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HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE L ARCH 10 Developmental history, and relationship to society, climate and topography

History of Landscape Architecture related to the history of gardening other structures (enclosed and unenclosed space) Date 400 BC 400 AD 200 AD 600 AD 1400 - 1500 1600 - 1700 1800 Mid 1800

concerned with composition of planting, landform, water, paving and

Description Roman's elaborate courtyards Ancient gardens of the Middle East and East Asia Italians built beautiful hillside estates and civic plazas France has magnificent palaces and city gardens English has natural appearing country estates Landscape Architecture as a profession

Landscape Architects and Landscape Gardeners Frederick Law Olmsted first to call himself landscape architect with Calvert Vaux, they designed New York City's Central Park 1899 American Society of Landscape Architecture followers of Olmsted

Common Misinterpretations Landscape Gardeners Horticulturists Pansy Planters Landscapist or Landscapers

Differences 1. Gardeners and Landscapers They are not required to have the advanced degree that is requisite for landscape architecture. Their activities focus primarily on fundamental garden design and maintenance. 2. Horticulturists They are trained in the science of growing and producing plants. Horticulturists are skilled in the art of culturing gardens. 3. Landscape Contractors The create the landscape architect's design.

Why Common Developers, Urban Planners, Architects, and Public Policy makers hire Landscape Architects? 1. Successful lands yields values 2. Designing indoors and outdoors are different. Landscape Architecture the art and science of fitting land for safe, efficient, healthful, pleasant, human use and enjoyment. One of the oldest visual arts a. cultural b. natural

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9053 Philippine Landscape Architecture Act of 2000

Philippines, appropriating funds therefore and for other purposes. Definition of Terms: Scope of the practice of Landscape Architecture refers to the act of planning, designing, specifying, supervising and giving general administration and responsible direction to functional, orderly, and aesthetic arrangements, changing and development of natural scenery and land areas to produce the most desirable effect for human use and enjoyment of various outdoor spaces which consist of landscape components and the soft scape of plants such as gardens, sports fields, playgrounds, recreational grounds, camping sites, resorts national and public parks, historical parks, squares, memorial parks, subdivisions, parks and parkways, zoological and easements and circles, roof and open interior gardens and courts, and other open spaces, the protection, conservation and rehabilitation of the natural environment and scenery and quality of life such as, but not limited to...

an act regulating the practice of landscape architecture in the

Aspects to be considered 1. cultural environment people/ human use 2. natural environment land *soft scaping 5-12% *hard scaping 88-95%

Basic Guiding Principle in Landscape Architecture

1. Aesthetics usually pleasing 2. Function insulation against heat and etc.

*not just planting, site planning as a whole and enhancement of the ecological system

THE NATURE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Nature Dependent upon both an understanding of and sensitivity for all the natural sciences. Landscape Architects are poised as forerunners in a world faced wit environmental challenges of great complexity and scope.

Natural Sciences

1. Geology - can play a major role in planning and design decisions,

brother of Landscape Architecture 2. Urban Geology 3. Seismic hazards 4. Engineering Geology 5. Geomorphology *Garett Eckbo core of the pioneers

Craft Landscape Architecture is a profession that is dedicated to the preservations and promotion of a tradition of craftsmanship. As a discipline engaged in creating the built environment, this craft is embodied in the process of envisioning new forms and places.

Technology 1. 2. 3. 4. Geographic Information Systems Computer Aided Design Digital Photography Visual Simulation

Culture Cultural awareness is even more significant as a factor in successful design, it should be culturally adapted.

Professionalism 1. 2. 3. 4. LA is a trained profession, serving the public in a variety of roles planner designer implementer supervisor one of the most diversified of the design profession

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

coordinating teams of design, construction, and contracting professional. design professions design and etc. government permits, laws and codes private entities - funds social and natural earth sciences - research contractors to build the demand: only 200++ registered La

The Practice - it is professionalized and regulated, the standard is maintained and monitored - RA 9053; a separate board which is an act of regulating the practice of Landscape Architecture in the Philippines. - I.P. Santos is the National Artist for Landscape Architecture Draw what you see not what you think you see...

PREHISTORIC LANDSCAPES Palaeolithic Mesolithic Neolithic old stone age middle stone age new stone age

man hunt food then learned to grow food, this beginning of agriculture. Beginning of Landscape forms that are in circular design themes. Domestication of animals, crops, and its origins, predation for survival. Glacial epoch made it possible for the graving of developed settlements due to agriculture, 1 basic and geometric man versus food crops unit = 1 family

civilizations occurred: Fertile Crescent, especially around areas of vegetation , rich soil and water supply.

