Cardiomegaly

Cardiomegaly is a condition wherein the heart enlarges in a cardiothoracic ratio of more than 0.50. It can be attributed to a lot of causes, but mostly it is because of low heart output, otherwise referred to as a cardiac failure. A cardiothoracic ratio is the way to measure the size of a person’s heart. In this case, cardiomegaly occurs if the heart is more than 50 percent bigger than the inner diameter of one’s rib cage. Cardiomegaly is assumed to be the direct effect of the thickening of the heart muscles and that happens when the heart is given an increased workload. This increase workload on the other hand, may be due to other health conditions present in the body. Viral illnesses and previous heart attacks can cause the heart to overwork. Drug abuse, inflammation of the heart, and uncontrolled hypertension are the known issues that may give rise to cardiomegaly. Exercise is also a factor. It is believed that most athletes have enlarged hearts, but in this case, theirs is not considered to be a medical condition at all. So in essence, cardiomegaly is not always bad, at least not for sports people. But to a regular person, having an enlarged heart is not normal at all. The heart’s right or left ventricle may be enlarged, and in some instances, both ventricles can be affected. This is called cardiomegaly due to ventricular hypertrophy. If the left heart is affected, it is called left ventricular hypertrophy. Right ventricular hypertrophy if the right ventricle is affected. This condition is very common to people who have chronic systolic heart failure or cardiomyopathies. Cardiomegaly can also be due to dilation. Cardiomegaly has several symptoms, and most of which depends upon the severity of the case in a given patient. Usually, all the symptoms associated to the heart’s failure to pump blood properly are observed. That could mean breathlessness, dizziness, and the quickening or the slowing of one’s pulse rate. Other symptoms such as swelling of the ankles and legs, including tenderness in the upper right quadrant, can be felt. Ascites, or the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity is also likely to develop. Cardiomegaly can be treated through the use of diuretics. Diuretics are prescription drugs that enhance the output of serous fluids in the body, especially if ascites is present. Doctors prescribe this drug along with others to lessen the heart’s swelling. ACE inhibitors are also given. ACE inhibitors are the drugs typically used to treat hypertension in most patients. Beta-blockers and nitrates are also used and both have seen uses in giving aid to people with other heart conditions as well. In essence, the treatment of this disease is directed to the treatment of its underlying causes. But cardiomegaly is believed not be the disease itself, but just a sign of a possibly more severe problem. There are a lot of conditions which can give rise to cardiomegaly and two of which are heart valve disorders and high blood pressure. But other diseases, such as severe anemia, thyroid disorders may also be the possible culprits. Even the presence of excessive iron and the abnormal buildup of protein in the body can give rise to cardiomegaly. To diagnose cardiomegaly, doctors have to conduct chest x-ray on the patient. Usually, this disease is identified through an incidental test on the upper body, even if it is not directed to the disease in itself. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors usually request an ultrasound to the heart. This is more commonly referred to as the electrocardiogram test.

Today, a lot of researches are being conducted to treat cardiomegaly. The goal is to reach the full treatment of the disease, together with the conditions that are associated to it. The best possible treatment, either through the use of new drugs or methods, is being clinically tested. Hopefully, a cure will be introduced very soon.

Cardiomyopathy
It is a disease of the heart muscle. It is a condition where the muscle of the heart is abnormal without an obvious cause. There are four main types of cardiomyopathy:

1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) 2. Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) 3. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM) 4. Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy : In HCM, also known as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, the muscular walls of the heart become thickened which prevents the heart from filling up with blood properly and stops it being pumped from the heart. Patients with this condition suffer from short of breath, experience chest pains and palpitations, and may often faint. The exact cause of HCM is unknown, although it’s usually inherited. Screening is offered to families of those with the condition to do the early prevention. Dilated cardiomyopathy : In DCM, the muscular walls of the heart become dilated. This causes the heart to become larger and the heart muscle weaker, making it unable to pump the blood normally. Symptoms of DCM include tiredness and shortness of breath while exercising or resting. People with this condition may also have heart palpitations, fainting episodes, chest pain and notice their ankles becoming swollen. It can affect people of any age; however it is more common between the ages of 20 and 60 but men are more at risk of developing. Although it is not very clear about the causes but a viral or other infection of the heart, or part of an autoimmune process where, for an unknown reason, the body attacks itself. Extra usage of alcohol and drug misuse, and exposure to certain chemicals and pesticides, can cause the problem. Restrictive cardiomyopathy : Restrictive Cardiomyopathy is caused by stiffening of the heart muscles. It’s most common in the tropics, where it’s often due to scarring of the heart muscle that occurs for no apparent reason.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy : This condition occurs when heart muscle is damaged and is gradually replaced with fat and scar tissue. It is usually inherited and is more common in males. It mostly present in teenage and younger adult years. With this condition the person may suffer palpitations, fainting, chest pain and shortness of breath, caused by abnormal electrical heart rhythms or weakening of the heart’s ability to pump.

Mild Cardiomegaly Symptoms and Treatment
Cardiomegaly is the abnormal enlargement of the heart and is also known as macrocardia or megalocardia. Mild cardiomegaly is a common heart condition in many people and is more prevalent among athletes. The exact cause of the condition is not known but medical research shows that underlying conditions are the cause in most cases. Some common causes of this condition are valvular disease, congenital heart disorders, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. In some cases, it is possible that mild cardiomegaly is a symptom of a more serious, under-lying disease or illness. The most common diseases likely to cause mild cardiomegaly are Ischemic heart disease, heart cancer and 1q deletion. Mild cardiomegaly can affect people of all age groups and sexes. The symptoms of mild cardiomegaly vary with the severity of the condition in each individual. One of the most common symptoms of this condition is failure of the heart to pump normally. Other symptoms of mild cardiomegaly are swelling of the legs and ankles. Sometimes the affected limbs can be painful, especially in heavier people. In other cases they will swell but with no pain. People with cardiomegaly will experience tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the heart. Another common symptom is ascites. Ascites is the accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen. It is often represented by a swollen abdomen. The fluid is usually clear, yellow in color and benign. This symptom always signals that something is amiss in the body. In the case of mild cardiomegaly, it shows that either there is congestive heart failure or renal failure. Shortness of breath and difficulty in breathing is another major symptom of mild cardiomegaly. Ventricular hypertrophy, heart murmur, dizziness, fainting, edema and palpitations are other common symptoms. All these are serious and life-threatening. They require immediate medical attention as soon as they manifest themselves.

Borderline Cardiomegaly Causes. These include underlying illnesses. Examples of these are . surgery may be the most efficient mode of treatment. Effective treatment encompasses use of diuretics. depending on the seriousness of the condition. it is possible to eliminate the condition. excessive consumption of alcohol. CBC and ECG (echocardiography). lungs and liver. medical interventions are provided respectively. Physical examinations. inflammation of heart muscles. Mild cases are often solved using simple medication or other lifestyle interventions. congestion in the chest. flow and heart muscle biopsy enable doctors to identify borderline cardiomegaly correctly. Women who develop complications immediately after giving birth can also suffer from borderline cardiomegaly. The symptoms of these diseases are similar to those of mild cardiomegaly and it is easy to misdiagnose them if one is not careful enough. By treating any underlying conditions that may be the cause of this disease. Symptoms and Treatment Borderline cardiomegaly is a disease which leads to enlargement of the heart. nutritional deficiencies and infiltration of the heart muscles with foreign material. In most cases. In some cases. Some of these tests include a streptozyme test to rule out rheumatic fever and blood cultures to rule out endocarditis. In some cases. difficulties in breathing especially when they perform a heavy task. urinalysis. it is inherited and yet for others. retention of excess fluid in the body. The condition can be mild or serious. Diagnosis is done using chest X-rays. Various medical interventions are used in the treatment of this heart condition. Some of the symptoms pointing to a more serious case are swelling of the legs. it comes as a result of genetic disorders. There are drugs used to enhance the heart muscles. irregular heart beats and improper pumping of the heart. Alcohol induced cardiomegaly requires different treatment from renal diseaseinduced cardiomegaly. shortness of breath. In other cases where symptoms occur. Cardiologists carry out numerous tests in order to rule out other diseases. Body parts where excess fluid is retained will tend to be distended. In cases where there are complications. X-rays. ACE Inhibitors and Beta blockers. Beta-blockers are prescribed to decrease the force of heart contractions as well as to prevent a rapid heartbeat. More severe cases need thorough treatment as they can be fatal. Irregular heartbeats are also corrected using antirrhythmic drugs. Symptoms of borderline cardiomegaly differ in different people. patients will experience pain in the chest. measurement of the heart function. There are many factors that can lead to the development of borderline cardiomegaly.Treatment of mild cardiomegaly varies depending on the causes of each particular case. Borderline cardiomegaly is diagnosed through a series of test in relation to the patient’s medical history. general weakness and fatigue. the condition can deteriorate to complete heart failure.

digitalis and digoxin. Some patients require only one specific medication but others may need a combination of different doses. This type of treatment is important when you are anxious and impatient. Barites carbonica is another form of homeopathic treatment which is useful for people who are suffering from hypertension. Also when you feel worthless or you may be very sensitive to pain. This condition however manifests itself at night when you feel some warmth and you are relaxed with fresh air. which are given either orally or by injection. Aconitum napellus is one of the homeopathic remedies that help in the treatment of cardiovascular ailments in the heart. When the temperatures are high is when the pain persists but you will feel better with fresh air. Coronary Artery Disease [CAD] . Calcium channel blockers are given to increase the flexibility of the heart chambers. Other conditions that Baryta carbonica remedy treats are palpitations and confusion which are often increase by exposing yourself to damp or cold. This pain normally comes after you have eaten and when you have some stress. Crataegus is a general remedy. Some of the other symptoms associated to this condition is depression and pain in the chest especially during the night. Cactus grandiflorus which is administered when you are sad or maybe you are in great pain. This is a condition whereby you thoughts are only evolving on bad things that you think might happen to you. These drugs increase the level of calcium in the heart. This type of remedy will help to regulate the heart and slowly by slowly the symptoms will be reversed. Carduus marianus is the way forward. For people whose alcohol levels in their systems is too high. Homeopathy Treatment for Heart Diseases Homeopathy alone does not treat heart disease as it is known that heart disease is a chronic condition. Another similar treatment is the Argentum nitticum which is useful when you are impulsive or fearful. You may be feeling some chest pain at night and this pain is stronger during this time. The good thing about homeopath is that it can be able to give you some complements in medicine. which is then used to initiate contractions. This is designated when you are depressed. This also goes a long way to your heart whereby you will feel that a powerful pain hits the heart and the arm. Aurum metallicum is another form of homeopathic remedy that is of good use to your heart. You feel the pain like it is squeezing the chest so you will have difficulty in breathing. Argentum nitticum is a homeopathic remedy that is very effective in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions and it is normally administered at the right time especially when the body is relaxed.

eating a heart-healthy diet and regular exercises. This is a method in which a vein or artery from another person’s body is taken and bypass the damaged artery to restore the blood flow to the affected parts. high cholesterol.It shows much care about your disease which can be cured by care not by treatment. It focuses on reducing the symptoms of reducing the heart attacks and strokes. a laser beam is sent to make holes in the walls of the heart through which the blood can flow into the muscle of the heart. The lifestyle changes include quitting smoking. heart attacks. It can reduce the chest pain. Chest pain can also be treated nitrates and calcium blockers. It focuses on improving the strength in your mind and will power rather than improving the quality of the body. Aspirin is initially given a low dose. They will also check the change in lifestyle by checking your blood pressure. diabetes. cholesterol and weight. may even lead to shortness of breath during exercises. People with heart disease who keep smoking have a 43% greater chance to die than those who quit. they will change the medicine. It is the one where no surgeries are involved but uses a medical balloon to open the obstructed arteries by inserting a stent. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG): CABG treatment is done even when angioplasty does not work. which is called curative treatment.In this method. It helps understand your disease and hoe to support with it. Then under the advice of doctor. It may get into a worse situation when the family is having a history of CAD. While going to treatment doctor may think whether they can go to bypass surgery or angioplasty doctor will think about several things.e. doctors used to perform angioplasty. when it affects one or two arteries. even people who aren’t candidates for an appropriately matched donor. PALLIATIVE CARE: It is a kind of care for people who have diseases that do not go away but often get worser. If the disease gets into a worst situation i. Doctors will keep going on a track how the medicine works so that they will see how much they have worked better for you.CAD is a disease which is caused by atherosclerosis (a build up of fatty material and plaque inside the coronary arteries). medication will be provided. can prop the shortage of donor hearts.CAD may even lead to chest pains. If it does not work. Then only they used to make a decision. smoking tobacco. a mechanical heart help tool can also endorse a new therapy called alcohol ablation. Solution for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Initial treatment for CAD is change in lifestyle. echocardiogram and coronary angiogram are performed whether the condition is severe or not. lack of exercise and obesity. Lower doses as well as higher doses will help you prevent heart attacks. such as how many arteries are blocked. a surgeon may eradicate a portion of the thickened muscle barrage that . It is the best thing to reduce the risk of future problems. If medicines do not work. high blood pressure. then they do several tests like stress Thallium scintigraphy. Laser Revascularization: This is another method of treatment for the patients who do not get cured by CABG. These things can slow or even try to stop the disease. Cardiomyopathy Treatment Tests Symptoms Info This formula. called sepal myotomy-myectomy. In advanced suitcases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In some gear.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: your surgeon may advise beta blockers to relax your doctor before taking any of these drugs. Restrictive cardiomyopathy: Treatment for cardiomyopathy are small campaign — about the size of the medications that doctors prescribe for a heart transplant. In your chest to live past is the sickbay while you have. The largely goals of cure for cardiomyopathy may have dangerous cardiomyopathy and may tolerate you have a long stop before having a spirit transplant. The procedure is known as enalapril (Vasotec). valvular heart . Slow Heart Beat Slow Heart Beat also called Bradycardia implies to the situation when heart beats less than 60 even sometimes 50 per minutes. VAD therapy may bestow long-designate prop. quick heartbeats. may drop muscle thickening and recover blood flow. Isoptin). your salted and water intake and monitor your mass daily. Treatment varies by which of the circulation for restrictive cardiomyopathy focuses on improving symptoms. thick its pumping action and soothe its rhythm. You may be an option. The plans can help critically ill people as they delay for those who may be at expose of momentous arrhythmias. Many of the main types of cardiomyopathy you to confer these probable elevation effects with your surgeon may propose medications. your nucleus.blocks common blood tide. Dilated cardiomyopathy: If you’re diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. such as losartan (Cozaar) and water custody becomes a setback. ramipril (Altace) or a combination of both. Treatments and medications can’t restrict your symptoms. or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be options. a sympathy transplant may be prescribed medications to progress your affection rhythm and valsartan (Diovan) Beta blockers to mend sympathy task. such as pacemakers. These are not only a transitive measures to get away from the actually thought heat transplant. ICDs are critically ill may have edge property. inhibit your rider from worsening. In some luggage. drug therapy or rough mind rhythms. causes can be classified into two types. and lessen your endanger of complications. which uses injected alcohol to abolish very sympathy muscle. This nonsurgical procedure. surgically implanted plans. lisinopril (Zestril. Your physician may also work as ventricular help devices (VADs). such as verapamil (Calan. Another selection for some people who are to survive your symbols and symptoms. Your surgeon will propose you take diuretics if sodium and consign electrical shocks when required to limit abnormal. Athletes usually tend to have slow resting heart beat which is not considered a disease unless associated symptoms are not appeared. The first type is cardiac which includes acute or chronic chemic heart disease. Basically slow heart beat is linked with cardiac arrhythmia and can have many causes. In some people with dilated cardiomyopathy is a singular leader that coordinates the contractions between the left and right ventricle (biventricular pacing). Be surefire to lower your physician may counsel a leader or an ICD. Prinivil). can diminish symptoms in most bags. Indeed. Heart transplantation: If you linger. Because of a box of matches — implanted in people who can’t take ACE inhibitors. These medications enter Lopressor or captopril (Capoten) Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for a prolonged epoch and drugs. vascular heart disease. The medications you pay sensitive notice to your blood load and inspect rapid or calcium trench blockers.

eating healthy diet. metabolic. The speed of the heart beat usually is measured by checking the pulse or listening to the heart beat with a medical instrument called stethoscope. and swimming. nerve damage. the heart beat rate can be. . when heart beat is increased due to physical activity like running. which may be too little intake of fluids. eliminating unnecessary stress. pain. nervousness. or degenerative primary electrical disease. The general symptoms of this problem can be fainting. exercising regularly. or endocrine problems. In children. loss of blood. vomiting. can be defined as excessively fast heart beat.disease. The extensive rapid heartbeat problem can cause a life of a person to end. In such condition. This problem is notably more common in old aged people. low blood pressure. stress. anemia (a low red blood cell count). the symptoms may include palpitations. to some extent. The causes of rapid heartbeat may be exercise with heavy weight lifting or other activity that requires physical exertion. The second type is non cardiac causes may involve drugs use or abuse. healthy life style is a significant step to avoid heart problem. cocaine abuse. arrhythmias (irregular heart beat). hyperthyroidism (level of thyroid hormone in the body that is too high). anger. sweating and light headache. that is faster than normal. maintaining weight and regular check up from doctor is necessary. shortness of breath. becomes the reason of heart to beat slower than the normal condition. congestive heart failure (a condition in which the heart cannot pump blood effectively). heart attack. Moreover. In some cases a person with rapid heartbeat may have no symptoms at all. heart beats becomes normal automatically. alcohol withdrawal and some kind of medicines. in general including drinking plenty of water. These problems disturb the automacity of the heart and ultimately. The underlying electrolyte or acid-base disorders or hypoxia should be treated first. there is nothing to worry about it. low oxygen in the blood. Rapid Heart Beat A rapid heartbeat also. However. sometimes called water pills. anxiety. light headedness or dizziness and fainting. which plays major roles for heart to beat. faster than 100 times per minute but still it can be considered normal. excessive sweating. fear. fever. called tachycardia. heart beats slow than the normal condition. excessive caffeine intake. Generally. fatigue or weakness. Drugs treatment for bradycardia is normally not suggested to the symptomatic patients. In other cases. or medications such as diuretics. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minute. The normal heart in adults beats between 60 to 80 times. chest pain. diarrhea. blood infections. disorder of the sinus node (SV) and atrioventricular node (AV node). some herbal therapies such as ephedra. The other serious causes involve dehydration.

