OSI Model ( Open System Interconnection) :1970 ds vklikl lHkh computer manufactures vius system ds

fy, Lo;a dk network architecture use djrh Fkh blfy, vyx&vyx companies ds computers or networks ,d nwljs ds lkFk communicate ugh dj ldrs FksA For e.g. lu 1974 essa IBM us SNA ( System Network Architecture ) dks vius usVodZ ds fy, launch fd;k tks dsoy IBM based computer ds chp es gh communication djk ldus es capable FkkA blh Ádkj 1980 es DEC ( Digital Equipment Corporation ) uas vius network ds fy, DNA (Digital Network Architecture ) uke dk protocol ;k structure launch fd;kA vr% bl le;ko/kh es dksbZ Hkh ,d Ádkj dk network nwljs Ádkj ds network ds lkFk compatible ugh Fkk rFkk os ,d nwljs ds lEidZ LFkkfir ugh dj ldrs FksA bl problem ISO ( International Standrad Oragnization ) us recognize fd;k vkSj bldk result ISO model FkkA lu~ 1977 es ISO us ,d network model proposed fd;k ftldk uke OSI fd;k x;kA bl model us networking components ds fy, ,d ideal beahaviour dks suggest fd;kA bl model es typical networking functions dks 7 groups es divide fd;k ftlesa ÁR;ssd group esa similar type ds functions dks j[kk x;kA ;s group OSI layers dgykrs gSA Application Presentatio n Session Transport Network Data Link Physical 1.Physical Layer :OSI Model dks ;g first rFkk lowest layer gSA ;g layer communication channels ds chp esa raw bits dks transfer djus ds dke vkrh gSA Physical layer dk function

k unguided dk A 2.A Network connector es fdruh pins gS rFkk fdl pin dk D.g layer input data dks data frames es divide dj nsrk gS ftles few hundred bytes gksrh gSA rFkk bu data frames dks sequentially transmit djrk gS] rFkk receiver ds }kjk Hksts x.Z nks physical ends ds chp data transfer dks handle djuk gSA bl layer dk main aim .d slide 8 bit ds :i esa *1* dks transmit djrh gS rks receiving slide dks bit ds :i es *1* gh feys uk fd *0* bl layer es typical questions .k transmission dks simultaneously both direction esa process djuk gS .k x.Data Link Layer :Data link layer dk eq[.d machine ls nwljs e’khu ij transfer djuk gS] mlh Ádkj receving end ij vkus okyh raw bits dks correctly receive djuk gSA bl layer dk eq[. sending end ij .k tk.g Hkh ns[kk tkrk gS fd fdl Ádkj dks media dk Á.sending end ij raw bit dks .k tkrk gSA Data esa .k gS guided . error control provide djkrh gSA Receiving end ij .g gS] .d transmission error free transmission provide djuk gSA bl task dks get djus ds fy. design issue .ksx fd. dk. fdrus volts pkfg.k ughA fdl Ádkj ls initial connection dks established fd. tc nksuks slide dk transmission lekIr gks tk. fdrus voltes pkfg.s] nks bits ds chp es fdrus microseconds dk gap nsuk gS] D.s acknowledgement dks receive djrk gSA Data link layer nks adjacent nodes ds e/.d simple data frame dk basic structure fuEu gSA Sender ID Destination ID Frame Type Data Control Sender ID sender ds address dks n’kkZrh gSA Destination ID destination ds address dks n’kkZrh gSA Frame Type ds }kjk frame ds type dks n’kkZ.s rFkk 0 dks represent djus ds fy.k tk.Z gSA bl layer es .s gS fd] 1 dks represent djus ds fy.g ensure djrk gS fd tc . rFkk bls fdl Ádkj break fd.s layer physical layer ls ÁkIr gqbZ raw bits dks package djrh gS rFkk bls data frame esa convert djrh gSA .k dk.

