlated to the North American norms.. a concept of "form quality" was present from the earliest of Rorschach's works. what makes the inkblot look like what it is said to resemble). the Exner system solely defines "good form" as a matter of word occurrence frequency. In the system. especially in Europe. cognitive mediation. reducing it to a measure of the subject's distance to the population average. The system places a lot of emphasis on a cognitive triad of information processing. It has been reported that popular responses on the first card include bat. referring to the way information is transformed and identified.
and "musical instrument" on card VI is popular for Japanese people). and different languages will exhibit semantic differences in naming the same object (the figure of card IV is often called a troll by Scandinavians and an ogre by French people). The cited language differences mean that it's imperative for the test to be administered in the subject's native language or a very well mastered second language. while color is less frequent than in American subjects. For example. and thus immediately subject to cultural influences. this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity. the examiner should master the language used in the test.also often the only determinant expressed by European subjects." The ten inkblots . "Christmas elves" (nisser) is a popular response for card II. color-form responses are comparatively frequent in opposition to formcolor responses. but since the equivalent term in French translates to "butterfly tie". Form quality. as opposed to other animals like cats and dogs. as shown by samples in Europe. conversely. Japan and South America. Test responses should also not be translated into another language prior to analysis except possibly by a clinician mastering both languages. in Scandinavia. while specifically card IX's "human" response. a bow tie is a frequent response for the center detail of card III. cultural-dependent interpretation of test data may not necessarily need to extend beyond these components. this difference could stem from a higher value attributed to spontaneous expression of emotions. since the latter tend to be interpreted as indicators of a defensive attitude in processing affect. the crab or spider in card X and one of either the butterfly or the bat in card I appear to be characteristic of North America. which is normally classed as an "unusual" response. Neurology Research using figure 03 have found that ‘‘unique responses’’ are produced in people with larger amygdalas. The researchers note. popular content responses and locations are the only coded variables in the Exner systems that are based on frequency of occurrence. The differences in form quality are attributable to purely cultural aspects: different cultures will exhibit different "common" objects (French subjects often identify a chameleon in card VIII. "Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population. Many of Exner's "popular" responses (those given by at least one third of the North American sample used) seem to be universally popular. an examiner not appreciating this language nuance may code the response differently from what is expected. and. therefore.
however. The red details of card II are often seen as blood. subjects often inquire on how they should proceed. It is not. having readily available popular responses. butterfly. and are the most distinctive features.  They are also in the public domain under United States copyright law: all works published before 1923 are considered to be in the public domain. it can provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. This card can Beck: two humans Piotrowski: four-legged animal(34%. a card that is usually difficult for the subject to handle. according to Swiss copyright law. gray parts) Dana (France): animal: dog. elephant. gray) .Below are the ten inkblots of the Rorschach test printed in Rorschach's Rorschach Test – Psychodiagnostic Plates. Being the first card. butterfly(29%) Dana (France): butterfly (39%) Comments When seeing card I. or 50 years after the cut-off date of 1942). Card Popular responses Beck: bat. moth Piotrowski: bat (53%). They have been in the public domain in Hermann Rorschach's native Switzerland since at least 1992 (70 years after the author's death. turning it) are not very significant. bear (50%. together with the most frequent responses for either the whole image or the most prominent details according to various authors.g. and questions on what they are allowed to do with the card (e. Responses to them can provide indications about how a subject is likely to manage feelings of anger or physical harm.
The human or animal content seen in the card is almost invariably classified as male rather than female. and is generally perceived as a big and sometimes threatening figure. and the qualities expressed by the subject may indicate attitudes toward men and . skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%) induce a variety of sexual responses.Beck: two humans (gray) Piotrowski: human figures (72%. gray) Dana (France): human (76%. this serves to elicit a sense of authority. response latency may reveal struggling social interactions). and may provide information about how the subject relates with other people (specifically. Card IV is notable for its dark color and its shading (posing difficulties for depressed subjects). rug Piotrowski: animal skin. skin. compounded with the common impression of the subject being in an inferior position ("looking up") to it. gray) Beck: animal hide. Card III is typically perceived to contain two humans involved in some interaction.
rug Piotrowski: animal skin. Card V is an easily elaborated card that is not usually perceived as threatening. it is specifically a "sex card". top) authority. top) Dana (France): human head (46%. moth Piotrowski: butterfly (48%). skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%) Beck: human heads or faces(top) Piotrowski: heads of women or children (27%. bat(46%) Beck: animal hide. its likely sexual percepts being reported more frequently than in any other card. and typically instigates a "change of pace" in the test. even though other cards have a greater variety of commonly seen sexual contents. skin. bat(40%) Dana (France): butterfly (48%). butterfly. after the previous more challenging cards. which often elicits association related to interpersonal closeness. Card VII can be associated with femininity (the human figures commonly seeing in it being described as women or . it is the easiest blot to generate a good quality response about.Beck: bat. Texture is the dominant characteristic of card VI. Containing few features that generate concerns or complicate the elaboration.
pink) children). The center detail is relatively often (though not popularly) identified as a vagina. People often express relief about card VIII. where difficulties in responding may be related to concerns with the female figures in the subject's life. Therefore. Similar to card V. . which lets them relax and respond effectively. which make this card also relate to feminine sexuality in particular. and function as a "mother card". pink) Dana (France): four-legged animal(93%.Beck: animal: not cat or dog(pink) Piotrowski: four-legged animal(94%. however. people who find processing complex situations or emotional stimuli distressing or difficult may be uncomfortable with this card. the card introduces new elaboration difficulties. being complex and the first multi-colored card in the set. it represents a "change of pace".
Having difficulty with processing this card may indicate trouble dealing with unstructured data. but aside from this there are few particular "pulls" typical of this card. Card X is structurally similar to card VIII. worms. creating a general vagueness. lobster. but its uncertainty and complexity are reminiscent of card IX: people who find it difficult to deal with many concurrent stimuli may not particularly like this otherwise pleasant card.Beck: human (orange) Piotrowski: none Dana (France): none Beck: crab. snakes (28%. it may provide an opportunity for the subject to "sign out" by indicating what they feel their situation is like. deep green) Dana (France): none Characteristic of card IX is indistinct form and diffuse. spider (37%. There is only one popular response. caterpillars. or what they desire to know. Piotrowski: rabbit head (31%. spider(blue) crab. and it is the least frequent of all cards. Prevalence . blue). muted chromatic features. Being the last card. light green).