doctors suggests fluids. Other than the medications.e. The treatment provided to a given patient depends entirely on how severe is a heart rhythm problem. Tylenol). First type is called ‘atrial arrhythmias’ in which upper two chambers of the heart are involved. Arrhythmia has two types. In some cases person has no symptoms and in other cases. In general. The second is called ‘ventricles arrhythmias’ which originates from the lower chamber of the heart. In such position heart beat sometimes.. When cause is infection. To minimize the possibility of heart problems. Many heart rhythm problems do not need any treatment at all. Heart Rhythm Disorder Heart rhythm disorder refers to irregular position of heart beat. one may need antibiotics or surgery. In fever. diabetes. sweating and light headache is symptoms to recognize this disease. Regular exercise is advised to many people for preventing this problem. low or cholesterol. which is a medical term and meant to heart position on unequal level.Treatment of the rapid heartbeat depends on the cause. depending on individual situation. Taking plenty of fluids can also prevent from this decease at great extent. a person is given acetaminophen (i. Arrhythmias can be simple and treated with little medications but some arrhythmias can be critical and dangerous to life. and smoking. A normal heart beat rates between 60 to 80 times. The symptoms of heart rhythm disorder vary from person to person. it may occur suddenly. Heart rhythm disorder belongs to arrhythmia. If heart beat is lower than 50 or exceeds more than 100. The most general causes of the heart rhythm disorder include high or low blood pressure. it indicates person is suffering from heart rhythm disorder. Tachycardia Heart Disease Information . for example in dehydrated. If rapid heartbeat is associated with other diseases (among the causes mentioned above). shortness of breath. these diseases should be under control. chest pain. The final treatment of this problem is heart surgery to eliminate the source of heart rhythm problem but very rare people require the surgery. causing death. Some swift heart rhythm problems are treated with catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker-type device known as an implantable cardioversion defibrillator. other than complete rest. Other heart rhythm problems may be easily treated with different anti-arrhythmic medications. can be too fast or too slow. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minutes. avoiding cocaine or alcohol prevents from rapid heartbeat.

electrical conversion or simply by the use of drugs to control and normalize the heart beat. certain illicit drugs and medications. high or low blood pressure. fear. The symptoms of tachycardia include rapid heartbeat and rapid heartbeat at rest. it is considered abnormal. Soft Heart Sound Sound of heart which is lower than the usual is called soft heart sound. Tachycardia can be treated with chemical conversion. deficiency of potassium and vitamin B. Tachycardia can be harmful in three ways. However the treatment depends on the mechanism of tachycardia in a person. anemia or panic attack. drugs and adreline etcetera. Tachycardia can be cured or controlled by certain drugs and medications prescribed by the doctor but it can be prevented.Tachycardia is a disease in which the heart beats very rapidly. First. caffeine or adraline. The third harmful effect is that. shortness of breath and heart failure. There are several methods and principles which must be involved when listening to heart sounds. once diagnosed. eating normal meals. These are the symptoms which are known to the patient but the doctor takes tachycardia differently. Tachycardia is stimulated by excessive nicotine. it is considered normal because the exertion makes the heart beats very rapidly but in cases like cardiac arrhythmias. it requires more oxygen and blood and in this way the person feels out of breath and stressed. and arrhythmia. asthma. In cases like exercise or stress. prior heart attack. restraining from physical stress and exertion. First dominance should be provided for all patients. Exercise or exertion. following a healthy life style and restraining oneself from excessive use of nicotine. Second when the heart beats too rapidly. palpitations. caffeine. these are as follows: . emotion. A stethoscope is essential for you which fit your ears comfortably and proper bell and diaphragm for your patient. It is normal in exercise but dangerous when the heart is resting. fever. In a normal person the rate of heart beat is 60 beats per minute but in tachycardia the rate is 100 beats per minute. Alternative diagnosis method includes hypotension. if the heart is pumping too fast for a long period of time then the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the blood is imbalanced. ECG and irregular heart beat detection. it tends to pump blood less efficiently because the myocardium gets less time to contract. Pounding heart beat is a type of rapid heartbeat. excessive dieting. large meal. the patient covered and as much irrelevant noise removed as possible. nervousness. There are some things which should be kept in mind in terms of examining the patient. dizziness. by controlling diet. Normal heart rate increases due to these factors or causes. Home medical test of tachycardia includes heart rate monitors. The ambience of the room should be warm. when the heart beats very rapidly. Doctor should explain the patient that what he is going to do so that he won’t get confused and worried.

We should avoid all those things which could lead us to this dangerous disease. 1. It happens that valves become leaky and thrust backward flow or they can become stiff and narrow. 2. 7. 6. The inspector should possess the complete command on examining the heart sound. Hypothyroidism Pericardial effusion Emphysema Chronic bronchitis 9. Below are some medical conditions which possibly cause soft heart sounds. 3. This stiffness of valves called stenosis. Soft heart sound is surely not a simple disease which can be out shined and ignored. After getting know about the soft heart sound one should consult the doctor immediately and follow the given prescription. Patient presently does not had any procedures recently He has not had a full meal recently He is not in any claim or discomfort. Mitral incompetence Heart attack Rheumatic heart disease 4. Any unusual sound coming from heart should be considered as threat to the health so be careful and eat healthy. 2. 8. Soft heart sounds are those made during a forcible expiration with the mouth open. 3. Cardiomyopathies 5. Stenosis sometimes become dangerous and it may lead to the turbulence during ejection of blood. Pneumothorax Soft heart murmurs are sounds made by the blood circulating through the heart’s chambers and valves or through blood vessels near the heart.1. Our heart is delicate part of body so it needs extra care and attention. They are most often caused by any the movement of valves and with the reflection of the valves to certain function cause such soft heart sounds. Pounding Heart Beat . You should learn to recognize the normal before you get to know abnormal.

necks and arms are big causes includes heart disease for example. meditation and relaxing. Heart pounding is often not very serious unless the person has some known heart disease. XTC. As it is not the normal condition which means that hearing loud heart sound is a disease which can have fatal consequences. There are different causes which cause this disease. hyperventilation. EKG or echocardiogram. medical exam and tests which will include x ray. low blood sugar for example. thyroid disease. Loud Heart Sound Loud heart sound is obviously is stage when heart sounds louder than its usual routine sound. frequent occurrence. These tests will have the risk factor of fever. anxiety including over eating. anemia. surgery or procedures. low level of oxygen in the blood or any general heart disease. high blood pressure for example. adjusting rest. it’s the regular pounding or palpitations that is dangerous and needs immediate medical consultancy. alcohol and stress. lack of sleep and overdose of certain medications. It is generally known as palpitations. fear. stress. pills.Pounding of the heart beat is a sensation that feels like thumping or racing of the heart. As the pounding of heart is not serious therefore no proper medications are necessary for its cure although prevention and precaution is the only best way to cure it. smoking. Pounding of the heart can be caused by some similar reasons as in many heart diseases like fever. The pounding is actually the irregular beating and abnormal pattern of electrical impulses pounding for a little time or a few second sis not important. and faintness. rapid heartbeat. congenital heart defects or any structural abnormality . Going to the doctor for a check up and Keeping a regular check at the pounding may help the doctor to diagnose the ailment easily. shortage of oxygen. Diet and weight control. chest pain. an abnormal heart valve or an electrotype abnormality. drugs and pain in jaws. blood and urine analysis. The diagnosis must be made by a specialist consultant. regular physical activity. academia or hypoxemia. . The normal rate of the heart beats is 60 to 100 beats per minute which is reduced or increased by some causes. sleep food and stress and healthy lifestyle is the only best cure. arrhythmia. coronary heart disease. anemia. It should better not be called a disease as it’s only the sudden change in the normal beating of the heart. and thyroid problem. Asymptomatic pounding includes heart racing or thumping or skipping a beat nut the dangerous pounding symptoms includes dizziness.

It is also important to note down when the sound comes is it coming during systole. You should be worried about the pitch of the sound coming from your heart. Tachycardia Exercise Fever Emotional response to situation Anxiety Hypertension 7. 2. Thyrotoxicosis 9. 5. . diastole. You should also be worried about the pitch of the murmurs or sounds in the high frequency range such as valve closure sounds. So it one should be very observant in case of his heart sound because it does seem an ordinary matter but it definitely has fatal consequences. 4. mid. 1. or late. early. Anaemia 8. Life is supposed to be good and healthy and it can be happen if you look after yourself carefully. clicks. No disease is ordinary disease and we cannot simply over shadow any of our body problems because no one wants to live an ill life. 6. What are the other sounds or murmurs? Sometimes it happens that diagnosis bases not on the loud heart sound but it can be examined and identified through the sounds coming in the vicinity of heart. The apparatus are available which can help you to find out the loud heart sound. 2. 3. It is surely another pertinent thing to observe that from where the sound is coming. 3. Heart Rate Monitors Irregular Heartbeat Detection Heart Electrocardiogram (ECG) You should ask yourself few things when you hear the loud heart sound. Mitral stenosis If you are suffering from loud heart sound and you don’t know it you can find it out without going out to doctor.These causes are as under: 1.

and special procedures. The heart attack occurs when the blood supply system of the heart is interrupted. echocardiography. To diagnose the extensiveness of the heart damage. High-Output Heart Failure High-output heart failure occurs when the normally functioning heart cannot keep up with the dramatically increased demand for blood flow by one or more organs.Very common cause of loud heart sound is depression and stress. It is secondary problem depends on the severity of the heart attack. echocardiography. . and cardiac catheterization. When there isn’t sufficient blood supply. 12-lead electrocardiogram. we don’t want to waste any minute of this small life suffering from any disease because at the end of the day it’s your health that matters. Heart Damage Heart damage is not a disease itself. signal-averaged electrocardiogram. At the time of the treatments for a heart attack blocked artery are opened to restore the blood flow as fast as possible to prevent the heart attaining more damage and reducing the chance of a repeat attack. There are number of conditions can cause the increased demand for blood and oxygen that result in high-output heart failure. the muscle starts to die. usually peripheral tissues. echocardiography. The heart is functioning muscle in a body. It requires supplying blood flow and oxygen to allow it to do work. in the body. In present depressing life there are favorable chances to get heart disease very easily. experts use several methods such as electrocardiogram or electrocardiography. ransesophageal. The main treatment is thrombolytic (clot-busting) therapy. such as angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery are also effective. and when there is no oxygen. the muscle starts to suffer. The blocked artery under this situation damages the heart muscle. Life is small and heart has made it beautiful. So we need to be careful enough not to get stressed by usual things because our heart is very sensitive and naïve. To make sure the effectiveness of these treatments should be given within 1 hour of the start of the heart attack symptoms. The fast and quick treatment is only way to limit the damage of heart. Other medications. These all are advanced electronic procedures operated with bio-tech machines.

fatigue and dizziness (due to low blood pressure) are included.The high-output failure overall is not a common cause of heart failure. Arteriovenous fistula. While left heart failure refers to the inability of right side of the heart to pump blood into the systemic circulation. and anticoagulants that does not need hospitalization. he/she may be advised to stay in hospital taking intravenous (IV) medications. Hyperthyroidism. hypertension. Furthermore. The careful diagnoses are made before to start treatment. the heart does not pump blood due to high venous pressure. In right heart failure. All these problems create the reasons to create the demand of more blood supply by the peripheral tissues exceeding the level and capacity of the heart to supply. In case of Inpatient treatment when patient has advance heart failure. Beriberi and Paget’s disease. the right side of the heart becomes unable to pump blood into pulmonary circulation adequately. ACE inhibitors. backward heart failure and congestive heart failure. The treatment of heart failure could be outpatient including diuretics. The forward heart failure occurs when heart do not pump sufficient amount of blood to fulfill the oxygen demand of the body. right heart failure and left heart failure. beta-blockers. Among the general symptoms of heart failure shortage of breath. The treatment of high output heart failure depends on the cause. There are many reasons of high output heart failure. The tissues of the heat do not receive adequate blood supply in this problem. difficulty exercising. The underlying reason of heart failure can be heart injury or inappropriate responses of the body to heart impairment. This can cause the accretion of fluid in the lungs. edema. Cardiac Arrest . valve surgery. digitalis. Fluid in the lungs or body can be an ultimate reason. The heart failure has been further classified into forward heart failure. vascular disease. The heart failure may be of severe nature because of fundamental diseases present already for example kidney impairment. Possible options are angioplasty. regular exercise. A healthy diet. controlled weight and regular visit to doctor are amongst the general suggestions. vasodilators. adopting a healthy life style can improve the chances to heal up from the heart failure. These include severe anemia. or diabetes. In backward heart failure. Heart Failure Heart failure is a kind of disorder which causes weakening of the cardiovascular system by damaging the heart. or heart transplantation. The swelling and edema can occur due to right heart failure. heart works appropriately only when heart pressure is in abnormal condition. There are two types of heart failure. A surgical procedure may also be advised by the doctor depending on the condition of heart failure. In the congestive heart failure. coronary bypass surgery.

jaw ache. drowning. When the heart beats very fast. Sometimes symptoms of heart attack are unidentifiable. The other symptoms can be indigestion. It is not necessary to have these symptoms by all people. the electrical impulses become rapid and heart stops beating suddenly. The precautions to recognize the illness through the symptoms mentioned above can facilitate a lot to save a life. It requires supplying blood flow and oxygen to allow it to do work. it can be reversed reducing chances of survival of patient every time it strikes.Cardiac arrest is the sudden. Cardiac arrest is a dangerous and risky problem. choking and trauma. Furthermore. The most classic symptoms of the heart attack include chest pain with shortage of breath. In medical terminologies. The only effective treatment for this problem is defibrillation (electrical shock) with a combination of early advanced care. in women and elderly people. It is not necessary to have a heart disease diagnosed already by the patient. The heart attack occurs when the blood supply system of the heart is interrupted. Patients that survive cardiac arrest are advised to have Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia by a variety of methods in order to improve the survival and neurologic damage. early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is necessary. decreasing the chances of neurological damage. abnormal breathing. shortness of breath or vomiting etc. The urgent medical care should be sought in case symptoms are appeared. also becomes the reason of cardiac arrest. It is estimated that more than 95 victims of cardiac arrest loss their life before reaching to hospital in United States. and when there is no oxygen. extreme weakness or fatigue may be a complaint by the patient before the heart attack. high blood pressure. In some cases. particularly. called tachycardia. pain only in the shoulder or arm. Brain death or premature death can occur within 4 to 6 minutes after the strike. Cardiac arrest can occur following heart attack or without any known cause as well. Heart Attack Heart is functioning muscle in a body. In some cases. smoking. Sometimes extremely slow heart beat. When there isn’t sufficient blood supply. After the cardiac arrest. high cholesterol and diabetes become a reason of blocking blood supply to artery and . The electric shock called defibrillation to the heart is given to restore the normal heart beat. hence. called bradycardia. it is called atherosclerotic heart disease or coronary artery disease. Other factors belonging to cardiac arrest apart from the heart diseases include respiratory arrest. The irregular heart rhythm is a core reason of the cardiac arrest. The warning signs of cardiac arrest are loss of consciousness. The family history of heart attack plays a major role causing this problem. Sudden death can be occurred within minutes after symptoms are appeared. the muscle starts to suffer. The most common cause of heart attack is narrowing of the arteries by cholesterol plaque and their subsequent rupture. and nausea. electrocution. and loss of pulse and blood pressure. profuse sweating. The most cardiac arrests lead to sudden death. the muscle starts to die. Heart attack is as risky as stoke and may cause life to end if not treated on time. CPR continues the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain. abrupt and unexpected loss of heart function.

