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It would be foreign treatise. or the biography of a Pope Leo blazoned with designs that have been borrowed from Moorish architecture. My object is rather to speak of as connected with taste. to point out it. the various anomalies that are most frequent in and to assist the book-collector in forming a correct judgment on such matters. though the arch was a thing altogether unknown to the Greeks .THE HAND-BOOK OF TASTE IN BOOKBINDING. be So numerous are these incongruities. or to discuss the art of it Bookbinding. that to detail one half of to tax too severely the indulgence of them would my readers. to the purpose of this little were I to detail the history. Gothic devices of the twelfth century a Life of Alexander decorated with the arch. the Commentaries of Caesar ornamented with the . it while perhaps close beside stands a work on the Alhambra in the primitive plainness of simple golden . How out often do we see a sober prose work tricked with the poetical embellishment of a lyre.

fear.. a modern or history with Egyptian embellish- ments. to have allowed to the this have not always agreed as should be carried out. . that the ornaments of the binding should belong to the era in which the book was written tained that others have mainto they it should or. or the persons they treat of. before in use. the adoption of the mode of bookbinding now At brass first. And surely the latter is the most consonant to reason and good is the age of the author nothing to the reader the subject of the I work is everything. all have already disclaimed idea of entering into any explanation of the mechanical process of bookbinding. should be dressed in their appropriate cos- tume. fine a treatise on gunnery. with Egyptian and Moresco*? Surely books. for the though sufficiently curious to to the it those who delight in such matters. that a History of Greece should be bound -with Grecian ornaments. or of giving the history of the art subject. little would still interest . though composed by an author of our notion taste . own century. . I may not be out different of place to say a few words upon the modes used to preserve manuscripts. Even those who would seem principle. like their readers. made quite and fantastic. way in which it Some have thought . 4 lines. but many have. make all plain by an example. be appropriate to the time of which treats. all records were engraved on stone or to but passing over these matters we come .

parchment. called by the Romans volumen. Sometimes these . fastened to the end of the roll. allowed such a term. while at others they were written on the roll gilt. leather. exceeded even the limit just mentioned for instance. to a we may be at by being attached each end wood on which they were rolled. It was upon this handle that the binder displayed his skill in ornament. the whole was left to unrolled from right. . many pieces as to form a roll of fifty or I should rather say in breadth. just as he would now do upon the back of a volume. as the reader rolls proceeded with his task. which was made of papyrus. for the pieces were attached to the side of each other? and every one being written upon forming. generally the length papyrus which is said to measure more than a hundred feet. is a in the British roll. while to the cylinders was affixed a handle. and often consisted of so feet in length.the roll. and hanging down and glued like the seals of our modern legal documents. The titles cylinder of were sometimes nothing more than a label attached to the cylinders. of one of these rolls being in fact the same thing as the term thickness when applied to a modern volume. a distinct page. or vellum. as it separately. if These ancient books were bound. Museum. for the convenience of unrolling them when required. to the outside of in this latter case they to a library were often richly and gave much the appearance of a modern collection. The cover was formed by a piece of vellum. and were. .

rally adopted in almost every species and hence in time came the modern volume. The succeeding steps in the art must have developed required no great themselves readily enough. and little this step would naturally in a time be followed by the discovery of a substitute for the board itself. The convenience to its of this square form led by degrees being geneof writing. however. were used by the ancient scholar only for his larger and for occasional more elaborate works of purposes he employed pugillaria. Having once found the it necessity of a substantial cover. or table-books. stretch of invention to hide the rude material leather. means kept pace with the had attained to and. The Textus Sanctus Cuthberti in . From numerous passages in the classic writers. art in especial regard to the character of From them we pass to the state of the England. 6 These rolls. The next advance was the addition of a piece of parch- ment for a cover. quite equal to any- own days. which w ere made r wood or metal. the binder's art a degree of elaborate bad thing in our taste. in square plates. led to the use of wood for a binding. under parchment. with each work. or vellum. covered with a thin coating of wax. and ornamented them highly.. and this being found an insufficient protection. but the taste in the ornamental part by no other improvements . by the time of the inven- tion of printing. and tied together with ribbon. we co- learn that the Greeks and Romans used many loured leathers to cover their books.

