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ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2008. No 1 (56)
COMMERCE OF ENGINEERING DECISIONS
Theoretical Aspects of Product Positioning in the Market
Rnjta Ostasevicinjtơ, Laimona Sliburytơ
Kauno technologijos universitetas
K. Donelaicio g. 73, LT-44029, Kaunas
The article consists of fourteen parts, starting with the
introduction where the novelty, the problem of the
research, the object of the research, the purpose of the
research and the research methods are described. The
purpose of the article is systemization and thorough
description of the knowledge and information (found in a
large number of sources) about the positioning concept, its
position in the STP model, coherent description of the
product positioning process steps as recommendations for
successful product positioning process accomplishment. It
is obvious that to be successful a product must occupy an
explicit, distinct, and proper place, in the minds of
potential and existing consumers, relative to other rival
products on the market. Product positioning is the tool to
achieve the above mentioned result. The article analyses
how the product should be positioned on the market.
The second part of the article reveals various authors
conceptions of product positioning in the market. Those
include: Etzel, Walker, Stanton (1997), Ries and Trout
(1986), Kotler (2006), Armstrong (2006), Bhat (1998), Fill
(2006), Ferrel (1997), Lamb, Hair, McDaniel (2004),
Boone and Kurz (2001).
The third part defines the basement of product
positioning process the STP moael. which incluaes the
following parts: segmentation, targeting and positioning.
The fourth part describes product positioning steps,
interpreted by different scholars. There are two samples of
product positioning process given (by Hooley (2004) and
Hutt, Spech (2004)) and a model created by the authors of
this article.
The seventh part, identification and analysis of
competitive products in the market, describes the best
means how to distinguish competitive products, different
levels of competition.
The eighth part, identification of determinant
attributes and measuring their significance to the user,
reveals the techniques for selection of determinant
attributes and criteria for successful determinant
attributes.
The ninth part, identification of current position of the
product and other competing products according to
determinant attributes, shows possible ways of carrying
out this product positioning process stage.
The tenth part, composition of the positioning map,
reveals the process of their creation and provides reasons
why it is such a powerful tool for examining the positions
of products.
The eleventh part, the determination of the desired
position of the product, speaks about the ideal position of a
product and where companies want to position their
products (the desired position).
The twelfth paragraph, called the selection of
positioning or repositioning strategy, reveals possible
positioning strategies proposed by various authors,
repositioning strategies, presented by Doyle, Stern (2006),
possible reasons of inadequate positioning.
The thirteenth part, creation of the positioning
statement, discusses the three models of creation of
product positioning statement: X-Y-Z model, I-D-U model,
and a-b-e model.
The last part consists of conclusions on theoretical
studies of product positioning process.
Keywords: product positioning, product positioning
steps, determinant attributes, positioning
map, positioning and repositioning
strategy, positioning statement.
Introduction
The novelty: There is no product in the world that
does not have a position. Product positioning is about
visibility and recognition and what product represents for a
buyer. In markets where the intensiveness of rivalry and
competition are increasing and buyers have a greater
choice, identiIication, and understanding oI a product`s
intrinsic values become critical. An offering with a clear
identity and orientation to a particular target segment`s
needs will not only be purchased, but can warrant a larger
margin through increased added value. Numerous
organizations are trying to manage their positions occupied
by their products and are using different positioning
strategies to move to new positions in consumers minds
and so generate an advantage over their competitors.
Earlier positioning was very important in markets that are
very competitive and where mobility barriers are relatively
low. Nowadays these market characteristics can be applied
almost to every industry or business, and to any economy.
No product, of those which have survived, can be
imagined without clear, distinct and intensive positioning.
The problem of the research: It is vivid, that for a
successful product in the market good quality and well
known brand are not enough. The product must occupy an
explicit, distinct, and proper place, in the minds of
potential and existing consumers, relative to other rival
products on the market. Reaching (or not reaching) that
desirable position in the minds of consumers is the result
of successful (or not successful) positioning. The article
98
analyses how the product should be positioned on the
market.
The object of the research: product positioning in the
market.
Purpose of the research: to systemize and thoroughly
describe the knowledge and information (found in a large
number of sources) about the positioning concept, its
position in the STP model, coherently describe the product
positioning process steps as recommendations for
successful product positioning process accomplishment.
Research methods used: Conducting theoretical
studies of positioning in the market, the method of
comparative analysis and systematization of scientific
literature were used.
Concept of product positioning
There is a great number of different definitions of
positioning in scientific literature of marketing. The
concept of positioning seeks to place a product in a certain
'position¨ in the minds oI perspective buyers. Marketers
use a positioning strategy to distinguish their Iirm`s
offerings from those of competitors and to create
promotions that communicate the desired position. Boone
and Kurz (2001)
Scientists Etzel, Walker and Stanton (1997) refer to
marketing as to management`s ability to bring attention to
a product and to differentiate (position) it in a favorable
way from similar products.
Ries and Trout (1986) distinguish from all other
marketing theoretics, stating that positioning is not what is
done to a product. Positioning is what you do to the mind
of the prospect. The same authors indicate that positioning
starts with a product. A piece of merchandise, a service, a
company, an institution, or even a person. However, Kotler
(2006) defines positioning as the act of designing the
company`s oIIer so, that it occupies a distinct and valued
position in the target consumers mind. Scholars Kotler,
Armstrong (2006) verify that market positioning is
arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and
desirable place, in the minds of target consumers, relative
to competing products. Thus, marketers plan positions that
distinguish their products from competing products and
give them the greatest strategic advantage in their target
markets.
The purpose of positioning is to create a unique and
favorable image in the minds of target customers, Bhat
(1998). The author Fill (2006) states, that positioning,
therefore, is the natural conclusion to the sequence of
activities that constitute a core part of the marketing
strategy. Market segmentation and target marketing are
prerequisites to successful positioning.
Product positioning refers to the decisions and
activities intended to create and maintain a certain concept
oI the Iirm`s product in the customers minds (Ferrel,
1997).
Positioning is developing a specific marketing mix to
inIluence potential customers` overall perception oI a
brand, product line, or organization in general (Lamb,
Hair, McDaniel 2004)
To sum up, the position oI a product is customers`
perceptions of a products attributes relative to the attributes
of competitive products. Buyers make a large number of
purchase decisions every day. To avoid constant
reevaluation of numerous products, buyers tend to group,
or 'position¨ products in their minds to simpliIy buying
decisions. Rather than allowing customers to position
products independently, marketers must try to influence
and shape consumers` perceptions oI diIIerent products.
