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An inkblot from the Rorschach inkblot test, the most well-known and widely used of the projective tests
In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an "objective test" in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam). The responses to projective tests are content analyzed for meaning rather than being based on presuppositions about meaning, as is the case with objective tests. Projective tests in general rely heavily on clinical judgement, lack reliability andvalidity and many have no standardized criteria to which results may be compared. These tests are still used frequently, however, despite the lack of scientific evidenceto support them and their continued popularity has been referred to as the "projective paradox". Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology, which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness. The terms "objective test" and "projective test" have recently come under criticism in the Journal of Personality Assessment. The more descriptive "rating scale or self-report measures" and "free response measures" are suggested, rather than the terms "objective tests" and "projective tests," respectively.
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1 Theory 2 Common variants 2.1 Rorschach 2.2 Thematic apperception test
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2.3 Draw-A-Person test 2.4 Sentence completion test 3 Uses in marketing 4 See also 5 References 6 Footnotes
Theory The general theoretical position behind projective tests is that whenever a specific question is asked, the response will be consciously-formulated and socially determined. These responses do not reflect the respondent's unconscious or implicit attitudes or motivations. The respondent's deep-seated motivations may not be consciously recognized by the respondent or the respondent may not be able to verbally express them in the form demanded by the questioner. Advocates of projective tests stress that the ambiguity of the stimuli presented within the tests allow subjects to express thoughts that originate on a deeper level than tapped by explicit questions. Projective tests lost some of their popularity during the 1980s and 1990s in part because of the overall loss of popularity of the psychoanalytic method and theories. Despite this, they are still used quite frequently. Common
Rorschach Main article: Rorschach inkblot test The best known and most frequently used projective test is the Rorschach inkblot test, in which a subject is shown a series of ten irregular but symmetrical inkblots, and asked to explain what they see. The subject's responses are then analyzed in various ways, noting not only what was said, but the time taken to respond, which aspect of the drawing was focused on, and how single responses compared to other responses for the same drawing. For example, if someone consistently sees the images as threatening and frightening, the tester might infer that the subject may suffer from paranoia.
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(Redirected from Rorschach inkblot test)
"Rorschach Test" redirects here. For the band, see Rorschach Test (band).
The first of the ten cards in the Rorschach test, with the occurrence of the most statistically frequent details indicated. The images themselves are only one component of the test, whose focus is the analysis of the perception of the images.
The Rorschach test (German pronunciation: [ˈʁoɐʃax]; also known as the Rorschach inkblot test or simply the Inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. The test takes its name from that of its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. In a national survey in the U.S., the Rorschach was ranked eighth among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health facilities. It is the second most widely used test by members of the Society for Personality Assessment, and it is requested by psychiatrists in 25% of forensic assessmentcases, usually in a battery of tests that often include the MMPI-2 and the MCMI-III.
In surveys, the use of Rorschach ranges from a low of 20% by correctional psychologists to a
high of 80% by clinical psychologists engaged in assessment services, and 80% of psychology graduate programs surveyed teach it. Although the Exner Scoring System (developed since the 1960s) claims to have addressed and often refuted many criticisms of the original testing system with an extensive body of research,
some researchers have raised questions about the objectivity of psychologists administrating
the test; inter-rater reliability; the verifiability and general validity of the test; bias of the test's pathology scales towards greater numbers of responses; the limited number of psychological conditions which it accurately diagnoses; the inability to replicate the test's norms; its use in court-ordered evaluations; and the proliferation of the ten inkblot images, potentially invalidating the test for those who have been exposed to them.
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1 History 2 Method 2.1 Features or categories
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2.1.1 Content 2.1.2 Location 2.1.3 Determinants 2.2 Exner scoring system 2.3 Cultural differences 2.4 Neurology
3 The ten inkblots 4 Prevalence 4.1 United States 5 Controversy 5.1 Test materials 5.2 Tester projection 5.3 Validity 5.4 Reliability 5.5 Population norms 5.6 Applications 5.7 Protection of test items and ethics 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links
with aims such as studying imagination and consciousness. each of which was inspired by an accidental inkblot. Exnersummarized some of these later developments in . in 1857. which was to form the basis of the inkblot test (after experimenting with several hundred inkblots. in 1921 Rorschach wrote his bookPsychodiagnostik. After Rorschach's death. Rorschach's. In 1927. the newly-founded Hans Huber publishing house purchased Rorschach's book Psychodiagnostikfrom the inventory of Ernst Bircher. Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society. after the turn of the century. John E.Hermann Rorschach created the Rorschach inkblot test in 1921. however. and. After studying 300 mental patients and 100 control subjects. French psychologist Alfred Binet had also experimented with inkblots as a creativity test. but he died the following year. Hogrefe AG. psychological experiments where inkblots were utilized multiplied. Huber has remained the publisher of the test and related book. Using interpretation of "ambiguous designs" to assess an individual's personality is an idea that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. was the first systematic approach of this kind. Interpretation of inkblots was central to a game from the late 19th century. the original test scoring system was improved by Samuel Beck. The work has been described as "a densely written piece couched in dry. scientific terminology". he selected a set of ten for their diagnostic value). Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared. with Rorschach a registered trademark of Swiss publisher Verlag Hans Huber.  It has been suggested that Rorschach's use of inkblots may have been inspired by German doctorJustinus Kerner who. had published a popular book of poems. Bruno Klopfer and others.
Whether the cards are rotated. base motives. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method . but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes. has also occasionally been performed. After the test subject has seen and responded to all of the inkblots (free association phase). As the subject is examining the inkblots. the tester then presents them again one at a time in a set sequence for the subject to study: the subject is asked to note where he sees what he originally saw and what makes it look like that (inquiry phase). Methods of interpretation differ. response tendencies. and personal/interpersonal perceptions. by means of projected images. approximately 18x24 cm in size. which is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles. cognitive operations. The Exner system remains very popular in the United States. each printed on a separate white card. and that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations. and including needs. a separate location chart. There are ten official inkblots. The most widely used method in the United States is based on the work of Exner. This is to facilitate a "relaxed but controlled atmosphere". conflicts. Administration of the test to a group of subjects. may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment. if required. such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohm. Each of the blots has near perfect bilateral symmetry. with the tester slightly behind the subject. Test administration is not to be confused with test interpretation: "The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and. at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous. Method The tester and subject typically sit next to each other at a table. Rorschach scoring systems have been described as a system of pegs on which to hang one's knowledge of personality. affectivity. on a white background. The general goal of the test is to provide data about cognition and personality variables such as motivations. Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations. no matter how trivial. the psychologist writes down everything the subject says or does. two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored. The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them. and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked.the comprehensive system. while in Europe other methods sometimes dominate. Five inkblots are of black ink. The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets.
content response can be controlled consciously by the subject. "nature". even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years.e. In fact." Features or categories The interpretation of the Rorschach test is not based primarily on the contents of the response. Content is classified in terms of "human". originality). More than any other feature in the test. and some information can at times be obtained by analyzing thematic trends in the whole set of content responses (which is only feasible when several responses are available). "abstract". information is provided by the time taken before providing a response for a card can be significant (taking a long time can indicate "shock" on the card). i. conversely.. However. . as well as by any comments the subject may make in addition to providing a direct response. etc. as well as for statistical popularity (or. although there is contrasting evidence. with certain individuals. which makes it difficult to use content alone to draw any conclusions about the subject's personality.. Location This section requires expansion. Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months. and may be elicited by very disparate factors. or the negative spacearound or within the inkblot. but in general content cannot be analyzed outside of the context of the entire test record. such as form and color) and location(which details of the inkblots triggered the response) is often considered more important than content. In particular. what the individual sees in the inkblot (the content). a detail (either a commonly or an uncommonly selected one). information about determinants (the aspects of the inkblots that triggered the response. the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: for instance. "Popularity" and "originality" of responses  can also be considered as basic dimensions in the analysis.specifically. The basis for the response is usually the whole inkblot. Content This section requires expansion. content responses may potentially be interpreted directly. "animal".