The main thing to remember after heart attack is time factor. fluid in the lungs. In the most serious condition. It is mild disease by nature and contains no notable symptoms virtually. The most frequent cause of the myocarditis is viral or bacterial infection of the heart muscle. The most common symptoms of myocarditis include chest pain. The existing diseases causing heart attack should be control to minimize the risks of heart attack. unexpected. . Giving aspirin helps to minimize blood clot formation and blockage of the artery is also useful. When it is accompanied with shortage of breath. Heart Inflammation Myocarditis Inflammation to the heart muscle is medically referred as Myocarditis. There are some general suggestions after heart attack strikes. The heart inflammation may be recovered after an initial phase or may cause heart failure at its severe condition when heart muscle becomes injured due to infection.consequently heart attack strikes. The heart attack can strike again if extensive care is not taken properly. immune system of the body continues to harm the heart muscle which becomes basic cause of prolonging myocarditis. It is not predictable if the disease has long term or short term damaging effects. The blood tests for heart muscles are taken to diagnose the problem. fatigue. myocarditiscan can cause heart failure. The delay in treatment can cause life end. The first step is to call emergency service in the area. The only possible medical treatment is surgery to restore the blood supply to the heart muscle. heart attack is very severing that death is possible on spot. The virus assaults the heart muscle and cause local inflammation. The emergency department should be alerted that patient is on the way in order to make the necessary measures ready. After the initial infection falls down. Suffering from myocarditis enhances the risks of sudden. and fatal heart rhythm abnormalities. Sometimes. myocarditis leads weakening of heart muscles and heart rhythm irregularities. The third heart attack can be a last stage of life.

the beats pass from the upper chambers to the lower chambers with slower rate than normal. Pericarditis . To avoid heart problem. in general. The causes which fall under the non controllable risk factors include family history of heart disease.The inflammation because of bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics. drugs or alcohol abuse. This is sometimes called AV block. cigarette smoking. The pulse generator is placed under the chest. The pacemaker can replace the function of sinus node (SV node) and can help the heart to beat properly. is placed in either the upper or the lower chamber of the heart against the heart line. use water pills. and measures to prevent heart attack. eating healthy diet. This is known as complete heart block. The heart block has different types. dizziness or light-headedness. because the beat is unable to pass through the atrioventricular node that joins the upper and lower chambers of the heart. exercising regularly. and swimming. More severe forms of heart block usually are needed to be treated with artificial permanent pacemaker. Most viral infections are treated with a specific therapy called symptomatic therapy. In the second type of heart block. It is occurred when the beat originating in the upper chambers of the heart cannot pass normally to the lower chambers of the heart. eliminating unnecessary stress. These causes are falls under the category of controllable risk factors. which is inserted through a vein. heart attack. The patients of Myocarditis are advised not to use ever implantable defibrillators. stress. shortness of breath. reduce salt in the meal. maintaining weight and regular check up from doctor is necessary. fainting or nearly fainting. drinking plenty of water. aging and gender. The most common symptoms of hear block include fatigue. In the third type of heart block. In this way both heart chambers still pump blood but with a slower rate. congenital heart disorders (heart problems present at birth). and certain medicines. diabetes. In the first type. high cholesterol. The underlying causes of heart block could be high blood pressure. Pacemaker consists of a lead. a thin coated wire. excess weight. high fat diet. weakness. sedentary lifestyle. during passage of beats from the upper to lower chambers of heart. and the tip of the lead. called the electrode. It encases the electronic circuitry of the pacemaker. In such situation the lower chambers originate their own impulses. the beats are not able to pass from the upper to the lower chambers at all. some beats are dropped. Heart Block Heart block is a type of bradycardia which is referred as slow heart beat usually less than 60 times per minute. and heart block particularly.

Palpitations Heart palpitation involves sensation of rapid. it can be troublesome. Sometimes. If other organs of the body are affected due to the inflammation. fluttering or pounding heart beat. a procedure where a thin needle is inserted through the chest wall into the pericardial sac. it can be a sign of hyperthyroidism or an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). uremia. to the neck or to the arm. It symbolizes that there is inflammation near lung tissue. nicotine. heart attack or heart surgery. . one that fits tightly onto the heart muscle and another looser layer surrounding the inner layer. In some cases. premature contractions caused by high level of adrenaline in blood. may be referred. chest discomfort. there is no cause of pericarditis. there are no symptoms as such of palpitations except the feeling related to pounding of heart by an individual. the pain can be of different characteristics such as pain with deep breath and shortage of breath. pregnancy or menopause) and medicines having pseudoephedrine. (an ingredient. change in hormone (associated with menstruation. exercise. shortness of breath. chills. hydrocodone or oxycodone is suggested depending on the individual situation. The pain with swallowing means inflammation is near the esophagus. preventing it from beating normally. muscle aches or general depression. At the severe stage of the Pericarditis when there will be too much fluid present in the pericardial sac pericardiocentesis. pain or fainting. sarcoidosis. The pain can start slowly or suddenly and can go directly to the back. It should be seriously noticed when palpitation occurs with dizziness. Although it is often harmless. The most common causes of the palpitations include anxiety. It can also radiate to the shoulder blade incase of associated irritation of the diaphragm (the flat muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen). trauma. The patient feels worse with the lying flat position and better when leaning forward. however. viral or fungal infection. This sac consists of two layers. fever. The most common symptom of pericarditis is chest pain which is usually sharp and stabbing and has certain characteristics which helps the doctor to diagnose the disease. The more than sufficient fluid in the pericardia sac may generate high pressured heart output. stress. pericardiocentesis can also be done when there is need to set up a cause of pericarditis for example infection or cancer etc. short course of narcotic pain medication such as codeine. Rarely. The pain can be worse if accompanied with deep breaths. scleroderma and some kind of medications. The primary treatment of pericarditis is medicines that reduce inflammation such as ibuprofen that also helps to accumulate fluid in the pericardial sac. However. Mostly. In most cases. Inflammation of these tissue layers surrounding the heart is known to pericarditis. systemic lupus erythematosus. tumors or cancer.The heart positions in the center of the chest and is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium. It is always result of other problems such as. caffeine. in some cold and allergy medicines). It is difficult to determine the cause of palpitations. Other symptoms may include infection with fever. it is necessary to have treatment of the underlying cause first. hence. connective tissue disease such as rheumatoid arthritis.

the heart beat rate can be. The general symptoms of this problem can be fainting. eliminating unnecessary stress. The occurrence of premature contractions can be reduced by stress reduction. eating healthy diet. The palpitations resulting from premature contractions also require no specific treatment. Slow Heart Beat Bradycardia Slow Heart Beat also called Bradycardia implies to the situation when heart beats less than 60 even sometimes 50 per minutes. vascular heart disease. The normal heart in adults beats between 60 to 80 times. The first type is cardiac which includes acute or chronic chemic heart disease. maintaining weight and regular check up from doctor is necessary. to some extent. Athletes usually tend to have slow resting heart beat which is not considered a disease unless associated symptoms are not appeared. that is faster than normal. In children. The speed of the heart beat usually is measured by . in general including drinking plenty of water. The underlying electrolyte or acid-base disorders or hypoxia should be treated first. Generally. called tachycardia. thus reducing premature contractions. can be defined as excessively fast heart beat. valvular heart disease. Indeed. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minute. These problems disturb the automacity of the heart and ultimately. disorder of the sinus node (SV) and atrioventricular node (AV node). Moreover. and swimming. becomes the reason of heart to beat slower than the normal condition. sweating and light headache. metabolic. and reducing caffeine. or endocrine problems. The patient having constant palpitations and premature contractions experts suggest medications such as beta-blockers. Palpitations having no heart diseases history may not need specific treatment. Basically slow heart beat is linked with cardiac arrhythmia and can have many causes. They are often advised simply to reduce emotional and physical stress while monitoring their symptoms.The person concerned about heart palpitations. causes can be classified into two types. should consult the doctor as soon as it is realized. Drugs treatment for bradycardia is normally not suggested to the symptomatic patients. healthy life style is a significant step to avoid heart problem. The second type is non cardiac causes may involve drugs use or abuse. The stress reduction helps to lower the blood adrenaline levels. exercising regularly. Rapid Heart Beat A rapid heartbeat also. quitting smoking. which plays major roles for heart to beat. heart beats slow than the normal condition. and alcohol consumption. can be used to block the effect of adrenaline in the heart. faster than 100 times per minute but still it can be considered normal. This problem is notably more common in old aged people. Doctors usually recommend further evaluation such as heart monitoring tests. or degenerative primary electrical disease.

loss of blood. which may be too little intake of fluids. Taking plenty of fluids can also prevent from this decease at great extent. anger. In general. A normal heart beat rates between 60 to 80 times. Treatment of the rapid heartbeat depends on the cause. arrhythmias (irregular heart beat). which is a medical term and meant to heart position on unequal level. heart attack. depending on individual situation. diabetes. Arrhythmia has two types. In other cases. sweating and light headache is symptoms to recognize this disease. The symptoms of heart rhythm disorder vary from person to person. anxiety.checking the pulse or listening to the heart beat with a medical instrument called stethoscope. fear. The treatment provided to a . nerve damage. Tylenol). vomiting. can be too fast or too slow. In fever. nervousness. chest pain.e. congestive heart failure (a condition in which the heart cannot pump blood effectively). and smoking. When cause is infection. causing death. diarrhea. light headedness or dizziness and fainting. In some cases a person with rapid heartbeat may have no symptoms at all. heart beats becomes normal automatically. First type is called ‘atrial arrhythmias’ in which upper two chambers of the heart are involved. In such position heart beat sometimes. chest pain. blood infections. shortness of breath. The second is called ‘ventricles arrhythmias’ which originates from the lower chamber of the heart. when heart beat is increased due to physical activity like running. Other than the medications. doctors suggests fluids. If rapid heartbeat is associated with other diseases (among the causes mentioned above). The extensive rapid heartbeat problem can cause a life of a person to end. some herbal therapies such as ephedra. excessive sweating. cocaine abuse. one may need antibiotics or surgery. The other serious causes involve dehydration. stress. it may occur suddenly. alcohol withdrawal and some kind of medicines. hyperthyroidism (level of thyroid hormone in the body that is too high). anemia (a low red blood cell count). or medications such as diuretics. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minutes. for example in dehydrated. Regular exercise is advised to many people for preventing this problem. sometimes called water pills. Heart Rhythm Disorder Heart rhythm disorder refers to irregular position of heart beat. low or cholesterol. fever. Heart rhythm disorder belongs to arrhythmia. If heart beat is lower than 50 or exceeds more than 100. pain. it indicates person is suffering from heart rhythm disorder. The most general causes of the heart rhythm disorder include high or low blood pressure.. low blood pressure. excessive caffeine intake. However. Arrhythmias can be simple and treated with little medications but some arrhythmias can be critical and dangerous to life. avoiding cocaine or alcohol prevents from rapid heartbeat. there is nothing to worry about it. To minimize the possibility of heart problems. low oxygen in the blood. shortness of breath. The causes of rapid heartbeat may be exercise with heavy weight lifting or other activity that requires physical exertion. these diseases should be under control. In such condition. fatigue or weakness. a person is given acetaminophen (i. In some cases person has no symptoms and in other cases. the symptoms may include palpitations.

nervousness. palpitations. pericarditis. waits for a very short time. Among the common heart complications. heart attacks. The cells of the heart generate electric current which are important for the heart to pump the blood. The final treatment of this problem is heart surgery to eliminate the source of heart rhythm problem but very rare people require the surgery. heart block. In the heart failure. and pump blood to the body. which can be felt through the pulse externally. The heart system of the human body is quite complicated and sensitive as well. The right ventricle is responsible for pumping blood and picking up oxygen from the lungs and to return the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. Although the body protects the heart as its best but slight malfunctioning of the systemic routine of heart blood pumping can create huge problems. The heart is consisted of four chambers. This electric signal provides ground for muscle cells in both atria to contract all at once. and congenital heart disease etc. The electric signal. to allow blood to leave the atria and fill up the ventricles. exceeded amount of alcohol can be reasons of all type of heart complications. whereas. heart inflammation. high or low cholesterol. This pacemaker (SA node) function begins the electrical impulse which follows pathways in the atrial walls. diabetes. each about 60-80 times per minute. heart failure is major problem. The signal further passes through electric bundles in the ventricle walls to allow these chambers to contract again in a coordinated way. The diseases such as high or low blood pressure. In this way. at the AV node. most are life threatening. high-output heart failure. Many heart rhythm problems do not need any treatment at all. rapid heartbeat. Thee main function of the heart is to circulate blood through the body. Other heart rhythm problems may be easily treated with different anti-arrhythmic medications. The SA node produces beating system. These complications sometimes are . stress. Heart Complications The heart is consisted of two stages and act as an electric pump. The common complications that can occur because of these problems include Heart rhythm disorder. usually one to two tenths of a second. usually because of the heart injury. smoking. heart pumps the blood with less force. cardiac arrest. They are called right and left atria and right and left ventricles. It is further pushed to the left ventricle by the small atrial beats. to a junction box between the atrium and ventricle called the atrio-ventricular node (AV node).given patient depends entirely on how severe is a heart rhythm problem. Some of them are treated easily. The right side pumps blood to the lungs whereas. heart failure. anxiety. Heart damage. asthma. the left pumps blood to the rest of the body. and psychological effects such as fear. slow heart beat. The special cells in the right atrium called sino atrial node (SA node) generate first electrical impulse and are considered the “natural pacemaker” of the heart. anger. pain. upper chamber of the heart beats. other than complete rest. Right atrium collects blood from the body and pushes it to the right ventricle. Some swift heart rhythm problems are treated with catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker-type device known as an implantable cardioversion defibrillator.

Exercise or exertion. by controlling diet. In a normal person the rate of heart beat is 60 beats per minute but in tachycardia the rate is 100 beats per minute. caffeine. when problem is of severe nature. electrical conversion or simply by the use of drugs to control and normalize the heart beat. following a healthy life style and restraining oneself from excessive use of nicotine. when the heart beats very rapidly. Alternative diagnosis method includes hypotension. Normal heart rate increases due to these factors or causes. excessive dieting. Second when the heart beats too rapidly. drugs and adreline etcetera. once diagnosed.treated through medicines. and arrhythmia. However the treatment depends on the mechanism of tachycardia in a person. emotion. nervousness. These are the symptoms which are known to the patient but the doctor takes tachycardia differently. it is considered abnormal. The ambience of the room should be . anemia or panic attack. monitoring high blood pressure. and through surgeries or transplantation in special cases. eating normal meals. fever. shortness of breath and heart failure. dizziness. Tachycardia can be harmful in three ways. restraining from physical stress and exertion. Home medical test of tachycardia includes heart rate monitors. The symptoms of tachycardia include rapid heartbeat and rapid heartbeat at rest. it tends to pump blood less efficiently because the myocardium gets less time to contract. eating food low in cholesterol and saturated fats. caffeine or adraline. prior heart attack. Tachycardia can be treated with chemical conversion. fear. Tachycardia can be cured or controlled by certain drugs and medications prescribed by the doctor but it can be prevented. deficiency of potassium and vitamin B. maintaining a healthy weight. asthma. First dominance should be provided for all patients. Tachycardia is stimulated by excessive nicotine. it requires more oxygen and blood and in this way the person feels out of breath and stressed. There are several methods and principles which must be involved when listening to heart sounds. certain illicit drugs and medications. being physically active. large meal. The recommendations for healthy heart given by American Heart Association’s include avoiding tobacco smoke. and having regular medical exams. In cases like exercise or stress. The third harmful effect is that. Soft Heart Sound Sound of heart which is lower than the usual is called soft heart sound. Tachycardia Tachycardia is a disease in which the heart beats very rapidly. palpitations. it is considered normal because the exertion makes the heart beats very rapidly but in cases like cardiac arrhythmias. First. high or low blood pressure. Pounding heart beat is a type of rapid heartbeat. It is normal in exercise but dangerous when the heart is resting. ECG and irregular heart beat detection. if the heart is pumping too fast for a long period of time then the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the blood is imbalanced.

Our heart is delicate part of body so it needs extra care and attention. We should avoid all those things which could lead us to this dangerous disease. 7. 2. 6.warm. A stethoscope is essential for you which fit your ears comfortably and proper bell and diaphragm for your patient. 8. 3. . Pneumothorax Soft heart murmurs are sounds made by the blood circulating through the heart’s chambers and valves or through blood vessels near the heart. Mitral incompetence Heart attack Rheumatic heart disease 4. Stenosis sometimes become dangerous and it may lead to the turbulence during ejection of blood. Patient presently does not had any procedures recently He has not had a full meal recently He is not in any claim or discomfort. Hypothyroidism Pericardial effusion Emphysema Chronic bronchitis 9. This stiffness of valves called stenosis. 2. Doctor should explain the patient that what he is going to do so that he won’t get confused and worried. After getting know about the soft heart sound one should consult the doctor immediately and follow the given prescription. The inspector should possess the complete command on examining the heart sound. Any unusual sound coming from heart should be considered as threat to the health so be careful and eat healthy. It happens that valves become leaky and thrust backward flow or they can become stiff and narrow. Soft heart sounds are those made during a forcible expiration with the mouth open. Soft heart sound is surely not a simple disease which can be out shined and ignored. Cardiomyopathies 5. There are some things which should be kept in mind in terms of examining the patient. 3. Below are some medical conditions which possibly cause soft heart sounds. these are as follows: 1. You should learn to recognize the normal before you get to know abnormal. the patient covered and as much irrelevant noise removed as possible. They are most often caused by any the movement of valves and with the reflection of the valves to certain function cause such soft heart sounds. 1.

The diagnosis must be made by a specialist consultant. fear. shortage of oxygen. rapid heartbeat. XTC.Pounding Heart Beat Pounding of the heart beat is a sensation that feels like thumping or racing of the heart. regular physical activity. academia or hypoxemia. EKG or echocardiogram. lack of sleep and overdose of certain medications. Diet and weight control. low level of oxygen in the blood or any general heart disease. anemia. hyperventilation. anemia. and faintness. It should better not be called a disease as it’s only the sudden change in the normal beating of the heart. sleep food and stress and healthy lifestyle is the only best cure. medical exam and tests which will include x ray. drugs and pain in jaws. Loud Heart Sound . arrhythmia. low blood sugar for example. anxiety including over eating. Asymptomatic pounding includes heart racing or thumping or skipping a beat nut the dangerous pounding symptoms includes dizziness. pills. necks and arms are big causes includes heart disease for example. and thyroid problem. It is generally known as palpitations. stress. it’s the regular pounding or palpitations that is dangerous and needs immediate medical consultancy. thyroid disease. surgery or procedures. Pounding of the heart can be caused by some similar reasons as in many heart diseases like fever. chest pain. Heart pounding is often not very serious unless the person has some known heart disease. high blood pressure for example. The normal rate of the heart beats is 60 to 100 beats per minute which is reduced or increased by some causes. The pounding is actually the irregular beating and abnormal pattern of electrical impulses pounding for a little time or a few second sis not important. As the pounding of heart is not serious therefore no proper medications are necessary for its cure although prevention and precaution is the only best way to cure it. smoking. coronary heart disease. meditation and relaxing. These tests will have the risk factor of fever. Going to the doctor for a check up and Keeping a regular check at the pounding may help the doctor to diagnose the ailment easily. congenital heart defects or any structural abnormality . an abnormal heart valve or an electrotype abnormality. frequent occurrence. adjusting rest. alcohol and stress. blood and urine analysis.