were generally added clasps. and sometimes they were of ornamented on the side with jewels. and adorned with gold and silver plates set with jewels. Of such made velvet. upon which for the most part the arms of the owner bindings not a few were were enamelled. illuminating. to protect them from injury during and guarded use. but with such a mixture of good and bad taste as might be expected from the general rudeness of the monkish ages. scripts. they were strengthened corners. a lived about monk a of the Abbey of Durham. at every devoted to abbey was room purposes of transcribing.D. however. At this period the learning and arts of the country were chiefly confined to the monks. 720. and labour. and binding manuin For a long time wooden covers were general use. often while the centre mould con- tained a beautiful picture in perfect keeping with the . appear to have been bestowed upon them they were often embel- lished with scenes illustrative of the book. who the A. and the earliest name that has reached our time.the Cottonian library. Much time. and illumined by Ethel wold. while. was bound leather. written by Eadfrid. for the missals of this period was not uncommon be most elaborately ornamented with drawings. . and to this practice the loss of may be attributed many valuable works. In those days. for the worm was almost sure to attack volumes bound in this fashion. is that of Biefied. by metal bosses and To these also. It to of deer-skin. Bishop of in Durham.

the materials most generally use for the covers. with two plates of the royal arms. In the same library we find another book belong- . tate De still Antiquiin Ecclesice Britannicce. The invention of printing in the year 1488. representing a park with deer. and the lettering is evidently of a later date. the clasps were of gold. preservation of It is to this that we owe the many valuable works. upon it. bound in cloth of gold. and a large rose tree in the middle. The back ornamented is divided into and partly ornamented with all roses. squares. and for a time also to the art of binding. for a or silver.8 character of the work itself. we find Elizabeth. Nor to long period does for any striking change appear have taken place. gave a new stimulus to literature. which to is British velvet. and proves There is be bound in green embroidered on one side with coloured silk also a very curious de- and sign silver thread. intended as an anagram but these on the name of the donor. garnished with silver and gilt. we read how the she was presented with Parker's work. while the registers and tassels were both of and amongst the rich. which at least deserves the praise of having generally been executed in the firmest and most careful manner. or copper gilt. Museum. In another place. Vellum and in velvet were now silk. it would be surrounded with a border of the most incongruous objects. compartments are not alike. in the twenty-seventh year of her reign. being presented w ith T a bible. that otherwise would have been lost to us.

for the we learn from the Acta Synodi Dort. bound in velvet. and coloured silk. of the same material. in like those just mentioned. It bound in crimson velvet. best if we are to com- pare them with the specimens of modern excellence. a is work which. The back has bands of a similar material. But. as and velvet were also much used about covering of the time of James the First. arms of England worked on yellow conceal the with gold thread on the sides.ing to Elizabeth . deserve the praise that has been lavished upon them. The re- maining space is embroidered with roses &c. the much after manner of our own times. The letter letter J and a crown are embroidered above. Many specimens of the . embroidered with the shield of the royal arms in gold and silver thread. this is a Historia Ecclesice. the gold being in such close relief as to silk. with a square of crimson silk in the centre. silk Damask books. with the rose and thistle in alternate squares. while the rose and thistle occupy the opposite corners. they do not. with the silk. ad- notwithstanding both of these have been much mired by the connoisseurs in such matters. and is is considered the most splendid specimen of the style of this period in the kingdom. and it seems that as early as the fourteenth century they were ornamented with gold. so far as I am able to judge. and the R below. I have spoken of books covered with vellum and leather. to be seen the British Museum.

that it will not be necessary for into the subject of ancient to me to enter more minutely it binding. to the from the end of the sixteenth eighteenth century. in the Harleian collection. as to present little more than a confused mass of gold. are used to embellish works on and the most opposite topics. and but it occasionally in the old book-shops. except that. the art has made great progress. beauty of the workmanship . will of bear comparison with those the latest date. confined to style. as witness some of the books trees. are so must be confessed that many of them overloaded with ornament. birds. brilliancy. that when. or ornamental part. still the finishing. through the medium of printing. during the present age. by the intro- duction of machinery. in the mere mechanical manipulation. From . little it middle of the may be said to have made progress. Covers of this kind may be found in the British Museum. tion as being more easily replaced. Suffice only observe. books became less valuable. The changes in the art of binding from the sixare so entirely teenth century to the present day. was in the worst taste. this period. and general perfection. to accomplish that which can . and their execution in sharpness. was given to the binding in consequence hereof. in the greater for evil. the forwarding or preparation showed more neatness .10 sixteenth century still exist. ships. where and similar objects. less atten. both for good and evil for good.

