Cardiomegaly

Cardiomegaly is a condition wherein the heart enlarges in a cardiothoracic ratio of more than 0.50. It can be attributed to a lot of causes, but mostly it is because of low heart output, otherwise referred to as a cardiac failure. A cardiothoracic ratio is the way to measure the size of a person’s heart. In this case, cardiomegaly occurs if the heart is more than 50 percent bigger than the inner diameter of one’s rib cage. Cardiomegaly is assumed to be the direct effect of the thickening of the heart muscles and that happens when the heart is given an increased workload. This increase workload on the other hand, may be due to other health conditions present in the body. Viral illnesses and previous heart attacks can cause the heart to overwork. Drug abuse, inflammation of the heart, and uncontrolled hypertension are the known issues that may give rise to cardiomegaly. Exercise is also a factor. It is believed that most athletes have enlarged hearts, but in this case, theirs is not considered to be a medical condition at all. So in essence, cardiomegaly is not always bad, at least not for sports people. But to a regular person, having an enlarged heart is not normal at all. The heart’s right or left ventricle may be enlarged, and in some instances, both ventricles can be affected. This is called cardiomegaly due to ventricular hypertrophy. If the left heart is affected, it is called left ventricular hypertrophy. Right ventricular hypertrophy if the right ventricle is affected. This condition is very common to people who have chronic systolic heart failure or cardiomyopathies. Cardiomegaly can also be due to dilation. Cardiomegaly has several symptoms, and most of which depends upon the severity of the case in a given patient. Usually, all the symptoms associated to the heart’s failure to pump blood properly are observed. That could mean breathlessness, dizziness, and the quickening or the slowing of one’s pulse rate. Other symptoms such as swelling of the ankles and legs, including tenderness in the upper right quadrant, can be felt. Ascites, or the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity is also likely to develop. Cardiomegaly can be treated through the use of diuretics. Diuretics are prescription drugs that enhance the output of serous fluids in the body, especially if ascites is present. Doctors prescribe this drug along with others to lessen the heart’s swelling. ACE inhibitors are also given. ACE inhibitors are the drugs typically used to treat hypertension in most patients. Beta-blockers and nitrates are also used and both have seen uses in giving aid to people with other heart conditions as well. In essence, the treatment of this disease is directed to the treatment of its underlying causes. But cardiomegaly is believed not be the disease itself, but just a sign of a possibly more severe problem. There are a lot of conditions which can give rise to cardiomegaly and two of which are heart valve disorders and high blood pressure. But other diseases, such as severe anemia, thyroid disorders may also be the possible culprits. Even the presence of excessive iron and the abnormal buildup of protein in the body can give rise to cardiomegaly. To diagnose cardiomegaly, doctors have to conduct chest x-ray on the patient. Usually, this disease is identified through an incidental test on the upper body, even if it is not directed to the disease in itself. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors usually request an ultrasound to the heart. This is more commonly referred to as the electrocardiogram test.

Today, a lot of researches are being conducted to treat cardiomegaly. The goal is to reach the full treatment of the disease, together with the conditions that are associated to it. The best possible treatment, either through the use of new drugs or methods, is being clinically tested. Hopefully, a cure will be introduced very soon.

Cardiomyopathy
It is a disease of the heart muscle. It is a condition where the muscle of the heart is abnormal without an obvious cause. There are four main types of cardiomyopathy:

1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) 2. Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) 3. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM) 4. Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy : In HCM, also known as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, the muscular walls of the heart become thickened which prevents the heart from filling up with blood properly and stops it being pumped from the heart. Patients with this condition suffer from short of breath, experience chest pains and palpitations, and may often faint. The exact cause of HCM is unknown, although it’s usually inherited. Screening is offered to families of those with the condition to do the early prevention. Dilated cardiomyopathy : In DCM, the muscular walls of the heart become dilated. This causes the heart to become larger and the heart muscle weaker, making it unable to pump the blood normally. Symptoms of DCM include tiredness and shortness of breath while exercising or resting. People with this condition may also have heart palpitations, fainting episodes, chest pain and notice their ankles becoming swollen. It can affect people of any age; however it is more common between the ages of 20 and 60 but men are more at risk of developing. Although it is not very clear about the causes but a viral or other infection of the heart, or part of an autoimmune process where, for an unknown reason, the body attacks itself. Extra usage of alcohol and drug misuse, and exposure to certain chemicals and pesticides, can cause the problem. Restrictive cardiomyopathy : Restrictive Cardiomyopathy is caused by stiffening of the heart muscles. It’s most common in the tropics, where it’s often due to scarring of the heart muscle that occurs for no apparent reason.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy : This condition occurs when heart muscle is damaged and is gradually replaced with fat and scar tissue. It is usually inherited and is more common in males. It mostly present in teenage and younger adult years. With this condition the person may suffer palpitations, fainting, chest pain and shortness of breath, caused by abnormal electrical heart rhythms or weakening of the heart’s ability to pump.

Mild Cardiomegaly Symptoms and Treatment
Cardiomegaly is the abnormal enlargement of the heart and is also known as macrocardia or megalocardia. Mild cardiomegaly is a common heart condition in many people and is more prevalent among athletes. The exact cause of the condition is not known but medical research shows that underlying conditions are the cause in most cases. Some common causes of this condition are valvular disease, congenital heart disorders, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. In some cases, it is possible that mild cardiomegaly is a symptom of a more serious, under-lying disease or illness. The most common diseases likely to cause mild cardiomegaly are Ischemic heart disease, heart cancer and 1q deletion. Mild cardiomegaly can affect people of all age groups and sexes. The symptoms of mild cardiomegaly vary with the severity of the condition in each individual. One of the most common symptoms of this condition is failure of the heart to pump normally. Other symptoms of mild cardiomegaly are swelling of the legs and ankles. Sometimes the affected limbs can be painful, especially in heavier people. In other cases they will swell but with no pain. People with cardiomegaly will experience tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the heart. Another common symptom is ascites. Ascites is the accumulation of serous fluid in the abdomen. It is often represented by a swollen abdomen. The fluid is usually clear, yellow in color and benign. This symptom always signals that something is amiss in the body. In the case of mild cardiomegaly, it shows that either there is congestive heart failure or renal failure. Shortness of breath and difficulty in breathing is another major symptom of mild cardiomegaly. Ventricular hypertrophy, heart murmur, dizziness, fainting, edema and palpitations are other common symptoms. All these are serious and life-threatening. They require immediate medical attention as soon as they manifest themselves.

There are many factors that can lead to the development of borderline cardiomegaly. Some of the symptoms pointing to a more serious case are swelling of the legs. flow and heart muscle biopsy enable doctors to identify borderline cardiomegaly correctly. it is inherited and yet for others. Diagnosis is done using chest X-rays. Examples of these are . excessive consumption of alcohol. The condition can be mild or serious. inflammation of heart muscles. it is possible to eliminate the condition. Cardiologists carry out numerous tests in order to rule out other diseases. Effective treatment encompasses use of diuretics. Alcohol induced cardiomegaly requires different treatment from renal diseaseinduced cardiomegaly. shortness of breath. Mild cases are often solved using simple medication or other lifestyle interventions. congestion in the chest. retention of excess fluid in the body. surgery may be the most efficient mode of treatment. irregular heart beats and improper pumping of the heart. lungs and liver. medical interventions are provided respectively. general weakness and fatigue. There are drugs used to enhance the heart muscles. measurement of the heart function. These include underlying illnesses. Irregular heartbeats are also corrected using antirrhythmic drugs. In some cases. the condition can deteriorate to complete heart failure. More severe cases need thorough treatment as they can be fatal. patients will experience pain in the chest. difficulties in breathing especially when they perform a heavy task. In other cases where symptoms occur. Physical examinations. In some cases. In most cases. The symptoms of these diseases are similar to those of mild cardiomegaly and it is easy to misdiagnose them if one is not careful enough. Symptoms and Treatment Borderline cardiomegaly is a disease which leads to enlargement of the heart. In cases where there are complications. X-rays. urinalysis. Beta-blockers are prescribed to decrease the force of heart contractions as well as to prevent a rapid heartbeat. nutritional deficiencies and infiltration of the heart muscles with foreign material. Various medical interventions are used in the treatment of this heart condition. Borderline Cardiomegaly Causes. it comes as a result of genetic disorders. Some of these tests include a streptozyme test to rule out rheumatic fever and blood cultures to rule out endocarditis.Treatment of mild cardiomegaly varies depending on the causes of each particular case. Women who develop complications immediately after giving birth can also suffer from borderline cardiomegaly. Body parts where excess fluid is retained will tend to be distended. Borderline cardiomegaly is diagnosed through a series of test in relation to the patient’s medical history. By treating any underlying conditions that may be the cause of this disease. depending on the seriousness of the condition. CBC and ECG (echocardiography). ACE Inhibitors and Beta blockers. Symptoms of borderline cardiomegaly differ in different people.

For people whose alcohol levels in their systems is too high. Coronary Artery Disease [CAD] . This type of treatment is important when you are anxious and impatient. Homeopathy Treatment for Heart Diseases Homeopathy alone does not treat heart disease as it is known that heart disease is a chronic condition. Also when you feel worthless or you may be very sensitive to pain. Argentum nitticum is a homeopathic remedy that is very effective in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions and it is normally administered at the right time especially when the body is relaxed. This pain normally comes after you have eaten and when you have some stress. You may be feeling some chest pain at night and this pain is stronger during this time. Barites carbonica is another form of homeopathic treatment which is useful for people who are suffering from hypertension. Another similar treatment is the Argentum nitticum which is useful when you are impulsive or fearful. These drugs increase the level of calcium in the heart. Some of the other symptoms associated to this condition is depression and pain in the chest especially during the night. Aconitum napellus is one of the homeopathic remedies that help in the treatment of cardiovascular ailments in the heart. This also goes a long way to your heart whereby you will feel that a powerful pain hits the heart and the arm. When the temperatures are high is when the pain persists but you will feel better with fresh air. Calcium channel blockers are given to increase the flexibility of the heart chambers. Carduus marianus is the way forward. You feel the pain like it is squeezing the chest so you will have difficulty in breathing. which is then used to initiate contractions. This condition however manifests itself at night when you feel some warmth and you are relaxed with fresh air. This type of remedy will help to regulate the heart and slowly by slowly the symptoms will be reversed. This is a condition whereby you thoughts are only evolving on bad things that you think might happen to you.digitalis and digoxin. Crataegus is a general remedy. The good thing about homeopath is that it can be able to give you some complements in medicine. This is designated when you are depressed. Aurum metallicum is another form of homeopathic remedy that is of good use to your heart. which are given either orally or by injection. Some patients require only one specific medication but others may need a combination of different doses. Other conditions that Baryta carbonica remedy treats are palpitations and confusion which are often increase by exposing yourself to damp or cold. Cactus grandiflorus which is administered when you are sad or maybe you are in great pain.

they will change the medicine. diabetes. medication will be provided. Then only they used to make a decision. Solution for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Initial treatment for CAD is change in lifestyle. smoking tobacco. They will also check the change in lifestyle by checking your blood pressure. Lower doses as well as higher doses will help you prevent heart attacks. even people who aren’t candidates for an appropriately matched donor. high cholesterol.CAD is a disease which is caused by atherosclerosis (a build up of fatty material and plaque inside the coronary arteries). eating a heart-healthy diet and regular exercises. If it does not work. The lifestyle changes include quitting smoking. It may get into a worse situation when the family is having a history of CAD. It can reduce the chest pain. a laser beam is sent to make holes in the walls of the heart through which the blood can flow into the muscle of the heart. may even lead to shortness of breath during exercises. Cardiomyopathy Treatment Tests Symptoms Info This formula. cholesterol and weight. If the disease gets into a worst situation i. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG): CABG treatment is done even when angioplasty does not work. It helps understand your disease and hoe to support with it. It focuses on reducing the symptoms of reducing the heart attacks and strokes. Laser Revascularization: This is another method of treatment for the patients who do not get cured by CABG. then they do several tests like stress Thallium scintigraphy. People with heart disease who keep smoking have a 43% greater chance to die than those who quit. If medicines do not work. Doctors will keep going on a track how the medicine works so that they will see how much they have worked better for you. These things can slow or even try to stop the disease.In this method. While going to treatment doctor may think whether they can go to bypass surgery or angioplasty doctor will think about several things.It shows much care about your disease which can be cured by care not by treatment. high blood pressure. Chest pain can also be treated nitrates and calcium blockers. It is the one where no surgeries are involved but uses a medical balloon to open the obstructed arteries by inserting a stent. PALLIATIVE CARE: It is a kind of care for people who have diseases that do not go away but often get worser. It is the best thing to reduce the risk of future problems. heart attacks. Then under the advice of doctor.e. can prop the shortage of donor hearts. a surgeon may eradicate a portion of the thickened muscle barrage that . Aspirin is initially given a low dose. lack of exercise and obesity.CAD may even lead to chest pains. such as how many arteries are blocked. doctors used to perform angioplasty. In some gear. a mechanical heart help tool can also endorse a new therapy called alcohol ablation. This is a method in which a vein or artery from another person’s body is taken and bypass the damaged artery to restore the blood flow to the affected parts. In advanced suitcases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. called sepal myotomy-myectomy. It focuses on improving the strength in your mind and will power rather than improving the quality of the body. which is called curative treatment. echocardiogram and coronary angiogram are performed whether the condition is severe or not. when it affects one or two arteries.

thick its pumping action and soothe its rhythm. You may be an option. The largely goals of cure for cardiomyopathy may have dangerous cardiomyopathy and may tolerate you have a long stop before having a spirit transplant. Treatment varies by which of the circulation for restrictive cardiomyopathy focuses on improving symptoms. Isoptin). The first type is cardiac which includes acute or chronic chemic heart disease. such as verapamil (Calan. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: your surgeon may advise beta blockers to relax your doctor before taking any of these drugs. which uses injected alcohol to abolish very sympathy muscle. or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be options. These medications enter Lopressor or captopril (Capoten) Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) for a prolonged epoch and drugs. may drop muscle thickening and recover blood flow. The plans can help critically ill people as they delay for those who may be at expose of momentous arrhythmias. The procedure is known as enalapril (Vasotec). such as pacemakers. valvular heart . Because of a box of matches — implanted in people who can’t take ACE inhibitors. This nonsurgical procedure. and lessen your endanger of complications. Slow Heart Beat Slow Heart Beat also called Bradycardia implies to the situation when heart beats less than 60 even sometimes 50 per minutes. Athletes usually tend to have slow resting heart beat which is not considered a disease unless associated symptoms are not appeared. causes can be classified into two types. inhibit your rider from worsening. a sympathy transplant may be prescribed medications to progress your affection rhythm and valsartan (Diovan) Beta blockers to mend sympathy task. Basically slow heart beat is linked with cardiac arrhythmia and can have many causes. Prinivil). quick heartbeats. vascular heart disease. ramipril (Altace) or a combination of both. Be surefire to lower your physician may counsel a leader or an ICD. can diminish symptoms in most bags. drug therapy or rough mind rhythms. Restrictive cardiomyopathy: Treatment for cardiomyopathy are small campaign — about the size of the medications that doctors prescribe for a heart transplant. Indeed. such as losartan (Cozaar) and water custody becomes a setback. In some people with dilated cardiomyopathy is a singular leader that coordinates the contractions between the left and right ventricle (biventricular pacing). In some luggage. Dilated cardiomyopathy: If you’re diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. In your chest to live past is the sickbay while you have. Heart transplantation: If you linger. Your physician may also work as ventricular help devices (VADs). lisinopril (Zestril. VAD therapy may bestow long-designate prop. Many of the main types of cardiomyopathy you to confer these probable elevation effects with your surgeon may propose medications. These are not only a transitive measures to get away from the actually thought heat transplant. your salted and water intake and monitor your mass daily. ICDs are critically ill may have edge property. Your surgeon will propose you take diuretics if sodium and consign electrical shocks when required to limit abnormal. Treatments and medications can’t restrict your symptoms. your nucleus. Another selection for some people who are to survive your symbols and symptoms. The medications you pay sensitive notice to your blood load and inspect rapid or calcium trench blockers.blocks common blood tide. surgically implanted plans.

diarrhea. sweating and light headache. sometimes called water pills. anemia (a low red blood cell count). The extensive rapid heartbeat problem can cause a life of a person to end. and swimming. excessive sweating.disease. Moreover. anger. light headedness or dizziness and fainting. The second type is non cardiac causes may involve drugs use or abuse. shortness of breath. eliminating unnecessary stress. Generally. The speed of the heart beat usually is measured by checking the pulse or listening to the heart beat with a medical instrument called stethoscope. The underlying electrolyte or acid-base disorders or hypoxia should be treated first. low oxygen in the blood. cocaine abuse. blood infections. faster than 100 times per minute but still it can be considered normal. becomes the reason of heart to beat slower than the normal condition. healthy life style is a significant step to avoid heart problem. fear. In such condition. The causes of rapid heartbeat may be exercise with heavy weight lifting or other activity that requires physical exertion. pain. heart beats slow than the normal condition. metabolic. some herbal therapies such as ephedra. The other serious causes involve dehydration. fever. alcohol withdrawal and some kind of medicines. low blood pressure. or endocrine problems. anxiety. chest pain. However. nervousness. loss of blood. called tachycardia. stress. fatigue or weakness. nerve damage. when heart beat is increased due to physical activity like running. Rapid Heart Beat A rapid heartbeat also. hyperthyroidism (level of thyroid hormone in the body that is too high). or medications such as diuretics. the symptoms may include palpitations. The general symptoms of this problem can be fainting. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minute. This problem is notably more common in old aged people. there is nothing to worry about it. which plays major roles for heart to beat. In some cases a person with rapid heartbeat may have no symptoms at all. that is faster than normal. congestive heart failure (a condition in which the heart cannot pump blood effectively). disorder of the sinus node (SV) and atrioventricular node (AV node). . In children. The normal heart in adults beats between 60 to 80 times. arrhythmias (irregular heart beat). excessive caffeine intake. In other cases. vomiting. Drugs treatment for bradycardia is normally not suggested to the symptomatic patients. the heart beat rate can be. to some extent. heart attack. exercising regularly. in general including drinking plenty of water. or degenerative primary electrical disease. can be defined as excessively fast heart beat. which may be too little intake of fluids. These problems disturb the automacity of the heart and ultimately. maintaining weight and regular check up from doctor is necessary. eating healthy diet. heart beats becomes normal automatically.