 In 1969. a concise description of what would be later called "the Exner system". objective. More than one determinant can contribute to the formation of the subject's percept. from the relation and balance among determinants that personality can be most readily inferred. Exner. while others have widened the scope of this determinant. and is related to intellectual processes. basing instead their judgment on subjective assessment. reliable coding and a representative normative . and fusion of two determinants is taken into account. or arbitrarily mixing characteristics of the various standardized systems. while also assessing which of the two constituted the primary contributor (e. color responses often provide direct insight into emotional life. both in definition and interpretation: Rorschach originally disregarded shading (which was originally not even present on the cards. indeed. is the standard method for interpreting the Rorschach test. He later published a study in multiple volumes called The Rorschach: A Comprehensive system. being a result of the print process). also known as the Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS). but ultimately different methods were in common use at the time. with a sizeable minority of examiners not employing any recognized method at all.g. and he considered movement as only actual experiencing of motion. It has been extensively validated and shows high inter-rater reliability. as a more rigorous system of analysis. The key components of the Exner system are the clusterization of Rorschach variables and a sequential search strategy to determine the order in which to analyze them. Exner published The Rorschach Systems. color and movement. Creation of the new system was prompted by the realization that at least five related. Shading and movement have been considered more ambiguously. It was developed in the 1960s by Dr.Determinants Systems for Rorschach scoring generally include a concept of "determinants": these are the factors that contribute to establish the similarity between the inkblot and the subject's content response about it. Rorschach's original work used only form. showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world.  which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing of the inkblots (which originally featured uniform saturation). the most accepted full description of his system. taking it to mean that the subject sees something "going on". and they can represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes. Form is the most common determinant. currently. and subsequently recognized as significant by Rorschach himself. framed in the context of standardized administration. "form-color" implies a more refined control of impulse than "color-form"). another major determinant considered is shading. Exner scoring system The Exner scoring system. It is. John E.
especially in Europe. With the Rorschach plates (the ten inkblots). some of which impact important variables. European would seem to express it only when it reaches the level of a craving for closeness). as a subjective judgment of how well the form of the subject's response matched the inkblots (Rorschach would give a higher form score to more "original" yet good form responses). Form is . and ideation. while others (such as the average number of responses) coincide. the Exner system solely defines "good form" as a matter of word occurrence frequency. The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses. or incoherent aspects of responses. and this concept was followed by other methods. in contrast. For instance. This system was in turn based upon Klopfer's (1942) work. referring to the way information is transformed and identified. incongruous. the degree of mental organizing activity that is involved in producing the response. to the point where schizophrenia may be suspected if data were correlated to the North American norms. Cultural differences Comparing North American Exner normative data with data from European and South American subjects showed marked differences in some features. In the system. and any illogical. the examiner then performs a series of calculations producing a structural summary of the test data. the location of the response. in accordance with the system. badge and coat of arms. the contents of the response (what the respondent actually sees in the blot).e.database. texture response is typically zero in European subjects (if interpreted as a need for closeness. related to how the subject processes input data. J. It has been reported that popular responses on the first card include bat. As pertains to response form. Beck (1944 and 1961). reducing it to a measure of the subject's distance to the population average. Exner settled upon the area coding system promoted by S. responses are scored with reference to their level of vagueness or synthesis of multiple images in the blot. There were many different methods for coding the areas of the blots. which of a variety of determinants is used to produce the response (i. what makes the inkblot look like what it is said to resemble). the form quality of the response (to what extent a response is faithful to how the actual inkblot looks). and there are fewer "good form" responses.. Using the scores for these categories. the area of each blot which is distinguished by the client is noted and coded – typically as "commonly selected" or "uncommonly selected". a concept of "form quality" was present from the earliest of Rorschach's works. The system places a lot of emphasis on a cognitive triad of information processing. cognitive mediation.
 Form quality. while specifically card IX's "human" response." The ten inkblots . the crab or spider in card X and one of either the butterfly or the bat in card I appear to be characteristic of North America. Many of Exner's "popular" responses (those given by at least one third of the North American sample used) seem to be universally popular. The researchers note. For example. and "musical instrument" on card VI is popular for Japanese people). Japan and South America. "Christmas elves" (nisser) is a popular response for card II. The cited language differences mean that it's imperative for the test to be administered in the subject's native language or a very well mastered second language. the examiner should master the language used in the test. popular content responses and locations are the only coded variables in the Exner systems that are based on frequency of occurrence. color-form responses are comparatively frequent in opposition to formcolor responses.also often the only determinant expressed by European subjects. and. and thus immediately subject to cultural influences. but since the equivalent term in French translates to "butterfly tie". "Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population. Test responses should also not be translated into another language prior to analysis except possibly by a clinician mastering both languages. and different languages will exhibit semantic differences in naming the same object (the figure of card IV is often called a troll by Scandinavians and an ogre by French people). cultural-dependent interpretation of test data may not necessarily need to extend beyond these components. therefore. while color is less frequent than in American subjects. since the latter tend to be interpreted as indicators of a defensive attitude in processing affect. an examiner not appreciating this language nuance may code the response differently from what is expected. in Scandinavia. as shown by samples in Europe. as opposed to other animals like cats and dogs. conversely. a bow tie is a frequent response for the center detail of card III. this difference could stem from a higher value attributed to spontaneous expression of emotions. The differences in form quality are attributable to purely cultural aspects: different cultures will exhibit different "common" objects (French subjects often identify a chameleon in card VIII. this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity. Neurology Research using figure 03 have found that ‘‘unique responses’’ are produced in people with larger amygdalas. which is normally classed as an "unusual" response.
bear (50%. turning it) are not very significant. Being the first card.  They are also in the public domain under United States copyright law: all works published before 1923 are considered to be in the public domain. elephant. however. according to Swiss copyright law. They have been in the public domain in Hermann Rorschach's native Switzerland since at least 1992 (70 years after the author's death. a card that is usually difficult for the subject to handle. subjects often inquire on how they should proceed. This card can Beck: two humans Piotrowski: four-legged animal(34%. gray) . Card Popular responses Beck: bat. Responses to them can provide indications about how a subject is likely to manage feelings of anger or physical harm. moth Piotrowski: bat (53%).g. It is not. and questions on what they are allowed to do with the card (e.Below are the ten inkblots of the Rorschach test printed in Rorschach's Rorschach Test – Psychodiagnostic Plates. having readily available popular responses. The red details of card II are often seen as blood. gray parts) Dana (France): animal: dog. together with the most frequent responses for either the whole image or the most prominent details according to various authors. it can provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. or 50 years after the cut-off date of 1942). butterfly(29%) Dana (France): butterfly (39%) Comments When seeing card I. and are the most distinctive features. butterfly.
gray) Dana (France): human (76%. The human or animal content seen in the card is almost invariably classified as male rather than female. gray) Beck: animal hide. this serves to elicit a sense of authority. skin. and the qualities expressed by the subject may indicate attitudes toward men and .Beck: two humans (gray) Piotrowski: human figures (72%. and may provide information about how the subject relates with other people (specifically. response latency may reveal struggling social interactions). skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%) induce a variety of sexual responses. rug Piotrowski: animal skin. compounded with the common impression of the subject being in an inferior position ("looking up") to it. and is generally perceived as a big and sometimes threatening figure. Card IV is notable for its dark color and its shading (posing difficulties for depressed subjects). Card III is typically perceived to contain two humans involved in some interaction.
after the previous more challenging cards. it is the easiest blot to generate a good quality response about. bat(46%) Beck: animal hide. bat(40%) Dana (France): butterfly (48%). even though other cards have a greater variety of commonly seen sexual contents. moth Piotrowski: butterfly (48%). top) authority. and typically instigates a "change of pace" in the test.Beck: bat. butterfly. Card VII can be associated with femininity (the human figures commonly seeing in it being described as women or . skin. Card V is an easily elaborated card that is not usually perceived as threatening. it is specifically a "sex card". which often elicits association related to interpersonal closeness. its likely sexual percepts being reported more frequently than in any other card. skin rug(41%) Dana (France): animal skin (46%) Beck: human heads or faces(top) Piotrowski: heads of women or children (27%. Texture is the dominant characteristic of card VI. rug Piotrowski: animal skin. Containing few features that generate concerns or complicate the elaboration. top) Dana (France): human head (46%.
Therefore. people who find processing complex situations or emotional stimuli distressing or difficult may be uncomfortable with this card. Similar to card V. which lets them relax and respond effectively. People often express relief about card VIII. . it represents a "change of pace". the card introduces new elaboration difficulties. which make this card also relate to feminine sexuality in particular. The center detail is relatively often (though not popularly) identified as a vagina. being complex and the first multi-colored card in the set. and function as a "mother card". pink) children). where difficulties in responding may be related to concerns with the female figures in the subject's life.Beck: animal: not cat or dog(pink) Piotrowski: four-legged animal(94%. however. pink) Dana (France): four-legged animal(93%.
lobster. Having difficulty with processing this card may indicate trouble dealing with unstructured data. creating a general vagueness. light green). Prevalence . worms. spider (37%. or what they desire to know. muted chromatic features. Card X is structurally similar to card VIII. caterpillars. spider(blue) crab. but aside from this there are few particular "pulls" typical of this card. snakes (28%. Being the last card. and it is the least frequent of all cards. There is only one popular response. it may provide an opportunity for the subject to "sign out" by indicating what they feel their situation is like. deep green) Dana (France): none Characteristic of card IX is indistinct form and diffuse. but its uncertainty and complexity are reminiscent of card IX: people who find it difficult to deal with many concurrent stimuli may not particularly like this otherwise pleasant card. Piotrowski: rabbit head (31%.Beck: human (orange) Piotrowski: none Dana (France): none Beck: crab. blue).
