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What is leadership?

-as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task Leader - is a person who guides others toward a common goal, showing the way by example, and creating an environment in which other team members feel actively involved in the entire process. A leader is not the boss of the team but, instead, the person that is committed to carrying out the mission of the Venture. Elements of Leadership 1. It includes the issuing of orders that are clear, complete and within the capabilities of subordinates to accomplish. 2. It implies a continual training activity in which subordinates are given instruction to enable them to carry out the particular assignment in the existing situation. 3. It necessarily involves the motivation of workers to try to meet the expectations of the manager It consists of maintaining discipline and rewarding those who perform properly.

C. The Democratic Leader Depend not only on their capabilities but encourage consultation with subordinates. D. The Laissez faire Leader Depends completely on subordinates to establish their own goals and to make their own decisions.

According to Robert Tannenbaum, argued that the style a managers chooses depends upon the three groups of forces: 1. Forces in the manager e.g., managers value system ,confidence in subordinates, inclinations and feeling of security in uncertain situation. 2. Forces in the subordinates e.g., subordinates expecttions 3. Forces in the situation e.g., type of organization, the nature of the problem s and pressure of time. Leadership can be viewed along continuum form boss-centered to subordinate-centered leadership. Moving from the boss-centered to subordinate-centered leadership one must observe the following styles. 1. The manager makes the decision and announces it. 2. The manager sells the decision 3. the manager present ideas, invites questions


6 Elements needs to master to recognize as a true leader 1. TRUST 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COHERENCE COMPETENCE COLLABORATION COMPETITION CONTRIBUTION

Types of Leadership A. The Dictatorial Leader Accomplishes tasks through fear of penalties, and maintains a highly critical and negative attitude in relations with subordinates B. The Benevolent-Autocratic Leader assumes paternalistic role with forces subordinates to rely on the leader for their satisfactions.

4. The manager presents a tentative decision subject to change. 5. The manager presents the problem 6. The manager defines the limits and requests the group to make a decision 7. The manager permits the group to make a decision within prescribed limits. Supervision

Overseeing and thus implies that there is face to face contact An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions 1. 2. Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees

Are these characteristics that one can learn, or must one be born with them? Is there any optimal combination of traits that is most critical in determining ones success as a leader?

Leadership Leadership involves an interpersonal relationship between a leader and subordinates. The most critical element in this relationship is the behavior of the leader towards the subordinates. Behavioral Models Consideration: leaders show care toward workers. Employee-centered. Initiating Structure: managers take steps to make sure work is done. Done by assigning work, setting goals, etc. Job-oriented.

Supervisor -must perform all the functions of management. -first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety Research on Leadership Early Research on Leadership Compilation of the great leaders characteristics :

Age Maturity Intelligence Physical Bearing Height Education Decisiveness Extroversion Verbal Skills Prestige Attractiveness Charisma Popularity Aggresiveness In what ways do such characteristics influence ones ability to lead?

Consideration & Initiating Structure Consideration Is friendly, approachable Do little things to make it fun to be a member of group Give advance notice of changes Willing to make changes Treats group members as equals Initiating Structure Tries out ideas in the group Lets group members know what is expected Assigns workers to tasks Schedules work to be done Maintains standards of performance Contingency Models

Fiedlers Model: effective leadership is contingent on both the characteristics of the leader and the situation. Leader style: the enduring, characteristic approach to leadership a manager uses. Relationship-oriented: concerned with developing good relations with workers. Task-oriented: concerned that workers perform so the job gets done. Fiedlers Model Situation characteristic: how favorable a given situation is for leading to occur. Leader-member relations: determines how much workers like and trust their leader. Task structure: extent to which workers tasks are clear-cut. Clear issues make a situation favorable for leadership. Position Power: amount of legitimate, reward, & coercive power a leader has due to their position. When positional power is strong, leadership opportunity becomes more favorable. Motivating with Path-goal Path-goal identifies four behaviors leaders can use: 1) Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things. 2) Supportive behavior: look out for the workers best interest. 3) Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them. 4) Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in workers abilities. Which behavior should be used depends on the worker and the tasks. Leadership and Motivating Workers

The very concept of LEADERSHIP is

inducing others to work toward an objective.

This is done through proper

MOTIVATION. This is important since high production can result only from the cooperative and enthusiastic efforts of willing employees. What is Motivation? MOTIVATION Houses Path-Goal Model Model hypothesized cause of behaviour.

-anchored by NEEDS that operate within

an individual and GOALS in the environment which the individual moves towards or away from.

Motivation starts when a need is felt which leads to the identification of a goal that will supposedly satisfy the need.

To Motivate Workers is to introduce a stimulus to achieve the desired behaviour. NEEDS Needs creates tension to a person. The amount of the tension is a function of how strong the need is. When a person is deprived of something for a significant period of time, the tension is greater. A need with a high expectation of achieving is generally more motivating than one with only a remote chance of being satisfied.

Ego Needs / Esteem Needs

Attaining self-Confidence and respect of others.

Self-Fulfillment Needs

Becoming all one is capable of becoming. Bringing out his full potential and achieving his goals to his own level of satisfaction.

GOAL diminishes once the need is satisfied. What should Managers do? Help workers to attain their goals through appropriate deeds. Theories on Motivating People Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory / NeedRanking Theory

Maslow successfully identified several classes of needs that are important source of work motivation however strict ordering in sequence in which needs are felt does not happen in reality, it depends from person to person. Herzberg Two Factor Model /Two Factor Need Theory

Suggested that factors influencing

behaviour on job can be classified in to two categories: Maintenance Factors and Motivational Factors.

Maintenance Factor Factors that causes discontent when not satisfied. Needs that do not increase motivation when they are satisfied but do not detract from motivation when they are not satisfied. Usually associated with general conditions in the work environment not the work itself

developed a widely adopted hierarchy of


hierarchy of needs -needs arranged in

order of importance under the assumption that a lower level must be satisfied before the next higher need becomes a motivating factor ) Heirarchy of Needs

Company Policies and Administration Interpersonal Relationships Job and Financial Security Personal Life Quality and Competence of

Salary Level Work Environment Physiological Needs Acquiring

all basic survival requirements such as food, water and shelter.

Working Conditions
Motivation Factor Factors that increase motivation when satisfied, but do not necessarily lower morale when not fulfilled. Usually job oriented.

Safety Needs Obtaining

protection from physical harm, illness, economic misfortune and unexpected emergencies.

Social Needs Securing

Achievement Advancement

friendships and gaining acceptance by society.

Recognition Responsibility Work Possibility of Growth

An individual whose behaviour is influenced motivational factors is more likely to be content with less than complete satisfaction of maintenance factors, but the reverse is not true. A highly motivated person will continue to be productive when some of his work relationships are not ideal, while a person striving just to satisfy his maintenance factors is easily bothered by any deficiency in the work environment. B.F. Skinners Behavioralist - Reinforcement Model Emphasizes on reinforcement as a powerful managerial tool for controlling and shaping patterns of employee behaviour. Timing and scheduling of reinforcement is at least as important as the absolute level of reinforcement. Demonstrates the vital distinction between reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement Can either be positive or negative. This focuses on the desired behaviour which gives the employee a great deal of information. Punishment - disrupts undesired behaviour. It carries no informational content about the desired behaviour. The employee only knows that whatever he is doing is wrong.