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Mohammed A. Hasan Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Minnesota-Duluth Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Related ECE Courses and Software: 1. ECE 2111: Signals and Systems 2. ECE 5741: Digital Signal Processing 3. ECE 8741: Digital Image Processing 4. Matlab Working knowledge in Statistics, Calculus, and Diﬀerential Equations is very helpful in understanding Image Processing.
History Many of the techniques of digital image processing, or digital picture processing as it was often called, were developed in the 1960s at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MIT, Bell Labs, University of Maryland, and a few other places, with application to satellite imagery, wirephoto standards conversion, medical imaging, videophone, character recognition, and photo enhancement. But the cost of processing was fairly high with the computing equipment of that era. In the 1970s, digital image processing proliferated, when cheaper computers and dedicated hardware became available. Images could then be processed in real time, for some dedicated problems such as television standards conversion. As general-purpose computers became faster, they started to take over the role of dedicated hardware for all but the most specialized and compute-intensive operations. With the fast computers and signal processors available in the 2000s, digital image processing has become the most common form of image processing, and is generally used because it is not only the most versatile method, but also the cheapest.
What is an Image
1. An image f (x, y) is 2-dimensional light intensity function, where f measures brightness at position (x, y). 2. A digital image is a representation of an image by a 2-D array of discrete samples. 3. The amplitude of each sample is represented by a ﬁnite number of bits. 4. Each element of the array is called a pixel.
is called digitization. still video images. which a computer can utilized. chest and dental X-rays. Digital image processing is a term used to describe the manipulation of image data by a computer. The process of transforming an image to a set of numbers. . 2. An image sequence such as that seen in a television is a three dimensional signal for which the image intensity at any point is a function of three variables: two spatial variables and time. 1.Terminology Images: An image is a two-dimensional signal whose intensity at any point is a function of two spatial variables. radar and sonar signals. Examples are photographs.
The value of a pixel is referred to as its gray level and can be thought of as the intensity or brightness (or darkness) of the pixel.3. . 5. 4. and is determined by the hardware that produces or displays the image. A pixel is the smallest resolvable unit of an image which the computer handles. Digitization is to divide an image up into several picture elements called pixels. The number of diﬀerent gray-levels a pixel can have varies from system to system.
biology. Multimedia information will be the wave of the future. X-ray. This includes different imaging modalities such as visual. law enforcement. defense. Industrial inspection. Diverse applications in astronomy. ultrasound. . require processing of images. geography.Why do we process images Images (and videos) are everywhere. medicine. geology. etc.
Editing Digital photos (a) Image Enhancements (b) Contrast Stretching (c) Color Correction (d) White-Balancing (e) Red-Eye Reduction/ Removal (f) Shrinking/Zooming Software (a) Adobe Photoshop (b) ImageMagick (c) GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) 2. 3. etc. PET. Machine Vision (a) Inspection (b) Measurement (c) Robotic Vision . Medical Image Processing (a) Chest X-rays (b) Computed Tomography (c) UltraSound Imaging (d) MRI.Applications 1.
etc. Prepare for display or printing (a) Adjust image size (b) Halftoning 9. (b) Eﬃciently store an image in a digital camera (c) Send an image from Mars to Earth 7.MPEG. Defense (a) Target recognition (b) Thermal Imaging 6. Remote Sensing (a) Land use (b) Crops (c) Weather Forecasting 5. Enhance and restore images (a) Remove scratches from an old movie (b) Improve visibility of tumor in a radiograph 10. Extract information from images (a) Read the ZIP code on a letter (b) Measure water polution from aerial images 11.4. To hide information in them or watermarking . Image Storage & Transmission (a) JPEG. OCR. Document Image Processing 8.
Hard disk Processing Hardware 1. Video Cameras 4. 2. Printers 2. Digital Cameras (CCD/CMOS) 3.Image Sensors/Input Devices 1. Processing Software: Many commercial and non-commercial . etc. Microprocessors. Film Cameras 2. workstations. PCs. CD-ROM 2. boards. TV/Computer Monitors Image Storage 1. 3. Scanners Image Output Devices 1.
each component (R. Storage for typical images (a) 512 × 512. 24 bits true color image: 2.144B (b) 1024×768. 256 levels or 8 bits/pixel is suﬃcient for most applications 2. 8 bits grayscale image: 262.359. For grayscale image.Grayscale and Color Images 1. G.296B . For color image. B) needs 256 levels or 8 bits/pixel 3.
n= frame number . l= vertical position 2. n) 1.Digital B/W Videos XR (l. m= horizontal position 3. m.