Ritualistic Connections worship of spirits and diverse nonhuman legends paganism, nature and fertility Goddesses design of boulders

Cosmological Connections

- connected with farming (ex. Calendars, sun dials, stone henges). - reference with the sun, stars, and constellations, solstice and

Equinox Prehistoric Facts


barrow burying the dead, value for after life pyramids Egyptians Churches' megalith menhir used to measure, reference to sun, stars, etc..., world heritage society, belived to be inhabited by souls stone henges post and lintel/ column and beam construction

BRONZE AGE / AGRICULTURAL AGE experimenting them and what belongs to their neighbours, simple tools.

ownership and property lines; creating boundaries, what belongs to advent of agriculture: formation of proper congregative civilizations

ANCIENT WORLD the environment and culture are factors that determine the outcome of a landscape form or design.

EGYPTIAN GARDEN STYLES ex. Hatchepsut's Mortuary

rectilinear design which was dictated by religious possessionis Bilateral symmetry which has strong effects of straight lines, strong
axis should always have symmetry , dictates rectangles. plants, easiest to construct.

Practicality of lines fastest and most efficient way to irrigate Plant Selection 1. sycamore trees 2. date palms 3. figs
ex. Pyramids and other Monumental Structures

Monumental Scale dictated by their belief in the afterlife Nature of Man focusing on the vertical structure when in place

full of horizontal elements and vice versa.

Cosmological Connections position are related to cosmology


ex. Ziggurat

rectilinear design influenced by practicality and agriculture walled design walls enclose open garden space

arches one of the first to use arches to support mass

ex. Hanging Gardens of Babylon

vegetation as luxury items water, vegetation and ease of access became a luxury item paradise originally a term pertaining to the garden of Eden or Heaven. Hunting park the structure has a system of walkways for leisure purposes. It also houses several plants and animals. Deck landscape design technique to hold plant life in elevated areas ex. Babylon City

organic design The arrangement of structures in the city are shapes

and forms which were meant to be natural. Babylon started to create angles between structures and significance.

hierarchy the height of the buildings in the city implies its status four rivers of heaven inspired by some religious beliefs. Foundations
of quadelateral symmetry PERSIAN Offshoot of Mesopotamian way of life geometric designs, quadelateral symmetry, paradise gardens/ lush plant material, enclosed within walls Complete idealization of the world as a Paradise Garden The idea originated from Samaria which was brought to Greece, Rome and the rest of Europe. The idea was then carried to India by Mug Hal empire and to Spain by the Moors (Africans). The design of the Paradise Garden is well defined in Koran.

Persian Culture is a synthesis of Assyrian, Egyptian, Ionian, and

Greek cultures. Ultimately, Persian dominance was ended by Alexander the Great. Moorish Style the Persian design is the origin of the Moorish style in Spain 1_Saudi Arabia >> 2_Rest of Middle East & NE Africa >> 3_India, Asia, and North Africa >> 4_Spain >> 5_Americas ex. Jhadon Bagh water stairs

water channels pioneers of creating a system to collect water

ex. Taj Mahal of Sha Jahan

water features water channels were expanded to mirror the image of Taj Mahal. Persians pioneered the use of water fountains and features.


polytheistic religion Belief in the Greek gods and goddesses greatly influenced the Greek landscape. Religious symbols and images were a great part of their design expression. Extensive use of colonnades Acropolis referred to as the high city. Is made up of religious centres, public parks, and various other outstanding structures. Use of Standards Greeks started to standardized aesthetics through the use of golden section, golden mean, theory of proportion as they were perfectionists. Lacks Contribution to Ornamental Horticulture Although Greece was the birthplace for many of the arts of the western world, it made few contributions to Ornamental Horticulture.

ex. Nympheum

water basins water basins were used to collect water from nearby sources grottos gardens sacred to the Nymphs

ex. Adonis Garden

courtyard garden standard a marker for what makes a courtyard garden, Greek similar to nypheum, it consists of a simple fountain or water basin adorned with flowering plants ex. Acropolis of Olympus, Acropolis of Miletus

agora is a city market place or civic center that lay at the foot of the acropolis. It contains structures for Government buildings, theatres and etc. organic design / plan forms layout of Agora, contrasting the layout of colonial settlements which is rectilinear planned colonial settlements uses the Hippodamian method, codified by Hippodamus, the greek city planner, which incorporates the use of cross axial roads that divided the city in blocks. sacred groves Places in their natural condition imbued with Sacred significance such as worship. It is the main setting for the Academy. ex. Peristyle Courts

early recreational center setting for sports, and events. Beginnings of public parks / gardens inspiration usually a place for philosophers and the like. Rectangular, linear, bilateral symmetry evokes strong formal connections. Perystilon ex. Academy

- gymnasium Evolved from the natural setting in sacred groves to a

formal complex facility for developing the mind and body

- xystus meaning smooth, and describes a place for exercise. In the

gardens of Pompeii, the xystus was a place for horticulture.


practical landscapes influenced by needs and interests of the highly

civilized Roman Empire, especially when dealing with their foes from Eastern Europe and Byzantine(Visigoths, Vikings, Huns, Scots, Franks, Saxons, Angles)

aqueducts water canals used for transportation civic forums and roman urban forums

open spaces is an expansive rectangular space surrounded by colonnades and big structures roads layers of roads in grid iron pattern which we still practice today. It was used extensively for ease of military operations.

