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Hydel Generation

As a consequence of partition of the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent in 1947, India and Pakistan became two independent sovereign states. Hydel generation capacity of only 10.7 MW (9.6 MW - Malakand Power Station & 1.1 MW - Renala Power Station) existed in the territory of Pakistan. With the passage of time, new Hydel Power Projects of Small and Medium capacities were commissioned including the first water storage dam and power house at Warsak due to which country's Hydel capability raised to about 267 MW uptill 1963. The Irrigation System which existed at the time of partition in 1947 was divided between the two countries without any regards to the irrigation boundaries which resulted in an international water dispute which was finally resolved by signing of the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 under the aegis of World Bank. The Treaty assigned three Eastern rivers (Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) to India and three Western rivers (Indus, Jhelum & Chenab) to Pakistan. It also provided construction of replacement works called Indus Basin Projects (IBP) to compensate for perpetual loss of Eastern rivers' water. The works proposed under the Treaty included two multipurpose dams i.e. Mangla Dam on Jhelum river and Tarbela Dam on Indus river having the provision of power generation. These were commissioned in 1967 & 1977 respectively. However, their capacities were subsequently extended in different phases. Hydel Generation Capacity The total capacity of 13 No. Hydel Stations as of today is 6443.56 ~ 6444 MW which is 37.10% of total installed generation capacity of WAPDA. During 2007~2008, aggregate energy sharing during the year was 33.32%. The Hydel Generation Capacity was reduced from 6463.16 MW to 6443.56 MW due to decommissioning of Jabban Hydel Power Station after a fire incident in November, 2006. Seasonal Variations of Hydel Generation The seasonal variations of reservoir levels and consequent reduction in Power outputs of storage type hydel projects in Pakistan are very pronounced. Tarbela with maximum head of 450 ft. experiences variation of 230 ft. while Mangla has 162 ft. variation against the maximum head of 360 ft. The lean flow period of Tarbela reservoir is from November to June when the Capability reduces to as low as about 1350 MW against the maximum of 3692 MW during high head period i.e. August to September (15% permissible overloading on Units 1~10). Lean flow period of Mangla reservoir is observed from October to March when the minimum generating capability is 500 MW. The capability rises to as high as 1150 MW during 'high head' period (15% permissible overloading). In all, WAPDA's Hydel generating capability varies between the two extremities of 2414 MW and 6746.0 MW over the cycle of a year. Statistics The next few pages provides information about the salient features of WAPDA Hydel Stations, their locations, statistical data etc. which are titled as under: Mangla Dam Project was actually conceived in 1950's as a multipurpose project to be constructed at a place called Mangla on river Jhelum located about 30 km upstream of Jhelum city (120 km from Capital Islamabad). The initial investigation and its feasibility studies were completed in 1958. Later on the project was included in the Indus Basin Project. The construction of Mangla Dam was started in 1962 and completed in 1967. PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT Mangla Dam is a multipurpose project primarily meant for affecting part replacement of water supplies of three eastern rivers from Jhelum river. Besides, it is designed to conserve and control flood water of river Jhelum through significant reduction in flood peaks and volumes at downstream by incidental use of the available storage space. The other by products are power generation to meet the power demand of the country, fish culture to provide protein rich diet, tourism to provide healthy recreation facilities to the people and navigation. PROJECT COMPONENTS The project consists of two dams (Main Dam & Jari Dam), two dykes to contain reservoir, two spillway for outflow regulations, intake structures with five tunnels, a power house and a tailrace canal. POWER HOUSE Power House has been constructed at the toe of intake embankment at the ground surface elevation of 865 ft. SPD. The water to power house is supplied through five steel lined tunnels of 30/26 ft. diameter. Each tunnel is designed to feed two generating