000 publications about the test. 636). Another study found that its use by clinical psychologists was only 43%.. Supporters of the Rorschach inkblot test believe that . and 80% of psychology graduate programs teach its use.  Forensic psychologists use the Rorschach 36% of the time. In custody cases. Lee Cronbach (former President of the Psychometric Society and American Psychological Association) is quoted in a review: "The test has repeatedly failed as a prediction of practical criteria. the vast majority of these relationships have never been validated empirically [sic]. 23% of psychologists use the Rorschach to examine a child.] "Its value as a measure of thought disorder in schizophrenia research is well accepted.The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. It is also used regularly in research on dependency." In addition. in studies on hostility and anxiety. while it was used less than 24% of the time by school psychologists. less often. In the 1959 edition of Mental Measurement Yearbook. United States The Rorschach test is used almost exclusively by psychologists. nevertheless possess “validity greater than chance” (p." A moratorium on its use was called for in 1999. substantial evidence justifies the use of the Rorschach as a clinical measure of intelligence and thought disorder. 20% of correctional psychologists used the Rorschach while 80% used the MMPI. Furthermore. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. There is nothing in the literature to encourage reliance on Rorschach interpretations. Cronbach’s (1970) final verdict: that some Rorschach scores. McCall writes (p.  Controversy Some skeptics consider the Rorschach inkblot test pseudoscience.. [. as several studies suggested that conclusions reached by test administrators since the 1950s were akin to cold reading. A 2003 report by Wood and colleagues had more mixed views: "More than 50 years of research have confirmed Lee J. though falling woefully short of the claims made by proponents. and. 154): "Though tens of thousands of Rorschach tests have been administered by hundreds of trained professionals since that time (of a previous review). Another survey found that 124 out of 161 (77%) of clinical psychologists engaging in assessment services utilize the Rorschach. In a survey done in the year 2000." Test materials The basic premise of the test is that objective meaning can be extracted from responses to blots of ink which are supposedly meaningless. major reviewer Raymond J. despite the appearance of more than 2. and while many relationships to personality dynamics and behavior have been hypothesized.
Several scores correlate well with generalintelligence." between client and therapist. In Exner's system. there is substantial research indicating the utility of the measure for a few scores. This conclusion was challenged in studies using large samples reported in 2002. Reber (1985) comments ".) of the inkblot leads to each of the tested person's comments. A possible example sometimes attributed to the psychologist's subjective judgement is that responses are coded (among many other things). such a response is always coded as "clothing" unless there is a clear sexual reference in the response. Disagreements about test validity remain: while the Exner proposed a rigorous scoring system.." Tester projection Some critics argue that the testing psychologist must also project onto the patterns. color. latitude remained in the actual interpretation. the usefulness of the Rorschach will depend upon the sensitivity. Also. Validity When interpreted as a projective test. for "Form Quality": in essence. one such scale is R.. the total . but it is not clear how this occurs. whether the subject's response fits with how the blot actually looks. but the Rorschach's inter-rater reliability has been questioned. and has all but displaced many earlier (and less consistent) scoring systems. however.the subject's response to an ambiguous and meaningless stimulus can provide insight into their thought processes. Superficially this might be considered a subjective judgment.. depending on how the examiner has internalized the categories involved.. etc. That is. but a "clothing" response by females. Another example is that the response "bra" was considered a "sex" response by male psychologists. in some studies the scores obtained by two independent scorers do not match with great consistency. and the clinician's write-up of the test record is still partly subjective. But with the Exner system of scoring. much of the subjectivity is eliminated or reduced by use of frequency tables that indicate how often a particular response is given by the population in general. results are thus poorly verifiable. outline. there is essentially no evidence whatsoever that the test has even a shred of validity. Third parties could be used to avoid this problem. It makes heavy use of what factor (shading. Interestingly. and that a patient typically responds to meaningful as well as ambiguous aspects of the blots. An intense dialogue about the wallpaper or the rug would do as well provided that both parties believe. recent research shows that the blots are not entirely meaningless. empathy and insightfulness of the tester totally independently of the Rorschach itself. Reber (1985) describes the blots as merely "." Nevertheless. the vehicle for the interaction . concluding: ". The Exner system of scoring (also known as the "Comprehensive System") is meant to address this.
any introductory words. suggest that high rates of pathology detected by the Rorshach accurately reflect . (Cancer is mentioned because a small minority of Rorschach enthusiasts have claimed the test can predict cancer. Jones v Apfel (1997) stated (quoting from Attorney's Textbook of Medicine) that Rorschash "results do not meet the requirements of standardization. such as Hibbard. But. since many scales do not correct for high R: if a subject gives twice as many responses overall. cites many court cases where these had not been followed. the procedures for coding responses are fairly well specified but extremely time-consuming to inexperienced examiners. Exner's system was thought to possess normative scores for various populations. but Wood et al. Exner has published detailed instructions. and Human Figure responses. Bogacki stated under oath "many psychologists do not believe much in the validity or effectiveness of the Rorschach test" and US v Battle (2001) ruled that the Rorschash "does not have an objective scoring system. In State ex rel H. who may cut corners as a result. such as where the tester and subject are seated. this reveals the questionable side-effect that more intelligent people tend to be elevated on many pathology scales. (1999) where under cross examination Dr. or such health problems as cancer". and how responses are recorded. verbal and nonverbal responses to subjects' questions or comments. and personality disorders (includingborderline personality disorder). reliability. disordered thinking. US Courts have challenged Rorschach as well. Complexity. and interpretation thus is often controversial". beginning in the mid-1990s others began to try to replicate or update these norms and failed. the Comprehensive System doesn't appear to bear a consistent relationship to psychological disorders or symptoms. Also correlated with intelligence are the scales for Organizational Activity. who are critical of the Rorschach."  Population norms Another area of controversy are the test's statistical norms. or validity of clinical diagnostic tests.  Lillenfeld and colleagues. discrepancies seemed to focus on indices measuring narcissism.) Reliability It is also thought that the test's reliability can depend substantially on details of the testing procedure. There is some evidence that the Deviant Verbalizations scale relates to bipolar disorder. The same source reports that validity has also been shown for detecting such conditions as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.H. thought disorders. have stated that this proves that the Rorschach tends to "overpathologise normals". potential for violence. it is more likely that some of these will seem "pathological". and discomfort in close relationships. Although Rorschach proponents. The authors conclude that "Otherwise. In particular. Similarly. Form Quality.number of responses. personality characteristics.
One study has found that use of the test in courts has increased by three times in the decade between 1996 and 2005. The accusation of "over-pathologising" has also been considered by Meyer et al. with no additional data. if the alternative diagnoses being considered have been well conceptualized with respect to specific or defining personality characteristics". The American Psychological Association (APA) has a code of ethics that supports "freedom of inquiry and expression" and helping "the public in developing informed judgments". anyway. in making official diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). In the vast majority of cases. in part. This controversy stems. 12 % elevated on indices of depression and hypervigilance and 13% elevated on persistent stress overload—all in line with expected frequencies among nonpatient populations. and despite the criticism of usage of the Rorschach in the courts. with only 2 % showing significant elevations on the index of perceptual and thinking disorder. obtained in 21 different samples. The blots are in the public domain in most countries. Protection of test items and ethics Outlines of the ten official inkblots were first made publicly available by William Poundstone in his 1983 book Big Secrets.000 cases in which forensic psychologists used Rorschach-based testimony. Sometimes such information about personality characteristics is helpful in arriving at a differential diagnosis. It claims that its goals include "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work".increasing psychopathology in society. and it provides information concerning aspects of personality structure and dynamics that make people the kind of people they are. the appropriateness of the instrument was challenged only six times. (2007). and it requires that psychologists "make reasonable efforts to maintain the . a false positive rate unexplained by current research. and the testimony was ruled inadmissible in only one of those cases. the Rorschach test wasn't singled out but used as one of several in a battery of tests. particularly those with a copyright termof up to 70 years post mortem auctoris. from the limitations of the Rorschach. Weiner (co-developer with John Exner of the Comprehensive system) has stated that the Rorschach "is a measure of personality functioning. which also described the method of administering the test. compared to the previous fifty years. the Rorschach also identifies half of all test-takers as possessing "distorted thinking". They presented an international collaborative study of 4704 Rorschach protocols. across 17 different countries. Others however have found that its usage by forensic psychologists has decreased. Irving B. out of 8. Applications The test is also controversial because of its common use in court-ordered evaluations.
