You are on page 1of 18

y Chapter 1 Summary and Learning Objectives

Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups. In this chapter, we examine the nature of sociological theory, the founders of the discipline, theoretical perspectives in contemporary sociology, practical applications for sociological theory and research, and ways to exercise the "sociological imagination." 1. The sociological imagination is an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. It is based on the ability to view our own society as an outsider might, rather than from the perspective of our limited experiences and cultural biases. 2. In contrast to other social sciences, sociology emphasizes the influence that groups can have on people's behavior and attitudes and the ways in which people shape society. 3. Knowledge that relies on "common sense" is not always reliable. Sociologists must test and analyze each piece of information they use. 4. Sociologists employ theories to examine relationships between observations or data that may seem completely unrelated. 5. Nineteenth-century thinkers who contributed sociological insights included Auguste Comte, a French philosopher; Harriet Martineau, an English sociologist; and Herbert Spencer, an English scholar. 6. Other important figures in the development of sociology were mile Durkheim, who pioneered work on suicide; Max Weber, who taught the need for "insight" in intellectual work; and Karl Marx, who emphasized the importance of the economy and social conflict. 7. In the 20th century, the discipline of sociology was indebted to the U.S. sociologists Charles Horton Cooley and Robert Merton. 8. Macrosociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations, whereas microsociology stresses the study of small groups. 9. The functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. 10. The conflict perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. 11. The interactionist perspective is concerned primarily with fundamental or everyday forms of interaction, including symbols and other types of nonverbal communication. 12. Sociologists make use of all three perspectives, since each offers unique insights into the same issue. 13. Applied and clinical sociology apply the discipline of sociology to the solution of practical problems in human behavior and organizations. In contrast, basic sociology is sociological inquiry that seeks only a deeper knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena. 14. This textbook makes use of the sociological imagination by showing theory in practice and research in action; by thinking globally; by focusing on the significance of social inequality; by speaking across race, gender, and religious boundaries; and by highlighting social policy around the world. Learning Objectives

. Define sociology as a social science. 2. Describe the differences between sociology and common sense. 3. Discuss the development of sociological theory. 4. Identify the major sociological perspectives. 5. Compare and contrast functionalism, conflict theory, interactionism, and feminism. 6. Describe the contributions of applied and clinical sociology. 7. Discuss development of the sociological imagination. 8. Describe the significance of social inequality. 9. Discuss the connections between sociology and social policy throughout the world.

Chapter 2 Summary and Learning Objectives


Chapter Summary
Sociologists are committed to the use of the scientific method in their research efforts. In this chapter we examined the basic principles of the scientific method and studied various techniques used by sociologists in conducting research.
1. There are five basic steps in the scientific method: defining the problem, reviewing the literature, formulating the hypothesis, collecting and analyzing the data, and developing the conclusion. Whenever researchers wish to study abstract concepts, such as intelligence or prejudice, they must develop workable operational definitions. A hypothesis states a possible relationship between two or more variables. By using a sample, sociologists avoid having to test everyone in a population. According to the scientific method, research results must possess both validity and reliability. An important part of scientific research is devising a plan for collecting data, called a research design. Sociologists use four major research designs: surveys, observation, experiments, and existing sources. The two principal forms of survey research are the interview and the questionnaire.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Observation allows sociologists to study certain behaviors and communities that cannot be investigated through other research methods. When sociologists wish to study a cause-and-effect relationship, they may conduct an experiment. Sociologists also make use of existing sources in secondary analysis and content analysis. The Code of Ethics of the American Sociological Association calls for objectivity and integrity in research, confidentiality, and disclosure of all sources of financial support. Max Weber urged sociologists to practice value neutrality in their research by ensuring that their personal feelings do not influence their interpretation of data. Technology plays an important role in sociological research, whether it be a computer database or information from the Internet. Despite failure to obtain government funding, researchers developed the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) to better understand the sexual practices of adults in the United States.

Chapter Learning Objectives


1. Define the scientific method.

/>/>/> /> /> 2. Discuss formulating the hypothesis.

/> /> /> 3. Describe the processes of collecting and analyzing research data.

/> /> /> 4. Define validity and reliability in research.

