# A fractal antenna is an antenna that uses a fractal, self-similar design to maximize the length, or increase the perimeter

(on inside sections or the outer structure), of material that can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation within a given total surface area or volume. Such fractal antennas are also referred to as multilevel and space filling curves, but the key aspect lies in their repetition of a motif over two or more scale sizes,[1] or "iterations". For this reason, fractal antennas are very compact, are multiband or wideband, and have useful applications in cellular telephone and microwave communications. A good example of a fractal antenna as a spacefilling curve is in the form of a shrunken fractal helix.[2] Here, each line of copper is just a small fraction of a wavelength. A fractal antenna's response differs markedly from traditional antenna designs, in that it is capable of operating with good-to-excellent performance at many different frequencies simultaneously. Normally standard antennas have to be "cut" for the frequency for which they are to be used²and thus the standard antennas only work well at that frequency. This makes the fractal antenna an excellent design for wideband and multiband applications.

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1 Log periodic antennas and fractals 2 Fractal element antennas and performance 3 Fractal antennas, frequency invariance, and Maxwell's equations 4 Antenna tuning units 5 Other uses 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

**[edit] Log periodic antennas and fractals
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The first fractal "antennas" were, in fact, fractal "arrays", with fractal arrangements of antenna elements, and not recognized initially as having self-similarity as their attribute. Log-periodic antennas are arrays, around since the 1950s (invented by Isbell and DuHamel), that are such fractal arrays. They are a common form used in TV antennas, and are arrow-head in shape.

**[edit] Fractal element antennas and performance
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Antenna elements (as opposed to antenna arrays) made from self-similar shapes were first created by Nathan Cohen,[3] then a professor at Boston University, starting in 1988. Cohen's

recent independent studies show advantages of the fractal element technology in real-life applications. such as RFID[4] and cell phones. Although the first validation of the technology was published as early as 1995 (see ref. frequency invariance.[8] and the below reference of frequency invariance conclusively demonstrates that geometry is a key aspect in uniquely determining the EM behavior of frequency independent antennas. In 1999. Electrical resonances may not be directly related to a particular scale size of the fractal antenna structure.[5] One researcher has stated to the contrary that fractals do not perform any better than "meandering line" (essentially. fractal or otherwise. it was discovered[9] that self-similarity was one of the underlying requirements to make antennas "invariant" (same radiation properties) at a number or range of frequencies. Hence fractal antennas offer a closed-form and unique insight into a key aspect of electromagnetic phenomena. To wit: the invariance property of
."[6][7] However. do not. showed this to be a subset of the more general set of self-similar conditions. In general.
[edit] Fractal antennas. although their effective electrical length is longer. the 1999 analysis. This complexity arises because the current on the structure has a complex arrangement caused by the inductance and self capacitance. in a manner different than other geometries. in the last few years.efforts with a variety of fractal antenna designs were first published in 1995 (thus the first scientific publication on fractal antennas). Previously. Many fractal element antennas use the fractal structure as a virtual combination of capacitors and inductors. under Rumsey's Principle. The general rule of antenna length being near target frequency wavelength does not apply itself in the same way with fractal antennas. it was believed that antennas had to be defined by angles for this to be true.1). for example). In general the fractal dimension of a fractal antenna is a poor predictor of its performance and application. Not all fractal antennas work well for a given application or set of applications. uniquely determine the EM behavior of the antenna. Specifically quoting researcher Steven Best: "Differing antenna geometries. Most allusions to fractal antennas make reference to these "fractal element antennas". and do not need additional components. and Maxwell's equations
A different and also useful attribute of some fractal element antennas is their self-scaling aspect. Fractal element antennas are shrunken compared to conventional designs. the fractal element antennas are themselves physically smaller. repeating in translation) antennas. This makes the antenna so that it has many different resonances which can be chosen and adjusted by choosing the proper fractal design. The physical size of the antenna is unrelated to its resonant or broadband performance. dozens of studies have shown superior performance with fractals. Computer search methods and antenna simulations are commonly used to identify which fractal antenna designs best meet the need of the application. and a number of patents have been issued from the 1995 filing priority of invention (see list in references. fractals with only one size scale. based on Maxwell's equations.