 In the 1959 edition of Mental Measurement Yearbook." A moratorium on its use was called for in 1999. In custody cases.000 publications about the test. United States The Rorschach test is used almost exclusively by psychologists. It is also used regularly in research on dependency.] "Its value as a measure of thought disorder in schizophrenia research is well accepted. nevertheless possess “validity greater than chance” (p. 20% of correctional psychologists used the Rorschach while 80% used the MMPI. as several studies suggested that conclusions reached by test administrators since the 1950s were akin to cold reading. [. while it was used less than 24% of the time by school psychologists.. 636). Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. There is nothing in the literature to encourage reliance on Rorschach interpretations. the vast majority of these relationships have never been validated empirically [sic]. Supporters of the Rorschach inkblot test believe that ." Test materials The basic premise of the test is that objective meaning can be extracted from responses to blots of ink which are supposedly meaningless. major reviewer Raymond J. less often. Another survey found that 124 out of 161 (77%) of clinical psychologists engaging in assessment services utilize the Rorschach. Another study found that its use by clinical psychologists was only 43%. and. 154): "Though tens of thousands of Rorschach tests have been administered by hundreds of trained professionals since that time (of a previous review).  Controversy Some skeptics consider the Rorschach inkblot test pseudoscience. In a survey done in the year 2000. substantial evidence justifies the use of the Rorschach as a clinical measure of intelligence and thought disorder.. A 2003 report by Wood and colleagues had more mixed views: "More than 50 years of research have confirmed Lee J. and 80% of psychology graduate programs teach its use. McCall writes (p.  Forensic psychologists use the Rorschach 36% of the time. Lee Cronbach (former President of the Psychometric Society and American Psychological Association) is quoted in a review: "The test has repeatedly failed as a prediction of practical criteria. Furthermore. and while many relationships to personality dynamics and behavior have been hypothesized. 23% of psychologists use the Rorschach to examine a child." In addition. in studies on hostility and anxiety. despite the appearance of more than 2. though falling woefully short of the claims made by proponents.The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Cronbach’s (1970) final verdict: that some Rorschach scores.
such a response is always coded as "clothing" unless there is a clear sexual reference in the response. It makes heavy use of what factor (shading. The Exner system of scoring (also known as the "Comprehensive System") is meant to address this.. Several scores correlate well with generalintelligence. there is substantial research indicating the utility of the measure for a few scores. and has all but displaced many earlier (and less consistent) scoring systems. This conclusion was challenged in studies using large samples reported in 2002. An intense dialogue about the wallpaper or the rug would do as well provided that both parties believe. Another example is that the response "bra" was considered a "sex" response by male psychologists. Reber (1985) describes the blots as merely ". in some studies the scores obtained by two independent scorers do not match with great consistency. one such scale is R.) of the inkblot leads to each of the tested person's comments. Also. but it is not clear how this occurs. That is. Disagreements about test validity remain: while the Exner proposed a rigorous scoring system. Interestingly. Validity When interpreted as a projective test.the subject's response to an ambiguous and meaningless stimulus can provide insight into their thought processes. A possible example sometimes attributed to the psychologist's subjective judgement is that responses are coded (among many other things). but the Rorschach's inter-rater reliability has been questioned." between client and therapist. the usefulness of the Rorschach will depend upon the sensitivity. there is essentially no evidence whatsoever that the test has even a shred of validity. Reber (1985) comments ". and the clinician's write-up of the test record is still partly subjective. depending on how the examiner has internalized the categories involved. for "Form Quality": in essence.. the total . and that a patient typically responds to meaningful as well as ambiguous aspects of the blots." Nevertheless. color. etc.. whether the subject's response fits with how the blot actually looks. outline. the vehicle for the interaction . concluding: ". results are thus poorly verifiable. much of the subjectivity is eliminated or reduced by use of frequency tables that indicate how often a particular response is given by the population in general.. but a "clothing" response by females. In Exner's system. empathy and insightfulness of the tester totally independently of the Rorschach itself. latitude remained in the actual interpretation. Third parties could be used to avoid this problem. Superficially this might be considered a subjective judgment. recent research shows that the blots are not entirely meaningless." Tester projection Some critics argue that the testing psychologist must also project onto the patterns. But with the Exner system of scoring. however.
verbal and nonverbal responses to subjects' questions or comments."  Population norms Another area of controversy are the test's statistical norms. Complexity. who may cut corners as a result. In State ex rel H. Bogacki stated under oath "many psychologists do not believe much in the validity or effectiveness of the Rorschach test" and US v Battle (2001) ruled that the Rorschash "does not have an objective scoring system. suggest that high rates of pathology detected by the Rorshach accurately reflect . beginning in the mid-1990s others began to try to replicate or update these norms and failed.  Lillenfeld and colleagues. the procedures for coding responses are fairly well specified but extremely time-consuming to inexperienced examiners. In particular. But. since many scales do not correct for high R: if a subject gives twice as many responses overall. and personality disorders (includingborderline personality disorder). Form Quality. the Comprehensive System doesn't appear to bear a consistent relationship to psychological disorders or symptoms.number of responses. it is more likely that some of these will seem "pathological". personality characteristics. this reveals the questionable side-effect that more intelligent people tend to be elevated on many pathology scales. US Courts have challenged Rorschach as well. but Wood et al. There is some evidence that the Deviant Verbalizations scale relates to bipolar disorder. The same source reports that validity has also been shown for detecting such conditions as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. potential for violence. Similarly. cites many court cases where these had not been followed. discrepancies seemed to focus on indices measuring narcissism. who are critical of the Rorschach. and Human Figure responses. (1999) where under cross examination Dr. Although Rorschach proponents. (Cancer is mentioned because a small minority of Rorschach enthusiasts have claimed the test can predict cancer. Exner has published detailed instructions. thought disorders. reliability. The authors conclude that "Otherwise. or validity of clinical diagnostic tests. or such health problems as cancer".) Reliability It is also thought that the test's reliability can depend substantially on details of the testing procedure. any introductory words. Also correlated with intelligence are the scales for Organizational Activity. have stated that this proves that the Rorschach tends to "overpathologise normals". and discomfort in close relationships. and interpretation thus is often controversial". disordered thinking. Jones v Apfel (1997) stated (quoting from Attorney's Textbook of Medicine) that Rorschash "results do not meet the requirements of standardization. Exner's system was thought to possess normative scores for various populations. such as where the tester and subject are seated. such as Hibbard.H. and how responses are recorded.
with no additional data. Applications The test is also controversial because of its common use in court-ordered evaluations. out of 8. It claims that its goals include "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work".One study has found that use of the test in courts has increased by three times in the decade between 1996 and 2005. The blots are in the public domain in most countries. a false positive rate unexplained by current research. in making official diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). and it requires that psychologists "make reasonable efforts to maintain the . from the limitations of the Rorschach. across 17 different countries. and the testimony was ruled inadmissible in only one of those cases. particularly those with a copyright termof up to 70 years post mortem auctoris. compared to the previous fifty years. and it provides information concerning aspects of personality structure and dynamics that make people the kind of people they are. Weiner (co-developer with John Exner of the Comprehensive system) has stated that the Rorschach "is a measure of personality functioning. the Rorschach also identifies half of all test-takers as possessing "distorted thinking". Protection of test items and ethics Outlines of the ten official inkblots were first made publicly available by William Poundstone in his 1983 book Big Secrets. if the alternative diagnoses being considered have been well conceptualized with respect to specific or defining personality characteristics". They presented an international collaborative study of 4704 Rorschach protocols.000 cases in which forensic psychologists used Rorschach-based testimony. The American Psychological Association (APA) has a code of ethics that supports "freedom of inquiry and expression" and helping "the public in developing informed judgments". (2007). Sometimes such information about personality characteristics is helpful in arriving at a differential diagnosis. Others however have found that its usage by forensic psychologists has decreased. 12 % elevated on indices of depression and hypervigilance and 13% elevated on persistent stress overload—all in line with expected frequencies among nonpatient populations. This controversy stems.increasing psychopathology in society. In the vast majority of cases. The accusation of "over-pathologising" has also been considered by Meyer et al. in part. obtained in 21 different samples. and despite the criticism of usage of the Rorschach in the courts. Irving B. the appropriateness of the instrument was challenged only six times. the Rorschach test wasn't singled out but used as one of several in a battery of tests. with only 2 % showing significant elevations on the index of perceptual and thinking disorder. anyway. which also described the method of administering the test.