or to discuss their applicaclass this .— 11 be so much better effected by the labour of the human hand. papers inside the covers. are Morocco. and be at pasted fold down evenly. with silk. the next enter into the details of patterns. should be cut so as to leave the same extent of marginal leather all round. the leather turning over the edges smoothly and without any inequalities or any variety — that the leather should free be clear and of one uniform colour. and not of taste is bat it important to understand the characteristics of a well-bound volume. freely These are. — that it should open and fully. and of an uniform tint — that the tooling on the back and . would be useless of work. but more particularly to hinge. the where the book may be said which should be perfectly smooth and free from crease that the gilding of the edges should be smooth. materials now in use for the binding of books. The velvet. Russia^ and calf It leathers. of shades from blotches or — that the end-papers. Having given thing is to this preliminary sketch. so as to enable the reader to select for himself such as he may judge best adapted to the eras of the different vo- lumes in his library. and vellum. so that the work may be read with- out any necessity for holding down the pages —-that the edges of the boards or covers should be perfectly square. to describe such well-known bility to articles. any particular being merely a question of price.

12 sides should be sharp and clear. except first-rate in the hands of workmen. books are covered either sides of half-bound with cloth or marble paper. without the least perceptible joining of any one line with another- and that the inside of every gilt-edged book should have a gold line about an eighth of an inch inside. that it requires much The precision.which may be. worked rally all around it. and has hitherto been confined to one great reason so for. this giving the volume a more be a elegant finish than any of the flowered rolls gene- used for the purpose. . the rather. specimens of which I have given on the opposite page. and should always match the leather. I consider this to great improvement in the elegance of bookbinding. The cloth is made of every variety of colour.— . as it has emanated from my own it establishment. The same remarks may be made in regard to the marble paper. as to be utterly worthless. perhaps.

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The scarab. The square. though in the present day we must from what we find on chiefly judge of their effect their tombs. reed. the harpy. as described by Wilkinson. lotus. The walls and ceilings Egyptian houses.— EGYPTIAN It may be imagined by many shall find readers. are to be met with in these decorations. also to notice two other com- posite ornaments . and suc- the circle. where these devices are much more per- fectly preserved. both of which are as of common occurrence on Egyptian vases as on the Greek and Etruscan. is very reverse of this of the the truth. one of the most beautiful objects taste for that could have been selected by the ornament. of and square w ithin square. were richly painted and frequently in admirable taste. and several even of the ornamental emblems on Greek and Etruscan vases. the cession The Reed. the diamond. too. and blossom. in a great I variety of combinations. the square. above scrolls all. The leaf. usually called the Tuscan border. and which at the same time bore a deep emblematic meaning . The principal forms were the lotus. we have find re- peated in bud. that in Egypt we The but little illustration of our subject.

This course of no importance to the binder. the colouring be not always in the purest taste. ornaments made up from different natural objects. a though blue. for the illuminator is proceeding on the best authority. . or embellishing teristic borders IMHMI^I ^^ 1 ) works with characand ornaments. If eye. . The first is composed of the the second wings of birds is ^^^^^ fea-gr "^^^SliB^~ seem of it an union of vari- ous leaves. that of the Egyptians themselves. is In most of these ornaments there multiplicity of colours. be the is most predominant. there is yet much in it to dazzle and take the and at all events it is appropriate to the works in question. namely. but useful hint to those printers may be a who are in the habit of illuminating. and to more particularly yellow.15 that is to say.

we find models in abundance.GRECIAN Whatever might be or the size of the Greek buildings. Those © ployed. adopted in the Ionic capitals. place. I curved ornaments. and in the remains of Greek architecture. — to be perfectly out of The use of panels allows us to introduce a variety of ornaments. which the Greeks were one time so justly . though liable to degenelotus. Following the example thus all given to us. or combined as selected and put rolls. if we except the — volutes. rate when used with less judgment) and the which are used either separately. in the square. and every subsestrict quent addition or improvement was made in harmony with Greece. the same fixed principle was invariably observed. panelled style indeed. or this law. as the arch was unused by the Greeks. I should prefer ornamenting works of or on Grecian . and garlands of flowers ^"^V together for with all that j^£ at purity of taste. and therefore probably consider all unknown to them. however varied their ornaments. topics. most are frequently em- the honeysuckle (an ornament of great delicacy and beauty in the hands of a skilful artist. or imitative ram's-horn.

