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Tuan Dang* PhD Member IEEE, Catherine Devic* et al**
*EDF (Electricité De France) R&D - STEP Department Control Systems & Information Technologies Group **Consortium OCARI: EDF, DCNS, One RF Technology, LIMOS, LATTIS, LRI, INRIA 6, quai Watier 78401 Chatou Cedex FRANCE firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, http://ocari.lri.fr
Abstract – In this paper we present an industrial development of a wireless sensors network technology called OCARITM. It targets applications in harsh environments in power plants and in warships. OCARI is a radio communication technology that supports mesh topology and power-aware ad hoc routing protocol aiming at maximizing the network lifetime. It is based on IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer with full deterministic MAC layer for time-constrained communication. During the non timeconstrained communication period, its ad hoc routing strategy uses an energy-aware OLSR proactive protocol. OCARI application layer is based on ZigBee APS and APL primitives and profiles to provide a maximum compatibility with ZigBee applications. To fully assess this technology, extensive tests will be done in industrial facility at EDF R&D as well as at DCNS. Our objective is then to promote this specification as an open standard of industrial wireless technology. Index Terms – Wireless Sensors Network, Ad hoc Network, Electromagnetic Compatibility, Mobility, Battery Autonomy, Interference model, BER, SINR, Medium Access Control, Routing strategies, Application Architecture, Middleware, OPC, IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee, WINA, ISA100, WirelessHART, Power Plants, Warships.
I. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication represents a major industrial stake in the next coming years. It offers numerous usages and helps industry save operating costs as well as improving the operational efficiency. In the recent years, WiFi (IEEE 802.11-WLANs) and Bluetooth technologies (IEEE 802.15WPANs) have known tremendous development and have penetrated the Small Office and Home Office (SOHO) as well as Large Enterprise Office. These general public wireless technologies may find their limited usage in industrial installations because of harsh environments, electromagnetic compatibility and interference issues, safety and IT security constraints and battery autonomy. Some of these issues have been addressed by addenda to existing standards. For example, IEEE 802.11i addresses the IT security, IEEE 802.11e deals with WiFi Multimedia Quality of Service (WMM QoS) and WMM Power Save. Although these specifications target consumer market and do not take into account industrial needs in constrained environment. Application of wireless sensors network technology in industrial environment such as in power plants or in warships typically requires the following characteristics:
Network topology flexibility: self-organizing, autoconfigurable network topology and transparency for application layer, Network scalability: ability to deal with large network topology and large density of network nodes, Low power consumption along with power management capability to maximize battery autonomy, Support of energy-aware routing protocol, Protocol stack with deterministic medium access methods, Robust radio transmission (low bit error rate, BER ) regarding electromagnetic interferences (as measured as signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, SINR  ), Radio transmission technique that is compatible with electromagnetic constraints (e.g.: TEMPEST military standard), Support of sink mobility (e.g.: a mobile user which collects data via a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) from a sensors network), Support of authentication of network node and antiintrusion (to the network) mechanisms. In response to these industrial needs and challenges, there are some working groups such as the Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA), the ZigBee Alliance, WirelessHART  from HART Communication Foundation (HCF) and ISA100 who tried to define and establish industrial wireless technology standards for different application domains. Currently, only ZigBee has commercially available products as this Alliance was formed very soon in the end of 2004. WirelessHART compliant products are expected at the end of 2008. These specifications are all based on IEEE 802.15.4 which provides a good foundation for building ad hoc mesh network. However, IEEE 802.15.4 does not specify a standard way or algorithm to optimize power consumption in the MAC layer along with a corresponding routing schema. It is up to the application designer to elaborate his own strategy. Full deterministic MAC layer  is also absent from this standard. In this paper, we propose to describe the project in which we try to develop a wireless sensor communication module running an industrial ad hoc mesh networking protocol called OCARITM. It is based on IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer and has autonomous behaviour: tolerance to topology changes (successful packet delivery in the face of node mobility and