It has not taken a position on publication of the Rorschach plates but noted "there are a limited number of standardized psychological tests considered appropriate for a given purpose". given the tens of thousands of research papers which have. it is argued that such refusals may hinder full understanding of the process by the attorneys. compared it to the publication of the eye test chart: though people are likewise free to memorize the eye chart before an eye test. such as the Italian Association of Strategic Psychotherapy. Controversy ensued in the psychological community in 2009 when the original Rorschach plates and research results on interpretations were published in the "Rorschach test" article on Wikipedia. called the publication "unbelievably reckless and even cynical of Wikipedia" and said it was investigating the possibility of legal action.23(b) states that the psychologist has a responsibility to document processes in detail and of adequate quality to allow reasonable scrutiny by the court. Koocher (1998) notes that some believe "reprinting copies of the Rorschach plates . Dr. The APA has also raised concerns that the dissemination of test materials might impose "very concrete harm to the general public". Other professional associations. and impede cross-examination of the experts. recommend that even information about the purpose of the test or any detail of its administration should be kept from the public. the Rorschach test is capable of detectingsuicidality. a Canadian emergency room physician involved in the debate. a German company that sells editions of the plates. On September 9. Hogrefe attempted to claim copyright over the Rorschach ink blots during fillings of a complaint with the World Intellectual Property Organization against Ney Limonge of Brazil. For example. APA ethical standard 1. over many . These complaints were denied. 2008.  For those opposed to exposure. Further complaints were sent to two other websites that contained information similar to the Rorschach test in May 2009 by legal firm Schluep and Degen of Switzerland. In his book Ethics in psychology.integrity and security of test materials". publication of the inkblots is described as a "particularly painful development". even though "cheating" the test is held to be practically impossible. its general usefulness as a diagnostic tool for eyesight has not diminished. Psychologists have sometimes refused to disclose tests and test data to courts when asked to do so by the parties citing ethical reasons. A public statement by the British Psychological Society expresses similar concerns about psychological tests (without mentioning any test by name) and considers the "release of [test] materials to unqualified individuals" to be misuse if it is against the wishes of the test publisher. Hogrefe & Huber Publishing... James Heilman. and listing common responses represents a serious unethical act" for psychologists and is indicative of "questionable professional judgment".
and what might happen afterwards. the free encyclopedia Psychology portal The Thematic Apperception Test. In the answers. and problemsolving abilities. Contents [hide] • 1 Procedure . "tried to link a patient’s responses to certain psychological conditions. motives and needs for achievement. the subject may be asked to describe what led up to this scene. editor ofSkeptical Inquirer magazine. motivations and attitudes of the respondent." Thematic Apperception Test From Wikipedia. Benjamin Radford. is a projective psychological test.years." and was hopeful that publication of the test may finally hasten its demise. stated that the Rorschach "has remained in use more out of tradition than good evidence. The examiner then evaluates these descriptions. Thematic apperception test Main article: Thematic Apperception Test Another popular projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in which an individual views ambiguous scenes of people. it has been among the most widely used. which is why these are referred to as "projective tests. Historically. Publication of the Rorschach images is also welcomed by critics who consider the test to be pseudoscience. for example."Controversy over Wikipedia's publication of the inkblots has resulted in the blots being published in other locations. the respondent "projects" their unconscious attitudes and motivations into the picture. researched. power and intimacy. or TAT. and is asked to describe various aspects of the scene. Its adherents claim that it taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality. and taught of such tests. such as The Guardianand The Globe And Mail. the emotions of the characters. attempting to discover the conflicts.
some female. Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender. Although most clinical practitioners do not .• • • • • • • • 2 Scoring Systems 3 History 4 Criticisms 5 Contemporary applications of TAT 6 TAT in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Procedure The TAE is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous picturesabout which the subject must tell a story. the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly. its assessment of the subject is based on what he or she projects onto the ambiguous images. either using cards that they feel are generally useful. including: what has led up to the event shown what is happening at the moment what the characters are feeling and thinking. some of ambiguous gender. like the Rorschach test. If these elements are omitted. Some of the cards show male figures. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented. There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities. Most practitioners choose a set of approximately ten cards. or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation. to complete the assessment each story created by a subject must be carefully analyzed to uncover underlying needs. some both male and female figures. some adults. and what the outcome of the story was. Therefore. attitudes. One is completely blank.  Scoring Systems The TAT is a projective test in that. some children. and some show no human figures at all. any card may be used with any subject. and patterns of reaction.
such as internal conflicts. Morgan at Harvard during the 1930s to explore the underlying dynamics of personality. Criticisms Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is based has caused the TAT to be criticised as false or outdated by many professional psychologists . even ‘old-fashioned. the TAT “came into being when Dr. the Human Potential Movement encouraged psychologists to use the TAT to help their clients understand themselves better and stimulate personal growth. andidentification (most mature). due to the challenge of standardising interpretations of the stories produced by subjects). projection (intermediate). Some critics of the TAT cards have observed that the characters and environments are dated. in the 1970s. interests. Social Cognition and Object Relations SCOR scale. researchers found that the TAT cards evoked more . Also. dominant drives. Their criticisms are that the TAT is unscientific because it cannot be proved to be valid (that it actually measures what it claims to measure). Murray and Christiana D. History TAT was developed by the American psychologists Henry A. Later. Affect-Tone of Relationship Paradigms. This assesses four different dimensions of object relations: Complexity of Representations of People.use formal scoring systems. This assesses three defense mechanisms: denial (least mature).’ creating a ‘cultural or psychosocial distance’ between the patients and these stimuli that makes identifying with them less likely . and Understanding of Social Causality. According to Melville scholar Howard P Vincent. and motives. adapted the implicit lesson of Melville’s [Moby Dick] “Doubloon” chapter to a new and larger creative. therapeutic purpose. Murray. the TAT was adopted more broadly by psychoanalysts and clinicians to evaluate emotionally disturbed patients. several formal scoring systems have been developed for analyzing TAT stories systematically and consistently. or reliable (that it gives consistent results over time. Two common methods that are currently used in research are the: Defense Mechanisms Manual DMM. Capacity for Emotional Investment in Relationships and Moral Standards. psychologist and Melvillist .” After World War II. Henry A. in researching the responses of subjects given photographs versus the TAT. A person's thoughts/feelings are projected in stories involved.
