Chapter 17 Key Themes and Terms A 1.

Lincoln’s plan for reconstructing the Union was his Ten Percent Plan with the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction a. Proclamation of Amnesty: Official pardon to all southern whites who took an oath of allegiance to the US and accepted the abolition of slavery, excluding Confederate government officials and high-ranking military officers b. Proclamation of Reconstruction: White landowners could adopt labor regulations and other measures to control former slaves. c. Ten Percent Plan: Any state where number of white males over 21 that equaled 10 percent of number of voters in 1860, that nucleus could reestablish a state government with presidential recognition. d. Loyalty oath: Accepting slavery and having allegiance to the US. 2. Northern groups that opposed Lincoln plan were Radicals, believing that the amnesty policy favored Confederates at the expense of the freedmen. They did not want landless freed people and sought to punish Confederates by confiscating the plantations. a. Thaddeus Stevens: Leader of the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives. b. Charles Sumner: Leader of the Radical Republicans in the Senate. c. Frederick Douglass and Wendell Phillips: Black leaders in abolitionism and as Radical Republicans. 3. Reconstruction of Louisiana impacted Congress in that the Louisiana legislature chose not to give blacks the right to vote. Congress refused to admit representatives from the “reconstructed” state. They realized Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan did not work accordingly. 4. To counter Lincoln’s plan, Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill, imposing stringent loyalty requirements for a state to be granted recognition, although it still did not enfranchise blacks. Lincoln killed it with a pocket veto. A pocket veto is when a bill is passed through Congress but fails to become law because the President does not sign it. 1. Andrew Johnson – poor white heritage, against the big plantations that destroyed small farmers, advocated the white yeoman- became the spokesman for the yeomen. A Democrat, only senator from a seceding state that refused to support the Confederacy. 2. Johnson’s plan for reconstruction was to deny political power to ex-confederates and create governments with the yeomen leading the way. i. Issued a blanket amnesty for everyone except high ranking Confederate officials and military officers and those worth > $20,000. ii. Only white men received the amnesty and, if taking the oath, could vote; excluding blacks and upper white society, Johnson was dedicated to white supremacy. iii. Radical Republicans believed this would only open up a new doorway for oppression to take its thrown in the South. 3. Southern defiance increased as anti-Yankee sentiment rose. Johnson seemed to promote, through his rhetoric, neo-Confederate violence towards blacks and white sympathizers. i. Allowed the formation of white militias in South. ii. Johnson began to grant special pardons to many ex-Confederates due to flattery and bribery. Confederates were being re-elected into power yet again. iii. Johnson wanted to run under the Democratic Party in 1968. 4. The Black Codes defined the rights of the former slaves, conditions close to that of slavery, a quasi-slavery system. i. Blacks became second class citizens ii. Not allowed in jury, ballot box, testify against whites, interracial marriage, and had more severe punishments compared to whites. iii. Some unemployed blacks were considered vagrant and were hired out to planters – blacks could not lease or own land. iv. Union Army suspended for as long as possible the implementation of these Codes.

B.

C. 1. Southern economy was nearly non-existent: no tracks for railroads, fields filled with weeds, burned-out plantations. Half the livestock was gone, one fourth of South’s white farmers were killed in the Civil War. Law and order broke down, no one knew how to farm without slavery. 2. Freedmen’s Bureaus was created to oversee relations between former slaves and owners, intervene when necessary to insure justice and equity in southern labor and race transactions. a. They also issued food rations to white and blacks. b. Tried to establish minimum wages for blacks. But with no money in the South, contracts were developed with share wages, or sharecropping. c. Sharecropping - paid workers with shares of the crop after it was harvested. A black family worked a specific piece of land in return for share of the crop. 3. Ownership of land was a central issue to whites and blacks because land meant one had power. Whites refused to sell land because it would mean losing a source of cheap labor and encouraging notions of black independence. a. Forty acres and a mule: General Sherman issued a military order setting aside thousands of acres of abandoned plantation land for blacks, giving each family forty acres and a mule. i. However, Johnson with his issuance of pardons restored most of this property to ex-Confederates. ii. Abolitionists were more successful in education than acquiring them land, led by DuBois.

D.

1. Republicans were determined to take control of the reconstruction process. Congress refused to admit representatives selected by former Confederate states under Johnson’s reconstruction policy and set up a new committee to create new terms. a. Sought for stronger government intervention in Reconstruction. b. This committee encouraged southern states to enfranchise blacks but would not require them to do so. 2. Congress passed two laws, one that extended the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau and expanded its powers. The other defined freed people as citizens with equal legal rights. a. Lyman Trumbull drafted these bills. b. Andrew Johnson vetoed both measures, but with 2/3 majority they were passed anyways over the pocket vetoes. i. Denounced Republican leaders as traitors who only wanted to preserve the Union disregarding white southerners. 3. Fourteenth Amendment: All native born or naturalized persons, including blacks, were American citizens and States could not grant privileges and immunities to them or deprive them. Either states enfranchised blacks or they would lose a number of congressional seats and electoral votes. Many ex-Confederates were disqualified from holding office. Guaranteed the national debt and rejected the Confederate debt. a. Required 2/3 majority from Congress and ratification from states. It was a counter to the President’s attempt to veto the Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Bill. b. It gave blacks rights and reduced political power of ex-Confederates. It vastly expanded federal power and limited state power. 4. 1866 elections were congressional. a. Republican platform: 14th Amendment – (Tennessee ratified it and its representatives were seated) b. Johnson created a National Union Party – Democrats, conservative Republicans, border-state Unionists. i. Doomed because N. and S. Democrats disagreed on key issues and race riots bolstered Republican arguments. Johnson himself insulted many citizens and gave Republicans an easy advantage. c. Republicans had 3-1 majority in next Congress. E. 1. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 sought for full restoration of former Confederate states: Divided 10 southern states into five military districts, directed army officers to register voters for the election of delegates to new constitutional conventions.