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4GHz) and MAC layers over which it specifies its network layer (NWK) and application layer (APL) (Fig. The ZigBee application layer consists of the APS sublayer. Support of human walking speed mobility for some particular network nodes (sinks). it is a mixed mechanism composed of a simplified version of AODV   and tree routing intended to extend the coverage of the network beyond the coverage of each network node. One RF Technology. batteryoptimized network parameters and application configurations. Optimized energy consumption routing strategy for maximum network lifetime within the non timeconstrained communication period.15. ZigBee is a Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN) standard for embedded communication system with very low power consumption. routers move data and control messages through the network using a hierarchical routing strategy. In addition. 1 . These properties promise substantial benefices in terms of operating and maintenance costs of the communication infrastructure in industrial installations. DCNS and One RF Technology) as well as university labs and research institutes (LIMOS. a high tech company in wireless communication will industrialize the prototype. which is the ability to match two devices together based on their services and their needs. There exist proprietary radio communication technologies for industrial use such as. initiating and/or responding to binding requests and establishing a secure relationship between network devices. IEEE 802. the Full implementation of the protocol stack takes less than 32Kbytes of memory version and up to 64Kbytes for the network coordinator which requires extra RAM for a node devices database and for transaction and pairing tables. for example. and assigning addresses to newly associated devices. ZigBee is based on IEEE 802. We propose to review the state of the art of current industrial wireless networking standards. the network is controlled by one single device called the ZigBee coordinator. INRIA and LRI research institutes work on optimized energy consumption routing strategy based on OLSR proactive protocol . Wireless technologies help plant engineers achieve these objectives. Tree networks may employ beacon-oriented2 communication as described in the IEEE 802. LIMOS and LATTIS university laboratories develop and implement OCARI medium access methods. without GTS) and coordinated mode (beacon mode) in which the coordinator (PAN coordinator) regularly sends beacons to synchronize the network nodes. The responsibilities of the ZigBee NWK layer include mechanisms used to join and leave a network. OCARI satisfies the following criteria in harsh environment: Deterministic MAC layer for time-constrained communication. but we lose the benefits of interoperability (and thus cost) from multi-vendors solutions. the ZDO (containing the ZDO management plane). and the manufacturer-defined Application Objects. Battery lifetimes last from a few months to many years as a result of a host of system’s power-saving modes. It started at the end of 2006 and gathers partners (see  for more details) from industries (EDF/project leader. EDF and DCNS provide requirements and use cases in power industry and warship applications.4-2003 PHY (868MHz/915MHz or 2. Finally. and forwarding application messages between bound devices. Also the discovery of one-hop neighbours and the storing of pertinent neighbour information are performed by the NWK layer. 2 Since the new release of ZigBee specification in 2008. They also ease the development of “killer applications” such as Condition Monitoring or Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) that requires flexible and cost effective sensors network. the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting a new network. The responsibilities of the ZDO include defining the role of the device within the network (ZigBee Coordinator. The project is funded by the French National Research Agency (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) and industrial partners.4-2003 specification. future works are drawn in Section 4. 1). this feature is abandoned for saving space in the MAC layer. to apply security to frames and to route frames to their intended destinations. In mesh and tree topologies. In a star topology. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer include maintaining tables for binding.4-2003 based ZigBee specifications 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20. This paper is organized as follows. WavenisTM. the discovery and maintenance of routes between devices devolve to the NWK layer.15.00 ©2008 IEEE. More details about NWK and APL may be found in . However.15. when appropriate.15. REVIEW OF EXISTING INDUSTRIAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION STANDARDS Wireless mesh networking has emerged in the recent years as a promising design paradigm for next generation wireless communication networks with the very interesting characteristics such as self-organizing and auto-configurable topology. Section 2 presents a review of existing wireless communication standards which may be used in industrial environments. Developing and promoting industrial wireless communication standards help industrial end users preserve the expected benefits of wireless technologies. II.4 specifies two medium access methods: uncoordinated mode (unslotted CSMA-CA. and ad hoc routing concept. ZigBee is designed to interconnect autonomous sensors and actuators to control units. In coordinated mode.failure). IEEE 802. LATTIS. but the network may be extended through the use of ZigBee routers. discovering devices on the network and determining which application services they provide. It proposes a lightweight1 protocol stack for applications which require low data rates (up to 250kbits/s) and low latency. In tree networks. most of existing general public wireless communication technologies does not take into account the industrial requirements. Concerning ZigBee routing strategy. Section 3 shows the technical aspects of OCARI and details the technological choices. A. LRI and INRIA). Router or End device).