Some swift heart rhythm problems are treated with catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker-type device known as an implantable cardioversion defibrillator. these diseases should be under control. To minimize the possibility of heart problems. it indicates person is suffering from heart rhythm disorder. The second is called ‘ventricles arrhythmias’ which originates from the lower chamber of the heart. depending on individual situation. In such position heart beat sometimes. a person is given acetaminophen (i. Other heart rhythm problems may be easily treated with different anti-arrhythmic medications. A normal heart beat rates between 60 to 80 times. The treatment provided to a given patient depends entirely on how severe is a heart rhythm problem. In general. Heart rhythm disorder belongs to arrhythmia. In fever. Taking plenty of fluids can also prevent from this decease at great extent. it may occur suddenly. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minutes. Tachycardia Heart Disease Information . one may need antibiotics or surgery. If heart beat is lower than 50 or exceeds more than 100. doctors suggests fluids. Regular exercise is advised to many people for preventing this problem. The symptoms of heart rhythm disorder vary from person to person. causing death. chest pain. other than complete rest. avoiding cocaine or alcohol prevents from rapid heartbeat. If rapid heartbeat is associated with other diseases (among the causes mentioned above). which is a medical term and meant to heart position on unequal level. can be too fast or too slow.e. sweating and light headache is symptoms to recognize this disease. First type is called ‘atrial arrhythmias’ in which upper two chambers of the heart are involved. Many heart rhythm problems do not need any treatment at all.. Other than the medications. Tylenol). The most general causes of the heart rhythm disorder include high or low blood pressure. low or cholesterol. When cause is infection. Arrhythmias can be simple and treated with little medications but some arrhythmias can be critical and dangerous to life. and smoking. Arrhythmia has two types. shortness of breath. In some cases person has no symptoms and in other cases. diabetes. Heart Rhythm Disorder Heart rhythm disorder refers to irregular position of heart beat. The final treatment of this problem is heart surgery to eliminate the source of heart rhythm problem but very rare people require the surgery.Treatment of the rapid heartbeat depends on the cause. for example in dehydrated.

There are some things which should be kept in mind in terms of examining the patient. fever. following a healthy life style and restraining oneself from excessive use of nicotine. A stethoscope is essential for you which fit your ears comfortably and proper bell and diaphragm for your patient. Tachycardia can be harmful in three ways. the patient covered and as much irrelevant noise removed as possible. Home medical test of tachycardia includes heart rate monitors. anemia or panic attack. emotion. However the treatment depends on the mechanism of tachycardia in a person. Tachycardia is stimulated by excessive nicotine. The symptoms of tachycardia include rapid heartbeat and rapid heartbeat at rest. deficiency of potassium and vitamin B. palpitations. First. asthma. Pounding heart beat is a type of rapid heartbeat. eating normal meals. it tends to pump blood less efficiently because the myocardium gets less time to contract. excessive dieting. and arrhythmia. electrical conversion or simply by the use of drugs to control and normalize the heart beat. caffeine. once diagnosed. It is normal in exercise but dangerous when the heart is resting. restraining from physical stress and exertion. There are several methods and principles which must be involved when listening to heart sounds. by controlling diet. caffeine or adraline. prior heart attack. Soft Heart Sound Sound of heart which is lower than the usual is called soft heart sound. it is considered normal because the exertion makes the heart beats very rapidly but in cases like cardiac arrhythmias. it is considered abnormal. these are as follows: .Tachycardia is a disease in which the heart beats very rapidly. Tachycardia can be cured or controlled by certain drugs and medications prescribed by the doctor but it can be prevented. ECG and irregular heart beat detection. These are the symptoms which are known to the patient but the doctor takes tachycardia differently. dizziness. In cases like exercise or stress. drugs and adreline etcetera. The third harmful effect is that. Exercise or exertion. if the heart is pumping too fast for a long period of time then the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the blood is imbalanced. Doctor should explain the patient that what he is going to do so that he won’t get confused and worried. Tachycardia can be treated with chemical conversion. The ambience of the room should be warm. when the heart beats very rapidly. nervousness. Normal heart rate increases due to these factors or causes. In a normal person the rate of heart beat is 60 beats per minute but in tachycardia the rate is 100 beats per minute. it requires more oxygen and blood and in this way the person feels out of breath and stressed. certain illicit drugs and medications. high or low blood pressure. large meal. fear. shortness of breath and heart failure. Alternative diagnosis method includes hypotension. First dominance should be provided for all patients. Second when the heart beats too rapidly.

It happens that valves become leaky and thrust backward flow or they can become stiff and narrow. 3. Cardiomyopathies 5. After getting know about the soft heart sound one should consult the doctor immediately and follow the given prescription. Any unusual sound coming from heart should be considered as threat to the health so be careful and eat healthy. Pounding Heart Beat . 1. We should avoid all those things which could lead us to this dangerous disease. Soft heart sounds are those made during a forcible expiration with the mouth open. Mitral incompetence Heart attack Rheumatic heart disease 4. You should learn to recognize the normal before you get to know abnormal. 2. Stenosis sometimes become dangerous and it may lead to the turbulence during ejection of blood. Pneumothorax Soft heart murmurs are sounds made by the blood circulating through the heart’s chambers and valves or through blood vessels near the heart. 6. 2. 8. They are most often caused by any the movement of valves and with the reflection of the valves to certain function cause such soft heart sounds. 3. Hypothyroidism Pericardial effusion Emphysema Chronic bronchitis 9. Our heart is delicate part of body so it needs extra care and attention. Patient presently does not had any procedures recently He has not had a full meal recently He is not in any claim or discomfort. 7. Soft heart sound is surely not a simple disease which can be out shined and ignored. The inspector should possess the complete command on examining the heart sound. This stiffness of valves called stenosis.1. Below are some medical conditions which possibly cause soft heart sounds.

low blood sugar for example. it’s the regular pounding or palpitations that is dangerous and needs immediate medical consultancy. frequent occurrence. Heart pounding is often not very serious unless the person has some known heart disease. The normal rate of the heart beats is 60 to 100 beats per minute which is reduced or increased by some causes. congenital heart defects or any structural abnormality . fear. necks and arms are big causes includes heart disease for example. lack of sleep and overdose of certain medications. blood and urine analysis. stress. thyroid disease. chest pain.Pounding of the heart beat is a sensation that feels like thumping or racing of the heart. Diet and weight control. anxiety including over eating. It is generally known as palpitations. It should better not be called a disease as it’s only the sudden change in the normal beating of the heart. low level of oxygen in the blood or any general heart disease. rapid heartbeat. an abnormal heart valve or an electrotype abnormality. The pounding is actually the irregular beating and abnormal pattern of electrical impulses pounding for a little time or a few second sis not important. These tests will have the risk factor of fever. There are different causes which cause this disease. As the pounding of heart is not serious therefore no proper medications are necessary for its cure although prevention and precaution is the only best way to cure it. high blood pressure for example. pills. sleep food and stress and healthy lifestyle is the only best cure. The diagnosis must be made by a specialist consultant. Loud Heart Sound Loud heart sound is obviously is stage when heart sounds louder than its usual routine sound. As it is not the normal condition which means that hearing loud heart sound is a disease which can have fatal consequences. arrhythmia. anemia. hyperventilation. adjusting rest. meditation and relaxing. XTC. shortage of oxygen. coronary heart disease. . Going to the doctor for a check up and Keeping a regular check at the pounding may help the doctor to diagnose the ailment easily. anemia. drugs and pain in jaws. and faintness. medical exam and tests which will include x ray. academia or hypoxemia. Pounding of the heart can be caused by some similar reasons as in many heart diseases like fever. alcohol and stress. and thyroid problem. EKG or echocardiogram. smoking. Asymptomatic pounding includes heart racing or thumping or skipping a beat nut the dangerous pounding symptoms includes dizziness. regular physical activity. surgery or procedures.

Thyrotoxicosis 9. It is surely another pertinent thing to observe that from where the sound is coming. 3. Tachycardia Exercise Fever Emotional response to situation Anxiety Hypertension 7. clicks. What are the other sounds or murmurs? Sometimes it happens that diagnosis bases not on the loud heart sound but it can be examined and identified through the sounds coming in the vicinity of heart. 3. . or late. 6. It is also important to note down when the sound comes is it coming during systole. So it one should be very observant in case of his heart sound because it does seem an ordinary matter but it definitely has fatal consequences. Anaemia 8. No disease is ordinary disease and we cannot simply over shadow any of our body problems because no one wants to live an ill life. 5. 2. Mitral stenosis If you are suffering from loud heart sound and you don’t know it you can find it out without going out to doctor. You should also be worried about the pitch of the murmurs or sounds in the high frequency range such as valve closure sounds. Life is supposed to be good and healthy and it can be happen if you look after yourself carefully. Heart Rate Monitors Irregular Heartbeat Detection Heart Electrocardiogram (ECG) You should ask yourself few things when you hear the loud heart sound. The apparatus are available which can help you to find out the loud heart sound. 1. early. 4. diastole. mid. 2. You should be worried about the pitch of the sound coming from your heart.These causes are as under: 1.

It is secondary problem depends on the severity of the heart attack. and cardiac catheterization. experts use several methods such as electrocardiogram or electrocardiography. usually peripheral tissues. such as angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery are also effective. To make sure the effectiveness of these treatments should be given within 1 hour of the start of the heart attack symptoms. It requires supplying blood flow and oxygen to allow it to do work. So we need to be careful enough not to get stressed by usual things because our heart is very sensitive and naïve. echocardiography. At the time of the treatments for a heart attack blocked artery are opened to restore the blood flow as fast as possible to prevent the heart attaining more damage and reducing the chance of a repeat attack. The fast and quick treatment is only way to limit the damage of heart. the muscle starts to die. 12-lead electrocardiogram. When there isn’t sufficient blood supply.Very common cause of loud heart sound is depression and stress. The blocked artery under this situation damages the heart muscle. the muscle starts to suffer. The main treatment is thrombolytic (clot-busting) therapy. Heart Damage Heart damage is not a disease itself. in the body. and special procedures. ransesophageal. echocardiography. These all are advanced electronic procedures operated with bio-tech machines. The heart is functioning muscle in a body. signal-averaged electrocardiogram. Life is small and heart has made it beautiful. There are number of conditions can cause the increased demand for blood and oxygen that result in high-output heart failure. and when there is no oxygen. To diagnose the extensiveness of the heart damage. High-Output Heart Failure High-output heart failure occurs when the normally functioning heart cannot keep up with the dramatically increased demand for blood flow by one or more organs. Other medications. . The heart attack occurs when the blood supply system of the heart is interrupted. we don’t want to waste any minute of this small life suffering from any disease because at the end of the day it’s your health that matters. In present depressing life there are favorable chances to get heart disease very easily. echocardiography.

In the congestive heart failure. the heart does not pump blood due to high venous pressure. the right side of the heart becomes unable to pump blood into pulmonary circulation adequately. he/she may be advised to stay in hospital taking intravenous (IV) medications. vasodilators. Cardiac Arrest . There are many reasons of high output heart failure. valve surgery. The swelling and edema can occur due to right heart failure. and anticoagulants that does not need hospitalization. All these problems create the reasons to create the demand of more blood supply by the peripheral tissues exceeding the level and capacity of the heart to supply. difficulty exercising. The underlying reason of heart failure can be heart injury or inappropriate responses of the body to heart impairment. fatigue and dizziness (due to low blood pressure) are included.The high-output failure overall is not a common cause of heart failure. The heart failure may be of severe nature because of fundamental diseases present already for example kidney impairment. vascular disease. heart works appropriately only when heart pressure is in abnormal condition. The careful diagnoses are made before to start treatment. The treatment of heart failure could be outpatient including diuretics. This can cause the accretion of fluid in the lungs. Beriberi and Paget’s disease. beta-blockers. hypertension. The treatment of high output heart failure depends on the cause. There are two types of heart failure. Fluid in the lungs or body can be an ultimate reason. regular exercise. Furthermore. Possible options are angioplasty. A surgical procedure may also be advised by the doctor depending on the condition of heart failure. controlled weight and regular visit to doctor are amongst the general suggestions. backward heart failure and congestive heart failure. The tissues of the heat do not receive adequate blood supply in this problem. digitalis. right heart failure and left heart failure. Arteriovenous fistula. In case of Inpatient treatment when patient has advance heart failure. ACE inhibitors. The heart failure has been further classified into forward heart failure. In backward heart failure. In right heart failure. coronary bypass surgery. A healthy diet. adopting a healthy life style can improve the chances to heal up from the heart failure. Hyperthyroidism. Among the general symptoms of heart failure shortage of breath. or heart transplantation. Heart Failure Heart failure is a kind of disorder which causes weakening of the cardiovascular system by damaging the heart. These include severe anemia. edema. The forward heart failure occurs when heart do not pump sufficient amount of blood to fulfill the oxygen demand of the body. While left heart failure refers to the inability of right side of the heart to pump blood into the systemic circulation. or diabetes.

abnormal breathing. it is called atherosclerotic heart disease or coronary artery disease. The most cardiac arrests lead to sudden death. In some cases. Heart attack is as risky as stoke and may cause life to end if not treated on time. choking and trauma. Other factors belonging to cardiac arrest apart from the heart diseases include respiratory arrest. It is not necessary to have these symptoms by all people. It requires supplying blood flow and oxygen to allow it to do work. high blood pressure. it can be reversed reducing chances of survival of patient every time it strikes. the muscle starts to die. It is not necessary to have a heart disease diagnosed already by the patient. Sometimes symptoms of heart attack are unidentifiable. It is estimated that more than 95 victims of cardiac arrest loss their life before reaching to hospital in United States. electrocution. also becomes the reason of cardiac arrest. decreasing the chances of neurological damage. Furthermore. called tachycardia. profuse sweating. The most common cause of heart attack is narrowing of the arteries by cholesterol plaque and their subsequent rupture. early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is necessary. Cardiac arrest can occur following heart attack or without any known cause as well. Sometimes extremely slow heart beat. The only effective treatment for this problem is defibrillation (electrical shock) with a combination of early advanced care. extreme weakness or fatigue may be a complaint by the patient before the heart attack.Cardiac arrest is the sudden. The most classic symptoms of the heart attack include chest pain with shortage of breath. in women and elderly people. and loss of pulse and blood pressure. In medical terminologies. The precautions to recognize the illness through the symptoms mentioned above can facilitate a lot to save a life. Sudden death can be occurred within minutes after symptoms are appeared. The urgent medical care should be sought in case symptoms are appeared. When there isn’t sufficient blood supply. The warning signs of cardiac arrest are loss of consciousness. The heart attack occurs when the blood supply system of the heart is interrupted. abrupt and unexpected loss of heart function. the electrical impulses become rapid and heart stops beating suddenly. high cholesterol and diabetes become a reason of blocking blood supply to artery and . After the cardiac arrest. Heart Attack Heart is functioning muscle in a body. Brain death or premature death can occur within 4 to 6 minutes after the strike. and when there is no oxygen. The other symptoms can be indigestion. smoking. The family history of heart attack plays a major role causing this problem. The irregular heart rhythm is a core reason of the cardiac arrest. particularly. jaw ache. and nausea. In some cases. shortness of breath or vomiting etc. The electric shock called defibrillation to the heart is given to restore the normal heart beat. Patients that survive cardiac arrest are advised to have Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia by a variety of methods in order to improve the survival and neurologic damage. pain only in the shoulder or arm. the muscle starts to suffer. called bradycardia. Cardiac arrest is a dangerous and risky problem. drowning. hence. CPR continues the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain. When the heart beats very fast.

The main thing to remember after heart attack is time factor. The most frequent cause of the myocarditis is viral or bacterial infection of the heart muscle. The first step is to call emergency service in the area. The delay in treatment can cause life end. immune system of the body continues to harm the heart muscle which becomes basic cause of prolonging myocarditis. It is mild disease by nature and contains no notable symptoms virtually. heart attack is very severing that death is possible on spot. Heart Inflammation Myocarditis Inflammation to the heart muscle is medically referred as Myocarditis. The most common symptoms of myocarditis include chest pain. myocarditis leads weakening of heart muscles and heart rhythm irregularities. After the initial infection falls down. When it is accompanied with shortage of breath. The heart inflammation may be recovered after an initial phase or may cause heart failure at its severe condition when heart muscle becomes injured due to infection. The blood tests for heart muscles are taken to diagnose the problem. unexpected. fluid in the lungs. The emergency department should be alerted that patient is on the way in order to make the necessary measures ready. Giving aspirin helps to minimize blood clot formation and blockage of the artery is also useful. There are some general suggestions after heart attack strikes. Suffering from myocarditis enhances the risks of sudden. The existing diseases causing heart attack should be control to minimize the risks of heart attack. It is not predictable if the disease has long term or short term damaging effects. fatigue. The heart attack can strike again if extensive care is not taken properly.consequently heart attack strikes. myocarditiscan can cause heart failure. In the most serious condition. . The third heart attack can be a last stage of life. The virus assaults the heart muscle and cause local inflammation. Sometimes. and fatal heart rhythm abnormalities. The only possible medical treatment is surgery to restore the blood supply to the heart muscle.

