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106, 335–347, 2010
PLASMONIC RESONANT LIGHT SCATTERING BY A
CYLINDER WITH RADIAL ANISOTROPY
Y. W. Jin, D. L. Gao, and L. Gao
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Thin Films
Department of Physics
Soochow University
Suzhou 215006, China
Abstract—We apply the fullwave electromagnetic theory to study
electromagnetic scattering by a small cylindrical particle with radial
anisotropy for normally incident light with transverse magnetic (TM)
polarization. The scattering coeﬃcients are derived, when the radial
anisotropies in both the permittivity and permeability tensors are
taken into account. It is shown that the surface and volume plasmon
resonances can be identiﬁed by the sign of dε
t
/dq, in which ε
t
is the
permittivity element in a direction tangential to the local raxis, and
q is the size parameter. The near ﬁeld distributions for surface and
volume modes are illustrated by ﬁnite element method. It is found
that small changes of anisotropy can aﬀect the scattering eﬃciencies
signiﬁcantly. Moreover, the quadrupole and octupole resonant peaks
may be much higher and sharper than those of dipole resonance in the
scattering eﬃciency spectra.
1. INTRODUCTION
Light scattering by a small particle is one of the most fundamental
problems in electrodynamics [1, 2]. Nowadays it attracts much
attention because of the development of the transformation optics [3, 4],
which can reroute the light without scattering in the presence of
the object according to the invariance of the Maxwell’s equations.
Analytical methods based on Maxwell’s equations have been used
to reveal the nature of invisibility cloaks and characterize the wave
interaction [5, 6]. Those cloaks are usually made of radially anisotropic
Received 6 June 2010, Accepted 16 July 2010, Scheduled 26 July 2010
Corresponding author: L. Gao (leigao@suda.edu.cn).
336 Jin, Gao, and Gao
and inhomogeneous materials. Later, spherical cloaks with isotropic
multilayer structure were also investigated [7–9]. On the other hand,
the localized surface plasmon resonance related to nanoscale metal
particles is another key topic in light scattering, which may lead to
potential applications in information processing, nanotechnology and
engineering [10].
Generally, for spherical particles with the size much smaller
than the incident wavelength, Rayleigh theory based on the dipole
approximation can be adopted to study the light scattering. However,
for a small sphere with weak dissipation near plasmon resonant
frequencies, based on the Mie fullwave electromagnetic theory [11–
14], the scattering can strongly deviate from Rayleigh scattering
and is characterized by very anomalous properties [1, 15, 16]. These
anomalous properties include sharp giant optical resonances, enhanced
scattering cross sections, complicated energy circulation, the increase
of extinction cross section with increasing the order of resonance, etc.
More recently, enhanced scattering eﬃciencies for spherical particles
with weakly dissipating anisotropic materials were investigated n
Refs. [17, 18].
For small cylindrical nanowire, similar light scattering was
predicted according to fullwave electromagnetic solution [19]. In
general, for a small isotropic cylinder with the permittivity ε, the
excitation of the corresponding surface localized electromagnetic mode
takes place under the resonant condition ε = −ε
h
(ε
h
is the
permittivity of the surrounding medium). In other words, when the
frequency of the eigenmode equals the one for the incident light, the
localized surface plasmons can be emitted.
In this paper, we will focus on the light scattering by a
radially anisotropic cylinder embedded in free space. The radial
anisotropy here means that the permittivity tensor
↔
ε is diagonal
in cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z), and the dielectric element along
the radial direction diﬀers from the one along tangential direction.
In this situation, the permittivity (or/and permeability) tensor(s)
of the material are homogeneous and anisotropic in cylindrical
coordinates, which are distinguished from those inhomogeneous
parameters designed from coordinate transformation [3, 4]. In addition,
radial anisotropy is also diﬀerent from the Cartesian anisotropy [20, 21].
If one transfers the permittivity (or/and permeability) tensor(s) from
the cylindrical coordinates to Cartesian coordinates, the parameters
would be tensors as well. Moreover, the elements in the 3 × 3
matrix would all depend on the positions (x, y, z), and there are also
oﬀdiagonal elements in the matrix. Actually, such special radial
anisotropy can be realized by graphitic multishell structures [22],
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 2010 337
spherically stratiﬁed medium [23]. We note that a system of
anisotropic layers, which consist of closely packed uniform cylinders
with permittivity tensor under Cartesian coordinates, was studied
as an optical model of the eye cornea [24]. Here we would like
to establish the fullwave electromagnetic theory for the radially
anisotropic cylinders and investigate the resonant scattering in detail.
Now we turn to the body of the paper. In Section 2, we
obtain the wave equations for the cylinder with both dielectric and
magnetic anisotropies. The scattering coeﬃcients are determined by
the boundary conditions, and the farﬁeld solution is given. Numerical
and simulation results for both farﬁeld and nearﬁeld are shown in
Section 3. The paper ends with a conclusion in Section 4.