For rolls we may the borrow the gutta. Doric the which I cannot better describe circles.17 celebrated. than as being a succession of like within each other . representing drops. instruments of tripods. sacrifice. cups. or we may a fillet and this too is exceedingly beautiful. vases. lyres. shells. wsssBMSggfSM For the back we may in ornamented the or lastly. entablature. or a small ornament from Guilloche. and leaves of the acanthus. thus may be filled up with flutes as . the squares in a column. running chainadopt. Acanthus. and fruits. breech. griffins. or bears' Greek Cup. in imitation of basket-work. horns of animals.

We may there- binding Roman works. from repre- senting any forms of animal . in semicircle. since the Arabs are prohibited by their religion life. The Komans may be said to have borrowed nearly everything in art from Greece. combinations of animal and vegetable style This but. and this with them was always a complete fore. and incongruous life. use any Grecian ornaments. style of ornament as witness their Encaustic tiles. or at least a more florid. it has often been termed arabesque little should seem. circle. the arch being the only exception of importance. the Komans fell into a more vicious. ROMAN. however. with very propriety. only taking care that they form portions of a In later times. . as well as patterns made of curved lines..

in the early times was usually of all its the Greek. was by them held to denote the triumph of the Cross to typify the . and ***m*m as may be seen in the Latin. The early Christians adopted many of the to Pagan them the religious emblems. which had arms of the same length. being most part buried under vine leaves and poppies. the dove of . amongst and made them symbolize the Christ's labours of the faithful in vineyard . larger than the bar. the palm-branch. under the name of the phoenix. which had before been the emblem of worldly victories. These Crosses. the example given. which had its stem much or upper portion. however. Holy Ghost the stag Venus was used of Diana denoted . the Christian thirsting for the living waters and Juno's peacock.FROM THE THIRD TO THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. for the were seldom displayed openly. feasts Thus they borrowed from of Bacchus his vine. with the Genii sporting its tendrils. so as to b 2 . em- blematized the same soul after the resurrection. The Cross used two kinds . while they attributed another meaning.

which will be evident enough to the reader upon comparing the specimens of either that I have here given. adorned by a nimbus. was our Saviour. as a sacred implement. twelve denoted the apostles. The Lamb was used to represent a Christian . that the chalice in question differs much in form from the Grecian cup. Grecian. which in some degree combines the Egyptian. Now priety all these types and to emblems may with pro- be used ornament the bindings of missals or early religious tracts. the North of Africa. which. however. Or we may use a chalice. Of these I have transferred . though some exercise of good taste is requisite in the selection. only to the time of the Arabian should be bound in the Arabian or Mo- resque style.20 afford but little indication of their real nature. with a yet closer approach to our Gothic. or Turkey. Works on Spain. and Ro- man details. and a thirteenth. Specimens of this kind may be of which seen on the ceilings of some still buildings that are standing. would be no ings. copies may be found in many of our popular works on architecture. It was not cross till the sixth century that the cross assumed the form of a rood — that is to say. less adapted to the same class of writ It must be observed. or on conquest. when to the was affixed the figure of Christ crucified.

.21 so much to my pages as is necessary. to our present purpose.

consi- der the Norman as distinct from the Saxon. but which sary to discuss. we have known as the Goand Saxon and Norman Gothic. Assuming as correct the name of Gothic. thic. now unneces- we may observe that Gothic archiItalians was divided by the that into several which prevailed in the north of Italy that they called Lombard Gothic. however. the Com- plete Gothic. which prevailed on the north of the Alps they called German Gothic. styles In England different came into use at periods the features of each being distinctly marked. and has been considered as such by With these data before us. tecture classes . it is a point which may be disputed. the Full or Simple and the Florid Gothic. different . under the general name of Gothic. hence three various kinds of Gothic. and the though the Norman seems in reality many able writers. and that in Spain and other countries they termed Arabic or Moorish Gothic.GOTHIC. the Florid to it Gothic. into the Lancet-arch Gothic. Some. Ornamental Gothic. divide that which succeeded. be no more than a modification of the Saxon. we come to a few simple rules as to the ornaments appropriate to each parti- .