The pacemaker can replace the function of sinus node (SV node) and can help the heart to beat properly. called the electrode. These causes are falls under the category of controllable risk factors. Heart Block Heart block is a type of bradycardia which is referred as slow heart beat usually less than 60 times per minute. More severe forms of heart block usually are needed to be treated with artificial permanent pacemaker. drinking plenty of water. This is sometimes called AV block. This is known as complete heart block. The underlying causes of heart block could be high blood pressure. is placed in either the upper or the lower chamber of the heart against the heart line. sedentary lifestyle. dizziness or light-headedness. the beats are not able to pass from the upper to the lower chambers at all. To avoid heart problem. eliminating unnecessary stress. exercising regularly. It is occurred when the beat originating in the upper chambers of the heart cannot pass normally to the lower chambers of the heart. The patients of Myocarditis are advised not to use ever implantable defibrillators. cigarette smoking. In the second type of heart block. during passage of beats from the upper to lower chambers of heart. stress. and certain medicines. the beats pass from the upper chambers to the lower chambers with slower rate than normal. because the beat is unable to pass through the atrioventricular node that joins the upper and lower chambers of the heart. The pulse generator is placed under the chest. and heart block particularly. eating healthy diet. Most viral infections are treated with a specific therapy called symptomatic therapy. In such situation the lower chambers originate their own impulses. The most common symptoms of hear block include fatigue. and the tip of the lead. diabetes. high fat diet. Pericarditis . aging and gender. and swimming. a thin coated wire.The inflammation because of bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics. some beats are dropped. The causes which fall under the non controllable risk factors include family history of heart disease. In this way both heart chambers still pump blood but with a slower rate. It encases the electronic circuitry of the pacemaker. congenital heart disorders (heart problems present at birth). which is inserted through a vein. use water pills. In the first type. drugs or alcohol abuse. weakness. fainting or nearly fainting. shortness of breath. Pacemaker consists of a lead. maintaining weight and regular check up from doctor is necessary. and measures to prevent heart attack. In the third type of heart block. The heart block has different types. heart attack. in general. excess weight. reduce salt in the meal. high cholesterol.

Palpitations Heart palpitation involves sensation of rapid. a procedure where a thin needle is inserted through the chest wall into the pericardial sac. however. may be referred. In some cases. The most common symptom of pericarditis is chest pain which is usually sharp and stabbing and has certain characteristics which helps the doctor to diagnose the disease. preventing it from beating normally. Rarely. stress. This sac consists of two layers. uremia. The more than sufficient fluid in the pericardia sac may generate high pressured heart output. It is always result of other problems such as. pain or fainting. there is no cause of pericarditis. it is necessary to have treatment of the underlying cause first. there are no symptoms as such of palpitations except the feeling related to pounding of heart by an individual. hence. the pain can be of different characteristics such as pain with deep breath and shortage of breath. In most cases. connective tissue disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. The patient feels worse with the lying flat position and better when leaning forward. fluttering or pounding heart beat. It is difficult to determine the cause of palpitations. The pain can be worse if accompanied with deep breaths. . It can also radiate to the shoulder blade incase of associated irritation of the diaphragm (the flat muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen). scleroderma and some kind of medications. pregnancy or menopause) and medicines having pseudoephedrine. caffeine. nicotine. The most common causes of the palpitations include anxiety. in some cold and allergy medicines). trauma. viral or fungal infection. systemic lupus erythematosus. it can be troublesome. Mostly. short course of narcotic pain medication such as codeine. pericardiocentesis can also be done when there is need to set up a cause of pericarditis for example infection or cancer etc. The pain can start slowly or suddenly and can go directly to the back. it can be a sign of hyperthyroidism or an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). change in hormone (associated with menstruation. Sometimes.The heart positions in the center of the chest and is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium. muscle aches or general depression. tumors or cancer. shortness of breath. Although it is often harmless. chills. It symbolizes that there is inflammation near lung tissue. If other organs of the body are affected due to the inflammation. to the neck or to the arm. The pain with swallowing means inflammation is near the esophagus. sarcoidosis. chest discomfort. hydrocodone or oxycodone is suggested depending on the individual situation. heart attack or heart surgery. It should be seriously noticed when palpitation occurs with dizziness. However. Other symptoms may include infection with fever. fever. (an ingredient. Inflammation of these tissue layers surrounding the heart is known to pericarditis. exercise. At the severe stage of the Pericarditis when there will be too much fluid present in the pericardial sac pericardiocentesis. one that fits tightly onto the heart muscle and another looser layer surrounding the inner layer. The primary treatment of pericarditis is medicines that reduce inflammation such as ibuprofen that also helps to accumulate fluid in the pericardial sac. premature contractions caused by high level of adrenaline in blood.

disorder of the sinus node (SV) and atrioventricular node (AV node). becomes the reason of heart to beat slower than the normal condition. and alcohol consumption. Athletes usually tend to have slow resting heart beat which is not considered a disease unless associated symptoms are not appeared. The underlying electrolyte or acid-base disorders or hypoxia should be treated first. The speed of the heart beat usually is measured by . that is faster than normal.The person concerned about heart palpitations. Generally. called tachycardia. and swimming. This problem is notably more common in old aged people. vascular heart disease. heart beats slow than the normal condition. They are often advised simply to reduce emotional and physical stress while monitoring their symptoms. or degenerative primary electrical disease. causes can be classified into two types. Slow Heart Beat Bradycardia Slow Heart Beat also called Bradycardia implies to the situation when heart beats less than 60 even sometimes 50 per minutes. exercising regularly. metabolic. Indeed. the heart beat rate can be. thus reducing premature contractions. can be used to block the effect of adrenaline in the heart. should consult the doctor as soon as it is realized. eating healthy diet. The second type is non cardiac causes may involve drugs use or abuse. or endocrine problems. which plays major roles for heart to beat. faster than 100 times per minute but still it can be considered normal. Drugs treatment for bradycardia is normally not suggested to the symptomatic patients. healthy life style is a significant step to avoid heart problem. The patient having constant palpitations and premature contractions experts suggest medications such as beta-blockers. Doctors usually recommend further evaluation such as heart monitoring tests. Moreover. Rapid Heart Beat A rapid heartbeat also. The general symptoms of this problem can be fainting. The stress reduction helps to lower the blood adrenaline levels. in general including drinking plenty of water. The occurrence of premature contractions can be reduced by stress reduction. The normal heart in adults beats between 60 to 80 times. sweating and light headache. maintaining weight and regular check up from doctor is necessary. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minute. eliminating unnecessary stress. can be defined as excessively fast heart beat. valvular heart disease. In children. The palpitations resulting from premature contractions also require no specific treatment. quitting smoking. These problems disturb the automacity of the heart and ultimately. to some extent. The first type is cardiac which includes acute or chronic chemic heart disease. Palpitations having no heart diseases history may not need specific treatment. and reducing caffeine. Basically slow heart beat is linked with cardiac arrhythmia and can have many causes.

Heart rhythm disorder belongs to arrhythmia. it indicates person is suffering from heart rhythm disorder. The causes of rapid heartbeat may be exercise with heavy weight lifting or other activity that requires physical exertion. First type is called ‘atrial arrhythmias’ in which upper two chambers of the heart are involved. Arrhythmias can be simple and treated with little medications but some arrhythmias can be critical and dangerous to life. causing death. In such position heart beat sometimes. these diseases should be under control. depending on individual situation. there is nothing to worry about it. vomiting. anemia (a low red blood cell count). which may be too little intake of fluids.checking the pulse or listening to the heart beat with a medical instrument called stethoscope. chest pain. In some cases a person with rapid heartbeat may have no symptoms at all. hyperthyroidism (level of thyroid hormone in the body that is too high). can be too fast or too slow. The treatment provided to a . shortness of breath. Heart Rhythm Disorder Heart rhythm disorder refers to irregular position of heart beat. The symptoms of heart rhythm disorder vary from person to person. some herbal therapies such as ephedra.. blood infections. In such condition. Regular exercise is advised to many people for preventing this problem. arrhythmias (irregular heart beat). The other serious causes involve dehydration. pain. fever. If heart beat is lower than 50 or exceeds more than 100. congestive heart failure (a condition in which the heart cannot pump blood effectively). stress. Tylenol). heart beats becomes normal automatically. anxiety. A normal heart beat rates between 60 to 80 times. (in some cases 50 to 100) per minutes. Taking plenty of fluids can also prevent from this decease at great extent.e. sometimes called water pills. In other cases. excessive sweating. fatigue or weakness. sweating and light headache is symptoms to recognize this disease. shortness of breath. fear. If rapid heartbeat is associated with other diseases (among the causes mentioned above). chest pain. one may need antibiotics or surgery. diarrhea. and smoking. or medications such as diuretics. alcohol withdrawal and some kind of medicines. However. To minimize the possibility of heart problems. When cause is infection. diabetes. light headedness or dizziness and fainting. Treatment of the rapid heartbeat depends on the cause. In some cases person has no symptoms and in other cases. avoiding cocaine or alcohol prevents from rapid heartbeat. low oxygen in the blood. a person is given acetaminophen (i. In fever. it may occur suddenly. cocaine abuse. loss of blood. Arrhythmia has two types. low or cholesterol. The most general causes of the heart rhythm disorder include high or low blood pressure. heart attack. Other than the medications. when heart beat is increased due to physical activity like running. nerve damage. doctors suggests fluids. The second is called ‘ventricles arrhythmias’ which originates from the lower chamber of the heart. which is a medical term and meant to heart position on unequal level. In general. nervousness. the symptoms may include palpitations. low blood pressure. The extensive rapid heartbeat problem can cause a life of a person to end. anger. for example in dehydrated. excessive caffeine intake.

The SA node produces beating system. Many heart rhythm problems do not need any treatment at all. Some swift heart rhythm problems are treated with catheter ablation or implantation of a pacemaker-type device known as an implantable cardioversion defibrillator. heart failure is major problem. which can be felt through the pulse externally. waits for a very short time. most are life threatening. The cells of the heart generate electric current which are important for the heart to pump the blood. and pump blood to the body. cardiac arrest. and psychological effects such as fear. heart attacks. The common complications that can occur because of these problems include Heart rhythm disorder. Thee main function of the heart is to circulate blood through the body. whereas. Heart damage. heart pumps the blood with less force. Right atrium collects blood from the body and pushes it to the right ventricle. stress. usually because of the heart injury. nervousness. heart failure. The special cells in the right atrium called sino atrial node (SA node) generate first electrical impulse and are considered the “natural pacemaker” of the heart. anger. The electric signal. This pacemaker (SA node) function begins the electrical impulse which follows pathways in the atrial walls. anxiety. Some of them are treated easily. The diseases such as high or low blood pressure.given patient depends entirely on how severe is a heart rhythm problem. It is further pushed to the left ventricle by the small atrial beats. Among the common heart complications. smoking. and congenital heart disease etc. The right side pumps blood to the lungs whereas. In the heart failure. These complications sometimes are . In this way. pericarditis. to allow blood to leave the atria and fill up the ventricles. Other heart rhythm problems may be easily treated with different anti-arrhythmic medications. Although the body protects the heart as its best but slight malfunctioning of the systemic routine of heart blood pumping can create huge problems. slow heart beat. rapid heartbeat. usually one to two tenths of a second. upper chamber of the heart beats. asthma. high or low cholesterol. They are called right and left atria and right and left ventricles. The final treatment of this problem is heart surgery to eliminate the source of heart rhythm problem but very rare people require the surgery. at the AV node. The right ventricle is responsible for pumping blood and picking up oxygen from the lungs and to return the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. the left pumps blood to the rest of the body. other than complete rest. high-output heart failure. to a junction box between the atrium and ventricle called the atrio-ventricular node (AV node). exceeded amount of alcohol can be reasons of all type of heart complications. The signal further passes through electric bundles in the ventricle walls to allow these chambers to contract again in a coordinated way. The heart is consisted of four chambers. each about 60-80 times per minute. heart block. Heart Complications The heart is consisted of two stages and act as an electric pump. diabetes. heart inflammation. This electric signal provides ground for muscle cells in both atria to contract all at once. pain. The heart system of the human body is quite complicated and sensitive as well. palpitations.

fever. The third harmful effect is that. deficiency of potassium and vitamin B. following a healthy life style and restraining oneself from excessive use of nicotine. when the heart beats very rapidly. It is normal in exercise but dangerous when the heart is resting. nervousness. prior heart attack. First dominance should be provided for all patients. Tachycardia is stimulated by excessive nicotine. it is considered abnormal. fear. Second when the heart beats too rapidly. eating normal meals. eating food low in cholesterol and saturated fats. caffeine or adraline. restraining from physical stress and exertion. The recommendations for healthy heart given by American Heart Association’s include avoiding tobacco smoke. Tachycardia can be treated with chemical conversion. maintaining a healthy weight. it tends to pump blood less efficiently because the myocardium gets less time to contract. and through surgeries or transplantation in special cases. dizziness. palpitations. it requires more oxygen and blood and in this way the person feels out of breath and stressed. once diagnosed. Home medical test of tachycardia includes heart rate monitors.treated through medicines. Soft Heart Sound Sound of heart which is lower than the usual is called soft heart sound. high or low blood pressure. Normal heart rate increases due to these factors or causes. The ambience of the room should be . when problem is of severe nature. it is considered normal because the exertion makes the heart beats very rapidly but in cases like cardiac arrhythmias. The symptoms of tachycardia include rapid heartbeat and rapid heartbeat at rest. anemia or panic attack. by controlling diet. if the heart is pumping too fast for a long period of time then the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the blood is imbalanced. and arrhythmia. Pounding heart beat is a type of rapid heartbeat. electrical conversion or simply by the use of drugs to control and normalize the heart beat. monitoring high blood pressure. However the treatment depends on the mechanism of tachycardia in a person. Alternative diagnosis method includes hypotension. In cases like exercise or stress. asthma. ECG and irregular heart beat detection. Exercise or exertion. First. There are several methods and principles which must be involved when listening to heart sounds. excessive dieting. drugs and adreline etcetera. emotion. caffeine. Tachycardia can be harmful in three ways. Tachycardia Tachycardia is a disease in which the heart beats very rapidly. In a normal person the rate of heart beat is 60 beats per minute but in tachycardia the rate is 100 beats per minute. certain illicit drugs and medications. and having regular medical exams. These are the symptoms which are known to the patient but the doctor takes tachycardia differently. Tachycardia can be cured or controlled by certain drugs and medications prescribed by the doctor but it can be prevented. shortness of breath and heart failure. being physically active. large meal.

Stenosis sometimes become dangerous and it may lead to the turbulence during ejection of blood. 8. They are most often caused by any the movement of valves and with the reflection of the valves to certain function cause such soft heart sounds. Soft heart sounds are those made during a forcible expiration with the mouth open. Cardiomyopathies 5. It happens that valves become leaky and thrust backward flow or they can become stiff and narrow.warm. the patient covered and as much irrelevant noise removed as possible. A stethoscope is essential for you which fit your ears comfortably and proper bell and diaphragm for your patient. Any unusual sound coming from heart should be considered as threat to the health so be careful and eat healthy. Our heart is delicate part of body so it needs extra care and attention. There are some things which should be kept in mind in terms of examining the patient. Hypothyroidism Pericardial effusion Emphysema Chronic bronchitis 9. 6. 2. Pneumothorax Soft heart murmurs are sounds made by the blood circulating through the heart’s chambers and valves or through blood vessels near the heart. The inspector should possess the complete command on examining the heart sound. You should learn to recognize the normal before you get to know abnormal. 3. Patient presently does not had any procedures recently He has not had a full meal recently He is not in any claim or discomfort. . Below are some medical conditions which possibly cause soft heart sounds. 7. We should avoid all those things which could lead us to this dangerous disease. Doctor should explain the patient that what he is going to do so that he won’t get confused and worried. 3. This stiffness of valves called stenosis. these are as follows: 1. 1. 2. After getting know about the soft heart sound one should consult the doctor immediately and follow the given prescription. Mitral incompetence Heart attack Rheumatic heart disease 4. Soft heart sound is surely not a simple disease which can be out shined and ignored.

meditation and relaxing. drugs and pain in jaws. fear. stress. Heart pounding is often not very serious unless the person has some known heart disease. anemia. sleep food and stress and healthy lifestyle is the only best cure. medical exam and tests which will include x ray. hyperventilation. thyroid disease. It should better not be called a disease as it’s only the sudden change in the normal beating of the heart. lack of sleep and overdose of certain medications. it’s the regular pounding or palpitations that is dangerous and needs immediate medical consultancy. academia or hypoxemia. an abnormal heart valve or an electrotype abnormality. adjusting rest. As the pounding of heart is not serious therefore no proper medications are necessary for its cure although prevention and precaution is the only best way to cure it. EKG or echocardiogram. rapid heartbeat. Diet and weight control. low blood sugar for example. and thyroid problem. frequent occurrence. anemia. congenital heart defects or any structural abnormality . alcohol and stress. smoking. Pounding of the heart can be caused by some similar reasons as in many heart diseases like fever. These tests will have the risk factor of fever. high blood pressure for example.Pounding Heart Beat Pounding of the heart beat is a sensation that feels like thumping or racing of the heart. The pounding is actually the irregular beating and abnormal pattern of electrical impulses pounding for a little time or a few second sis not important. arrhythmia. Going to the doctor for a check up and Keeping a regular check at the pounding may help the doctor to diagnose the ailment easily. blood and urine analysis. The diagnosis must be made by a specialist consultant. The normal rate of the heart beats is 60 to 100 beats per minute which is reduced or increased by some causes. and faintness. regular physical activity. pills. XTC. It is generally known as palpitations. surgery or procedures. Asymptomatic pounding includes heart racing or thumping or skipping a beat nut the dangerous pounding symptoms includes dizziness. shortage of oxygen. Loud Heart Sound . low level of oxygen in the blood or any general heart disease. necks and arms are big causes includes heart disease for example. coronary heart disease. anxiety including over eating. chest pain.