a. For these elections: enfranchised all males over 21, disfranchised exConfederates who were forbidden from holding office. b. When a states adopted a new constitution, granted equal civil and political rights regardless of race, ratified 14th Amendment – it would be declared reconstructed. c. It constituted a revolution because just a few years earlier there were 4 million slaves and wealthy white planters, now the white planters had little political power, while the former slaves were free and empowered. i. Southern White Republicans – scalawags ii. Northern Settlers – carpetbaggers iii. Union Leagues were formed to inform and mobilize black voters into the Republican party. 2. Johnson replaced Republican generals in charge of military districts with Democrats. Interpreted the Acts narrowly. Encouraged southern whites to obstruct and delay the registration of voters, hoping to slow the process until Republicans “came to their senses”. 3. When Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton from office, it appeared to violate the Tenure of Office Act as a removal required Senate consent, and the House impeached him. (if convicted by 2/3 majority of Senate, Johnson would be removed and Wade would replace him). a. Army Act 4. Senate acquitted Johnson because they believed Wade was too radical and the balance of powers between Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches. F. 1. State constitutions: Bones and Banjoes Conventions a. Republican delegates: ragamuffins and jailbirds b. Enacted universal male suffrage, disfranchised several ex-Confederates until 1872, mandated statewide public schools for both races, increased state responsibility and social welfare. c. KKK: made its first appearance during these elections, originally a fraternal society in 1866. 2. Fifteenth Amendment: Prohibited states from denying the right to vote on grounds of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude. Prevented any further revocation of black suffrage and extended throughout the US, including the North. Only problem was enforcement of the amendment. 3. Republicans chose Grant because was a war hero; commanded the greater authority and prestige than anyone else in the country, General-in-chief of the Army, but had no political experience. a. Grant ran in order to preserve the victory for Union and liberty won in war. b. Horatio Seymour: Democratic candidate, wartime governor of New York. i. Chose not to choose Johnson because he had too many enemies. ii. Seymour had a militant platform: declare Reconst. Acts void, remove state gov., usurp Army power in South, allow white south to reorganize gov. c. Grant won. G. 1. Rapid postwar economic growth, expansion of government contracts, relaxation of tensions and standards, and the rush of railroad construction encouraged scandals. Called the Era of Good Stealings by a historian. Dudley Warner wrote The Gilded Age, giving the name of the era, the Gilded Age. a. Whiskey Ring Scandal- Whiskey distillers avoid paying taxes. b. Black Friday Scandal- Gold price went up and Ghould stores gold, then sells it for $ when convincing Grant to stop selling gold reserves. c. Credit Mobilier Scandal- Billing the government for work never done, Congress held its stock. d. Salary Grab Act- Retroactive pay raise. e. Sanborn Contract Fraudf. Belknap Scandal- Selling jobs in government. g. Tammany Hall and William Tweed – “Ring” and “Boss”, stole more $ from NY taxpayers than all the federal agencies combined. 2. Chief target of civil service reforms was the spoils system. Reformers wanted to separate the bureaucracy from politics by requiring competitive examinations for the appointment in civil service. a. Pendelton Act- established the modern structure of civil service reform.

b. Patronage- kept political machines in office. c. Political machines used Grant as an unwitting ally to subvert reform, ultimately making him enemies with reformers. 3. Grant allowed the irregular procedures of which his private secretary annexed Santo Domingo. Senate defeated ratification of the treaty. Acted like a general in foreign affairs, not a president. a. Successes: Treaty of Washington of 1871 – Hamilton Fish, settled the Alabama claims against the British for the destruction of American ships. (C.S.S. Alabama). The treaty gave US $15.5 million in damages. i. British North American Act- United most of the Canadian colonies into a large Dominion of Canada. 1. Enhanced Pro-British Canadian nationalism. b. Fenian Brotherhood – Irish American secrety society that believed an invasion of Canada would help with the independence of Ireland. US troops and the Treaty of Washington prevented from their small armies taking any affect. H. 1. Republican party in the South – 80% black. Southern attitude towards it was that it was symbol of conquest and humiliation. No where except S. Carolina (to a degree) did blacks hold office in proportion to their population density. a. Blacks mainly wanted a decline in illiteracy. b. “Africanization” of southern governments was the idea of black incompetence. c. “Negro Rule” was propaganda by the South stating how “barbarous Africans” exercised uncontrolled power. 2. KKK and similar groups whipped, burned black schools, and at times murdered blacks and white sympathizers in order to scare Republican voters. a. Colfax Massacre: In Louisiana, a clash between black militia and whites killed 3 whites and 100 blacks. b. Republicans developed militias to protect themselves and disarm Klansmen. Reluctant to use black militia for fear of sparking a racial bloodbath. Also used federal troops; interference with voting was a federal offense, attempt to take away that right was a felony. i. Klu Klux Clan Acts- gave the president power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and send in federal troops to suppress armed resistance to federal law. Considered in South as military despotism by Grant, but he used his power in restraint. I. 1. The Liberal Republican Party rose out against Grant’s campaign and nominated Horace Greeley. Wanted conciliation of southern whites, not continued military intervention. Democrats also supported Greeley in an attempt to get rid of Grant. Denounced the Bayonet Rule (use of military) in the South. a. Most voters were not prepared to trust Democrats, Grant swept the elections, became president for 2nd term. J. 1. The building of Northern Pacific railroad led to the Panic of 1873. Jay Cooke headed financing of N.P. and had not built any track, instead, he created equities and loans to finance a massive railroad construction, rather than slow. Then, with all the loans and over speculation, the banks collapsed, nearly 18,000 failed. Unemployment rose 14%. K. 1. Public opinion began to turn against Reconstruction in the South after economic downfall. Voters punish its party in power after times of economic depression; Democrats began to gain political power and control several state governments. a. Paramilitary organizations that operated openly in Republican Southern States included: White Leagues (Louisiana), Rifle Clubs (Mississippi), and Red Shirts (South Carolina). Grant would send federal troops to quell these armed forces, only aggravating the North even more. North realized the military dominance of the South and wanted it to stop. b. Amnesty Act of 1872 2. Democratic strategy, Mississippi Plan, in the Mississippi election was to convince the 10-15% Republican voters to be Democrats and intimidate black voters. Governor Adelbert Ames called for federal troops to control the violence, but Democrats threatened that by doing so the Democrats would win Ohio in the next elections. Grant gave up Mississippi for Ohio. 3. Congress and Supreme Court tried to slow down Reconstruction. a. US v. Cruikshank, US v. Reese: federal power could not prosecute individuals.