11a specification ISA100. where L3 = unit and L4 = process cell Short-term operational consequence (e. etc.11a is part of ISA100.15. But ZigBee has chosen the uncoordinated mode that requires the ZigBee coordinator to listen permanently to the channel. ZigBee stack architecture . another limitation of ZigBee is that it does not directly support device mobility: AODV only discovers the route on demand and the only used QoS is the instantaneous radio link.. In spite of these properties. But this does not work for the sleeping End Devices which did not receive the broadcast message signalling the new network address renumbering. This limitation was removed by the ZigBee Pro specification since its release in January 2008 : the network nodes keep their existing address. depending on function *Batch levels as defined by ISA S88. only ZigBee End Device (IEEE 802.00 ©2008 IEEE. thus route repair is done on error. 2. In ZigBee 2006 specification.. 1. a re-association is required and a new network address is attributed to the concerned child node depending on its position in the network tree. (End manufacturer defined ) Application Object 1 Endpoint 1 APSDE-SAP ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) Endpoint 0 APSDE-SAP APSMESAP NLMESAP Security Service Provider APS Security Management NLDE-SAP APS Message Broker Reflector Management NLME-SAP Network (NWK) Layer Security Management MLDE-SAP Message Broker Routing Management Network Management MLME -SAP IEEE 802. and thus wastes the coordinator battery. which results from converging efforts of defining industrial wireless standards from different organizations and alliances such as WINA. 2) for fixed. The first release of the standard is expected at the fourth quarter of 2008. Importance of message timeliness increases Class 1: Closed loop regulatory control Class 2: Closed loop supervisory control Class 3: Open loop control Often critical . ZigBee Routers and Coordinators need to be always awakened (active mode) in order to listen to the communication channel.. ZigBee does not offer support for sink mobility  in which data collector points travel through the nodes of a wireless sensor network. new routes have to be rediscovered. ISA100. The project’s application focus will address performance needs for periodic monitoring and process control where latencies on the order of 100 ms can be tolerated with optional behaviour for shorter latency.. ZDO Management Plane Application Support Sublayer (APS) Usually non-critical Control Human in the loop NOTE: Batch levels* 3 & 4 could be class 2. This review is based on published presentations at different “webinars” and on current works from the ISA100. and let them switch to normal operating mode in less than 300µs.g. as ZigBee does not retain coordinated mode.4 GHz Radio PLME-SAP Physical (PHY) Layer 868/915 MHz Radio Fig. history collection. NSF-Program on Sensors and Sensor Networks and HCF.4-2006 based ISA100.15. ISA100 usage classes . Indeed. preventive maintenance) Class 4: Alerting Monitoring Class 5: Logging and downloading / uploading Fig. Category Safety Class / Application Class 0: Emergency action Description Always critical . ZigBee does allow however a very low power consumption for the end devices in “doze” mode (lower than 10µA).PAN coordinator does not need to listen all the time to the communication channel.11a Working Group3 aims at defining all specifications including security and management. The complete route discovery process can take a significant time (up to 10 seconds). 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20. portable and moving devices. sequence-of-events. this standard does not satisfy the very constrained battery autonomy of the wireless sensors networks in application such as environmental monitoring in large industrial facility in power plants. This is not useable in unstable topology in which network nodes regularly move.11a WG. when the link to the parent node failed. Although these characteristics of ZigBee.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer PD-SAP 2.11a key features aims at responding to the following requirements: 3 Composed of industrial end users and technology providers. ISA100. NCCR-MICS.4 Reduce Function Device) can be put to doze mode. Moreover. for wireless devices serving application classes 1 through 5 (Fig. event-based maintenance) No immediate operational consequence (e. Application (APL) Layer Application Framework ZDO Public Interfaces (End manufacturer defined) Application Object 240 ZigBee Endpoint 240 APSDE-SAP B. a family of standards of wireless systems for industrial automation. class 1 or even class 0.g. IEEE 802.