2. FORMALISM
We consider the electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering from a radially
anisotropic cylinder with radius a as shown in Fig. 1. For simplicity,
our analysis is for the normal incidence, i.e., the wave vector k
is perpendicular to the z axis. And the EM wave is assumed
to have transverse magnetic (TM) polarization, i.e., the magnetic
ﬁeld only exists in the z direction. The constitutive tensors of the
relative permittivity and permeability inside the cylindrical domain
are expressed as in cylindrical coordinates,
↔
ε =
ε
r
0 0
0 ε
t
0
0 0 ε
z
and
↔
µ =
µ
r
0 0
0 µ
t
0
0 0 µ
z
, (1)
where ε
r
(µ
r
) and ε
t
(µ
t
) stand for the permittivity (permeability)
elements in a direction parallel (perpendicular or tangential) to the
local raxis, respectively, and ε
z
(µ
z
) corresponds to the element in
Figure 1. Geometry of an anisotropic cylinder. The incident wave
propagates in the direction of k.
338 Jin, Gao, and Gao
a direction parallel to z axis [25]. For a harmonic electromagnetic
wave, the time dependence is assumed to be ∼ e
−iωt
. With Maxwell
equations, the timeindependent parts of local electric and magnetic
ﬁelds are written as
∇×H = −iωε
0
↔
εE and ∇×E = iωµ
0
↔
µH. (2)
In the cylindrical coordinates, Eq. (2) becomes
1
r
∂H
z
∂θ
−
∂H
θ
∂z
= −iωε
0
ε
r
E
r
,
∂H
r
∂z
−
∂H
z
∂r
= −iωε
0
ε
t
E
θ
,
1
r
∂
∂r
(rH
θ
) −
1
r
∂H
r
∂θ
= −iωε
0
ε
z
E
z
,
(3)
and
1
r
∂E
z
∂θ
−
∂E
θ
∂z
= iωµ
0
µ
r
H
r
,
∂E
r
∂z
−
∂E
z
∂r
= iωµ
0
µ
t
H
θ
,
1
r
∂
∂r
(rE
θ
) −
1
r
∂E
r
∂θ
= iωµ
0
µ
z
H
z
.
(4)
For TM mode, we have H
θ
= 0 and H
r
= 0. As a consequence,
Eq. (3) is simpliﬁed as
E
r
= −
1
iωε
0
ε
r
1
r
∂H
z
∂θ
,
E
θ
=
1
iωε
0
ε
t
∂H
z
∂r
,
E
z
= 0.
(5)
From Eq. (5), we have
1
r
¸
∂
∂r
r
ε
t
∂H
z
∂r
+
1
r
2
∂
∂θ
1
ε
r
∂H
z
∂θ
+ k
2
0
µ
z
H
z
= 0. (6)
If we separate variables by using H
z
= Ψ(r)Θ(θ), Eq. (6) can be
decomposed into
d
2
Θ
dθ
2
+ m
2
Θ = 0, (7)
and
d
2
Ψ
dr
2
+ r
dΨ
dr
+
k
2
0
ε
t
µ
z
r
2
−m
2
ε
t
ε
r
Ψ = 0, (8)
where m is an integer. It is evident that the solution to Eq. (7) is
e
imθ
, and Eq. (8) is a secondorder homogeneous diﬀerential equation
for Ψ. For the incident TM wave, the ﬁeld H
z
can be expanded as
H
z
=
∞
¸
m=−∞
(i)
m
J
m
(k
0
r)e
imθ
. Then, the local ﬁeld solutions in the
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 2010 339
inner and outer regions of the cylinder are described as,
H
in
z
=
∞
¸
m=−∞
i
m
A
m
J
m
(kr)e
imθ
, r < a, (9)
H
out
z
=
∞
¸
m=−∞
i
m
[J
m
(k
0
r) + B
m
H
(1)
m
(k
0
r)]e
imθ
, r > a, (10)
where m
2
= m
2
ε
t
/ε
r
, k = k
0
√
ε
t
µ
t
and k
0
= ω
√
ε
0
µ
0
. In addition,
J
m
is mthorder Bessel function, and H
(1)
m
is the Hankel function of
the ﬁrst kind which represents the outwardtraveling cylindrical wave.
Physically, J
m
and H
(1)
m
terms for r > a correspond to the incident
and scattered waves respectively. To solve the scattering problem,
the amplitudes A
m
and B
m
now become the most important issue.
According to the continuous boundary conditions for E
θ
and H
z
at
r = a, we obtain,
B
m
= −
√
ε
t
µ
z
J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)J
m
(q) −µ
z
J
m
(q)J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)
√
ε
t
µ
z
J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)H
(1)
m
(q) −µ
z
J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)H
(1)
m
(q)
. (11)
Here, we introduce a size parameter q = k
0
a. Unlike the situation in
isotropic case [19], the coeﬃcient for anisotropic case is asymmetrical,
i.e., B
−m
= B
m
. Incidentally, it is evident that the scattering
coeﬃcient B
m
reduces to the isotropic case by replacing ε
r
(ε
t
) and
µ
z
(µ
t
) with ε and µ, respectively [11].