b. Civil Rights Cases: the court declared a civil rights law passed by Congress in 1875 unconstitutional. It banned racial discrimination in all forms of public transportation and public accommodations. (Privileges and immunities and equal protection applied to states, not individuals.) c. Slaughter House Case L. 1. Key issue of 1876 was reform, especially civil service. Democrat – Samuel Tilden. Republican – Rutherford Hayes. a. Democratic techniques of intimidation: bulldozing. Trampling or beating down black voters to keep them away from the polls. Republicans lost their votes in the South. b. Hamburg Massacre: most notorious bulldozing incident. 2. Election results were disputed because Tilden did not get Florida, Louisiana, or South Carolina. Tilden needed one of them, Hayes needed all three to win. Bulldozing affects clouded the issue, and Grant gave presidency to Hayes, but the House (led by Democrats) refused. A commission was created to solve the crisis. 3. The crisis was resolved with the Compromise of 1877; the committee voted the disputed states to Hayes. (8 to 7 voting). a. Hayes soothed the tension by promising to withdraw troops if the south promised fair treatment of freed people and respect for their constitutional rights. Also, if the filibustering ceased in the House, he would elect a southern postmaster general, give federal aid to a southern railroad, and re-build war-destroyed levees in Mississippi. 4. The former Confederate states back in the Union, and slavery  freedom in the South was realized. There was still social injustice of white supremacy and economic inequity of sharecropping, and enforcement of 14th and 15th Amendments were halted by the Comp. Of 1877. a. Solid South: All of the southern state governments became Democratic, ending Republican state power in the South. Chapter 18 Key Themes and Terms A. 1. Much new agricultural and grazing land became cultivated and exploited by white Americans. Over 400 million acres of land passed into private ownership. The railroad allowed US to expand westward as well as immigrant migration. Mining and ranching frontiers also caused the push westward. a. Great American Desert: What was the west was once called before cultivation. b. 98th Meridian: A line running roughly from the center of the Dakotas through the center of Texas. c. “Rainfall follows the plow”: Settlement and cultivation changed the weather. As farmers traveled west and settled, there came heavier rainfalls. d. Sodbusters: Settlers in the west who adapted to treeless prairies by fencing with barbed wire and building their house out of sod, bringing about subsoil moisture. e. Bonanza farms: Huge wheat farms financed by eastern capital and cultivated with heavy machinery and hired labor. 2. Gold discoveries, and later, silver and minerals helped the boom in westward mining. Copper was used in the telephone, light bulb, and electrical generator. Violence came with the mining as it pushed west. The Western Federation of Miners, one of the most militant American labor union, developed as corporations dominated the mining industry. 3. The dominant symbol of the Old West: the cowboy, led the cattle drives. After Spaniards introduced the longhorn, it spread rapidly across Texas plains. Postwar explosion of population and railroads brought the US ever closer to ranching. It collapsed as the boom had overstocked the range and driven down prices. Then when a blizzard hit, thousands of cattle died, and reforms ended open-range grazing. a. Abilene, Kansas: allowed cowboys to lead cattle drives through areas sparse with Indians, 150 miles closer to Texas. i. Kansas Pacific Railroad – Kansas City to Chicago. b. Cow town: The towns with a railroad passing through it where cowboys brought the cattle. i. Ex. Dodge City c. Kansas: Major state where cattle drives traveled through to get to cow towns. d. Chisholm Trail: First trail by which cowboys led cattle drives.

i. Sedalia, Goodnight-Loving, and Western Trails followed suit. e. Grangers: Farmers who were bitter towards the ranchers that let their cattle graze by their farms because the land was destroyed. f. Range Wars: Grangers, rustlers, and sheep ranchers fought ranchers as the farming land was being annihilated by the millions of cattle grazing over the unfenced lands. B. 1. Problems with Native Americans renewed because the government was taking away their land, forcing them into reservations, and settlers came in and began cultivating it and herding the cattle away. Also, buffalo was being hunted, Indians chief source of food, and thus threatening the Native Americans. a. Stand Watie: Cherokee leader who rose to Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. b. Santee Sioux Uprising of 1862: The starving Sioux who were forced onto reservations lashed out and killed over 500 Minnesotans. Later confined with the rest of the Sioux to the Dakota Territory. c. Lakota Sioux: Fought the US army along the Missouri River. i. Battle of Little Big Horn: Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse wiped out George Custer. Gen. Sheridan crushed the Sioux and Cheyenne afterward. d. Ghost Dance: A dance that expressed the belief the Indian G-d would destroy the white men and return their land. e. Wounded Knee: Last battle that the US Army and American Indians would fight. It was the death of 19th century Plains Indian culture. f. Sand Creek Massacre: The Cheyenne were forced off their land into Colorado after a gold rush seemed eminent in their land. Starving and frustrated, they came back and raided white settlements, then returning to their reservation. A militia led by Colonel Chivington massacred 200 Indians. g. Sherman and Sheridan: Burned the land and crops and pushed the Indians onto reservations to control the plains. h. Chief Joseph: A Nez Percé, wanted to fight no more, realizing they had to go into the reservations. i. “Peace Policy”: Grant urged Indians to accept white culture: English language, Christianity, and individual ownership of property. Also, he urged them to make allegiance to the US rather than a tribe. j. Board of Indian Commissions: Staffed with humanitarian reformers, helped Indians assimilate into US society. k. Dawes Severalty Act: Called for the dissolution of Indian tribes as legal entities, offered the Indians to become citizens, and allotted each head of family 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land. l. Sooners: 2. Mexican Americans were forced to adjust to a new order; suffering dispossession of their land, loss of political influence, and suppression of their culture. Resentment of “foreigners” during the California Gold Rush promoted violence and the Foreign Miners Tax of 1850 forced them out of gold fields, even though MexicanAmericans were not foreigners.

C.