Roman/Italian Villas Getaway house The Roman villa was the main residence of many
wealthy citizens who chanced living outside the cities protection for the added comfort of space

Unified design and Vertical structures Italian villas used

vertical structures such as trellises with vines and the more common colonnades as transition elements to unify their vistas, gardens and their villa. air.

Atrium Atriums were enclosed peristyle courts open to light and Villa urbana is where the owner and his family lived. This
would be similar to the wealthy-person in the city and would have painted walls. It had adaptations from Persian plan forms. and lived. This was also the living quarters for the farm's animals. There would usually be other rooms here that might be used as store rooms, a hospital and even a prison.

Villa rustica is where the staff and slaves of the villa worked

Cooling/Heating system Villas were often plumbed with running

water and many would have had under-floor central heating known as a hypocaust.

Pleasure Gardens

Entertainment, relaxation and rejuvenation The overlying idea

of a pleasure garden was for relaxation and rejuvenation. Owners would also use these spaces to entertain their guests with an abundance of fruits, vegetables and wine. beautiful features and breathtaking views.

Kitchen garden their gardens were useful to provide banquets Vistas. Pleasure gardens showcase the landscape with many

CHRISTIAN EUROPE Middle Ages/ Le Moyan Ages

Feudalism is a land-tenant-overlord relationship. Land baronies exists. Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defence in warfare and military bases. During the middle ages these fortifications saved tenants from the barbarians who randomly attack people. Gothic Romanesque overpowers people by using its monumental size; signifies the strength of the church; Serves as transition to Renaissance.

Ex. Walls of Dubrovnik, Croatia; Walls of Carcassonne

- City Wall/ Defensive Wall is a fortification used to defend a city or

settlement from potential aggressors and at the same time enclose settlements.

- Protection Cities were protected by simple stone walls and more

usually by a combination of both walls and ditches.

- Composition A simple defensive wall consists of a wall enclosure and

its gates. More complicated walls may have accessible top walls, additional parapets and towers.

- Internal and External Pomoerium. This was a strip of clear ground

immediately inside or outside the wall.

- Moats A moat was a common addition to make the walls harder to assail
and increasing their effective height. Natural water paths were used as moats, and often extended through ditches to surround as much of the fortification as possible.

- Field Fortifications Medieval Engineers used a number of obstacle

types including abatis, caltrops, cheval de frise, and trou de loop. Ex. Harbour of Wales, Fortification of Oradea, Romania

- Water use and access Harbours or some sort of water access was often
essential to the construction of medieval fortification. Having direct access to a body of water provided a route for resupply in times of war, an additional method of transportation in times of peace, and potential drinking water for a besieged castle or fortification. Ex. Knockgaffor Motte, Windsor Castle, Lewis Castle, Lincoln Castle

- Earthwork Motte and Bailey is a form of castle situated on a raised

earthwork and surrounded by a protective fence. It is favoured as a relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel most small attacks.

- Motte is a mound, often artificial, topped with a wooden or stone

structure known as a keep. The earth for the mound would be taken from a ditch, dug around the motte or around the whole castle.

- Bailey A bailey is an enclosed courtyard, typically surrounded by a

wooden fence called a palisade which would be overlooked by the motte. Ex. Garden of Saint Gall, Palazzetto del Giardino di San Marco

- Monastic horticulture design of art, primarily medicinal plants. - Hortus Conclusus is a Latin term, meaning literally "enclosed
garden". Typically, had a well or fountain at the center, bearing its usual symbolic freight (Fountain of Life) in addition to its practical uses.

- Fountain of Life The symbol is usually shown as a fountain enclosed

in a hexagonal structure capped by a rounded dome and supported by eight columns.

- Four Rivers of Heaven The convention of four paths that divided the
square enclosure into quadrants, was so strong that the pattern was employed even where the paths led nowhere.

- Vertical Enclosures The enclosure might be as simple as woven wattle

fencing or of stout or decorative masonry; or it might be enclosed by trelliswork tunnelled pathways in a secular garden or by an arcaded cloister, for communication or meditative pacing.