/> /> /> 5. Describe the various research methods used in performing research.

/> /> /> 6. Discuss the ethics of social research.

/> /> /> 7. Describe the impact of technology on research.

/> /> /> 8. Discuss sociological efforts to understand sexual behavior.

Chapter 3 Summary and Learning Objectives


Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. This chapter examines the basic elements that make up a culture, social practices common to all cultures, and variations that distinguish one culture from another. 1. A shared culture helps to define the group or society to which we belong. 2. Anthropologist George Murdock compiled a list of cultural universals, or common practices found in every culture, including marriage, sports, cooking, medicine, and sexual restrictions. 3. Human culture is constantly expanding through the process of innovation, which includes both discovery and invention. 4. Diffusion the spread of cultural items from one place to anotherhas fostered globalization. But people resist ideas that seem too foreign, as well as those they perceive as threatening to their own values and beliefs. 5. Language, an important element of culture, includes speech, written characters, numerals, and symbols, as well as gestures and other forms of nonverbal communication. Language both describes culture and shapes it. 6. Sociologists distinguish between norms in two ways, classifying them either as formal or informal or as mores or folkways. 7. The formal norms of a culture will receive the heaviest sanctions; informal norms will carry light sanctions.

8. The dominant ideology of a culture is the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests. 9. In a sense, a subculture can be thought of as a small culture that exists within a larger, dominant culture. Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose aspects of the larger culture. 10. People who assume that their own culture is superior to others engage in ethnocentrism. By contrast, cultural relativism is the practice of viewing other people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture. 11. The social policy of bilingualism calls for the use of two or more languages, treating each as equally legitimate. It is supported by those who want to ease the transition of non-native language speakers into a host society, but opposed by those who adhere to a single cultural tradition and language. Learning Objectives . Define the term culture. 2. Describe the various cultural universals. 3. Define and discuss globalization. 4. Define sociobiology, and discuss how social scientists view it. 5. Discuss the various elements of culture. 6. Discuss the various cultural variations. 7. Define ethnocentrism. 8. Define and discuss cultural relativism. 9. Discuss the controversies surrounding bilingualism.

Chapter 4 Summary and Learning Objectives


Socialization is the process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate for members of a particular culture. This chapter examined the role of socialization

in human development; the way in which people develop perceptions, feelings, and beliefs about themselves; the lifelong nature of the socialization process; and the important agents of socialization. 1. Socialization affects the overall cultural practices of a society; it also shapes the images that we hold of ourselves. 2. Heredity and environmental factors interact in influencing the socialization process. 3. In the early 1900s, Charles Horton Cooley advanced the belief that we learn who we are by interacting with others, a phenomenon he called the looking-glass self. 4. George Herbert Mead, best known for his theory of the self, proposed that as people mature, their selves begin to reflect their concern about reactions from othersboth generalized others and significant others. 5. Erving Goffman has shown that in many of our daily activities, we try to convey distinct impressions of who we are, a process called impression management. 6. Socialization proceeds throughout the life course. Some societies mark stages of development with formal rites of passage. In the culture of the United States, significant events such as marriage and parenthood serve to change a person's status. 7. As the primary agents of socialization, parents play a critical role in guiding children into those gender roles deemed appropriate in a society. 8. Like the family, schools in the United States have an explicit mandate to socialize peopleespecially childreninto the norms and values of our culture. 9. Peer groups and the mass media, especially television, are important agents of socialization for adolescents. 10. Socialization in the workplace begins with part-time employment while we are in school and continues as we work full-time and change jobs throughout our lives. 11. Religion and the state shape the socialization process by regulating the life course and influencing our views of appropriate behavior at particular ages. 12. As more and more mothers of young children have entered the labor market, the demand for child care has increased dramatically, posing policy questions for many nations around the world. Learning Objectives: 1. Define socialization. 2. Discuss the role of socialization. 3. Define Cooley's looking-glass self. 4. Describe George Herbert Mead's stages of the self. 5. Discuss Erving Goffman's dramaturgical approach and impression management. 6.

Describe the psychological approaches to the self. 7. Describe the types of socialization. 8. Discuss the various agents of socialization.