For the case of far ﬁeld, the scattering eﬃciency of a circular
cylinder can be expressed by B
m
[11, 14, 15, 19],
Q
sca
=
2
q
∞
¸
m=−∞
B
m

2
. (12)
To explain the optical plasmon resonances, let us express the
amplitude as B
m
= −
m
/(
m
+ i
m
) [1], and we have
m
=
√
ε
t
µ
z
J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)J
m
(q) −µ
z
J
m
(q)J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q), (13)
m
=
√
ε
t
µ
z
J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)Y
m
(q) −µ
z
J
m
(
√
ε
t
µ
z
q)Y
m
(q), (14)
where Y
m
is Neumann function. The exact optical resonance
corresponds to the situation when
m
= 0, which leads to the
scattering coeﬃcient B
m
 = 1. For simplicity, the material is assumed
to be nonmagnetic, i.e., µ
z
= 1. As a consequence, the solutions for
equation
m
= 0 are only relative to dielectric anisotropy ε
r
and ε
t
.
In longwavelength limit k
0
a 1 and k
0
a
√
ε
t
µ
z
1, one can
resort to eﬀective medium theory. In this situation, the eﬀective
scattering width of the cylinder is determined by m = 0 and
340 Jin, Gao, and Gao
m = 1 terms [26, 27]. Note that for incident TM wave, the
eﬀective permittivity and permeability are still isotropic for radial
anisotropy [28, 29]. To search for the eﬀective responses for the radially
anisotropic cylinder, one always assumes that the cylinder is embedded
in an eﬀective medium with isotropic eﬀective permittivity ε
eﬀ
and
permeability µ
eﬀ
. In this sense, we replace ε
0
and µ
0
with ε
eﬀ
and
µ
eﬀ
, and they can be determined when B
0
and B
1
vanish. It requires
k
0
J
0
(ka)J
0
(k
0
a) −
1
ε
t
kJ
0
(k
0
a)J
0
(ka) = 0, (15)
and
k
0
J
ν
(ka)J
1
(k
0
a) −
1
ε
t
kJ
1
(k
0
a)J
ν
(ka) = 0, (16)
here ν =
ε
t
/ε
r
. Under the condition that k
0
a 1 and k
0
aε
t
µ
z
1,
we can use the following approximation:
J
0
(x)
∼
= 1, J
0
(x)
∼
= −x/2, J
1
(x)
∼
=
x
2
, J
1
(x)
∼
=
1
2
, as x →0
As a result, we have
µ
eﬀ
= 1 and ε
eﬀ
=
√
ε
r
√
ε
t
. (17)
By considering the equivalence to the isotropy case, for q →0, we ﬁnd
that the surface resonant condition tends to be
√
ε
r
√
ε
t
= −1, i.e.,
ε
t
= 1/ε
r
for negative ε
r
.
3. THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS
According to above theoretical analysis, the exact plasmon resonance
appears when
m
= 0, which results in real and ﬁnite values B
m
 = 1
at the resonance frequencies in both isotropic and anisotropic cases [15–
17, 19]. For a metallic cylinder, there are two diﬀerent branches
of optical resonances [15, 19]. The ﬁrst branch is for broad volume
resonances, which associates with the excitation of volume waves from
the cylindrical cavity (we call them volume modes). The other branch
appears at small size parameters, which is associated with excitation
of surface plasmons. Thus, we call them surface plasmon resonances
or surface modes.
For TM polarization on the anisotropic cylinder, when ε
t
< 0, all
amplitudes tend to zero at small size parameters q for monopole mode
m = 0 and they tend to 1 at certain large q, which characterizes the
volume resonances (see Fig. 2(a)). However, for dipole mode m = 1,
in addition to the volume resonances at large q, the surface plasmon
resonances arise at small q, which are extremely sharp (see Fig. 2(b)).
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 2010 341
As a matter of fact, the surface modes take place for all m > 0 modes
such as dipole, quadrupole, octopole, etc. From Fig. 2(b), we can also
observe that the dielectric anisotropy has more inﬂuence on surface
plasmon resonances than on volume resonances. For instance, the
(a) (b)
Figure 2. Amplitudes B
m
versus size parameter q for ε
r
= −1. (a)
For monopole mode m = 0, the amplitude B
0
only has one peak for
large q, which corresponds to the volume resonance. (b) For dipole
mode m = 1, B
1
has two resonant peaks. One at small q is related to
surface plasmon resonance, and the other at large q is for the volume
resonance. Note that the red dashed line is for the isotropic case in
both two ﬁgures.