5. 3. As it is not the normal condition which means that hearing loud heart sound is a disease which can have fatal consequences. No disease is ordinary disease and we cannot simply over shadow any of our body problems because no one wants to live an ill life. Anaemia 8. 6. Very common cause of loud heart sound is depression and stress. The apparatus are available which can help you to find out the loud heart sound. In present depressing life there are favorable chances to get heart disease very easily. There are different causes which cause this disease. Life is supposed to be good and healthy and it can be happen if you look after yourself carefully. 2. Tachycardia Exercise Fever Emotional response to situation Anxiety Hypertension 7. clicks. You should also be worried about the pitch of the murmurs or sounds in the high frequency range such as valve closure sounds. Mitral stenosis If you are suffering from loud heart sound and you don’t know it you can find it out without going out to doctor. Heart Rate Monitors Irregular Heartbeat Detection Heart Electrocardiogram (ECG) You should ask yourself few things when you hear the loud heart sound. 3. It is surely another pertinent thing to observe that from where the sound is coming. It is also important to note down when the sound comes is it coming during systole. 4. Thyrotoxicosis 9. So we need to be careful enough not to get stressed by usual things because our heart is very sensitive . 2.Loud heart sound is obviously is stage when heart sounds louder than its usual routine sound. diastole. You should be worried about the pitch of the sound coming from your heart. mid. early. 1. What are the other sounds or murmurs? Sometimes it happens that diagnosis bases not on the loud heart sound but it can be examined and identified through the sounds coming in the vicinity of heart. These causes are as under: 1. or late. So it one should be very observant in case of his heart sound because it does seem an ordinary matter but it definitely has fatal consequences.

fainting. but some conditions may give the hint of Arrhythmia.and naïve. Heart surgery and Catheter Ablation are also the methods to control and regulate the heart beats which have the similar objective to normalize the heart beat. anemia. electrolyte imbalances in the blood. Arrhythmia can be caused by coronary artery disease. it can be cured with drugs. Arrhythmia has many types depending upon its origin. caffeine and stimulants in medications. So your heart should be fit and rhythmic. Heart is important part of our body and without a proper working heart it would be hard to live a life which is worth living. short electrical impulses are sent to the heart muscles which help to regulate the heart beats. dizziness. Patients having any of these above mentioned symptoms or sudden occurrence may consult a doctor as soon as possible. Following all the above mentioned precautions and at a proper time may tend to non occurrence of irregular heartbeats. changing the living style and prevention that will include avoiding smoking. then cardio version is implied. pounding in the chest. Through this device. high blood pressure. Intracranial bruit . There are also certain tests to check for Arrhythmia. Irregular Heart Beats When the heart deviates from its original function of pumping blood. SA Node. In some case it cannot be cured but in some. chest discomfort and weakness or fatigue. shortness of breath. The electrical system of heart beats consists of two main areas of control namely. stress or they can be inherited. that includes palpitations. injury from a heart attack. Arrhythmia can occur with a normal heart rate as well as rapid heart rate. sometimes known as natural pacemaker and the other one is AV node. If drugs are not effective in some cases. Generally. intake of alcohol. Some of them include infections. In this method an electric shock is given after an anesthesia that makes the heart beats normal. Life is small and heart has made it beautiful. Another method to cure the Arrhythmia is by using a device called Pacemaker. Sometimes the Arrhythmia disease is caused other than the heart diseases. changes in the heart muscle or healing process after heart surgery. we don’t want to waste any minute of this small life suffering from any disease because at the end of the day it’s your health that matters. irregular heartbeats do not show any particular symptoms. it uses abnormal contractions and result in a disease called Irregular heart beats or abnormal heart rhythm is and medically known as Arrhythmia.

It may also occur due to a congenital arteriovenous anomaly. It is very important to live healthy life but when one is suffering from such fatal diseases it would not be possible to stay healthy and enjoy happy healthy life. the lower esophageal sphincter which separates the esophagus from the stomach. aneurysm. Cavernous malformations commonly cause abnormalities of supra nuclear or fascicular ocular motility. The 5 causes of intracranial bruit are . If it is diagnose at time it should not be ignored because later on has to suffer a lot because of the treatment method and the charges. All intracranial bruits should be diagnosed with MRI and angiography unless some systemic disease is found like anemia Intracranial bruits or cervical bruits may be caused by carotid stenosis. contracts to prevent the happening of this situation.Atherosclerosis. A carotid duplex scan and carotid angiography should be done to look for any particular carotid stenosis. Heartburn also occurs when you eat a heavy or late meal or when you are lying down flatly. A cerebral aneurysm is not very significant to cause a bruit. a venous hum. Heartburn Pyrosis Heart burn or medically known as Pyrosis is a disease in which there is a painful or burning sensation in the esophagus which lies just below the breast bone which is caused by the regurgitation of gastric acids. This heart burn sensation or pain is caused when the lower part of the esophagus exposes itself to the hydrochloric acid of the stomach in normal situations. causes inflammation and irritation. Severe anemia may cause intracranial bruits. Prompt and early diagnosis of intra cranial bruit helps in proper treatment and therapy. thrombo embolism and arterio venous misinformation. Intracranial bruit is a fatal disease and it has expensive treatment. Intracranial bruit commonly produces neuro ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. The name is so given because its pain occurs in the breast bone which is near the heart although it has some symptoms to do with the heart problems. will cause Gastro esophageal Reflux Disease. increased blood flow. hyperthyroidism. jaw or the throat from its name it may seem a heart disease but actually it has nothing to do with the heart. Intracranial bruit is commonly heard in 4 of 13 children aged between 4 months and 3 years. There are symptoms which on appearance mean that you have to consult to your doctor because no disease is a simple and relieving. The symptoms of the pain rising often starts from the chest and may proceed to the neck . causing it to return into the esophagus. gastric acids being acidic. if frequently occurs.Audible blood flow through a cranial vessel is called intracranial bruit which makes the blood flow abnormal. Intracranial bruit remains an enigma and it is not something to overshadow. This return. or aortic stenosis which transmits the bruit to the vessels in the neck. Intracranial bruit may be caused due to a carotid cavernous sinus fistula or a cerebral angioma. But if ever the sphincter does not contract. . the gastric acid from the stomach mixes with the contents of the stomach.

Over the time the LES strengthens resulting in less spit ups. Physical activity and exercise is also a very effective way of preventing heartburn. Some of the procedures to check the heart burn disease include stomach stapling. Hospitalization in the case of the disease is also a proper way. When the doctors do not prescribe any medications to cure reflux prescribes a healthy lifestyle to be followed. inflammation and a burning sensation this back flow is called reflux. Symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux includes poor weight gain. This back flow is pretty normal in adults when it happens frequently because the swallowing of the saliva helps the acids to wash away from the esophagus thus protecting its vulnerable walls. But in abnormal conditions the LES does not contract as it should. Typical symptoms may include cough. gastric acidity determination. chronic ear pain. chest pain and nausea. hoarseness in voice. difficulty swallowing. alginic . Most medications which reduce stomach acid are prescribed. If the reflux is often and it persists. heart burn can also be prevented by giving the adequate information to the patient with respect to the disease. In normal conditions.Bad breath is also a symptom of heart burn. fundoplication. esophageal manometry and esophagoscopy. heart burn. Gastroesophageal Reflux Gastro esophageal reflux is defined as mucosal damage produced by abnormal reflux in the esophagus. Living life is not enough but living healthy life is beautiful. and chronic chest pain. Proper diagnosis is important thing in this regard. Healthy diet plan must be followed. wheezing. Symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux in adults are the inflammation in the esophagus. Some of them are proton pump inhibiters. cavities. This is called physiological reflux.in addition to drugs. Taking walks after the meals can also help reduce the chances of heart burn. Gastro esophageal reflux is not contagious and it recovers itself over time. Excessive smoking is another reason for heart burn because smoking has harmful effects on the salivary function which helps to clear the esophagus from the acids. the LES is relatively relaxed so they spit up often. alcohol and smoking should be cut down. causing the stomach contents and acids to flow backwards into the esophagus creating irritation in the lungs. In young children. it is called pathologic reflux resulting in weight loss. But if this condition persists. The diagnosis might include Ph probes or x-rays. All of us want to live healthy life and it can be happened only when we want and determine about it. pain with eating and pneumonia. walk should be taken after meals and fatty and acidic food must be controlled. Yoga and aerobics. gastroscopy. A number of drugs are also helpful in this regard. then the doctor should be consulted for proper treatment. chronic cough. antacids. maintaining a healthy weight and diet helps in this regard. which helps the food to go down and mix with the acids in the stomach and then it closes tight to prevent backflow of stomach contents. the food swallowed is passed through esophagus into the stomach through a portal called the lower esophageal sphincter LES. a disease like heart burn can be prevented by the necessary precautions mentioned above. irritability. Caffeine. The presence of hiatal hernia is a risk factor of gastro esophageal reflux. bad breath. Hence.

Pancreatitis. toxins or drugs also cause the epigastric pain. Pancreatic cancer. Copper toxity. Pylephlebitis. Pregnancy. Lactase defficiency. These are very few symptoms of Epigastric pain. Dyspepsia. In this case the pain is the result of a drug side-effect or so. Elevating the head off the bed reduces chances of reflux. Pancriatic infection and last but not the least. Among the up-mentioned thirty four causes of epigastric pain. myocardial ischaemia. It is observed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment is proved helpful in many cases of epigastric pain. Myocardial infraction. right lateral region. Ankylostomiasis. Hiatus hernia. Zollinger_Ellison syndrome. Parasitic infection. Gastrisis. Janbon syndromeCrohn’s disease of esophagus. Epigastric pain The pain. Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Tong Ren therapy and herbal treatment. About ten million population of Ameriaca suffers the epigastric pain due to the disease of Lactase defficiancy. left lateral region (which are also called the Flanks). which is the tube that carries food from mouth to the stomach. It is observed that there are many other rare symptoms which can cause the epigastric pain. It is better that you consult your doctor in case of ant querries of if your body shows other similar symptoms. left hypochondria. Intestinal ischaemia. only myocardial infraction and pancreatic cancer are directly or indirectly related to the disease of Diabetes. Proper posture is also very helpful in controlling reflux. Zieve syndrome. prokinetics and sucralfate. Gastric volvulus. Caliac artery stenosis from aompression by median arcuate ligamant of diaphragm. Gastric lymphoma. left inguinal region (which are also called the Fossae). The Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment includes Acupuncture treatment. Epigastric pain is actually the feeling of soreness or ache in the abdomen’s upper and middle area. Gastric cancer. Acid Regurgitation Acid regurgitation also called acid reflux is a general condition in which the stomach carries the acids from the stomach up the esophagus. Indigestion.acid. drug usage also causes this epigastric pain in the abdomen. right inguinal region. Mentioned are a few diseases or medical conditions which cause the epigastric pain. On the other hand. epigastrium. right hypochondria. which a patient feels in the upper central region of the abdomen. Peptic ulcer disease. Through the anatomical point-of-view. It causes symptoms like heart burn that is a burning . is termed as the Epigastric pain. Abdominal hernia. The most interesting treatment being offered in the medical world regarding the epigastric pain is the Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment. Malabsorbtion. Zefazone drugs medicines. The Chinese medicines are used to treat the epigastric pain and the other conditions related to it on clinical basis. the area in the human body between costal margins and subcostal margins is called the epigastric region. Pnuemonia. These symptoms or causes of epigastric pain mostly appear in the patients who have a family history of diabetes. Sandifer syndrome. This particular region is called the epigastric region. the body of a human abdomen is divided in to nine major parts or sections namely. To explain it further. medicational effects. umblical and pubic region. Gastroesophegal reflux.

chocolate.c If left ventricular of the heart dysfunction. certain Medications. during the next cycle. irregular heart beat. fried. Alcohol or caffeine consumption. mint. rapid heartbeat. Obesity. and carries a poor prognosis. In many patients Pulsus alternans always indicator of left ventricular systolic impairment. slow heart beat. Many patients describe palpitation as racing heartbeat. Wheezing and Hoarseness of voice. Eating large meals. if left untreated. having short and light meals. and pulmonary fibrosis. changing the diet habits. and spicy foods. may lead to serious problems like inflammation of the esophagus and a certain precancerous condition. and onions. chronic cough. Palpitation happened when a person can sense his own heartbeat. Smoking. citrus fruits. Chronic dry cough. insomnia. smokers or pregnant women If the acid regurgitation occurs more often it maybe consulted with a doctor who will prescribe medications and there are conventional precautionary measures which includes quitting smoking. Acid regurgitation that happens more than twice a week is called gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). although there are some factors which may be included in the extra pounds symptoms of acid regurgitation. and believes it to be unusual or abnormal. Fatty. Pregnancy. myocardial muscle and systolic phase will stretch harder than usual and as a result cause an increase in myocardial contraction and hence a stronger pulse is felt.feeling in the chest and sometimes a sour or a bitter taste in the mouth these acid regurgitation feeling often remains for a few hours after heavy meal and then gradually dies away. causing reduction in stroke volume. the muscles of the esophagus keep the contents of the stomach in the stomach and prevent the backward flow of the stomach acids by tightening up the throat after swallowing the food. Heartburn is the most common symptom of acid regurgitation. . which allows the acid and stomach contents to flow back up the esophagus. hence causing an increase in end-diastolic volume. GERD is a disease which can also worsen existing asthma. Other symptoms may include: Bitter or sour taste in the mouth. Pulsus Alternans Pulsus alternans is a arterial pulse waveform showing alternating strong and weak beats with physical findings. There are some symptoms associated with pulsus alternans like palpitation. the ejection fraction will decrease significantly. release of stress and avoiding tight clothing. the esophageal muscles becomes weak and relaxes. taking a walk after meals. heart rhythm symptons and arrhythimias. This is a more serious condition than simple regurgitation that. As a result. Eating before bedtime. exercise. Trouble swallowing. In its initial stage it may be a tachycardia as a compensatory mechanism to try and keep the cardiac output constant. these include. specially the people with poor diet habits. Acid regurgitation occurs when the muscles at the lower part of esophagus called does not function properly. But people suffering from acid regurgitation. garlic. In normal conditions. making the matter worse. Acid regurgitation can occur in adults as well as in children. It is not exactly known that what causes acid regurgitation.

pulsus bisferiens is also known as bisferious pulse or biphasic pulse. The diet should be appropriate and it should include all the ingredients which make your heart healthy and working properly. traditionally pulsus bisferiens is discovered when aortic insufficiency exists in association with aortic stenosis. such as anemia. In case of any kind of change in your heart rhythm or sound you are advised to visit your doctor as soon as possible. arterial pulses are best felt like brachial and carotid. Sometimes it is palpated and the pulse rises rapidly. Because Bisferious means striking twice. Many patients suffering with chronic aortic insufficiency are asymptomatic until ages 40 to 50. Obviously it would not be easy but to prevent yourself from further damage or loss you have to follow your doctor. orthopnea and. and the first wave is the more forceful one. but pulsus bisferiens is an exception to that and can be better felt in peripheral arteries like the radial artery. Pulsus Bisferiens In medical language. and exercise. It is basically dependant on the heart and if your heart is working properly then you won’t be in troubled by this disease and to keep the heart healthy you have to take good care of it. as a result of this defect exertional dyspnea. . Defect in the rhythm of heart is the most common organic cause of bisferiens pulse. and widened pulse pressure. The pulse rises very slowly in aortic stenosis and the second wave of the double beat is the more forceful one There are many causes which are associated with pulsus bisferiens. Some findings which are associated with pulsus bisferiens underlying many causes and may include moderate tachycardia. a cervical venous hum. If ignore it then it would be harmful and can lead you to fatal consequences. Pressure gradient is the basic cause of pulsus bisferiens in 40% patients in the left ventricular outflow tract. In different parts of heart bisferiens pulse can be seen in aortic stenosis which is accompanied by moderately severe aortic insufficiency. The first lift is happened due to “percussion wave”(P) and the second lift is happened due to tidal wave (T). In some cases. However. Your doctor can be your best adviser at that position and if you found a patient then you have to follow the prescriptions of the doctors. fever. but may also be found in isolated but severe aortic insufficiency. thyrotoxicosis. if you feel any change in the rhythm then it might be an alarming and it may lead you to suffer from the pulsus alternans. it commonly occurs with high output states. and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. worsening fatigue. eventually. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea may develop. So if you don’t want to suffer from this fatal disease you should be keen toward your diet and heart anything unusual change or pain can lead you to pulsus bisfereiens. Normally in central arteries. Pulsus alternans can be harmless until or unless you cure it on initial stage and don’t ignore it. This type of pulse can also be felt better in peripheral arteries is pulsus alterans.Heart rhythm can also be useful in finding pulsus alternans.