called the publication "unbelievably reckless and even cynical of Wikipedia" and said it was investigating the possibility of legal action. its general usefulness as a diagnostic tool for eyesight has not diminished. APA ethical standard 1. recommend that even information about the purpose of the test or any detail of its administration should be kept from the public. Dr. Further complaints were sent to two other websites that contained information similar to the Rorschach test in May 2009 by legal firm Schluep and Degen of Switzerland. It has not taken a position on publication of the Rorschach plates but noted "there are a limited number of standardized psychological tests considered appropriate for a given purpose". The APA has also raised concerns that the dissemination of test materials might impose "very concrete harm to the general public". and impede cross-examination of the experts. given the tens of thousands of research papers which have. and listing common responses represents a serious unethical act" for psychologists and is indicative of "questionable professional judgment". a German company that sells editions of the plates. Hogrefe attempted to claim copyright over the Rorschach ink blots during fillings of a complaint with the World Intellectual Property Organization against Ney Limonge of Brazil. over many . 2008. A public statement by the British Psychological Society expresses similar concerns about psychological tests (without mentioning any test by name) and considers the "release of [test] materials to unqualified individuals" to be misuse if it is against the wishes of the test publisher. even though "cheating" the test is held to be practically impossible. Controversy ensued in the psychological community in 2009 when the original Rorschach plates and research results on interpretations were published in the "Rorschach test" article on Wikipedia. publication of the inkblots is described as a "particularly painful development".  For those opposed to exposure. For example. it is argued that such refusals may hinder full understanding of the process by the attorneys. Other professional associations. compared it to the publication of the eye test chart: though people are likewise free to memorize the eye chart before an eye test. James Heilman. Hogrefe & Huber Publishing. On September 9. such as the Italian Association of Strategic Psychotherapy.23(b) states that the psychologist has a responsibility to document processes in detail and of adequate quality to allow reasonable scrutiny by the court. In his book Ethics in psychology.. a Canadian emergency room physician involved in the debate. the Rorschach test is capable of detectingsuicidality. Psychologists have sometimes refused to disclose tests and test data to courts when asked to do so by the parties citing ethical reasons..integrity and security of test materials". Koocher (1998) notes that some believe "reprinting copies of the Rorschach plates . These complaints were denied.
attempting to discover the conflicts. it has been among the most widely used. and taught of such tests. or TAT." and was hopeful that publication of the test may finally hasten its demise. Publication of the Rorschach images is also welcomed by critics who consider the test to be pseudoscience. Thematic apperception test Main article: Thematic Apperception Test Another popular projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in which an individual views ambiguous scenes of people. editor ofSkeptical Inquirer magazine. and is asked to describe various aspects of the scene. The examiner then evaluates these descriptions. the subject may be asked to describe what led up to this scene. such as The Guardianand The Globe And Mail. In the answers. power and intimacy. stated that the Rorschach "has remained in use more out of tradition than good evidence. for example. motives and needs for achievement. which is why these are referred to as "projective tests. motivations and attitudes of the respondent. Benjamin Radford. "tried to link a patient’s responses to certain psychological conditions. Contents [hide] • 1 Procedure .years. and problemsolving abilities. Its adherents claim that it taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality. Historically. the respondent "projects" their unconscious attitudes and motivations into the picture. the emotions of the characters. and what might happen afterwards. is a projective psychological test." Thematic Apperception Test From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Psychology portal The Thematic Apperception Test. researched."Controversy over Wikipedia's publication of the inkblots has resulted in the blots being published in other locations.
the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly. its assessment of the subject is based on what he or she projects onto the ambiguous images. and patterns of reaction. some female. some of ambiguous gender.• • • • • • • • 2 Scoring Systems 3 History 4 Criticisms 5 Contemporary applications of TAT 6 TAT in popular culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Procedure The TAE is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous picturesabout which the subject must tell a story. Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender. One is completely blank. and some show no human figures at all. like the Rorschach test. Although most clinical practitioners do not . including: what has led up to the event shown what is happening at the moment what the characters are feeling and thinking. some children. to complete the assessment each story created by a subject must be carefully analyzed to uncover underlying needs. some adults. attitudes. Therefore. Most practitioners choose a set of approximately ten cards. either using cards that they feel are generally useful. There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation. and what the outcome of the story was. Some of the cards show male figures. particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities.  Scoring Systems The TAT is a projective test in that. If these elements are omitted. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented. some both male and female figures. any card may be used with any subject.
Murray. and motives. Morgan at Harvard during the 1930s to explore the underlying dynamics of personality.’ creating a ‘cultural or psychosocial distance’ between the patients and these stimuli that makes identifying with them less likely . dominant drives. Affect-Tone of Relationship Paradigms. the Human Potential Movement encouraged psychologists to use the TAT to help their clients understand themselves better and stimulate personal growth. According to Melville scholar Howard P Vincent. the TAT was adopted more broadly by psychoanalysts and clinicians to evaluate emotionally disturbed patients. Henry A. in the 1970s.use formal scoring systems. researchers found that the TAT cards evoked more . Later. Some critics of the TAT cards have observed that the characters and environments are dated. and Understanding of Social Causality. Capacity for Emotional Investment in Relationships and Moral Standards. This assesses three defense mechanisms: denial (least mature). or reliable (that it gives consistent results over time. Their criticisms are that the TAT is unscientific because it cannot be proved to be valid (that it actually measures what it claims to measure). several formal scoring systems have been developed for analyzing TAT stories systematically and consistently. Two common methods that are currently used in research are the: Defense Mechanisms Manual DMM. This assesses four different dimensions of object relations: Complexity of Representations of People. projection (intermediate). in researching the responses of subjects given photographs versus the TAT. andidentification (most mature). due to the challenge of standardising interpretations of the stories produced by subjects).” After World War II. interests. even ‘old-fashioned. History TAT was developed by the American psychologists Henry A. therapeutic purpose. A person's thoughts/feelings are projected in stories involved. psychologist and Melvillist . Criticisms Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is based has caused the TAT to be criticised as false or outdated by many professional psychologists . Also. Murray and Christiana D. Social Cognition and Object Relations SCOR scale. the TAT “came into being when Dr. adapted the implicit lesson of Melville’s [Moby Dick] “Doubloon” chapter to a new and larger creative. such as internal conflicts.
"Oh. Michael Crichton included the TAT in the battery of tests given to the disturbed patient and main character Harry Benson in his novel. in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects. It's a guy and a girl and they're . Psy. or to screen candidates for high-stress occupations. Sometimes it is used in a psychiatric or psychological context to assess personality disorders. In a 2005 dissertation. mate selectionand what motivates people to choose their occupation. Daria states that she sees "a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. It is also commonly used in routine psychological evaluations. TAT in popular culture Thomas Harris' novel Red Dragon includes a scene where the imprisoned psychiatrist and serial killer Dr. fantasies. the TAT remains widely used as a tool for research into areas of psychology such as dreams. The results concluded that the old TAT elicited answers that included many more specific time references than the new TAT. All right. TAT is widely used in France and Argentina using a psychodynamic approach. I see. not ponies. Daria and Quinn are shown a picture of two people.. attempted to address these issues by reproducing a Leopold Bellak  10 card set photographically and performing an outcome study.D. they're people and you tell me what they're discussing." To which Daria characteristically replies. thought disorders.e. Matthew Narron. typically without a formal scoring system. "That's a different test. The Israeli army uses the test for evaluating potential officers. dear." The psychologist explains. Hannibal Lecter mocks a previous attempt to administer the test to him.. "last time I took one of these tests they told me they were clouds. They said they could be whatever I wanted. Contemporary applications of TAT Despite criticisms. The Terminal Man. Daria states. It is also used by the Services Selection Board of India. In the MTV cartoon Daria. leading them to conclude that the difference was due to the differences in the characteristics of the images used as stimuli . as a way to explore emotional conflicts and object relations .. Daria and her sister Quinn are given a test that appears to be the TAT by the school psychologist on their first day at their new school.‘deviant’ stories (i." The psychologist tells her the picture is of two people. Quinn makes up a story about the two people having a discussion about popularity and dating. then. more negative) than photographs. In this test.