e... The results concluded that the old TAT elicited answers that included many more specific time references than the new TAT." To which Daria characteristically replies. "Oh. or to screen candidates for high-stress occupations. It is also used by the Services Selection Board of India. In a 2005 dissertation. mate selectionand what motivates people to choose their occupation. then. The Israeli army uses the test for evaluating potential officers. Daria states that she sees "a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. thought disorders.‘deviant’ stories (i. they're people and you tell me what they're discussing. Contemporary applications of TAT Despite criticisms. It's a guy and a girl and they're . All right. Daria and Quinn are shown a picture of two people. In the MTV cartoon Daria. the TAT remains widely used as a tool for research into areas of psychology such as dreams. TAT is widely used in France and Argentina using a psychodynamic approach. not ponies. Psy. in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects.. dear. Michael Crichton included the TAT in the battery of tests given to the disturbed patient and main character Harry Benson in his novel. fantasies. Daria states. Sometimes it is used in a psychiatric or psychological context to assess personality disorders. TAT in popular culture Thomas Harris' novel Red Dragon includes a scene where the imprisoned psychiatrist and serial killer Dr." The psychologist explains. Matthew Narron. leading them to conclude that the difference was due to the differences in the characteristics of the images used as stimuli . Hannibal Lecter mocks a previous attempt to administer the test to him. Quinn makes up a story about the two people having a discussion about popularity and dating. "That's a different test. "last time I took one of these tests they told me they were clouds.D. The Terminal Man. as a way to explore emotional conflicts and object relations . attempted to address these issues by reproducing a Leopold Bellak  10 card set photographically and performing an outcome study. In this test. typically without a formal scoring system. They said they could be whatever I wanted." The psychologist tells her the picture is of two people. more negative) than photographs. It is also commonly used in routine psychological evaluations. I see. Daria and her sister Quinn are given a test that appears to be the TAT by the school psychologist on their first day at their new school.
the main character of A Clockwork Orange.. a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains." (Cf.discussing. the protagonist in Daniel Keyes' Flowers for Algernon. the Rorschach test administered to Charly Gordon in Flowers for Algernon.) The TAT is administered to Alex. You got to pass it or you get bad marks [sic]" Draw-A-Person test Main article: Draw-A-Person Test The Draw-A-Person test requires the subject to draw a person." As he says. shape and complexity of the facial features. The results are based on a psychodynamic interpretation of the details of the drawing. Charlie Gordon. notes in his progress report 4 on March 6th that he was given a "Thematic Appreciation Test. and he replies that he "pretends" a tablecloth with an ink pen "leeking" all over it. the approach has very little demonstrated validity and there is evidence that therapists may attribute pathology to individuals who are merely poor artists. during which Drs. Niemur and Strauss ask him what he "sees" on a card. he replies that he sees an inkblot. Draw-A-Person Test From Wikipedia. As with other projective tests. . the free encyclopedia Smiling person (combined head and body) age 4½. such as the size. "I dont know the frist 2 werds but I know what test means. they ask him to pretend that it is something else. clothing and background of the figure. A similar class of techniques is kinetic family drawing..
Contents [hide] • • • • 1 History 2 Nature of the test 3 See also 4 Notes and References History Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926.e. in the 1976 book. when they do. head to feet. large eyes as indicative of paranoia. however. And that such signs might be a patient's neglect to include "obvious anatomical parts like hands and eyes." with "blurred and unconnected lines. and themselves. There has been no validation of this test as indicative of schizophrenia. Harris later revised and extended the test and it is now known as theGoodenough-Harris Drawing Test. Harris's book (1963) provides scoring scales which are used to examine and .The Draw-A-Person Test (DAP. a woman. Chapman and Chapman (1969)." and that while not all schizophrenic patients have trouble drawing a person. this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test. children rarely take longer than about 10 or 15 minutes to complete all three drawings. No further instructions are given and the child is free to make the drawing in whichever way he/she would like. Dale B. Dr. e. it is very clear evidence of a disorder. Nature of the test Test administration involves the administrator requesting children to complete three individual drawings on separate pieces of paper.i. The revision and extension is detailed in his book Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity(1963). although the child must make a drawing of a whole person each time . The test has no time limit. showed that the scoring manual.. or Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test) is a psychological projective personality or cognitive test used to evaluate children and adolescents for a variety of purposes. DAP test. not just the face. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind wrote that the test is "routinely administered as an indicator of schizophrenia. Psychologist Julian Jaynes. There is no right or wrong type of drawing. could be generated from the naive beliefs of undergraduates. Children are asked to draw a man." ambiguous sexuality and general distortion.g. in a classic study of illusory correlation. It is detailed in her book titled Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings.
referred to as “stems. eight dimensions of each drawing are evaluated against norms for the child's age group. There is debate over whether or not sentence completion tests elicit responses from . nonthreatening task to evaluate intelligence is intended to eliminate possible sources of bias by reducing variables like primary language. the test administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: QSS (Quantitative Scoring System). The use of a nonverbal. For the first type. See also completion test Sentence Main article: Sentence completion tests Sentence completion tests require the subject complete sentence "stems" with their own words. However. such as specific body parts and clothing. motivations. beliefs. A separate standard score is recorded for each drawing. Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences.personality characteristics. and proportion. detail.” and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. the administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance) to score the drawings. and beliefs. and sensitivity to working under pressure. This system analyzes fourteen different aspects of the drawings. This system is composed of two types of criteria. or other mental states. verbal skills. and a total score for all three. 47 different items are considered for each drawing. The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes. communication disabilities. The test is completely non-invasive and non-threatening to children which is part of its appeal. motivations. test results can be influenced by previous drawing experience. for various criteria. To assess the test-taker for emotional problems. For the second type. a factor that may account for the tendency of middle-class children to score higher on this test than lower-class children. who often have fewer opportunities to draw. The subject's response is considered to be a projection of their conscious and/or unconscious attitudes. The purpose of the test is to assist professionals in inferring children's cognitive developmental levels with little or no influence of other factors such as language barriers or special needs. In all. Any other uses of the test are merely projective and are not endorsed by the first creator. Sentence completion tests From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Sentence completion tests are a class of semi-structured projective techniques. there are 64 scoring items for each drawing.score the child's drawings. To evaluate intelligence. including presence or absence.
A long sentence completion test is the Forer Sentence Completion Test. Another reason for the increased usage of sentence completion tests is because of their superiority to other measures in uncovering conflicted attitudes. Ebbinghaus’s sentence completion test was used as part of an intelligence test. Structured tests have longer stems that lead respondents to more specific types of responses. or much longer. such as those used to assess personality. As of the 1980s. in part because they are easy to develop and easy to administer. . such as those used to assess responses to advertisements. validity and reliability 5 References History Herman Von Ebbinghaus is generally credited with developing the first sentence completion test in 1897. The tests are usually administered in booklet form where respondents complete the stems by writing words on paper. which has 100 stems. which produce a wider variety of responses. sentence completion tests were the seventh most widely used personality assessment instruments. A sentence completion test form may be relatively short. In recent decades. This debate would affect whether sentence completion tests can be strictly categorized as projective tests.conscious thought rather than unconscious states. less structured tests provide shorter stems. The structures of sentence completion tests vary according to the length and relative generality and wording of the sentence stems. Carl Jung’s word association test may also have been a precursor to modern sentence completion tests. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 History 2 Uses 3 Examples of sentence completion tests 4 Data analysis. sentence completion tests have increased in usage. Some sentence completion tests were developed as a way to overcome the problems associated with thematic apperception measures of the same constructs.