d packet .d network nwljs network ls vyx protocol use dj ldrk gSA bu lHkh problems dks nwj djuk blh layer dks ftEesnkjh gksrh gSA 4.g logical address dks physical address esa rFkk physical address dks logical address esa convert djrh gSA .g routing static table ij .] vFkkZr~ network layer information or data dks switching rFkk routing dks handle djrk gS rkfd data dks transparent delivery dh tk lds A .sd packet ds fy. Hkh responsible gksrh gSA .d network ls nwljs network ij travel gksrk gS rc bles dbZ lkjh problem vk ldrh gS D. gj ckj u.k conversation ij based gks ldrh gS] blds vyok .k tk ldsA .k tkrk gSA .Transport Layer :Transport layer data dks error free delivery provide djrh gSA .g gS fd fdlÁdkj ls route fd.k route determine fd.ksx sequence number.g routing higly dynamic gks ldrh gSA ftles ÁR. use gksrk gSA Data field check sum dks Hkh j[k ldrk gSA ftlds }kjk frame dh correctness dks check fd. acknowledgment.d network nwljs network ls fHkUu addressing technique gks ldrh gS rFkk nwljk network may be large packet dks accept ugh djsA bl ds vyok . purpose ds fy.g .g layer message dks addressing ds fy.ge actual Data ftls ges transfer djuk gS dks n’kkZrs gS rFkk control dk Á. rFkk vU.d control area dh rjg gksrh gS rkfd selected data service dks quality dh requirement dks iwjk fd.ksfd .k tk.g layer network dh traffic problem dks Hkh message djrh gSA tc .k tk ldsA 3.Network Layer :Network layer subnet ds operation dks controlling ls related gSA bl layer dk key issue .

fn traffic dsoy .ksx user ds }kjk . fd.k end – to – end layer Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 5. ij attempt .k tkrk gSA Session layer dh main service dialogue control dks manage djuk gSA Session network traffic dks same time ij nksuks directions es tkus dh facility nsrh gSA ysfdu .drk ds vuqlkj split djuk gS rFkk bu small units ds network layer dks pass djuk gSA rFkk .d ordinary data dks transport djuk allow djrh gSA ysfdu blds vykok application ds fy. data divide dj ldrh gSA Transport layer .d gh direction esa tk ldrk gS rks session layer .Session Layer :– Session layer different – different machine ds uses dks session establish djus ds facility nsrh gSA Session .d remote time sharing system es login ds fy.g layer .A Transport layer dks source –to – destination .g Hkh determine djrh gS fd session layer fdl Ádkj dks service provide dh tk.Tranpsort layer dk basic function session layer ls data dks accept djds mls NksVh&NksVh units es vko’.d gh le.k tk ldrk gS vFkok nks machines ds chp files .g decide djrh gS fd fdl dk tern gSA .s fd.s distinct Network Connection create djrh gSA High throughput provide djus ds fy.d common related session service token management gS dbZ protocol ls Hkh gS ftues .sd connection ds fy. dqN enhanced services Hkh provide djrh gSA Session dk Á.g Hkh ensure djrh gS fd .k ughA Normal condition es transport layer session layer ds } kjk required ÁR.s lHkh pieces correctly destination rd igqps gS .s transport layer mutlitple network connections create dj ldrh gSA rFkk bl network connections ds e/.g essential gksrk gS fd dksbZ Hkh nks sides same operation dks .k data transfer djus ds fy.

k tk ldrk gSA Network es ftl node ds ikl token gksrk gS dsot og gh crtical operation dks perfume dj ldrh gSA Session dh vU. session layer tokens provide djrh gS] ftls exchange fd. Presentation Layer :– Presentation performe djrk gS ftudks layer dbZ function s . service synchronization gS] vFkkZr~ session layer nodes ds communication dks synchronized Hkh djrh gSA 6.ugh djsA bl Ádkj dks activity dks manage djus ds fy.

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