Projective test

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An inkblot from the Rorschach inkblot test, the most well-known and widely used of the projective tests

In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an "objective test" in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam). The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. Projective tests in general rely heavily on clinical judgement, lack reliability andvalidity and many have no standardized criteria to which results may be compared. These tests are still used frequently, however, despite the lack of scientific evidenceto support them and their continued popularity has been referred to as the "projective paradox".[1] Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness. The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report measures" and "free response measures" are suggested, rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests," respectively.[2]
Contents
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1 Theory 2 Common variants 2.1 Rorschach 2.2 Thematic apperception test

o o • • • •

2.3 Draw-A-Person test 2.4 Sentence completion test 3 Uses in marketing 4 See also 5 References 6 Footnotes

[edit]Theory The general theoretical position behind projective tests is that whenever a specific question is asked, the response will be consciously-formulated and socially determined. These responses do not reflect the respondent's unconscious or implicit attitudes or motivations. The respondent's deep-seated motivations may not be consciously recognized by the respondent or the respondent may not be able to verbally express them in the form demanded by the questioner. Advocates of projective tests stress that the ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the tests allow subjects to express thoughts that originate on a deeper level than tapped by explicit questions. Projective tests lost some of their popularity during the 1980s and 1990s in part because of the overall loss of popularity of the psychoanalytic method and theories. Despite this, they are still used quite frequently. [edit]Common

variants

[edit]Rorschach Main article: Rorschach inkblot test The best known and most frequently used projective test is the Rorschach inkblot test, in which a subject is shown a series of ten irregular but symmetrical inkblots, and asked to explain what they see.[1] The subject's responses are then analyzed in various ways, noting not only what was said, but the time taken to respond, which aspect of the drawing was focused on, and how single responses compared to other responses for the same drawing. For example, if someone consistently sees the images as threatening and frightening, the tester might infer that the subject may suffer from paranoia.

Rorschach test
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Rorschach inkblot test)

"Rorschach Test" redirects here. For the band, see Rorschach Test (band).

The first of the ten cards in the Rorschach test, with the occurrence of the most statistically frequent details indicated.[1][2] The images themselves are only one component of the test, whose focus is the analysis of the perception of the images.

29%

18%

6%

The Rorschach test (German pronunciation: [ˈʁoɐʃax]; also known as the Rorschach inkblot test or simply the Inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.[3] The test takes its name from that of its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. In a national survey in the U.S., the Rorschach was ranked eighth among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health facilities.[4] It is the second most widely used test by members of the Society for Personality Assessment, and it is requested by psychiatrists in 25% of forensic assessmentcases,[4] usually in a battery of tests that often include the MMPI-2 and the MCMI-III.
[5]

In surveys, the use of Rorschach ranges from a low of 20% by correctional psychologists[6] to a

high of 80% by clinical psychologists engaged in assessment services, and 80% of psychology graduate programs surveyed teach it.[7] Although the Exner Scoring System (developed since the 1960s) claims to have addressed and often refuted many criticisms of the original testing system with an extensive body of research,
[8]

some researchers have raised questions about the objectivity of psychologists administrating

the test; inter-rater reliability; the verifiability and general validity of the test; bias of the test's pathology scales towards greater numbers of responses; the limited number of psychological conditions which it accurately diagnoses; the inability to replicate the test's norms; its use in court-ordered evaluations; and the proliferation of the ten inkblot images, potentially invalidating the test for those who have been exposed to them.[9]
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1 History 2 Method 2.1 Features or categories

   o o o • • o • o o o o o o o • • • •

2.1.1 Content 2.1.2 Location 2.1.3 Determinants 2.2 Exner scoring system 2.3 Cultural differences 2.4 Neurology

3 The ten inkblots 4 Prevalence 4.1 United States 5 Controversy 5.1 Test materials 5.2 Tester projection 5.3 Validity 5.4 Reliability 5.5 Population norms 5.6 Applications 5.7 Protection of test items and ethics 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History

which was to form the basis of the inkblot test (after experimenting with several hundred inkblots.[16] Huber has remained the publisher of the test and related book. Exnersummarized some of these later developments in .[15] In 1927.[13] After studying 300 mental patients and 100 control subjects. the newly-founded Hans Huber publishing house purchased Rorschach's book Psychodiagnostikfrom the inventory of Ernst Bircher.[19] John E. with aims such as studying imagination and consciousness.[18] After Rorschach's death.[17] The work has been described as "a densely written piece couched in dry. after the turn of the century. Using interpretation of "ambiguous designs" to assess an individual's personality is an idea that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. had published a popular book of poems. scientific terminology". in 1857. [10] It has been suggested that Rorschach's use of inkblots may have been inspired by German doctorJustinus Kerner who. with Rorschach a registered trademark of Swiss publisher Verlag Hans Huber. Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society. Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared. Bruno Klopfer and others. Rorschach's. Hogrefe AG. the original test scoring system was improved by Samuel Beck. in 1921 Rorschach wrote his bookPsychodiagnostik. however. was the first systematic approach of this kind. he selected a set of ten for their diagnostic value).[12] and.[14] but he died the following year. psychological experiments where inkblots were utilized multiplied.Hermann Rorschach created the Rorschach inkblot test in 1921. Interpretation of inkblots was central to a game from the late 19th century. each of which was inspired by an accidental inkblot.[11] French psychologist Alfred Binet had also experimented with inkblots as a creativity test.

The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them.[22] This is to facilitate a "relaxed but controlled atmosphere". The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets. cognitive operations. the psychologist writes down everything the subject says or does. Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations.[23] Each of the blots has near perfect bilateral symmetry. but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes. each printed on a separate white card. and that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations. which is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles. by means of projected images.[22] Test administration is not to be confused with test interpretation: "The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. Rorschach scoring systems have been described as a system of pegs on which to hang one's knowledge of personality. with the tester slightly behind the subject. Administration of the test to a group of subjects.[29] The most widely used method in the United States is based on the work of Exner. Five inkblots are of black ink. the tester then presents them again one at a time in a set sequence for the subject to study: the subject is asked to note where he sees what he originally saw and what makes it look like that (inquiry phase).[20][21] such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohm.[28] Methods of interpretation differ. base motives. and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked. if required.[citation needed] Method The tester and subject typically sit next to each other at a table. Whether the cards are rotated. response tendencies. may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method . and personal/interpersonal perceptions. while in Europe other methods sometimes dominate.[27] As the subject is examining the inkblots.the comprehensive system. conflicts. affectivity. two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored. approximately 18x24 cm in size.[22] The general goal of the test is to provide data about cognition and personality variables such as motivations. a separate location chart. and including needs. has also occasionally been performed. no matter how trivial. There are ten official inkblots. at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous. Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and. The Exner system remains very popular in the United States. on a white background.[24][25][26] After the test subject has seen and responded to all of the inkblots (free association phase).

[30] as well as by any comments the subject may make in addition to providing a direct response. as well as for statistical popularity (or. "animal". a detail (either a commonly or an uncommonly selected one).[37] Location This section requires expansion. but in general content cannot be analyzed outside of the context of the entire test record. "abstract". The basis for the response is usually the whole inkblot. and some information can at times be obtained by analyzing thematic trends in the whole set of content responses (which is only feasible when several responses are available).specifically. information is provided by the time taken before providing a response for a card can be significant (taking a long time can indicate "shock" on the card). although there is contrasting evidence.[35] Content This section requires expansion. content responses may potentially be interpreted directly.. Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months. with certain individuals. content response can be controlled consciously by the subject.e.[36] More than any other feature in the test. or the negative spacearound or within the inkblot. even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years."[22] Features or categories The interpretation of the Rorschach test is not based primarily on the contents of the response. such as form and color) and location(which details of the inkblots triggered the response) is often considered more important than content. information about determinants (the aspects of the inkblots that triggered the response.[23] .[32][33] "Popularity" and "originality" of responses [34] can also be considered as basic dimensions in the analysis. "nature". In fact. Content is classified in terms of "human". the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: for instance. and may be elicited by very disparate factors. etc.. which makes it difficult to use content alone to draw any conclusions about the subject's personality. originality). However. i. conversely.[31] In particular. what the individual sees in the inkblot (the content).