. References Uses in marketing .Uses The uses of sentence completion tests include personality analysis. attitude assessment. The validity of each sentence completion test must be determined independently and this depends on the instructions laid out in the scoring manual. sentence completion tests tend to have high face validity (i. including psychology.e. because in many cases the sentence stems name or refer to specific objects and the respondent is provides responses specifically focused on such objects. Sentence completion tests usually include some formal coding procedure or manual. and marketing. Compared to positivist instruments. management. education. Sentence completion measures have also been incorporated into non-projective applications. achievement motivation. They are used in several disciplines. clinical applications. the extent to which measurement items accurately reflect the concept being measured). and language and cognitive development tests. Some of the most widely used sentence completion tests include: Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (assesses personality traits. such as intelligence tests. Examples of sentence completion tests There are many sentence completion tests available for use by researchers. This is to be expected. Washington University Sentence Completion Test (measures ego development). and measurement of other constructs. Data analysis. such as Likert-type scales. perhaps the most widely used of all sentence completion tests). Miner Sentence Completion Test (measures managerial motivations). validity and reliability The data collected from sentence completion tests can usually be analyzed either quantitatively or qualitatively. language comprehension.
Scoring is based on twenty-two items: reaction time. originally drawn from a pool of several thousand. rather than interpreting the meaning of the responses given by a single subject. of the controversial issues aroused by the Rorschach Inkblot Test. including TATs. because the responses of multiple respondents are grouped together for analysis by the organisation commissioning the research. The tests have also been used in management to assess achievement motivation and other drives. animal. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. projective tests are used to evaluate responses to advertisements. pathognomonicverbalization. in sociology to assess the adoption of innovations. oltzman Inkblot Test From Wikipedia. and in anthropology to study cultural meaning. if not all. integration. hostility. The technique is featured as part of a travelling exhibition entitled "Psychology: Understanding Ourselves. Objective tests (Rating scale or self-report measure) . form definiteness. Understanding Each Other" and sponsored by the American Psychological Association in partnership with the Ontario Science Centre. and popularity. form appropriateness. In advertising.(July 2009) The Holtzman Inkblot Test. penetration. conceived by Wayne Holtzman. Scoring takes a very long time if the test is not administered by computer. or abstract). head trauma or depression. anatomy. movement. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. color. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. barrier. shading. space. children. balance. for example to help identify potential associations betweenbrand images and the emotions they may provoke. The application of responses is different in these disciplines than in psychology. is a projective personality test similar to the Rorschach test. anxiety. and with patients suffering from schizophrenia.Projective techniques. content (human. The Holtzman Inkblot Test was invented to correct many. The test consists of two alternate forms of forty-five inkblots. rejection. The Holtzman Inkblot Test has been used in both experimental and clinical applications. sexual. location. are used in qualitative marketing research. It is housed permanently at theSmithsonian Institution. The Holtzman Inkblot Test is used primarily with students.
the free encyclopedia The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. or Five Factor Model of normal personality.1 MMPI 1. The Big Five. Prominent examples of objective personality tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.2 Validity scales 2. Objective personality tests can be designed for use in business for potential employees.Children (FFPI-C. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory From Wikipedia.).Objective tests have a restricted response format. Another personality test based upon the Five Factor Model is the Five Factor Personality Inventory . all of which are based on the Big Fivetaxonomy. the 16PF. has gained acceptance since the early 1990s when some influential meta-analyses (e.4 MMPI-2 RF 2 Current scale composition 2.1 RC and Clinical Scales .2 MMPI-2 1. Child Behavior Checklist.3 MMPI-A 1..4 PSY-5 scales 3 Scoring and interpretation 4 Criticism and controversy 4. such as allowing for true or false answers or rating using an ordinal scale. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology. and the Beck Depression Inventory. such as the NEO-PI. and the OPQ (Occupational Personality Questionnaire).1 Clinical scales 2.g. Barrick & Mount 1991) found consistent relationships between the Big Five personality factors and important criterion variables. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Contents [hide] • o o o o • o o o o • • o 1 History and development 1.3 Content scales 2.
Computer scoring programs for the current standardized version. 2009) using an empirical keying approach. The computer scoring programs offer a range of scoring profile choices including the extended score report. Supplementary.o • • • 5 Notes 4. C. Use of the MMPI is tightly controlled for ethical and financial reasons. However. and other subscales of potential interest to clinicians. Handbook of Psychological Assessment. MMPI The original MMPI was developed in 1939 (Groth Marnat. Hathaway. which includes data on the newest and most psychometrically advanced scales—the Restructured Clinical Scales (RC scales). by character Clarice Starling. The atheoretical approach to MMPI development ostensibly enabled the test to capture aspects of human psychopathology that were recognizable and meaningful despite changes in clinical theories. The standardized answer sheets can be hand scored with templates that fit over the answer sheets. because the MMPI scales were created based on a group with known psychopathologies. The extended score report also provides scores on the more traditionally used Clinical Scales as well as Content. The difference between this approach and other test development strategies used around that time was that it was atheoretical (not based on any particular theory) and thus the initial test was not aligned with the prevailing psychodynamic theories of that time. and J. the scales themselves are not atheoretical by way of using the participants' clinical diagnoses to determine the scales' contents. The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. which means that the clinical scales were derived by selecting items that were endorsed by patients known to have been diagnosed with certain pathologies. MMPI-2 .2 Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale 6 See also 7 External links History and development The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. as well as a charge to install the computerized program. are licensed by the University of Minnesota Press to Pearson Assessments and other companies located in different countries. McKinley. MD. PhD. as ones she is familiar with. the MMPI-2. The tests are mentioned in Thomas Harris' 1988 novel The Silence of the Lambs. but most tests are computer scored. The clinician using the MMPI has to pay for materials and for scoring and report services.
with a short form of 350 items. hierarchically structured set of scales. which have been extensively researched since their publication in 2003.. all trueor-false format. Scale 2 (formerly known as the Depression Scale) : Measures a person's discouragement level. MMPI-A A version of the test designed for adolescents. Scale 4 (formerly known as the Psychopathic Deviate Scale) : Measures a person's need for control or their rebellion against control. and usually takes between 1 and 2 hours to complete depending on reading level.  The MMPI-2-RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a homogenous condition that is additive. illness or time pressure). The shorter version has been mainly used in circumstances that have not allowed the full version to be completed (e. It is appropriate for use with adults 18 and over.. which had been found to contain a general factor that made interpretation of scores on the clinical scales difficult. MMPI-2 RF A new and psychometrically improved version of the MMPI-2 has recently been developed employing rigorous statistical methods that were used to develop the RC Scales in 2003.. The MMPI-A has 478 items. There is an infrequently used abbreviated form of the test that consists of the MMPI-2's first 370 items. The modern methods used to develop the MMPI-2-RF were not available at the time the MMPI was originally developed.. and a wide variety of subscales was also introduced over many years to help clinicians interpret the results of the original clinical scales. Scale 3 (formerly known as the Hysteria Scale) : Measures the emotionality of a person.  Current Clinical scale composition scales Scale 1 (formerly known as the Hypochondriasis Scale) : Measures a person's perception of their health or actual injuries or health issues. Publications on the MMPI-2-RC Scales include book chapters. The new MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has now been released by Pearson Assessments. The MMPI-2-RF builds on the foundation of the RC Scales. was released in 1992. The current MMPI-2 has 567 items. including the RC Scales. Scale 5 (formerly known as the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) : Measures a stereotype of a person and how they . and address the use of the scales in a wide range of settings. multiple published articles in peer-reviewed journals. but the scores available on the shorter version are not as extensive as those available in the 567-item version. Subsequent revisions of certain test elements have been published. The MMPI-2-RF produces scores on a theoretically grounded.The first major revision of the MMPI was the MMPI-2.g.. which was standardized on a new national sample of adults in the United States and released in 1989. the MMPI-A.