1. After 1877, Republicans lost favor with Reconstruction, however, there presence remained in the form of investment and the “New South” ideology. This ideology was of commerce, cotton mills, and steel, welcoming northern investment and support. a. Winfield Scott Hancock: Democrat candidate, won. b. James A. Garfield: Republican candidate. 2. Textiles, tobacco, iron, and railroad industries transformed into central aspects of Southern economy, expanding vastly in the 1880s. North put a lot of investment into these industries, thus giving them more control over southern welfare and its labor force. Northern industry was more manufacturing and less agricultural. a. Lintheads: the labor force of the textile industry, predominantly women and children, combined 65%. b. James Duke: Installed cigarette-making machines, created the American Tobacco Company, controlling 90% of the tobacco market. c. Gauge:: Distance between the two tracks for a railroad, standard is 4 ft. 8 ½ inches, South finally shifts to national standard, creating a national network symbolizing northern domination of the region’s railroads.

d. “Pittsburgh of the South”: Birmingham, coal, limestone, and ore in its proximity allowed it to expand industrially. 3. Weakness in southern agriculture was due to low levels of investment in farming. Also, one-crop specialization, overproduction, declining prices, and an exploitative credit system contributed to the problem. a. Crop Lien System: Merchants would provided farmers with supply in return for a lien on their next crop. 4. The message of Booker T. Washington was that blacks should just accept their position in society for now and stop complaining about their inferiority. Rather, they should work their way up in society’s social ladders and gain the respect that they deserve over time. a. Lynching: Racist propaganda where the raging community hangs the person. b. Literacy Tests: Method of disfranchising blacks, if they can’t read, they can’t vote. c. Poll Taxes: Taxing blacks when they vote. d. Grandfather clauses: Enabled white voters who were unable to meet the requirements to be registered for voting. e. Williams v. Mississippi: Supreme Court upheld these disfranchisement clauses on the grounds that they did not discriminate “on their face” against blacks. f. Jim Crow Laws: Mandated racial segregation in public facilities of all kinds. g. Plessy v. Ferguson: The Supreme Court sanctioned segregation laws as long as the facilities for blacks were separate but equal. h. Atlanta Exposition Speech (Atlanta Compromise): Booker T. Washington’s speech where he basically accepted segregation as temporary in return for white support of black efforts for education and socioeconomic progress. D. 1. 2. The elections were so close because the two mainstream parties seemed indifferent on the dire issue of economic decline. Furthermore, Democrats controlled the House while the Republicans controlled the Senate, creating a balance that would only tilt a slight margin. This impacted meaningful legislation because it meant that both the Democrats and Republicans had to agree on the legislation because for it to be passed, it had to be agreed upon by both majorities in Senate and in the House. 3. CHAPTER 19 • Tocq. America had large MC and AG Farmers o 1835 was : industry in North, Greater disparity btwn rich and poor, no more equal picture of society, Manufacturing greatly exceeded Agric. A. Economic Growth 1. Forces driving Economic Growth – i. RR’s - mileage increased big time -> allowed goods and labor to be transported easily. Technology, Economy grew at the cost of a widening gulf between rich and poor. 2. RR power – Rate wars developed so they formed pools to fix rates, rails charged more when there was a monopoly. Farmers formed cooperatives to protect own interests. i. Grange – AKA Patrons of Husbandry started in 1877 – used politics to change laws, was easier then building their own lines. ii. “Granger Laws” - Passed laws to establish max rates and remove warehouse charges. Also wanted to remove rebate laws that allowed for mass producers to get discounts iii. RR tried to fight back – Munn vs. Illonois – Court ruled that states could regulate business clothed with public interest. iv. Interstate Commission Act – 1887 – outlawed: pools, discriminatory rates, long-haul vs short haul differentials, rebates to favored shippers. Created the ICC – interstate commerce commission to define act on a case-by-case basis. Rates must be Reasonable and Just. Often favored RR’s, had minimal enforcement power. – did cause freight rates to decline. 3. advances in tech: signals air brakes, knuckle couplers on RR, better steel mills, telephone, electric light, typewriter, structural steel, dynamo (generator), internal combustion engine

4. Class inequality. Wages differed sharply by skill, region, race, and gender. 5. Industry Giants: They helped the US Economy at the cost of many injuries and lives, they also provided very low wages and contributed to the inequity of American society. i. Vanderbilt - ?? ii. Jay Gould, Jim Fisk, Huntington – RR – bribed legislators, manipulated stock market, cheated stock holders, created RR empire in Southwest iii. Rockefeller – Oil – bought out or ruined competitors, obtained rebates and drawbacks on oil shipments, created monopoly and Standard Oil Trust in 1879 iv. Carnegie and Frick – Steel – Pushed laborers to a 72- hour workweek and pushed their workers in a ceaseless effort for greater efficiency v. James Duke – Tobacco vi. J.P. Morgan – Banking – built in empire to gain influence over firms. vii. Millionaires – term first coined in this period, Conspicuous Consumption – from “The theory of the leisure class” 1899 lavish buying of goods, almost flaunting their money, practicing extravagant spending habits and living very wastefully and lavishly, Gilded Age – Name given to this period because of extravagant habits of the rich, Robber Barons – name given to those whose methods to wealth were considered predatory, those listed above, Gospel of Stewardship – Carnegie and Rockefeller - giving away money to educational and philanthropic organizations 6. Anti-trust movement fueled by suspicions of great power. i. Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890 – used to curb power of trusts and stop “the restraint of trade” ii. Supreme Court killed the law in the U.S vs. E.C. Knight Company 1. Manufacturing was not commerce and therefore could not be regulated. B. Labor Strife 1. U.S. had highest rate of industrial accidents, workmen’s compensation was unknown, many families impoverished by accidents that disabled their chief provider, erosion of worker autonomy, labor became a commodity to be bought for wages ie. Worker sold labor instead of craft of labor. i. 1866 – National Labor Union formed from separate craft unions ii. 1884 – Congress created Bureau of Labor in 1884, first Labor Day in 1894 on the first Monday in September iii. Molly Maguires – Groups that used guerilla warfare tactics on mine owners iv. Greenback Labor Party – gained offices and showed that unions work 2. Caused by wage cuts in times of depression to ease pressure on companies at the cost of the employees. Great RR Strike of 1877 – Traffic from St Louis to East Coast came to a halt. Violence erupted btw strikers and state militias. Worst violence upto that time. 3. Knights of Labor – organized 1869 by Terrence Powdery i. Organized by industry, represented semi and unskilled, some admitted women and blacks, Bread and butter goals (higher wages, lower hours, better working conditions), also child labor laws <– would allow adults to get higher pay, did not like wage system. ii. Success limited due to a lack of capital and management experience. Did not want strikes but gained greatest influence through them. Workers cooperatives p645 4. Haymarket Riot – Against McCormick Reaper Works, bomb thrown into crowd. Many anarchists were convicted and sentenced even though many were not present. Divided the country, many found verdicts troubling however majority of Americans applauded the categorical repression of un-American radicalism. i. Effect on Knights of Labor – greatly lowered membership and made Powderly’s opposition to Wage System sound like socialism or anarchism. ii. AFL – American Federation of Labor founded in its wake by Samuel Gompers. 1. organized by trade, bread and butter goals, skilled workers, did not allow women or blacks, accepted capitalism and the wage system. 5. Progress and Poverty – 1879 – Henry George – Addressed Robber Barons, showed how few people controlled the land and its resources at the expense of many  land monopoly. Proposed a tax on the capital gains of land  Single Tax Movement. Portrayal of the injustice of povety in midst of plenty.