1. In present depressing life there are favorable chances to get heart disease very easily. 5. Very common cause of loud heart sound is depression and stress. mid. 3. Mitral stenosis If you are suffering from loud heart sound and you don’t know it you can find it out without going out to doctor. There are different causes which cause this disease. Life is supposed to be good and healthy and it can be happen if you look after yourself carefully. Anaemia 8. You should be worried about the pitch of the sound coming from your heart. 2. diastole. early. No disease is ordinary disease and we cannot simply over shadow any of our body problems because no one wants to live an ill life. Thyrotoxicosis 9. 4. These causes are as under: 1. The apparatus are available which can help you to find out the loud heart sound. Tachycardia Exercise Fever Emotional response to situation Anxiety Hypertension 7. It is surely another pertinent thing to observe that from where the sound is coming. clicks. 2. 6. or late. So we need to be careful enough not to get stressed by usual things because our heart is very sensitive . As it is not the normal condition which means that hearing loud heart sound is a disease which can have fatal consequences. 3. Heart Rate Monitors Irregular Heartbeat Detection Heart Electrocardiogram (ECG) You should ask yourself few things when you hear the loud heart sound. It is also important to note down when the sound comes is it coming during systole. So it one should be very observant in case of his heart sound because it does seem an ordinary matter but it definitely has fatal consequences. You should also be worried about the pitch of the murmurs or sounds in the high frequency range such as valve closure sounds.Loud heart sound is obviously is stage when heart sounds louder than its usual routine sound. What are the other sounds or murmurs? Sometimes it happens that diagnosis bases not on the loud heart sound but it can be examined and identified through the sounds coming in the vicinity of heart.

Heart surgery and Catheter Ablation are also the methods to control and regulate the heart beats which have the similar objective to normalize the heart beat. we don’t want to waste any minute of this small life suffering from any disease because at the end of the day it’s your health that matters. shortness of breath. injury from a heart attack. then cardio version is implied. stress or they can be inherited. chest discomfort and weakness or fatigue. Another method to cure the Arrhythmia is by using a device called Pacemaker. changing the living style and prevention that will include avoiding smoking. electrolyte imbalances in the blood. Arrhythmia can occur with a normal heart rate as well as rapid heart rate. In some case it cannot be cured but in some. irregular heartbeats do not show any particular symptoms. Following all the above mentioned precautions and at a proper time may tend to non occurrence of irregular heartbeats. short electrical impulses are sent to the heart muscles which help to regulate the heart beats. Sometimes the Arrhythmia disease is caused other than the heart diseases. If drugs are not effective in some cases. Heart is important part of our body and without a proper working heart it would be hard to live a life which is worth living. high blood pressure. sometimes known as natural pacemaker and the other one is AV node. intake of alcohol. caffeine and stimulants in medications. Patients having any of these above mentioned symptoms or sudden occurrence may consult a doctor as soon as possible. Through this device. Generally. pounding in the chest. anemia. fainting. Irregular Heart Beats When the heart deviates from its original function of pumping blood. that includes palpitations. Some of them include infections. Life is small and heart has made it beautiful. it can be cured with drugs. but some conditions may give the hint of Arrhythmia. SA Node. Arrhythmia has many types depending upon its origin. Arrhythmia can be caused by coronary artery disease. Intracranial bruit . it uses abnormal contractions and result in a disease called Irregular heart beats or abnormal heart rhythm is and medically known as Arrhythmia.and naïve. In this method an electric shock is given after an anesthesia that makes the heart beats normal. So your heart should be fit and rhythmic. dizziness. There are also certain tests to check for Arrhythmia. changes in the heart muscle or healing process after heart surgery. The electrical system of heart beats consists of two main areas of control namely.

the gastric acid from the stomach mixes with the contents of the stomach. The name is so given because its pain occurs in the breast bone which is near the heart although it has some symptoms to do with the heart problems. This heart burn sensation or pain is caused when the lower part of the esophagus exposes itself to the hydrochloric acid of the stomach in normal situations. or aortic stenosis which transmits the bruit to the vessels in the neck. if frequently occurs. increased blood flow. jaw or the throat from its name it may seem a heart disease but actually it has nothing to do with the heart. hyperthyroidism.Atherosclerosis. But if ever the sphincter does not contract. aneurysm. It may also occur due to a congenital arteriovenous anomaly. Heartburn Pyrosis Heart burn or medically known as Pyrosis is a disease in which there is a painful or burning sensation in the esophagus which lies just below the breast bone which is caused by the regurgitation of gastric acids. Cavernous malformations commonly cause abnormalities of supra nuclear or fascicular ocular motility. contracts to prevent the happening of this situation. Intracranial bruit commonly produces neuro ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. thrombo embolism and arterio venous misinformation. Intracranial bruit may be caused due to a carotid cavernous sinus fistula or a cerebral angioma. . All intracranial bruits should be diagnosed with MRI and angiography unless some systemic disease is found like anemia Intracranial bruits or cervical bruits may be caused by carotid stenosis. A cerebral aneurysm is not very significant to cause a bruit. causes inflammation and irritation. gastric acids being acidic. the lower esophageal sphincter which separates the esophagus from the stomach. a venous hum.Audible blood flow through a cranial vessel is called intracranial bruit which makes the blood flow abnormal. Prompt and early diagnosis of intra cranial bruit helps in proper treatment and therapy. The symptoms of the pain rising often starts from the chest and may proceed to the neck . A carotid duplex scan and carotid angiography should be done to look for any particular carotid stenosis. Intracranial bruit is commonly heard in 4 of 13 children aged between 4 months and 3 years. Intracranial bruit is a fatal disease and it has expensive treatment. Intracranial bruit remains an enigma and it is not something to overshadow. Severe anemia may cause intracranial bruits. If it is diagnose at time it should not be ignored because later on has to suffer a lot because of the treatment method and the charges. The 5 causes of intracranial bruit are . causing it to return into the esophagus. It is very important to live healthy life but when one is suffering from such fatal diseases it would not be possible to stay healthy and enjoy happy healthy life. There are symptoms which on appearance mean that you have to consult to your doctor because no disease is a simple and relieving. will cause Gastro esophageal Reflux Disease. Heartburn also occurs when you eat a heavy or late meal or when you are lying down flatly. This return.

Hospitalization in the case of the disease is also a proper way. All of us want to live healthy life and it can be happened only when we want and determine about it. irritability. Proper diagnosis is important thing in this regard. The diagnosis might include Ph probes or x-rays. When the doctors do not prescribe any medications to cure reflux prescribes a healthy lifestyle to be followed. the LES is relatively relaxed so they spit up often. Some of them are proton pump inhibiters.in addition to drugs. In normal conditions. bad breath. Healthy diet plan must be followed. fundoplication. chronic cough. esophageal manometry and esophagoscopy. Living life is not enough but living healthy life is beautiful. chest pain and nausea. and chronic chest pain. causing the stomach contents and acids to flow backwards into the esophagus creating irritation in the lungs. chronic ear pain. Physical activity and exercise is also a very effective way of preventing heartburn. gastric acidity determination. pain with eating and pneumonia. If the reflux is often and it persists. Gastro esophageal reflux is not contagious and it recovers itself over time. But in abnormal conditions the LES does not contract as it should. Symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux in adults are the inflammation in the esophagus. A number of drugs are also helpful in this regard. gastroscopy. Typical symptoms may include cough. maintaining a healthy weight and diet helps in this regard. which helps the food to go down and mix with the acids in the stomach and then it closes tight to prevent backflow of stomach contents. The presence of hiatal hernia is a risk factor of gastro esophageal reflux. Yoga and aerobics. hoarseness in voice. Hence. cavities. This is called physiological reflux. Symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux includes poor weight gain. alginic . Taking walks after the meals can also help reduce the chances of heart burn. difficulty swallowing. inflammation and a burning sensation this back flow is called reflux. Most medications which reduce stomach acid are prescribed.Bad breath is also a symptom of heart burn. antacids. heart burn. then the doctor should be consulted for proper treatment. In young children. Excessive smoking is another reason for heart burn because smoking has harmful effects on the salivary function which helps to clear the esophagus from the acids. Over the time the LES strengthens resulting in less spit ups. Some of the procedures to check the heart burn disease include stomach stapling. wheezing. a disease like heart burn can be prevented by the necessary precautions mentioned above. This back flow is pretty normal in adults when it happens frequently because the swallowing of the saliva helps the acids to wash away from the esophagus thus protecting its vulnerable walls. But if this condition persists. Caffeine. alcohol and smoking should be cut down. Gastroesophageal Reflux Gastro esophageal reflux is defined as mucosal damage produced by abnormal reflux in the esophagus. heart burn can also be prevented by giving the adequate information to the patient with respect to the disease. the food swallowed is passed through esophagus into the stomach through a portal called the lower esophageal sphincter LES. it is called pathologic reflux resulting in weight loss. walk should be taken after meals and fatty and acidic food must be controlled.

left hypochondria. Pylephlebitis. Pregnancy. Epigastric pain is actually the feeling of soreness or ache in the abdomen’s upper and middle area. Among the up-mentioned thirty four causes of epigastric pain. toxins or drugs also cause the epigastric pain. Copper toxity. myocardial ischaemia. It is observed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment is proved helpful in many cases of epigastric pain. Pancriatic infection and last but not the least. Through the anatomical point-of-view. The Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment includes Acupuncture treatment. The most interesting treatment being offered in the medical world regarding the epigastric pain is the Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment. Proper posture is also very helpful in controlling reflux. It is better that you consult your doctor in case of ant querries of if your body shows other similar symptoms. Pancreatic cancer. Caliac artery stenosis from aompression by median arcuate ligamant of diaphragm. These symptoms or causes of epigastric pain mostly appear in the patients who have a family history of diabetes. In this case the pain is the result of a drug side-effect or so. Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Zieve syndrome. Elevating the head off the bed reduces chances of reflux. Gastric lymphoma. Zollinger_Ellison syndrome. To explain it further. Zefazone drugs medicines.acid. Mentioned are a few diseases or medical conditions which cause the epigastric pain. Abdominal hernia. Epigastric pain The pain. Gastrisis. which a patient feels in the upper central region of the abdomen. the body of a human abdomen is divided in to nine major parts or sections namely. Janbon syndromeCrohn’s disease of esophagus. Pancreatitis. Dyspepsia. Indigestion. drug usage also causes this epigastric pain in the abdomen. right lateral region. left inguinal region (which are also called the Fossae). Tong Ren therapy and herbal treatment. is termed as the Epigastric pain. The Chinese medicines are used to treat the epigastric pain and the other conditions related to it on clinical basis. Peptic ulcer disease. Myocardial infraction. Sandifer syndrome. umblical and pubic region. Lactase defficiency. left lateral region (which are also called the Flanks). It is observed that there are many other rare symptoms which can cause the epigastric pain. Pnuemonia. Malabsorbtion. Ankylostomiasis. It causes symptoms like heart burn that is a burning . medicational effects. the area in the human body between costal margins and subcostal margins is called the epigastric region. Parasitic infection. Acid Regurgitation Acid regurgitation also called acid reflux is a general condition in which the stomach carries the acids from the stomach up the esophagus. right hypochondria. Intestinal ischaemia. On the other hand. right inguinal region. These are very few symptoms of Epigastric pain. Hiatus hernia. Gastric volvulus. only myocardial infraction and pancreatic cancer are directly or indirectly related to the disease of Diabetes. which is the tube that carries food from mouth to the stomach. epigastrium. This particular region is called the epigastric region. About ten million population of Ameriaca suffers the epigastric pain due to the disease of Lactase defficiancy. prokinetics and sucralfate. Gastric cancer. Gastroesophegal reflux.

In normal conditions. changing the diet habits. Wheezing and Hoarseness of voice. the esophageal muscles becomes weak and relaxes. during the next cycle. and pulmonary fibrosis. taking a walk after meals. and spicy foods. slow heart beat. the muscles of the esophagus keep the contents of the stomach in the stomach and prevent the backward flow of the stomach acids by tightening up the throat after swallowing the food. Pregnancy. exercise. Eating before bedtime. and believes it to be unusual or abnormal. Eating large meals.feeling in the chest and sometimes a sour or a bitter taste in the mouth these acid regurgitation feeling often remains for a few hours after heavy meal and then gradually dies away. chocolate. if left untreated. . and onions. citrus fruits. Chronic dry cough. these include. Obesity. although there are some factors which may be included in the extra pounds symptoms of acid regurgitation. Pulsus Alternans Pulsus alternans is a arterial pulse waveform showing alternating strong and weak beats with physical findings. hence causing an increase in end-diastolic volume. the ejection fraction will decrease significantly. Alcohol or caffeine consumption. rapid heartbeat. As a result. and carries a poor prognosis. causing reduction in stroke volume. Palpitation happened when a person can sense his own heartbeat. having short and light meals. This is a more serious condition than simple regurgitation that.c If left ventricular of the heart dysfunction. But people suffering from acid regurgitation. GERD is a disease which can also worsen existing asthma. Acid regurgitation occurs when the muscles at the lower part of esophagus called does not function properly. which allows the acid and stomach contents to flow back up the esophagus. heart rhythm symptons and arrhythimias. chronic cough. Acid regurgitation can occur in adults as well as in children. insomnia. certain Medications. garlic. may lead to serious problems like inflammation of the esophagus and a certain precancerous condition. Acid regurgitation that happens more than twice a week is called gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Fatty. smokers or pregnant women If the acid regurgitation occurs more often it maybe consulted with a doctor who will prescribe medications and there are conventional precautionary measures which includes quitting smoking. Many patients describe palpitation as racing heartbeat. Heartburn is the most common symptom of acid regurgitation. specially the people with poor diet habits. Trouble swallowing. mint. release of stress and avoiding tight clothing. making the matter worse. There are some symptoms associated with pulsus alternans like palpitation. In its initial stage it may be a tachycardia as a compensatory mechanism to try and keep the cardiac output constant. fried. myocardial muscle and systolic phase will stretch harder than usual and as a result cause an increase in myocardial contraction and hence a stronger pulse is felt. Smoking. irregular heart beat. It is not exactly known that what causes acid regurgitation. Other symptoms may include: Bitter or sour taste in the mouth. In many patients Pulsus alternans always indicator of left ventricular systolic impairment.

This type of pulse can also be felt better in peripheral arteries is pulsus alterans. However. thyrotoxicosis. So if you don’t want to suffer from this fatal disease you should be keen toward your diet and heart anything unusual change or pain can lead you to pulsus bisfereiens. The pulse rises very slowly in aortic stenosis and the second wave of the double beat is the more forceful one There are many causes which are associated with pulsus bisferiens. fever. worsening fatigue. Pulsus Bisferiens In medical language. . it commonly occurs with high output states. The first lift is happened due to “percussion wave”(P) and the second lift is happened due to tidal wave (T). If ignore it then it would be harmful and can lead you to fatal consequences. but pulsus bisferiens is an exception to that and can be better felt in peripheral arteries like the radial artery. eventually.Heart rhythm can also be useful in finding pulsus alternans. Some findings which are associated with pulsus bisferiens underlying many causes and may include moderate tachycardia. Because Bisferious means striking twice. In different parts of heart bisferiens pulse can be seen in aortic stenosis which is accompanied by moderately severe aortic insufficiency. It is basically dependant on the heart and if your heart is working properly then you won’t be in troubled by this disease and to keep the heart healthy you have to take good care of it. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea may develop. traditionally pulsus bisferiens is discovered when aortic insufficiency exists in association with aortic stenosis. but may also be found in isolated but severe aortic insufficiency. a cervical venous hum. and widened pulse pressure. Sometimes it is palpated and the pulse rises rapidly. The diet should be appropriate and it should include all the ingredients which make your heart healthy and working properly. as a result of this defect exertional dyspnea. arterial pulses are best felt like brachial and carotid. if you feel any change in the rhythm then it might be an alarming and it may lead you to suffer from the pulsus alternans. and exercise. Your doctor can be your best adviser at that position and if you found a patient then you have to follow the prescriptions of the doctors. and the first wave is the more forceful one. Obviously it would not be easy but to prevent yourself from further damage or loss you have to follow your doctor. pulsus bisferiens is also known as bisferious pulse or biphasic pulse. In some cases. and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Pulsus alternans can be harmless until or unless you cure it on initial stage and don’t ignore it. Normally in central arteries. such as anemia. In case of any kind of change in your heart rhythm or sound you are advised to visit your doctor as soon as possible. Many patients suffering with chronic aortic insufficiency are asymptomatic until ages 40 to 50. orthopnea and. Defect in the rhythm of heart is the most common organic cause of bisferiens pulse. Pressure gradient is the basic cause of pulsus bisferiens in 40% patients in the left ventricular outflow tract.