(a) (b)
Figure 3. Scattered magnetic ﬁeld distribution. The radius of
the cylinder is 50 nm, and the plane wave propagates from left to
right. ε
r
= −1 and ε
t
= −1.1. (a) The incident Wavelength
λ = 2.165 × 10
−6
m, i.e., q = 0.145 for the surface resonant mode;
(b) λ = 2.9 ×10
−7
m, or q = 1.08 for the volume resonance.
342 Jin, Gao, and Gao
corresponding q of the surface plasmon resonances increases with the
decrease of ε
t
, while the positions of volume resonances move to smaller
q slightly. In other words, for surface modes, we have dε
t
/dq < 0, while
dε
t
/dq > 0 for volume modes. By using the COMSOL Multiphysics
based on ﬁnite element method, we simulate the nearﬁeld scattered
magnetic ﬁeld distribution in the vicinity of the optical resonance. For
surface modes, the ﬁeld is enhanced in the forward and backward
directions of light propagation, which are localized on the particle
surface, as shown in Fig. 3(a); while for the volume modes, the ﬁeld
distributes around the whole cylinder, as shown in Fig. 3(b).
In order to further investigate volume and surface modes, we plot
the trajectories of the resonances on the plane of parameters {ε
t
, q}
in Fig. 4. According to the sign of dε
t
/dq, one can easily identify the
surface plasmon resonant modes and volume resonant modes. Again,
we ﬁnd that there are no surface resonances in monopole modes, while
volume modes and surfaces modes coexist for the modes m ≥ 1. At
q → 0, these resonances occur at ε
t
= 1/ε
r
, which is diﬀerent from
the condition for isotropic cylinder ε = −1 and the one ε = ε
m
=
−(m + 1)/m for spherical particle [15]. The condition
√
ε
t
√
ε
t
= 1
can be analytically derived from eﬀective medium theory, which has
been discussed in Section 2. From Fig. 4, we again demonstrate that
only volume resonances occur at large q for ε
t
< 0 and m = 0 mode,
and both surface plasmon resonances and volume resonances may exist
under the condition ε
t
< 1/ε
r
for m ≥ 1.
In what follows, we study the scattering eﬃciencies Q
sca
as a
function of q for diﬀerent ε
t
in Fig. 5. A small variation of anisotropy
Figure 4. The trajectories of optical resonances for m = 0, 1, 2, and
3 by solving the equation
m
= 0. Volume modes exist in all orders,
while surface modes vanish for the monopole case m = 0. Solid lines
are for ε
r
= −1, which merge at ε
t
= −1 for the cases m ≥ 1; and
dashed lines are for ε
r
= −1.2.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 2010 343
(a) (b)
Figure 5. Scattering eﬃciencies Q
sca
versus size parameter q for
ε
r
= −1 and diﬀerent values of ε
t
. (a) For 1/ε
r
< ε
t
< 0, only volume
modes exist. (b) For ε
t
< 1/ε
r
, both volume and surface modes exist.
(a) (b)
Figure 6. Spectral dependencies of scattering eﬃciencies for various
q. (a) q = 0.05 and (b) q = 0.2.
parameter leads to quite diﬀerent scattering eﬃciencies. One can
observe that for ε
t
> 1/ε
r
(see Fig. 5(a)), the peaks for each resonance
are not very sharp. This is due to the fact that only volume resonances
occur in this range (see in Fig. 4). On the other hand, one can see
new multiple resonances with ε
t
< 1/ε
r
in Fig. 5(b), which have
sharp resonance peaks. There are multiple peaks corresponding to
diﬀerent resonant orders and size parameter q. Note that the dramatic
change of the Q
sca
spectrum from Fig. 5(a) to 5(b) is caused by small
variation in anisotropy parameter. Therefore, a small variation in the
344 Jin, Gao, and Gao
radial anisotropy may result in enhancing or prohibiting scattering
eﬃciencies.
In the end, for the sake of the discussion about inﬂuence of the
radial anisotropy, we discuss the relation between Q
sca
and ε
t
. From
Fig. 6, we ﬁnd that for q = 0.2, the quadrupole and octupole resonances
are not suppressed as expected, instead, the corresponding resonant
peaks may be much higher than that of dipole resonance. Moreover,
the quadrupolar and octupolar peaks in the spectrum Q
sca
versus
anisotropy parameter ε
t
are extremely sharp (see Fig. 6(b)). This can
be related to the anomalous light scattering due to weak dissipation
and at surface plasmon resonances [15].