Exner.[43] More than one determinant can contribute to the formation of the subject's percept. also known as the Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS). He later published a study in multiple volumes called The Rorschach: A Comprehensive system. It was developed in the 1960s by Dr. and subsequently recognized as significant by Rorschach himself. "form-color" implies a more refined control of impulse than "color-form"). color responses often provide direct insight into emotional life. reliable coding and a representative normative . Creation of the new system was prompted by the realization that at least five related.[39][40][41] Form is the most common determinant. [38] which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing of the inkblots (which originally featured uniform saturation). from the relation and balance among determinants that personality can be most readily inferred. both in definition and interpretation: Rorschach originally disregarded shading (which was originally not even present on the cards. Rorschach's original work used only form. It is. It has been extensively validated and shows high inter-rater reliability. while others have widened the scope of this determinant.g.[43] Exner scoring system The Exner scoring system. John E.[44] is the standard method for interpreting the Rorschach test. and fusion of two determinants is taken into account. currently. Exner published The Rorschach Systems. a concise description of what would be later called "the Exner system". and they can represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes. but ultimately different methods were in common use at the time.[8][45] In 1969. the most accepted full description of his system. color and movement. while also assessing which of the two constituted the primary contributor (e. and is related to intellectual processes. Shading and movement have been considered more ambiguously. or arbitrarily mixing characteristics of the various standardized systems.[42] and he considered movement as only actual experiencing of motion. indeed. showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world. objective.[46] The key components of the Exner system are the clusterization of Rorschach variables and a sequential search strategy to determine the order in which to analyze them. taking it to mean that the subject sees something "going on". being a result of the print process).Determinants Systems for Rorschach scoring generally include a concept of "determinants": these are the factors that contribute to establish the similarity between the inkblot and the subject's content response about it. with a sizeable minority of examiners not employing any recognized method at all. basing instead their judgment on subjective assessment. another major determinant considered is shading.[47] framed in the context of standardized administration. as a more rigorous system of analysis.

and ideation.[49] In the system. and any illogical. badge and coat of arms. related to how the subject processes input data. the form quality of the response (to what extent a response is faithful to how the actual inkblot looks). some of which impact important variables.[29] Using the scores for these categories. It has been reported that popular responses on the first card include bat.e. cognitive mediation. to the point where schizophrenia may be suspected if data were correlated to the North American norms. in accordance with the system. the area of each blot which is distinguished by the client is noted and coded – typically as "commonly selected" or "uncommonly selected". which of a variety of determinants is used to produce the response (i. With the Rorschach plates (the ten inkblots). the contents of the response (what the respondent actually sees in the blot). the degree of mental organizing activity that is involved in producing the response. as a subjective judgment of how well the form of the subject's response matched the inkblots (Rorschach would give a higher form score to more "original" yet good form responses). European would seem to express it only when it reaches the level of a craving for closeness). There were many different methods for coding the areas of the blots. Beck (1944 and 1961). while others (such as the average number of responses) coincide.[52] and there are fewer "good form" responses. the Exner system solely defines "good form" as a matter of word occurrence frequency. incongruous. texture response is typically zero in European subjects (if interpreted as a need for closeness.[50] Cultural differences Comparing North American Exner normative data with data from European and South American subjects showed marked differences in some features. J. what makes the inkblot look like what it is said to resemble). referring to the way information is transformed and identified. As pertains to response form.[53] Form is .. a concept of "form quality" was present from the earliest of Rorschach's works.[48] The system places a lot of emphasis on a cognitive triad of information processing. especially in Europe. in contrast.database. reducing it to a measure of the subject's distance to the population average. The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses. the location of the response. responses are scored with reference to their level of vagueness or synthesis of multiple images in the blot. and this concept was followed by other methods. or incoherent aspects of responses. the examiner then performs a series of calculations producing a structural summary of the test data.[51] For instance. Exner settled upon the area coding system promoted by S. This system was in turn based upon Klopfer's (1942) work.

cultural-dependent interpretation of test data may not necessarily need to extend beyond these components. a bow tie is a frequent response for the center detail of card III.[58] The cited language differences mean that it's imperative for the test to be administered in the subject's native language or a very well mastered second language. this difference could stem from a higher value attributed to spontaneous expression of emotions. the crab or spider in card X and one of either the butterfly or the bat in card I appear to be characteristic of North America. therefore. "Christmas elves" (nisser) is a popular response for card II. Test responses should also not be translated into another language prior to analysis except possibly by a clinician mastering both languages.[59] Neurology Research using figure 03 have found that ‘‘unique responses’’ are produced in people with larger amygdalas.[54] while color is less frequent than in American subjects. an examiner not appreciating this language nuance may code the response differently from what is expected. The researchers note. "Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population. since the latter tend to be interpreted as indicators of a defensive attitude in processing affect. while specifically card IX's "human" response. the examiner should master the language used in the test.[55] and different languages will exhibit semantic differences in naming the same object (the figure of card IV is often called a troll by Scandinavians and an ogre by French people). as opposed to other animals like cats and dogs. but since the equivalent term in French translates to "butterfly tie". and thus immediately subject to cultural influences.[56] Many of Exner's "popular" responses (those given by at least one third of the North American sample used) seem to be universally popular. as shown by samples in Europe. and. in Scandinavia.also often the only determinant expressed by European subjects."[60] The ten inkblots . which is normally classed as an "unusual" response. color-form responses are comparatively frequent in opposition to formcolor responses. conversely. and "musical instrument" on card VI is popular for Japanese people). For example. this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity. popular content responses and locations are the only coded variables in the Exner systems that are based on frequency of occurrence.[52] The differences in form quality are attributable to purely cultural aspects: different cultures will exhibit different "common" objects (French subjects often identify a chameleon in card VIII.[56][57] Form quality. Japan and South America.

Below are the ten inkblots of the Rorschach test printed in Rorschach's Rorschach Test – Psychodiagnostic Plates. butterfly. gray parts) Dana (France): animal: dog. butterfly(29%) Dana (France): butterfly (39%) Comments[70][71] When seeing card I. elephant. Being the first card. and questions on what they are allowed to do with the card (e. or 50 years after the cut-off date of 1942). The red details of card II are often seen as blood. It is not.[61] together with the most frequent responses for either the whole image or the most prominent details according to various authors. gray) . Responses to them can provide indications about how a subject is likely to manage feelings of anger or physical harm. having readily available popular responses. according to Swiss copyright law. and are the most distinctive features. however. a card that is usually difficult for the subject to handle. subjects often inquire on how they should proceed. it can provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. This card can Beck: two humans Piotrowski: four-legged animal(34%.g. They have been in the public domain in Hermann Rorschach's native Switzerland since at least 1992 (70 years after the author's death.[62] [63] They are also in the public domain under United States copyright law:[64][65] all works published before 1923 are considered to be in the public domain. moth Piotrowski: bat (53%).[66] Card Popular responses[67][68][69] Beck: bat. turning it) are not very significant. bear (50%.

gray) Dana (France): human (76%. and the qualities expressed by the subject may indicate attitudes toward men and .Beck: two humans (gray) Piotrowski: human figures (72%. Card III is typically perceived to contain two humans involved in some interaction. skin. response latency may reveal struggling social interactions). compounded with the common impression of the subject being in an inferior position ("looking up") to it. this serves to elicit a sense of authority. and is generally perceived as a big and sometimes threatening figure. rug Piotrowski: animal skin. The human or animal content seen in the card is almost invariably classified as male rather than female. skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%) induce a variety of sexual responses. gray) Beck: animal hide. and may provide information about how the subject relates with other people (specifically. Card IV is notable for its dark color and its shading (posing difficulties for depressed subjects).

skin. rug Piotrowski: animal skin. its likely sexual percepts being reported more frequently than in any other card. Containing few features that generate concerns or complicate the elaboration. Card VII can be associated with femininity (the human figures commonly seeing in it being described as women or . top) authority. bat(40%) Dana (France): butterfly (48%).Beck: bat. which often elicits association related to interpersonal closeness. butterfly. it is the easiest blot to generate a good quality response about. moth Piotrowski: butterfly (48%). even though other cards have a greater variety of commonly seen sexual contents. it is specifically a "sex card". and typically instigates a "change of pace" in the test. skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%) Beck: human heads or faces(top) Piotrowski: heads of women or children (27%. bat(46%) Beck: animal hide. Card V is an easily elaborated card that is not usually perceived as threatening. Texture is the dominant characteristic of card VI. top) Dana (France): human head (46%. after the previous more challenging cards.

and function as a "mother card". pink) children). where difficulties in responding may be related to concerns with the female figures in the subject's life. however. The center detail is relatively often (though not popularly) identified as a vagina. it represents a "change of pace". People often express relief about card VIII. Therefore. people who find processing complex situations or emotional stimuli distressing or difficult may be uncomfortable with this card. pink) Dana (France): four-legged animal(93%. Similar to card V. which make this card also relate to feminine sexuality in particular. being complex and the first multi-colored card in the set. the card introduces new elaboration difficulties.Beck: animal: not cat or dog(pink) Piotrowski: four-legged animal(94%. . which lets them relax and respond effectively.

or what they desire to know. spider(blue) crab. There is only one popular response. creating a general vagueness. Prevalence . blue). spider (37%.Beck: human (orange) Piotrowski: none Dana (France): none Beck: crab. light green). it may provide an opportunity for the subject to "sign out" by indicating what they feel their situation is like. Being the last card. Card X is structurally similar to card VIII. muted chromatic features. and it is the least frequent of all cards. Piotrowski: rabbit head (31%. snakes (28%. lobster. caterpillars. worms. deep green) Dana (France): none Characteristic of card IX is indistinct form and diffuse. Having difficulty with processing this card may indicate trouble dealing with unstructured data. but its uncertainty and complexity are reminiscent of card IX: people who find it difficult to deal with many concurrent stimuli may not particularly like this otherwise pleasant card. but aside from this there are few particular "pulls" typical of this card.