The steps of STP model
The foundation of positioning theory is made of one of
the most important postulates of the science of marketing.
It states that 'people are extremely diverse and that a
product cannot be liked equally be everyone¨. ReIerring to
the postulate it is simple to define the essence of the STP
model: to present the product to those consumers, who
want it and are able to acquire it. The first two steps of the
STP model serve to find and define the desired consumer,
and positioning serves for placing the product in the
desirable position in the minds of target consumers.
Scholars Grancutt, Leadley and Forsyth (2004) thoroughly
describe the STP model steps in the table below
Table 1
The STP model steps
Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004)
Product positioning steps
Scholar Winner (2007) has a distinct view on product
positioning decisions; he emphasizes customer decision
making process as the most important issue in product
positioning steps. According to the scientist, marketers
have to answer the following questions when positioning
the product
x What dimensions do consumers use to evaluate
product offerings in the industry or category?
x How important is each of these dimensions is in the
decision making process?
x How do you and competition compare on the
dimensions?
x What decision processes do the customers use?
The author Hooley (2001) determines these stages of
product positioning process:
Segmentation
* Choose variables for segmenting market
* Build a profile of the segments (sub-segments)
* Validate emerging segments
Targeting
* Decide on targeting strategy
* Identify which and how many segments should be
targeted
Positioning
* Understand consumer perceptions
* Position products in the mind of the consumer
* Design appropriate marketing mix to
communicate positioning
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Table 2
Product positioning steps
Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004)
Scientists Hutt, Spech (2004) suggest the following
steps in the product positioning process:
Table 3
Product positioning steps
Source: Hutt, Spech (2004)
Concentrating all discussed product positioning
models the authors of this article propose the following
algorithm of positioning process steps.
Table 4
Product positioning steps
Identification and analysis of competitive products in
the market
Drawing positioning frames for a product, category
membership should be determined first, i.e. other products
that compete in the same market and can serve as
substitutes. The best considered means for determination is
quantitative approach consumer survey. This method
allows collecting a large amount of useful data, which is
easily systemized, adapted, processed statistically. One of
the main advantages of consumer survey is the
anonymousness. Deep interview can be also used to
determine the rival products in the market, but due to
larger time and financial costs is used seldom. Scientists
Hooley, Saunders, Piercy (2006) state that competition can
take place in the following levels:
x Competition with products with analogous qualities
x Competition in the same product group
x Competition with other products that satisfy the same
or very similar consumer demand
x Competition in the same consumer demand level
As mentioned above it is vitally important not only to
determine all products on the same shelf, but also
determine the rivals to the whole shelf.
Identification of determinant attributes and measuring
their significance to the user
After the identification and analysis of competitive
products in the market, determinant attributes should be
identified and their significance to the user should be
measured. According to Aaker, (2005) determinant
attributes define not only the products benefits and value to
the user, but also associations with the product consuming
process and with the consumer himself. The authors
Hooley, Saunders, Piery (2006) consider a qualitative
Identify and analyze competitive products
in the market
Compose the positioning map
Identify the determinant attributes and measure
their significance to the user
Identify the current position
of the product and other competing products according to
determinant attributes
Determine the desired position of the product
Select positioning or repositioning strategy
Create the positioning statement
Identify the relevant set of competitive products
Identify the set of determinant attributes
that customers use to differentiate among options
and determine the preferred choice
Collect information from a sample of existing and potential
customers concerning their ratings of each product on the
determinant attributes
Determine the products current position versus competing
offerings for each market segment
Examine the fit between preferences of market segments and
current position of product
Identification of competitors
Singling out decision making attributes
Evaluation out of decision making
attribute significance
Identification of competitor position according to the most
important attributes
Identification of consumer needs
Preparation of a consumer map
Selection of the desired position
Selection of positioning strategy
Select positioning or repositioning strategy
100
approach the discussion group to be the most eIIective
test Ior determining the determinant attributes Dikcius
(2006) proposes these techniques Ior selection oI
determinant attributes: associations oI words, completion
oI a sentence, completion oI a short story (anecdote),
drawing test, subiect perception test, role playing test.
According to the scientists Kotler, Armstrong,
Saunders, Wong (2003), determinant attributes would be
valuable only iI they are:
x Important: The diIIerence delivers a highly valued
beneIit to a number oI buyers.
x Distinctive: The diIIerence is delivered in a distinctive
way.
x Superior: The diIIerence is superior to other ways oI
obtaining the beneIit.
x Preemptive: The diIIerence cannot be easily copied by
competitors.
x AIIordable: The buyer can aIIord to pay the diIIerence
x ProIitable: The company will Iind it proIitable to
introduce the diIIerence.
It is clear, that Iinding a determinant attribute, that
meets all the above criteria is almost impossible, but the
more above mentioned qualities an attribute has, the more
beneIit it brings to marketers.
Identification of the current position of the product and
other competing products according to determinant
attributes
Having obtained clear and some oI the above criteria
meeting determinant attributes, the next step that Iollows is
the identiIication oI the products and other rival products
current positions on the market. The task can be best
accomplished by carrying out target segment survey,
where consumers have to evaluate the product and
competing products according to the most signiIicant
determinant attributes. According to Pranulis (1998) the
Iollowing survey techniques can be used: scales oI graphic
evaluation, Liquert scale, semantic-diIIerential scale,
Stapel scale, attribute assessment scale, Iixed-sum scale,
value-grading scale, pair picking scale.
Composition of the positioning map
A positioning map provides a valuable means in
assisting managers to position products by graphically
illustrating consumers` perceptions oI competing products
and the product they are positioning. Marketers can create
a competitive positioning map Irom inIormation solicited
Irom the results oI Iirst stages oI positioning process. For
example, a positioning map may present two diIIerent
attributes price and perceived quality and indicate how
consumers view a product and its main rivals based on
these characteristics.
Arora (2006) oIIers the Iollowing reasons why
positioning map is such a powerIul tool Ior examining the
position oI products:
1. It develops understanding oI how the relative strengths
and weaknesses oI diIIerent products are perceived by
buyers.
2. It builds knowledge about the similarities and
dissimilarities between competing products.
3. It assists the process oI repositioning existing products
and the positioning oI new products.
4. The technique helps to track the perception that buyers
have oI a particular product, and assists the
measurement oI the eIIectiveness oI communication
programs, and marketing actions, intended to change
buyer`s perceptions.