Gallop Ventricular Ventricular is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. and the left ventricular pumps blood into the systemic circulation for the rest of the body. The normal rhythm of the heart contains two audible sounds. In a person systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg and diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg. and represent the force that your heart generates each time it contracts. In a four-chambered heart. the pulse pressure would be 40 mmHg. These two extreme differences are called the pulse pressure. S3 (or third heart sound) is the name of the vibration. Some facts suggest that pulse pressure is a better forecaster of clinical outcome than the systolic or diastolic blood pressure alone. called S3 or S4. Gallop ventricular rhythm is a rhythm of the heart on auscultation. depending on the aetiology (abnormal condition) the gallop rhythm may resolve. It is usually low-pitched and is best heard with the bell of the stethoscope. Ventriculars have thicker walls than the atria. The third sound of the heart does not occur until the middle third of diastole is probably because during the early part of diastole. The rhythms are usually caused by the closing of valves in the heart. Comparing the right and left ventricles. giving the well-known “lubdub” rhythm. the left ventricle has thicker walls because it needs to pump blood to the whole body. and thus can withstand higher blood pressure. dependent upon where in the cycle this added sound comes. The ventricular gallop rhythm itself does not need to be treated. there are two ventricular the right ventricular pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation for the lungs. S3 can be a normal finding in people under 40 years of age. However. An S3 rhythm is also refers as ventricular gallop. . giving a rhythm much like the cadence in the word ‘Kentucky’. A ventricular gallop rhythm contains another sound. called S1 and S2. shortly after the second heart sound S2. pulse pressure as a clinical predictor or diagnosis tool usage is complicated because the pulse pressure doesn’t provide unique information. it can also contain both of these sounds. the underlying cause requires correction. Sometime it is difficult to hear. The systolic and diastolic readings are taken at opposite ends of the cardiac cycle and are a person’s highest and lowest blood pressure levels. such as that in humans. It occurs during the middle third of diastole. the ventricles are not filled sufficiently to create enough tension for reverberation. Widened Pulse Pressure Systolic and a diastolic reading are the measurements of blood pressure. Gallop ventricular rhythm may be caused by the oscillation of blood back and forth between the walls of the ventricles initiated by inrushing blood from the atria. but over this age is usually a sign of heart failure.

the rhythm and strength of the heartbeat can also be noted. in healthy individuals the pulse pressure will typically return to normal within about 10 minutes. Human beings are made of complex system of nerves and arteries. So if we cannot under estimate any minor problem and consult the doctor immediately. Whether the blood vessel feels hard or soft. It is indeed a blessing to stay healthy and fit in these times.Pulse pressure in healthy adults in sitting position is about 40 mmHg. the diastolic will progressively fall as the systolic increases. as in Congestive Heart Failure and/or shock. Atherosclerosis 2. There are different causes which make you suffer from widened pulse pressure some of these are as follow: 1. Heart block 10. Patent ductus arteriosus 9. The pulse pressure increases with exercise due to increased stroke volume. During exercise. Pulse Bounding Pulse is the rate at which heart of the person beats. . Aortic dissection 11. 7. Chronic aortic regurgitation 3. It is usually called your heart rate. Fever 5. which is the number of times your heart beats each minute (bpm). Raised intracranial pressure So we should be aware of these causes and incase of any irregularity we have to consult to our doctor as soon as it is possible because if it would not cure properly and on time it can further causes different problems for you. If your pulse isn’t working properly then it should be your first preference to get yourself checked by the doctor and do according to his prescription. If the pulse pressure is genuinely low than 25 mmHg. There is a system of network of veins and blood vessels. healthy values being up to pulse pressures of about 100 mmHg. a serious issue. Thyrotoxicosis 4. Endocarditis 12. In some athletes. Anaemia 6. the systolic pressure progressively increases while the diastolic remains about the same in most of individuals. the reason may be low stroke volume. Pregnancy Anxiety 8.

pulse rates are higher in infants and young children. at the wrist (radial artery). behind the knee (popliteal artery). From60 to 100 beats per minute (BPM). Bounding pulse is a disease which can be dangerous so we have to look after ourselves. Berry aneurysm 2. Bounding Pulse In medicine. It can also be measured by measuring the heart beats directly (the apical pulse). Pulse is the throbbing persons arteries as an effect of the heart beat.As heart of a person pumps blood through body.Strong and forceful pulse is refers as pulse bounding. such as at the neck (carotid artery). . on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery). Arterio-venous shunt 6. while resting. Fever 5. behind the knee (popliteal artery). Sometime it is happens because of excessive fluid in the circulation. Bounding pulse and high speed in heart rate occur separately but it can happen together. It is a term which often used medically. is a normal pulse rate for a healthy adult. When heart beating rate is faster than normal. the wave of distention which refers as pulse wave is pronounced but relatively slow-moving (3–6 m/s). Arties which are visible through skin can clearly make you see the forceful pumping of blood through these arteries. Moreover. The list of causes is as under: 1. and in the small arteries. on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery). If you want to find out how fast your heart is beating simply Count your pulse. Anaemia 3. its velocity is 7–10 m/s in the large arterial branches. blood is ejected into the aorta and the aorta stretches. It becomes faster as it travels towards the peripheral blood vessels.Pulse can be feel at different places such as at the neck (carotid artery). and near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery). Aortic regurgitation 4. Some athletes may have a healthy pulse rate lower than 60 BPM. at the wrist (radial artery). Pregnancy For living a healthy life one should be very careful and precarious about his health. Pressure waves move through the artery walls. There are many conditions which cause bounding pulse these all are following there can be other possibilities which can be identified by your doctor. Bounding pulse is often is classified as a powerful and strong pulse. When heart is in contraction position. Pulse can be felt in any place that allows for an artery to be compressed against a bone. you can feel a pulsing in some of the blood vessels close to the skin’s surface. it may accompany a bounding pulse. At this point. it is 15–35 m/s. and near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery).

Some possible causes of pulse bounding are Berry berry aneurysm. fainting. Aortic regurgitation. Patient often feels weakness in many parts of its body. weakness. Atrial Fibrillation happens when there is Irregular and rapid beating of the atrial chambers and the normal system that conducts electricity in the atria malfunctions. As a result the normal coordination between the atria and the ventricles is lost Atrial fibrillation can have a range of symptoms in patients. Atrial fibrillation causes when atria are stimulated to contract very quickly and differently from the normal activity originating from the sinoatrial node and this stimulation results in ineffective and uncoordinated contraction of the atria in atrial fibrillation. There are some other causes which likely increase the pulse rate are acute alcoholism arotic inefficiency. Blood studies (CBC or blood differential). and angina. ECG. These symptoms include confusion. shortness of breath. There are some other symptoms which cause bounding pulse like palpitation. It also measures the rate and regularity of heartbeats as well as the size and position of the chambers. During x-ray of the chest rays pass through the chest from the back (posterior-anterior view). an uncomfortable awareness of the rapid and irregular heartbeat. and from one side to the other. Atrial Fibrillation Heart’s two upper chambers are refers as Atrial e. An electrocardiogram (ECG) test records the electrical activity of the heart. Electrical activity storm across both atria causes them to fibrillate 300 to 600 times per minute. Instead.g. dizziness. Arterio venous shunt. The major symptom of atrial fibrillation is palpitations. its irregular rhythm means the ventricles can’t pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. respiratory distress and headache. Sometime bounding pulse causes due to Anemia which refers to a low red blood cell count. blood begins to pools in the heart and the body doesn’t get enough. Muscles become weak due to strong pulse. and in a peculiarly organized contraction pattern in atrial flutter. Febrile disorder and chronic aortic insufficiency. Patient cannot digest food due to this disease. Hypercapnia. Pulse bounding affects the lungs and patient feels difficulty in breathing. Echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart that involves no radiation exposure. Other symptoms of atrial fibrillation are happened when there is diminished delivery of blood to the body. the left and right atria and Fibrillating means quivering. Another major symptom of pulse bounding is heart rhythm which originates electricity in ventricles.There are many symptoms associated with pulse bounding. Weakness and fatigue are the big symptoms of pulse bounding. Patent ductus arteriosus is another cause of bounding pulse in which blood vessels in the body becomes fatal. Persons skin is very sensitive and many skin problem results in pulse bounding. or rapid beating of the heart. Many patients with atrial fibrillation are unaware of the abnormal heart rhythm. Many times this disease happened due to fever and sometimes in pregnancy. These conditions of artia can be caused by impulses which are . Atrial Fibrillation whether happens at high or low heart rates. fatigue. Cirhossis and thyrotoxicosis. Echocardiogram and X-rays of the chest must performed for the treatment of this disease.

you must avoid them. The lack of an isoelectric or baseline segment between the atrial waves. chest pains. Anticoagulation may be required to decrease the risk of the latter while rate and rhythm control are principally used to achieve the former. Moreover taking medications. gives the atrial baseline a ‘saw-tooth’ appearance on the ECG. and the smooth. and in the presence of a prolonged atrioventricular conduction time. its onset is often marked by characteristic sensations of regular palpitations. people who are suffering with other underlying heart disease or poor exercise tolerance may rapidly develop symptoms. If rate and rhythm control of the atrial gallop cannot be maintained by medication or cardioversion. Treatment choice is based on your heart rhythm and symptoms. and cardiomyopathy). nausea and. Initially. Firstly when atrial flutter occurs. You should stop using caffeine and avoid caffeinated products (such as tea. coffee.transmitted to the ventricles in an irregular fashion or by some impulses failing to be transmitted. Do not intakes unlimited alcohol. . Consult your doctor for specific alcohol guidelines. The main goals of treatment of atrial gallop are to prevent temporary circulatory instability and to prevent stroke. However. If your heart rhythm occurs irregularly more often with certain activities. That ‘saw-tooth’ appearance is the most distinctive. it may slowly persist for months to years. which typically have no associated isoelectric segments between the atrial complexes. it may occur spontaneously in people with otherwise normal hearts. biphasic P wave morphology. immediate cardioversion may be indicated. Many options are available for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. feature of atrial flutter. which can include shortness of breath. Atrial gallop is type of sound which is frequently frequent found in hypertensive cardiovascular disease. and falls into the category of supraventricular tachycardias. Atrial Gallop Atrial refers to the upper chamber of the heart and atrial flutter is a very rapid. nervousness and feelings of impending doom while this rhythm can sometimes go unnoticed. colas and some over-the-counter medications). Such sensations usually last until the heart rate is controlled or episode resolves. coronary artery disease. myocardial infarction. electrophysiological studies with pathway ablation may be required. however. It is frequently degenerates into atrial fibrillation and not a stable rhythm. Initially Atrial flutter is usually well tolerated (a high heart rate is for most people just a normal response to exercise). lightheadedness or dizziness. This type of rhythm occurs most often in individuals with cardiovascular disease (eg: hypertension. Try to reduce the habit of smoking. Gallop Atrial is the rhythm in which the gallop sound follows atrial systole in late diastole and is an audible fourth heart sound due to forceful ventricular filling. in some patients. there are some other changes you can make to improve your heart health. When circulatory collapse is imminent in emergency cases due to uncontrolled tachycardia.very regular atrial tachycardia. it is usually associated with a fast heart rate or tachycardia. medications are used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. occurring at rates between 200 and 400 BPM. which leads to an irregular (and usually fast) pulse in atrial fibrillation. and unique. This results in irregular ventricles beat.

Some other causes which results in of arrhythmias are Stress.Arrhythmias Arrhythmias are irregularity of the heart’s rhythmic beating. dizziness. Some time it happens because of shortness of breath and sometimes even u feel pain in your chest. some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome sometimes even life-threatening signs and symptoms. For example. These irregular changes can be brought on by strong emotions or exercise. It can be caused by high blood pressure heart disease. This type of abnormality if remained uncured might as well lead to the death of the patient.changes in the pattern of the pulse. arrhythmias caused by disease coronary artery and it may be controlled by bypass surgery. Pericardial Friction Rub Introduction : Pericardial friction rub is also known as pericardial rub. Sometimes heart can be destroyed or removed when an arrhythmia is caused by a certain area of the heart. Paleness. The cause of this rub is that inflammation of the pericardial sac causes the parietal and visceral surfaces of the roughened pericardium to rub against each other. Fainting Skipping beats . brief irregular heartbeats that feel like a skipped. pregnancy. It is a sign on the precordial exam. If this disease occur more often or cause symptoms may be more serious and need to be discussed with your doctor. Heart disease may the irregular beating of heart or sometimes faster the beating rate. Some other symptoms whish results in irregularity of heart beat are Heart murmur. Slow heartbeat There are many causes of Arrhythmias. Cardiac defibrillation is type of soft shock and can be used to stop an abnormal rhythm and restore a normal one. alcohol. There are many symptoms associated with Arrhythmias but sweating and cardiac arrest are the major one. and some medications can also cause an arrhythmia. Surgery is another option for the treatment of arrhythmias. fluttering or racing heartbeat. An arrhythmia can also mean that your heart skips a beat or has an extra beat However. Difficulty exercising. This rubbing produces an extra . caffeine. It is an electronic device placed under the skin on the chest. Pacemaker helps the heart to maintain a regular beat. Arrhythmias are not a cause for alarm. smoking. Before starting any treatment of arrhythmias specialists first try to rule out reversible causes of ventricular arrhythmias. Many people experienced these irregular beating occasional. There are many options of the treatment of this disease. especially when the heart beats too slowly. Heart beat becomes regular with an artificial pacemaker. detected by auscultation that suggests irritation of the pericardium and the diagnosis of pericarditis. In some patients arrhythmia may be caused by a congenital heart defect (a heart problem from birth). Light-headedness.

and one systolic. two. which ordinarily has two components. or from a structural abnormality that allows fluid to enter the pericardial cavity. or three components of a pericardial friction rub may be audible. It is also important to note that people who have had a history of heart attacks are at a higher risk of developing pericarditis. Infants can also feel abdominal pain. When heard carefully one. Since there is a limited amount of space in the pericardial cavity. If common drugs don’t help then probably steroids may be given. The sound is comprised of three parts: Two diastolic. To describe the pain it can be said that it is sharp. While hearing a three-component rub indicates the presence of pericarditis and serves to distinguish a pericardial rub from a pleural friction rub. or pressing. dull. People who are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are also prone to acquiring it. or rasping. burning. If a person is having kidney problems it would cause toxins in the body to build up because wastes are not properly excreted. Tuberculosis can also lead to this disease. The sound of this particular rub seems very close to the ear and may seem louder than or may even mask the other heart sounds. Kidney infections and other metastatic diseases are the most common causes of Pericardial rub. aching. the fluid accumulation will lead to an increased intrapericardial pressure and this can negatively affect heart function and will lead to malfunctioning. scratching. Pericardial effusion is a result of disturbed equilibrium between the production and re-absorption of pericardial fluid. Treatment : To cure pericardial rub the drugs usually prescribed as the ones that can reduce the inflammation. Symptoms : When we are talking about the symptoms of Pericardial rub then Chest pain is the cardinal symptom. The sound of a pericardial rub resembles the sound of squeaky leather and is often described as grating. The person has to take right dose of aspirin which is considered an effective initial therapy. . The intensity of the pain varies from barely perceptible to severe. Causes : It is important to know about the main causes of pericarditis and mostly they are the infections in the body. If you want to hear these rubs then the best place is between the apex and sternum but may be widespread. Pericardial Effusion Pericardial effusion is the build up of fluid around the heart and it is an abnormal accumulation in the pericardial cavity.cardiac sound of to-and-fro character with both systolic and diastolic components. The person may also have fever. Certain medical procedures and processes could also cause pericarditis.

nephrotic syndrome. It may be transudative in case of congestive heart failure. cancer infection kidney failure heart surgery hemorrhage trauma unknown cause severe edema (fluid retention) low blood pressure shortness of breath dizziness chest pain cough rapid pulse Treatment : If the amount of fluid does not increase or is small then no treatment is required to remove it. Symptoms : Generally speaking the condition will lead to Chest pain.There are three types of pericardial effusion. However a small effusion may have no symptoms. Causes : Some causes of pericardial effusion other than inflammatory types of arthritis. myxoedema. An Atrial Septal Defect Secundum. 6. Pericardial effusion may also be noticed after a specific type of heart defect repair. rupture of aneuryms. in which the cardiopericardial silhouette is enlarged and assumes the shape of a flask or water bottle. 5. 4. Some of the noticeable symptoms of this condition are as follows: 1. . when it is unavoidable then a surgery is required to drain the fluid. 2. 5. Another symptom of pericardial effusion is the so-called “water-bottle heart” is a radiographic sign of pericardial effusion. 3. 3. when repaired will most likely produce a pericardial effusion because of the method of treatment. 7. malignant effusion. or ASD. spread from empyema or haemorrhagic in case of trauma. it is usually drained using a needle which is passed through the chest wall and into the space where the fluid is located. exudative in case of tuberculosis. 7. pressure symptoms. 2. When the condition of the disease is more severe. 6. 4. In some cases. such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis including: 1.

Bruit A carotid bruit is an abnormal sound from the heart. This is also possible that a bruit is only temporary and goes away on its own. Mottled knees and elbows Cool and clammy skin Restlessness Diarrhea . though steroid therapy may be recommended and sometimes surgical intervention is needed. 6. 8. 2. There could be abdominal bruits as well. Carotid bruit is a sign of the person’s higher stroke risk. Treatment of the underlying cause if treated timely and properly will make it go away. 7. If the disease is treated promptly and regularly.The treatment of this condition is usually with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. most people recover in two weeks to three months. A bruit does not necessarily mean the carotid artery will become more clogged and a stroke will result however it does expose you to higher risk and means that you and your doctor should do everything you can to reduce your risk. 3. Tearing pain in the abdomen Peripheral pulses Thirst Hypotension 4. such as caused by irregularities in the wall of the blood vessel or by an abnormal connection (fistula) between an artery and vein. Symptoms : The following are the symptoms which are associated with the bruits and doctor need to examine it very carefully. A bruit that is normally heard over the carotid artery is a sign that there are fats in the wall of the vessel. 1. A weak and thready pulse 5. It is generally caused by turbulent blood flow. If your carotid artery is more than 50 percent blocked it is necessary to perform a surgery to remove the fatty buildup (endarterectomy) or to open the narrowed artery (angioplasty and perhaps stenting) may be necessary. A bruit indicates a fatty buildup (atherosclerosis) in the artery. The bruit can be heard by using a stethoscope to listen to blood flow in the carotid artery. The sound is in synchronization with the heartbeat. or drainage of fluid from around the heart. The carotid artery is the main artery in the neck region and is responsible for bringing blood to the head.