[.. Supporters of the Rorschach inkblot test believe that . while it was used less than 24% of the time by school psychologists. 154): "Though tens of thousands of Rorschach tests have been administered by hundreds of trained professionals since that time (of a previous review). substantial evidence justifies the use of the Rorschach as a clinical measure of intelligence and thought disorder. and while many relationships to personality dynamics and behavior have been hypothesized. [6] Forensic psychologists use the Rorschach 36% of the time. Furthermore. It is also used regularly in research on dependency. [72] Controversy Some skeptics consider the Rorschach inkblot test pseudoscience. in studies on hostility and anxiety. despite the appearance of more than 2. and. major reviewer Raymond J. There is nothing in the literature to encourage reliance on Rorschach interpretations. Cronbach’s (1970) final verdict: that some Rorschach scores. less often.[73] Another survey found that 124 out of 161 (77%) of clinical psychologists engaging in assessment services utilize the Rorschach. 23% of psychologists use the Rorschach to examine a child."[78] A moratorium on its use was called for in 1999.[79] A 2003 report by Wood and colleagues had more mixed views: "More than 50 years of research have confirmed Lee J. United States The Rorschach test is used almost exclusively by psychologists. Lee Cronbach (former President of the Psychometric Society and American Psychological Association)[77] is quoted in a review: "The test has repeatedly failed as a prediction of practical criteria.[74] and 80% of psychology graduate programs teach its use. 636).[9][75] as several studies suggested that conclusions reached by test administrators since the 1950s were akin to cold reading.. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. In a survey done in the year 2000.The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. though falling woefully short of the claims made by proponents.] "Its value as a measure of thought disorder in schizophrenia research is well accepted. McCall writes (p."[80] Test materials The basic premise of the test is that objective meaning can be extracted from responses to blots of ink which are supposedly meaningless. 20% of correctional psychologists used the Rorschach while 80% used the MMPI. the vast majority of these relationships have never been validated empirically [sic].[76] In the 1959 edition of Mental Measurement Yearbook.000 publications about the test.[72] In custody cases.[7] Another study found that its use by clinical psychologists was only 43%. nevertheless possess “validity greater than chance” (p." In addition.

depending on how the examiner has internalized the categories involved. however.. the vehicle for the interaction .[85] Reber (1985) comments ". the usefulness of the Rorschach will depend upon the sensitivity. empathy and insightfulness of the tester totally independently of the Rorschach itself. and has all but displaced many earlier (and less consistent) scoring systems. A possible example sometimes attributed to the psychologist's subjective judgement is that responses are coded (among many other things).) of the inkblot leads to each of the tested person's comments. whether the subject's response fits with how the blot actually looks. one such scale is R. results are thus poorly verifiable. but it is not clear how this occurs. etc..[8] Third parties could be used to avoid this problem. Interestingly. Superficially this might be considered a subjective judgment. and that a patient typically responds to meaningful as well as ambiguous aspects of the blots.the subject's response to an ambiguous and meaningless stimulus can provide insight into their thought processes. there is substantial research indicating the utility of the measure for a few scores.[8] Reber (1985) describes the blots as merely ". in some studies the scores obtained by two independent scorers do not match with great consistency. But with the Exner system of scoring. color. such a response is always coded as "clothing" unless there is a clear sexual reference in the response.[83] This conclusion was challenged in studies using large samples reported in 2002. recent research shows that the blots are not entirely meaningless.[84] Validity When interpreted as a projective test. Several scores correlate well with generalintelligence. but the Rorschach's inter-rater reliability has been questioned. the total . Disagreements about test validity remain: while the Exner proposed a rigorous scoring system. for "Form Quality": in essence. An intense dialogue about the wallpaper or the rug would do as well provided that both parties believe. there is essentially no evidence whatsoever that the test has even a shred of validity. Also. outline. concluding: ". The Exner system of scoring (also known as the "Comprehensive System") is meant to address this. That is. latitude remained in the actual interpretation."[81] Tester projection Some critics argue that the testing psychologist must also project onto the patterns." between client and therapist.[8] Another example is that the response "bra" was considered a "sex" response by male psychologists... but a "clothing" response by females. It makes heavy use of what factor (shading.[82] In Exner's system. and the clinician's write-up of the test record is still partly subjective."[81] Nevertheless. much of the subjectivity is eliminated or reduced by use of frequency tables that indicate how often a particular response is given by the population in general.

(1999) where under cross examination Dr.[82] cites many court cases where these had not been followed. US Courts have challenged Rorschach as well.H. the procedures for coding responses are fairly well specified but extremely time-consuming to inexperienced examiners. verbal and nonverbal responses to subjects' questions or comments. and how responses are recorded. the Comprehensive System doesn't appear to bear a consistent relationship to psychological disorders or symptoms. Bogacki stated under oath "many psychologists do not believe much in the validity or effectiveness of the Rorschach test"[90] and US v Battle (2001) ruled that the Rorschash "does not have an objective scoring system. and personality disorders (includingborderline personality disorder). have stated that this proves that the Rorschach tends to "overpathologise normals". any introductory words. or validity of clinical diagnostic tests. Exner's system was thought to possess normative scores for various populations. Complexity. and Human Figure responses. it is more likely that some of these will seem "pathological". who are critical of the Rorschach.[87] (Cancer is mentioned because a small minority of Rorschach enthusiasts have claimed the test can predict cancer. reliability. such as where the tester and subject are seated. personality characteristics. There is some evidence that the Deviant Verbalizations scale relates to bipolar disorder.[92] Although Rorschach proponents.number of responses." [91] Population norms Another area of controversy are the test's statistical norms. The authors conclude that "Otherwise. But.[89] In State ex rel H. thought disorders. disordered thinking. In particular. since many scales do not correct for high R: if a subject gives twice as many responses overall. this reveals the questionable side-effect that more intelligent people tend to be elevated on many pathology scales.[86] The same source reports that validity has also been shown for detecting such conditions as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.[93] suggest that high rates of pathology detected by the Rorshach accurately reflect . and discomfort in close relationships. Jones v Apfel (1997) stated (quoting from Attorney's Textbook of Medicine) that Rorschash "results do not meet the requirements of standardization. or such health problems as cancer". discrepancies seemed to focus on indices measuring narcissism. and interpretation thus is often controversial". [92] Lillenfeld and colleagues. beginning in the mid-1990s others began to try to replicate or update these norms and failed. Exner has published detailed instructions. Similarly. potential for violence. who may cut corners as a result. Form Quality. such as Hibbard. Also correlated with intelligence are the scales for Organizational Activity.)[88] Reliability It is also thought that the test's reliability can depend substantially on details of the testing procedure. but Wood et al.

[98] Protection of test items and ethics Outlines of the ten official inkblots were first made publicly available by William Poundstone in his 1983 book Big Secrets.[5] Others however have found that its usage by forensic psychologists has decreased.[5] and despite the criticism of usage of the Rorschach in the courts. Sometimes such information about personality characteristics is helpful in arriving at a differential diagnosis. the Rorschach test wasn't singled out but used as one of several in a battery of tests.000 cases in which forensic psychologists used Rorschach-based testimony. 12 % elevated on indices of depression and hypervigilance and 13% elevated on persistent stress overload—all in line with expected frequencies among nonpatient populations. which also described the method of administering the test.[94] a false positive rate unexplained by current research. and it provides information concerning aspects of personality structure and dynamics that make people the kind of people they are. compared to the previous fifty years. across 17 different countries.[7]One study has found that use of the test in courts has increased by three times in the decade between 1996 and 2005.[95] Applications The test is also controversial because of its common use in court-ordered evaluations. Weiner (co-developer with John Exner of the Comprehensive system) has stated that the Rorschach "is a measure of personality functioning. out of 8. The blots are in the public domain in most countries.[96] Irving B. in making official diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). from the limitations of the Rorschach. (2007). and it requires that psychologists "make reasonable efforts to maintain the . The accusation of "over-pathologising" has also been considered by Meyer et al. in part. the Rorschach also identifies half of all test-takers as possessing "distorted thinking". They presented an international collaborative study of 4704 Rorschach protocols.[99] It claims that its goals include "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work". anyway. the appropriateness of the instrument was challenged only six times. with only 2 % showing significant elevations on the index of perceptual and thinking disorder. with no additional data. particularly those with a copyright termof up to 70 years post mortem auctoris. The American Psychological Association (APA) has a code of ethics that supports "freedom of inquiry and expression" and helping "the public in developing informed judgments".[97] In the vast majority of cases.[citation needed] This controversy stems. and the testimony was ruled inadmissible in only one of those cases. if the alternative diagnoses being considered have been well conceptualized with respect to specific or defining personality characteristics".increasing psychopathology in society. obtained in 21 different samples.