a herd of beautiful wild ponies running free across the plains. Draw-A-Person Test From Wikipedia. the protagonist in Daniel Keyes' Flowers for Algernon. Charlie Gordon. Niemur and Strauss ask him what he "sees" on a card.. "I dont know the frist 2 werds but I know what test means. the approach has very little demonstrated validity and there is evidence that therapists may attribute pathology to individuals who are merely poor artists. he replies that he sees an inkblot.discussing. As with other projective tests. clothing and background of the figure.) The TAT is administered to Alex. during which Drs. and he replies that he "pretends" a tablecloth with an ink pen "leeking" all over it. they ask him to pretend that it is something else.. the main character of A Clockwork Orange. the Rorschach test administered to Charly Gordon in Flowers for Algernon. the free encyclopedia Smiling person (combined head and body) age 4½. ." (Cf. You got to pass it or you get bad marks [sic]" Draw-A-Person test Main article: Draw-A-Person Test The Draw-A-Person test requires the subject to draw a person. A similar class of techniques is kinetic family drawing. such as the size. notes in his progress report 4 on March 6th that he was given a "Thematic Appreciation Test. The results are based on a psychodynamic interpretation of the details of the drawing. shape and complexity of the facial features." As he says.
showed that the scoring manual.i. And that such signs might be a patient's neglect to include "obvious anatomical parts like hands and eyes. a woman." and that while not all schizophrenic patients have trouble drawing a person. it is very clear evidence of a disorder. head to feet. large eyes as indicative of paranoia. children rarely take longer than about 10 or 15 minutes to complete all three drawings. Harris later revised and extended the test and it is now known as theGoodenough-Harris Drawing Test. There is no right or wrong type of drawing. Harris's book (1963) provides scoring scales which are used to examine and ." ambiguous sexuality and general distortion. although the child must make a drawing of a whole person each time .. DAP test. could be generated from the naive beliefs of undergraduates. Psychologist Julian Jaynes. Dale B. The revision and extension is detailed in his book Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity(1963). and themselves." with "blurred and unconnected lines. in the 1976 book. Chapman and Chapman (1969). The test has no time limit.g. this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test. It is detailed in her book titled Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings. Dr. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind wrote that the test is "routinely administered as an indicator of schizophrenia. e. not just the face. in a classic study of illusory correlation. Contents [hide] • • • • 1 History 2 Nature of the test 3 See also 4 Notes and References History Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926.The Draw-A-Person Test (DAP. when they do. There has been no validation of this test as indicative of schizophrenia.e. however. or Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test) is a psychological projective personality or cognitive test used to evaluate children and adolescents for a variety of purposes. Children are asked to draw a man. Nature of the test Test administration involves the administrator requesting children to complete three individual drawings on separate pieces of paper. No further instructions are given and the child is free to make the drawing in whichever way he/she would like.
For the second type. including presence or absence. There is debate over whether or not sentence completion tests elicit responses from . Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences.score the child's drawings. The test is completely non-invasive and non-threatening to children which is part of its appeal. This system analyzes fourteen different aspects of the drawings. or other mental states. The subject's response is considered to be a projection of their conscious and/or unconscious attitudes. The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes. Sentence completion tests From Wikipedia. verbal skills. To evaluate intelligence.” and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. detail. However. nonthreatening task to evaluate intelligence is intended to eliminate possible sources of bias by reducing variables like primary language. motivations. and sensitivity to working under pressure. the administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance) to score the drawings. A separate standard score is recorded for each drawing. referred to as “stems. for various criteria. 47 different items are considered for each drawing. beliefs. eight dimensions of each drawing are evaluated against norms for the child's age group. and beliefs. the test administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: QSS (Quantitative Scoring System). motivations. The purpose of the test is to assist professionals in inferring children's cognitive developmental levels with little or no influence of other factors such as language barriers or special needs. there are 64 scoring items for each drawing. the free encyclopedia Sentence completion tests are a class of semi-structured projective techniques. a factor that may account for the tendency of middle-class children to score higher on this test than lower-class children. test results can be influenced by previous drawing experience. such as specific body parts and clothing. Any other uses of the test are merely projective and are not endorsed by the first creator. communication disabilities.personality characteristics. To assess the test-taker for emotional problems. and proportion. and a total score for all three. who often have fewer opportunities to draw. See also completion test Sentence Main article: Sentence completion tests Sentence completion tests require the subject complete sentence "stems" with their own words. In all. For the first type. This system is composed of two types of criteria. The use of a nonverbal.
or much longer. such as those used to assess responses to advertisements. sentence completion tests were the seventh most widely used personality assessment instruments. Structured tests have longer stems that lead respondents to more specific types of responses. validity and reliability 5 References History Herman Von Ebbinghaus is generally credited with developing the first sentence completion test in 1897. This debate would affect whether sentence completion tests can be strictly categorized as projective tests. A sentence completion test form may be relatively short. Ebbinghaus’s sentence completion test was used as part of an intelligence test. Carl Jung’s word association test may also have been a precursor to modern sentence completion tests. such as those used to assess personality. which has 100 stems. less structured tests provide shorter stems. The structures of sentence completion tests vary according to the length and relative generality and wording of the sentence stems. In recent decades. Some sentence completion tests were developed as a way to overcome the problems associated with thematic apperception measures of the same constructs. Another reason for the increased usage of sentence completion tests is because of their superiority to other measures in uncovering conflicted attitudes. sentence completion tests have increased in usage. As of the 1980s. .conscious thought rather than unconscious states. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 History 2 Uses 3 Examples of sentence completion tests 4 Data analysis. A long sentence completion test is the Forer Sentence Completion Test. The tests are usually administered in booklet form where respondents complete the stems by writing words on paper. which produce a wider variety of responses. in part because they are easy to develop and easy to administer.
because in many cases the sentence stems name or refer to specific objects and the respondent is provides responses specifically focused on such objects.e. Miner Sentence Completion Test (measures managerial motivations). attitude assessment. This is to be expected. such as intelligence tests. including psychology. The validity of each sentence completion test must be determined independently and this depends on the instructions laid out in the scoring manual. validity and reliability The data collected from sentence completion tests can usually be analyzed either quantitatively or qualitatively. and marketing. perhaps the most widely used of all sentence completion tests). Data analysis. and measurement of other constructs. the extent to which measurement items accurately reflect the concept being measured). language comprehension. clinical applications. achievement motivation. They are used in several disciplines. Examples of sentence completion tests There are many sentence completion tests available for use by researchers. management. such as Likert-type scales. and language and cognitive development tests..Uses The uses of sentence completion tests include personality analysis. education. Sentence completion measures have also been incorporated into non-projective applications. Some of the most widely used sentence completion tests include: Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (assesses personality traits. Washington University Sentence Completion Test (measures ego development). References Uses in marketing . sentence completion tests tend to have high face validity (i. Compared to positivist instruments. Sentence completion tests usually include some formal coding procedure or manual.
and in anthropology to study cultural meaning. barrier. Objective tests (Rating scale or self-report measure) . The test consists of two alternate forms of forty-five inkblots. head trauma or depression. hostility. in sociology to assess the adoption of innovations. balance. or abstract). In advertising. space. and popularity. The Holtzman Inkblot Test has been used in both experimental and clinical applications. is a projective personality test similar to the Rorschach test. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. location. sexual. children.(July 2009) The Holtzman Inkblot Test.Projective techniques. are used in qualitative marketing research. The technique is featured as part of a travelling exhibition entitled "Psychology: Understanding Ourselves. oltzman Inkblot Test From Wikipedia. because the responses of multiple respondents are grouped together for analysis by the organisation commissioning the research. content (human. including TATs. originally drawn from a pool of several thousand. animal. movement. The application of responses is different in these disciplines than in psychology. The tests have also been used in management to assess achievement motivation and other drives. and with patients suffering from schizophrenia. for example to help identify potential associations betweenbrand images and the emotions they may provoke. Scoring is based on twenty-two items: reaction time. form appropriateness. penetration. projective tests are used to evaluate responses to advertisements. It is housed permanently at theSmithsonian Institution. Scoring takes a very long time if the test is not administered by computer. pathognomonicverbalization. shading. integration. form definiteness. rather than interpreting the meaning of the responses given by a single subject. Understanding Each Other" and sponsored by the American Psychological Association in partnership with the Ontario Science Centre. of the controversial issues aroused by the Rorschach Inkblot Test. anxiety. color. anatomy. rejection. if not all. conceived by Wayne Holtzman. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. The Holtzman Inkblot Test is used primarily with students. The Holtzman Inkblot Test was invented to correct many.
has gained acceptance since the early 1990s when some influential meta-analyses (e. The Big Five. Objective personality tests can be designed for use in business for potential employees. Child Behavior Checklist.1 RC and Clinical Scales .2 Validity scales 2. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory From Wikipedia. such as the NEO-PI. all of which are based on the Big Fivetaxonomy.Children (FFPI-C.2 MMPI-2 1.. and the Beck Depression Inventory. Prominent examples of objective personality tests include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology.4 PSY-5 scales 3 Scoring and interpretation 4 Criticism and controversy 4. the free encyclopedia The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health.g. Barrick & Mount 1991) found consistent relationships between the Big Five personality factors and important criterion variables. Another personality test based upon the Five Factor Model is the Five Factor Personality Inventory .1 MMPI 1.3 Content scales 2. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. the 16PF.3 MMPI-A 1. and the OPQ (Occupational Personality Questionnaire).4 MMPI-2 RF 2 Current scale composition 2. such as allowing for true or false answers or rating using an ordinal scale.).1 Clinical scales 2. or Five Factor Model of normal personality. Contents [hide] • o o o o • o o o o • • o 1 History and development 1.Objective tests have a restricted response format.