6. Looking Backwards – 2000 – Edward Bellamy – placed in 2000. Said all industry was controlled by national govt, everyone works for equal pay, no classes, no class conflict. Was not a Marxist because did not support class conflict, called his collectivist order “nationalism. Christian socialist  promoted social gospel to help poor by procuring them opportunities for betterment. 7. Homestead Strike of 1892 – Carnegie and Frick refused to bargain. Frick closed the plant – lockout – to open it with non union workers. Strikers refused to leave – sitdown- so called Pinkertons (private military forces). GOVT INTERVENED, strike broken. Showed that soldiers and militias were being used increasingly to destabilize unions. 8. Depression of 1893-1897: i. Panic of 1893: Causes: British banks call in money  took gold out of U.S. Also overproduction of crops to try to get out of debt  declining prices  more debt. Also RR built to fast and 4/5 went out of business. Business collapsed, banks closed, stock market plunged, unemployment 15%. ii. Coxey’s Army – Led by Jacob Coxey, marched on Washington and demanded govt. give public works jobs, jailed and govt refused to listen, ideas 40yr early 9. Pullman Strike – Company set up towns and charged workers rent. Cut wages but not rent or grocery. 1894 Pullman refused to arbitrate with strikers, they asked ARU for help i. ARU – American Railway Union founded by Eugene V. Debs. Contained all 150,000 railworkers. Pullman still refused to negotiate. Debs launched a boycott to refuse any trains running Pullman cars which caused a big strike paralyzing all RR radiating for Chicago. Grover sends in troops and Attorney general got a federal injunction against Debs under S. Antitrust for restraint of trade. C. Farmers Movements 1. Encouraged by cheap land, high rainfall, expanding markets. Hindered by grasshoppers, hailstones, winter blizzards, and dry cycles. Grain productions still VERY HIGH. HOWEVER competition from Egypt and India eroded prices for American cotton and wheat. Distress loudest in wheat producing west and cotton producing south 2. Farmers blamed banks, commission merchants, RR’s, and monetary system for their troubles. Many banks and US policy called for defaltion to bring US dollar to par with gold which furthered many concerns. Deflationary bills passed: i. Public Credit Act 1869 Required the payment of Union war bonds in gold ii. Specie Resumption Act 1875 – Went into effect 1879, 3x GNP, iii. These acts strengthen the US dollar and govt credit but may have caused two major depressions by constraining credit. 3. Quantity Theory of Money – prices determined by the amount in circulation. i. Greenback party – pushed for more issuance of treasury notes – inflationary ii. Silver movement  “free silver” called for recoinage of silver in 16 to 1 ration. Crime of 73 - antideflationist reflected idea of govt’s conspiracy to destroy silver the money of the people. Bland-Allison Act – passed to recoin silver but didn’t slow deflation, 20:1. Sherman Silver Purchase Act – increased ratio to 16:1 but Pres. Cleveland and the “gold bugs” wanted to keep gold standard so called a special session to repeal the bill. 4. Grange replaced by National Farmers Alliance  establishes cooperatives (many farmers join together in an association) to get better prices and eliminate middleman. i. Called for: graduated income tax, direct election of senators, coinage of silver at 16-1, govt control of utilities, sub treasury system (fed warehouses), Govt loans. ii. Many of these became law, many alliance men launched the Populist Party because they believed Rep and Dem wouldn’t meet demands. D. Populist Party 1. Were a viable party b/c of the strong discontent of the farmers in the West and the South. Some opposed b/c would mean votes away from democrats  more republican votes  more “reconstructive measures”  more Negro rule.

i. Did not have a strong leader b/c original leader- Leonidas Polk had died. ii. Called for: graduated income tax, direct election of senators, unlimited coinage of silver, govt control of RR’s, sub treasury system for storage (fed warehouses) iii. Weaver was the Pres. Candidate. Won 22% electoral and 9% national, were frustrated. Hoped the downtrodden would support them but instead black farmers voted repub and whites voted democrat for reason in D.1. iv. The Depression of 1893 and the Repeal of the Sherman Silver purch act caused the party to regain strength as more people felt disillusioned by their parties. 2. William Jennings Bryan – gave speech (“Cross of Gold”) in favor of free silver, nominated for Dem. His platform endorsed free sliver, income tax, condemned trusts, and opposed the use of injunctions against labor. This overlapped with Populists views and basically ate it up. Caused some democrats to split off into gold democrats. 3. Bryan traveled around the nation. Republicans called Demos irresponsible inflationists. McKinneley – Republican nominee, waged “front porch campaign where people came to him. Waged by his chairman Hanna who showed Bryan as a wild man. i. Was an important election because split the nation on regional boundaries similar to the election in the civil war period. Was a turning point because it showed a turn in American political history away from the stalemate of the proceeding two decades. ii. 57 cent dollar – A Rep propaganda that said Dem’s would inflate the dollar A. Chapter 20 a. technology and new management techniques—harnessing electrical power and internal combustion engine b. Edison creates DC—lightbulb c. Westinghouse creates AC with the help Tesla (electrical engineer) d. Henry Ford—the Model T and eventually the assembly line etc. e. growth in scale—the growth of the overall market that led to the overall increase in production and staff to meet the need f. mass production—increased the speed of production and reduced unit costs (often meant replacing with machines) g. James Duke—cigarette genius, mass advertising to sell, innovator h. Big business—the integration of mass production and mass distribution i. Booms and busts—overproduction and increasing opportunities causes this cycle j. Pools—aka trusts, cooperative efforts among businesses in order to make$ k. J. P. Morgan—a sophisticated investment banker that could arrange mergers l. American Tobacco Company—Duke merged 4 companies into 1 m. US Steel: largest merger, 200 separate companies (J. P. Morgan & Carnegie) n. Scientific management was the effective use of time and man-power in the factory —this hurt the laborer by the company wanting more machines and less ppl, and it helped the immigrant become more important b/c they needed unskilled workers to work the machines (it also lowered the cost of some of the products for them to buy) i. Middle managers: the floor managers of the factories that made sure that the workers continued to work ii. Research departments: dept. that studied the work habits of workers so as to make them more efficient (one of these was Menlo Park: Edison’s place) iii. Fredrick W. Taylor: wanted to eliminate the wasted movements of the worker and also have the best arrangement of machinery so as to make them more efficient, writer of Principles of Scientific Management, also called Taylorism—used time and motion studies and limited down time iv. Ford: used Taylorism and also added the assembly line to make the most efficient production (1913)—production time of Model T dropped by 90%, instituted $5 day so that workers could afford the products (cars) that they worked on all day B. Robber Barons no more a. They sought to eliminate the image the image by endowing huge sums of $ to nonprofit groups i. Henry Clay Frick: assassination attempt, failed