5. Positioning map is an important tool in the
development and tracking oI promotional strategy. It
enables managers to identiIy gaps and opportunities in
the market and allows monitoring oI eIIects oI past
marketing communications.
Determination of the desired position of the product
An ideal point is the place on the positioning map that
represents the combination oI attributes most desired by
the consumer. This point describes the product the
consumer would preIer over all others. Companies choose
the desired position as close to the ideal perceived position
as possible. The desired position is chosen with respect to
segment attractiveness, current or potential strength oI the
product serving that segment. According to J. Baker (2001)
marketers have to take two core decisions while
determining the desired position Ior a product: selection oI
target market and identiIication oI positions oI competitive
products, determination oI diIIerential advantages. To sum
up, the most desirable position Ior a product is the one that
tunes attractive market segments and present or potential
product stregths. According to Scheinin (1998), companies
should avoid segments, where they do not possess
diIIerential advantage.
Selection of positioning or repositioning strategy
Selecting positioning or repositioning strategy is one
oI the most crucial points product positioning steps.
Scholars Doyle, Stern (2006) deIine positioning strategy as
the choice oI target market segments, which determines
where the business competes, and the choice oI diIIerential
advantage, which dictates how it competes. Many
marketing theoretics (Fill 2006, Kotler 2007, Armstrong
2004, Doyle, Stern 2006) propose more or less the same
list oI product positioning strategies.
x Product Ieatures
x Price/quality
x Product class dissociation
x User
x Competitor
x BeneIit
x Heritage or cultural symbol
On the other hand Boone, Kurz (2001) oIIer the
positioning oI a product based on the Iollowing areas:
x Attributes Chevy Suburban is strong 'Like a Rock¨
x Price/Quality Saks FiIth avenue is a quality store
x Competitors Visa`s ads point out that some
establishments do not accept American express
x Application Xerox is 'The document company¨
x Product user 'Ryan air¨ targets the budget oriented
traveler
x Product class Tony Roma`s is 'Famous Ior Ribs¨
101
It is important to mention, that the above mentioned
strategies are not discrete and usually are just pats of
complex hybrid strategies, used by marketers.
Sometimes, changes in the competitive environment
force marketers to reposition a product changing the
position it holds in the minds of consumers relative to the
positions of competing products.
Scientists Doyle, Stern (2006) suggest the following
repositioning options (the first two are real repositioning
strategies, the rest can be considered psychological):
x Introduce a new brand
x Change existing brand
x Alter beliefs about the brand
x Alter beliefs about competitive brands
x Alter attribute importance weights
x Introduce new or neglected attributes
x Find a new market segment
Not only changes on the market lead to a demand for a
new repositioning strategy. Very often the product fails
because of marketers initial positioning mistakes.
Brooke (1994) states that a product may be
inadequately positioned for three reasons:
x The segment in which it is targeted might have
become unattractive because it is too small, declining,
too competitive or otherwise unprofitable.
x Positioning might be inadequate because the quality
and features that the product offers do not appeal to the
segment to which it is targeted.
x It might be wrong because the product`s costs are too
high to allow it to be priced competitively.
Scientists Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004), Kotler
(2006) indicate four main risky product positions on the
market: underpositioning, overpositioning, confused
positioning and doubtful positioning:
Table 5
Risky positions
Potential risk Comment
Under-
positioning
Some companies discover that buyers have only a
vague idea of the brand and the features/benefits of
that brand. Customers may not be aware of anything
particularly special about the brand
Over-
positioning
Customers may have too narrow a view of the
brand. Therefore a consumer might think that a
particular glass company, for example, only
produces luxury items that retail at high prices.
However, it may produce a variety of cheaper
standard glassware.
Confused
positioning
Customers could be confused about the position of
the brand within the marketplace. This confusion
may result from the company making too many
decisions about the brand, or changing the brand`s
positioning too frequently.
Doubtful
positioning
Customers may find it hard to believe the claims
made by the company about its brand in view of
the individual product`s Ieatures and promoted
benefits, the price and the name of the manufacturer.
Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004)
Creation of the positioning statement
From the research data obtained in the first steps of
product positioning process and the marketing strategy
developed, it is necessary to formulate a positioning
statement that is in tune with the promotional objectives.
This process is probably the most laborious and
difficult element positioning implementation steps.
Scholars Capon, Hulbert (2001) define the creation of
positioning statement as a complex, creative, and highly
interactive process, often involving many cut-and-try
attempts, before the satisfactory result is achieved.
Clear positioning statements have major value. For
example, one of the most common complaints advertising
companies make about their clients is that they have not
clarified their strategies. Although positioning statements
are not advertising messages, they provide excellent
guidance Ior the Iirm`s advertising agency. Without such
guidance, the agency`s creative personnel have enormous
difficulty.
According to Kalafatis, Tsogas, Blankson (2000)
positioning statements play a vital role in helping to guide
and coordinate the Iirm`s eIIorts in the marketplace, they
are both crucial internally and externally.
Scientists Rossiter, Piercy (1997) define the following
models for product positioning statement creation:
x X-YZ macromodel
x I-D-U mezomodel
x A-b-e micromodel
Creating positioning statement according to the X-YZ
model, a marketer should decide on the following issues:
x what is the products` intended target audience (Y)
x is the product brand centered oI diIIerentiated in its`
product category (X)
x what benefit (benefits) does the product bring to
consumer (Z)
Any kind of advertising attempts should emphasize:
x the benefit to the consumer, which should be unique
(U) and Iocus on (a) qualities, (b) - beneIit and (c)
emotions.
x the emphasized benefit must be important to the whole
product category (I)
x not mention at all or forewarn consumer of possible
product weaknesses (D).
Conclusions
Having completed the theoretical studies of product
positioning in the market the following conclusions can be
made:
x Positioning plays a key role when reaching the desired
place in the mindsets of potential and existing
consumers.
x Most scientists of the field of marketing define product
positioning as arrangements for a product to occupy a
clear, distinctive, and desirable place in the minds of
target consumers, relative to competing products in the
market. The position of a product is formed by
customers` perceptions oI a products attributes relative
to the attributes of competitive products
x Product positioning is an inseparable and most
important part of the STP model. If the first two steps
(segmentation and targeting) contain flaws or are
inadequately or incompletely performed, successful
product positioning is doomed to fail.
x Summarizing the opinion of various scholars, it is
obvious that product positioning is a complex,
102
continuing and chain process. While positioning a
product marketers should at least (there can be more)
go through the following steps:
1. identify and analyze competitive products in the
market,
2. identify the determinant attributes and measure
their significance to the user,
3. select positioning or repositioning strategy,
4. compose the positioning map,
5. determine the desired position of the product,
6. identify the current position of the product and
other competing products according to determinant
attributes,
7. create positioning statement.