such as the Italian Association of Strategic Psychotherapy.[108][109] Psychologists have sometimes refused to disclose tests and test data to courts when asked to do so by the parties citing ethical reasons. called the publication "unbelievably reckless and even cynical of Wikipedia" and said it was investigating the possibility of legal action.[104] In his book Ethics in psychology.[105] Other professional associations.[107] Further complaints were sent to two other websites that contained information similar to the Rorschach test in May 2009 by legal firm Schluep and Degen of Switzerland. even though "cheating" the test is held to be practically impossible.23(b) states that the psychologist has a responsibility to document processes in detail and of adequate quality to allow reasonable scrutiny by the court. and listing common responses represents a serious unethical act" for psychologists and is indicative of "questionable professional judgment". The APA has also raised concerns that the dissemination of test materials might impose "very concrete harm to the general public". a Canadian emergency room physician involved in the debate.[106] On September 9. over many .. recommend that even information about the purpose of the test or any detail of its administration should be kept from the public.[101][102][103] A public statement by the British Psychological Society expresses similar concerns about psychological tests (without mentioning any test by name) and considers the "release of [test] materials to unqualified individuals" to be misuse if it is against the wishes of the test publisher.[100] For example. APA ethical standard 1. It has not taken a position on publication of the Rorschach plates but noted "there are a limited number of standardized psychological tests considered appropriate for a given purpose".[111] Dr. the Rorschach test is capable of detectingsuicidality. its general usefulness as a diagnostic tool for eyesight has not diminished. publication of the inkblots is described as a "particularly painful development". compared it to the publication of the eye test chart: though people are likewise free to memorize the eye chart before an eye test.integrity and security of test materials". These complaints were denied. a German company that sells editions of the plates. [111] For those opposed to exposure. 2008. Koocher (1998) notes that some believe "reprinting copies of the Rorschach plates . it is argued that such refusals may hinder full understanding of the process by the attorneys.[111] Hogrefe & Huber Publishing. Hogrefe attempted to claim copyright over the Rorschach ink blots during fillings of a complaint with the World Intellectual Property Organization against Ney Limonge of Brazil. and impede cross-examination of the experts. given the tens of thousands of research papers which have.[110] Controversy ensued in the psychological community in 2009 when the original Rorschach plates and research results on interpretations were published in the "Rorschach test" article on Wikipedia.. James Heilman.

for example. The examiner then evaluates these descriptions. and is asked to describe various aspects of the scene. "tried to link a patient’s responses to certain psychological conditions. editor ofSkeptical Inquirer magazine. the respondent "projects" their unconscious attitudes and motivations into the picture. motives and needs for achievement. the free encyclopedia Psychology portal The Thematic Apperception Test. the subject may be asked to describe what led up to this scene. Historically. power and intimacy. is a projective psychological test. Contents [hide] • 1 Procedure . and taught of such tests. such as The Guardianand The Globe And Mail." Thematic Apperception Test From Wikipedia. attempting to discover the conflicts.years. Its adherents claim that it taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality." and was hopeful that publication of the test may finally hasten its demise. stated that the Rorschach "has remained in use more out of tradition than good evidence. or TAT. the emotions of the characters. In the answers. researched. Benjamin Radford.[112] Publication of the Rorschach images is also welcomed by critics who consider the test to be pseudoscience. and what might happen afterwards. motivations and attitudes of the respondent.[113] [edit]Thematic apperception test Main article: Thematic Apperception Test Another popular projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in which an individual views ambiguous scenes of people. which is why these are referred to as "projective tests. it has been among the most widely used."[111]Controversy over Wikipedia's publication of the inkblots has resulted in the blots being published in other locations. and problemsolving abilities.

One is completely blank. some both male and female figures.• • • • • • • • 2 Scoring Systems 3 History 4 Criticisms 5 Contemporary applications of TAT 6 TAT in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit]Procedure The TAE is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous picturesabout which the subject must tell a story. including:     what has led up to the event shown what is happening at the moment what the characters are feeling and thinking. [1] [edit]Scoring Systems The TAT is a projective test in that. Most practitioners choose a set of approximately ten cards. some adults. and patterns of reaction. attitudes. If these elements are omitted. Some of the cards show male figures. Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender. some children. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented. either using cards that they feel are generally useful. Although most clinical practitioners do not . some female. its assessment of the subject is based on what he or she projects onto the ambiguous images. and what the outcome of the story was. to complete the assessment each story created by a subject must be carefully analyzed to uncover underlying needs. Therefore. some of ambiguous gender. any card may be used with any subject. like the Rorschach test. There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities. or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation. and some show no human figures at all. the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly.

the TAT was adopted more broadly by psychoanalysts and clinicians to evaluate emotionally disturbed patients. Also. [edit]History TAT was developed by the American psychologists Henry A. Murray. Their criticisms are that the TAT is unscientific because it cannot be proved to be valid (that it actually measures what it claims to measure). Two common methods that are currently used in research are the:  Defense Mechanisms Manual DMM[2]. [edit]Criticisms Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is based has caused the TAT to be criticised as false or outdated by many professional psychologists[citation needed] . several formal scoring systems have been developed for analyzing TAT stories systematically and consistently. the Human Potential Movement encouraged psychologists to use the TAT to help their clients understand themselves better and stimulate personal growth. interests. Some critics of the TAT cards have observed that the characters and environments are dated. Capacity for Emotional Investment in Relationships and Moral Standards. According to Melville scholar Howard P Vincent. in researching the responses of subjects given photographs versus the TAT.” After World War II. projection (intermediate). such as internal conflicts. Murray and Christiana D. in the 1970s. Affect-Tone of Relationship Paradigms. dominant drives.’ creating a ‘cultural or psychosocial distance’ between the patients and these stimuli that makes identifying with them less likely [4]. Later. researchers found that the TAT cards evoked more . Morgan at Harvard during the 1930s to explore the underlying dynamics of personality. or reliable (that it gives consistent results over time. the TAT “came into being when Dr. even ‘old-fashioned.  Social Cognition and Object Relations SCOR[3] scale. due to the challenge of standardising interpretations of the stories produced by subjects). This assesses four different dimensions of object relations: Complexity of Representations of People. psychologist and Melvillist . and Understanding of Social Causality. Henry A. A person's thoughts/feelings are projected in stories involved. adapted the implicit lesson of Melville’s [Moby Dick] “Doubloon” chapter to a new and larger creative. This assesses three defense mechanisms: denial (least mature).use formal scoring systems. andidentification (most mature). and motives. therapeutic purpose.

[citation needed] It is also used by the Services Selection Board of India. dear. It is also commonly used in routine psychological evaluations. Sometimes it is used in a psychiatric or psychological context to assess personality disorders. "last time I took one of these tests they told me they were clouds. Psy. they're people and you tell me what they're discussing. The Terminal Man. The results concluded that the old TAT elicited answers that included many more specific time references than the new TAT.D. The Israeli army uses the test for evaluating potential officers. Daria and Quinn are shown a picture of two people. Daria states. Daria states that she sees "a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. leading them to conclude that the difference was due to the differences in the characteristics of the images used as stimuli[citation needed] . the TAT remains widely used as a tool for research into areas of psychology such as dreams. Daria and her sister Quinn are given a test that appears to be the TAT by the school psychologist on their first day at their new school.." To which Daria characteristically replies. "Oh.  In the MTV cartoon Daria. in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects. TAT is widely used in France and Argentina using a psychodynamic approach.  Michael Crichton included the TAT in the battery of tests given to the disturbed patient and main character Harry Benson in his novel. [edit]Contemporary applications of TAT Despite criticisms. Hannibal Lecter mocks a previous attempt to administer the test to him. All right. mate selectionand what motivates people to choose their occupation. Quinn makes up a story about the two people having a discussion about popularity and dating. In a 2005 dissertation.. I see. thought disorders.e. as a way to explore emotional conflicts and object relations [7]. It's a guy and a girl and they're . attempted to address these issues by reproducing a Leopold Bellak [6] 10 card set photographically and performing an outcome study. not ponies. or to screen candidates for high-stress occupations. then.. more negative) than photographs." The psychologist explains. fantasies. They said they could be whatever I wanted. In this test." The psychologist tells her the picture is of two people. "That's a different test.[5] Matthew Narron. typically without a formal scoring system.[citation needed] [edit]TAT  in popular culture Thomas Harris' novel Red Dragon includes a scene where the imprisoned psychiatrist and serial killer Dr.‘deviant’ stories (i.