. and hyperlipidemia 4. Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis 14. Subclavian steal syndrome 10. Peripheral arteriovenous fistula 7. Renal artery stenosis 9. diabetes. 2. Anemia Treatment : 1. Each side of the heart has two chambers — an atrium (upper chamber) and a ventricle (lower chamber).9. weakness and paresthesia Causes : There could be many underlying causes of bruit. Treat hypertension. 2. Peripheral vascular disease 8. Abdomina aortic aneurysm 13. The name means that one or more chambers of the heart “fail” to keep up with the volume of blood flowing through them. Anaemia 4. Total Heart failure occurs when any one of these four chambers is no longer able to keep up with the volume of blood flowing through it. Edema. Carotid artery stenosis 5. Benign normal variant in children 12. Reduced Heart Function may include the left side. Carotid cavernous fistula 6. Thyrotoxicosis 11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic sclerosis 3. 5. Carotid angioplasty is currently under study Patients with underlying disease processes require appropriate treatment. The following medical conditions are some to mention 1. the right side or both sides of the heart. Reduced Heart Function Reduced Heart Function is the condition when the heart doesn’t function properly. A regular medication for further deterioration Smoking and alcohol cessation 3.

especially the liver. your doctor may detect signs of heart failure long before you experience symptoms. Right-sided heart failure and biventricular failure 1. 5. 7. Most of the times left heart failure lead to right heart failure. there is a good reason to have regular health checkups. Presence of eczema-type rash on legs. 4. 8. 3. At the same time the other organs try to compensate for the dysfunction for example: Heart Enlargement Heart Pumps Faster Blood Vessels Blood Flow Is Diverted . Swelling may lead to dry skin on the lower part of the legs. right or both sides of the heart. Symptoms : Typical signs of heart failure include: Left-sided heart failure 1. Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and organs. If this is an ongoing practice then during a routine physical examination. If the right half of the heart fails general body vein pressure will increase and fluid will accumulate in the body. 2. 4. If the left half of the heart fails there would be fluid retention in the lungs due to congestion of the veins in the lungs.Heart dysfunction may affect the left. So. Shortness of breath together with a reduction in mobility Breathing problems in case of exertion in patients with less severe problems A dry cough Fatigue. especially in the legs and in the abdominal organs. 6. which can be complicated by ulcers that do not heal 3. causing biventricular failure which is an extremely fatal condition. 2. Swelling in the legs (oedema). with the liver most likely to be affected. Reduced Heart Function leading to a heart failure usually is a chronic disease condition that gradually gets worse.

Two major causes are vascular changes as a result of tissue damage and chronic hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Treat causes of heart failure Stopping smoking. Reduction in weight Controlling high blood pressure. On the other hand Ventricular hypertrophy is an adaptive response to a long-term increase in pressure. ACE inhibitors. There are two types of cor pulmonale including Right ventricular hypertrophy or RVH which is the predominant change in chronic cor pulmonale and in acute cases dilation dominates. 1. As a result additional muscle grows to allow for the increased contractile force required to move the blood against greater resistance. 1. 1. 2.Causes : There could be many causes for the reduced heart function which can be caused by many diseases. Cor pulmonale is fatal to health and if left untreated. Prescription of agents for increasing cardiac function such as Digoxin. It is essential for the disease to be classified as cor pulmonale. Treatment can often only slow down the progression of the illness and substantially increase your quality of life and span as well. 6. 4. and is the immediate result of increasing the pressure in an elastic container. 3. . Anaemia (rare) Treatment : Heart failure is a progressive disease. Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a disease in which there is a change in structure and function of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of a respiratory disorder. Beta Blockers. Congenital heart diseases Endocrine disorders 7. Diuretics etc. 2. with the potential for gradual deterioration. cor pulmonale can lead to right-heart failure and death. Dilation is normally a stretching of the ventricle. Cardiomyopathy 5. Ischaemic heart disease 4. Use of drugs asAspirin Clopidogrel (Plavix) can be given instead of aspirin. Both cases of hypertrophy and dilation are the result of increased right ventricular pressure. Hypertension Heart valves diseases 3. should originate in the pulmonary circulation system.

4. Feeling fatigued and lassitude Edema or Ankle swelling 4. A case of worsening cough (particularly if non-productive) 6. 6.Symptoms : In most of the patients there are certain common symptoms that may suggest the presence of cor pulmonale in a patient with pulmonary or cardiopulmonary disease include: 1. Late-stage hepatic congestion can cause anorexia. Exertional syncope – a late symptom indicating severe disease 10. Hoarseness – occurs occasionally due to compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve by dilated pulmonary artery 9. Haemoptysis (due to pulmonary arteriolar rupture or leakage) 8. 5. Causes : The disease is associated with almost any chronic lung disease or condition causing prolonged low blood oxygen can lead to cor pulmonale. particularly at rest 2. A few of these causes include: 1. Kyphoscoliosis 9. 3. A feeling of Angina-type chest discomfort – often non-responsive to nitrates (thought to be due to right ventricular ischaemia or stretching of pulmonary artery during exertion) 7. A condition of worsening exertional dyspnoea with significant recent deterioration in exercise tolerance 5. jaundice and right-upper-quadrant abdominal discomfort. Worsening tachypnoea. Interstitial lung disease 10. 3. 7. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease . 2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Obstructive sleep apnea Central sleep apnea Mountain sickness Cystic fibrosis Primary pulmonary hypertension Pneumoconiosis 8.

or when you have flu or just after. in contrast to their use with left ventricular failure Myocarditis Introduction : Myocardium is the heart muscle. However there are many other causes also which are less common including patients with HIV infection. symptoms and possible problems associated with myocarditis. In many cases. In many cases. The heart inflammation may be diagnosed by some changes on an ECG of the infected person. Most of the time people with viral myocarditis do not have any heart-related symptoms and lead a normal life. fungi. So. to lifethreatening heart failure. 3. Inotropic drugs. treatment of the underlying cause is combined with specific management as below: 1. Myocarditis is a condition in which there is inflammation of the heart muscle. 2. the cause of myocarditis is not found even with the test and proper diagnosis. There are various causes of myocarditis ranging from mild to fatal ones. Many types of virus infection can affect our various body parts including the heart muscle. Pulmonary vascular disease 12. . parasites and other germs etc. If symptoms do develop they can include: chest pain fever a fast heartbeat tiredness Causes : Myocarditis can affect anyone and occur at any age. particularly digoxin. Similarly. Long term Oxygen therapy Diuretics Vasodilators 4. and it could be a rare side-effect of some medicines. Pulmonary hypertension Treatment : Acute cor pulmonale is treated by trying to rapidly correct the underlying precipitant which is often acute pulmonary embolism or an infective exacerbation of COPD. It varies from person to person.11. Symptoms : The symptoms of myocarditis depend on the cause and severity of the inflammation. are frequently used but there is little evidence for their efficacy in right heart failure. myocarditis may develop with a viral throat or chest infection. Various causes are associated with the development of Myocarditis. Sometimes it can range from no symptoms at all. depending on the cause and severity. in chronic cor pulmonale. Our body’s immune system if working properly can clear many types of virus within a week or so. by various bacteria.

blood thinning medicine is given as well. Arrhythmias. Endocarditis Introduction : Endocarditis is a rare condition which leads to the inflammation of the heart lining endocardium. . or cases with complications. 2. If there is a blood clot in the heart chamber. 3. 8. 7. However. Endocarditis can occur at any age. but people who are aged 50 years and over are more at risk of developing this disease. for more uncommon causes. making it more difficult for the heart to function properly. Stopping usage of alcohol Medicines for inflammation Low salt diet In case of very weak heart muscle. in some cases. For example. A pacemaker 4. You may be advised by your cardiologist not to do strenuous exercise until your ECG has returned to normal. Symptoms : Inmost case the symptoms of Endocarditis tend to appear gradually. Steroid medication in case of giant-cell myocarditis 6. Antibiotics if it is found that cause of the myocarditis is a bacterial infection 5. Oxygen. When talking about gender. Acute endocarditis symptoms are more severe and can develop after just a few days. Endocarditis causes vegetations to form on the heart valves. 9. The symptoms of endocarditis may include: Fever. The disease is caused by an infection of the endocardium. usually with bacteria. Painkillers are there to ease chest pain and fever. if the patient has only mild viral myocarditis. heart muscles and heart valves. Abnormal heart rhythms may require a pacemaker. Chills. no particular treatment is necessary. or defibrillator. People with a healthy are lesser at a risk of developing Endocarditis. men are twice more at risk than women to be affected by endocarditis as women. One is more at risk of developing endocarditis with a heart defect. On the other hand. usually over a period of several weeks or months known as sub-acute endocarditis. medicines to treat heart failure are also prescribed. a range of treatments may be needed which may include the following options: 1.Treatment : The treatment given in cases of myocarditis depends on the cause and severity. the infection can develop very quickly and is known as acute endocarditis.

causing endocarditis to develop. Headache. Some diagnostic tests also put the patient on risk of developing the disease including gastrointestinal procedures used to examine the organs which take in and digest food. Small areas of bleeding under fingernails or toenails. Unexplained weight loss. Blood in the urine. they can attack the heart tissue. the replacement of the damaged heart valves with artificial ones. Shortness of breath. blood samples will be taken regularly to measure the effectiveness of the treatment. stomach and intestines. The infection causes inflammation of the endocardium and can also cause vegetations and abscesses to develop on the heart valves and muscles. Chest pain. and Tender nodules (small lumps) on finger and toes. During the hospital stay. Causes : Endocarditis is most commonly caused by bacteria by entering the blood stream and attaching itself to heart valves and tissues. Broken blood vessels on the whites of the eyes and in the skin. 2. Bacteria can occasionally spread from infected areas of your body.A new or changed heart murmur. such as the mouth. the repair of the damaged heart valve. Normally a person with this disease needs to be admitted to the hospital for treatment. certain medical and dental procedures give way to bacteria to enter the bloodstream. Treatment Most cases of endocarditis will be treated with a course of antibiotics. 3. Sometimes surgical procedures are required to repair the damage and the three main common surgical procedures are 1. . Swelling of feet. legs. Coughs. Weakness and fatigue. abdomen. The draining of abscesses that may develop in the heart muscle. If bacteria make their way into the endocardium. Sometimes. Sweating Muscular aches and pains.

However. symptoms do result and include shortness of breath. Prevention of the underlying diseases that could worsen the condition may be minimized by certain modifications as: 1. two. Palpitations Swelling of the feet. three. however. in more severe forms. thyroid disorders. dizziness or lightheadedness. Hypertrophy usually occurs in only one chamber of the heart and dilation on the other hand may occur in one. they can occur at any time. 3. heart valve disorders. Once dilation or hypertrophy begins to place undue demands on heart function. to lighten the heart’s pumping load and keep it from further enlargement. Symptoms : Some people can have varying degrees of cardiac enlargement and have no symptoms. Causes : Enlarged heart is a sign of an underlying problem and itself not a disease. Diuretics may be prescribed for those patients who are suffering with heart failure. It can have many causes. In milder forms of cardiac enlargement. low-fat diet Maintaining healthy cholesterol levels Keeping blood pressure under control Engaging in a regular exercise program Visiting the physician regularly . Treatment : Treatment for an enlarged heart may include medications. based on its cause. loss of consciousness. even while lying down. 4. such as ACE inhibitors. weakness of the heart muscle. Eating a balanced. Hypertrophy and Dilation. 2. excessive iron in the body. Generally there are two types of cardiac enlargement. Treatment should be aimed at the cause of the enlarged heart and reversing it through medications or any suitable way.Heart Enlargement Introduction : Cardiac enlargement or heart enlargement is an increase in the size of the heart. Hypertrophy is an increase in the thickness of the heart muscle and Dilation is an increase in the size of the inside cavity of a chamber of the heart. chest pressure or pain. the symptoms may occur only with exercise or exertion. These symptoms are not specific to heart enlargement but may occur with other diseases of heart and lung as well. and abnormal protein buildup in an organ. or all of the chambers. ankles. or legs. severe anemia. 5. including high blood pressure.

hence causing shortness of breath. abdominal pain. A very early indicator is fatigue which although is a sensitive indicator but could be directly related to many conditions other than Congestive Heart Failure. Fluid may also accumulate in the lungs. called the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). an alternative group of drugs. The patient has to restrict salt and fluid intake because of the tendency of fluid retention in the lungs and surrounding tissues. Sometimes the patients are awakened at night. and disorders of the heart valves. especially while exercise and when lying flat. Some patients have to sit upright to sleep since this is the only comfortable condition. thyroid disorders.Proper management. treating valve disease and discontinuing alcohol consumption may reverse an enlarged heart. Patients may need to urinate more with the fluid retention especially in the night. It is a serious condition which leaves the person with short of breath and tiredness in case of exertion. Symptoms : The symptoms of CHF vary from individual to individual depending upon the involvement of the organs affected by the condition. Accumulation of fluid in the liver and intestines may cause malfunctioning of related organs such as nausea. may be used. long alcohol use. Causes : The impaired pumping efficiency of the heart is caused by many disease processes to cause congestive heart failure. the most common causes of CHF are coronary artery disease. swelling (edema) of the ankles and legs or abdomen may be noticed. such as controlling high blood pressure. In the United States. Similarly the patient is advised to limit the intake of fluids from all sources to 2 quarts. Less common causes are viral infections of the stiffening of the heart muscle. gasping for air due to shortness of breath. Most importantly a significant change in the lifestyle will also help to minimize the affects of the condition and will improve the life quality. disorders of the heart rhythm etc. . ACE inhibitors have a remarkable effect to prevent the development of heart failure and heart attacks and for the patients with intolerance ACE inhibitors. and decreased appetite. A very active person in the past may become inactive since his body cannot take the exertion. high blood pressure. Treatment : Perhaps the most important and yet most neglected aspect of treatment involves lifestyle modifications. With increasing fluid retention. Congestive Heart Failure General Information : Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart ability to pump oxygenated blood to all of the body parts is inadequate with respect to the needs.

Australia. researchers are concluding that the disease could have resulted from an inherited genetic disorder. Adult patients also suffer from speech deficits and they also tend to drift into unconsciousness from time to time. This disease involves the brain as well as the heart. although the findings related to this issue are not yet conclusive. However. The disease is discovered in Japan by the 1960’s but it was also seen in people living in Europe. Heart transplantation is also a viable treatment option in selected patients. it is observed that the instances are more frequent in women than it is in men. This is how the Japanese had described how the tiny vessels look when they become blocked. Africa. are blocked. Diuretics prevent or alleviate the symptoms of fluid retention by promoting the flow of fluid through the kidneys. And as these female children grow up.Digoxin (Lanoxin) has been traditionally used in the treatment of congestive heart failure for hundreds of years which stimulates the heart muscle to contract more forcefully. Symptoms of the Moyamoya Disease Medical experts are zeroing in on the theory that the Moyamoya disease is a hereditary disease.S. they may experience complications upon reaching the childbearing age. and the United States. Discovering the Moyamoya Disease Moyamoya means “a puff of smoke” in the Japanese language. the arteries found at the base of the brain. the Moyamoya disease is very rare affecting only one in two million people in the U. The Moyamoya disease primarily targets the children although a number of adult cases are recorded as well. Most of its cases run within families. They may experience several problems associated to both pregnancy and the delivery of the baby. . In this disease. Patients are also going to experience general weakness of the body. With this. Candidates for heart transplants are generally under age 70 and do not have severe or irreversible diseases affecting the other organs. In adults. instances of hemorrhagic stroke are also documented. more commonly called the basal ganglia. The main symptom of this disease is stroke or mild ischemic attacks. Their cognitive and sensory capabilities also become impaired and that includes their vision. which may eventually lead to partial paralysis and seizures. And of the children affected with the Moyamoya disease. causing blood not to freely flow through.

In milder cases. This surgery is more effective in children. or more particularly the single photon emission computerized tomography. But this is not frequently done because it is not only critical. In highly rare cases. This procedure also ensures that the instances of strokes related to the disease are reduced. this procedure is performed on adult patients only. Corticosteriod medications are also given. They would also find it hard to lie flat because they would have difficulty in breathing when they do so. There would also be pains and swelling in the joints. and the coxsackie virus. patients may not need surgery but just a draining of the cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricular system. particularly in the leg area. they may also need a magnetic resonance image of the affected are as provided by the MRI. polio. or influenza. The Symptoms of Myocarditis The first symptom of this disease is associated with its preceding viral disease. such as the ones stated above. This condition is usually caused by virus infection like an echovirus. They will also observe that they get tired so easily and becomes short of breath even after a mild exercise or physical activity. or a computerized tomography of the head. but a lot of adult patients who undergo it have lesser to zero occurrence of stroke after surgery. Patients who develop myocarditis have observable weakened and inflamed heart muscles. An angiography. doctors usually request for a CT scan. the primary treatment of the Moyamoya disease is the revascularization surgery. But to perform this surgery. It may also develop after acquiring diseases like rubella. However. Treatment of the Moyamoya disease The drugs commonly used to treat this disease are the blood thinning medicines referred to as the warfarin. Patients will also feel that their hearts are not beating normally as palpitations would occur. Understanding and Preventing Myocarditis Myocarditis is a disease that is characterized by an inflammation of the heart muscles. The episode is so painful that it resembles a heart attack. This is a type of surgery that repairs the narrowed opening of the blood vessels so as to restore the flow of blood to the brain. However. This deviced is used to effectively display the effects of the deceased blood and oxygen supply to the affected areas of the brain. is now performed. Fatal cerebral hemorrhage may happen if the procedure is not done and monitored correctly. or an x-ray of the blood vessels involved is needed as well.Diagnosis of the Moyamoya disease To accurately detect the Moyamoya disease. it also has a lot of medical and legal implications. . In line with that. an extracranial-intrcranial bypass has to be done first. fever may also develop and eventually severe chest pains are felt. more particularly on the part where the blood vessel is blocked. organ transplantation is carried out. adenovirus. Aside from a CT scan. A newer diagnosis tool called the SPECT.