units. The power house tailrace discharges into New Bong Canal which has a length of 25,000 ft. with discharge capacity of about 49,000 cusecs, and terminates at an automatic gate control headworks at about 12 km downstream located near old Bong Escape Headworks. Power Station was completed in four stages. The initial phase comprising of four units of 100 MW each was completed in 1967~1969. The first extension of Units 5~6 (2 x 100 MW) was completed in 1974 while second extension comprising of Units 7~8 (2 x 100 MW) was completed in 1981. The project attained its maximum capacity of 1000 MW with the final extension of Units 9~10 (2 x 100 MW) in 1993/94. During the high reservoir level period, Mangla is able to generate 1150 MW against the rated capacity of 1000 MW due to permissible overloading of 15% whereas the capacity reduces to about 500 MW in the lean flow period (winter season) due to low reservoir level. Salient features of various components of Mangla Dam and Power House are as under: Tarbela Dam is one of the worlds largest earth and rock filled Dam and greatest water resources development project which was completed in 1976 as a component part of Indus Basin Project. The Dam is built on one of the Worlds largest rivers the Indus known as the Abbasin or the father of rivers. Emerging from the land of glaciers on the northern slopes of Kailash ranges, some 17,000 feet (5182 meters) above sea level, the river Indus has its source near the Lake Mansrowar in the Himalyan catchment area. It flows over 1800 miles (2900 k. metres) before it outfalls into the Arabian sea draining an area of about 372,000 square miles (964,261 sq.kms). The World Bank accepted Tarbela Dam Project as a part of the Settlement (Replacement) Plan under Indus water treaty in 1965. WAPDA was entrusted with its execution on behalf of the Government of Pakistan. HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY International who were the General Consultants of WAPDA, carried out the review studies of the Project. In February, 1960 Tippetts Abbett - McCarthy Stratton of USA commonly known as TAMS were appointed the Project Consultants, and were entrusted with the task of investigation, preparation of detailed designs, and contract documents for the project and also the supervision of construction work during its execution.

The country had been experiencing severe power shortage during eighties and early nineties. As aresult, load shedding had to be resorted to all over the country. This adversely affected the national economy. It was not possible for the Govt. to establish Power Plants in public sector due to shortage of funds. In order to eliminate power shortage/load shedding in the minimum possible time, the Government constituted an Energy Task Force in 1993 to devise a consolidated and comprehensive policy for revamping and rejuvenating the energy sector. On the recommendations of the Energy Task Force, the Government announced a Policy Framework and Package of Incentives for Private Sector Power Generation Projects in March 1994 for a large scale induction of the private sector in power development. The said Policy offered a fix levelized tariff of US 5.57 / kWh to the prospective investors (US 6.1 / kWh average for 1-10 years) and a number of other incentives to attract foreign investment in the power sector. 1292 MW (Net 1200 MW) HUB Power Project the biggest power plant in the private sector contracted in 1992 started commercial operations in March 1997. Shortly after commissioning disputes arose between GOP / WAPDA and HUBCO on tariff and other issues. After protracted negotiations, these were resolved through Settlement Agreement of December 2000 signed by the GOP, WAPDA and HUBCO. This resulted in a lower tariff entailing a saving of about 3 billion dollars over 30 years term of the Power Purchase Agreement.WAPDA also privatized its 1638 MW (Net 1342 MW) Gas Turbine Power Station, Kot Addu in June 1996 by incorporating it under the name of KAPCO and selling its 36% shares to International Power of UK.After extensive correspondence/negotiations with the International Power, the Power Purchase Agreement and other relevant documents have been amended, providing inter-alia, reduction in tariff from Cents 5.60 / kWh to Cents 5.04 / kWh, resulting in a saving of about 1.3 billion dollars to WAPDA over 25 years term of the Agreement.

Capacity Sr.# Name of IPP Fuel COD (MW)

Energy Received (Jul,10 - Jun,11) (MkWh)


Kot Addu Power


27-Jun-96 31-Mar-97

1,342 1,200


Hub Power Kohinoor energy

3 FO 20-Jun-97 124 888

Lalpir Power (Pvt) Ltd,

4 FO 06-Nov-97 348


AES Pakgen Southern Electric Power








7 8 9

Habibullah Coastal Power


Gas Gas Gas FO FO Gas Gas Gas Nuclear

11-Sep-99 21-0ct-99 11-Dec-99 31-Dec-99 14-Mar-00 18-0ct-00 06-Jun-01 10-Sep-01 09-Jun-01