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ii. Gospel of wealth: w/ Gods help got all this $, so it is our duty to then give it back to the ppl, in effect it was a trust fund for their communities, they endowed huge sums of $ to achieve this iii. Ida Tarbell: (1904) expose of Standard Oils Business practices An Obsession a. Racial fitness is that a certain race is more fit and will therefore be more successful in the business world. Social Darwinism is the concept of the survival of the fittest race explains why certain races are better off socially and economically. i. TR: urged ppl to go out and do strenuous things and have a strenuous life (sports, etc.) ii. A-S race: the supposed superior race iii. Race suicide: every women should have at least 4 babies to prevent iv. Jacob Riis: reformer who still adhered to racial stereotypes v. Madison Grant: writer of The Passing of the Great Race and said that all inferior races should be rid from US vi. Social sciences: to shape in the late 19th century (econ., sociology, psychology, etc.) Immigration a. Immigration into the US is caused by usually 2 things: political or religious persecution or economic hardship. Old immigrants are from mostly the northern and western euro nations, but the new immigrants were from the southern and eastern euro nations. They had different cultures, customs, and religions than the old immig. so they were even hated by the older immig. Birds of passage were ppl who came over (usually just the male of the family) to make some $ to send back to their fam. in euro. The wars (WWI, etc.) stopped this. b. The working and the living conditions of the immig. were terrible. i. Factories in the field: big agricultural farms that were in effect factories in the field ii. Triangle Shirt and Waistcoat fire: 146 workers were trapped in upper level and either jumped or burned to death b/c they were trapped iii. Tenements: many immig. that rented apartments rented the separate rooms out to other ppl so as to make up enough $ for their rent, they also would sleep in shifts Building a. i. Fraternal societies: brought ppl of the same ethnic group together so as to help each other ii. Sweatshops: sm. rooms that had only a few sewing machines to pump out the goods iii. Padroni: labor contractors (construction) b. Political machines functioned on the kickbacks of the many ppl that worked for their support. Contractors would pay the machines to get the contracts that they wanted so the machines then could turn around and use the $ elsewhere like to organize themselves, pay off ppl/voters with improvements, etc. This graft kept them in business. (King “Richard" Crocker was the main guy in NY) They would round up truckloads of immig. and give them food and drink and then take them to the polls and then of course they would vote for that party—election fraud. Al Capone becomes the leader of organized crime in Chicago. African American a. Southern blacks never had very well. They were always subjected to the worst working conditions and always on the short end of the deal w/ sharecropping, etc. They were also subjected to the Jim Crow laws that the South were passing at an alarming rate. The Northern blacks did have it a little better but not everywhere. Northern business ppl did not want to hire blacks, they preferred the immig. The blacks gained a major foothold in the meatpacking industry in Chicago. Booker T. Washington advocated self help and self sufficiency. Madame C. J. Walker succeeded in selling a line hair and skin lotions to other blacks. Workers and Unions a. i. Danbury Hatters Case: ex. Of Supreme Ct. stepping in to prevent the unions from “restraining trade” ii. Trade agreements: contracts that guaranteed hours, wages, etc.

iii. Collective bargaining: the bargaining between employers and unions iv. Lochner v. New York: law limiting bakery workers to 10 hour day is unconst. v. Samuel Gompers: the founder of the AFL (1886) vi. Craft vs. industrial unions: Craft unions (AFL) were exclusive which usually meant that women and blacks were also excluded. Industrial unions were very inclusive and housed many radical ideas b/c of this. vii. UMW: one of the few industrial unions allowed in the AFL (United Mine Workers) viii. IWW: Industrial Workers of the World founded by “Big Bill” Haywood, hoped to organize everyone into “one big union,” too radical and reckless for mass membership ix. Class war: this was what was in essence called for by the IWW, an uprising of the social classes against the corporations x. Ludlow massacre: the random killing of 66 ppl in a tent colony that was on strike in front of a mine xi. The labor question: skilled vs. unskilled????? H. Joys of the city a. The urban working class totally enjoyed going to the movies and the theaters. They flocked to the nickelodeons (costing only a nickel) and could watch films usually 15 minutes long. Even the immig. that did not speak English could go b/c they would go tot the silent films so they would not be impaired by their not being able to speak English. I. The New Sexuality a. The separate spheres for men and women that dominated during the 10th century came crashing down at the turn of the century. Women were tired of having no fun and were increasingly becoming educated so they wanted to use it. Also with the added need for more workers, women were coming in in huge numbers. These were the “new women” of as new age of sexuality (for they could also now engage in pleasurable sex). Margret Sanger advocated for birth control to be used widely b/c women now could and should enjoy sex. Free love is the idea that ppl should be free to love w/o the bonds of marriage. Alice Paul is the founder of the National Women’s Party. Feminism is the desire for complete equality among men and women. The Mann Act prohibited the transportation of women across state lines for immoral purposes.