. scale 0 (formerly known as the Social Introversion Scale) : Measures whether people like to be around other people. Scale 8 (formerly known as the Schizophrenia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to have original or unique thoughts and whether they can think outside the box. Scale 9 (formerly known as the Mania Scale) : Measures a person's psychic energy. Scale 7 (formerly known as the Psychestenia Scale) : Measures whether someone made it into adulthood with or without unresolved issues. obsessiveness 48 8 Sc Schizophrenia Odd thinking and social alienation 78 . Anxiety. For men it would be the Marlboro man. struggle.. the current practice is to use the numbers only. anger. The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era.. sensitivity 40 7 Pt Psychasthenia Worry. While the descriptions of each type were originally used in assessment. of Items Number Abbreviation Description What is Measured 1 Hs Hypochondriasis Concern with bodily symptoms 32 2 D Depression Depressive Symptoms 57 3 Hy Hysteria Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities 60 4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate Conflict... respect for society's 50 rules 5 MF Masculinity/Femininity Stereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors 56 6 Pa Paranoia Level of trust. suspiciousness. No. tension.compare. doubts. Scale 6 (formerly known as the Paranoia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to trust. for women it would be June Cleaver or Donna Reed.
9 Ma Hypomania Level of excitability 46 0 Si Social Introversion People orientation 69 Codetypes are a combination of the one or two highest-scoring clinical scales (ex. those designed to detect when clients are over reporting or exaggerating the prevalence or severity of psychological symptoms (F. and those designed to detect when test-takers are underreporting or downplaying psychological symptoms (L. New in version Abbreviation Description Assesses ? 1 "Cannot Say" Questions not answered L 1 Lie Client "faking good" F 1 Infrequency Client "faking bad" (in first half of test) K 1 Defensiveness Denial/Evasiveness Fb 2 Back F Client "faking bad" (in last half of test) VRIN 2 Variable Response Inconsistency answering similar/opposite question pairs inconsistently TRIN 2 True Response Inconsistency answering questions all true/all false . K)). which includes three basic types of validity measures: those that were designed to detect nonresponding or inconsistent responding (CNS.8. Validity scales The validity scales in the MMPI-2 RF are minor revisions of those contained in the MMPI-2. Fb. . Codetypes and interaction of clinical scales can be quite complex and require specialized training to properly interpret. TRIN). Fp. VRIN. A new addition to the validity scales for the MMPI-2 RF includes an over reporting scale of somatic symptoms scale (Fs). FBS). 48).
and the A (anxiety) and R (repression) scales. the following are some samples: Abbreviation Description Es Ego Strength Scale OH Over-Controlled Hostility Scale MAC MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale MAC-R MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale Revised Do Dominance Scale . with the more frequently used being the substance abuse scales (MAC-R. designed to assess the extent to which a client admits to or is prone to abusing substances. "appearing excessively good" Fp 2 F-Psychopathology Frequency of presentation in clinical setting Fs 2 RF Infrequent Somatic Response Overreporting of somatic symptoms Content scales To supplement these multidimensional scales and to assist in interpreting the frequently seen diffuse elevations due to the general factor (removed in the RC scales) were also developed. APS. AAS). developed by Welsh after conducting a factor analysis of the original MMPI item pool.F-K 2 F minus K honesty of test responses/not faking good or bad S 2 Superlative Self-Presentation improving upon K scale. Dozens of content scales currently exist.
. Disconstraint (DISC) and Aggressiveness (AGGR). The five factor model of human personality has gained great acceptance in non-pathological populations.Standard Deviation equals 10).APS Addictions Potential Scale AAS Addictions Acknowledgement Scale SOD Social Discomfort Scale A Anxiety Scale R Repression Scale TPA Type A Scale MDS Marital Distress Scale PSY-5 scales Unlike the Content and Supplementary scales. Scoring and interpretation Like many standardized tests. but rather as an attempt to connect the instrument with more general trend in personality psychology. making interpretation easier for clinicians. analysis looks at relative elevation of factors compared to the various norm groups studied. Test manufacturers and publishers ask test purchasers to prove they are qualified to purchase the MMPI/MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF and other tests. The five components were labeled Negative Emotionality (NEGE). the PSY-5 scales were not developed as a reaction to some actual or perceived shortcoming in the MMPI-2 itself. scores on the various scales of the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF are not representative of either percentile rank or how "well" or "poorly" someone has done on the test. Introversion (INTR). Psychoticism (PSYC). Rather. Raw scores on the scales are transformed into a standardized metric known as T-scores (Mean or Average equals 50. and the PSY-5 scales differ from the 5 factors identified in non-pathological populations in that they were meant to determine the extent to which personality disorders might manifest and be recognizable in clinical populations.
more pure versions of the original clinical scales because 1) the interscale correlations are greatly reduced and no items are contained in more than one RC scale and. Critics of the RC scales assert they have deviated too far from the original clinical scales. However. The replacement of the original Clinical Scales with the RC scales has not been met with universal approval.Criticism RC and controversy and Clinical Scales Some questions have been raised about the RC Scales and the forthcoming release of the MMPI-2-RF. finally. Individuals in favor of retaining the older Clinical scales have argued that the new RC scales are measuring pathology which is markedly different than that measured by the original clinical scales. the RC scales are not saturated with the primary factor (demoralization. the implication being that previous research done on the clinical scales will no longer be relevant to the interpretation of the RC scales and the burden of proof should be on the RC scales to demonstrate they are clearly superior to the original clinical scales. Critics of the new scales argue that the removal of this common variance makes the RC scales less ecologically valid (less like real life) because real patients tend to present complex patterns of symptoms. contain no interscale item overlap. in contrast to the original clinical scales. therefore. Proponents of the RC scales assert that research has adequately addressed those issues with results indicating that the RC scales predict pathology in their designated areas better than their concordant original clinical scales while using significantly fewer items and maintaining equal to higher internal consistency reliability and validity. A more basic criticism is that the MMPI-2 RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a . are also more transparent and much easier to interpret. and has warranted enough discussion to prompt a special issue of the academic Journal of Personality Assessment (Vol 87. October 2006) to provide each side with a forum to voice their opinions regarding the old and new measures. now captured in RCdem) which frequently produced diffuse elevations and made interpretation of results difficult. Issue 2. This claim is not supported by results of research. further. this issue is addressed by being able to view elevations on other RC scales that are less saturated with the general factor and. the RC scales have lower interscale correlations and. 2) common variance spread across the older clinical scales due to a general factor common to psychopathology is parsed out and contained in a separate scale measuring demoralization (RCdem). which eliminates the older clinical scales entirely in favor of the more psychometrically appealing RC scales. which has found the RC scales to be cleaner. unlike the original clinical scales. and are not weaker at identifying the core elements of the original clinical scales.