^ A ^ 1 (now corruptly crease-tiles. and those of the most gant kind. and even massively . Whewel as a style that has lost all traces of classical proportion. and rows of The utensil. taste and executed with the requisite degree of neatness. The Gothic centuries. abounds so in ornaments. architecture of the two following although described by Mr. and the mould . that of designs. ele- we may draw from For borders we have it a great variety the crest-tiles of Exeter Cathedral. Works that relate to the eleventh and twelfth century should be bound plainly. those of a later date should be lighter and more ornamented. We also frequently find single is flowers. used called cress-tiles and to ^fe^^J^fe cover the ridge ^^"fc^™ of a roof. when chosen with chalice. the effect of which exceedingly pleasing to the eye in binding. upon which they are fixed saddle-like).23 cular period. may stars. ^^^fc too > as a church also be used. as shown in the accompanying roll .

as well as at Bloxam. as well as in the carvings and panels of some of the old monuments. In process of time architecture all the purer forms of Gothic in the reign had sadly degenerated. lent or. The backs priety. we shall find an excel- model in a costume of 1399. I may indeed say.24 ings in Southwell Minster. and . for the whole side of the book. of the volumes may with much pro- be ornamented in the same way as the sides. For centre ornaments.

. style birds. For the same reason. style of Louis XIV. is quite Shakspeare and the other writers of the period should be bound in the fashion that was peculiar to it. . ^# Anglo. that so soon succeeded should be bound as plainly as possible. at once heavy yet elaborate. to accord with what every one can hardly be knows to have been the humour called taste — — it of the period.25 of Elizabeth we come upon a mixed style. all works of the it. being fantastic. like our own Elizabe- was anything but pure. The thean. purita- nical age. It at once both heavy and has been called Style de la Renaissance. with heavy embelvicious this clear that But however it may be in our eyes.Italian add the gro- these v|l |w characteristics introduction of men ^^j^r and animals tesquely featured. and corners made up of lishments in the centre. writers to been called principal jm»8fe%k &Sj that nas by some . panels surrounded with the most intricate ornaments.

indeed. as it. so far as the phrase can be applied with propriety to anything in the way of ornament. but is executed in what that is to technically called blind tooling. except. as suggesting hints to guide the taste of the purchaser. tra- most characteristically dressed in and graceful binding. the origin and progress of book-binding. or panel. while the whole of the centre left blind. Some few for instance. it any gold . History and biography. Thus. also the various modes of ornament applied repeat to up to the present time. as regards . to more remains than said. may be less gravely embellished still than reli- gious works. if we adopt this principle. elegant. general rules may be given. say. The de- corations should not only be few and simple. little In regard to modern book-binding. or if gold be em- ployed at should be confined to the edges of is the cover. though in a very cursory way. and fiction in general. Poetry.MODERN. We have thus seen. topics works upon religious of embeltheir cha- would seem to require a sobriety lishment. would be a light. as being more in harmony with racter than ornaments of a lighter kind. without all. but should have weight and solidity of decoration. for what has been is already the whole mystery within a narrow compass.

and in fact it is but the same principle is though not always acted upon. as extravagantly as Sheri- Bob Acres did his ideas when he insisted that every an's of sentimental swearing.27 gedy. out and would even say that the but that the colour subject. that . it must be right altogether. It is possible that many may think am carrying out this principle. Perhaps. with due respect for Melpomene. a necessity growing out of the very narrow limits of human it may be. is modern author. therefore. too. bindings should not only assimilate with the taste of the time of which the work treats. should be as brilliant as the art of the binder can well make I them. and upon a modern with Greek or Roman ornaments. that. But this invention. should also be in harmony with It its would at first sight seem somewhat inconsistent with the rules laid down. if reference to the subject of the swearer. hesitate to carry rigidly to its full extent. Certain it is. that we should embellish the binding of a subject. of the forms on which that invention had to work. ornamented as we know say that the lives of the as little Eoundheads should be as grave and their habits were. but the notion be right at all. which. or. oath should have a strict still. the Cavaliers. while their gay antagonists. yet uniformly allowed to be a just one in regard to building and costume. it I should not myself. it may we not be pushing too outside far this notion of harmony between the if and the inside of every work. should be clothed in what our old dramatists would have called sad ornaments.