129 151 395 126 121 551 26 213 325

811 1088 3039 244 371 4221 179 1333 2505


16 Chashma Nuclear Power II






18 Attock Power 19 MALAKAND III 20 Atlas Honda 21 Nishat Power Ltd (NPL) 22 Foundation Power Company (FPL)


17-03-2009 11-01-2008 -

156.181 81.48 213 -

1203.552 291.645 1495.268 1473.008 403.092

23 Nishat Chunian Power Ltd (FPL) 24 Orient Power 25 SAPHIRE Electric 26 Saif Power 27 Engro Energy 28 Halmore Generation 29 Liberty Power Tech 30 HUBCO Power Co. Ltd 31 Gulf Power 32 Sammundari Road (Rental) 33 WALTER Power (Rental) 34 RTPS Naudero (Rental) 35 Reshma Power Generation 36 Small Power Producers (SPPs) 37 Karkey (Rental) -


1451.916 1074.353 839.724 1154.749 1563.224 207.164 997.305 486.010 393.618 16.287 2.702 586.646 104.545

Warsak Hydro Electric Power Project is located on River Kabul at about 30 km from Peshawar in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The project financed by Canadian Government was completed under COLOMBO PLAN in two phases. In general, the project consists of a mass concrete gravity dam with integral spillway, power tunnel, power station, a concrete lined 10 feet diameter irrigation tunnel on right bank and a 3 feet diameter steel pipe irrigation conduit on the left bank of the reservoir. The 250 ft. high and 460 ft. long dam with reservoir of 4 square miles had a live storage capacity of 25,300 acre-feet of water for irrigation of 119,000 acres of land and meeting power generation requirement. A spillway with nine gates is capable to discharge 540,000 cusecs of flood water. POWER STATION The first phase including construction of Dam, Irrigation tunnel, civil works for Phase-II and installation of four units each of 40 MW capacity with 132 kv transmission system, was completed in 1960 at a total cost of Rs.394.98 million. Two additional generating units each of 41.48 MW capacity were added in 1980-81 at a cost of Rs.106.25 million as second phase of the project. Warsak Dam has now completely silted up and practically there is no available storage. Power generation is being achieved according to water inflows in River Kabul like a "Run-of-the-River' project. Lean flow period at Warsak is observed from October to March during which capability reduces to about 100 MW (Peak Chashma Hydropower Project is located on the right abutment of Chashma Barrage. The barrage is located on the Indus River near the village Chashma in Mianwali District, about 304 k.m. North West of Lahore. The project has been estimated at Rs17, 821.77 million including foreign exchange component of Rs 9264.25 million. The installed capacity of power Station is 184 MW comprising of 8 bulb type turbine units each of 23 MW capacity. The bulb turbines have been installed for the first time in Pakistan. The first unit was commissioned in January 2001, while final commissioning of all units was completed in July 2001. During the Government of PM Shaukat Aziz (2006), ECC in its decision of 16th August, 2006 approved 150 MW Rental Power Plants proposal by WAPDA / NPGCL for installation at Piranghaib, Multan as emergency measure subject to acceptance of tariff by NEPRA, stipulating that WAPDA should only rent as much power as is absolutely necessary to be utilized with high load

factor for economic utilization of capacity. The ECC was briefed by then government that given the urgency to have additional power capacity before next summer as per WAPDAs demand projections and the long gestation period for new plant, renting of plant/plants appears to be the only short term solution if shortfalls are to be met. Further, as the commissioning of the new IPPs for which gas has already been allocated will take 2-3 years, practical arrangements may beworked out with the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources to utilizethis gasor the rented plants in the intervening period. The then Planning and Development Division concurred with the proposal of M/o Water and Power to keep the momentum of economic growth progressive, and also to meet the high anticipated power shortages in the country. b. During the Caretaker Government of PM Mian Muhammad Sommro (15.02.2008), the ECC approved four Rental Power Plants each of 200-300 MW (combined capacity 1000-1200MW) as Rental Power Plants in private sector to be located at Sahiwal, Gakhar, Kotlakhpath, Sialkot, Shikarpur, Jamshoro, Eminabad & Sheikupura. The ECC advised that the RPPs be arranged for a period of four years, PEPCO would reevaluate RPPs location sites on the basis of oil storage space plus transportation and environmental impact. Secretaries Finance and Water & Power along with MD-PPRA will review the procurement mechanism and avoid delay in induction of RPPs while making it PPRA- compliant.