11a stack architecture .e. whereas a slow frequency hopping schema (frequency agility) is adopted in ZigBee-2007 MAC.11a address failed communications using frequency hopping and slotted hopping architecture by adding a MAC Extension Shim  to IEEE 802. and scalable security addressing major industrial threats leveraging IEEE 802.11a MAC Extension Shim MAC layer IEEE 802. Either a distributed or centralized system manager is supported in ISA100. the Network Layer.4 MAC.4-2006 Fig.4GHz radio only IEEE 802. Each device data link layer service has one route associated with it. In term of software architecture. which act as clock source. 3) has more layers than the ZigBee one.11a IEEE 802. whereas field devices have limited battery power (without routing capability) or moderate power (with routing capability). Each device may have multiple graphs going through it.4-2006 security.00 ©2008 IEEE.15. Technology to address class 1 (non-critical) to class 5 applications such as monitoring. 3. Backbone devices are full function devices which have mains power source (continuously powered). 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20.4GHz radio IEEE 802.4 Full Function Device) and without routing capability (i. which is designed primarily for operation in a fixed channel network. some of which may overlap.11a Two main classes of devices are defined in ISA100.11a is based on graph using a directed list of links that connect devices.e.11a: Field Devices and Backbone Devices. A comprehensive coexistence strategy with channel hopping to support coexistence (with IEEE 802.42003 with 868MHz/915MHz or 2. Roaming of handheld device is not supported by ISA100.: IEEE 802. Coexistence with WiFi is also taken into account in ISA100.11a and ZigBee specifications: Features supported PHY layer ZigBee IEEE 802. Routing in ISA100. The DMAP is a special type of user application process (UAP) that provides a basis for building system management configuration application and communications monitoring application.15. A single application layer providing both native and tunnelling protocol capability for broad usability. ISA100. Field device meshing and star capability. Currently. ISA100.11) and increase reliability.11a.15. Before describing our OCARI project.15. Network time and time synchronization information for devices on the network are provided by the system manager. SAP) to the Data Link Layer.42006 with an extension shim for frequency hopping and slotted hopping No deterministic access methods SP100. It lets the Device Management Application Process (DMAP) directly access (using Service Access Point.15. flexible.11a handheld device is to attach to a full function device and to communicate data or monitor network traffic.4 GHz IEEE 802. The typical mode of operation of a SP100. even to the same neighbours.11a and that is really appreciated in industrial environment.15.11a. let’s summarize the important points of ISA100. But one may wonder the technical difficulties to implement the full stack architecture on low cost hardware.: IEEE 802. .11a WG has produced a relatively complete functional specification for system management that is almost absent from ZigBee standard.15. A single network instance may have multiple graphs. Handheld Device is considered as a nonrouting field device.The ability to serve process industry applications without excluding factory automation.15. Simple. ISA100.42003 with a slow frequency hopping schema (Frequency agility in ZigBee-2007 initiated by the NWK Channel Manager) No deterministic access methods ISA100.42006 with 2. Field Device class can have devices with (i.15.4 Reduce Function Device). It is difficult to make some critical analysis of this evolving specification. ISA100.15. In-plant and near-plant use.11a stack architecture (Fig. a particular backbone device.4-2006 physical layer devices. Addressing only 2. The links associated with each graph are configured by the system management function on a centralized or decentralized basis. the Transport Layer and the Application Sub-Layer in order to manage the device and its communication services. ISA100. there is no optimized routing strategy for maximizing the lifetime of field network.