One of the critics of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is retired psychologist James Butcher. including the likelihood that his subject pool included many malingerers. The article reports that in 1991 Lees-Haley paid to have an article supportive of his scale published in Psychological Reports. that he ignored . Although symptoms are mainly homogenous. and the Wiener-Harmon Subtle and Obvious Scales (S-O) . most psychodiagnostic conditions such as hysteria.) in personal injury cases. This review was considered flawed by its critics because at least 10 of 19 studies reviewed were done by Lees-Haley or other insurance defense psychologists. while 21 other studies critical of the test were excluded from the review. Butcher's own study has been criticized on methodological and conceptual grounds. Butcher contends that it is unlikely that so many psychiatric patients misled doctors. ” However. but not great for people. contradictory states. which is used in courts as argument for malingering in injury litigation. In March 2008 a front page article in the Wall Street Journal exposed what it claimed to be the lack of scientific validity of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale The following discussion concerns the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. The article reports that this particular "fake bad" scale was developed by psychologist Paul LeesHaley. The article quotes Butcher concluding: “ This is great for insurance companies. who found that more than 45 percent of psychiatric patients he studied had Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale scores of 20 or more. and which have not been subject to the same kind of controversy as the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. These include the F-K scale . According to the article. who works mainly for defendants (insurance companies etc. there are several other "fake bad" scales (aside from the standard F and Fb scales." The scale was introduced in MMPI after a review of the literature. the Gough Dissimilation index (Ds-r) . and seemingly unrelated signs and symptoms that can not be measured by scales that were made to have high internal consistency. which the Wall Street Journal described as "a small Montana-based medical journal. DID are composed of defenses. two Florida judges barred use of the scale after special hearings on its scientific validity. which are the original "fake bad" scales) that have been in existence since 1950. PTSD.homogenous condition that is additive. which according to the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale meant they were malingering.
Roger Davis. The MCMI was developed and standardised specifically on clinical populations (i. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III) The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) is a psychological assessment tool intended to provide information onpsychopathology. and the authors are very specific that it should not be used with the general population. and so psychologists will often administer the test to members of the general population.e. there is a strong evidence base that shows that it still retains validity on non-clinical populations.  Several studies by independent Neuropsychologists have since been published in respected peer-reviewed journals supporting the Lees-Haley FBS scale as highly sensitive and specific (when proper cut-offs are used) in identifying individuals who are exaggerating somatic symptoms (as opposed to psychiatric. or neurological symptoms) in settings where the base-rate of malingering is typically high (litigation. It is intended for adults (18 and over) with at least an 8th grade reading level. It is composed of 175 true-false questions that reportedly takes 25-30 minutes to complete. and used a less sensitive or specific MMPI-2 scale as his 'gold-standard. Carrie Millon.'  Despite the reservations of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-R authors (including James Butcher) who have a degree of proprietary control over the test. 2 Random Response Indicatiors .  Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory From Wikipedia. pain clinics. an independent professional panel recommended that the Lees-Haley FBS be included in the standard Pearson scoring system. It was created by Theodore Millon.  The Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is now regarded by some authors as a 'gold standard' in such populations. patients in psychiatric hospitals or people with existing mental health problems). etc. However. as it was designed to do. including specific disorders outlined in the DSM-IV. The test is modeled on four scales 14 Personality Disorder Scales 10 Clinical Syndrome Scales 5 Correction Scales: 3 Modifying Indices (which determine the patient's response style and can detect random responding). mood. and Seth Grossman.recommended gender-related cut-offs.).
These are compared against each other to gain an understanding of the patient's response style. Conversion to a Base Rate score is relatively complex. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Scoring system 2 Interpretation 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Scoring system Patients' raw scores are converted to Base Rate (BR) scores to allow comparison between the personality indices. with 60 being the median score. the Disclosure Scale (X). 42 Grossman Personality Facet Scales (based on Seth Grossman's theories of personality and psychopathology) The test was normed on a sample of 998 male and female adults with a wide variety of clinical disorders. They are used to determine a patient's response style. and so is scored between 0 and 3.the Validity scale (V). For instance. It is not converted to a BR score. elevated scores on the Disclosure and Desirability scales suggest a "cry for help" response style. and there are certain corrections that are administered based on each patient's response style. or if they were unwilling to disclose details about themselves (the Disclosure Scale). . such as whether they were keen to present themselves in a positive light (indicated by an elevation on the Desirability scale) or exaggerate the negative aspects of themselves (indicated by the Debasement scale). The Validity index is an exception to this. The Base Rate scores are essentially where each score fits on a scale of 1115. the Desirability Scale (Y) and the Debasement Scale (Z). The Modifying indices are scored using a complex system in which the patient's responses in the other scales are compared and the raw and BR scores are taken from this. It also is used to measure whether the patient was open in the assessment. It consists of three questions. Interpretation The modifying indices consist of 4 scales .
These categorizations are based on quantiles from a normative sample. Scores of 85 or above indicate the persistence of a personality trait or a clinical syndrome. 2 = Very True or Often True. A score of 2 or 3 on this scale would render the test invalid. 1 = Somewhat or Sometimes True. Some syndromes are further summed to provide scores for Internalizing and Externalizing problem scales.g. A total score from all questions is also derived. It is a component in the Achenbach System of Emperically Based Assessment. the scale is very sensitive to random responding. e. Responses are recorded on a Likert scale: 0 = Not True. A raw score above 178 or below 34 is considered to not be an accurate representation of the patient's personality style as they either over. problem scale and the total score. or (for the Clinical Syndromes scales) the presence of a clinical syndrome. The preschool checklist (CBCL/1½-5) is intended for use with children aged 18 months to 5 years. tables are given that determine whether the score represents normal. The Validity Index consists of just three questions in which a response of "True" is extremely unlikely. See also Child Behavior Checklist From Wikipedia. usually a parent or teacher. e. such as "I was on the front cover of several magazines last year. and their scores are summed to produce a score for that syndrome." While only consisting of 3 questions. There are two versions of the checklist. the free encyclopedia The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely-used method of identifying problem behavior in children.The Disclosure scale is the only scale in the MCMI-III in which the raw scores are interpreted and in which a particularly low score is clinically relevant. The checklists consists of a number of statements about the child's behavior. Acts too young for his/her age. scores of 75-84 are taken to indicate personality trait. For each syndrome. Aggressive behavior. The school-age version (CBCL/6-18) is for children aged 6 to 18 years. For the Personality and Clinical Syndrome scales. Problems are identified by a respondent who knows the child well. or clinical behavior.g. The preschool checklist contains 100 questions and the school-age checklist contains 120 questions. borderline.or under-disclosed. . Similar questions are grouped into a number of syndromes.
Beck Depression Inventory From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Psychology History of psychology Branches of psychology Basic science Abnormal · Behavioral neuroscience Cognitive · Developmental Experimental · Evolutionary Mathematical · Neuropsychology Personality · Positive Psychophysics · Social Transpersonal Applied science Clinical · Educational Forensic · Health Industrial and organizational Occupational health School · Sport · Military Lists Outline · Publications Topics · Therapies Portal v•d•e .
