# HASHING

by David Toman University of Waterloo

LIST OF SLIDES 1-1 List of Slides 1 2 Other ways to Implement a Dictionary 3 Example 4 Considerations 5 Hash Functions 6 Collision Resolution 7 Separate Chaining 8 Example Data 9 Example 10 Coalesced Chaining 11 Example 12 Open Addressing 13 Example 14 Double Hashing 15 Example 16 Probe Sequences 17 Summary .

.Hashing: 2 Other ways to Implement a Dictionary IDEA1: Store in an array indexed by the keys µ really fast lookups/insertions/. PROBLEM: VERY poor utilization of space IDEA2: Store in an array indexed by results of applying a (hash) function À on the keys µ requirement: ¼ ´ µ Å where Å is the size of the hash table. Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo . .

. .Hashing: 3 Example Let À be a hash function with range ½ Å : Keys Hash Function ½ ¾ À´ Hash Table ½µ ¿ ½ Ú½ ½ ¾ À        Å À´ . ¾µ Å  ¾  ½ Å ¾ Ú¾ Ú : keys : values associated with the keys CS 234 University of Waterloo Data Types and Structures .

how do we design the hash function? ¯ ¯ static case (we know all the keys in advance): perfect hash functions µ every key is mapped to a separate value µ the table size is Ç´number of keysµ dynamic case (we don’t know the keys in advance) µ “mostly injective” 2.Hashing: 4 Considerations We need to solve two problems: 1. what do we do if two or more records “hash” to the same place (a collision occurs)? µ conﬂict (collision) resolution Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Hashing: 5 Hash Functions ¯ Selection-based Hash Function Choose a part of the key to be the hash value µ common choices: ¯ ﬁrst couple of bits ¯ ﬁxed pattern of bits µ problems with non-uniformly distributed keys ¯ ¯ Division-based Hash Function Take the key modulo the table size µ choose table size to be prime number Folding-based Hash Function Take bit patterns and add them together µ may need an adjustment to match the table size Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Hashing: 6 Collision Resolution How good is a particular hashing scheme? µ measured by load factor load factor number of stored items size of table the number of probes (accesses needed to locate a key) is compared against the load factor µ load factor closer to 1 µ more collisions µ more probes Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Hashing: 7 Separate Chaining IDEA: buckets contain lists of elements ¯ ¯ ¯ use À to determine bucket retrieve by searching the bucket (a list!) insert by adding to the list Advantages: µ ﬂexible size of buckets µ deletion is easy (how?) Disadvantages: µ worst case: linear search µ pointers take space Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Hashing: 8 Example Data Insert BEAR CAT COW DOG ELEPHANT FOX FROG GAZELLE HAMSTER HORSE JAGUAR KOALA LION RABBIT RAT SNAKE TIGER TOAD into a 26-bucket Hash table based on a Hash function À ´ µ the 3rd letter of . Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Hashing: 9 Example ¯  ¯  ¢ ¢ ¯  ¢ ¯  ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¯  ¢ ¯  ¢ ¢ ¯  ¢ ¯  ¢ ¢ ¯  ¯  ¢ ¯  TOAD RABBIT ¯  ¢ ¯  ¯  SNAKE ¯  ¢ ¯  KOALA ¯  BEAR ¢ ELEPHANT DEER À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï TIGER JAGUAR DOG ¢ HAMSTER ¢ ¯  ¢ ¯  ¢ ¢ ¢ CS 234 University of Waterloo CAT FROG LION ¢ HORSE RAT ¢ COW FOX GAZELLE Data Types and Structures .

Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo . if not found — store in the next free cell — update the last pointer Problem: deletion is quite difﬁcult.Hashing: 10 Coalesced Chaining IDEA: Store “overﬂow” in empty cells of the table µ and remember where you put it a pointer from the “original” bucket ¯ Lookup : — look at À ´ µ. — if different from follow pointers till you ﬁnd it — or till you ﬁnd a nil ( not found) ¯ Insert : — similar.

Hashing: 11 Example BEAR ELEPHANT JAGUAR KOALA DEER LION D H K J B À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï DOG RABBIT RAT SNAKE TIGER TOAD HAMSTER C L FROG F HORSE CAT I COW FOX GAZELLE Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .Hashing: 12 Open Addressing IDEA don’t use pointers À À µ use ﬁxed probe sequence µ ´ µ is a hash function used for the -th probe µ ´ µ should cover the whole table for varying Most common version: Sequential (linear) probing: À´ À´ ½µ À´ µ µ · ½µµ mod Å · ½µ ´À ´ Problem: primary clustering µ “clogging” parts of the table µ long chains of probes µ using different “offset” doesn’t help Another problem: deletion to insert “TOAD” we need 10 probes and may miss parts of the table one reason to pick Å prime µ only possibility: mark as deleted.

Hashing: 13 Example BEAR KOALA RABBIT SNAKE DEER ELEPHANT À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï DOG JAGUAR TIGER TOAD HAMSTER FROG LION HORSE CAT RAT COW FOX GAZELLE Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .Hashing: 14 Double Hashing IDEA: use 2nd hash function to determine the probe sequence for À´ À´ ½µ À½ ´ µ µ · À¾ ´ µµµ mod Å · ½µ ´À ´ µ À¾ ´ µ must be relatively prime to Å ! In our Example: À¾ ´ µ if the ﬁrst letter of is Ø in alphabet.

Hashing: 15 Example BEAR RABBIT DEER À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï ¼ ½ ¾ Data Types and Structures DOG RAT ELEPHANT TIGER KOALA HAMSTER FROG JAGUAR HORSE CAT TOAD COW FOX GAZELLE LION SNAKE CS 234 University of Waterloo .

Z. .O. . . . T..P.J..E.Z.Z. M.C. O. X. Probes A..J. .2. . . . .S..G.C.U.D..M. .O T. .. . G... W.A.0.2. .H. . .. .2.D. .G.U. .Hashing: 16 Probe Sequences Key BEAR CAT COW DOG ELEPHANT FOX FROG GAZELLE HAMSTER .W.. E. Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .K.

Hashing: 17 Summary ¯ ¯ ¯ fast array-like search µ degenerates for high load factors ( easy implementation ) µ no pointer overhead many versions µ extensible/linear hashing the table grows/shrinks with inserts/deletes disk (block-based) versions Data Types and Structures CS 234 University of Waterloo .