Structure monitoring of hydro-electric facilities. It aims at responding to the following requirements which are particularly important in power generation industry and in warship construction and maintenance: Support of deterministic MAC layer as much as possible (at least inside a cell) for time-constrained communication. Autonomous behaviour for unattended operation. OCARI End Device is a “radio fixed” network node (i. They are fixed device in the infrastructure and are equivalent to ZigBee Coordinator. we have focused our work on improving ZigBee standard by developing a complementary industrial specification called OCARI rather than creating a new one from scratch. 4. collecting data from sensors inside a . In the following paragraphs. Support of optimized energy consumption routing strategy in order to maximize the network lifetime within the non time-constrained communication period.11a network characteristics. Workshop domain is a permissive volume (delimited by a threshold of the BER. equipped with PDA. Condition Based Maintenance of mechanical and electrical components in power plant as well as in warship. Mesh Up to 65536 nodes per network group and up to 65536 network groups (16-bit node address and 16-bit group address) or 64-bit extended network address Star. The development of OCARI targets the following industrial applications: Real time centralized supervision of personal radiation dose in nuclear power plant. the SINR or the RSSI ) to electromagnetic wave that is covered by a unique Workshop Coordinator network node. End device (RFD) Network routing strategy Mixed mechanism composed of AODV and tree routing No energyaware routing strategy Table 1. and Routing data packets in push mode from end device network nodes (i. Environmental monitoring in and around power plant. sensors in our industrial applications) to the Workshop Coordinator per Workshop domain. OCARI SPECIFICATION Regarding the above features of ZigBee and ISA100. Sink node is a mobile network node which usually represents a patrolman/maintenance operator. OCARI Network Topology Workshop Coordinator is a gateway (even in polling mode used by most of SCADA applications) between the wireless sensors network resided in a Workshop domain and the industrial facility backbone.e. Mesh 128-bit network layer address assigned by the system manager. its position varies very little comparing to its initial location so that its radio link is always managed by the same cell coordinator).4. These 128-bit addresses are hierarchical.00 ©2008 IEEE.15. OCARI Network Topology 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20. Time server Industrial facility backbone Cell Coordinator Sink node Workshop Coordinator Sink node Cell Coordinator Workshop Sink path Sink node Cell Coordinator Fig. Support of Electronic Device Description Language (EDDL-IEC61804) and HART communication protocol. III. The functions of Cell Coordinator consist of: Coordinating the intra-cell network nodes using a star topology. the network topology can be modeled as depicted in Fig. we will describe the main specification points of OCARI. A.e.11a. Tree routing   is used in time-constrained period and an energy-aware OLSR  is used otherwise between Cell Coordinators. 4.Network topology Network scalability Tree. OCARI Cell and Workshop Coordinators are Full Function Devices as specified in IEEE 802. ZigBee and ISA100. As depicted in Fig.15. Star. with the upper 64 bits identifying a network and the lower 64 bits identifying a device Graph routing (link state routing) No energyaware routing strategy Use cases analysis of the described industrial applications shows that in most cases. 4.4 specification. It is a Reduce Function Device as defined in IEEE 802.