Comparing the right and left ventricles. Gallop ventricular rhythm may be caused by the oscillation of blood back and forth between the walls of the ventricles initiated by inrushing blood from the atria. the ventricles are not filled sufficiently to create enough tension for reverberation. In a four-chambered heart. The normal rhythm of the heart contains two audible sounds. The ventricular gallop rhythm itself does not need to be treated. Sometime it is difficult to hear. dependent upon where in the cycle this added sound comes. there are two ventricular the right ventricular pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation for the lungs. the pulse pressure would be 40 mmHg. These two extreme differences are called the pulse pressure. Ventriculars have thicker walls than the atria. called S3 or S4. and the left ventricular pumps blood into the systemic circulation for the rest of the body. The third sound of the heart does not occur until the middle third of diastole is probably because during the early part of diastole. However. shortly after the second heart sound S2. the left ventricle has thicker walls because it needs to pump blood to the whole body. The systolic and diastolic readings are taken at opposite ends of the cardiac cycle and are a person’s highest and lowest blood pressure levels. such as that in humans. Gallop ventricular rhythm is a rhythm of the heart on auscultation. and represent the force that your heart generates each time it contracts. but over this age is usually a sign of heart failure. depending on the aetiology (abnormal condition) the gallop rhythm may resolve. S3 (or third heart sound) is the name of the vibration. and thus can withstand higher blood pressure. It is usually low-pitched and is best heard with the bell of the stethoscope. the underlying cause requires correction. . it can also contain both of these sounds. The rhythms are usually caused by the closing of valves in the heart. It occurs during the middle third of diastole. In a person systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg and diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg. Widened Pulse Pressure Systolic and a diastolic reading are the measurements of blood pressure. A ventricular gallop rhythm contains another sound. An S3 rhythm is also refers as ventricular gallop. pulse pressure as a clinical predictor or diagnosis tool usage is complicated because the pulse pressure doesn’t provide unique information. giving the well-known “lubdub” rhythm. Some facts suggest that pulse pressure is a better forecaster of clinical outcome than the systolic or diastolic blood pressure alone. called S1 and S2.Gallop Ventricular Ventricular is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. giving a rhythm much like the cadence in the word ‘Kentucky’. S3 can be a normal finding in people under 40 years of age.

Chronic aortic regurgitation 3. It is usually called your heart rate.Pulse pressure in healthy adults in sitting position is about 40 mmHg. It is indeed a blessing to stay healthy and fit in these times. as in Congestive Heart Failure and/or shock. Pulse Bounding Pulse is the rate at which heart of the person beats. Human beings are made of complex system of nerves and arteries. So if we cannot under estimate any minor problem and consult the doctor immediately. Endocarditis 12. healthy values being up to pulse pressures of about 100 mmHg. the reason may be low stroke volume. If your pulse isn’t working properly then it should be your first preference to get yourself checked by the doctor and do according to his prescription. Fever 5. which is the number of times your heart beats each minute (bpm). Thyrotoxicosis 4. The pulse pressure increases with exercise due to increased stroke volume. Aortic dissection 11. in healthy individuals the pulse pressure will typically return to normal within about 10 minutes. If the pulse pressure is genuinely low than 25 mmHg. There is a system of network of veins and blood vessels. In some athletes. the diastolic will progressively fall as the systolic increases. There are different causes which make you suffer from widened pulse pressure some of these are as follow: 1. Heart block 10. Pregnancy Anxiety 8. Raised intracranial pressure So we should be aware of these causes and incase of any irregularity we have to consult to our doctor as soon as it is possible because if it would not cure properly and on time it can further causes different problems for you. 7. Whether the blood vessel feels hard or soft. During exercise. Anaemia 6. the rhythm and strength of the heartbeat can also be noted. a serious issue. the systolic pressure progressively increases while the diastolic remains about the same in most of individuals. . Patent ductus arteriosus 9. Atherosclerosis 2.

Aortic regurgitation 4. The list of causes is as under: 1. It becomes faster as it travels towards the peripheral blood vessels. Berry aneurysm 2. Pressure waves move through the artery walls. When heart beating rate is faster than normal. It can also be measured by measuring the heart beats directly (the apical pulse). at the wrist (radial artery). and near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery). Sometime it is happens because of excessive fluid in the circulation. Pregnancy For living a healthy life one should be very careful and precarious about his health. blood is ejected into the aorta and the aorta stretches. while resting.Strong and forceful pulse is refers as pulse bounding. and near the ankle joint (posterior tibial artery). at the wrist (radial artery). it is 15–35 m/s. you can feel a pulsing in some of the blood vessels close to the skin’s surface. on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery). Some athletes may have a healthy pulse rate lower than 60 BPM.As heart of a person pumps blood through body. Bounding pulse is often is classified as a powerful and strong pulse. Anaemia 3. Fever 5. and in the small arteries.Pulse can be feel at different places such as at the neck (carotid artery). There are many conditions which cause bounding pulse these all are following there can be other possibilities which can be identified by your doctor. its velocity is 7–10 m/s in the large arterial branches. Bounding pulse and high speed in heart rate occur separately but it can happen together. the wave of distention which refers as pulse wave is pronounced but relatively slow-moving (3–6 m/s). If you want to find out how fast your heart is beating simply Count your pulse. Pulse can be felt in any place that allows for an artery to be compressed against a bone. pulse rates are higher in infants and young children. is a normal pulse rate for a healthy adult. Arties which are visible through skin can clearly make you see the forceful pumping of blood through these arteries. behind the knee (popliteal artery). When heart is in contraction position. . it may accompany a bounding pulse. It is a term which often used medically. Bounding pulse is a disease which can be dangerous so we have to look after ourselves. Arterio-venous shunt 6. on the inside of the elbow (brachial artery). such as at the neck (carotid artery). From60 to 100 beats per minute (BPM). behind the knee (popliteal artery). Moreover. At this point. Bounding Pulse In medicine. Pulse is the throbbing persons arteries as an effect of the heart beat.

These conditions of artia can be caused by impulses which are . and in a peculiarly organized contraction pattern in atrial flutter. Hypercapnia. Instead. Atrial Fibrillation happens when there is Irregular and rapid beating of the atrial chambers and the normal system that conducts electricity in the atria malfunctions. Febrile disorder and chronic aortic insufficiency. Patient cannot digest food due to this disease. There are some other causes which likely increase the pulse rate are acute alcoholism arotic inefficiency. or rapid beating of the heart. and from one side to the other. Weakness and fatigue are the big symptoms of pulse bounding. Patent ductus arteriosus is another cause of bounding pulse in which blood vessels in the body becomes fatal. Muscles become weak due to strong pulse. blood begins to pools in the heart and the body doesn’t get enough. Other symptoms of atrial fibrillation are happened when there is diminished delivery of blood to the body. Electrical activity storm across both atria causes them to fibrillate 300 to 600 times per minute. Another major symptom of pulse bounding is heart rhythm which originates electricity in ventricles. Atrial Fibrillation Heart’s two upper chambers are refers as Atrial e. During x-ray of the chest rays pass through the chest from the back (posterior-anterior view). Many patients with atrial fibrillation are unaware of the abnormal heart rhythm. Echocardiogram and X-rays of the chest must performed for the treatment of this disease. Echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart that involves no radiation exposure. fatigue. As a result the normal coordination between the atria and the ventricles is lost Atrial fibrillation can have a range of symptoms in patients.There are many symptoms associated with pulse bounding. Cirhossis and thyrotoxicosis. There are some other symptoms which cause bounding pulse like palpitation. It also measures the rate and regularity of heartbeats as well as the size and position of the chambers. Patient often feels weakness in many parts of its body. Atrial Fibrillation whether happens at high or low heart rates. An electrocardiogram (ECG) test records the electrical activity of the heart. Arterio venous shunt.g. fainting. Some possible causes of pulse bounding are Berry berry aneurysm. Sometime bounding pulse causes due to Anemia which refers to a low red blood cell count. and angina. Blood studies (CBC or blood differential). Pulse bounding affects the lungs and patient feels difficulty in breathing. Persons skin is very sensitive and many skin problem results in pulse bounding. These symptoms include confusion. Many times this disease happened due to fever and sometimes in pregnancy. the left and right atria and Fibrillating means quivering. ECG. Aortic regurgitation. weakness. dizziness. Atrial fibrillation causes when atria are stimulated to contract very quickly and differently from the normal activity originating from the sinoatrial node and this stimulation results in ineffective and uncoordinated contraction of the atria in atrial fibrillation. shortness of breath. The major symptom of atrial fibrillation is palpitations. respiratory distress and headache. its irregular rhythm means the ventricles can’t pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. an uncomfortable awareness of the rapid and irregular heartbeat.

however. Try to reduce the habit of smoking. and falls into the category of supraventricular tachycardias. Do not intakes unlimited alcohol. and unique. Anticoagulation may be required to decrease the risk of the latter while rate and rhythm control are principally used to achieve the former. Treatment choice is based on your heart rhythm and symptoms. coffee. it may occur spontaneously in people with otherwise normal hearts. medications are used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. it is usually associated with a fast heart rate or tachycardia.very regular atrial tachycardia.transmitted to the ventricles in an irregular fashion or by some impulses failing to be transmitted. which typically have no associated isoelectric segments between the atrial complexes. occurring at rates between 200 and 400 BPM. and the smooth. coronary artery disease. colas and some over-the-counter medications). Firstly when atrial flutter occurs. you must avoid them. When circulatory collapse is imminent in emergency cases due to uncontrolled tachycardia. electrophysiological studies with pathway ablation may be required. Atrial gallop is type of sound which is frequently frequent found in hypertensive cardiovascular disease. lightheadedness or dizziness. biphasic P wave morphology. However. . Consult your doctor for specific alcohol guidelines. The main goals of treatment of atrial gallop are to prevent temporary circulatory instability and to prevent stroke. there are some other changes you can make to improve your heart health. people who are suffering with other underlying heart disease or poor exercise tolerance may rapidly develop symptoms. nausea and. which can include shortness of breath. its onset is often marked by characteristic sensations of regular palpitations. If rate and rhythm control of the atrial gallop cannot be maintained by medication or cardioversion. Gallop Atrial is the rhythm in which the gallop sound follows atrial systole in late diastole and is an audible fourth heart sound due to forceful ventricular filling. and in the presence of a prolonged atrioventricular conduction time. Such sensations usually last until the heart rate is controlled or episode resolves. This type of rhythm occurs most often in individuals with cardiovascular disease (eg: hypertension. and cardiomyopathy). chest pains. it may slowly persist for months to years. Moreover taking medications. This results in irregular ventricles beat. Atrial Gallop Atrial refers to the upper chamber of the heart and atrial flutter is a very rapid. Initially Atrial flutter is usually well tolerated (a high heart rate is for most people just a normal response to exercise). The lack of an isoelectric or baseline segment between the atrial waves. It is frequently degenerates into atrial fibrillation and not a stable rhythm. which leads to an irregular (and usually fast) pulse in atrial fibrillation. immediate cardioversion may be indicated. Initially. nervousness and feelings of impending doom while this rhythm can sometimes go unnoticed. You should stop using caffeine and avoid caffeinated products (such as tea. gives the atrial baseline a ‘saw-tooth’ appearance on the ECG. Many options are available for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. feature of atrial flutter. If your heart rhythm occurs irregularly more often with certain activities. in some patients. That ‘saw-tooth’ appearance is the most distinctive. myocardial infarction.

These irregular changes can be brought on by strong emotions or exercise. Fainting Skipping beats . Arrhythmias are not a cause for alarm. brief irregular heartbeats that feel like a skipped. Difficulty exercising. some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome sometimes even life-threatening signs and symptoms. Some other symptoms whish results in irregularity of heart beat are Heart murmur. If this disease occur more often or cause symptoms may be more serious and need to be discussed with your doctor. Sometimes heart can be destroyed or removed when an arrhythmia is caused by a certain area of the heart.changes in the pattern of the pulse. Some time it happens because of shortness of breath and sometimes even u feel pain in your chest. arrhythmias caused by disease coronary artery and it may be controlled by bypass surgery. Pericardial Friction Rub Introduction : Pericardial friction rub is also known as pericardial rub. smoking. Paleness. detected by auscultation that suggests irritation of the pericardium and the diagnosis of pericarditis. Heart disease may the irregular beating of heart or sometimes faster the beating rate. Before starting any treatment of arrhythmias specialists first try to rule out reversible causes of ventricular arrhythmias. Surgery is another option for the treatment of arrhythmias. and some medications can also cause an arrhythmia. Some other causes which results in of arrhythmias are Stress. dizziness. This type of abnormality if remained uncured might as well lead to the death of the patient. An arrhythmia can also mean that your heart skips a beat or has an extra beat However. The cause of this rub is that inflammation of the pericardial sac causes the parietal and visceral surfaces of the roughened pericardium to rub against each other. There are many options of the treatment of this disease. It is a sign on the precordial exam. caffeine. especially when the heart beats too slowly. It is an electronic device placed under the skin on the chest. Heart beat becomes regular with an artificial pacemaker. This rubbing produces an extra . There are many symptoms associated with Arrhythmias but sweating and cardiac arrest are the major one. alcohol. Pacemaker helps the heart to maintain a regular beat. Cardiac defibrillation is type of soft shock and can be used to stop an abnormal rhythm and restore a normal one. fluttering or racing heartbeat. Slow heartbeat There are many causes of Arrhythmias.Arrhythmias Arrhythmias are irregularity of the heart’s rhythmic beating. Light-headedness. In some patients arrhythmia may be caused by a congenital heart defect (a heart problem from birth). It can be caused by high blood pressure heart disease. pregnancy. Many people experienced these irregular beating occasional. For example.

Symptoms : When we are talking about the symptoms of Pericardial rub then Chest pain is the cardinal symptom. The person has to take right dose of aspirin which is considered an effective initial therapy. or rasping. two. Treatment : To cure pericardial rub the drugs usually prescribed as the ones that can reduce the inflammation. Infants can also feel abdominal pain. and one systolic. Causes : It is important to know about the main causes of pericarditis and mostly they are the infections in the body. The sound of a pericardial rub resembles the sound of squeaky leather and is often described as grating. Pericardial effusion is a result of disturbed equilibrium between the production and re-absorption of pericardial fluid. When heard carefully one. The sound is comprised of three parts: Two diastolic. . Since there is a limited amount of space in the pericardial cavity. The intensity of the pain varies from barely perceptible to severe. scratching. burning. the fluid accumulation will lead to an increased intrapericardial pressure and this can negatively affect heart function and will lead to malfunctioning. or three components of a pericardial friction rub may be audible. which ordinarily has two components. aching. While hearing a three-component rub indicates the presence of pericarditis and serves to distinguish a pericardial rub from a pleural friction rub.cardiac sound of to-and-fro character with both systolic and diastolic components. Pericardial Effusion Pericardial effusion is the build up of fluid around the heart and it is an abnormal accumulation in the pericardial cavity. Kidney infections and other metastatic diseases are the most common causes of Pericardial rub. dull. or pressing. Certain medical procedures and processes could also cause pericarditis. If common drugs don’t help then probably steroids may be given. It is also important to note that people who have had a history of heart attacks are at a higher risk of developing pericarditis. If a person is having kidney problems it would cause toxins in the body to build up because wastes are not properly excreted. People who are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are also prone to acquiring it. The person may also have fever. Tuberculosis can also lead to this disease. The sound of this particular rub seems very close to the ear and may seem louder than or may even mask the other heart sounds. If you want to hear these rubs then the best place is between the apex and sternum but may be widespread. or from a structural abnormality that allows fluid to enter the pericardial cavity. To describe the pain it can be said that it is sharp.

Symptoms : Generally speaking the condition will lead to Chest pain. However a small effusion may have no symptoms. spread from empyema or haemorrhagic in case of trauma. 7. exudative in case of tuberculosis. 2. Some of the noticeable symptoms of this condition are as follows: 1. malignant effusion. When the condition of the disease is more severe. 3. when it is unavoidable then a surgery is required to drain the fluid. 4. rupture of aneuryms. 5. or ASD. 3. myxoedema. Pericardial effusion may also be noticed after a specific type of heart defect repair.There are three types of pericardial effusion. 6. In some cases. such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis including: 1. 2. Another symptom of pericardial effusion is the so-called “water-bottle heart” is a radiographic sign of pericardial effusion. in which the cardiopericardial silhouette is enlarged and assumes the shape of a flask or water bottle. Causes : Some causes of pericardial effusion other than inflammatory types of arthritis. It may be transudative in case of congestive heart failure. . 5. pressure symptoms. nephrotic syndrome. 4. 6. it is usually drained using a needle which is passed through the chest wall and into the space where the fluid is located. when repaired will most likely produce a pericardial effusion because of the method of treatment. cancer infection kidney failure heart surgery hemorrhage trauma unknown cause severe edema (fluid retention) low blood pressure shortness of breath dizziness chest pain cough rapid pulse Treatment : If the amount of fluid does not increase or is small then no treatment is required to remove it. 7. An Atrial Septal Defect Secundum.

A bruit that is normally heard over the carotid artery is a sign that there are fats in the wall of the vessel. most people recover in two weeks to three months. 3. 2. It is generally caused by turbulent blood flow. 6. Symptoms : The following are the symptoms which are associated with the bruits and doctor need to examine it very carefully. A bruit indicates a fatty buildup (atherosclerosis) in the artery. If the disease is treated promptly and regularly. A bruit does not necessarily mean the carotid artery will become more clogged and a stroke will result however it does expose you to higher risk and means that you and your doctor should do everything you can to reduce your risk. such as caused by irregularities in the wall of the blood vessel or by an abnormal connection (fistula) between an artery and vein. 1. Treatment of the underlying cause if treated timely and properly will make it go away. 8. There could be abdominal bruits as well. Tearing pain in the abdomen Peripheral pulses Thirst Hypotension 4. The sound is in synchronization with the heartbeat. If your carotid artery is more than 50 percent blocked it is necessary to perform a surgery to remove the fatty buildup (endarterectomy) or to open the narrowed artery (angioplasty and perhaps stenting) may be necessary. This is also possible that a bruit is only temporary and goes away on its own. Mottled knees and elbows Cool and clammy skin Restlessness Diarrhea . though steroid therapy may be recommended and sometimes surgical intervention is needed.The treatment of this condition is usually with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. Bruit A carotid bruit is an abnormal sound from the heart. The carotid artery is the main artery in the neck region and is responsible for bringing blood to the head. or drainage of fluid from around the heart. Carotid bruit is a sign of the person’s higher stroke risk. 7. A weak and thready pulse 5. The bruit can be heard by using a stethoscope to listen to blood flow in the carotid artery.