the light with the light. In modern binding. and soon after we find it covering a biography of Bishop Heber. the store-house more particularly the case with is the binders in cloth a moresque tool cut for a work on transfer the Arabian dynasty. For example. I will venture to add a few farther illustrations. and the fanciful with the fanciful. therefore. of the art. we consider the whole range of ancient embellishment as being equally appropriate to our time. for so frequently repeating this Let me be excused fundamental principle the most neglected. has not been able to add a single combination to those invented by the Greeks and Romans. right or wrong. the binders for the most part snatch at it it with avidity. but to avoid of mistake. only taking care to associate the grave with the grave.28 all the ingenuity of our artists of every description. I hardly know whether it is necessary to dwell any all possibility longer upon this topic. new combination from This is . and employ till it is on all occasions. according to the suggestions already given. and even only modifications of the old they appear to be Egyptian. since of all others it is The moment any ornament has been brought forward that at all catches the public taste. I would bind a French Military scarlet. super- seded by some of antiquity. 1 History in blue and an English one in would not ornament a Life of Nelson with the sails . it when forthwith they to the cover of a volume on the Cathe : drals of England or a crimson cloth is with prolife priety adopted for a of Wellington.

circles. I would bind a on the celestial bodies . form the principal features to be borrowed for the purposes of the binder. but without any flowery ornaments a. The cable makes a very beautiful roll orjillet. and is quite as applicable as an ornament for the book- binder. and rhomboids. so I would let my rolls be in imitation of cable. as it is as an article of jewellery for a lady's treatise neck. vegetable and animal productions of the country if or the subject be historical or of ancient date. with perhaps a couple of board- ing pikes crossed in the centre of the square. .id ornament a Moore's Irish Melodies with leaves either in wreaths of flowers. in cerulean blue with stars cal and crescents a botani. Works would seem to be most fitly embellished with the . triangles. or in borders. either and figures of various kind.29 of a ship. belonging religion to their or their history. It may be in difficult to determine any exact style which Encyclopaedias and other serials treating of all subjects and all times . with relating to India the Irish harp in the centre. work in green with a flowery border while I would tool an Euclid in squares. but as the base of the Nelson pillar is composed of a hawser. Fluted pilasters. the zodiac. appro- priate ornaments may be found of the in the sculpture and architecture Hindu race.

of more substantial importance than the good or bad be bound taste of the binding. indeed is not in many more places particu- rendered well nigh illegible. this constant recurrence of such an the evil forms one of the great objections to it cloth- binding. subject. did not happen in the when left the bookseller bought his works in sheets. This is larly the case with cloth bindings. I would. To me. It mented panel examples of any would be a waste of the reader's time and patience for this kind. be transferred to that which presses on if to the entire disfigurement it of the volume. No book is fit to till the ink has it. and I am it sure. as the is printers term set. that ornaments which have stood the longest may be used with greater propriety than any of a more modern date for this reason. if it be carried the gentleman's library will present a much more chaste appearance than would if bound in the indiscrimi- nate and thoughtless style of the present day. however. which are too often submitted to the action of the binder's press moment they have been brought from the printing office. and them in his warehouse till . the print fly off. I trust I me to give more have said enough to give a pretty correct notion of my ideas on the out. 30 should be bound. by time when to attention is not paid to this very essential rule.. fixed. suggest. Other considerations now force themselves upon our attention. I to would prefer the Grecian ornaother. or. become . apt to and the ink of one page it. for most assuredly old boarded system.

Thos. system Nor of this the only defect inhe- to the cloth-binding. Havrild.] in eras according to the rules he has THE END. whole edition being at once bound with the same ornaments and in the same colour. he must take the work as he finds it. or go to the expense of having in addition to which. Silver Street.31 wanted for sale. such bindings it bound anew . are for the most part rickety. the purchaser has no choice left to him whatever his taste may be. . Printer. . London. and fall to pieces when they come to be of this much handled. Falcon Square. arranged down. an inspection of his [The publisher laid little treatise invites book of patterns. or till the ink had is become the suffici- ently set rent by time.

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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 3 9999 06724 905 JA.i 5 19 .

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