"I dont know the frist 2 werds but I know what test means. the Rorschach test administered to Charly Gordon in Flowers for Algernon. shape and complexity of the facial features. clothing and background of the figure.discussing. the free encyclopedia Smiling person (combined head and body) age 4½.)  The TAT is administered to Alex. The results are based on a psychodynamic interpretation of the details of the drawing." As he says. such as the size. he replies that he sees an inkblot. during which Drs.[1] A similar class of techniques is kinetic family drawing. and he replies that he "pretends" a tablecloth with an ink pen "leeking" all over it. Niemur and Strauss ask him what he "sees" on a card. Draw-A-Person Test From Wikipedia. the protagonist in Daniel Keyes' Flowers for Algernon."[8] (Cf. Charlie Gordon. a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. the main character of A Clockwork Orange.. they ask him to pretend that it is something else. As with other projective tests. notes in his progress report 4 on March 6th that he was given a "Thematic Appreciation Test. the approach has very little demonstrated validity and there is evidence that therapists may attribute pathology to individuals who are merely poor artists. . You got to pass it or you get bad marks [sic]" [edit]Draw-A-Person test Main article: Draw-A-Person Test The Draw-A-Person test requires the subject to draw a person..

a woman. and themselves. could be generated from the naive beliefs of undergraduates. head to feet.i. large eyes as indicative of paranoia. it is very clear evidence of a disorder. Psychologist Julian Jaynes. The test has no time limit. although the child must make a drawing of a whole person each time .[1] There has been no validation of this test as indicative of schizophrenia. when they do. Harris later revised and extended the test and it is now known as theGoodenough-Harris Drawing Test. No further instructions are given and the child is free to make the drawing in whichever way he/she would like." with "blurred and unconnected lines. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind wrote that the test is "routinely administered as an indicator of schizophrenia. Dr. Contents [hide] • • • • 1 History 2 Nature of the test 3 See also 4 Notes and References [edit]History Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926. The revision and extension is detailed in his book Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity(1963). And that such signs might be a patient's neglect to include "obvious anatomical parts like hands and eyes. Harris's book (1963) provides scoring scales which are used to examine and ." and that while not all schizophrenic patients have trouble drawing a person. Children are asked to draw a man. Chapman and Chapman (1969). in a classic study of illusory correlation. or Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test) is a psychological projective personality or cognitive test used to evaluate children and adolescents for a variety of purposes. [edit]Nature of the test Test administration involves the administrator requesting children to complete three individual drawings on separate pieces of paper. children rarely take longer than about 10 or 15 minutes to complete all three drawings. in the 1976 book.e.The Draw-A-Person Test (DAP. There is no right or wrong type of drawing. DAP test. this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test. e. It is detailed in her book titled Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings. not just the face. showed that the scoring manual." ambiguous sexuality and general distortion. however. Dale B.g..

To evaluate intelligence. for various criteria. [edit]See also completion test [edit]Sentence Main article: Sentence completion tests Sentence completion tests require the subject complete sentence "stems" with their own words. or other mental states. the free encyclopedia Sentence completion tests are a class of semi-structured projective techniques. the test administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: QSS (Quantitative Scoring System). a factor that may account for the tendency of middle-class children to score higher on this test than lower-class children. There is debate over whether or not sentence completion tests elicit responses from . and proportion. Any other uses of the test are merely projective and are not endorsed by the first creator. eight dimensions of each drawing are evaluated against norms for the child's age group. beliefs. motivations. However. The use of a nonverbal. This system analyzes fourteen different aspects of the drawings. referred to as “stems. For the first type.score the child's drawings. verbal skills. nonthreatening task to evaluate intelligence is intended to eliminate possible sources of bias by reducing variables like primary language. such as specific body parts and clothing. For the second type. there are 64 scoring items for each drawing. and a total score for all three.personality characteristics. who often have fewer opportunities to draw. and sensitivity to working under pressure. The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes. This system is composed of two types of criteria. In all. 47 different items are considered for each drawing. Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences. detail. The subject's response is considered to be a projection of their conscious and/or unconscious attitudes. The test is completely non-invasive and non-threatening to children which is part of its appeal. Sentence completion tests From Wikipedia. and beliefs. including presence or absence.” and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. To assess the test-taker for emotional problems. communication disabilities. The purpose of the test is to assist professionals in inferring children's cognitive developmental levels with little or no influence of other factors such as language barriers or special needs. the administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance) to score the drawings. test results can be influenced by previous drawing experience. A separate standard score is recorded for each drawing. motivations.

In recent decades. sentence completion tests were the seventh most widely used personality assessment instruments. Structured tests have longer stems that lead respondents to more specific types of responses. This debate would affect whether sentence completion tests can be strictly categorized as projective tests. As of the 1980s.[2] Carl Jung’s word association test may also have been a precursor to modern sentence completion tests. or much longer. A sentence completion test form may be relatively short.[4] Some sentence completion tests were developed as a way to overcome the problems associated with thematic apperception measures of the same constructs. A long sentence completion test is the Forer Sentence Completion Test. such as those used to assess responses to advertisements.conscious thought rather than unconscious states. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 History 2 Uses 3 Examples of sentence completion tests 4 Data analysis. sentence completion tests have increased in usage. The tests are usually administered in booklet form where respondents complete the stems by writing words on paper. such as those used to assess personality.[1] Ebbinghaus’s sentence completion test was used as part of an intelligence test. in part because they are easy to develop and easy to administer. less structured tests provide shorter stems. The structures of sentence completion tests vary according to the length and relative generality and wording of the sentence stems. which has 100 stems. validity and reliability 5 References [edit]History Herman Von Ebbinghaus is generally credited with developing the first sentence completion test in 1897.[3] Another reason for the increased usage of sentence completion tests is because of their superiority to other measures in uncovering conflicted attitudes. which produce a wider variety of responses.[5] .

clinical applications. validity and reliability The data collected from sentence completion tests can usually be analyzed either quantitatively or qualitatively. management. [edit]Data analysis. language comprehension. Sentence completion measures have also been incorporated into non-projective applications..[7] Sentence completion tests usually include some formal coding procedure or manual. Compared to positivist instruments. Some of the most widely used sentence completion tests include:  Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (assesses personality traits. perhaps the most widely used of all sentence completion tests). attitude assessment. including psychology. Washington University Sentence Completion Test (measures ego development). They are used in several disciplines. The validity of each sentence completion test must be determined independently and this depends on the instructions laid out in the scoring manual. and marketing. sentence completion tests tend to have high face validity (i. and language and cognitive development tests. and measurement of other constructs. [edit]References [edit]Uses in marketing . such as Likert-type scales.[6] [edit]Examples of sentence completion tests There are many sentence completion tests available for use by researchers. such as intelligence tests.   Miner Sentence Completion Test (measures managerial motivations). because in many cases the sentence stems name or refer to specific objects and the respondent is provides responses specifically focused on such objects.[edit]Uses The uses of sentence completion tests include personality analysis.e. the extent to which measurement items accurately reflect the concept being measured). achievement motivation. education. This is to be expected.

children. head trauma or depression. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. balance. pathognomonicverbalization. It is housed permanently at theSmithsonian Institution. if not all. movement. form appropriateness. because the responses of multiple respondents are grouped together for analysis by the organisation commissioning the research. anatomy. In advertising. originally drawn from a pool of several thousand. form definiteness. rather than interpreting the meaning of the responses given by a single subject. The Holtzman Inkblot Test was invented to correct many.[citation needed] The technique is featured as part of a travelling exhibition entitled "Psychology: Understanding Ourselves. is a projective personality test similar to the Rorschach test. The Holtzman Inkblot Test is used primarily with students. and with patients suffering from schizophrenia. conceived by Wayne Holtzman. including TATs. anxiety. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. integration. content (human. are used in qualitative marketing research. The application of responses is different in these disciplines than in psychology.[1] Objective tests (Rating scale or self-report measure) .Projective techniques. The tests have also been used in management to assess achievement motivation and other drives. penetration. of the controversial issues aroused by the Rorschach Inkblot Test.(July 2009) The Holtzman Inkblot Test. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. hostility. for example to help identify potential associations betweenbrand images and the emotions they may provoke. color. Scoring takes a very long time if the test is not administered by computer. barrier. space. or abstract). and in anthropology to study cultural meaning. projective tests are used to evaluate responses to advertisements. in sociology to assess the adoption of innovations. shading. animal. rejection. The Holtzman Inkblot Test has been used in both experimental and clinical applications. The test consists of two alternate forms of forty-five inkblots. sexual. Understanding Each Other" and sponsored by the American Psychological Association in partnership with the Ontario Science Centre. location. oltzman Inkblot Test From Wikipedia. Scoring is based on twenty-two items: reaction time. and popularity.