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Rnjta Ostasevicinjtơ, Laimona Sliburytơ
Prekơs pozicionavimo rinkoje teoriniai aspektai
Santrauka
Pasaulyje nerasime prekơs, kuri neturơtǐ pozicijos. Prekơs pozicija
yra tai, kaip pirkơjas suvokia prekĊ pagal tam tikrus apsisprendimo
atributus ir isskiria ią is kitǐ tos pacios kategorijos prekiǐ. Prekơ su aiskiu
identitetu ir orientacija Ƴ potencialiǐ ar esamǐ pirkơjǐ norus ne tik bus
noriai perkama, bet ir gali garantuoti didesnius pelnus, kadangi yra
sukuriama didesnơ pridơtinơ vertơ. Dauguma organizacijǐ bando valdyti
savo prekiǐ uzimamas poziciias ir naudoia Ƴvairias pozicionavimo
strategijas, kad patektǐ Ƴ naujas (norimas) pozicijas potencialiǐ ar esamǐ
pirkơjǐ galvosenose ir taip susikurtǐ pranasumą pries konkuruoiancias
prekes. Anksciau pozicionavimas buvo labai svarbus labai auksto
konkurenciios lygio, ir gana mazǐ Ƴơjimo barjerǐ rinkose. Siandien sios
charakteristikos gali bnjti pritaikytos praktiskai bet kokiai pramonei ar
verslui. Nơ vienas produktas is tǐ, kurie isliko, negali bnjti
Ƴsivaizduoiamas be aiskaus, isskirtinio ir gana intensyvaus pozicionavimo.
Tyrimo problema: savaime suprantama, kad sơkmingai prekei
rinkoje geros kokybơs ar zinomo prekơs zenklo nepakanka. Prekơ turi
uzimti aiskią isskirtinĊ ir tinkamą vietą esamǐ ir potencialiǐ vartotojǐ
galvosenoje. Norimos pozicijos vartotojǐ galvosenoje pasiekimas (arba
nepasiekimas) yra sơkmingo (ar nesơkmingo) pozicionavimo rezultatas.
Sis straipsnis analizuoia kaip prekơ turơtǐ bnjti pozicionuojama rinkoje.
Tyrimo objektas: prekơs pozicionavimas rinkoje.
Tyrimo tikslas: Straipsnio tikslas yra susisteminti ir kruopsciai
istirti daugelio literatnjros saltiniǐ informaciją apie prekơs pozicionavimo
koncepciją vietą ir reiksmĊ STP modelyie, nuosekliai aprasyti prekơs
pozicionavimo proceso zingsnius rinkoje, kaip rekomendacijas sơkmingai
Ƴgyvendinti prekơs pozicionavimą rinkoje.
Tyrimo metodai: atliekant teorinƳ prekơs pozicionavimo rinkoje
tyrimą, naudota sisteminơ bei lyginamoji mokslinơs literatnjros analizơ.
Prekơs pozicionavimo koncepcija: Mokslinơje marketingo
literatnjroje galima rasti labai daug skirtingǐ prekơs pozicionavimo rinkoje
apibrơzimǐ. Boone ir Kurtz (2001) pozicionavimo koncepciją apibnjdina
kaip prekơs Ƴtraukimą Ƴ tam tikrą vietą potencialiǐ pirkơjǐ galvose.
Autoriai Etzel, Walker ir Stanton (1997) marketingą apibnjdina kaip
vadybininkǐ sugebơjimą atkreipti vartotojǐ dơmesƳ Ƴ prekĊ ir palankiai
diferencijuoti (pozicionuoti) ją tarp kitǐ panasiǐ prekiǐ.
Jungtiniǐ Amerikos Valstijǐ mokslininkai Ries ir Trout (1986)
issiskiria is visǐ kitǐ marketingo teoretikǐ, teigdami, kad pozicionavimas
tai metodas, padedantis Ƴvertinti ir suprasti savo ir konkurentǐ prekiǐ
poziciją bei tikslinius segmentus, kurie uztikrintǐ prekơs
konkurentiskumą rinkoje.
Pozicionavimas nơra tai, ką darome prekei, tai - kaip veikiate
potencialaus pirkơio mintis.Sie autoriai pozicionavimą laiko ir knjrybiniu
procesu: .pozicionavimas pradedamas nuo prekơs, paslaugos, Ƴmonơs ar
zmogaus. Taciau pozicionuojant nedaroma Ƴtaka prekei.'
Tuo tarpu Kotler (2006) teigia, iog pozicionavimas pasirnjpinimas,
kad prekơ uzimtǐ aiskią, atskirą ir norimą vietą is (tarp) konkuruoianciǐ
prekiǐ tiksliniǐ vartotojǐ mintyse.
Apibendrinant - prekơs pozicija rinkoje yra vartotojo suvokimas apie
prekơs atributus, palyginant juos su konkuruojancios prekơs atributais.
Kiekvienas pirkơjas kasdieną daro daug ir Ƴvairiǐ apsisprendimǐ pirkti.
Kad isvengtǐ nuolatinio prekiǐ vertinimo is nauio, pirkơjai paprastai
prekes grupuoja, arba pozicionuoja savo mąstysenoje, tam, kad
supaprastintǐ ir sutrumpintǐ savo sprendimo pirkti priơmimo procesą.
Kad pirkơjai nepozicionuotǐ prekiǐ savarankiskai, marketologai turi
bandyti veikti pirkơjǐ suvokimą apie prekĊ.
103
Pozicionavimo pagrindą sudaro vienas svarbiausiǐ marketingo
postulatǐ. Jis teigia, kad .visi zmonơs skirtingi, ir prekơ absoliuciai
visiems patikti negali'. Remiantis siuo postulatu, galima aiskiai Ƴvardyti
STP modelio naudojimo prasmĊ pateikti prekĊ potencialiai jo
norintiems ir jƳ galintiems Ƴsigyti klientams. Kaip suzinoti, kuriems
vartotojams prekĊ pasinjlyti? Tam naudojami pirmieji du STP modelio
zingsniai: segmentavimas ir tikslinơs rinkos nustatymas. Tik po to prekơ
gali bnjti pozicionuojama - nustatoma jos pozicija tiksliniǐ vartotojǐ
galvosenoje.