4. CONCLUSION
We establish the fullwave electromagnetic wave theory to investigate
the properties of the light scattering from a radially anisotropic
cylinder. It is found that the scattering eﬃciency is dramatically
aﬀected by the radial anisotropy especially near the surface plasmon
resonance. When ε
t
<
1
ε
r
, the surface plasmon resonances may arise
at small q for m ≥ 1, while volume resonances may occur at large
q. Volume modes and surface modes can be identiﬁed by the sign
of dε
t
/dq. In addition, for the scattering eﬃciency spectrum with
q 1, the quadrupole and octupole resonant peaks may be much
higher and sharper than that of dipole resonance. The study of optical
scattering and nearﬁeld spectra by nanocylinders may be important
for various modern applications such as plasmonic nanolithography,
astigmatic optical tweezers, nearﬁeld optical microscopy, nonlinear
optics in nanowires, etc. [19]. In addition, the sensitivity of farﬁeld
quantities such as the scattering eﬃciency to the radial anisotropy may
be used for several potential applications including remote controlling,
designing sensors, and enhancing the quality of confocal laser scanning
microscopy images [30], etc.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Dr. ChengWei Qiu for his stimulating suggestions and
comments. This work was supported by the Key Project in Science
and Technology Innovation Cultivation Program of Soochow University
and the Plan of Dongwu Scholar.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 2010 345
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Vol. 51, 671–679, 1995.
22. Lucas, A. A., L. Henrard, and Ph. Lambin, “Computation of
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1994.
23. Sten, J. C. E., “DC ﬁelds and analytical image solutions for a
radially anisotropic spherical conductor,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr.
Electr. Insul., Vol. 2, 360–367, 1995.
24. Izotova, V. F., I. L. Maksimova, I. S. Nefedov, and S. V. Romanov,
“Investigation of Mueller matrices of anisotropic nonhomogeneous
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25. Henrard, L. and P. Lambin, “Calculation of the eneregy loss for
an electron passing near giant fullerenes,” J. Phys. B, Vol. 29,
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medium theory for magnetodielectric composites: Beyond the
longwavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 74, 085111, 2006.
27. Gao, L., T. H. Fung, K. W. Yu, and C. W. Qiu, “Electromagnetic
transparency by coated spheres with radial anisotropy,” Phys.
Rev. E, Vol. 78, 046609, 2008.
28. Gao, L. and X. Yu, “Optical bistability in nonlinear mixtures of
coated inclusions with radial dielectric anisotropy,” Phys. Lett. A,
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 2010 347
Vol. 335, 457–463, 2005.
29. Yu, X. P. and L. Gao, “Nonlinear dielectric response in partially
resonant composites with radial dielectric anisotropy,” Phys. Lett.
A, Vol. 359, 516–522, 2006.
30. Lemelle, A., B. Veksler, I. S. Kozhevnikov, G. G. Akchurin,
S. A. Piletsky, and I. Meglinski, “Application of gold nanoparticles
as contrast agents in confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Laser
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which are distinguished from those inhomogeneous parameters designed from coordinate transformation [3. Later. such special radial anisotropy can be realized by graphitic multishell structures [22]. In general. The radial ↔ anisotropy here means that the permittivity tensor ε is diagonal in cylindrical coordinates (r. which may lead to potential applications in information processing. spherical cloaks with isotropic multilayer structure were also investigated [7–9]. For small cylindrical nanowire. the increase of extinction cross section with increasing the order of resonance. the scattering can strongly deviate from Rayleigh scattering and is characterized by very anomalous properties [1. complicated energy circulation. for spherical particles with the size much smaller than the incident wavelength. . In other words. z). [17. enhanced scattering cross sections. More recently. for a small sphere with weak dissipation near plasmon resonant frequencies. 15. y. In this situation. 18]. θ. the elements in the 3 × 3 matrix would all depend on the positions (x. the localized surface plasmons can be emitted. z). radial anisotropy is also diﬀerent from the Cartesian anisotropy [20. Moreover. 21]. enhanced scattering eﬃciencies for spherical particles with weakly dissipating anisotropic materials were investigated n Refs. the permittivity (or/and permeability) tensor(s) of the material are homogeneous and anisotropic in cylindrical coordinates. Rayleigh theory based on the dipole approximation can be adopted to study the light scattering.336 Jin. Generally. the parameters would be tensors as well. when the frequency of the eigenmode equals the one for the incident light. the localized surface plasmon resonance related to nanoscale metal particles is another key topic in light scattering. If one transfers the permittivity (or/and permeability) tensor(s) from the cylindrical coordinates to Cartesian coordinates. In addition. and there are also oﬀdiagonal elements in the matrix. and the dielectric element along the radial direction diﬀers from the one along tangential direction. Gao. nanotechnology and engineering [10]. the excitation of the corresponding surface localized electromagnetic mode takes place under the resonant condition ε = −εh (εh is the permittivity of the surrounding medium). we will focus on the light scattering by a radially anisotropic cylinder embedded in free space. based on the Mie fullwave electromagnetic theory [11– 14]. On the other hand. etc. for a small isotropic cylinder with the permittivity ε. These anomalous properties include sharp giant optical resonances. However. 16]. and Gao and inhomogeneous materials. similar light scattering was predicted according to fullwave electromagnetic solution [19]. 4]. Actually. In this paper.