4 PSY-5 scales 3 Scoring and interpretation 4 Criticism and controversy 4. the free encyclopedia The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III.[5] Objective personality tests can be designed for use in business for potential employees.3 Content scales 2.[4] and the Beck Depression Inventory.Objective tests have a restricted response format.Children (FFPI-C.1 RC and Clinical Scales . or Five Factor Model of normal personality.3 MMPI-A 1. Barrick & Mount 1991) found consistent relationships between the Big Five personality factors and important criterion variables.g. has gained acceptance since the early 1990s when some influential meta-analyses (e. The Big Five.2 MMPI-2 1. such as the NEO-PI. all of which are based on the Big Fivetaxonomy..4 MMPI-2 RF 2 Current scale composition 2. and the OPQ (Occupational Personality Questionnaire).2 Validity scales 2. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology.1 MMPI 1.1 Clinical scales 2. Prominent examples of objective personality tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.[6] Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory From Wikipedia. Contents [hide] • o o o o • o o o o • • o 1 History and development 1. Another personality test based upon the Five Factor Model is the Five Factor Personality Inventory . such as allowing for true or false answers or rating using an ordinal scale.).[3] Child Behavior Checklist. the 16PF.

2 Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale 6 See also 7 External links [edit]History and development The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. the scales themselves are not atheoretical by way of using the participants' clinical diagnoses to determine the scales' contents. [edit]MMPI The original MMPI was developed in 1939 (Groth Marnat. McKinley. The atheoretical approach to MMPI development ostensibly enabled the test to capture aspects of human psychopathology that were recognizable and meaningful despite changes in clinical theories. The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. However.[2][3][4][5][6] The difference between this approach and other test development strategies used around that time was that it was atheoretical (not based on any particular theory) and thus the initial test was not aligned with the prevailing psychodynamic theories of that time. The tests are mentioned in Thomas Harris' 1988 novel The Silence of the Lambs. and J. [edit]MMPI-2 . The standardized answer sheets can be hand scored with templates that fit over the answer sheets. are licensed by the University of Minnesota Press to Pearson Assessments and other companies located in different countries. as well as a charge to install the computerized program. because the MMPI scales were created based on a group with known psychopathologies. Supplementary. Use of the MMPI is tightly controlled for ethical and financial reasons. as ones she is familiar with. which means that the clinical scales were derived by selecting items that were endorsed by patients known to have been diagnosed with certain pathologies. Hathaway. but most tests are computer scored. and other subscales of potential interest to clinicians. The clinician using the MMPI has to pay for materials and for scoring and report services. MD. which includes data on the newest and most psychometrically advanced scales—the Restructured Clinical Scales (RC scales). Handbook of Psychological Assessment.[1] The extended score report also provides scores on the more traditionally used Clinical Scales as well as Content. The computer scoring programs offer a range of scoring profile choices including the extended score report. PhD. 2009) using an empirical keying approach.o • • • 5 Notes 4. C. by character Clarice Starling. the MMPI-2. Computer scoring programs for the current standardized version.

Scale 5 (formerly known as the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) : Measures a stereotype of a person and how they . [24][25][26][27][28][29][30] [edit]Current [edit]Clinical scale composition scales Scale 1 (formerly known as the Hypochondriasis Scale) : Measures a person's perception of their health or actual injuries or health issues.. multiple published articles in peer-reviewed journals.[7] It is appropriate for use with adults 18 and over.[10] The new MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has now been released by Pearson Assessments. which had been found to contain a general factor that made interpretation of scores on the clinical scales difficult. which was standardized on a new national sample of adults in the United States and released in 1989.. Scale 4 (formerly known as the Psychopathic Deviate Scale) : Measures a person's need for control or their rebellion against control. including the RC Scales. was released in 1992. and usually takes between 1 and 2 hours to complete depending on reading level. and address the use of the scales in a wide range of settings.[11][12][13][14][15] [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] The MMPI-2-RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a homogenous condition that is additive. The modern methods used to develop the MMPI-2-RF were not available at the time the MMPI was originally developed. but the scores available on the shorter version are not as extensive as those available in the 567-item version. [edit]MMPI-A A version of the test designed for adolescents. The current MMPI-2 has 567 items. Scale 3 (formerly known as the Hysteria Scale) : Measures the emotionality of a person. Subsequent revisions of certain test elements have been published.. illness or time pressure).. which have been extensively researched since their publication in 2003.The first major revision of the MMPI was the MMPI-2. Scale 2 (formerly known as the Depression Scale) : Measures a person's discouragement level. The shorter version has been mainly used in circumstances that have not allowed the full version to be completed (e.[9] The MMPI-A has 478 items. all trueor-false format. the MMPI-A. with a short form of 350 items. and a wide variety of subscales was also introduced over many years to help clinicians interpret the results of the original clinical scales. There is an infrequently used abbreviated form of the test that consists of the MMPI-2's first 370 items[8].g.. hierarchically structured set of scales. Publications on the MMPI-2-RC Scales include book chapters. [edit]MMPI-2 RF A new and psychometrically improved version of the MMPI-2 has recently been developed employing rigorous statistical methods that were used to develop the RC Scales in 2003. The MMPI-2-RF builds on the foundation of the RC Scales. The MMPI-2-RF produces scores on a theoretically grounded.

For men it would be the Marlboro man. Scale 7 (formerly known as the Psychestenia Scale) : Measures whether someone made it into adulthood with or without unresolved issues. doubts. Anxiety. sensitivity 40 7 Pt Psychasthenia Worry. for women it would be June Cleaver or Donna Reed. Scale 6 (formerly known as the Paranoia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to trust. suspiciousness. Scale 8 (formerly known as the Schizophrenia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to have original or unique thoughts and whether they can think outside the box. struggle. respect for society's 50 rules 5 MF Masculinity/Femininity Stereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors 56 6 Pa Paranoia Level of trust.compare.. While the descriptions of each type were originally used in assessment. anger. tension. obsessiveness 48 8 Sc Schizophrenia Odd thinking and social alienation 78 . of Items Number Abbreviation Description What is Measured 1 Hs Hypochondriasis Concern with bodily symptoms 32 2 D Depression Depressive Symptoms 57 3 Hy Hysteria Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities 60 4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate Conflict. Scale 9 (formerly known as the Mania Scale) : Measures a person's psychic energy. scale 0 (formerly known as the Social Introversion Scale) : Measures whether people like to be around other people. the current practice is to use the numbers only... The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era... No.

TRIN). K)).8. FBS). and those designed to detect when test-takers are underreporting or downplaying psychological symptoms (L. [edit]Validity scales The validity scales in the MMPI-2 RF are minor revisions of those contained in the MMPI-2. Codetypes and interaction of clinical scales can be quite complex and require specialized training to properly interpret. Fb. Fp. VRIN. . 48). A new addition to the validity scales for the MMPI-2 RF includes an over reporting scale of somatic symptoms scale (Fs). those designed to detect when clients are over reporting or exaggerating the prevalence or severity of psychological symptoms (F.9 Ma Hypomania Level of excitability 46 0 Si Social Introversion People orientation 69 Codetypes are a combination of the one or two highest-scoring clinical scales (ex. New in version Abbreviation Description Assesses ? 1 "Cannot Say" Questions not answered L 1 Lie Client "faking good" F 1 Infrequency Client "faking bad" (in first half of test) K 1 Defensiveness Denial/Evasiveness Fb 2 Back F Client "faking bad" (in last half of test) VRIN 2 Variable Response Inconsistency answering similar/opposite question pairs inconsistently TRIN 2 True Response Inconsistency answering questions all true/all false . which includes three basic types of validity measures: those that were designed to detect nonresponding or inconsistent responding (CNS.

the following are some samples: Abbreviation Description Es Ego Strength Scale OH Over-Controlled Hostility Scale MAC MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale MAC-R MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale Revised Do Dominance Scale . with the more frequently used being the substance abuse scales (MAC-R.F-K 2 F minus K honesty of test responses/not faking good or bad S 2 Superlative Self-Presentation improving upon K scale. designed to assess the extent to which a client admits to or is prone to abusing substances. "appearing excessively good" Fp 2 F-Psychopathology Frequency of presentation in clinical setting Fs 2 RF Infrequent Somatic Response Overreporting of somatic symptoms [edit]Content scales To supplement these multidimensional scales and to assist in interpreting the frequently seen diffuse elevations due to the general factor (removed in the RC scales)[31][32] were also developed. Dozens of content scales currently exist. developed by Welsh after conducting a factor analysis of the original MMPI item pool. and the A (anxiety) and R (repression) scales. AAS). APS.

[edit]Scoring and interpretation Like many standardized tests. Introversion (INTR). Test manufacturers and publishers ask test purchasers to prove they are qualified to purchase the MMPI/MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF and other tests[citation needed]. .APS Addictions Potential Scale AAS Addictions Acknowledgement Scale SOD Social Discomfort Scale A Anxiety Scale R Repression Scale TPA Type A Scale MDS Marital Distress Scale [edit]PSY-5 scales Unlike the Content and Supplementary scales.Standard Deviation equals 10). The five components were labeled Negative Emotionality (NEGE). making interpretation easier for clinicians. the PSY-5 scales were not developed as a reaction to some actual or perceived shortcoming in the MMPI-2 itself. Raw scores on the scales are transformed into a standardized metric known as T-scores (Mean or Average equals 50. scores on the various scales of the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF are not representative of either percentile rank or how "well" or "poorly" someone has done on the test. Psychoticism (PSYC). but rather as an attempt to connect the instrument with more general trend in personality psychology. Rather. analysis looks at relative elevation of factors compared to the various norm groups studied. Disconstraint (DISC) and Aggressiveness (AGGR). and the PSY-5 scales differ from the 5 factors identified in non-pathological populations in that they were meant to determine the extent to which personality disorders might manifest and be recognizable in clinical populations.[33] The five factor model of human personality has gained great acceptance in non-pathological populations.