IEEE-1588/IEC 61588-2004 protocol   (Precision Time Protocol.15 . Neighborhood search 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20. The role of a WSN oriented middleware is to provide standard and homogenous services to user applications. B.4 PHY is very robust as depicted by the following figure (Fig.15. OCARI Platform Prototype In order to evaluate. One RF Technology. 5): using SERENA algorithm  for relay nodes (among Cell Coordinators) is thus limited inside this perimeter. Comparison of different IEEE PHY layers  Based on the robustness of IEEE 802. One RF Technology. OCARI routing strategy and the ZigBee NWK and APS will be implemented on another module. USB…) Analog and Digital IO NWK + Routi ng + APS Control PIN HART Protocol (4-20mA) Sensors (HART compliant) Fig. 6. Time server is a particular network node which is used for clocks synchronization in the whole Workshop domain. 6). OCARI Application Architecture Free Activity (beacon mode: slotted CSMA-CA) Optimized network lifetime energy-aware OLSR T0 T1 T’1 T2 T’2 Global Cycle T3 Fig. OCARI global cycle. The architecture depicted in Fig. However. which is a PC computer platform for ease testing and debugging.15 . Reserved for routing use Reserved for routing use PHY + MAC S Y N C Collision-Free Activity Scheduling constrained by a hierarchical tree Deterministic MAC period IEE E8 02 . Our consortium is developing a derived MAC layer   that offers different access methods to the medium within a global cycle as depicted by the following figure (Fig. IEE Fig. The ratio of (T2-T1)/(T3-T2) depends on the tradeoff between time-constrained communication period and the concern of energy saving. designed by our partner.4 GHz. It also contributes to the energy saving of the WSN by . Sink leaves the cell when it finishes to acquire data (in polling mode). verify and validate the OCARI specification.15. we define the following platform (Fig. OCARI platform prototype. 7. For a precision clock synchronization. In OCARI specification. The PHY and MAC layers will be implemented inside the same communication controller module (One-RF B2400MCTiny). The final architecture will be put on the same micro-controller by our partner. C.15.4 IEE E8 02 . 5.00 ©2008 IEEE. the interference model is based on two times the estimated radio range. D. as stated earlier. 7) in which we will implement different communication layers.cell. IEEE 802.1 UART Serial interface (RS232. To achieve a seamless integration of wireless sensors network (WSN) into real world applications in industrial information systems.11 b E8 02 . OCARI PHY and MAC layers Previous studies   and our field tests show that IEEE 802. PTP) is used.4 MAC layer does not completely satisfy our requirements. we decided to adopt it for the OCARI specification. 8 aims at responding to such requirement while supporting the state of the art in industrial information technology.4 PHY 2. we need to develop and provide an application architecture that can interoperate with existing industrial standards.
PAEWN 2008.). 32. Melanie Swiderek/ISA100 Committee. in ZigBee while trying to be compatible with ZigBee APS and APL layers. IETF RFC 3561. standard IEC 615882004. Adrien Van Den Bossche. FUTURE WORKS In the next steps of our project. Mälardalen University Press Dissertations. T. “Proposition d’une nouvelle méthode d’accès déterministe pour un réseau personnel sans fil à fortes contraintes temporelles”. IFIP 2008 Conference on Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks. we are working on the implementation and the development of different components of our specification. “Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Thèse de l’Université Toulouse le Mirail . “Adaptive Distance Estimation and Localization in WSN using RSSI Measures”. ZigBee Specification-Document 053474r17.zigbee. Becker. ZigBee-PRO Stack Profile. VI. G. Perkins. Thierry Val for their valuable suggestions.txt. “MAC specifications for a WPAN allowing both energy saving and guaranted delay . M.implementing a centralized and optimized management of network resources . Charles E. M. Minet. Gauthier. www. Belding-Royer.lri. 10th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design Architectures. V. IEEE International Workshop on Performance Analysis and Enhancement of Wireless Networks.org/rfc/rfc3626. . S. M. Livolant. R. . version 2007-0718. we can preserve existing efforts and investments on application development already realized using ZigBee technology. in particular Marc-Henri Bertin and Prof. RFC3626. de Rasse. A Van den Bossche. IV. We believe that OCARI will fill some gaps. http://www. A.11a_Release1_Status.ac. Elizabeth M. Thierry VAL (Dir. it serves as a gateway between different user applications and different Workshop Coordinators. Eidson et al. . P.comp. Methods and Tools (DSD 2007). Chalhoub.org. . SeptemberNovember 2005. Bob Heile. Andrew Wheeler. 