Grayscale Image .
m) . XG (n.Color Images XR (n. m). m). XB (n.
. 0) x(0. 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 A digital image can be written as a matrix x(0.096. ··· x(0. N − 1) x(1. . . N = 64. 1) ··· ··· . x(M − 1. . . . 0 ≤ m ≤ M − 1.F (x. 1) x(1. . . N = 512. 0) F = . 3. # of pixels = 1.144. . N − 1) .720. # of pixels = 262. x(M − 1. y) =⇒ F (m. # of pixels = 4. M = 1024. n). 0) x(1. M = 64 (26 ).310. N − 1) Popular Image Size: 1. N = 1280. 2. 1) . M = 512 (29). x(M − 1.
Global Operations . Local Operations 3. Point Operations 2.Image Operations 1.
Median ﬁltering: Non-linear .Image Operations can be classiﬁed as Linear and non-linear Operations: H is a linear operator if if satisﬁes the superposition principle: H(af + bg) = aH(f ) + bH(g) for all images f and g and all constants a and b. 1. Mean ﬁltering: Linear 2.
n) = 255 − F (m.Simple Operations On Images Digital Negative: Given an image F . n) . the Digital Negative of F is deﬁned as FN egative(m.
Feature Enhancement by Subtraction .
(Now you know why the image shows only a small part of the entire picture. According to the IEEE PCS Newsletter of May/June 2001. the fact that the complete picture would raise quite a few eyebrows. The engineers tore oﬀ the top third of the centerfold and scanned it with a Muirhead wire photo scanner (a distant cry from the ﬂatbed scanners of today) by wrapping it around the drum of the scanner. discounting of course.A Brief History of Lena (Lenna) Anil K Kandangath Anyone familiar with digital image processing will surely recognize the image of Lena. (also spelled Lenna by many publications) was the Playboy playmate in November 1972 and rose to fame in the computer world when researchers at the University of Southern California scanned and digitized her image in June 1973. Lena Sjblom. I got to know that Lena has a history worth all the attention that has been paid to her over the years by countless image processing researchers. (Lena herself never know of her fame until she was interviewed by a computer magazine in Sweden where she lives with her husband and children). While going through some old usenet discussions. . they were hurriedly searching for a glossy image which they could scan and use for a conference paper when someone walked in with a copy of Playboy..
sensual and tactual Thirteen Crays found not the proper fractal. "Skip this stuff. written by an anonymous admirer: "0 dear Lena. your beauty is so vast It is hard sometimes to describe it fast.Also. And for your lips. I thought the entire world I would impress If only your portrait I could compress. I’ll just digitize." . And while these setbacks are all quite severe I might have fixed them with hacks here or there But when wavelets took sparkle from your eyes I said. here’s the poem dedicated to Lina. Alas! First when I tried to use VQ I found that your cheeks belong to only you. Your silky hair contains a thousand lines Hard to match with sums of discrete cosines.
Example (a) The original gray levels are [100. Enhance the dynamic range by stretching the original gray levels to the range of 0 to 2. (c) The transformation function g(f ) = ((f − 100)/50) ∗ 255 f or100 ≤ f ≤ 150 . (b) The target gray levels are [0.Linear Stretching 1. 150]. 255].
Illustration of Linear Stretching .
Compression 4. Image Restoration 3. Image Enhancement 2. computer vision .Image/video Processing Methods 1. Morphological image processing 6. Image reconstruction 5. Feature extraction and recognition.
4. thresholding. Neighborhood averaging is to avoid extreme ﬂuctuations in gray level from pixel to pixel. The most common edge detection method is gradient detection. 1. Histogram Equalization is an adjustment of gray scale based on gray-level histogram. 2. Image Scaling is a means of reducing or expanding the size of an image using existing image data.Other Image Operations Image algebra includes mathematical comparisons. This is eﬀective in enhancing the contrast of an image. . Edge Detection is an operation of measuring and analyzing the features in an image by detecting and enhancing the edges of the features. It is also very eﬀective tool for noise reduction. 3. edge detection and noise reduction. altering values of pixels.
n). Color Restoration . Image Restoration: Given a noisy image y(m. n) = x(m. n) is noise. The objective is to recover x(m. n) y(m. n) from y(m. n) is the original image and v(m. n) where x(m. n) + v(m.5.