[12][13][14] As fractals can be used as counterpoises. loads. they are considered parts of some antenna systems and thus are discussed in the context of fractal antennas. ground planes.
[edit] Other uses
In addition to their use as antennas.[1][10] An emerging example of such is in metamaterials.[11][citation needed] Fractal filters (a type of tuned circuit) are another example where the superiority[clarification needed] of the approach has been proven.
. because such fractal structures serve the purpose of loads and counterpoises. and is further demonstrated by its complete harmony and integration with Einstein¶s special theory of relativity. if a transmitting antenna has deep nulls in its response or has electromagnetic structural issues that require equalization then an antenna tuning unit should be used[citation needed]. Confusion by those who claim "grain of rice"-sized fractal antennas arises. Fractal inductors and fractal tuned circuits (fractal resonators) were also discovered and invented simultaneously with fractal element antennas. all parts that can be integrated with antennas. rather than bona fide antennas. and ground planes. counterpoises. fractals have also found application in other antenna system components including loads.
[edit] Antenna tuning units
Antenna tuning units are typically not required on fractal antennas due to their wide bandwidth and complex resonance. A recent report demonstrates using close-packed fractal resonators to make the first wideband metamaterial invisibility cloak.Maxwell's equations: this property being in keeping with the fundamental nature of Maxwell¶s derivation and mathematical treatment of electromagnetic phenomena. and filters. However. per the definition of required.[dubious ± discuss] at microwaves.

because engineers are doing empirical experiments to find out what geometrical structures give better results. In the middle the triangle is formed with same side lengths z/3 and same angles. This way wee get single element template. This way fractal size doesn¶t change. As Nathan states in centre of Boston there were forbidden to use external antennas in city so he managed to hide antenna within design of amateur radiostation. Like this antenna type:
.Fractal antenna constructions
Posted on March 28. Then repeat this process with other segments where sizes diminishes 3 times (z/9) then follows again 3 times (z/27) and so on. During these experiments they found out that using ordinar type antenna templates building fractals give better gain coefficient. engineered and patented many practical fractal antenna solutions and founded â¼ Fractal Antenna Systemsâ¼ in 1995. He took aluminum foil and made antenna as decoration according to Van Koch figure:
This figure builds as follows: first line (length is z)is cut in 3 even pieces z/3. but first practical approach appeared after 10 years. Nathan Cohen professor of boston university designed. 2007 by admin| 7 Comments
Among usual antennas used in todays data transfer there are also different type of antenas used. Today fractal antena technology is in early stages. First publications about electrodynamic characteristics of fractal structures were published in 1980 s . Dr.

If 5th iteration is used then this parameter grows up to 3.1%. Besides Dipole antennas there are resonant loop antenas used. So using iterations it is possible to use antenna at lower frequencies without increasing antenna size. Because of compact size they can be put directly on PCB inside like cell phone.This type of structure is so called recursive tree. Additionally to narrow band antennas there one type of antennas â¼³ wide band. Another thing what makes fractal antennas so attractive is that they can be fabricated using PCB making methods.7%. These are Sierpinski antennas are frequency independent and have several bands of resonance and can be
. If 3D tree is used (when there are 4 branches used instead of 2) then this parameter grows up to 12. Loop antenas are build using Koch figures:
Ordinary frame antenas have low input impedance what makes difficult to connect to feeder. Each new iteration multiply branches by two and lowers resonance frequency. Fractal loops allow to increase impedance even for frequencies lower resonance and this way effectiveness increases. Dipole antennas usually have narrow band-about 2.4% around frequency carrier.

Frequency independence is a result of retaining similar shape at many scales. Sierpinski fractals doesn¶t require additional space while frequency band grows as it happens with spiral and log-periodic antennas:
Sierpinski fractal antennas can be successfully used in automotive where transparent antennas are sticked to the front window (or other) and can receive multiple bands independently to to standard and country.
Another widely used example is cell phones.compared to log-periodics and spirals.
. They are long time using internal fractal antennas:
This allow to use multiple bands like 900MHz. 1900MHz and so on. 1800MHz.