For simplicity. i. Geometry of an anisotropic cylinder. the wave vector k is perpendicular to the z axis. And the EM wave is assumed to have transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. which consist of closely packed uniform cylinders with permittivity tensor under Cartesian coordinates. Here we would like to establish the fullwave electromagnetic theory for the radially anisotropic cylinders and investigate the resonant scattering in detail. respectively.Progress In Electromagnetics Research. ↔ ε= εr 0 0 0 εt 0 0 0 εz and ↔ µ= µr 0 0 0 µt 0 0 0 µz . our analysis is for the normal incidence. The constitutive tensors of the relative permittivity and permeability inside the cylindrical domain are expressed as in cylindrical coordinates. the magnetic ﬁeld only exists in the z direction. 1. i. In Section 2.. The incident wave propagates in the direction of k. Vol. The scattering coeﬃcients are determined by the boundary conditions. FORMALISM We consider the electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering from a radially anisotropic cylinder with radius a as shown in Fig. Now we turn to the body of the paper. The paper ends with a conclusion in Section 4.e. (1) where εr (µr ) and εt (µt ) stand for the permittivity (permeability) elements in a direction parallel (perpendicular or tangential) to the local raxis. Numerical and simulation results for both farﬁeld and nearﬁeld are shown in Section 3.. 106.e. 2010 337 spherically stratiﬁed medium [23]. we obtain the wave equations for the cylinder with both dielectric and magnetic anisotropies. 2. . and εz (µz ) corresponds to the element in Figure 1. was studied as an optical model of the eye cornea [24]. and the farﬁeld solution is given. We note that a system of anisotropic layers.
As a consequence. (5). For a harmonic electromagnetic wave. we have 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Hz εt ∂r + 1 ∂ r2 ∂θ 1 ∂Hz εr ∂θ 2 + k0 µz Hz = 0. Eq. r ∂r r ∂θ and ∂Eθ 1 ∂Ez r ∂θ − ∂z = iωµ0 µr Hr . ∂r 1∂z ∂ (rHθ ) − 1 ∂Hr = −iωε0 εz Ez . the time dependence is assumed to be ∼ e−iωt . It is evident that the solution to Eq. the timeindependent parts of local electric and magnetic ﬁelds are written as × H = −iωε0 ε E and ↔ × E = iωµ0 µH. (8) +r 2 dr dr εr where m is an integer. For the incident TM wave.338 Jin. ∂Er ∂Ez ∂z − ∂r = iωµ0 µt Hθ . (6) If we separate variables by using Hz = Ψ(r)Θ(θ). (3) is simpliﬁed as 1 Er = − iωε0 εr 1 ∂Hz . From Eq. (7) dθ2 and d2 Ψ εt dΨ 2 + k0 εt µz r2 − m2 Ψ = 0. Eq. (3) (4) For TM mode. Eq. With Maxwell equations. (6) can be decomposed into d2 Θ + m2 Θ = 0. (8) is a secondorder homogeneous diﬀerential equation for Ψ. we have Hθ = 0 and Hr = 0. (2) becomes 1 ∂Hz − ∂Hθ = −iωε0 εr Er . r ∂θ 1 (5) Eθ = iωε0 εt ∂Hz . and Eq. and Gao a direction parallel to z axis [25]. ∂r Ez = 0. the local ﬁeld solutions in the . Gao. (7) is eimθ . 1 ∂ 1 ∂Er r ∂r (rEθ ) − r ∂θ = iωµ0 µz Hz . Then. ↔ (2) In the cylindrical coordinates. r ∂θ ∂z ∂Hr − ∂Hz = −iωε0 εt Eθ . the ﬁeld Hz can be expanded as Hz = ∞ m=−∞ (i)m Jm (k0 r)eimθ .