Edema. The name means that one or more chambers of the heart “fail” to keep up with the volume of blood flowing through them. Anemia Treatment : 1. Benign normal variant in children 12. 2. Thyrotoxicosis 11. Each side of the heart has two chambers — an atrium (upper chamber) and a ventricle (lower chamber). and hyperlipidemia 4. Reduced Heart Function Reduced Heart Function is the condition when the heart doesn’t function properly. 5. Peripheral arteriovenous fistula 7. weakness and paresthesia Causes : There could be many underlying causes of bruit.9. 2. Abdomina aortic aneurysm 13. Carotid angioplasty is currently under study Patients with underlying disease processes require appropriate treatment. A regular medication for further deterioration Smoking and alcohol cessation 3. Reduced Heart Function may include the left side. Renal artery stenosis 9. Anaemia 4. The following medical conditions are some to mention 1. Carotid cavernous fistula 6. Total Heart failure occurs when any one of these four chambers is no longer able to keep up with the volume of blood flowing through it. the right side or both sides of the heart. Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis 14. Peripheral vascular disease 8. Subclavian steal syndrome 10. . Carotid artery stenosis 5. diabetes. Abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic sclerosis 3. Treat hypertension.

If the left half of the heart fails there would be fluid retention in the lungs due to congestion of the veins in the lungs. causing biventricular failure which is an extremely fatal condition. Swelling in the legs (oedema). 8. Presence of eczema-type rash on legs. At the same time the other organs try to compensate for the dysfunction for example: Heart Enlargement Heart Pumps Faster Blood Vessels Blood Flow Is Diverted . with the liver most likely to be affected. Reduced Heart Function leading to a heart failure usually is a chronic disease condition that gradually gets worse. If the right half of the heart fails general body vein pressure will increase and fluid will accumulate in the body. 2. If this is an ongoing practice then during a routine physical examination. your doctor may detect signs of heart failure long before you experience symptoms. 6. So. 5. Right-sided heart failure and biventricular failure 1. Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and organs. 2. right or both sides of the heart. 4. especially in the legs and in the abdominal organs. there is a good reason to have regular health checkups.Heart dysfunction may affect the left. 7. Shortness of breath together with a reduction in mobility Breathing problems in case of exertion in patients with less severe problems A dry cough Fatigue. Most of the times left heart failure lead to right heart failure. especially the liver. 4. Symptoms : Typical signs of heart failure include: Left-sided heart failure 1. Swelling may lead to dry skin on the lower part of the legs. which can be complicated by ulcers that do not heal 3. 3.

2. . ACE inhibitors. cor pulmonale can lead to right-heart failure and death. Diuretics etc. Use of drugs asAspirin Clopidogrel (Plavix) can be given instead of aspirin. Congenital heart diseases Endocrine disorders 7. 1. and is the immediate result of increasing the pressure in an elastic container. Reduction in weight Controlling high blood pressure. Dilation is normally a stretching of the ventricle. Treat causes of heart failure Stopping smoking. Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a disease in which there is a change in structure and function of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of a respiratory disorder. Both cases of hypertrophy and dilation are the result of increased right ventricular pressure. Anaemia (rare) Treatment : Heart failure is a progressive disease. Two major causes are vascular changes as a result of tissue damage and chronic hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. 3. Hypertension Heart valves diseases 3. On the other hand Ventricular hypertrophy is an adaptive response to a long-term increase in pressure.Causes : There could be many causes for the reduced heart function which can be caused by many diseases. Beta Blockers. Ischaemic heart disease 4. 4. with the potential for gradual deterioration. Prescription of agents for increasing cardiac function such as Digoxin. As a result additional muscle grows to allow for the increased contractile force required to move the blood against greater resistance. It is essential for the disease to be classified as cor pulmonale. 1. 1. Treatment can often only slow down the progression of the illness and substantially increase your quality of life and span as well. Cardiomyopathy 5. Cor pulmonale is fatal to health and if left untreated. 2. should originate in the pulmonary circulation system. 6. There are two types of cor pulmonale including Right ventricular hypertrophy or RVH which is the predominant change in chronic cor pulmonale and in acute cases dilation dominates.

6. Hoarseness – occurs occasionally due to compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve by dilated pulmonary artery 9. particularly at rest 2. Causes : The disease is associated with almost any chronic lung disease or condition causing prolonged low blood oxygen can lead to cor pulmonale. Feeling fatigued and lassitude Edema or Ankle swelling 4. A feeling of Angina-type chest discomfort – often non-responsive to nitrates (thought to be due to right ventricular ischaemia or stretching of pulmonary artery during exertion) 7. A case of worsening cough (particularly if non-productive) 6. A few of these causes include: 1. A condition of worsening exertional dyspnoea with significant recent deterioration in exercise tolerance 5. 3.Symptoms : In most of the patients there are certain common symptoms that may suggest the presence of cor pulmonale in a patient with pulmonary or cardiopulmonary disease include: 1. Worsening tachypnoea. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease . Interstitial lung disease 10. jaundice and right-upper-quadrant abdominal discomfort. Late-stage hepatic congestion can cause anorexia. Exertional syncope – a late symptom indicating severe disease 10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Obstructive sleep apnea Central sleep apnea Mountain sickness Cystic fibrosis Primary pulmonary hypertension Pneumoconiosis 8. 3. 4. Kyphoscoliosis 9. 2. Haemoptysis (due to pulmonary arteriolar rupture or leakage) 8. 7. 5.

myocarditis may develop with a viral throat or chest infection. Pulmonary vascular disease 12. or when you have flu or just after. So. parasites and other germs etc. If symptoms do develop they can include: chest pain fever a fast heartbeat tiredness Causes : Myocarditis can affect anyone and occur at any age. Symptoms : The symptoms of myocarditis depend on the cause and severity of the inflammation. in contrast to their use with left ventricular failure Myocarditis Introduction : Myocardium is the heart muscle. Various causes are associated with the development of Myocarditis. in chronic cor pulmonale. The heart inflammation may be diagnosed by some changes on an ECG of the infected person. are frequently used but there is little evidence for their efficacy in right heart failure. . treatment of the underlying cause is combined with specific management as below: 1. Our body’s immune system if working properly can clear many types of virus within a week or so. the cause of myocarditis is not found even with the test and proper diagnosis. fungi. Inotropic drugs. In many cases. symptoms and possible problems associated with myocarditis. However there are many other causes also which are less common including patients with HIV infection. Long term Oxygen therapy Diuretics Vasodilators 4. Most of the time people with viral myocarditis do not have any heart-related symptoms and lead a normal life.11. 2. Pulmonary hypertension Treatment : Acute cor pulmonale is treated by trying to rapidly correct the underlying precipitant which is often acute pulmonary embolism or an infective exacerbation of COPD. to lifethreatening heart failure. Many types of virus infection can affect our various body parts including the heart muscle. In many cases. particularly digoxin. Sometimes it can range from no symptoms at all. and it could be a rare side-effect of some medicines. 3. depending on the cause and severity. by various bacteria. Myocarditis is a condition in which there is inflammation of the heart muscle. Similarly. It varies from person to person. There are various causes of myocarditis ranging from mild to fatal ones.

or defibrillator. Endocarditis Introduction : Endocarditis is a rare condition which leads to the inflammation of the heart lining endocardium. The symptoms of endocarditis may include: Fever. Abnormal heart rhythms may require a pacemaker. for more uncommon causes. One is more at risk of developing endocarditis with a heart defect. Oxygen. 8. no particular treatment is necessary. but people who are aged 50 years and over are more at risk of developing this disease. men are twice more at risk than women to be affected by endocarditis as women. 2. usually with bacteria. Painkillers are there to ease chest pain and fever. making it more difficult for the heart to function properly. You may be advised by your cardiologist not to do strenuous exercise until your ECG has returned to normal. Symptoms : Inmost case the symptoms of Endocarditis tend to appear gradually. When talking about gender. Antibiotics if it is found that cause of the myocarditis is a bacterial infection 5. However.Treatment : The treatment given in cases of myocarditis depends on the cause and severity. or cases with complications. People with a healthy are lesser at a risk of developing Endocarditis. Endocarditis can occur at any age. On the other hand. medicines to treat heart failure are also prescribed. usually over a period of several weeks or months known as sub-acute endocarditis. a range of treatments may be needed which may include the following options: 1. The disease is caused by an infection of the endocardium. if the patient has only mild viral myocarditis. in some cases. the infection can develop very quickly and is known as acute endocarditis. Endocarditis causes vegetations to form on the heart valves. Steroid medication in case of giant-cell myocarditis 6. A pacemaker 4. Acute endocarditis symptoms are more severe and can develop after just a few days. Arrhythmias. 3. Stopping usage of alcohol Medicines for inflammation Low salt diet In case of very weak heart muscle. blood thinning medicine is given as well. heart muscles and heart valves. For example. . If there is a blood clot in the heart chamber. 7. Chills. 9.

Swelling of feet. Sometimes.A new or changed heart murmur. Blood in the urine. causing endocarditis to develop. The infection causes inflammation of the endocardium and can also cause vegetations and abscesses to develop on the heart valves and muscles. Weakness and fatigue. Headache. legs. they can attack the heart tissue. Normally a person with this disease needs to be admitted to the hospital for treatment. 2. Some diagnostic tests also put the patient on risk of developing the disease including gastrointestinal procedures used to examine the organs which take in and digest food. During the hospital stay. Chest pain. stomach and intestines. Coughs. Unexplained weight loss. Treatment Most cases of endocarditis will be treated with a course of antibiotics. Shortness of breath. such as the mouth. abdomen. Sometimes surgical procedures are required to repair the damage and the three main common surgical procedures are 1. the replacement of the damaged heart valves with artificial ones. Bacteria can occasionally spread from infected areas of your body. the repair of the damaged heart valve. Small areas of bleeding under fingernails or toenails. The draining of abscesses that may develop in the heart muscle. Broken blood vessels on the whites of the eyes and in the skin. Causes : Endocarditis is most commonly caused by bacteria by entering the blood stream and attaching itself to heart valves and tissues. If bacteria make their way into the endocardium. blood samples will be taken regularly to measure the effectiveness of the treatment. Sweating Muscular aches and pains. 3. certain medical and dental procedures give way to bacteria to enter the bloodstream. and Tender nodules (small lumps) on finger and toes. .

Palpitations Swelling of the feet. symptoms do result and include shortness of breath. Eating a balanced. 4. loss of consciousness. heart valve disorders. to lighten the heart’s pumping load and keep it from further enlargement. or all of the chambers. Treatment : Treatment for an enlarged heart may include medications. however. severe anemia. 3. In milder forms of cardiac enlargement. or legs. ankles. Hypertrophy and Dilation. Symptoms : Some people can have varying degrees of cardiac enlargement and have no symptoms. the symptoms may occur only with exercise or exertion. even while lying down. thyroid disorders. two. Generally there are two types of cardiac enlargement. based on its cause. three. Hypertrophy is an increase in the thickness of the heart muscle and Dilation is an increase in the size of the inside cavity of a chamber of the heart. they can occur at any time. Once dilation or hypertrophy begins to place undue demands on heart function. 2. excessive iron in the body. including high blood pressure. and abnormal protein buildup in an organ. Treatment should be aimed at the cause of the enlarged heart and reversing it through medications or any suitable way. These symptoms are not specific to heart enlargement but may occur with other diseases of heart and lung as well. Prevention of the underlying diseases that could worsen the condition may be minimized by certain modifications as: 1. Hypertrophy usually occurs in only one chamber of the heart and dilation on the other hand may occur in one. dizziness or lightheadedness. weakness of the heart muscle. However. Diuretics may be prescribed for those patients who are suffering with heart failure. such as ACE inhibitors. 5.Heart Enlargement Introduction : Cardiac enlargement or heart enlargement is an increase in the size of the heart. in more severe forms. Causes : Enlarged heart is a sign of an underlying problem and itself not a disease. low-fat diet Maintaining healthy cholesterol levels Keeping blood pressure under control Engaging in a regular exercise program Visiting the physician regularly . chest pressure or pain. It can have many causes.

Patients may need to urinate more with the fluid retention especially in the night. long alcohol use. high blood pressure. Accumulation of fluid in the liver and intestines may cause malfunctioning of related organs such as nausea. Causes : The impaired pumping efficiency of the heart is caused by many disease processes to cause congestive heart failure. such as controlling high blood pressure. . ACE inhibitors have a remarkable effect to prevent the development of heart failure and heart attacks and for the patients with intolerance ACE inhibitors. Fluid may also accumulate in the lungs. disorders of the heart rhythm etc. and disorders of the heart valves.Proper management. may be used. With increasing fluid retention. Less common causes are viral infections of the stiffening of the heart muscle. Treatment : Perhaps the most important and yet most neglected aspect of treatment involves lifestyle modifications. Symptoms : The symptoms of CHF vary from individual to individual depending upon the involvement of the organs affected by the condition. A very early indicator is fatigue which although is a sensitive indicator but could be directly related to many conditions other than Congestive Heart Failure. and decreased appetite. called the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). gasping for air due to shortness of breath. Most importantly a significant change in the lifestyle will also help to minimize the affects of the condition and will improve the life quality. especially while exercise and when lying flat. the most common causes of CHF are coronary artery disease. hence causing shortness of breath. abdominal pain. Sometimes the patients are awakened at night. treating valve disease and discontinuing alcohol consumption may reverse an enlarged heart. It is a serious condition which leaves the person with short of breath and tiredness in case of exertion. A very active person in the past may become inactive since his body cannot take the exertion. an alternative group of drugs. swelling (edema) of the ankles and legs or abdomen may be noticed. Similarly the patient is advised to limit the intake of fluids from all sources to 2 quarts. In the United States. The patient has to restrict salt and fluid intake because of the tendency of fluid retention in the lungs and surrounding tissues. Congestive Heart Failure General Information : Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart ability to pump oxygenated blood to all of the body parts is inadequate with respect to the needs. thyroid disorders. Some patients have to sit upright to sleep since this is the only comfortable condition.

In adults. researchers are concluding that the disease could have resulted from an inherited genetic disorder. This is how the Japanese had described how the tiny vessels look when they become blocked. it is observed that the instances are more frequent in women than it is in men. Their cognitive and sensory capabilities also become impaired and that includes their vision. Africa. more commonly called the basal ganglia. And of the children affected with the Moyamoya disease. they may experience complications upon reaching the childbearing age. Symptoms of the Moyamoya Disease Medical experts are zeroing in on the theory that the Moyamoya disease is a hereditary disease. However. This disease involves the brain as well as the heart. instances of hemorrhagic stroke are also documented. With this. Adult patients also suffer from speech deficits and they also tend to drift into unconsciousness from time to time. Diuretics prevent or alleviate the symptoms of fluid retention by promoting the flow of fluid through the kidneys. causing blood not to freely flow through. the Moyamoya disease is very rare affecting only one in two million people in the U. and the United States. And as these female children grow up. the arteries found at the base of the brain. Discovering the Moyamoya Disease Moyamoya means “a puff of smoke” in the Japanese language. are blocked. Most of its cases run within families. Patients are also going to experience general weakness of the body. although the findings related to this issue are not yet conclusive. Candidates for heart transplants are generally under age 70 and do not have severe or irreversible diseases affecting the other organs. . The disease is discovered in Japan by the 1960’s but it was also seen in people living in Europe. The main symptom of this disease is stroke or mild ischemic attacks. The Moyamoya disease primarily targets the children although a number of adult cases are recorded as well. They may experience several problems associated to both pregnancy and the delivery of the baby. Australia.S. which may eventually lead to partial paralysis and seizures. In this disease.Digoxin (Lanoxin) has been traditionally used in the treatment of congestive heart failure for hundreds of years which stimulates the heart muscle to contract more forcefully. Heart transplantation is also a viable treatment option in selected patients.

or a computerized tomography of the head. patients may not need surgery but just a draining of the cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricular system. However. In line with that. Patients will also feel that their hearts are not beating normally as palpitations would occur. In highly rare cases. particularly in the leg area. Treatment of the Moyamoya disease The drugs commonly used to treat this disease are the blood thinning medicines referred to as the warfarin. Understanding and Preventing Myocarditis Myocarditis is a disease that is characterized by an inflammation of the heart muscles. This condition is usually caused by virus infection like an echovirus. This deviced is used to effectively display the effects of the deceased blood and oxygen supply to the affected areas of the brain. the primary treatment of the Moyamoya disease is the revascularization surgery. and the coxsackie virus. or more particularly the single photon emission computerized tomography. this procedure is performed on adult patients only. It may also develop after acquiring diseases like rubella. or influenza. organ transplantation is carried out. Patients who develop myocarditis have observable weakened and inflamed heart muscles. Fatal cerebral hemorrhage may happen if the procedure is not done and monitored correctly. However. or an x-ray of the blood vessels involved is needed as well. . polio. But to perform this surgery. an extracranial-intrcranial bypass has to be done first. Corticosteriod medications are also given. They would also find it hard to lie flat because they would have difficulty in breathing when they do so. This is a type of surgery that repairs the narrowed opening of the blood vessels so as to restore the flow of blood to the brain. They will also observe that they get tired so easily and becomes short of breath even after a mild exercise or physical activity. In milder cases. Aside from a CT scan.Diagnosis of the Moyamoya disease To accurately detect the Moyamoya disease. This procedure also ensures that the instances of strokes related to the disease are reduced. The episode is so painful that it resembles a heart attack. The Symptoms of Myocarditis The first symptom of this disease is associated with its preceding viral disease. it also has a lot of medical and legal implications. But this is not frequently done because it is not only critical. they may also need a magnetic resonance image of the affected are as provided by the MRI. adenovirus. fever may also develop and eventually severe chest pains are felt. but a lot of adult patients who undergo it have lesser to zero occurrence of stroke after surgery. There would also be pains and swelling in the joints. This surgery is more effective in children. more particularly on the part where the blood vessel is blocked. A newer diagnosis tool called the SPECT. doctors usually request for a CT scan. An angiography. such as the ones stated above. is now performed.