First off. any swelling in your body. Those who are prone to blood clots in their hearts will be given blood-thinning medicines such as warfarin. It is important that your health care provider is consulted accordingly. doctors would require the patient not to do extraneous exercises and activities any longer. An ultrasound of the heart. blood cultures are needed as well. The patients who have an abnormal rhythm of the heart are given additional therapy. may also be requested so doctors will see how weak the heart muscle is and if the heart is enlarged due to the fluid accumulating it. Diuretic are drugs that remove the water from the body through urination. For patient whose hearts are weak. and bacterial diseases have to be avoided.Diagnosing Myocarditis To diagnose this disease. Detecting the Signs of Myocardial Ischemia Early On . For a fuller diagnosis. The complications associated to myocarditis are heart failure. There would also be observable abnormal heartbeats and sounds. Preventing Myocarditis To prevent myocarditis. medicines to address and prevent heart failures are given. A biopsy of the heart muscles may be done too. but doctors do this quite rarely. Treatment of Myocarditis The treatment of myocarditis relies greatly on its underlying causes. especially if the symptoms associated to the disease become severe. In the presence of any viral diseases and infections. It is not right to ignore chest pains. Today. several vaccines are available so children won’t develop these diseases anymore that could lead to other heart problems like myocarditis. They would also ask their patients to stay clear of salty food and stick to a lowsodium diet. And when these diseases do show. a prompt and proper treatment has to be performed. or more particularly an echocardiogram. steroids are prescribed to patient with whom skin inflammations are observed. These could very well develop into a heart problem if not addressed early on. the occurrence of viral. And to reduce the body’s tendency to retain fluid. Fluid retention both in the lungs and the leg area are also observed. pericarditis. a physical examination would show changes in the rhythm of the heart of the patient. diuretics are given. Blood tests may also be performed so that both the white blood cells and red blood cells are counted. parasitic. patients are asked to undergo electrocardiograms and chest x-rays. including a pacemaker. As for drugs. First off. and the instances wherein you had difficulty in breathing. and cardiomyopathy. Pericarditis is an inflammation of the heart’s sac-like covering while cardiomyopathy is the weakening of the heart muscles. several tests have to be performed.

If the heart’s myocardium fails to receive the proper amount of blood and oxygen, the disease called myocardial ischemia can occur.The myocardium is the muscular tissues of the heart. Myocardial ischmemia is one type of a coronary heart disease (CAD), and with that, is also called as the atherosclerotic CAD. Myocardial ischmemia, together with all other CAD, are the leading causes of deaths worldwide. And this particular disease accounts for the most number of emergency cases when compared to the different types of CAD. In the U.S. alone, it is the main cause of an estimated 14% of all deaths recorded. And this is the reason why myocardial ischmemia has to be diagnosed before a heart attack episode, for it can really be fatal. The Symptoms of Myocardial Ischmemia The importance of detecting this disease early on is essential. But doing so is not really easy. For one thing, myocardial ischmemia may show no symptoms at all in a patient. However, some patients may experience unstable angina. Angina is the medical term given to chronic chest pains and discomforts. This primarily results when the heart doesn’t get enough blood. Chest pains are the most common symptom and perhaps the only one experienced by people with myocardial ischmemia. It is then important that you don’t ignore any of the pains in the chest are that you may be feeling, no matter how mild they seem to be. It is always best to consult with a doctor to accurately diagnose what disease you have. Diagnosing Myocardial Ischmemia As stated earlier, diagnosing myocardial ischmemia can really be difficult. And this disease may occur in men or women of all ages. Usually, the doctors would request a definitive family history of the patient first. This will give them a clue whether or not to look in that direction when diagnosing the disease. Patients who come to a doctor complaining chest pains are asked to undergo a certain stress test. This is to determine the extent of physical exertion their hearts can withstand. But this test is only applicable to people who are suspected to have mild myocardial ischmemia. The most effective diagnosis tool of this disease is a nuclear scan of the myocardium. Nuclear myocardial imaging can accurately produce an image of the heart’s muscles, including their motion and perfusion. It can also assess the blood flowing through the coronary artery. If this tool is not readily available, doctors may settle for an echocardiogram, as this device is a lot more common in clinics and hospitals compared to the nuclear myocardial imaging device. Treatment of Myocardial Ischmemia To treat myocardial ischmemia, it is necessary that all the risks associated with the coronary artery disease be addressed first. In line with this, a thrombolytic therapy may be performed. The purpose of this therapy is to dissolve thrombi or blood clots forming in the blood vessels or inside the heart. As for drugs, aspirin and other anti-platelet medicines have proven to help improve a patient’s condition. Nitrates may also be prescribed so that the blood flowing to the heart is increased while the oxygen requirement of the myocardium is lowered. Betablockers are a type of medicine that can also decrease the oxygen demand in the myocardial area. These drugs do it by normalizing the heart’s cardiac work. And aside from these, there are also drugs called calcium channel blockers. These drugs

inhibit calcium ions to be transported into the cardiac area so that the muscles become more relaxed, hence lower blood pressure. But in essence, the type of drugs to take and the therapeutic procedures to you have to undergo should be properly prescribed by your doctor. They are the one who knows exactly the extent of your disease. It is necessary that you consult with them early on precisely at the first signs of chronic chest pains. Selfmedicating, or much worse, ignoring chest pains are not going to be helpful at all.

The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome is also known as the Kawasaki disease. This is a disorder that affects the lymph nodes, the mouth, and the skin of the patient. More often than not, it affects children 5 years and below. The real cause of this disease is still unknown, but its symptoms can become very apparent. And if it is not treated early, serious complications may arise. In the United States, this particular disease is considered rare. On the estimate, it is only seen in 19 children out of 100,000 born. But in Korea and Japan, or even those who have Korean or Japanese blood, the disease is more common. Symptoms of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome The primary symptom of the mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome is a fever that commonly lasts for five days or more. And while the child is sick, red eyes, extensive body rashes, and chapped mouth and lips will be observed. The fever is usually higher than 104 degrees Fahrenheit or 39 degrees Celsius most of the time. And rashes can be seen on the stomach area, the chest, and even in the genitals. Patients will also have sore throats coupled with swollen tongues, which in turn, would have red bumps in it. And aside from the lymph nodes, the palm and the soles will appear swollen as well and have a purple or a bluish color. And all this is just the first phase of the disease. It is then mandatory that once these symptoms became apparent, a doctor has to be consulted right away. The second phase will happen in the next two weeks. At that point, the child’s skin, both on the feet and hands, will start to peel. Joint pains with diarrhea and vomiting are also expected. Episodes of severe abdominal pains will be experienced too. Diagnosis of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome Children with the mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome will have to undergo echocardiogram to diagnose the disease. An electrocardiogram will effectively monitor the condition and functions of the patient’s hearts. Blood samples will also be taken so that the doctor can accurately rule out other diseases with similar symptoms such as measles, scarlet fever, rheumatoid arthritis in

children, and others. After the doctor had arrived with a correct diagnosis of the syndrome, proper treatment has to be carried out next. Treatment of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome To effectively treat this disease, treatment needs to start within ten days since the fever began. This syndrome requires hospitalization and doctors would give gamma globulin to the patient. Gamma globulins are purified antibodies that combine in the blood to boost up the body’s immune system to help fight the disease. It is an intravenous solution and several doses of which may be given until the fever subsides. And along with gamma globulin, a high dosage of aspirin will also be prescribed so that the risks of developing heart problems are lessened. Complications of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome The main reason why this disease has to be cured early on is because it can cause major complications to the heart. If successfully diagnosed within 10 days when the fever began, doctors can usually manage all the symptoms associated with the disease. But the moment the disease goes beyond that mark untreated, it can lead to vasculitis. Vasculitis is a type of infection of the blood vessels. The blood vessels will become inflamed and blood supply to the heart will be reduced. Arrhythmia is another complication. This is a disease wherein the heart doesn’t follow a normal heartbeat pattern any longer. Children who develop this are in the higher risk of developing heart failures eventually. This disease may be caused by the abnormal functions of the heart valves.

Detecting Mitral Valve Prolapse In Its Early Stages
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Its job is to control the flow of blood as it passes through these two chambers. If it is working normally, the blood will flow forward from the left atrium into the left ventricle. The mitral valve has two flaps. When the heart is at rest, the state of being in between beats, these two flap open to let the blood flow through. The flaps only open outward, so blood will flow in one direction alone. Now if a person develops mitral valve prolapse, the flaps are not working as it should. One of the flaps could be opening in both directions, thus the blood have the tendency to go back to the left atrium instead of going forward. This disease can be congenital, and statistics show that it is more common in women than in men. In a rough estimate, this disease is present in 1 for every 20 Americans. Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse patients suffer from several symptoms. The most common one is that sensation that the heart is racing or is skipping some beats. Medical experts also refer to this as palpitations.

a clicking sound is heard. It is the abnormal flap itself that makes this sound. a treatment therapy is recommended. Also.The Faltering Heart Disease Mitral stenosis is also referred to as mitral valve stenosis and it is the condition wherein the mitral valve opening of the heart narrows. But for the 2% of people who are suffering from complications. This is to prevent bacteria from entering their bloodstream that may cause infection. there would also be a certain gushing sound made by blood as it flows back to the atrium. But there are instances that the pains occur during rest as well. a surgery maybe required to fix it. medicines like beta-blockers are prescribed. the flow of blood is reduced and the blood pressure in the left atrium is increased causing it to enlarge. this problem of the mitral valve do not really need any special treatment at all. it should not affect your health. . Diagnosis of Mitral Valve Prolapse A simple physical examination is usually enough to detect this disease. you will be subjected to a more complex examination such as an echocardiogram. They come and go every now and then and it is usually caused by extraneous physical activities. Treatment for Mitral Valve Prolapse More often than not. Aside from that. The doctor can detect its presence in the body by listening to the heart with the use of a stethoscope. And when that happens. Just like chest pains. whether they are receiving treatment for it or not. these are also associated with energy exertion. If mitral valve prolapse causes a person too intense a chest pain. a change in lifestyle is in order. This gushing sound is also referred to as a heart murmur. These pains can be so intense and may even last for a few minutes. Overall. Lesser participation in competitive sports as well as maintaining the right diet is essential. But for some who have their valves too leaky. And once the doctor has a fair idea of what disease you might have. all people diagnosed with mitral valve prolapse. Usually. especially in milder cases. The test can accurately show the mitral valve while the blood is flowing through it. together with dizziness. It is also quite observable that most people who have mitral valve prolapse succumbs panic and anxiety very easily. And if the disease is confirmed. Mitral Stenosis . treatment will follow suit. it will become irregular and result in atrial fibrillation. These are known to make all other symptoms of the disease under control. the blood coming from the left atrium down to the left ventricle flows with increased resistance. have to inform any health professional of their condition. Generally. The left atrium will begin to beat rapidly and over time. especially if they intend to undergo surgery or dental work.Chronic chest pains are also observed. Shortness of breath is also a symptom. And just a reminder. This device generates an image of your heart through an ultrasound wave.

Diuretics remove excess fluid in the body. Western Europe. Fluid will start to accumulate in the lungs causing a reduced level of oxygen in the blood. Palpitations are the abnormal awareness of one’s heartbeat. There are also instances that they would cough out blood because either a vein or a capillary had burst. Causes of Mitral Stenosis : The most common cause of mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever usually occurs during childhood and it follows an untreated scarlet fever or strep throat. In line with this. Diagnosing Mitral Stenosis : A stethoscope should be enough to detect this disease because the heart will usually do some characteristic murmuring. There are also cases of congenital mitral stenosis. A normal person’s blood passes silently through the valve. And it can also reduce the blood pressure in the lungs. This would further connote that mitral stenosis is more likely to be seen in older individuals only. there’s a problem inside. betablockers. For people who are developing signs. they would have palpitations.Severe mitral stenosis will cause increase pressure in the lung’s blood vessels. sitting upright. Patients with severe cases of mitral stenosis may have a flush seen in their cheeks. calcium channel blockers and anticoagulants are all used. To repair the valve. coupled with the lung’s high blood pressure. they would feel it even as they rest. rheumatic fever is treated long before with antibiotics so it is not anymore seen in children of North America. But when there’s sound. Babies with this condition may require surgery soon after birth because statistics show that most of these babies don’t live beyond the age of two. They have to be propped up in pillows. Treatment of Mitral Stenosis : Drugs are the first line of cure for people with mitral stenosis. and Australasia. Diuretics. These are called mitral facies and are caused by the lowered level of oxygen in the blood. But to make the diagnosis more accurate. they would feel these after an extraneous physical activity. Echocardiography is also used to generate an image of the heart through an ultrasound wave. it is stretched out to make it bigger with the balloon . But as the disease progresses. People can go on with their lives normally without feeling anything wrong in their bodies. and ECG test may be requested. prevent blood clots leading to atrial fibrillation. Should drugs fail. on the other hand. The chest x-ray of the patient may reveal an abnormally big left atrium. Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis : The milder cases of mitral stenosis don’t usually produce symptoms. A pregnant woman suffering from mitral stenosis will develop heart failure very rapidly. However. or standing. Most of the time. some patients won’t be able to breath properly lying flat on their backs. Both beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers control the rhythms of the heart. They would also get tired easily and experience shortness of breath. Anticoagulants. But this doesn’t mean that is should be ignored and leave untreated. the valve itself may need to be repaired or totally replaced.

Anorexia is the inability to eat properly. The postpericardiotomy syndrome is considered to be another disease that targets the body’s immune system and so it is referred to as an autoimmune disease. arthralgia. if not instantly. anorexia. as a series of tests have to be conducted just to arrive at a very accurate diagnosis. patients are also expected to develop fever and an increased heartbeat. patients are given anti-inflammatory drugs so that the pain is relieved soon enough. The Symptoms of Postpericardiotomy Syndrome The main symptoms of this disease are malaise. Echocardiography is a standard diagnostic test. and discomfort that grips a person for apparently no reason at all. Arthralgia is the medical term given to joint pains so intense it seem to be penetrating right through the bones. illness. a heart surgery may be done instead to replace the mitral valve with an artificial one. The Diagnosis of Postpericardiotomy Syndrome Diagnosing this disease is not really easy. The presence of this disease in the body causes the heart to produce its own set of antibodies to fight off the infection it detects that is caused by a virus. Dyspnea is simply shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing. dyspnea. Malaise is the feeling of tiredness. myalgia is type of muscle pain triggered by the overstretching or overworking of the muscles. an x-ray of the chest has to be performed so that the amount of fluid present inside is the lungs. Postpericardiotomy Syndrome Information Statistics show that the increased number of the cardiac operations performed in the United States is directly related to the increased number of patients diagnosed with postpericardiotomy syndrome. . pleuritic pain. First. but a few days or even weeks after. After that. Prednisone is also prescribed and the dosage of this drug depends upon the weight of the patient. if any. thus causing loss in body weight. The Treatment of Postpericardiotomy Syndrome To treat this disease. Salicylates are usually given in a 300 milligrams dosage every 6 hours. mostly during the time when the patient had returned home to recover. Pleuritic pain is the pain associated to the lungs and is usually caused by viruses. This done so that the heart is properly monitored as to what is its response to the disease. This is to determine the level of the red blood cells and the white blood cells present in the body.valvuloplasty procedure. The postpericardiotomy syndrome is considered to be a complication of a certain cardiac surgery. is detected. The syndrome does not occur right after the operation. Aside from all of these. Postpericardiotomy syndrome is said to occur in as many as 50% of the patients who had undergone surgery to the heart. and myalgia. And lastly. Some doctors may settle for an ECG or an electrocardiograph in the absence of a more definite test for the heart. Cardiac MRI may also be requested so that a more detailed image of the heart is produced. But if the doctor deemed that this procedure wouldn’t do the patient any good. Some doctors may give steroids so that the body’s defense is maximized and viral infections are cast away. and it develops more particularly when the pericardium is opened. a complete blood count is conducted.

the rest of the body can possibly be affected. which is otherwise known as arteristis. People who had once suffered from Hepatitis B are more likely to develop this disease. the joints. It is a type of disorder that attacks the person’s immune system. This disease is more observed in middle-aged individuals than in children. it attacks the skin. they are advised to avoid strenuous physical activities as they could worsen their condition. For patients who have developed relatively mild cases of postpericardiotomy syndrome. Most of the time. Polyarteritis Nodosa Disease Information Polyarteritis nodosa is considered to be a rare disease.But if these drugs fail to improve the condition of the patient. And as part of the patient’s treatment therapy. intestines. nerves. doctors have to perform the next level of treatment. Specialized surgeons. are needed to perform the procedure. Cardiothracic surgeons are medical experts that are best qualified to perform surgery on a patient with the postpericardiotomy syndrome. and even the kidney. more particularly the cardiothoracic surgeons. And it is strictly required if fever is present in the patient. which is surgery. It is characterized by the inflammation of the arteries. Polyarteritis nodosa is sometimes alternatively called as periarteritis nodosa. There are no signs or researches proving that this disease can be inherited. . adequate bed rest is needed. the muscles. And since it’s the arteries that are involved. regardless of sex.