2010 339 inner and outer regions of the cylinder are described as.Progress In Electromagnetics Research. (1) Physically.. Jm is mthorder Bessel function. √ √ √ (14) m = εt µz Jm ( εt µz q)Ym (q) − µz Jm ( εt µz q)Ym (q). For simplicity. √ √ where m 2 = m2 εt /εr . it is evident that the scattering coeﬃcient Bm reduces to the isotropic case by replacing εr (εt ) and µz (µt ) with ε and µ.e. µz = 1. √ In longwavelength limit k0 a 1 and k0 a εt µz 1. r < a. ∞ in Hz = m=−∞ ∞ im Am Jm (kr)eimθ . √ √ √ εt µz Jm ( εt µz q)Jm (q) − µz Jm (q)Jm ( εt µz q) Bm = − √ . 106. Unlike the situation in isotropic case [19]. (9) (10) out Hz = m=−∞ (1) im [Jm (k0 r) + Bm Hm (k0 r)]eimθ . i. For the case of far ﬁeld. where Ym is Neumann function. the solutions for equation m = 0 are only relative to dielectric anisotropy εr and εt . 15. i. r > a. the material is assumed to be nonmagnetic. the scattering eﬃciency of a circular cylinder can be expressed by Bm [11. we introduce a size parameter q = k0 a.e. we obtain. the eﬀective scattering width of the cylinder is determined by m = 0 and . Incidentally. B−m = Bm . let us express the amplitude as Bm = − m /( m + i m ) [1]. Vol. (11) √ √ (1) (1) εt µz Jm ( εt µz q)Hm (q) − µz Jm ( εt µz q)Hm (q) Here. According to the continuous boundary conditions for Eθ and Hz at r = a. one can resort to eﬀective medium theory. which leads to the scattering coeﬃcient Bm  = 1. respectively [11]. Qsca = 2 Bm 2 . the coeﬃcient for anisotropic case is asymmetrical. The exact optical resonance corresponds to the situation when m = 0. 19]. q m=−∞ ∞ (1) (12) To explain the optical plasmon resonances. the amplitudes Am and Bm now become the most important issue. and we have √ √ √ (13) m = εt µz Jm ( εt µz q)Jm (q) − µz Jm (q)Jm ( εt µz q). To solve the scattering problem.. k = k0 εt µt and k0 = ω ε0 µ0 . As a consequence. In addition. Jm and Hm terms for r > a correspond to the incident and scattered waves respectively. and Hm is the Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind which represents the outwardtraveling cylindrical wave. In this situation. 14.
when εt < 0. which is associated with excitation of surface plasmons. 27]. Under the condition that k0 a 1 and k0 aεt µz 1. (17) By considering the equivalence to the isotropy case. THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS According to above theoretical analysis. and Gao m = 1 terms [26. 19]. there are two diﬀerent branches of optical resonances [15. which results in real and ﬁnite values Bm  = 1 at the resonance frequencies in both isotropic and anisotropic cases [15– 17. the eﬀective permittivity and permeability are still isotropic for radial anisotropy [28. as x → 0 = = = = 2 2 As a result. J1 (x) ∼ . εt 1 kJ1 (k0 a)Jν (ka) = 0. 2(a)).e. To search for the eﬀective responses for the radially anisotropic cylinder. The other branch appears at small size parameters. It requires k0 J0 (ka)J0 (k0 a) − and k0 Jν (ka)J1 (k0 a) − 1 kJ0 (k0 a)J0 (ka) = 0. J1 (x) ∼ . we replace ε0 and µ0 with εeﬀ and µeﬀ . The ﬁrst branch is for broad volume resonances. 2(b)). we can use the following approximation: x 1 J0 (x) ∼ 1. . which are extremely sharp (see Fig. for dipole mode m = 1. one always assumes that the cylinder is embedded in an eﬀective medium with isotropic eﬀective permittivity εeﬀ and permeability µeﬀ . 3. εt (15) (16) here ν = εt /εr . Note that for incident TM wave. 29]. J0 (x) ∼ −x/2. for q → 0. For a metallic cylinder. εt = 1/εr for negative εr .340 Jin. the surface plasmon resonances arise at small q. which characterizes the volume resonances (see Fig. the exact plasmon resonance appears when m = 0.. and they can be determined when B0 and B1 vanish. we have √ √ µeﬀ = 1 and εeﬀ = εr εt . i. in addition to the volume resonances at large q. we ﬁnd √ √ that the surface resonant condition tends to be εr εt = −1. 19]. Thus. Gao. all amplitudes tend to zero at small size parameters q for monopole mode m = 0 and they tend to 1 at certain large q. However. which associates with the excitation of volume waves from the cylindrical cavity (we call them volume modes). In this sense. we call them surface plasmon resonances or surface modes. For TM polarization on the anisotropic cylinder.
9 × 10−7 m. B1 has two resonant peaks. Scattered magnetic ﬁeld distribution. 2010 341 As a matter of fact. 2(b). or q = 1. . we can also observe that the dielectric anisotropy has more inﬂuence on surface plasmon resonances than on volume resonances. From Fig. One at small q is related to surface plasmon resonance. the amplitude B0 only has one peak for large q. octopole.Progress In Electromagnetics Research. i. which corresponds to the volume resonance. the (a) (b) Figure 2. (a) (b) Figure 3. and the plane wave propagates from left to right.. εr = −1 and εt = −1.145 for the surface resonant mode. (b) For dipole mode m = 1. etc. the surface modes take place for all m > 0 modes such as dipole. (b) λ = 2. Vol. q = 0. Amplitudes Bm versus size parameter q for εr = −1.e. For instance. Note that the red dashed line is for the isotropic case in both two ﬁgures.08 for the volume resonance.1. (a) For monopole mode m = 0. The radius of the cylinder is 50 nm.165 × 10−6 m. and the other at large q is for the volume resonance. 106. (a) The incident Wavelength λ = 2. quadrupole.