- Cloisters The origin of the cloister is in the Roman colonnaded

peristyle, also resembling the Persian Garden style and the Greeks atrium. Ex. Piazza della Signoria Florence, Piazza di San Pietro Vatican City

- With the collapse of the Roman empire, the onset of the Middle Ages
and the all but complete burial of the Forum Romanum there began emerging apparently on its own terms and without reliance on Roman tradition, the unpremeditated, unaffected, seemingly accidental medieval town square or piazza

- Large open spaces usually located inside monasteries and castles. - Public Space It became a center for political, cultural, religious
events for all sorts of people. Geometric Design

Ex. Monastery and Castle Complexes

- Lush vegetation were brought by crusades and the Turks for courtyard
design Geometric Design

Water fountains adapted statues Heavy structures needed massive walls for support.


Moors Muslims from North Africa invaded Spain to establish their own caliphate. Islamic Spain enjoyed the influences of other Muslim lands. They incorporated many of these pioneering ideas into their own society and soon became a center of innovation for both material culture and the sciences. Al Andalus Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to the parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Arab and North African. - Hispano-Arab Gardens the Arabs made sure to emphasize a strong Arab culture in al-Andalus and gardens and architecture were a personification of this attempt. This meant that gardens in Spain would have embodied some Spanish- Christian, Roman, and even possibly Jewish ideas that had been transformed into an Islamic layout, specifically the bagh type from Persia.

Cordoba Extension of the al-Andalus beyond the Iberian Peninsula. It is a result of the rise of the first Spanish Caliph, al-Rahman III. This caliphate strengthened its inner peninsular and established commercial routes with the rest of Europe.

Ex. Qal'at al-Hamra, Alhambra, Granada

- Topography because of the red clay found in the area, is a fortified

complex situated on a hill called Sabikah overlooking Granada

- Inter-penetration of landscape and architecture. There is an

indistinguishable relationship between inside and out.

- Definitive space. Halls, porticoes, arcades and patios lead one into
another. The patios with their fountains, flowers and cypresses are rooms open to the air. The rooms with their wide arches open to the view, their plants in tubs and again their fountains are gardens roofed over. Ex. Court of Myrtles

- Organic Layout and columns remnants of Christian, Greek and Roman

plan forms

- Maximum Ventilation Open Courts, no closed rooms. Air-conditioning

through many water features. The evaporating water has cooling effect.

- Additional Water Features. Low fountains and water jokes were added.
There was also a water system powered by gravity and some locks and

gates. Nozzles were invented to make fountain effects. Several wide reflecting pools were introduced to European design.

- Court of the Lions The iconic court of the lions of the Muslims was
introduced as elements in the Spanish landscape. Ex. Court of Oranges

- Modified four rivers four rivers became walkways and in-between

spaces were used for orange trees. It was also used as a system of irrigation.


Renaissance denotes the transition from that period of history which we call the Middle Ages (q.v.) to that which we call modern. It was a rebirth; signify the entrance of the European nations having a fuller consciousness and a freer exercise of faculties than had belonged to the medieval period Leon Battista Alberti was known as the father of modern architecture. He contributed to the development of architectural styles in the Renaissance. Renaissance Garden

- Central Axis controls the layout of the house and garden.

Relationships between elements are usually through a straight line.

- Elevations. Gardens integrated a series of rectangular enclosures

with terraces and different levels. Flights of steps, alcoves, niches and fountains were disposed in relation to the axis.

- Embellishments. Spaces were decorated with statues, fountains and

terracotta pots holding flowers and fruit trees, still inrelation to the axis.

- Open Spaces were encouraged for recreation, walking, swimming, and

other diversions such as courtyards, grass plots and porticoes.

- Vistas. Gardens need to have a view of some city, the sea, the open
plain. Gardens began to look outward, physically and intellectually. Late Baroque Gardens

- Rococo is an 18th century style which developed as Baroque artists

gave up their symmetry and became increasingly more ornate, florid, and playful. Diagonals away from Horizontals

- Exuberance and over-elaboration. It was a flamboyant and sensual

period. Some critics used the term to derogatively imply that the style was frivolous or merely modish.

- Stones, porcelain and shells were widely used as design inspirations

for artists. Rococo is seen as a combination of the French rocaille, meaning stone, and coquilles, meaning shell.

- Sculpture. this style was best expressed through delicate porcelain

sculpture rather than imposing marble statues. The themes of love and gaiety were reflected in sculpture, as were elements of nature, curving lines and asymmetry.

- False Perspective Paintings tried to show depth to 2 dimensional


FRENCH GRAND STYLE Andr Le Ntre was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. His work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin la franaise.