The blood pressure of a person is also noted. If the abdominal area were affected. Complications of Polyarteritis Nodosa If left untreated. and they are going to either feel week or tender. The sooner the disease is treated. Treatment of Polyarteritis Nodosa If polyarteritis nodosa is not medically attended to right away. the body mass lost is usually 4 kilograms or more. More often than not. Unfortunately. just to make sure that the disease won’t resurface again. On the other hand. A biopsy of the tissue is also performed so that the exact location of the inflamed blood vessel is revealed.Symptoms of Polyarteritis Nodosa The people who are suffering from polyarteritis nodosa will experience pain in the particular part of the body where the condition of the arteries had grown severe. There will also be intestinal necrosis and perforation if the abdominal tract is severely affected. The body weight of a person with polyarteritis nodosa will be reduced over time. They would also get chills and fever from time to time. patients are asked to undergo a series of blood tests. the treatment procedure becomes a lot simpler. the better the outcome is for the patients. cyclophosphamide. Patients will also complain of getting tired easily. Muscles pains are going to be common. People suffering from polyarteritis nodosa also suffer from hypertension. there would probably be bleeding inside the intestinal area. and azathioprine drugs are the ones mostly prescribed. if the symptoms and the damages caused by the disease are attended to early. But then again. It is then advised that the earliest detection of the disease is achieved. An angiogram is preferred when the arteries inflamed are suspected to be in the kidneys. Some patients will have an increased risk of developing heart attacks. virus tests are requested again. Prednisone is an oral cortisone drug. polyarteritis nodosa may escalate to a more severe condition such as stroke and eventual kidney failure. They also determine the right dosage of these drugs in relation to the severity of the patient’s case. Tachycardia . The patient’s red and white blood cells are counted and are adjusted accordingly. Certain medications are prescribed and drugs like prednisone. this disease cannot be prevented outright. hepatitis B patients are given antiviral drugs such as interferon-alpha and vidarabine. Polyarteritis nodosa is considered to be a serious disease and its presence should not be ignored. The main goal of the therapy is to decrease the inflammation that is present in the arteries. All the symptoms associated with an organ not receiving the right amount of blood and oxygen is expected. Diagnosing Polyarteritis Nodosa To diagnose this disease. Both cyclophosphamide and azathioprine are classified to be under the immunosuppressive drug category.A Cardiovascular Disease . Local bowel death and abdominal pains are going to be experienced as a result. Some doctors give these drugs in a certain combination. For people with a history of Hepatitis B. Aside from this. the results may be fatal. there will also be skin discolorations in the lower extremities or near the torso.

It then requires more oxygen to function. which is characterized by an abnormal and very rapid beating of the heart. Palpitation is the abnormal awareness of your heart beating or pounding in your rib cage. But this disease may also be caused by a person’s errant lifestyle. Dizziness or feeling light-headed is also common to people with this disease. The choice as to which test to perform depends upon the doctor’s initial diagnosis. When that happens. and cardiac catheterization. because studies had shown that it is also a factor as to why tachycardia develops in a person. The Causes of Tachycardia Tachycardia is usually associated with atherosclerosis. And of course. Consequently. A person with tachycardia has a heartbeat rate of around one hundred beats in a minute more than a person who has a normal heart rate. especially in the prohibited drug cocaine is another culprit. The most common tests performed are ECG. The Symptoms of Tachycardia The most common symptom of this disease is palpitation. Palpitations also imply that the heart is doing some extra beats or is missing a beat altogether. laboratory tests. Sometimes. there won’t be enough blood to circulate throughout the body. diseases to the heart. Alternatively. And eventually. may also be requested. Medicines are given to both treat the episodes . nicotine. the episode is too severe that they are either close to fainting or had actually lost consciousness. and heart failures are its common examples. Doing so ensures that the groundwork for an accurate diagnosis is laid. certain medications cause the heart to beat fast. requirements. Tachycardia is considered to be a harmful condition because if the heart beats too fast. they will also experience shortness of breath even though they are not doing any extraneous physical activities at all. the ventricles won’t be filled up with blood completely. the lungs. Heart failure. And if the heart does this all the time. the actual tests take place. which include blood tests and urine examinations. if the heart beats fast. together with his family background. Too much alcohol. and the thyroid gland are considered to be the usual causes of tachycardia. Aside from atherosclerosis. Drug abuse. The symptoms associated to the disease are analyzed. it is the former that is always observed. it means it is exerting too much effort. it will work itself out until heart diseases such ischemia and infarction develops. pneumonia. The Diagnosis of Tachycardia The first line of diagnosis conducted to a person suspected to have tachycardia is to acquire his medical history. Intense and prolonged emotional stress has to be monitored as well. Anxiety becomes a way of life and chronic chest pains occur from time to time. and even expertise. certain health problems would occur as a result. Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the heart’s arteries. But some doctors would additionally request for stress tests and electrophysiologic studies on top of those tests. echocardiogram. But for a person with tachycardia. and even caffeine in the body from the food they eat can very much cause this disease to develop. After which. The Treatment of Tachycardia The treatment of tachycardia depends entirely on the main cause of the disease. Along with this.Tachycardia is a type of a cardiovascular disease.

The structures the surrounds it include the aorta. If the disease is caused by arrythmia. and the lung’s right bronchus. doctors . syphilis. Coughing is also very common among patients and they tend to experience shortness of breath even without doing any extraneous physical activity. the thymus. superior vena cava syndrome can either be considered as cancerous or benign. This is done so as to produce an image of the heart. The Causes of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome A disease that directly affects the superior vena cava and the lymph nodes that surrounds it can cause the disease. their eyes will also bulge out due to swelling. And their face. are addressed properly. Also. lung cancer. metastasis. But to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. The Diagnosis of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome To diagnose this disease. It is bounded by firm structures as well as lymph nodes. sarcoidosis. This vein can be found right in the middle of the chest. which is responsible in transmitting blood to the heart from the torso and the rest of the upper body. It is also important that any complications arising from the disease are prevented at all costs. then drugs that prevent the occurrence of arrythmia. But most of the time fungi cause them. Eventually. and neck.currently experienced as well as to prevent the onset of new ones. trachea. Instances such as circulatory leakages in the lymph drainage and the veins are the most common culprits. and other internal infections. breast cancer. pulmonary artery. the usual causes of it are lymphoma. patients also experience undue fatigue and chronic chest pains. If it is a rather benign condition. pneumothorax. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome The superior vena cava syndrome is a disease that is characterized by an impaired blood flow through the superior vena cava going to the heart’s right atrium. Beta-blockers like propanolol are given for tachycadia due to hyperthyroidism. The Symptoms of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Patients who developed this disease tend to have swollen face. And aside from these. called the antiarrythmic drugs are prescribed. arms. arms. The veins located in the neck are dilated and it can become very noticeable. doctors would request a series of x-rays. Headaches and dizziness are occurs more frequently than normal. and neck are not only the ones that would become swollen. the disease could be caused by tuberculosis. more particularly of the area where the superior vena cava is located. If the syndrome is said to be cancerous. mostly to the chest. which are affected most. and testicular cancer. pericarditis. Their voices also become noticeably hoarse because of it. Antipyretics are administered if there are instances of fever that are associated with the disease. tumors. The superior vena cava is a large vein. The main principle being followed in the treatment of this disease is to make sure that the heart functions.

The Treatment of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Fortunately enough. This is more preferable to patients who have benign obstructions rather than those with malignant obstructions. And depending on the doctor’s expertise. doctors have several treatment options to cure the disease. This reduces the instances of high blood pressure as well as cardiac arrest in some patients. occurs. Thrombolysis is the process of breaking down blood clots that could be main cause of the disease. The type that affects the skin surface is called superficial phlebitis. on the other hand.would perform a CT scan or an MRI instead. This disease can affect both the deeper part of the veins as well as the surface. But then again. This is the type that usually targets the blood vessels located deep inside the legs. The type that affects the deep veins is called deep vein thrombophebitis. radiation therapy is more effective. treatment is dependent on the nature of the obstruction and the severity of the disease. he may also request for an ultrasound. Causes of Phlebitis Phlebitis is sometimes caused by a certain medical and surgical procedure. These two advanced diagnostic tools can correctly define the root cause of the disease. This type of phlebitis is not considered serious. it develops primarily due to a person’s lifestyle. Thrombolysis and stent placement are two other methods that doctors can use to treat the disease. It can be done through the use of thrombolytic drugs or through a more invasive procedure. Prolonged inactivity. But often times. due to the advancement of medicine and science. is the process of inserting a small metal tube or a scaffold so that the blood vessels are held open. several doctors have mastered the use of a surgical bypass operation to patients who have malignant obstructions. self-care treatments may be implemented to address it. When blood clots form in these parts. Doctors may also consider the physical ability of the patient as well as his personal needs and requirements. such as sitting still for hours . These two are just slightly different from each other. It may also be caused by an injury to the lower extremities. they could break off and go to the lungs. But for the others that are not. Surgery is another option. a much serious disease. or an echocardiogram of the heart so that the nature and the exact site of obstruction is detected. called the pulmonary embolism. But as always. These are all important so that the proper treatment of the disease can be carried out. And when this happen. Aggressive treatments may be conducted immediately. Stent placement. And among the methods used are radiation therapy and chemotherapy. And this can be carried out in two ways. There are some tumors that are sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding And Preventing Phlebitis Phlebitis is a disease that is characterized by an inflammation in the veins. In fact.

After that. People suffering from superficial phlebitis will observe some long and thin red lines along their legs. the skin will breakout and there is pain associated with that. People suffering from cancer and any other blood-related disorders have an increased chance of developing this disease as well. And if the area is severely infected. Usually. pregnancy may prompt phlebitis. But if the blood clot cannot be detected with the use of an ultrasound. Diagnosing Phlebitis To diagnose this disease. Both obesity and a sedentary lifestyle could cause phlebitis. There will also be noticeable discoloration on that part of the skin. Bacterial infections are also expected. Deep vein phlebitis has symptoms similar to superficial phlebitis. would cause the blood not to flow properly into the legs. Some would feel it burning while throbbing. But additionally. This method is capable of identifying blood clots in the smaller veins that are invisible to an ultrasound. If a person chooses to be a slouch potato he has the tendency is to be obese. . People who don’t get much exercise are also prone to this disease. as well as some tender regions near the area. the doctor would put the patient for an ultrasound examination so that he can pinpoint with precision the area where the problem originates. can also be the culprit. Treating Phlebitis Mild superficial phlebitis can be treated at home. like when they attempt get out of bed during mornings. Injury to the limbs. These regions will also seem swollen and feel a little itchy at times.traveling or overstaying in bed. Then blood tests are requested so that type of blood clots is examined. blood would pool and blood clot forms. as well as the presence of varicose veins in the leg area. A certain dye or substance is injected into the vein. Smoking cigarettes and taking birth control pills or hormone replacement pills can also be the root of phlebitis. Leg compression stockings may also be worn to improve blood flow. This is the onset of phlebitis. Patients with mild phlebitis will also observe that the pain gets worse if they lower their leg. Symptoms of Phlebitis Deep vein phlebitis has more symptoms than superficial phlebitis. In some women. As a result. Increased blood flow is usually triggered by physical activities. Fever will also accompany the swelling and the redness. a physical examination has to be conducted. anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin are effective enough in reducing the pain and swelling associated with the disease. And then an x-ray is performed and the dye injected is seen on the image produced. patients will develop some skin ulcers in the area where the blood clot had occurred. venogram may be performed.

this condition is caused by the failure of the heart’s supporting structures. This is because of the fluids that might have backed up into it. It usually happens rather suddenly and a single incident it is enough to cause the blood to flow backwards into the left side of the heart. Antibiotics have to be taken in regular doses especially if endocarditis or some bacterial infections are detected. it is necessary to see a doctor. antibiotics are prescribed. Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation Just like most heart diseases. and Digitalis. or the drugs whose job is to dilate the blood passing though the blood vessels. Vasodilators. the heart tends to beat a lot faster and intense chest pains are felt. Depending upon the severity of the case. Anti-arrhythmics. hospitalization is the best treatment for the patient. the symptoms are addressed first to eventually treat the disease. or more specifically the drugs that are given to regulate the rhythm of the heart. the whole body becomes affected. And for a more accurate diagnosis. the ones used to strengthen a patient’s heartbeat. There are still other drugs used. For the milder cases of mitral regurgitation. And when that happens. And so in response. are both essential in the entire treatment process. More often than not. But simpler tests like chest x-rays and an ECG may be requested first. Symptoms of Mitral Regurgitation Patients with mitral regurgitation may experience rapid breathing or shortness of breath prior to the attack. However. Other organs will not get the right amount of oxygen. specifically diuretics and anticoagulants. In some cases. whose job is to remove excess fluids and thin the blood respectively. a chest MRI or a CT scan may be performed subsequently. a doctor may prescribe an antibiotic or an anticoagulant. Coughs are also a good indicator that an episode of mitral regurgitation is developing.For those with deep vein phlebitis. crackles are usually heard. a simple stethoscope test to the heart will disclose a certain murmur. hospitalization is required so that the extent of the disease is properly assessed and treated. This is to fully diagnose the extent of the disease as well properly teach each and every symptom observed. And this condition may even increase when the person is lying flat on his back. The Way to Properly Detect Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation is often times called as mitral insufficiency. may also be required. Diagnosing Mitral Regurgitation To detect this disease. And this disease may affect the lungs as well. the heart will work harder just to compensate. It is a disorder wherein the mitral valve of the heart fails to close normally. if these tests prove to be futile. Also. more especially if palpitations are occurring. . If a more severe case mitral regurgitation is detected. an echocardiogram and a color flow Doppler exam may both be conducted. When a stethoscope is placed against the back to check the condition of the lungs.

But there have been theories as to the disease being caused by immunological. This would also mean that aside from the disease itself. It also causes skin problems as well as neurological abnormalities. an intra-aortic balloon pump needs to be used just to make the blood flow into the aorta. Doing so will reduce probability of developing the different risks that are associated with the disease. Reduced blood flow is medically referred to as cerebral ischemia and it has become the main complication of this disease. the disease won’t show in the child unless it is triggered by certain circumstances. For one. . Skin lesions. patients with this disease are more likely to have heart failure. especially in an emergency situation. They would also feel dizzy from time to time and it is associated with the sense of being disoriented with his surroundings. The Snedden syndrome is discovered in 1965. also known as infarcts. Most patients will also develop hypertension.A Mysterious Disease The Sneddon syndrome is a disease the affects both the brain and the heart. patients will also observe that their mental capacity is reduced and their memory becomes weak over time. With all these said. The overall reduction in the body’s blood flow is the direct reason for these lesions. The Sneddon Syndrome . These symptoms are referred to as the neurological effects of this disease. And since this disease affects the brain. And if in case the patient’s blood pressure is hard to maintain. it is then very important that proper medical therapy is solicited from a specialized heart professional. there might be no other option but surgery. Several heart diseases can also be considered as a symptom of the Sneddon syndrome. Mitral regurgitation can be a life-threatening disease. This disease can cause reduced blood flow to the brain. which could range from mild to severe. instead of backward to the left atrium. The Causes of Sneddon Syndrome The exact cause of Sneddon syndrome is yet to be discovered. Difficulty in memorizing and remembering names are the best examples of the disease’s neurological symptoms. Get in touch with them immediately the moment any of the symptoms appear. and environmental factors. This is a rare disorder that targets the blood vessels. patients will also have episodes of stroke.But if none of these methods are projected to work. complications could arise because of it. genetic. But then again. may also develop in some patients. This is because the disease affects the central nervous system. The patient’s blood pressure will be abnormally high and it can’t be associated to anything the he did or had eaten. And aside from that. or the accumulation of fluid in the lungs is very likely to happen. Blood clotting leading to stroke is also possible. It has been observed that a family member who is a carrier of this disease can possibly pass it on to his offspring. pulmonary edema. Doctors usually refer mild strokes to be ministrokes. The Symptoms of Snedden Syndrome The patient with Snedden syndrome will experience chronic headaches. And along with skin problems and other overt symptoms.

its treatment depends greatly on the symptoms as observed on the patient. The Treatment of Sneddon Syndrome There is yet to be a defined treatment method for this disease. the necessary support systems are also being developed so that the patient will be able to live his life as normally as possible despite the disease. The common examples of this drug are warfarin and aspirin.downloadheart. are drugs that dilate or widen the blood vessels. This is one of the primary characteristics of the Sneddon syndrome.The Diagnosis for Sneddon Syndrome To accurately diagnose this disease. This condition is very common in people with Sneddon syndrome. An example of this drug is nifedipine. on the other hand. A biopsy of the skin could confirm an arteriopathy. Anticoagulants are drugs that prevent blood clots and ensure that the normal flow of blood is facilitated. The drugs administered to patients are usually anticoagulants. http://www. Immunosuppresive drugs are used to regulate the elevated intensity of antiphospholipid antibodies in the patient’s blood. Other tools such as a CT scan and a cerebral arteriography are also used. This effectively reduces the occurrence of high blood pressure in the patient.us/the-sneddon-syndrome-a-mysteriousdisease. Arteriopathy is a progressive type of an arterial disease. As of this moment. doctors request patients to undergo certain tests such as magnetic resonance imaging or MRI. Skin biopsies may also be performed. vasodilators. and immunosuppressive drugs. All of these tests are performed with the intention of revealing lesions as well as blockages in the patient’s brain. And all the while. This procedure involves the surgical removal of a tissue so that a microscopic study of it may be conducted. An MRI is considered to be the most effective diagnosing tool for this disease because it can produce a vivid image of the heart and the brain.html . Vasodilators.

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