A. Paiuodis (2005) taip apraso STP modelio veikimą: pasirinkdama
pozicionavimo strategijas, Ƴmonơ nustato savo vietą rinkoje vartotojǐ ir
konkurentǐ atzvilgiu. Pirmiausia ii turi apsisprĊsti dơl vartotojǐ grupiǐ
(segmentǐ), kurioms bandys daryti poveikƳ, ir kartu dơl savo veiklos
profilio, kuris patenkintǐ minơtǐ vartotojǐ segmentǐ reikalavimus
(tikslinơs rinkos strategija).
Po pirmo ir antro STP modelio zingsnio, pereinama prie prekơs
pozicionavimo proceso. Sis procesas skirstomas etapais. Skirtingi autoriai
pateikia skirtingą etapǐ skaiciǐ, skiriasi ir jǐ eiliskumas. Apibendrinus
daugelio mokslininkǐ sinjlomus prekơs pozicionavimo proceso etapus, sio
straipsnio autorơs pateikia tokƳ jǐ skaiciǐ ir eiliskumą:
x konkuruojanciǐ prekiǐ rinkoie isskyrimas ir analizơ;
x apsisprendimo atributǐ identifikavimas ir jǐ reiksmingumo
Ƴvertinimas;
x esamos prekơs pozicijos nustatymas;
x pozicionavimo zemơlapio suknjrimas;
x norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas;
x pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas;
x pozicionavimo teiginio suknjrimas.
Konkuruojanciǐ prekiǐ isskyrimas ir analizơ: brơziant
pozicionavimo rơmus prekei, pirmiausia reikia nustatyti nario kategoriją,
kitas prekes, kurios konkuruoja su preke ir gali bnjti jos pakaitalai.
Geriausias bnjdas isskirti konkuruoiancias prekes yra kiekybinis tyrimo
metodas vartotoiǐ apklausa, nes sis metodas leidzia surinkti gana daug
inIormaciios, rezultatus lengva susisteminti bei apdoroti statistiskai, taip
pat leidzia uztikrinti respondentǐ anonimiskumą, kuris paprastai
respondentǐ labai vertinamas. Isskiriant konkuruoiancias prekes, galima
naudoti ir giluminio interviu metodą, taciau, atsizvelgus Ƴ laiko sąnaudas
ir efektyvumą, patogiau atlikti vartotojǐ apklausą.
G.J. Hooley, J.A. Saunders ir N.F Piercy (2006) teigia, jog
konkurenciia gali vykti tokiuose lygiuose:
x Konkurenciia su analogiskas savybes turinciomis prekơmis;
x Konkurencija prekiǐ grupơje;
x Konkurencija su kitomis tą patƳ ar labai panasǐ poreikƳ
tenkinanciomis prekơmis;
x Konkuruoti to paties poreikio lygmenyje.
Taigi nustatant konkurentus svarbu ne tik identifikuoti visas prekes,
esancias toje pacioje parduotuvơs lentynoje, bet ir nustatyti, kas
konkuruoja su visa lentyna.
Apsisprendimo atributǐ identifikavimas ir jǐ reiksmingumo
Ƴvertinimas: be galo svarbu issiaiskinti, kurie prekơs teikiami naudos
aspektai yra tinkami vartotojams. Anot D. A. Aaker (2005), atributas
reiskia ne tik prekơs savybes ir naudą vartotojui, bet ir asociacijas su
prekơs vartojimu ir vartotoju. Kitǐ mokslininkǐ - (G.J. Hooley, J.A.
Saunders ir N.F Piercy (2006) teigimu, atributus geriausia yra
identifikuoti naudojant kokybinƳ tyrimo metodą diskusiiǐ grupĊ. Pasak
V. Dikciaus (2006) tam gali bnjti naudojamos tokios projekcinơs
technikos: zodziǐ asociacijos, sakinio uzbaigimas, istoriios uzbaigimas,
piesiniǐ testas, temos suvokimo testas, vaidmenǐ vaidinimas.
Atrinki atributai bus vertingi tik tuomet, kai atitinks siuos P. Kotler,
G.Armstrong, J. Saunders, V. Wong (2003) isskirtus kriteriius:
svarbumas, unikalumas, pranasumas, perduodamumas, prevenciia,
prieinamumas, pelningumas. Svarbu pateikti atributą, kurio nesinjlo
konkurentai, arba atributą pateikti specialia forma.
Esamos prekơs pozicijos nustatymas: nustacius vartotojǐ
apsisprendimo atributus, reikia numatyti, kaip pagal juos vartotojai
vertina prekĊ ir konkurentǐ prekes. Tam geriausiai tinka kokybiniai
tyrimo metodai, o tiksliau tikslinio segmento vartotoiǐ apklausa, prasant
Ƴvertinti prekĊ ir konkurentǐ prekes pagal svarbiausius apsisprendimo
atributus. Tam tikslui marketologai dazniausiai pasitelkia tokias
technikas, kurias V. Pranulis (1998) Ƴvardiia kaip pozinjrio matavimo
skales: graIinio Ƴvertinimo skalơs, Likerto (suminiǐ vertinimǐ) skalơ,
semantinĊ diferencialinĊ skalơ, Stapel skalơ, pozymiǐ vertinimo skalơ,
fiksuotos sumos skalơ, reiksmiǐ rnjsiavimo skalơ, porǐ pasirinkimo skalơ.
Pozicionavimo zemơlapio suknjrimas: pozicionavimo zemơlapis
tai nuomoniǐ apie konkuruojancias prekes (prekiǐ pozicijǐ) isdơstymo
pasirinktos grupơs asmenǐ sąmonơje schema (Pajuodis, 2000).
Anot Viieikio, (2003) pozicionavimo zemơlapis tai prekiǐ
pozicionavimo instrumentas, skirtas tiksliai vizualiai apibrơzti, kurioie
vietoje pagal psichologinius veiksnius yra Ƴmonơs prekơs, palyginti su
analogiskomis konkurentǐ prekơmis.
Norint nustatyti, kaip skirtingi prekiǐ pasinjlymai yra suvokiami
rinkoje, turi bnjti numatomi pagrindiniai prekơs atributai, pagal kuriuos
suvokiama prekơ kaip tokia. Labai didelơ sio darbo dalis (kaip tyrimǐ
rezultatas) turi bnjti atlikta iau pries komunikaciios plano knjrimą. Tolesnơ
uzduotis yra nustatyti vartotoiǐ lnjkescius bei pirmumą, ir kaip jǐ plane
atrodo prekơ su savomis savybơmis. Tam tikslui pasiekti ir sudaromas
suvokimo zemơlapis.
Norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas: idealus taskas
pozicionavimo zemơlapyje yra tas, kuris reprezentuoja labiausiai
vartotoio trokstamą apsisprendimo atributǐ kombinaciją. Sis taskas apraso
idealią prekĊ. Ʋmonơs pasirenka norimą savo prekơs poziciją kuo arciau
idealios prekơs pozicijos.
Pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas:
daugelis mokslininkǐ (Fill, 2006; Kotler, 2007; Armstrong, 2004; Doyle,
Stern, 2006) Ƴvardiia labai panasias prekơs pozicionavimo rinkoje
strategiias:
x Pagal prekơs savybes;
x Pagal prekơs teikiamą naudą;
x Pagal vartojimo bnjdą ar situaciją;
x Pagal vartotoją;
x Pagal konkurentą;
x Pagal prekiǐ grupĊ;
x Pagal kokybĊ ar kainą;
x Pagal kultnjrinius simbolius ar kilmơs salƳ.
Svarbu paminơti, kad sios strategiios nơra diskrecios ir daznai yra
tiesiog dalys sudơtingǐ hibridiniǐ strategijǐ, kurias pozicionuodami
prekes rinkoje, naudoja marketologai.
Pozicionavimo teiginio suknjrimas: autoriai Rossiter ir Piercy
(1998) isskiria tokius pozicionavimo teiginio gavimo modelius:
x 1. X-YZ makromodelis;
x 2. I-D-U mezomodelis;
x 3. a-b-e mikromodelis.
Juose nurodoma, kas yra pozicionuojama, kam tai yra skiriama, kas
turi bnjti pabrơziama.
Isvados: Atlikus teorinĊ prekơs pozicionavimo rinkoje studiją,
galima aarvti tokias isvaaas.
x Pozicionavimas yra svarbiausias instrumentas norint pasiekti norimą
prekơs poziciją esamǐ ir potencialiǐ vartotojǐ galvosenoje.
x Dauguma marketingo srities mokslininkǐ prekơs pozicionavimą
rinkoje apibrơzia kaip pasirnjpinimą, kad prekơ uzimtǐ aiskią, atskirą
ir norimą vietą is (tarp) konkuruoianciǐ prekiǐ tiksliniǐ vartotojǐ
mintyse. Prekơs pozicija formuojama per prekơs atributǐ suvokimą,
lyginant su konkuruojanciomis prekơmis.
x Prekơs pozicionavimas yra neatskiriama ir pati svarbiausia STP
modelio dalis. Jei pirmi STP modelio zingsniai zengiami netinkamai
ar nepilnai, sơkmingai pozicionuoti prekơs rinkoje nepavyks.
x Apibendrinant daugelio mokslininkǐ nuomones, akivaizdu, kad
prekơs pozicionavimas rinkoje yra sudơtingas ir tĊstinis procesas.
Pozicionuodami prekĊ, marketologai turi nuzengti bent siuos
zingsnius (iǐ gali bnjti ir daugiau):
1) Konkuruojanciǐ prekiǐ rinkoie isskyrimas ir analizơ;
2) Apsisprendimo atributǐ identifikavimas ir jǐ reiksmingumo
Ƴvertinimas;
3) Esamos prekơs pozicijos nustatymas;
4) Pozicionavimo zemơlapio suknjrimas;
5) Norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas;
6) Pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas;
7) Pozicionavimo teiginio suknjrimas.
Raktazodziai: prekơs pozicionavimas, prekơs pozicionavimo etapai,
apsisprenaimo atributai. pozicionavimo zemơlapis,
pozicionavimo ir perpozicionavimo strategija,
pozicionavimo teiginys.
The article has been reviewed.
Received in December, 2007: accepted in February, 2008.

Thus. Boone and Kurz (2001) Scientists Etzel. Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect.analyses how the product should be positioned on the market. The author Fill (2006) states. Armstrong (2006) verify that market positioning is arranging for a product to occupy a clear. the method of comparative analysis and systematization of scientific literature were used. an institution. Concept of product positioning There is a great number of different definitions of positioning in scientific literature of marketing. distinctive. relative to competing products. Scholars Kotler. The purpose of positioning is to create a unique and favorable image in the minds of target customers. its position in the STP model. The object of the research: product positioning in the market. The first two steps of the STP model serve to find and define the desired consumer. a company. To avoid constant reevaluation of numerous products. stating that positioning is not what is done to a product. Ries and Trout (1986) distinguish from all other marketing theoretics. The same authors indicate that positioning starts with a product. A piece of merchandise. marketers plan positions that distinguish their products from competing products and give them the greatest strategic advantage in their target markets. Buyers make a large number of purchase decisions every day. Market segmentation and target marketing are prerequisites to successful positioning. Scholars Grancutt. Walker and Stanton (1997) refer to a product and to differentiate (position) it in a favorable way from similar products. Positioning is developing a specific marketing mix to brand. Kotler (2006) defines positioning as the act of designing the upies a distinct and valued position in the target consumers mind. and desirable place. Forsyth (2004) Product positioning steps Scholar Winner (2007) has a distinct view on product positioning decisions. a service. buyers tend to group. extremely diverse and that a the postulate it is simple to define the essence of the STP model: to present the product to those consumers. or even a person. in the minds of target consumers. Rather than allowing customers to position products independently. Leadley and Forsyth (2004) thoroughly describe the STP model steps in the table below Table 1 The STP model steps Segmentation * Choose variables for segmenting market * Build a profile of the segments (sub-segments) * Validate emerging segments Targeting * Decide on targeting strategy * Identify which and how many segments should be targeted Positioning * Understand consumer perceptions * Position products in the mind of the consumer * Design appropriate marketing mix to communicate positioning Source: Grancutt. Product positioning refers to the decisions and activities intended to create and maintain a certain concept 1997). or organization in general (Lamb. However. that positioning. Bhat (1998). coherently describe the product positioning process steps as recommendations for successful product positioning process accomplishment. who want it and are able to acquire it. is the natural conclusion to the sequence of activities that constitute a core part of the marketing strategy. According to the scientist. The concept of positioning seeks to place a product in a certain rspective buyers. product line. and positioning serves for placing the product in the desirable position in the minds of target consumers. Purpose of the research: to systemize and thoroughly describe the knowledge and information (found in a large number of sources) about the positioning concept. marketers have to answer the following questions when positioning the product What dimensions do consumers use to evaluate product offerings in the industry or category? How important is each of these dimensions is in the decision making process? How do you and competition compare on the dimensions? What decision processes do the customers use? The author Hooley (2001) determines these stages of product positioning process: . Hair. Research methods used: Conducting theoretical studies of positioning in the market. therefore. Marketers offerings from those of competitors and to create promotions that communicate the desired position. Leadley. decisions. he emphasizes customer decision making process as the most important issue in product positioning steps. marketers must try to influence The steps of STP model The foundation of positioning theory is made of one of the most important postulates of the science of marketing. McDaniel 2004) perceptions of a products attributes relative to the attributes of competitive products.