471-478. September 2006. http://www. REFERENCES .11a Functional Description”.Part A: MACARI: a synchronized tree-based MAC protocol”.00 ©2008 IEEE. Many thanks to Yves Mayadoux and the OCARI consortium members. “Algorithms and Protocols Enhancing Mobility Support for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Bluetooth and ZigBee”. http://www. October 2007.Part B: Optimisation of the intra cellular exchanges for MACARI”. 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20. .org/source/ISA100. Ginowan.org. IFIP 2008 Conference on Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks. 8. “ZigBee Alliance Tutorial”.Val. “An energy efficient routing based on OLSR in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks”. John C. pp. Thorsten Frunzke. E. OCARITM Consortium Web site: http://ocari. Workshop Coordinator Workshop Coordinator WSN oriented middleware OCARI protocol Other protocol Dynamic Communication Drivers Manager RTDB Software Bus (Publish/Subscribe) OPC-DA OPC-UA OPC-UA OPC-UA SCADA CBM Asset Management Network Monitoring Fig. No. IEEE Communications Magazine. “Commercial Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Using ZigBee”. The choice of a software bus standard such as OPC-DA and the upcoming version OPC-UA allows us to provide the compatibility with EDDL for asset management and for SCADA application.ppt .fr . “MAC specifications for a WPAN allowing both energy saving and guaranted delay . “ISA100.”. Marot.ietf.Toulouse II (2007-0706).zigbee. “IEEE-1588™ Standard for a precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control systems”. Javier García Castaño. “On a Comparison of four Ad-hoc Routing Protocols when taking into account the Radio Interferences. Misson. January 2008. ZigBee Document 074855r05.pdf . Japan. March 2008.uk/het-net/HETNETs05/ReadCamera05/P42. www. V. . In this way. April 2007. and Samir Das. as stated earlier.brad. Precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control systems. 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting . . Mahfoudh. Falko Dressler. which orchestrate the attached cells. . ISA100.11a Release 1 Status. . Moreover. . ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is done in the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Program of EDF R&D and is partly funded by the French National Research Agency. . Guitton. Abdalkarim Awad. . . OCARI application architecture.isa. .
http://grouper. . 2004. Hadim. no. Ed Callaway.3 ver. July 2001. Pages 720 – 740. . “Bit Error Rate: Fundamental Concepts and Measurement Issues”. Daniel R. 1-4244-9701-0/06/$20. Mohamed.org/hart_protocol/wireless_hart/ wireless_hart_main. Volume 51.ppt. IEEE 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications. March 2008. “Middleware Challenges and Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks”. 1. art. “PHY Proposal for the Low Rate 802. no. . Jeske. . “Assessment of Radio-link technologies”. . 0603-o3001. Ginowan. Naval Research Logistics. Ernesto Zimmermann. Minet. January 2003. High Frequency Electronics. N. Wiley Periodicals. Member of the Technical Staff. Inc. vol. . “Signal-tointerference-plus-noise ratio estimation for wireless communication systems: Methods and analysis”. S. 7. Gary Breed.3. . S.0. February 2008. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.html. Motorola Labs.. Issue 5. “Performance evaluation of the SERENA algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks”. Ashwin Sampath. D2. P.hartcomm2. AINA 2008.org/groups/802/15/pub/2001/Jul01/0 1229r1P802-15_TG4-Motorola-PHY-Proposal. IST-2003-507581 WINNER.ieee.4 Standard”.15. Japan.00 ©2008 IEEE. http://www. 2006. Mahfoudh.
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