an extremely wi match was achieved from 5GHz to 20GHz.Cohen (Fractennna) for the disc and suggestion
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Stacked Sierpinski carpet antenna
This is a parallel feed stacked fractal antenn the square Sierpinski and diamond Sierpi carpet.Koch curve dipoles
The Koch dipoles can be appreciated as a series o and bends.
Many thanks to N. The design achieves a good input imp match throughout the passband (1GHz to 20 The patterns are however not invariant o impedance bandwidth. these fractal dipole antennas are no l having the same impedance as a common dipole a By transforming the input impedance to 95 ohms 3rd iteration Koch square curve. Gain of these antenn generally above 0dBi.
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Miniaturise wideband monopole
A novel monopole design achieving a bandw over 50%. The tri monopole is designed with the characteristic Sierpinski gasket fractal iteration.
. The overall height of the monop reduced to approximately 0.07lamda.

point to point communication. Benoit Mandelbrot 1975 Latin fractus broken or fractured
Fractal Antenna : 5 Fractal Antenna Uses a self similar design to maximize the length. cell phone.Yn) Y(n+1)=g(Xn. Iterations. spacecraft communication. or increase the perimeter of material that can receive or transmit EM radiation with a given total surface area or volume.
Fractal : 4 Fractal Geometric shape that can be split into parts each of which is a reduced size copy of the whole.Yn)
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Why fractal antenna? : 6 Why fractal antenna? Compact Wideband applications
Background of the invention : 7 Background of the invention Euclidean geometry Area directly proportional to perimeter Emphasis on frequency resonance and power patterns Concentrated on ease of construction rather than underlying electromagnetics First order iteration No attempts to exploit multiple scale self similarity of real fractals
Equations : 8 Equations Fractal ratio limit dimension D=log L/log r Perimeter compression parameter PC=full sized antenna element length/fractal reduced antenna element length PC =A log[ N(D+C)] X(n+1)=f(Xn. Multilevel space filling curves.FRACTAL ANTENNA : 1 FRACTAL ANTENNA REEN PAUL S7 EC B ROLL NO:45
Overview : 2 Overview Introduction Need of fractal antenna History Features Examples Creation Advantages Applications
Antenna : 3 Antenna A transducer that transmits or receives EM waves Convert EM radiations to electric current or vice versa. Used in broadcasting.

Features : 9 Features R>eucledian Rapid element size shrinkage Increased effective wavelength N increase no:of resonant nodes increase Smaller than euclidean Much gain & frequencies of resonance Low Q and good bandwidth
Slide 10: 10 Acceptable SWR Radiation Z that is frequency dependant High efficiency Infinitely complex
Gain and PC as a function of N : 11 Gain and PC as a function of N
Frequency invariance : 12 Frequency invariance invariant¢Self similarity -.unidirectional.narrow beam antenna
.Rumey`s principle :antennas had to be defined by angles for this to be true 1999 analysis based on Maxwell`s equations A subset of the more general set of self similar conditions
Slide 13: 13 Used where a wide range of frequencies needed while still having moderate G and D.Isbell and Raymond DuHamel Individual components-dipoles Length and spacing of elements of LPA increase logarithmically from 1 end to the other Z and R characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a logarithmic function of the excitation frequency Multielement. Used for a VHF/UHF television antenna
Tuning units : 14 Tuning units Wide bandwidth and complex resonance no need for tuning units For issues that require equalization need tuning units
Log-periodic antenna (LP) : 15 Log-periodic antenna (LP) Dwight E.

Slot fractal antenna : 16 Slot fractal antenna
A communication system : 17 A communication system
Areas of creation : 18 Areas of creation Design Prototyping Testing Manufacturing Ongoing innovation
Advantages : 19 Advantages Powerful.versatile & compact antennas Fractal version of all existing antenna types Production of high performance antennas Smaller than traditional ones More reliable & lower cost One antenna able to replace many Increased bandwidth & multiband capability Decrease size load & enable optimum smart antenna technology
Slide 20: 20
Slide 21: 21
Slide 22: 22
Applications : 23 Applications Military applications Custom applications
Military applications : 24 Military applications Extreme frequency range operation Compact enough to be mounted in a variety of locations Rugged and field proven Inter operability Caability for covert operations
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Custom applications : 25 Custom applications Support full deployment of world`s most advanced wireless technology Mobile device configurations made possible Low cost performance enhancement for today`s RFID applications In-building communication applications
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