Saunders. adapted. but also determine the rivals to the whole shelf.e. Forsyth (2004) Compose the positioning map Determine the desired position of the product Select positioning or repositioning strategy Create the positioning statement Scientists Hutt. Piery (2006) consider a qualitative . Leadley. Saunders. The best considered means for determination is allows collecting a large amount of useful data. but also associations with the product consuming process and with the consumer himself. Identification of determinant attributes and measuring their significance to the user Collect information from a sample of existing and potential customers concerning their ratings of each product on the determinant attributes offerings for each market segment Examine the fit between preferences of market segments and current position of product Select positioning or repositioning strategy Source: Hutt. determinant attributes should be identified and their significance to the user should be measured.Table 2 Product positioning steps Identification of competitors Singling out decision making attributes Evaluation out of decision making attribute significance Identify the determinant attributes and measure their significance to the user Product positioning steps Identify and analyze competitive products in the market Table 4 Identification of competitor position according to the most important attributes Identify the current position of the product and other competing products according to determinant attributes Identification of consumer needs Preparation of a consumer map Selection of the desired position Selection of positioning strategy Source: Grancutt. According to Aaker. other products that compete in the same market and can serve as substitutes. After the identification and analysis of competitive products in the market. One of the main advantages of consumer survey is the anonymousness. i. Spech (2004) Concentrating all discussed product positioning models the authors of this article propose the following algorithm of positioning process steps. but due to larger time and financial costs is used seldom. (2005) determinant attributes define not only the products benefits and value to the user. processed statistically. Spech (2004) suggest the following steps in the product positioning process: Table 3 Product positioning steps Identify the relevant set of competitive products Identify the set of determinant attributes that customers use to differentiate among options and determine the preferred choice Identification and analysis of competitive products in the market Drawing positioning frames for a product. The authors Hooley. Scientists Hooley. which is easily systemized. category membership should be determined first. Piercy (2006) state that competition can take place in the following levels: Competition with products with analogous qualities Competition in the same product group Competition with other products that satisfy the same or very similar consumer demand Competition in the same consumer demand level As mentioned above it is vitally important not only to determine all products on the same shelf. Deep interview can be also used to determine the rival products in the market.

Determination of the desired position of the product Identification of the current position of the product and other competing products according to determinant attributes Selection of positioning or repositioning strategy Composition of the positioning map .

overpositioning. Scientists Grancutt. Clear positioning statements have major value. and desirable place in the minds of target consumers. relative to competing products in the market. Overpositioning Confused positioning Doubtful positioning Creation of the positioning statement From the research data obtained in the first steps of product positioning process and the marketing strategy developed. Leadley. distinctive. Scholars Capon. used by marketers. the emphasized benefit must be important to the whole product category (I) not mention at all or forewarn consumer of possible product weaknesses (D). the rest can be considered psychological): Introduce a new brand Change existing brand Alter beliefs about the brand Alter beliefs about competitive brands Alter attribute importance weights Introduce new or neglected attributes Find a new market segment Not only changes on the market lead to a demand for a new repositioning strategy. Conclusions Having completed the theoretical studies of product positioning in the market the following conclusions can be made: Positioning plays a key role when reaching the desired place in the mindsets of potential and existing consumers. Brooke (1994) states that a product may be inadequately positioned for three reasons: The segment in which it is targeted might have become unattractive because it is too small. Forsyth (2004) This process is probably the most laborious and difficult element positioning implementation steps. that the above mentioned strategies are not discrete and usually are just pats of complex hybrid strategies. Hulbert (2001) define the creation of positioning statement as a complex. it may produce a variety of cheaper standard glassware. and highly interactive process. . high to allow it to be priced competitively. Positioning might be inadequate because the quality and features that the product offers do not appeal to the segment to which it is targeted. successful product positioning is doomed to fail. Customers may find it hard to believe the claims made by the company about its brand in view of benefits. a marketer should decide on the following issues: nded target audience (Y) product category (X) what benefit (benefits) does the product bring to consumer (Z) Any kind of advertising attempts should emphasize: the benefit to the consumer. Leadley. Tsogas. Summarizing the opinion of various scholars. Forsyth (2004).It is important to mention. confused positioning and doubtful positioning: Table 5 Risky positions Potential risk Underpositioning Comment Some companies discover that buyers have only a vague idea of the brand and the features/benefits of that brand. Therefore a consumer might think that a particular glass company. creative. Sometimes. Source: Grancutt. However. it is necessary to formulate a positioning statement that is in tune with the promotional objectives. declining. for example. Kotler (2006) indicate four main risky product positions on the market: underpositioning. This confusion may result from the company making too many positioning too frequently. it is obvious that product positioning is a complex. According to Kalafatis. which should be unique emotions. Stern (2006) suggest the following repositioning options (the first two are real repositioning strategies. changes in the competitive environment force marketers to repositi position it holds in the minds of consumers relative to the positions of competing products. Blankson (2000) positioning statements play a vital role in helping to guide rts in the marketplace. Most scientists of the field of marketing define product positioning as arrangements for a product to occupy a clear. Scientists Rossiter. Scientists Doyle. the price and the name of the manufacturer. they provide excellent difficulty. only produces luxury items that retail at high prices. Piercy (1997) define the following models for product positioning statement creation: X-YZ macromodel I-D-U mezomodel A-b-e micromodel Creating positioning statement according to the X-YZ model. Very often the product fails because of marketers initial positioning mistakes. too competitive or otherwise unprofitable. Customers may not be aware of anything particularly special about the brand Customers may have too narrow a view of the brand. Although positioning statements are not advertising messages. Customers could be confused about the position of the brand within the marketplace. If the first two steps (segmentation and targeting) contain flaws or are inadequately or incompletely performed. they are both crucial internally and externally. often involving many cut-and-try attempts. For example. The position of a product is formed by products attributes relative to the attributes of competitive products Product positioning is an inseparable and most important part of the STP model. one of the most common complaints advertising companies make about their clients is that they have not clarified their strategies. before the satisfactory result is achieved.