However. The difference between this approach and other test development strategies used around that time was that it was atheoretical (not based on any particular theory) and thus the initial test was not aligned with the prevailing psychodynamic theories of that time. Supplementary. The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. as ones she is familiar with. The standardized answer sheets can be hand scored with templates that fit over the answer sheets. The extended score report also provides scores on the more traditionally used Clinical Scales as well as Content. Handbook of Psychological Assessment.o • • • 5 Notes 4. Use of the MMPI is tightly controlled for ethical and financial reasons. MD. The atheoretical approach to MMPI development ostensibly enabled the test to capture aspects of human psychopathology that were recognizable and meaningful despite changes in clinical theories. MMPI-2 . The tests are mentioned in Thomas Harris' 1988 novel The Silence of the Lambs. MMPI The original MMPI was developed in 1939 (Groth Marnat. McKinley. Hathaway. and J. C. PhD. 2009) using an empirical keying approach. and other subscales of potential interest to clinicians. are licensed by the University of Minnesota Press to Pearson Assessments and other companies located in different countries. The clinician using the MMPI has to pay for materials and for scoring and report services. but most tests are computer scored.2 Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale 6 See also 7 External links History and development The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. the scales themselves are not atheoretical by way of using the participants' clinical diagnoses to determine the scales' contents. The computer scoring programs offer a range of scoring profile choices including the extended score report. as well as a charge to install the computerized program. the MMPI-2. Computer scoring programs for the current standardized version. because the MMPI scales were created based on a group with known psychopathologies. by character Clarice Starling. which means that the clinical scales were derived by selecting items that were endorsed by patients known to have been diagnosed with certain pathologies. which includes data on the newest and most psychometrically advanced scales—the Restructured Clinical Scales (RC scales).
g. Subsequent revisions of certain test elements have been published. Scale 3 (formerly known as the Hysteria Scale) : Measures the emotionality of a person. There is an infrequently used abbreviated form of the test that consists of the MMPI-2's first 370 items.. was released in 1992.. which had been found to contain a general factor that made interpretation of scores on the clinical scales difficult. The current MMPI-2 has 567 items. MMPI-2 RF A new and psychometrically improved version of the MMPI-2 has recently been developed employing rigorous statistical methods that were used to develop the RC Scales in 2003. Scale 4 (formerly known as the Psychopathic Deviate Scale) : Measures a person's need for control or their rebellion against control. which was standardized on a new national sample of adults in the United States and released in 1989. It is appropriate for use with adults 18 and over. all trueor-false format.  Current Clinical scale composition scales Scale 1 (formerly known as the Hypochondriasis Scale) : Measures a person's perception of their health or actual injuries or health issues. and a wide variety of subscales was also introduced over many years to help clinicians interpret the results of the original clinical scales. and address the use of the scales in a wide range of settings. The new MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has now been released by Pearson Assessments. The modern methods used to develop the MMPI-2-RF were not available at the time the MMPI was originally developed.. the MMPI-A. The MMPI-A has 478 items. with a short form of 350 items. The MMPI-2-RF produces scores on a theoretically grounded. multiple published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The MMPI-2-RF builds on the foundation of the RC Scales.. The shorter version has been mainly used in circumstances that have not allowed the full version to be completed (e. which have been extensively researched since their publication in 2003. illness or time pressure).The first major revision of the MMPI was the MMPI-2. Scale 2 (formerly known as the Depression Scale) : Measures a person's discouragement level. hierarchically structured set of scales. but the scores available on the shorter version are not as extensive as those available in the 567-item version.  The MMPI-2-RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a homogenous condition that is additive.. Scale 5 (formerly known as the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) : Measures a stereotype of a person and how they . MMPI-A A version of the test designed for adolescents. including the RC Scales. Publications on the MMPI-2-RC Scales include book chapters. and usually takes between 1 and 2 hours to complete depending on reading level.
obsessiveness 48 8 Sc Schizophrenia Odd thinking and social alienation 78 . scale 0 (formerly known as the Social Introversion Scale) : Measures whether people like to be around other people. tension. Scale 6 (formerly known as the Paranoia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to trust. suspiciousness. Anxiety... doubts. for women it would be June Cleaver or Donna Reed. For men it would be the Marlboro man.. While the descriptions of each type were originally used in assessment. No. respect for society's 50 rules 5 MF Masculinity/Femininity Stereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors 56 6 Pa Paranoia Level of trust. the current practice is to use the numbers only.compare. struggle.. Scale 8 (formerly known as the Schizophrenia Scale) : Measures a person's ability to have original or unique thoughts and whether they can think outside the box. anger. Scale 9 (formerly known as the Mania Scale) : Measures a person's psychic energy.. The original clinical scales were designed to measure common diagnoses of the era. of Items Number Abbreviation Description What is Measured 1 Hs Hypochondriasis Concern with bodily symptoms 32 2 D Depression Depressive Symptoms 57 3 Hy Hysteria Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities 60 4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate Conflict. Scale 7 (formerly known as the Psychestenia Scale) : Measures whether someone made it into adulthood with or without unresolved issues. sensitivity 40 7 Pt Psychasthenia Worry.
and those designed to detect when test-takers are underreporting or downplaying psychological symptoms (L.8. FBS). 48). . VRIN. A new addition to the validity scales for the MMPI-2 RF includes an over reporting scale of somatic symptoms scale (Fs). Codetypes and interaction of clinical scales can be quite complex and require specialized training to properly interpret. Fb. which includes three basic types of validity measures: those that were designed to detect nonresponding or inconsistent responding (CNS. New in version Abbreviation Description Assesses ? 1 "Cannot Say" Questions not answered L 1 Lie Client "faking good" F 1 Infrequency Client "faking bad" (in first half of test) K 1 Defensiveness Denial/Evasiveness Fb 2 Back F Client "faking bad" (in last half of test) VRIN 2 Variable Response Inconsistency answering similar/opposite question pairs inconsistently TRIN 2 True Response Inconsistency answering questions all true/all false . TRIN).9 Ma Hypomania Level of excitability 46 0 Si Social Introversion People orientation 69 Codetypes are a combination of the one or two highest-scoring clinical scales (ex. Validity scales The validity scales in the MMPI-2 RF are minor revisions of those contained in the MMPI-2. K)). Fp. those designed to detect when clients are over reporting or exaggerating the prevalence or severity of psychological symptoms (F.
designed to assess the extent to which a client admits to or is prone to abusing substances. with the more frequently used being the substance abuse scales (MAC-R. AAS). the following are some samples: Abbreviation Description Es Ego Strength Scale OH Over-Controlled Hostility Scale MAC MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale MAC-R MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale Revised Do Dominance Scale . Dozens of content scales currently exist. and the A (anxiety) and R (repression) scales.F-K 2 F minus K honesty of test responses/not faking good or bad S 2 Superlative Self-Presentation improving upon K scale. "appearing excessively good" Fp 2 F-Psychopathology Frequency of presentation in clinical setting Fs 2 RF Infrequent Somatic Response Overreporting of somatic symptoms Content scales To supplement these multidimensional scales and to assist in interpreting the frequently seen diffuse elevations due to the general factor (removed in the RC scales) were also developed. APS. developed by Welsh after conducting a factor analysis of the original MMPI item pool.
and the PSY-5 scales differ from the 5 factors identified in non-pathological populations in that they were meant to determine the extent to which personality disorders might manifest and be recognizable in clinical populations. but rather as an attempt to connect the instrument with more general trend in personality psychology. The five components were labeled Negative Emotionality (NEGE). Raw scores on the scales are transformed into a standardized metric known as T-scores (Mean or Average equals 50. Introversion (INTR). scores on the various scales of the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF are not representative of either percentile rank or how "well" or "poorly" someone has done on the test. . Test manufacturers and publishers ask test purchasers to prove they are qualified to purchase the MMPI/MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF and other tests. the PSY-5 scales were not developed as a reaction to some actual or perceived shortcoming in the MMPI-2 itself. Rather.Standard Deviation equals 10). Psychoticism (PSYC). Scoring and interpretation Like many standardized tests.APS Addictions Potential Scale AAS Addictions Acknowledgement Scale SOD Social Discomfort Scale A Anxiety Scale R Repression Scale TPA Type A Scale MDS Marital Distress Scale PSY-5 scales Unlike the Content and Supplementary scales. analysis looks at relative elevation of factors compared to the various norm groups studied. making interpretation easier for clinicians. Disconstraint (DISC) and Aggressiveness (AGGR). The five factor model of human personality has gained great acceptance in non-pathological populations.