[38] A more basic criticism is that the MMPI-2 RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a .[36][37] Critics of the new scales argue that the removal of this common variance makes the RC scales less ecologically valid (less like real life) because real patients tend to present complex patterns of symptoms. in contrast to the original clinical scales. more pure versions of the original clinical scales because 1) the interscale correlations are greatly reduced and no items are contained in more than one RC scale and. Individuals in favor of retaining the older Clinical scales have argued that the new RC scales are measuring pathology which is markedly different than that measured by the original clinical scales.[34][35] This claim is not supported by results of research. The replacement of the original Clinical Scales with the RC scales has not been met with universal approval. the RC scales are not saturated with the primary factor (demoralization. However. now captured in RCdem) which frequently produced diffuse elevations and made interpretation of results difficult. Critics of the RC scales assert they have deviated too far from the original clinical scales. and has warranted enough discussion to prompt a special issue of the academic Journal of Personality Assessment (Vol 87. the RC scales have lower interscale correlations and. contain no interscale item overlap. which has found the RC scales to be cleaner. Proponents of the RC scales assert that research has adequately addressed those issues with results indicating that the RC scales predict pathology in their designated areas better than their concordant original clinical scales while using significantly fewer items and maintaining equal to higher internal consistency reliability and validity. 2) common variance spread across the older clinical scales due to a general factor common to psychopathology is parsed out and contained in a separate scale measuring demoralization (RCdem). Issue 2. this issue is addressed by being able to view elevations on other RC scales that are less saturated with the general factor and. unlike the original clinical scales. therefore.[edit]Criticism [edit]RC and controversy and Clinical Scales Some questions have been raised about the RC Scales and the forthcoming release of the MMPI-2-RF. October 2006) to provide each side with a forum to voice their opinions regarding the old and new measures. the implication being that previous research done on the clinical scales will no longer be relevant to the interpretation of the RC scales and the burden of proof should be on the RC scales to demonstrate they are clearly superior to the original clinical scales. which eliminates the older clinical scales entirely in favor of the more psychometrically appealing RC scales. further. finally. and are not weaker at identifying the core elements of the original clinical scales. are also more transparent and much easier to interpret.

and seemingly unrelated signs and symptoms that can not be measured by scales that were made to have high internal consistency. the Gough Dissimilation index (Ds-r) [40]. PTSD. but not great for people. while 21 other studies critical of the test were excluded from the review. Although symptoms are mainly homogenous. contradictory states. who works mainly for defendants (insurance companies etc. and the Wiener-Harmon Subtle and Obvious Scales (S-O) [41]. DID are composed of defenses. The article reports that this particular "fake bad" scale was developed by psychologist Paul LeesHaley. which are the original "fake bad" scales) that have been in existence since 1950." The scale was introduced in MMPI after a review of the literature. that he ignored . The article reports that in 1991 Lees-Haley paid to have an article supportive of his scale published in Psychological Reports. which the Wall Street Journal described as "a small Montana-based medical journal.homogenous condition that is additive. Butcher's own study has been criticized on methodological and conceptual grounds.) in personal injury cases. most psychodiagnostic conditions such as hysteria. This review was considered flawed by its critics because at least 10 of 19 studies reviewed were done by Lees-Haley or other insurance defense psychologists. [edit]Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale The following discussion concerns the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. two Florida judges barred use of the scale after special hearings on its scientific validity. ” However. and which have not been subject to the same kind of controversy as the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. The article quotes Butcher concluding: “ This is great for insurance companies. Butcher contends that it is unlikely that so many psychiatric patients misled doctors. One of the critics of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is retired psychologist James Butcher. including the likelihood that his subject pool included many malingerers. which is used in courts as argument for malingering in injury litigation. which according to the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale meant they were malingering. who found that more than 45 percent of psychiatric patients he studied had Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale scores of 20 or more. In March 2008 a front page article in the Wall Street Journal[42] exposed what it claimed to be the lack of scientific validity of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. These include the F-K scale [39]. there are several other "fake bad" scales (aside from the standard F and Fb scales. According to the article.

and the authors are very specific that it should not be used with the general population.' [43] Despite the reservations of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-R authors (including James Butcher) who have a degree of proprietary control over the test. It is composed of 175 true-false questions that reportedly takes 25-30 minutes to complete. The MCMI was developed and standardised specifically on clinical populations (i.). pain clinics. etc. [46] Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory From Wikipedia. [45] The Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is now regarded by some authors as a 'gold standard' in such populations.recommended gender-related cut-offs. The test is modeled on four scales    14 Personality Disorder Scales 10 Clinical Syndrome Scales 5 Correction Scales: 3 Modifying Indices (which determine the patient's response style and can detect random responding). the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III) The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) is a psychological assessment tool intended to provide information onpsychopathology. or neurological symptoms) in settings where the base-rate of malingering is typically high (litigation. 2 Random Response Indicatiors . there is a strong evidence base that shows that it still retains validity on non-clinical populations.e. as it was designed to do. an independent professional panel recommended that the Lees-Haley FBS be included in the standard Pearson scoring system. mood. and used a less sensitive or specific MMPI-2 scale as his 'gold-standard. and Seth Grossman. [44] Several studies by independent Neuropsychologists have since been published in respected peer-reviewed journals supporting the Lees-Haley FBS scale as highly sensitive and specific (when proper cut-offs are used) in identifying individuals who are exaggerating somatic symptoms (as opposed to psychiatric. and so psychologists will often administer the test to members of the general population. patients in psychiatric hospitals or people with existing mental health problems). It was created by Theodore Millon. It is intended for adults (18 and over) with at least an 8th grade reading level. Roger Davis. Carrie Millon. However. including specific disorders outlined in the DSM-IV.

the Validity scale (V). It also is used to measure whether the patient was open in the assessment. It consists of three questions. such as whether they were keen to present themselves in a positive light (indicated by an elevation on the Desirability scale) or exaggerate the negative aspects of themselves (indicated by the Debasement scale). and there are certain corrections that are administered based on each patient's response style. . with 60 being the median score. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Scoring system 2 Interpretation 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit]Scoring system Patients' raw scores are converted to Base Rate (BR) scores to allow comparison between the personality indices. It is not converted to a BR score. or if they were unwilling to disclose details about themselves (the Disclosure Scale). The Modifying indices are scored using a complex system in which the patient's responses in the other scales are compared and the raw and BR scores are taken from this. [edit]Interpretation The modifying indices consist of 4 scales . the Disclosure Scale (X). The Validity index is an exception to this. These are compared against each other to gain an understanding of the patient's response style. For instance. The Base Rate scores are essentially where each score fits on a scale of 1115. elevated scores on the Disclosure and Desirability scales suggest a "cry for help" response style. Conversion to a Base Rate score is relatively complex. They are used to determine a patient's response style. the Desirability Scale (Y) and the Debasement Scale (Z). 42 Grossman Personality Facet Scales (based on Seth Grossman's theories of personality and psychopathology)[1] The test was normed on a sample of 998 male and female adults with a wide variety of clinical disorders. and so is scored between 0 and 3.

The school-age version (CBCL/6-18) is for children aged 6 to 18 years. A raw score above 178 or below 34 is considered to not be an accurate representation of the patient's personality style as they either over. A score of 2 or 3 on this scale would render the test invalid.[1][2] It is a component in the Achenbach System of Emperically Based Assessment. The Validity Index consists of just three questions in which a response of "True" is extremely unlikely.or under-disclosed." While only consisting of 3 questions. Similar questions are grouped into a number of syndromes. These categorizations are based on quantiles from a normative sample. Problems are identified by a respondent who knows the child well. 1 = Somewhat or Sometimes True. 2 = Very True or Often True. Responses are recorded on a Likert scale: 0 = Not True. Acts too young for his/her age.[citation needed] . A total score from all questions is also derived. the scale is very sensitive to random responding. or clinical behavior. There are two versions of the checklist. the free encyclopedia The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely-used method of identifying problem behavior in children.The Disclosure scale is the only scale in the MCMI-III in which the raw scores are interpreted and in which a particularly low score is clinically relevant.g. and their scores are summed to produce a score for that syndrome. Aggressive behavior. [edit]See also Child Behavior Checklist From Wikipedia. The checklists consists of a number of statements about the child's behavior. The preschool checklist (CBCL/1½-5) is intended for use with children aged 18 months to 5 years. For each syndrome. Scores of 85 or above indicate the persistence of a personality trait or a clinical syndrome. e. The preschool checklist contains 100 questions and the school-age checklist contains 120 questions. or (for the Clinical Syndromes scales) the presence of a clinical syndrome. problem scale and the total score. such as "I was on the front cover of several magazines last year.g. tables are given that determine whether the score represents normal. scores of 75-84 are taken to indicate personality trait. e. borderline. For the Personality and Clinical Syndrome scales. usually a parent or teacher. Some syndromes are further summed to provide scores for Internalizing and Externalizing problem scales.

the free encyclopedia Psychology History of psychology Branches of psychology Basic science Abnormal · Behavioral neuroscience Cognitive · Developmental Experimental · Evolutionary Mathematical · Neuropsychology Personality · Positive Psychophysics · Social Transpersonal Applied science Clinical · Educational Forensic · Health Industrial and organizational Occupational health School · Sport · Military Lists Outline · Publications Topics · Therapies Portal v•d•e .Beck Depression Inventory From Wikipedia.