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2006. kaip pagal juos vartotojai vertina prek ir konkurent prekes. Pagal kult rinius simbolius ar kilm .J. lapis. Anot D. kurios konkuruoja su preke ir gali b ti jos pakaitalai.J. nusta ius vartotoj apsisprendimo atributus. 6) Pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas. bet ir asociacijas su prek s vartojimu ir vartotoju.nustatoma jos pozicija tikslini vartotoj galvosenoje. 2004. Pagal prek s teikiam naud . Stern. Prek s pozicionavimas yra neatskiriama ir pati svarbiausia STP modelio dalis. kurias pozicionuodami prekes rinkoje. pirmiausia reikia nustatyti nario kategorij .F Piercy (2006) teigia. temos suvokimo testas. 1. kuris patenkint min t vartotoj segment reikalavimus (tikslin s rinkos strategija). patogiau atlikti vartotoj apklaus . pelningumas. skirtas tiksliai vizualiai apibr vietoje pagal psichologinius veiksnius yra mon s prek s. Dauguma marketingo srities mokslinink prek s pozicionavim rinkoje apibr pinim . 2000). poreik Konkurencija su kitomis t pat tenkinan iomis prek mis. jog iomis prek mis. Konkuruoti to paties poreikio lygmenyje. Tik po to prek gali b ti pozicionuojama . Pagal preki grup . kurioms bandys daryti poveik . ir kaip j plane atrodo prek su savomis savyb mis. tai nuomoni apie konkuruojan ias prekes (preki pozicij pasirinktos grup s asmen s mon je schema (Pajuodis. Saunders ir N. mon nustato savo viet rinkoje vartotoj ir konkurent sti d l vartotoj grupi (segment ). J. Svarbu pateikti atribut . Aaker (2005). galima naudoti ir giluminio interviu metod . Pozicionavimas yra svarbiausias instrumentas norint pasiekti norim prek s pozicij esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. ta laiko s naudas ir efektyvum . X-YZ makromodelis. kurias V. A. kad prek . atributus geriausia yra grup . J. Apibendrinant daugelio mokslinink nuomones. arba atribut pateikti specialia forma. Kit mokslinink . Geriausias b ias prekes yra kiekybinis tyrimo apklausa. kas konkuruoja su visa lentyna. atributas s savybes ir naud vartotojui. s teikiami naudos aspektai yra tinkami vartotojams. Tam geriausiai tinka kokybiniai vertinti prek ir konkurent prekes pagal svarbiausius apsisprendimo technikas. Labai didel rezultatas) turi b rim . Pasak identifikuoti naudojant kokybin tyrimo metod V. s kmingai pozicionuoti prek s rinkoje nepavyks.Pozicionavimo pagrind postulat sudaro vienas svarbiausi marketingo s skirtingi. Hooley. nes . kurio nesi lo konkurentai. testas.A. turi b ti numatomi pagrindiniai prek s atributai. The article has been reviewed. Pozicionuodami prek gali b 1) Konkuruojan i preki . kas yra pozicionuojama. pagal kuriuos suvokiama prek kaip tokia. atskir ir norim viet i preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. kuris reprezentuoja labiausiai apsisprendimo atribut kombinacij ideali prek . Dik iaus (2006) tam gali b ti naudojamos tokios projekcin s asociacijos. 2) Apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir j vertinimas. lyginant su konkuruojan iomis prek mis. kuris paprastai respondent ias prekes. 2007. reikia numatyti. Jei pirmi STP mode ar nepilnai. Svarbu pamin ra diskre tiesiog dalys sud ting hibridini strategij . Pagal kokyb ar kain . Norint nustatyti.(G. 3) Esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas. vaidmen vaidinimas. ir kartu d l savo veiklos profilio. esan ias toje pa ioje parduotuv s lentynoje. skiriasi ir j daugelio mokslinink si lomus prek straipsnio autor s pateikia tok j skai i konkuruojan i preki . lapio suk rimas.A. G. semantin diferencialin skal . por pasirinkimo skal . kitas prekes. fiksuotos sumos skal r . 3. Prek s pozicija formuojama per prek s atribut suvokim . ir prek absoliu iai vardyti STP modelio naudojimo prasm potencialiai jo norintiems ir j galintiems vartotojams prek pasi lyti? Tam naudojami pirmieji du STP modelio s rinkos nustatymas. Juose nurodoma. norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas. pozicionavimo ir perpozicionavimo strategija. pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. palyginti su prek mis. kas turi b ti pabr Atlikus teorin prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje studij . Atrinki atributai bus vertingi tik t pozicionavimo instrumentas. 7) Pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. mon s pasirenka norim savo prek s pozicij kuo ar iau idealios prek s pozicijos. pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas. apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir j vertinimas. Pagal vartotoj . lapyje yra tas. kad prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje yra sud tingas ir t stinis procesas. bet ir nustatyti. kam tai yra skiriama. Likerto (sumini vertinim ) skal . igimu. . Skirtingi autoriai pateikia skirting etap skai i . Tolesn l kes ius bei pirmum . 2. Stapel skal vertinimo skal . Hooley. s irstomas etapais. Tam tikslui pasiekti ir sudaromas lapis. Konkuruojan i preki pozicionavimo r mus prekei. daugelis mokslinink (Fill. Konkurencija preki grup je. Kotler. 5) Norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas. 2006) s pozicionavimo rinkoje Pagal prek s savybes. a-b-e mikromodelis. Pagal vartojimo b d ar situacij . Armstrong. prek s pozicionavimas. 4) lapio suk rimas. prek s pozicionavimo etapai. kaip skirtingi preki pasi lymai yra suvokiami rinkoje. Doyle. Pranulis (1998) rio matavimo vertinimo skal s. pozicionavimo teiginys. prieinamumas. stymo pozicionavimo strategijas. Pagal konkurent . I-D-U mezomodelis. esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas. naudoja marketologai. akivaizdu. Taigi nustatant konkurentus svarbu ne tik identifikuoti visas prekes.