A. Ch 21—Defining the Progressive Movement a. Progressives want progress, rely on science, and they want strong gov. to protect, regulate, and reform b. Finneyite in its roots, very Protestant and Social Gospel B. Spearheads of Reform a. Muckrakers are the usual sensational journalists that use investigative journalism to come up w/ the stories for the papers that also help to energize the progressive movement. The settlement house workers are a conservative improvement that almost a reactionary movement that wants to almost keep thing the way they are, but thy simply want to help the ppl that are in need (lead by Jane Addams). Socialists want the government to own most of the land and factories, etc. so as to equalize everything (lead by Debs—American Socialist Party). i. Ida Tarbell: History of Standard Oil, mukraker ii. Lincoln Steffens: Shame of the Cities, mukraker—bribery and corruption in local gov. in major cities iii. Frank Norris: The Octopus, mukraker, turned toward newer and more truer ways of portraying the realism of the American life iv. David Graham Philips: The Treason of the Senate, corruption in the Senate v. McClure’s Magazine: 10-cent periodical filled with sensationalistic stories to capture the readers attention and were not always true vi. Realism: this is what many of the muckrakers of the time were trying to achieve. A better realistic picture of the American life as it truly is. vii. Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives, photographer, muckraker, realism guy viii. Jane Addams: founder of Hull House (settlement house workers) and Elen Gates Starr is also a founder, Hull House was a place for immig. to go so as to get eng., cooking, sewing, etc. classes and also intellectuals can get together to discuss issues. Florence Kelly is a protégé. ix. Anti-Saloon League: along w/ the Temperance Union and other progressives, they won the prohibition of alcohol in 1919 x. Julius Wayland: Appeal to Reason, socialist, the most important socialist weekly publication xi. Upton Sinclair: The Jungle, muckraker, revealed the horror of the meatpacking industry xii. Cooperative commonwealth: the combination of Protestantism and socialism into one social justice philosophy xiii. Gas & water socialists: socialists who abandoned revolution and instead worked for aggressive reforms (improving city services) C. Municipal Reforms a. The cities were where the reforms had to start b/c they had to start from the groung up. If the triangle between the machines, the immig. and the utilities could be broken, local politics could become clean again. b. Pros: It ended the corruption of local politics and ended the grip of the machines on politics Cons: It in effect removes the immig. from the election process b/c of the new polling sys. They cannot read the ballot or they are not citizens, etc. i. Hazen Pingree: reform-minded mayor of Detroit led fights to control the cities major abusive companies ii. Tom Johnson: honest and efficient gov. to Cleveland iii. City Commissioner Plan: college experts in a field and run for jobs of their expertiseideal for sm. towns and sm. cities iv. City Manager Plan: person is an expert in running the city D. State Reforms a. Political Reforms i. The machines and the trusts dominated state politics ii. They broke the connection between the 2 by way of a virtuous electorate 1. white, m.c., Protestantideal 2. Australian ballot (secret ballot) 3. personal registration laws—must be able to read/write, etc. (all of these cuts out a lot of the immig. vote) 4. also give the 3 following a. initiative: voter wants something specific done (that’s not already being done)

b. referendum: attempt to stop gov. from doing something c. recall: recall of officials that aren’t doing their job iii. women’s political power increase (all other minorities dec.) SPACE b. Economic Reforms i. Robert LaFollette: He created the “laboratory of democracy” by advocating many reforms in the from of civil service reform, public utilities, also created the Wiscon. Indust. Comm. which vehemently went on a rampage of industrial justicethe “Wiscon. Idea” 1)industrial justice 2)strong gov. 3)expert administrators to provide disinterested public service ii. Charles Evans Hughes was a reform lawyer that found himself in the governors mansion in which he est. reform in RR and civil service. Lillian Wald and Louis Brandies were m.c. reformers who pressured for laws to promote social justice. Alfred E. Smith and Robert F. Wagner converted from Demo. to reform politics in which they advocated for immig. reforms. E. A Renewed Campaign for Civil Rights a. Accommodation fails b/c when blacks elevate themselves, it gets taken away from them by the whites even in the North b/c of racism it had reached the nadir (lynchings, etc.) Led by W. E. B. DuBois the Niagara Movement replaced the old accommodationism of Booker T. Washington. They demanded the right to vote where it had been taken away, segregation ended, discriminatory barriers removed, freedom of speech, and the brotherhood of all men. In 1910 the NAACP was formed. A Legal Redress Committee was formed to sue any city or state gov. that violated the const. rights of the African Americans. In 1991, the National Urban League was formed in order to improve the economic and social conditions of blacks in the cities. F. National Reform a. They went after the trusts, protect workers, and promote the quality of consumer goods, and with national power progressives could combat the rulings against the progressive reforms that were originally struck down b/c they restrained trade. b. TR felt that big companies were essential to the American econ. and that they in the end helped the consumer by lowering the costs of their products. However, his image was one of break up all of the big trusts in the US. c. TR offers to arbitrate in the coal strike of 1902 by inviting UMW (led by John Mitchell) and the owners to the White House, owners originally refuse then they agree and TR arbitrates to give the workers a “square deal” that was good for everyone. d. TR expanded the national gov. when he advocated for the ICC to expand its powers though several acts that restricted the RR’s powers (Elkins Act, Hepburn Act, and Mann-Elkins Acts). He also advocated changes for the Pure Food and Drug Act and also the Meat Inspection Act. For the conservation of the environment he created the National Park Service (1916) that was staffed by experts to moderate. e. Historians believe that TR had a great impact on the US gov. He was the first modern Pres. and he is the only 20th century Pres. on Mt. Rushmore. f. TR’s progressivism caused a split the party b/c he wanted reform while the Old Guard were very conservative. i. GOP: “Grand Old Party” = Republican Party ii. McKinley: TR superceded him as Pres. when he was assassinated iii. Thomas C. Platt: the leader of the state party machine (NY) iv. Northern Securities Co.: The leader of the monopoly was J. P. Morgan. TR ordered the break up the trust under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. v. New Nationalism: the term that he used to describe his policy over fair play with the trusts vi. Preservationists: led by John Muir, they wanted the wilderness to be left alone and untouched while the conservationists wanted to use the reusable resources and replenish them so as to reuse them vii. Public Lands Commission: est. to survey and catalogue Amer. lands in order to issue permits to the users of the lands viii. National Forest Service: est. competitive bidding for the harvesting of timber and exacted fees for grazing rights on such landsheaded by Gifford Pinchot G. The Taft Interregnum