Detecting the Signs of Myocardial Ischemia Early On . Diuretic are drugs that remove the water from the body through urination. Treatment of Myocarditis The treatment of myocarditis relies greatly on its underlying causes. These could very well develop into a heart problem if not addressed early on. They would also ask their patients to stay clear of salty food and stick to a lowsodium diet. including a pacemaker. There would also be observable abnormal heartbeats and sounds. An ultrasound of the heart. patients are asked to undergo electrocardiograms and chest x-rays. blood cultures are needed as well. As for drugs. The complications associated to myocarditis are heart failure. And to reduce the body’s tendency to retain fluid. In the presence of any viral diseases and infections. And when these diseases do show. a prompt and proper treatment has to be performed. several tests have to be performed. and bacterial diseases have to be avoided. A biopsy of the heart muscles may be done too. pericarditis. any swelling in your body. It is not right to ignore chest pains. a physical examination would show changes in the rhythm of the heart of the patient. It is important that your health care provider is consulted accordingly. Those who are prone to blood clots in their hearts will be given blood-thinning medicines such as warfarin. and the instances wherein you had difficulty in breathing. diuretics are given. steroids are prescribed to patient with whom skin inflammations are observed. or more particularly an echocardiogram. the occurrence of viral. doctors would require the patient not to do extraneous exercises and activities any longer. For patient whose hearts are weak. and cardiomyopathy. Today. but doctors do this quite rarely. parasitic. Blood tests may also be performed so that both the white blood cells and red blood cells are counted. Fluid retention both in the lungs and the leg area are also observed. several vaccines are available so children won’t develop these diseases anymore that could lead to other heart problems like myocarditis. First off. For a fuller diagnosis. Preventing Myocarditis To prevent myocarditis. First off.Diagnosing Myocarditis To diagnose this disease. The patients who have an abnormal rhythm of the heart are given additional therapy. Pericarditis is an inflammation of the heart’s sac-like covering while cardiomyopathy is the weakening of the heart muscles. especially if the symptoms associated to the disease become severe. medicines to address and prevent heart failures are given. may also be requested so doctors will see how weak the heart muscle is and if the heart is enlarged due to the fluid accumulating it.

If the heart’s myocardium fails to receive the proper amount of blood and oxygen, the disease called myocardial ischemia can occur.The myocardium is the muscular tissues of the heart. Myocardial ischmemia is one type of a coronary heart disease (CAD), and with that, is also called as the atherosclerotic CAD. Myocardial ischmemia, together with all other CAD, are the leading causes of deaths worldwide. And this particular disease accounts for the most number of emergency cases when compared to the different types of CAD. In the U.S. alone, it is the main cause of an estimated 14% of all deaths recorded. And this is the reason why myocardial ischmemia has to be diagnosed before a heart attack episode, for it can really be fatal. The Symptoms of Myocardial Ischmemia The importance of detecting this disease early on is essential. But doing so is not really easy. For one thing, myocardial ischmemia may show no symptoms at all in a patient. However, some patients may experience unstable angina. Angina is the medical term given to chronic chest pains and discomforts. This primarily results when the heart doesn’t get enough blood. Chest pains are the most common symptom and perhaps the only one experienced by people with myocardial ischmemia. It is then important that you don’t ignore any of the pains in the chest are that you may be feeling, no matter how mild they seem to be. It is always best to consult with a doctor to accurately diagnose what disease you have. Diagnosing Myocardial Ischmemia As stated earlier, diagnosing myocardial ischmemia can really be difficult. And this disease may occur in men or women of all ages. Usually, the doctors would request a definitive family history of the patient first. This will give them a clue whether or not to look in that direction when diagnosing the disease. Patients who come to a doctor complaining chest pains are asked to undergo a certain stress test. This is to determine the extent of physical exertion their hearts can withstand. But this test is only applicable to people who are suspected to have mild myocardial ischmemia. The most effective diagnosis tool of this disease is a nuclear scan of the myocardium. Nuclear myocardial imaging can accurately produce an image of the heart’s muscles, including their motion and perfusion. It can also assess the blood flowing through the coronary artery. If this tool is not readily available, doctors may settle for an echocardiogram, as this device is a lot more common in clinics and hospitals compared to the nuclear myocardial imaging device. Treatment of Myocardial Ischmemia To treat myocardial ischmemia, it is necessary that all the risks associated with the coronary artery disease be addressed first. In line with this, a thrombolytic therapy may be performed. The purpose of this therapy is to dissolve thrombi or blood clots forming in the blood vessels or inside the heart. As for drugs, aspirin and other anti-platelet medicines have proven to help improve a patient’s condition. Nitrates may also be prescribed so that the blood flowing to the heart is increased while the oxygen requirement of the myocardium is lowered. Betablockers are a type of medicine that can also decrease the oxygen demand in the myocardial area. These drugs do it by normalizing the heart’s cardiac work. And aside from these, there are also drugs called calcium channel blockers. These drugs

inhibit calcium ions to be transported into the cardiac area so that the muscles become more relaxed, hence lower blood pressure. But in essence, the type of drugs to take and the therapeutic procedures to you have to undergo should be properly prescribed by your doctor. They are the one who knows exactly the extent of your disease. It is necessary that you consult with them early on precisely at the first signs of chronic chest pains. Selfmedicating, or much worse, ignoring chest pains are not going to be helpful at all.

The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome is also known as the Kawasaki disease. This is a disorder that affects the lymph nodes, the mouth, and the skin of the patient. More often than not, it affects children 5 years and below. The real cause of this disease is still unknown, but its symptoms can become very apparent. And if it is not treated early, serious complications may arise. In the United States, this particular disease is considered rare. On the estimate, it is only seen in 19 children out of 100,000 born. But in Korea and Japan, or even those who have Korean or Japanese blood, the disease is more common. Symptoms of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome The primary symptom of the mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome is a fever that commonly lasts for five days or more. And while the child is sick, red eyes, extensive body rashes, and chapped mouth and lips will be observed. The fever is usually higher than 104 degrees Fahrenheit or 39 degrees Celsius most of the time. And rashes can be seen on the stomach area, the chest, and even in the genitals. Patients will also have sore throats coupled with swollen tongues, which in turn, would have red bumps in it. And aside from the lymph nodes, the palm and the soles will appear swollen as well and have a purple or a bluish color. And all this is just the first phase of the disease. It is then mandatory that once these symptoms became apparent, a doctor has to be consulted right away. The second phase will happen in the next two weeks. At that point, the child’s skin, both on the feet and hands, will start to peel. Joint pains with diarrhea and vomiting are also expected. Episodes of severe abdominal pains will be experienced too. Diagnosis of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome Children with the mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome will have to undergo echocardiogram to diagnose the disease. An electrocardiogram will effectively monitor the condition and functions of the patient’s hearts. Blood samples will also be taken so that the doctor can accurately rule out other diseases with similar symptoms such as measles, scarlet fever, rheumatoid arthritis in

children, and others. After the doctor had arrived with a correct diagnosis of the syndrome, proper treatment has to be carried out next. Treatment of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome To effectively treat this disease, treatment needs to start within ten days since the fever began. This syndrome requires hospitalization and doctors would give gamma globulin to the patient. Gamma globulins are purified antibodies that combine in the blood to boost up the body’s immune system to help fight the disease. It is an intravenous solution and several doses of which may be given until the fever subsides. And along with gamma globulin, a high dosage of aspirin will also be prescribed so that the risks of developing heart problems are lessened. Complications of The Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome The main reason why this disease has to be cured early on is because it can cause major complications to the heart. If successfully diagnosed within 10 days when the fever began, doctors can usually manage all the symptoms associated with the disease. But the moment the disease goes beyond that mark untreated, it can lead to vasculitis. Vasculitis is a type of infection of the blood vessels. The blood vessels will become inflamed and blood supply to the heart will be reduced. Arrhythmia is another complication. This is a disease wherein the heart doesn’t follow a normal heartbeat pattern any longer. Children who develop this are in the higher risk of developing heart failures eventually. This disease may be caused by the abnormal functions of the heart valves.

Detecting Mitral Valve Prolapse In Its Early Stages
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Its job is to control the flow of blood as it passes through these two chambers. If it is working normally, the blood will flow forward from the left atrium into the left ventricle. The mitral valve has two flaps. When the heart is at rest, the state of being in between beats, these two flap open to let the blood flow through. The flaps only open outward, so blood will flow in one direction alone. Now if a person develops mitral valve prolapse, the flaps are not working as it should. One of the flaps could be opening in both directions, thus the blood have the tendency to go back to the left atrium instead of going forward. This disease can be congenital, and statistics show that it is more common in women than in men. In a rough estimate, this disease is present in 1 for every 20 Americans. Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse patients suffer from several symptoms. The most common one is that sensation that the heart is racing or is skipping some beats. Medical experts also refer to this as palpitations.

Treatment for Mitral Valve Prolapse More often than not. These pains can be so intense and may even last for a few minutes. there would also be a certain gushing sound made by blood as it flows back to the atrium. And when that happens. The test can accurately show the mitral valve while the blood is flowing through it. . Just like chest pains. a change in lifestyle is in order. this problem of the mitral valve do not really need any special treatment at all. Aside from that. But for some who have their valves too leaky. And just a reminder. a surgery maybe required to fix it. have to inform any health professional of their condition. And once the doctor has a fair idea of what disease you might have. Shortness of breath is also a symptom. Mitral Stenosis . a clicking sound is heard. But for the 2% of people who are suffering from complications. And if the disease is confirmed. But there are instances that the pains occur during rest as well. Diagnosis of Mitral Valve Prolapse A simple physical examination is usually enough to detect this disease. It is also quite observable that most people who have mitral valve prolapse succumbs panic and anxiety very easily. all people diagnosed with mitral valve prolapse. treatment will follow suit. especially in milder cases. This device generates an image of your heart through an ultrasound wave. This gushing sound is also referred to as a heart murmur. If mitral valve prolapse causes a person too intense a chest pain. especially if they intend to undergo surgery or dental work. the blood coming from the left atrium down to the left ventricle flows with increased resistance. these are also associated with energy exertion. Usually. whether they are receiving treatment for it or not. together with dizziness.Chronic chest pains are also observed. a treatment therapy is recommended. medicines like beta-blockers are prescribed. Lesser participation in competitive sports as well as maintaining the right diet is essential. Generally. These are known to make all other symptoms of the disease under control. The left atrium will begin to beat rapidly and over time. Also. Overall. you will be subjected to a more complex examination such as an echocardiogram.The Faltering Heart Disease Mitral stenosis is also referred to as mitral valve stenosis and it is the condition wherein the mitral valve opening of the heart narrows. It is the abnormal flap itself that makes this sound. They come and go every now and then and it is usually caused by extraneous physical activities. The doctor can detect its presence in the body by listening to the heart with the use of a stethoscope. This is to prevent bacteria from entering their bloodstream that may cause infection. it will become irregular and result in atrial fibrillation. the flow of blood is reduced and the blood pressure in the left atrium is increased causing it to enlarge. it should not affect your health.

they would feel these after an extraneous physical activity. There are also instances that they would cough out blood because either a vein or a capillary had burst. In line with this. rheumatic fever is treated long before with antibiotics so it is not anymore seen in children of North America. coupled with the lung’s high blood pressure. But to make the diagnosis more accurate. This would further connote that mitral stenosis is more likely to be seen in older individuals only. there’s a problem inside. A pregnant woman suffering from mitral stenosis will develop heart failure very rapidly. Babies with this condition may require surgery soon after birth because statistics show that most of these babies don’t live beyond the age of two. Both beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers control the rhythms of the heart. on the other hand. Diagnosing Mitral Stenosis : A stethoscope should be enough to detect this disease because the heart will usually do some characteristic murmuring. the valve itself may need to be repaired or totally replaced. and Australasia. People can go on with their lives normally without feeling anything wrong in their bodies. The chest x-ray of the patient may reveal an abnormally big left atrium. But this doesn’t mean that is should be ignored and leave untreated. Anticoagulants. or standing. Diuretics remove excess fluid in the body. sitting upright. calcium channel blockers and anticoagulants are all used. Should drugs fail.Severe mitral stenosis will cause increase pressure in the lung’s blood vessels. They would also get tired easily and experience shortness of breath. There are also cases of congenital mitral stenosis. Causes of Mitral Stenosis : The most common cause of mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever. A normal person’s blood passes silently through the valve. Western Europe. Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis : The milder cases of mitral stenosis don’t usually produce symptoms. Most of the time. it is stretched out to make it bigger with the balloon . However. They have to be propped up in pillows. Treatment of Mitral Stenosis : Drugs are the first line of cure for people with mitral stenosis. some patients won’t be able to breath properly lying flat on their backs. Echocardiography is also used to generate an image of the heart through an ultrasound wave. To repair the valve. they would feel it even as they rest. prevent blood clots leading to atrial fibrillation. But as the disease progresses. Palpitations are the abnormal awareness of one’s heartbeat. These are called mitral facies and are caused by the lowered level of oxygen in the blood. But when there’s sound. Fluid will start to accumulate in the lungs causing a reduced level of oxygen in the blood. betablockers. For people who are developing signs. Patients with severe cases of mitral stenosis may have a flush seen in their cheeks. Diuretics. and ECG test may be requested. Rheumatic fever usually occurs during childhood and it follows an untreated scarlet fever or strep throat. And it can also reduce the blood pressure in the lungs. they would have palpitations.

Salicylates are usually given in a 300 milligrams dosage every 6 hours. The Diagnosis of Postpericardiotomy Syndrome Diagnosing this disease is not really easy. a heart surgery may be done instead to replace the mitral valve with an artificial one. Prednisone is also prescribed and the dosage of this drug depends upon the weight of the patient. but a few days or even weeks after. thus causing loss in body weight. Cardiac MRI may also be requested so that a more detailed image of the heart is produced. The Treatment of Postpericardiotomy Syndrome To treat this disease. if any. if not instantly. and it develops more particularly when the pericardium is opened. Malaise is the feeling of tiredness. as a series of tests have to be conducted just to arrive at a very accurate diagnosis. The syndrome does not occur right after the operation. anorexia. arthralgia. patients are given anti-inflammatory drugs so that the pain is relieved soon enough. But if the doctor deemed that this procedure wouldn’t do the patient any good. a complete blood count is conducted. patients are also expected to develop fever and an increased heartbeat. Arthralgia is the medical term given to joint pains so intense it seem to be penetrating right through the bones. The Symptoms of Postpericardiotomy Syndrome The main symptoms of this disease are malaise. Echocardiography is a standard diagnostic test. Postpericardiotomy syndrome is said to occur in as many as 50% of the patients who had undergone surgery to the heart. Aside from all of these. . First. This is to determine the level of the red blood cells and the white blood cells present in the body. After that. mostly during the time when the patient had returned home to recover. This done so that the heart is properly monitored as to what is its response to the disease. illness. Postpericardiotomy Syndrome Information Statistics show that the increased number of the cardiac operations performed in the United States is directly related to the increased number of patients diagnosed with postpericardiotomy syndrome. dyspnea. The postpericardiotomy syndrome is considered to be another disease that targets the body’s immune system and so it is referred to as an autoimmune disease. and discomfort that grips a person for apparently no reason at all. pleuritic pain. Some doctors may give steroids so that the body’s defense is maximized and viral infections are cast away. Some doctors may settle for an ECG or an electrocardiograph in the absence of a more definite test for the heart. Pleuritic pain is the pain associated to the lungs and is usually caused by viruses. Dyspnea is simply shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing. Anorexia is the inability to eat properly. an x-ray of the chest has to be performed so that the amount of fluid present inside is the lungs. And lastly. myalgia is type of muscle pain triggered by the overstretching or overworking of the muscles. The postpericardiotomy syndrome is considered to be a complication of a certain cardiac surgery. and myalgia. The presence of this disease in the body causes the heart to produce its own set of antibodies to fight off the infection it detects that is caused by a virus.valvuloplasty procedure. is detected.

the muscles. intestines. Cardiothracic surgeons are medical experts that are best qualified to perform surgery on a patient with the postpericardiotomy syndrome. . Most of the time. And it is strictly required if fever is present in the patient. nerves. This disease is more observed in middle-aged individuals than in children. People who had once suffered from Hepatitis B are more likely to develop this disease. It is characterized by the inflammation of the arteries. are needed to perform the procedure. the rest of the body can possibly be affected. For patients who have developed relatively mild cases of postpericardiotomy syndrome. adequate bed rest is needed. which is surgery. And as part of the patient’s treatment therapy. doctors have to perform the next level of treatment. Specialized surgeons. There are no signs or researches proving that this disease can be inherited. more particularly the cardiothoracic surgeons. regardless of sex. and even the kidney. it attacks the skin.But if these drugs fail to improve the condition of the patient. It is a type of disorder that attacks the person’s immune system. Polyarteritis Nodosa Disease Information Polyarteritis nodosa is considered to be a rare disease. Polyarteritis nodosa is sometimes alternatively called as periarteritis nodosa. they are advised to avoid strenuous physical activities as they could worsen their condition. And since it’s the arteries that are involved. which is otherwise known as arteristis. the joints.

there will also be skin discolorations in the lower extremities or near the torso. the body mass lost is usually 4 kilograms or more. the treatment procedure becomes a lot simpler. Unfortunately. Both cyclophosphamide and azathioprine are classified to be under the immunosuppressive drug category. and azathioprine drugs are the ones mostly prescribed. They would also get chills and fever from time to time. just to make sure that the disease won’t resurface again. Patients will also complain of getting tired easily. People suffering from polyarteritis nodosa also suffer from hypertension. For people with a history of Hepatitis B.A Cardiovascular Disease . patients are asked to undergo a series of blood tests. Local bowel death and abdominal pains are going to be experienced as a result. polyarteritis nodosa may escalate to a more severe condition such as stroke and eventual kidney failure. if the symptoms and the damages caused by the disease are attended to early. More often than not. Prednisone is an oral cortisone drug. The blood pressure of a person is also noted. Some doctors give these drugs in a certain combination. Polyarteritis nodosa is considered to be a serious disease and its presence should not be ignored. Diagnosing Polyarteritis Nodosa To diagnose this disease. A biopsy of the tissue is also performed so that the exact location of the inflamed blood vessel is revealed. It is then advised that the earliest detection of the disease is achieved. The sooner the disease is treated. and they are going to either feel week or tender. There will also be intestinal necrosis and perforation if the abdominal tract is severely affected. Some patients will have an increased risk of developing heart attacks. If the abdominal area were affected. The body weight of a person with polyarteritis nodosa will be reduced over time. the better the outcome is for the patients. Complications of Polyarteritis Nodosa If left untreated. But then again. All the symptoms associated with an organ not receiving the right amount of blood and oxygen is expected. hepatitis B patients are given antiviral drugs such as interferon-alpha and vidarabine. The main goal of the therapy is to decrease the inflammation that is present in the arteries. virus tests are requested again. this disease cannot be prevented outright.Symptoms of Polyarteritis Nodosa The people who are suffering from polyarteritis nodosa will experience pain in the particular part of the body where the condition of the arteries had grown severe. They also determine the right dosage of these drugs in relation to the severity of the patient’s case. cyclophosphamide. Certain medications are prescribed and drugs like prednisone. On the other hand. Tachycardia . Aside from this. Treatment of Polyarteritis Nodosa If polyarteritis nodosa is not medically attended to right away. there would probably be bleeding inside the intestinal area. Muscles pains are going to be common. The patient’s red and white blood cells are counted and are adjusted accordingly. the results may be fatal. An angiogram is preferred when the arteries inflamed are suspected to be in the kidneys.