Aaron T. is a 21question multiple-choice self-report inventory. Beck.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts. Its development marked a shift among health care professionals. weight loss. and the BDI-II. Contents [hide] • • o • o • • • • • • 1 Development and history 2 BDI 2.1 BDI-IA 3 BDI-II 3. In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over. first published in 1961 and later revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A. depression was described in psychodynamic terms as "inverted hostility against the self". created by Dr. who had until then viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective. By contrast. . and lack of interest in sex. The BDI is widely used as an assessment tool by health care professionals and researchers in a variety of settings. as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue. and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability. the BDI was developed in a novel way for its time. cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished. one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity ofdepression. There are three versions of the BDI—the original BDI. BDI-II).1 Two-factor approach to depression 4 Impact 5 Limitations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links Development and history Historically. by collating patients' verbatim descriptions of their symptoms and using these to structure a scale which could reflect the intensity or severity of a given symptom. published in 1996.
The student has negative thoughts about his future. 10–18 indicates mild-moderate depression. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. The view of depression as sustained by intrusive negative cognitions has had particular application in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). rather than being generated by depression. consisted of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week. which play a major role in depression. For example: (0) I do not feel sad. first published in 1961. (2) I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it. An example of the triad in action taken from Brown (1995) is the case of a student obtaining poor exam results: The student has negative thoughts about the world. . a value of 0 to 3 is assigned for each answer and then the total score is compared to a key to determine the depression's severity. Beck developed a triad of negative cognitions about the world. (3) I am so sad or unhappy that I can't stand it. with items such as "I have lost all of my interest in other people" to reflect the world. the future. "I feel discouraged about the future" to reflect the future. because he thinks he may not pass the class. so he may come to believe he does not enjoy the class. as he may feel he does not deserve to be in college. and the self.Throughout his work. Beck drew attention to the importance of "negative cognitions": sustained. The development of the BDI reflects that in its structure. (1) I feel sad. Each question has a set of at least four possible answer choices. In his view. and "I blame myself for everything bad that happens" to reflect the self. ranging in intensity. it was the case that these cognitions caused depression. The student has negative thoughts about his self. which aims to challenge and neutralize them through techniques such as cognitive restructuring. and often intrusive negative thoughts about the self. 19–29 indicates moderate-severe depression and 30–63 indicates severe depression. The standard cut-offs are as follows: 0–9 indicates that a person is not depressed. inaccurate. BDI The original BDI. When the test is scored.
 developed in response to the American Psychiatric Association's publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 20–28: moderate depression.  The test also has high internal consistency (α=. with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of around 0. The test was also shown to have a high one-week test–retest reliability (Pearson r =0.85. Items involving changes in body image. Finally. participants were asked to rate how they have been feeling for the past two weeks. and respondents were instructed to endorse how they had been feeling during the preceding two weeks. 14–19: mild depression. and interest in sex remained the same. In this respect. which changed many of the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. However. there are two responses under the Mood heading that score a 2: (2a) I am blue or sad all the time and I can't snap out of it and (2b) I am so sad or unhappy that it is very painful. suggesting that it was not overly sensitive to daily variations in mood. The internal consistency for the BDI-IA was good. For instance. BDI-II The BDI-II was a 1996 revision of the BDI. Fourth Edition. the BDI-IA only addressed six out of the nine DSMIII criteria for depression. as opposed to the past week as in the original BDI. only the items dealing with feelings of being punished. hypochondria. sleep loss and appetite loss items were revised to assess both increases and decreases in sleep and appetite. developed by Beck during the 1970s and copyrighted in 1978. the BDI-II is positively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with aPearson r of 0. the "a and b statements" described above were removed. the BDI-II also contains 21 questions. showing good agreement. One measure of an instrument's usefulness is to see how closely it agrees with another similar instrument that has been validated against clinical interview by a trained clinician. and difficulty working were replaced. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. All but three of the items were reworded.93).Some items on the BDI have more than one statement marked with the same score. each answer being scored on a scale value of 0 to 3. This and other criticisms were addressed in the BDI-II. BDI-IA The BDI-IA was a revision of the original instrument. Two-factor approach to depression . Like the BDI. Also. The cutoffs used differ from the original: 0–13: minimal depression. and 29–63: severe depression. To improve ease of use. thoughts about suicide. this version retained some flaws.71.91). meaning that the items on the inventory are highly correlated with each other.
loss of pleasure. irritability. past failures. Persian. loss of energy. for instance. in 1998. Like all questionnaires. The two subscales were moderately correlated at 0. Chinese. tiredness and/or fatigue. suggesting that the physical and psychological aspects of depression are closely related rather than totally distinct. The purpose of the subscales is to help determine the primary cause of a patient's depression. It has been translated into multiple European languages as well as Arabic. it had been used in over 2000 empirical studies. loss of interest. If a patient is asked to fill out the form in front of other people in a clinical environment. and loss of interest in sex. in that scores can be easily exaggerated or minimized by the person completing them. and Xhosa. In participants with concomitant physical illness the BDI's reliance on physical symptoms such as fatigue may artificially inflate scores due to symptoms of the illness.suicidal thoughts or wishes. crying. and worthlessness. The somatic subscale consists of the other thirteen items: sadness. the way the instrument is administered can have an effect on the final score. psychodynamic perspective. social expectations might elicit a different response compared to administration via a postal survey. it can monitor changes over time and provide an objective measure for judging improvement and the effectiveness or otherwise of treatment methods. it represented a shift in health care professionals' view of depression from a Freudian. Impact The development of the BDI was an important event in psychiatry and psychology. The affective subscale contains eight items: pessimism.  In an effort to deal with this concern Beck and his colleagues developed the "Beck Depression . to one guided by the patient's own thoughts or "cognitions".57. The instrument remains widely used in research. mood) and the physical or "somatic" component (e.Depression can be thought of as having two components: the affective component (e. loss of appetite). The BDI was originally developed to provide a quantative assessment of the intensity of depression. Limitations The BDI suffers from the same problems as other self-report inventories. self-criticalness. change in appetite. self-dislike. It also established the principle that instead of attempting to develop a psychometric tool based on a possibly invalid theory. change in sleep patterns. concentration difficulties. rather than of depression. agitation. Because it is designed to reflect the depth of depression.g.g. indecisiveness. guilty feelings. self-report questionnaires when analysed using techniques such as factor analysis can suggest theoretical constructs. punishment feelings. The BDI-II reflects this and can be separated into two subscales. Japanese.
the BDI is sometimes used by health care providers to reach a quick diagnosis. OPQ or OPQ32. the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources. in 1984. The authors were Saville et al. and they were launched by Saville and Holdsworth Ltd. development.An independent review can be found below (4): . succession planning and organisational change. (July 2009) The Occupational Personality Questionnaires. It is now available in more than 30 languages and uses innovative Item Response theory to shorten the questionnaire down to under 30 minutes. a short screening scale consisting of seven items from the BDI-II considered to be independent of physical function. the BDI-PC produces only a binary outcome of "not depressed" or "depressed" for patients above a cutoff score of 4. OPQ32 provides an indication of an individual’s preferred behavioural style at work. including Roger Holdsworth. team building. The series included the first commercially-available Big Five instrument. Gill Nyfield. how they will work with other people and how they will cope with different job requirements..Inventory for Primary Care" (BDI-PC). The OPQ32 is used in selection. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. OPQ From Wikipedia.. are widely-used occupational personality questionnaires. Lisa Cramp and Bill Mabey. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. Although designed as a screening device rather than a diagnostic tool. to help employers gauge how a candidate will fit into certain work environments. Unlike the standard BDI.
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