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a. Taft was a lawyer and then held VP and then Pres., not a charismatic military person who has the respect and admiration of everyone b. He ends up siding with the Old Guard on the tariff raising issue (Payne-Aldrich Tariff) which in the end did nothing to encourage foreign imports. He also ignored he progressives cries for help when they wanted to strip House Speaker Joseph “Uncle Joe” Cannon of his seemingly abusive powers. c. The Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy set Taft and TR forever against each other as political enemies. Richard Ballinger was the Sec. of the Interior of Taft’s in which he opened federally protected land and was also selling coal deposits, etc etc and he was making $, so Pinchot noticng this reports I to Taft, Taft denies, Pinchot leaks it, gets fired and Ballinger is exonerated b/c the Old Guard is in control of the gov. Tr is pissed b/c Pinchot is good friend. Roosevelt’s Return a. He runs against Taft b/c Taft has been unloyal to the progressives and TR wants to remedy that. b. B/c the Old Guard still controls the GOP nomination process, Taft gets it and TR then creates his own Progressive Party (1912) which is also known as the Bull Moose Party. The Rise of Wilson a. Never held political office until 1910, then Pres. of Princeton, then Demo. Nominee in 1912 The Election of 1912 a. The focus of the election was the trust issue. i. Debs: gov. control of industries (socialism) ii. TR: New Nationalism iii. Wilson: New Freedom b. The GOP vote was split so that opened the door for the Demo’s and so therefore Wilson’s New Freedom policy won out. The Wilson Presidency a. Underwood-Simmons Tariff is the dramatic and progressive tariff reductions and they also with the passage of the 16th amendment, the progressives got the guarantee of their income tax. b. He wanted to revise the national banking sys. There are 12 regional banks that control each of the private banks in its region. They can all issue loans and $. This shows his moving away from New Freedom and more toward New Nationalism b/c it is less centralized than a national bank would have been. c. Wilson is slowly moving away from his New Freedom as seen in the passage of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC) in which the FTC will regulate the companies rather than break them up (tits companion legislation the Clayton Anti-Trust Act was stripped of all its trust-busting abilities by the Congress). And in order to still win the election he passed the Kern-McGuillicuddy Act which covered federal employees for workmen’s compensation, Keating-owen Act which was on child labor laws, and finally the Adams Act that guaranteed an 8 hour day.
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O. The U.S. becomes a World Power a. PP b. Anti Imperalists i. AI’s Opposed the annexation because: 1. the subjugation of the Filipinos would violate the right of all ppl to independence and self-government. 2. Also feared that the large military and diplomatic establishment to administer the colony would threaten liberties at home. 3. Others opposed it due to economic reasons: sugar growing competition, cheap labor flooding, maintenance of imperial outposts. 4. Others worried about racial contamination ii. Failed because Bryan shifted support to end war with Spain and then free Filipinos later through diplomatic means. Also Filipinos revolted before vote so many senators supported the president c. The Filipinos believed that they would receive independence as Cuba did. 1899 Fil. Declared independence. The U.S. won through brutal shoot to kill tactics. Ultimately won and pacified under Arthur Macarthur who offered amnesties and maintained ties with the islands wealthy elite. Similarities to other wars are

they use a dual tactic of ruthless war and concessions to those who were willing to live under benevolent American rule. i. Filipino Insurrection was their rise up for independence. Taft came as governor-general to establish a constituency and prep the Phil. For independence. 1. improved schools, hospitals, sanitation, reformed land ownership 2. This eased the American conscience d. Platt Amendment (1) Cuba cannot make treaties with foreign powers (2) U.S. Gov had broad authority to intervene in Cuban political/economic affairs (3) Cuba would sell or lease land to the US for naval stations. i. Cubans had to adhere because US Army was still there and sugar industry relied on the US. Amendment further increased Cuban dependence on the US for trade. ANTI-AMERICAN SENTIMENT GREW e. Puerto Rico was not granted independence b/c the US believed that they were not ready. Done via the Foraker Act, 1900 and was protected by the Supreme Court in the Insular cases. Jones Act – 1917- gives Puerto Ricans citizenship f. Puerto Rico was given no role in determining their ruling body. PR lived in poverty. Was less alarming because the Monroe Doctrine asserted that the western hemisphere was the US sphere of influence and the us had the right to act unilaterally here. However the Philippines showed the increasingly aggressive rather then limiting role of the US. i. Was only after 1900 that US began focusing ill will on weaker neighbors. g. The US instituted open door policy to remove the spheres of influence that Euro and other neighboring countries had carved out of China and to get a piece of the action. i. Instituted by Sec of State - John Hay  he saw everyone’s silence as approval and instituted the policy. ii. Boxer Rebellion – May 1900 - nationalist uprising to get rid of foreign devils 1. Many Euros killed, U.S. joins forces with others to crush it 2. China forced to pay indemnities but US gave rest back 3. US gained support for ODP h. U.S. Expansionism – 2 views i. Practical – Roosevelt – Economic, Militaristic, Europe has been doing this ii. Moralistic – Wilson – Convert to Chrisitianity, Spread Democracy, “Our little brown brothers” Showed inferiority and supervision. P. Theodore Roosevelt a. He was the leader of Cuban RR’s and worked to remake the country into one of the worlds greatest powers: i. Pros – He inteneded to maximize US advantages in political economy but not at the risk of a world order. Sought a balance among the great industrial nations through negotiation rather than war ii. Cons – had litter concern over less powerful nations, cared little about sovereignty of small countries or their human rights. Was power hungry for himself and the nation. b. U.S. has the right to interfere to restore order and prevent European intervention. Corollary was prompted by European banks loaning money to weak govts and then have an excuse to come back in but the US would intervene and prevent this. i. Pros – it allowed for stability of the region and the spread of democracy ii. Cons – US had to police world, prevented genuine independence movements c. Build PC to unite the Navy and give it a strong presence in both seas. HayPauncefote Treaty of 1901 – US and UK said neither country would build a canal without the others permission. Hay Harran Treaty 1902 – reduced price to 10million. Colombia refused. US Navy with (USS Nashville) helped Panama revolt against Colombia with the help of Phillipe Banau Varilla. Later sign Hay Banau Varilla treaty that gives canal for 10mil down 250k year. d. Objectives in Asia were opposite of Caribbean and included the refusal to use military force. Wanted to preserve the Open Door policy and balance of powers.