Contents [hide] • • o • o • • • • • • 1 Development and history 2 BDI 2. as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue. BDI-II). is a 21question multiple-choice self-report inventory. depression was described in psychodynamic terms as "inverted hostility against the self". cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished. Aaron T.[1] . by collating patients' verbatim descriptions of their symptoms and using these to structure a scale which could reflect the intensity or severity of a given symptom. Its development marked a shift among health care professionals.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. weight loss. Beck. who had until then viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective. and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability. created by Dr. and the BDI-II. instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts.[2] By contrast. published in 1996. one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity ofdepression.1 Two-factor approach to depression 4 Impact 5 Limitations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links [edit]Development and history Historically. the BDI was developed in a novel way for its time. and lack of interest in sex.[1] There are three versions of the BDI—the original BDI. In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over. The BDI is widely used as an assessment tool by health care professionals and researchers in a variety of settings.1 BDI-IA 3 BDI-II 3. first published in 1961 and later revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A.

inaccurate. 10–18 indicates mild-moderate depression. Beck drew attention to the importance of "negative cognitions": sustained. which aims to challenge and neutralize them through techniques such as cognitive restructuring. which play a major role in depression. [edit]BDI The original BDI. 19–29 indicates moderate-severe depression and 30–63 indicates severe depression. a value of 0 to 3 is assigned for each answer and then the total score is compared to a key to determine the depression's severity. with items such as "I have lost all of my interest in other people" to reflect the world. first published in 1961[5]. the future. For example:     (0) I do not feel sad. consisted of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week. so he may come to believe he does not enjoy the class. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. (2) I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it.[3] In his view. ranging in intensity. When the test is scored. "I feel discouraged about the future" to reflect the future. rather than being generated by depression. Each question has a set of at least four possible answer choices. and "I blame myself for everything bad that happens" to reflect the self. The standard cut-offs are as follows: 0–9 indicates that a person is not depressed. An example of the triad in action taken from Brown (1995) is the case of a student obtaining poor exam results:  The student has negative thoughts about the world. and the self.[4] The development of the BDI reflects that in its structure. The view of depression as sustained by intrusive negative cognitions has had particular application in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).  The student has negative thoughts about his self. as he may feel he does not deserve to be in college. (1) I feel sad. it was the case that these cognitions caused depression.Throughout his work. . Beck developed a triad of negative cognitions about the world. because he thinks he may not pass the class.  The student has negative thoughts about his future. (3) I am so sad or unhappy that I can't stand it. and often intrusive negative thoughts about the self.

with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of around 0. Items involving changes in body image. To improve ease of use. This and other criticisms were addressed in the BDI-II.Some items on the BDI have more than one statement marked with the same score. [9] The test also has high internal consistency (α=. showing good agreement. sleep loss and appetite loss items were revised to assess both increases and decreases in sleep and appetite. [edit]BDI-II The BDI-II was a 1996 revision of the BDI.91). only the items dealing with feelings of being punished. Fourth Edition. as opposed to the past week as in the original BDI. each answer being scored on a scale value of 0 to 3. which changed many of the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. 14–19: mild depression.93). thoughts about suicide. Finally. the BDI-II is positively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with aPearson r of 0. this version retained some flaws. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. Like the BDI. One measure of an instrument's usefulness is to see how closely it agrees with another similar instrument that has been validated against clinical interview by a trained clinician. the "a and b statements" described above were removed. All but three of the items were reworded. and 29–63: severe depression.71. In this respect. meaning that the items on the inventory are highly correlated with each other. participants were asked to rate how they have been feeling for the past two weeks. 20–28: moderate depression. the BDI-II also contains 21 questions. The test was also shown to have a high one-week test–retest reliability (Pearson r =0.[7] [edit]Two-factor approach to depression . suggesting that it was not overly sensitive to daily variations in mood.[7] developed in response to the American Psychiatric Association's publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. hypochondria. The cutoffs used differ from the original: 0–13: minimal depression. developed by Beck during the 1970s and copyrighted in 1978. and difficulty working were replaced.[8] However. the BDI-IA only addressed six out of the nine DSMIII criteria for depression. and respondents were instructed to endorse how they had been feeling during the preceding two weeks.[1] [edit]BDI-IA The BDI-IA was a revision of the original instrument. Also.[6][7] The internal consistency for the BDI-IA was good.85. there are two responses under the Mood heading that score a 2: (2a) I am blue or sad all the time and I can't snap out of it and (2b) I am so sad or unhappy that it is very painful. and interest in sex remained the same. For instance.

[13] It has been translated into multiple European languages as well as Arabic. suggesting that the physical and psychological aspects of depression are closely related rather than totally distinct. and loss of interest in sex. punishment feelings. rather than of depression. it had been used in over 2000 empirical studies.[16] In participants with concomitant physical illness the BDI's reliance on physical symptoms such as fatigue may artificially inflate scores due to symptoms of the illness. Japanese. in that scores can be easily exaggerated or minimized by the person completing them.g. it can monitor changes over time and provide an objective measure for judging improvement and the effectiveness or otherwise of treatment methods. Chinese. Like all questionnaires. Persian. social expectations might elicit a different response compared to administration via a postal survey. [17] In an effort to deal with this concern Beck and his colleagues developed the "Beck Depression . The BDI-II reflects this and can be separated into two subscales. Because it is designed to reflect the depth of depression. guilty feelings. irritability. past failures.suicidal thoughts or wishes. concentration difficulties.[2] It also established the principle that instead of attempting to develop a psychometric tool based on a possibly invalid theory.[12] The instrument remains widely used in research. change in sleep patterns. The somatic subscale consists of the other thirteen items: sadness. The two subscales were moderately correlated at 0. mood) and the physical or "somatic" component (e. loss of pleasure. the way the instrument is administered can have an effect on the final score.57. change in appetite.[14] and Xhosa. indecisiveness. The BDI was originally developed to provide a quantative assessment of the intensity of depression.Depression can be thought of as having two components: the affective component (e. and worthlessness. loss of appetite). self-dislike. loss of interest. it represented a shift in health care professionals' view of depression from a Freudian. The affective subscale contains eight items: pessimism. self-report questionnaires when analysed using techniques such as factor analysis can suggest theoretical constructs. in 1998. self-criticalness. crying.[10][11] [edit]Impact The development of the BDI was an important event in psychiatry and psychology. If a patient is asked to fill out the form in front of other people in a clinical environment. for instance. The purpose of the subscales is to help determine the primary cause of a patient's depression. tiredness and/or fatigue. loss of energy. agitation. to one guided by the patient's own thoughts or "cognitions". psychodynamic perspective.g.[15] [edit]Limitations The BDI suffers from the same problems as other self-report inventories.

development.[18] Although designed as a screening device rather than a diagnostic tool. the BDI is sometimes used by health care providers to reach a quick diagnosis. Lisa Cramp and Bill Mabey.An independent review can be found below (4): . succession planning and organisational change.[19] OPQ From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources.[1]. are widely-used occupational personality questionnaires. how they will work with other people and how they will cope with different job requirements. to help employers gauge how a candidate will fit into certain work environments. including Roger Holdsworth. OPQ or OPQ32. in 1984. Unlike the standard BDI. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. a short screening scale consisting of seven items from the BDI-II considered to be independent of physical function. It is now available in more than 30 languages and uses innovative Item Response theory to shorten the questionnaire down to under 30 minutes.Inventory for Primary Care" (BDI-PC). and they were launched by Saville and Holdsworth Ltd. The series included the first commercially-available Big Five instrument. (July 2009) The Occupational Personality Questionnaires. The OPQ32 is used in selection. team building. OPQ32 provides an indication of an individual’s preferred behavioural style at work.. Gill Nyfield. The authors were Saville et al. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the BDI-PC produces only a binary outcome of "not depressed" or "depressed" for patients above a cutoff score of 4.

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