October 2006) to provide each side with a forum to voice their opinions regarding the old and new measures. This claim is not supported by results of research. which eliminates the older clinical scales entirely in favor of the more psychometrically appealing RC scales. now captured in RCdem) which frequently produced diffuse elevations and made interpretation of results difficult. 2) common variance spread across the older clinical scales due to a general factor common to psychopathology is parsed out and contained in a separate scale measuring demoralization (RCdem). A more basic criticism is that the MMPI-2 RF scales rest on an assumption that psychopathology is a . therefore. and are not weaker at identifying the core elements of the original clinical scales. However. Critics of the RC scales assert they have deviated too far from the original clinical scales. The replacement of the original Clinical Scales with the RC scales has not been met with universal approval. more pure versions of the original clinical scales because 1) the interscale correlations are greatly reduced and no items are contained in more than one RC scale and.Criticism RC and controversy and Clinical Scales Some questions have been raised about the RC Scales and the forthcoming release of the MMPI-2-RF. Issue 2. Individuals in favor of retaining the older Clinical scales have argued that the new RC scales are measuring pathology which is markedly different than that measured by the original clinical scales. the RC scales are not saturated with the primary factor (demoralization. the implication being that previous research done on the clinical scales will no longer be relevant to the interpretation of the RC scales and the burden of proof should be on the RC scales to demonstrate they are clearly superior to the original clinical scales. in contrast to the original clinical scales. this issue is addressed by being able to view elevations on other RC scales that are less saturated with the general factor and. Proponents of the RC scales assert that research has adequately addressed those issues with results indicating that the RC scales predict pathology in their designated areas better than their concordant original clinical scales while using significantly fewer items and maintaining equal to higher internal consistency reliability and validity. the RC scales have lower interscale correlations and. further. unlike the original clinical scales. are also more transparent and much easier to interpret. contain no interscale item overlap. finally. and has warranted enough discussion to prompt a special issue of the academic Journal of Personality Assessment (Vol 87. which has found the RC scales to be cleaner. Critics of the new scales argue that the removal of this common variance makes the RC scales less ecologically valid (less like real life) because real patients tend to present complex patterns of symptoms.
and which have not been subject to the same kind of controversy as the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. The article quotes Butcher concluding: “ This is great for insurance companies. which are the original "fake bad" scales) that have been in existence since 1950. Lees-Haley "Fake Bad" Scale The following discussion concerns the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. which is used in courts as argument for malingering in injury litigation. This review was considered flawed by its critics because at least 10 of 19 studies reviewed were done by Lees-Haley or other insurance defense psychologists. The article reports that in 1991 Lees-Haley paid to have an article supportive of his scale published in Psychological Reports. which according to the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale meant they were malingering. the Gough Dissimilation index (Ds-r) . PTSD." The scale was introduced in MMPI after a review of the literature. there are several other "fake bad" scales (aside from the standard F and Fb scales. and the Wiener-Harmon Subtle and Obvious Scales (S-O) . and seemingly unrelated signs and symptoms that can not be measured by scales that were made to have high internal consistency. Although symptoms are mainly homogenous. In March 2008 a front page article in the Wall Street Journal exposed what it claimed to be the lack of scientific validity of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale. who found that more than 45 percent of psychiatric patients he studied had Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale scores of 20 or more. who works mainly for defendants (insurance companies etc. contradictory states. One of the critics of the Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is retired psychologist James Butcher. According to the article. DID are composed of defenses. including the likelihood that his subject pool included many malingerers. Butcher's own study has been criticized on methodological and conceptual grounds.homogenous condition that is additive. most psychodiagnostic conditions such as hysteria. These include the F-K scale . ” However. two Florida judges barred use of the scale after special hearings on its scientific validity. The article reports that this particular "fake bad" scale was developed by psychologist Paul LeesHaley. but not great for people. while 21 other studies critical of the test were excluded from the review. which the Wall Street Journal described as "a small Montana-based medical journal. that he ignored .) in personal injury cases. Butcher contends that it is unlikely that so many psychiatric patients misled doctors.
and used a less sensitive or specific MMPI-2 scale as his 'gold-standard. It is composed of 175 true-false questions that reportedly takes 25-30 minutes to complete. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III) The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) is a psychological assessment tool intended to provide information onpsychopathology.). there is a strong evidence base that shows that it still retains validity on non-clinical populations. The test is modeled on four scales 14 Personality Disorder Scales 10 Clinical Syndrome Scales 5 Correction Scales: 3 Modifying Indices (which determine the patient's response style and can detect random responding). and Seth Grossman. It is intended for adults (18 and over) with at least an 8th grade reading level. and the authors are very specific that it should not be used with the general population.recommended gender-related cut-offs. The MCMI was developed and standardised specifically on clinical populations (i. etc. Carrie Millon. an independent professional panel recommended that the Lees-Haley FBS be included in the standard Pearson scoring system.'  Despite the reservations of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-R authors (including James Butcher) who have a degree of proprietary control over the test. pain clinics. and so psychologists will often administer the test to members of the general population. mood. patients in psychiatric hospitals or people with existing mental health problems). However.  Several studies by independent Neuropsychologists have since been published in respected peer-reviewed journals supporting the Lees-Haley FBS scale as highly sensitive and specific (when proper cut-offs are used) in identifying individuals who are exaggerating somatic symptoms (as opposed to psychiatric. as it was designed to do. Roger Davis. including specific disorders outlined in the DSM-IV. or neurological symptoms) in settings where the base-rate of malingering is typically high (litigation. It was created by Theodore Millon.  Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory From Wikipedia. 2 Random Response Indicatiors .e.  The Lees-Haley "fake bad" scale is now regarded by some authors as a 'gold standard' in such populations.
They are used to determine a patient's response style. The Base Rate scores are essentially where each score fits on a scale of 1115. the Desirability Scale (Y) and the Debasement Scale (Z). Conversion to a Base Rate score is relatively complex. It consists of three questions. such as whether they were keen to present themselves in a positive light (indicated by an elevation on the Desirability scale) or exaggerate the negative aspects of themselves (indicated by the Debasement scale). and so is scored between 0 and 3. For instance. and there are certain corrections that are administered based on each patient's response style. The Validity index is an exception to this.the Validity scale (V). or if they were unwilling to disclose details about themselves (the Disclosure Scale). Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Scoring system 2 Interpretation 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Scoring system Patients' raw scores are converted to Base Rate (BR) scores to allow comparison between the personality indices. elevated scores on the Disclosure and Desirability scales suggest a "cry for help" response style. The Modifying indices are scored using a complex system in which the patient's responses in the other scales are compared and the raw and BR scores are taken from this. It is not converted to a BR score. the Disclosure Scale (X). . These are compared against each other to gain an understanding of the patient's response style. It also is used to measure whether the patient was open in the assessment. with 60 being the median score. Interpretation The modifying indices consist of 4 scales . 42 Grossman Personality Facet Scales (based on Seth Grossman's theories of personality and psychopathology) The test was normed on a sample of 998 male and female adults with a wide variety of clinical disorders.
Scores of 85 or above indicate the persistence of a personality trait or a clinical syndrome.or under-disclosed. e. problem scale and the total score. e. For the Personality and Clinical Syndrome scales. The preschool checklist (CBCL/1½-5) is intended for use with children aged 18 months to 5 years. There are two versions of the checklist. . Acts too young for his/her age. Aggressive behavior. borderline. A score of 2 or 3 on this scale would render the test invalid. the free encyclopedia The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely-used method of identifying problem behavior in children. tables are given that determine whether the score represents normal. A raw score above 178 or below 34 is considered to not be an accurate representation of the patient's personality style as they either over. These categorizations are based on quantiles from a normative sample. scores of 75-84 are taken to indicate personality trait. The Validity Index consists of just three questions in which a response of "True" is extremely unlikely. The school-age version (CBCL/6-18) is for children aged 6 to 18 years.g. For each syndrome. It is a component in the Achenbach System of Emperically Based Assessment. such as "I was on the front cover of several magazines last year. or (for the Clinical Syndromes scales) the presence of a clinical syndrome. the scale is very sensitive to random responding. 2 = Very True or Often True.g.The Disclosure scale is the only scale in the MCMI-III in which the raw scores are interpreted and in which a particularly low score is clinically relevant. Some syndromes are further summed to provide scores for Internalizing and Externalizing problem scales. 1 = Somewhat or Sometimes True." While only consisting of 3 questions. or clinical behavior. usually a parent or teacher. Responses are recorded on a Likert scale: 0 = Not True. See also Child Behavior Checklist From Wikipedia. The preschool checklist contains 100 questions and the school-age checklist contains 120 questions. Similar questions are grouped into a number of syndromes. and their scores are summed to produce a score for that syndrome. Problems are identified by a respondent who knows the child well. A total score from all questions is also derived. The checklists consists of a number of statements about the child's behavior.