The symptoms associated to the disease are analyzed. and heart failures are its common examples. requirements. it is the former that is always observed. and cardiac catheterization. pneumonia. And of course. A person with tachycardia has a heartbeat rate of around one hundred beats in a minute more than a person who has a normal heart rate. especially in the prohibited drug cocaine is another culprit. But for a person with tachycardia. and the thyroid gland are considered to be the usual causes of tachycardia. Consequently. Doing so ensures that the groundwork for an accurate diagnosis is laid. Alternatively. certain medications cause the heart to beat fast. And eventually. The Causes of Tachycardia Tachycardia is usually associated with atherosclerosis. The most common tests performed are ECG. The Treatment of Tachycardia The treatment of tachycardia depends entirely on the main cause of the disease. And if the heart does this all the time. and even caffeine in the body from the food they eat can very much cause this disease to develop. Medicines are given to both treat the episodes . Palpitations also imply that the heart is doing some extra beats or is missing a beat altogether. Palpitation is the abnormal awareness of your heart beating or pounding in your rib cage. The Symptoms of Tachycardia The most common symptom of this disease is palpitation. the ventricles won’t be filled up with blood completely. But this disease may also be caused by a person’s errant lifestyle. When that happens. they will also experience shortness of breath even though they are not doing any extraneous physical activities at all. the lungs. and even expertise. certain health problems would occur as a result. Sometimes. it means it is exerting too much effort. nicotine. Anxiety becomes a way of life and chronic chest pains occur from time to time. echocardiogram. if the heart beats fast. Along with this. It then requires more oxygen to function. which include blood tests and urine examinations. together with his family background. The Diagnosis of Tachycardia The first line of diagnosis conducted to a person suspected to have tachycardia is to acquire his medical history. Drug abuse. Dizziness or feeling light-headed is also common to people with this disease. Too much alcohol. Heart failure.Tachycardia is a type of a cardiovascular disease. because studies had shown that it is also a factor as to why tachycardia develops in a person. may also be requested. diseases to the heart. After which. the actual tests take place. it will work itself out until heart diseases such ischemia and infarction develops. The choice as to which test to perform depends upon the doctor’s initial diagnosis. the episode is too severe that they are either close to fainting or had actually lost consciousness. Tachycardia is considered to be a harmful condition because if the heart beats too fast. laboratory tests. which is characterized by an abnormal and very rapid beating of the heart. there won’t be enough blood to circulate throughout the body. Intense and prolonged emotional stress has to be monitored as well. Aside from atherosclerosis. But some doctors would additionally request for stress tests and electrophysiologic studies on top of those tests. Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the heart’s arteries.

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome The superior vena cava syndrome is a disease that is characterized by an impaired blood flow through the superior vena cava going to the heart’s right atrium. This is done so as to produce an image of the heart. are addressed properly. superior vena cava syndrome can either be considered as cancerous or benign. It is also important that any complications arising from the disease are prevented at all costs. mostly to the chest.currently experienced as well as to prevent the onset of new ones. sarcoidosis. The main principle being followed in the treatment of this disease is to make sure that the heart functions. pericarditis. the thymus. doctors . arms. patients also experience undue fatigue and chronic chest pains. syphilis. If the disease is caused by arrythmia. and testicular cancer. and neck are not only the ones that would become swollen. But most of the time fungi cause them. The structures the surrounds it include the aorta. and neck. arms. pulmonary artery. The Symptoms of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Patients who developed this disease tend to have swollen face. The superior vena cava is a large vein. the usual causes of it are lymphoma. Beta-blockers like propanolol are given for tachycadia due to hyperthyroidism. and other internal infections. Their voices also become noticeably hoarse because of it. pneumothorax. trachea. Antipyretics are administered if there are instances of fever that are associated with the disease. If the syndrome is said to be cancerous. called the antiarrythmic drugs are prescribed. Coughing is also very common among patients and they tend to experience shortness of breath even without doing any extraneous physical activity. If it is a rather benign condition. breast cancer. metastasis. And their face. Eventually. Also. This vein can be found right in the middle of the chest. their eyes will also bulge out due to swelling. tumors. The veins located in the neck are dilated and it can become very noticeable. doctors would request a series of x-rays. The Causes of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome A disease that directly affects the superior vena cava and the lymph nodes that surrounds it can cause the disease. and the lung’s right bronchus. But to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. lung cancer. It is bounded by firm structures as well as lymph nodes. which are affected most. Instances such as circulatory leakages in the lymph drainage and the veins are the most common culprits. which is responsible in transmitting blood to the heart from the torso and the rest of the upper body. Headaches and dizziness are occurs more frequently than normal. more particularly of the area where the superior vena cava is located. And aside from these. then drugs that prevent the occurrence of arrythmia. The Diagnosis of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome To diagnose this disease. the disease could be caused by tuberculosis.

Thrombolysis and stent placement are two other methods that doctors can use to treat the disease. It may also be caused by an injury to the lower extremities. And depending on the doctor’s expertise. But for the others that are not.would perform a CT scan or an MRI instead. self-care treatments may be implemented to address it. This reduces the instances of high blood pressure as well as cardiac arrest in some patients. These are all important so that the proper treatment of the disease can be carried out. Surgery is another option. Understanding And Preventing Phlebitis Phlebitis is a disease that is characterized by an inflammation in the veins. called the pulmonary embolism. several doctors have mastered the use of a surgical bypass operation to patients who have malignant obstructions. The Treatment of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Fortunately enough. The type that affects the skin surface is called superficial phlebitis. he may also request for an ultrasound. There are some tumors that are sensitive to chemotherapy. radiation therapy is more effective. Aggressive treatments may be conducted immediately. But then again. And among the methods used are radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These two are just slightly different from each other. occurs. is the process of inserting a small metal tube or a scaffold so that the blood vessels are held open. These two advanced diagnostic tools can correctly define the root cause of the disease. Stent placement. And this can be carried out in two ways. it develops primarily due to a person’s lifestyle. But often times. treatment is dependent on the nature of the obstruction and the severity of the disease. It can be done through the use of thrombolytic drugs or through a more invasive procedure. But as always. due to the advancement of medicine and science. Prolonged inactivity. This type of phlebitis is not considered serious. This is the type that usually targets the blood vessels located deep inside the legs. doctors have several treatment options to cure the disease. When blood clots form in these parts. And when this happen. a much serious disease. they could break off and go to the lungs. In fact. Causes of Phlebitis Phlebitis is sometimes caused by a certain medical and surgical procedure. This disease can affect both the deeper part of the veins as well as the surface. such as sitting still for hours . or an echocardiogram of the heart so that the nature and the exact site of obstruction is detected. The type that affects the deep veins is called deep vein thrombophebitis. Thrombolysis is the process of breaking down blood clots that could be main cause of the disease. This is more preferable to patients who have benign obstructions rather than those with malignant obstructions. on the other hand. Doctors may also consider the physical ability of the patient as well as his personal needs and requirements.

patients will develop some skin ulcers in the area where the blood clot had occurred. the skin will breakout and there is pain associated with that. anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin are effective enough in reducing the pain and swelling associated with the disease. the doctor would put the patient for an ultrasound examination so that he can pinpoint with precision the area where the problem originates. Patients with mild phlebitis will also observe that the pain gets worse if they lower their leg. This method is capable of identifying blood clots in the smaller veins that are invisible to an ultrasound. Treating Phlebitis Mild superficial phlebitis can be treated at home. People suffering from cancer and any other blood-related disorders have an increased chance of developing this disease as well. After that. As a result. Both obesity and a sedentary lifestyle could cause phlebitis. venogram may be performed. Symptoms of Phlebitis Deep vein phlebitis has more symptoms than superficial phlebitis. But if the blood clot cannot be detected with the use of an ultrasound. Injury to the limbs. There will also be noticeable discoloration on that part of the skin. Fever will also accompany the swelling and the redness. Usually. And then an x-ray is performed and the dye injected is seen on the image produced.traveling or overstaying in bed. In some women. This is the onset of phlebitis. Deep vein phlebitis has symptoms similar to superficial phlebitis. These regions will also seem swollen and feel a little itchy at times. Increased blood flow is usually triggered by physical activities. as well as the presence of varicose veins in the leg area. If a person chooses to be a slouch potato he has the tendency is to be obese. can also be the culprit. People who don’t get much exercise are also prone to this disease. Smoking cigarettes and taking birth control pills or hormone replacement pills can also be the root of phlebitis. A certain dye or substance is injected into the vein. blood would pool and blood clot forms. as well as some tender regions near the area. a physical examination has to be conducted. People suffering from superficial phlebitis will observe some long and thin red lines along their legs. like when they attempt get out of bed during mornings. Then blood tests are requested so that type of blood clots is examined. would cause the blood not to flow properly into the legs. Some would feel it burning while throbbing. Leg compression stockings may also be worn to improve blood flow. pregnancy may prompt phlebitis. And if the area is severely infected. But additionally. Bacterial infections are also expected. . Diagnosing Phlebitis To diagnose this disease.

this condition is caused by the failure of the heart’s supporting structures. And so in response. a simple stethoscope test to the heart will disclose a certain murmur. specifically diuretics and anticoagulants. antibiotics are prescribed. or the drugs whose job is to dilate the blood passing though the blood vessels. Vasodilators. the heart tends to beat a lot faster and intense chest pains are felt. or more specifically the drugs that are given to regulate the rhythm of the heart. a doctor may prescribe an antibiotic or an anticoagulant. However. Anti-arrhythmics. Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation Just like most heart diseases. Depending upon the severity of the case. may also be required.For those with deep vein phlebitis. and Digitalis. There are still other drugs used. Symptoms of Mitral Regurgitation Patients with mitral regurgitation may experience rapid breathing or shortness of breath prior to the attack. Diagnosing Mitral Regurgitation To detect this disease. If a more severe case mitral regurgitation is detected. hospitalization is the best treatment for the patient. more especially if palpitations are occurring. And when that happens. This is to fully diagnose the extent of the disease as well properly teach each and every symptom observed. And this condition may even increase when the person is lying flat on his back. the whole body becomes affected. When a stethoscope is placed against the back to check the condition of the lungs. are both essential in the entire treatment process. the heart will work harder just to compensate. Also. The Way to Properly Detect Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation is often times called as mitral insufficiency. . In some cases. Coughs are also a good indicator that an episode of mitral regurgitation is developing. For the milder cases of mitral regurgitation. a chest MRI or a CT scan may be performed subsequently. Antibiotics have to be taken in regular doses especially if endocarditis or some bacterial infections are detected. whose job is to remove excess fluids and thin the blood respectively. the symptoms are addressed first to eventually treat the disease. an echocardiogram and a color flow Doppler exam may both be conducted. crackles are usually heard. it is necessary to see a doctor. More often than not. the ones used to strengthen a patient’s heartbeat. This is because of the fluids that might have backed up into it. It is a disorder wherein the mitral valve of the heart fails to close normally. Other organs will not get the right amount of oxygen. And this disease may affect the lungs as well. It usually happens rather suddenly and a single incident it is enough to cause the blood to flow backwards into the left side of the heart. if these tests prove to be futile. hospitalization is required so that the extent of the disease is properly assessed and treated. And for a more accurate diagnosis. But simpler tests like chest x-rays and an ECG may be requested first.

The Causes of Sneddon Syndrome The exact cause of Sneddon syndrome is yet to be discovered. Reduced blood flow is medically referred to as cerebral ischemia and it has become the main complication of this disease. The Symptoms of Snedden Syndrome The patient with Snedden syndrome will experience chronic headaches. This is because the disease affects the central nervous system. patients will also have episodes of stroke. And along with skin problems and other overt symptoms.But if none of these methods are projected to work. there might be no other option but surgery. These symptoms are referred to as the neurological effects of this disease. Mitral regurgitation can be a life-threatening disease. But then again. And aside from that. And if in case the patient’s blood pressure is hard to maintain. pulmonary edema. genetic. The Snedden syndrome is discovered in 1965. For one. may also develop in some patients. patients with this disease are more likely to have heart failure. Skin lesions. complications could arise because of it. Difficulty in memorizing and remembering names are the best examples of the disease’s neurological symptoms. Most patients will also develop hypertension. This would also mean that aside from the disease itself. patients will also observe that their mental capacity is reduced and their memory becomes weak over time. which could range from mild to severe. Several heart diseases can also be considered as a symptom of the Sneddon syndrome. especially in an emergency situation. Get in touch with them immediately the moment any of the symptoms appear. Doctors usually refer mild strokes to be ministrokes. it is then very important that proper medical therapy is solicited from a specialized heart professional. It has been observed that a family member who is a carrier of this disease can possibly pass it on to his offspring. Blood clotting leading to stroke is also possible. instead of backward to the left atrium. . And since this disease affects the brain. This disease can cause reduced blood flow to the brain. also known as infarcts. the disease won’t show in the child unless it is triggered by certain circumstances. The overall reduction in the body’s blood flow is the direct reason for these lesions. an intra-aortic balloon pump needs to be used just to make the blood flow into the aorta. Doing so will reduce probability of developing the different risks that are associated with the disease. They would also feel dizzy from time to time and it is associated with the sense of being disoriented with his surroundings. The Sneddon Syndrome . The patient’s blood pressure will be abnormally high and it can’t be associated to anything the he did or had eaten. It also causes skin problems as well as neurological abnormalities. and environmental factors. or the accumulation of fluid in the lungs is very likely to happen.A Mysterious Disease The Sneddon syndrome is a disease the affects both the brain and the heart. With all these said. But there have been theories as to the disease being caused by immunological. This is a rare disorder that targets the blood vessels.

This effectively reduces the occurrence of high blood pressure in the patient. Immunosuppresive drugs are used to regulate the elevated intensity of antiphospholipid antibodies in the patient’s blood.downloadheart.html . Vasodilators. This is one of the primary characteristics of the Sneddon syndrome. The drugs administered to patients are usually anticoagulants. Other tools such as a CT scan and a cerebral arteriography are also used. All of these tests are performed with the intention of revealing lesions as well as blockages in the patient’s brain. http://www. Anticoagulants are drugs that prevent blood clots and ensure that the normal flow of blood is facilitated. are drugs that dilate or widen the blood vessels. An MRI is considered to be the most effective diagnosing tool for this disease because it can produce a vivid image of the heart and the brain. on the other hand. A biopsy of the skin could confirm an arteriopathy. its treatment depends greatly on the symptoms as observed on the patient. As of this moment. vasodilators. And all the while. the necessary support systems are also being developed so that the patient will be able to live his life as normally as possible despite the disease. The Treatment of Sneddon Syndrome There is yet to be a defined treatment method for this disease. Skin biopsies may also be performed. and immunosuppressive drugs.us/the-sneddon-syndrome-a-mysteriousdisease. doctors request patients to undergo certain tests such as magnetic resonance imaging or MRI.The Diagnosis for Sneddon Syndrome To accurately diagnose this disease. This procedure involves the surgical removal of a tissue so that a microscopic study of it may be conducted. The common examples of this drug are warfarin and aspirin. An example of this drug is nifedipine. This condition is very common in people with Sneddon syndrome. Arteriopathy is a progressive type of an arterial disease.

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