Photo Restoration .
Contrast of an image can be revealed by its histogram Histogram The histogram of an image with L possible gray levels. · · · .6. or mostly medium values) 2. or mostly bright. f = 0. Low contrast image values concentrated near narrow range (mostly dark. L − 1 is deﬁned as: nl P (l) = n where – nl is the number of pixels with gray level l. – n is the total number of pixels in the image. Contrast Enhancement: how to enhance the contrast of an image? 1. 1. Contrast enhancement change the image value distribution to cover a wide range 3. .
Examples of Histograms .
.Applications • Astronomy: Hubble Space Telescope : This telescope has limitation in resolution due to atmospheric turbulence. out of focus image. Digital image processing is normally used to recover the desired information from these images. Optical problem in a telescope results in blurred.
MRI . detection. Similarly. digitization. processing and computer image reconstruction. X-Ray computerized Tomography (X-ray CT) is capable of generating a cross-sectional display of the body. NMRCT (nuclear magnetic resonance). This involves X-ray generation.• Medical Imaging: Most of advanced medical imaging tools are based on DSP tools.
These characteristics may be 1. ﬁngerprints. speech is determined partly by the physiology and partly by the way a person speaks. and they should not be exclusively identiﬁed into either class. Physiological (e.. signature.g. face. gait. keystroke) Biometric identiﬁers are actually a combination of physiological and behavioral characteristics.g.) . iris) 2.. retina.Biometrics and Security: Biometric recognition refers to the use of distinctive characteristics (biometric identiﬁers) for automatically recognition individuals. a Behavioral (e. (For example.
1. Face recognition . Signature Veriﬁcation 2. Fingerprint identiﬁcation 3.
Signature Veriﬁcation .
capacitive sensors. . ultrasound sensors. an English plant morphologist published the ﬁrst scientiﬁc paper reporting his systematic study on the ridge and pore structure in ﬁngerprints.Fingerprint: In 1684.. . A ﬁngerprint image may be classiﬁed as: (a) Oﬄine: Inked impression of the ﬁngertip on a paper is scanned (b) Live-scan: Optical sensor..
there are diﬀerent local ridge characteristics. . They are very distinctive.At the local level. The two most prominent ridge characteristics. very high-resolution images are required. however. are: (a) Ridge termination (b) Ridge bifurcation At the very-ﬁne level. intra-ridge details (sweat pores) can be detected. called minutiae.
Face Recognition Face Recognition Methods (a) Template matching using minimum-distance classiﬁers metrics (b) Linear discriminants (c) Bayesian approach .
since it makes possible to identify the source. creator. carrying information pertaining to copyright protection and data authentication. owner. author. Digital watermarking represents a valid solution to the above problem. permanently embedded into digital data. Watermarking: The World Wide Web and the progress in multimedia storage and transmission technology expanded the possibility of illegal copying and reproducing of digital data.1. A digital watermark is an identiﬁcation code. distributor or authorized consumer of digitized images. video recordings or audio recordings. .
. the goal of steganography is to hide messages inside other ”harmless” messages in a way that does not allow any ”enemy” to even detect that there is a second secret message present [Markus Kuhn 1995-07-03] . (a) Copyright protection and authentication 2. In contrast to cryptography. where the ”enemy” is allowed to detect. intercept and modify messages without being able to violate certain security premises guaranteed by a cryptosystem. Data hiding 3. Steganography: Secret communication Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication.
3 terra bytes / 2 hr program . HDTV 3.Entertainment 1. Consider a 2 hour movie: 1920 x 1080 x 30 bits/pixel x 24 frames/second 1. Digital camcorders 2. DVDs: High quality image/video compression(MPEG2: about 5-10 Million bits/second) 4. Digital Cinema (a) New compression technologies are needed i.5 billion bits/second ! 1.
JPEG 2000 standard is based on wavelets 2. • Video-phone using existing telephone cable. • Streaming video over wireless 1. has limited bandwidth 3. The amount of intermission to be transmitted for videophone is much bigger than speech signal. Video is high bandwidth data 2. requires digital compression technology). at present. • Satellite broadcasting and Satellite Imaging Image Compression Techniques 1. Wireless. JPEG (original) is based on the Discrete Cosine .Compression • HDTV (high resolution TV broadcasted with the same existing TV channel. Requires Compression Technology. New coding techniques such as MPEG-4 have been developed. Needs eﬃcient and eﬀective compression 4.
An Example of Image Compression .