Beck Depression Inventory From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Psychology History of psychology Branches of psychology Basic science Abnormal · Behavioral neuroscience Cognitive · Developmental Experimental · Evolutionary Mathematical · Neuropsychology Personality · Positive Psychophysics · Social Transpersonal Applied science Clinical · Educational Forensic · Health Industrial and organizational Occupational health School · Sport · Military Lists Outline · Publications Topics · Therapies Portal v•d•e .
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. In its current version the questionnaire is designed for individuals aged 13 and over. is a 21question multiple-choice self-report inventory. The BDI is widely used as an assessment tool by health care professionals and researchers in a variety of settings. first published in 1961 and later revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A. one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity ofdepression. by collating patients' verbatim descriptions of their symptoms and using these to structure a scale which could reflect the intensity or severity of a given symptom. Beck. depression was described in psychodynamic terms as "inverted hostility against the self". Contents [hide] • • o • o • • • • • • 1 Development and history 2 BDI 2. Its development marked a shift among health care professionals. as well as physical symptoms such as fatigue. cognitions such as guilt or feelings of being punished. By contrast. published in 1996.1 Two-factor approach to depression 4 Impact 5 Limitations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links Development and history Historically. There are three versions of the BDI—the original BDI. instead of it being rooted in the patient's own thoughts. created by Dr. BDI-II). and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability. and lack of interest in sex. Aaron T. and the BDI-II.1 BDI-IA 3 BDI-II 3. . weight loss. the BDI was developed in a novel way for its time. who had until then viewed depression from a psychodynamic perspective.
inaccurate. and the self. it was the case that these cognitions caused depression. Each question has a set of at least four possible answer choices. BDI The original BDI. (3) I am so sad or unhappy that I can't stand it. (2) I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it. An example of the triad in action taken from Brown (1995) is the case of a student obtaining poor exam results: The student has negative thoughts about the world. first published in 1961. which play a major role in depression. 19–29 indicates moderate-severe depression and 30–63 indicates severe depression. which aims to challenge and neutralize them through techniques such as cognitive restructuring. and "I blame myself for everything bad that happens" to reflect the self. For example: (0) I do not feel sad. The standard cut-offs are as follows: 0–9 indicates that a person is not depressed. "I feel discouraged about the future" to reflect the future. Beck drew attention to the importance of "negative cognitions": sustained. . so he may come to believe he does not enjoy the class. In his view. and often intrusive negative thoughts about the self. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. the future. (1) I feel sad. as he may feel he does not deserve to be in college. with items such as "I have lost all of my interest in other people" to reflect the world. The development of the BDI reflects that in its structure. The student has negative thoughts about his future. 10–18 indicates mild-moderate depression. consisted of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week. because he thinks he may not pass the class. ranging in intensity. When the test is scored. Beck developed a triad of negative cognitions about the world.Throughout his work. a value of 0 to 3 is assigned for each answer and then the total score is compared to a key to determine the depression's severity. The view of depression as sustained by intrusive negative cognitions has had particular application in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The student has negative thoughts about his self. rather than being generated by depression.
 BDI-IA The BDI-IA was a revision of the original instrument. the BDI-II also contains 21 questions. developed by Beck during the 1970s and copyrighted in 1978. suggesting that it was not overly sensitive to daily variations in mood.85. Fourth Edition. showing good agreement. Like the BDI. To improve ease of use. the BDI-IA only addressed six out of the nine DSMIII criteria for depression. as opposed to the past week as in the original BDI. and 29–63: severe depression. The cutoffs used differ from the original: 0–13: minimal depression. The test was also shown to have a high one-week test–retest reliability (Pearson r =0. this version retained some flaws. Two-factor approach to depression . and difficulty working were replaced. sleep loss and appetite loss items were revised to assess both increases and decreases in sleep and appetite. For instance.93). In this respect. Also.91). However. only the items dealing with feelings of being punished. and respondents were instructed to endorse how they had been feeling during the preceding two weeks. This and other criticisms were addressed in the BDI-II. and interest in sex remained the same. Finally. Items involving changes in body image. One measure of an instrument's usefulness is to see how closely it agrees with another similar instrument that has been validated against clinical interview by a trained clinician. participants were asked to rate how they have been feeling for the past two weeks. thoughts about suicide. hypochondria. the "a and b statements" described above were removed. BDI-II The BDI-II was a 1996 revision of the BDI. there are two responses under the Mood heading that score a 2: (2a) I am blue or sad all the time and I can't snap out of it and (2b) I am so sad or unhappy that it is very painful. The internal consistency for the BDI-IA was good. 20–28: moderate depression. meaning that the items on the inventory are highly correlated with each other.  The test also has high internal consistency (α=. 14–19: mild depression.Some items on the BDI have more than one statement marked with the same score. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. developed in response to the American Psychiatric Association's publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. the BDI-II is positively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with aPearson r of 0. All but three of the items were reworded. each answer being scored on a scale value of 0 to 3.71. which changed many of the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of around 0.
self-criticalness. rather than of depression. in 1998. irritability. loss of appetite). It also established the principle that instead of attempting to develop a psychometric tool based on a possibly invalid theory. it had been used in over 2000 empirical studies. The somatic subscale consists of the other thirteen items: sadness.57. in that scores can be easily exaggerated or minimized by the person completing them. tiredness and/or fatigue. social expectations might elicit a different response compared to administration via a postal survey. to one guided by the patient's own thoughts or "cognitions". In participants with concomitant physical illness the BDI's reliance on physical symptoms such as fatigue may artificially inflate scores due to symptoms of the illness. The BDI was originally developed to provide a quantative assessment of the intensity of depression. change in sleep patterns. past failures. Impact The development of the BDI was an important event in psychiatry and psychology. loss of pleasure. it can monitor changes over time and provide an objective measure for judging improvement and the effectiveness or otherwise of treatment methods.g. indecisiveness. punishment feelings. self-dislike. and loss of interest in sex. crying. If a patient is asked to fill out the form in front of other people in a clinical environment. Like all questionnaires. It has been translated into multiple European languages as well as Arabic. for instance. loss of energy.suicidal thoughts or wishes. the way the instrument is administered can have an effect on the final score. The BDI-II reflects this and can be separated into two subscales.g. Chinese.Depression can be thought of as having two components: the affective component (e. mood) and the physical or "somatic" component (e. and Xhosa. The affective subscale contains eight items: pessimism. and worthlessness. Japanese. agitation. suggesting that the physical and psychological aspects of depression are closely related rather than totally distinct. The two subscales were moderately correlated at 0. psychodynamic perspective. guilty feelings. The instrument remains widely used in research. concentration difficulties. Because it is designed to reflect the depth of depression. self-report questionnaires when analysed using techniques such as factor analysis can suggest theoretical constructs. it represented a shift in health care professionals' view of depression from a Freudian.  In an effort to deal with this concern Beck and his colleagues developed the "Beck Depression . change in appetite. Limitations The BDI suffers from the same problems as other self-report inventories. The purpose of the subscales is to help determine the primary cause of a patient's depression. loss of interest. Persian.
a short screening scale consisting of seven items from the BDI-II considered to be independent of physical function. The authors were Saville et al. to help employers gauge how a candidate will fit into certain work environments. team building.Inventory for Primary Care" (BDI-PC). including Roger Holdsworth. are widely-used occupational personality questionnaires. succession planning and organisational change. and they were launched by Saville and Holdsworth Ltd. OPQ From Wikipedia. in 1984. how they will work with other people and how they will cope with different job requirements. the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources. The OPQ32 is used in selection. It is now available in more than 30 languages and uses innovative Item Response theory to shorten the questionnaire down to under 30 minutes. The series included the first commercially-available Big Five instrument.. development. Gill Nyfield. (July 2009) The Occupational Personality Questionnaires. the BDI-PC produces only a binary outcome of "not depressed" or "depressed" for patients above a cutoff score of 4. OPQ or OPQ32. the BDI is sometimes used by health care providers to reach a quick diagnosis. Unlike the standard BDI. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. OPQ32 provides an indication of an individual’s preferred behavioural style at work. Lisa Cramp and Bill Mabey. Although designed as a screening device rather than a diagnostic tool.. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.An independent review can be found below (4): .
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