According to the sign of dεt /dq. and both surface plasmon resonances and volume resonances may exist under the condition εt < 1/εr for m ≥ 1. and dashed lines are for εr = −1. the ﬁeld distributes around the whole cylinder. as shown in Fig. By using the COMSOL Multiphysics based on ﬁnite element method. q} in Fig. In order to further investigate volume and surface modes. The condition εt εt = 1 can be analytically derived from eﬀective medium theory. while the positions of volume resonances move to smaller q slightly. 4. while volume modes and surfaces modes coexist for the modes m ≥ 1. The trajectories of optical resonances for m = 0. 1. . we study the scattering eﬃciencies Qsca as a function of q for diﬀerent εt in Fig. In other words. A small variation of anisotropy Figure 4. 4. 3(a). At q → 0. Volume modes exist in all orders. while dεt /dq > 0 for volume modes. we have dεt /dq < 0. 2. Again. one can easily identify the surface plasmon resonant modes and volume resonant modes. as shown in Fig. From Fig. we plot the trajectories of the resonances on the plane of parameters {εt . while surface modes vanish for the monopole case m = 0. the ﬁeld is enhanced in the forward and backward directions of light propagation. Solid lines are for εr = −1. we again demonstrate that only volume resonances occur at large q for εt < 0 and m = 0 mode.342 Jin. In what follows. Gao. and 3 by solving the equation m = 0. 5. which merge at εt = −1 for the cases m ≥ 1. which has been discussed in Section 2. which are localized on the particle surface. these resonances occur at εt = 1/εr . and Gao corresponding q of the surface plasmon resonances increases with the decrease of εt . which is diﬀerent from the condition for isotropic cylinder ε = −1 and the one ε √ εm = √ = −(m + 1)/m for spherical particle [15]. 3(b).2. For surface modes. we simulate the nearﬁeld scattered magnetic ﬁeld distribution in the vicinity of the optical resonance. we ﬁnd that there are no surface resonances in monopole modes. for surface modes. while for the volume modes.
5(b). (a) q = 0. Note that the dramatic change of the Qsca spectrum from Fig. which have sharp resonance peaks. parameter leads to quite diﬀerent scattering eﬃciencies. 5(a) to 5(b) is caused by small variation in anisotropy parameter. a small variation in the . one can see new multiple resonances with εt < 1/εr in Fig.05 and (b) q = 0. (b) For εt < 1/εr . One can observe that for εt > 1/εr (see Fig. 5(a)). (a) (b) Figure 6. both volume and surface modes exist. (a) For 1/εr < εt < 0. the peaks for each resonance are not very sharp. Therefore. 2010 343 (a) (b) Figure 5.2. There are multiple peaks corresponding to diﬀerent resonant orders and size parameter q. Vol. 4). Scattering eﬃciencies Qsca versus size parameter q for εr = −1 and diﬀerent values of εt . only volume modes exist. This is due to the fact that only volume resonances occur in this range (see in Fig. 106.Progress In Electromagnetics Research. Spectral dependencies of scattering eﬃciencies for various q. On the other hand.
The study of optical scattering and nearﬁeld spectra by nanocylinders may be important for various modern applications such as plasmonic nanolithography. the surface plasmon resonances may arise r at small q for m ≥ 1. ChengWei Qiu for his stimulating suggestions and comments. Gao. CONCLUSION We establish the fullwave electromagnetic wave theory to investigate the properties of the light scattering from a radially anisotropic cylinder. while volume resonances may occur at large q. In addition. the corresponding resonant peaks may be much higher than that of dipole resonance.2. In the end. Moreover. etc. the quadrupole and octupole resonant peaks may be much higher and sharper than that of dipole resonance. designing sensors. the quadrupole and octupole resonances are not suppressed as expected. we discuss the relation between Qsca and εt . Volume modes and surface modes can be identiﬁed by the sign of dεt /dq. nearﬁeld optical microscopy. This work was supported by the Key Project in Science and Technology Innovation Cultivation Program of Soochow University and the Plan of Dongwu Scholar. . for the sake of the discussion about inﬂuence of the radial anisotropy. etc. the sensitivity of farﬁeld quantities such as the scattering eﬃciency to the radial anisotropy may be used for several potential applications including remote controlling. and enhancing the quality of confocal laser scanning microscopy images [30]. astigmatic optical tweezers. In addition. 6. the quadrupolar and octupolar peaks in the spectrum Qsca versus anisotropy parameter εt are extremely sharp (see Fig. [19]. It is found that the scattering eﬃciency is dramatically aﬀected by the radial anisotropy especially near the surface plasmon resonance. This can be related to the anomalous light scattering due to weak dissipation and at surface plasmon resonances [15].344 Jin. 6(b)). for the scattering eﬃciency spectrum with q 1. and Gao radial anisotropy may result in enhancing or prohibiting scattering eﬃciencies. When εt < ε1 . ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank Dr. we ﬁnd that for q = 0. nonlinear optics in nanowires. 4. From Fig. instead.
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