Chapter 5 Summary and Learning Objectives


Social interaction refers to the ways in which people respond to one another. Social structure refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships. This chapter examines the basic elements of social structure: statuses, social roles, groups, social networks, social institutions, and formal organizations. 1. People shape their social reality based on what they learn through their social interactions. Social change comes from redefining or reconstructing social reality. 2. An ascribed status is generally assigned to a person at birth, whereas an achieved status is attained largely through one's own effort. Some ascribed statuses, such as race and gender, can function as master statuses that affect one's potential to achieve a certain professional or social status. 3. With each distinctive statuswhether ascribed or achievedcome particular social roles, the set of expectations for people who occupy that status. 4. Much of our social behavior takes place in groups. When we find ourselves identifying closely with a group, it is probably a primary group. A secondary group is more formal and impersonal. 5. People tend to see the world in terms of in-groups and out-groups, a perception often fostered by the very groups to which they belong. 6. Reference groups set and enforce standards of conduct and serve as a source of comparison for people's evaluations of themselves and others. 7. Interactionist researchers have noted that groups allow coalitions to form and serve as links to social networks and their vast resources. 8. Social institutions fulfill essential functions, such as replacing personnel, training new recruits, and preserving order. The mass media, the government, the economy, the family, and the health care system are all examples of social institutions. 9. Conflict theorists charge that social institutions help to maintain the privileges of the powerful while contributing to the powerlessness of others. 10. Interactionist theorists stress that our social behavior is conditioned by the roles and statuses we accept, the groups to which we belong, and the institutions within which we function. 11. mile Durkheim thought that social structure depends on the division of labor in a society. According to Durkheim, societies with minimal division of labor have a collective consciousness called mechanical solidarity; those with greater division of labor show an interdependence called organic solidarity.

12. Ferdinand Tnnies distinguished the close-knit community of Gemeinschaft from the impersonal mass society known as Gesellschaft. 13. Gerhard Lenski thinks that a society's social structure changes as its culture and technology become more sophisticated, a process he calls sociocultural evolution. 14. As societies have become more complex, large formal organizations have become more powerful and pervasive. 15. Max Weber argued that in its ideal form, every bureaucracy has five basic characteristics: division of labor, hierarchical authority, written rules and regulations, impersonality, and employment based on technical qualifications. Carefully constructed bureaucratic policies can be undermined or redefined by an organization's informal structure, however. 16. Organizational restructuring and new technologies have transformed the workplace through innovations such as collective decision making and telecommuting. At the same time, major shifts in the economy have reduced the power of labor unions. Learning Objectives: . Define social interaction and social reality. 2. Identify and discuss the various elements of social structure. 3. Discuss the differences between ascribed and achieved statuses. 4. Identify and describe the various types of social role situations. 5. Discuss the contribution of groups to the function of social structure. 6. Describe the various types of groups. 7. Discuss the impact of social networks and technology on social relationships. 8. Analyze the importance of social institutions using the three major sociological perspectives. 9. Discuss the importance of social structure from a global perspective. 10. Discuss formal organizations. 11. Describe the various characteristics of a bureaucracy.

12. Define McDonaldization and discuss the worldwide bureaucratization of society. 13. Describe how today's workplace is changing.

Chapter 6 Summary and Learning Objectives


The mass media are print and electronic instruments of communication that carry messages to often widespread audiences. They pervade all social institutions, from entertainment to education to politics. This chapter examines how the mass media affect those institutions and influence our social behavior. 1. From the functionalist perspective, the media entertain, socialize, enforce social norms, confer status, and promote consumption. They can be dysfunctional to the extent that they desensitize us to serious events and issues (the narcotizing dysfunction). 2. Conflict theorists think the media reflect and even deepen the divisions in society through gatekeeping, or control over which material reaches the public; media monitoring, the covert observation of people's media usage and choices; and support of the dominant ideology, which defines reality, overwhelming local cultures. 3. Feminist theorists point out that media images of the sexes communicate unrealistic, stereotypical, limiting, and sometimes violent perceptions of women. 4. Interactionists examine the media on the micro level to see how they shape day-to-day social behavior. Interactionists have studied shared TV viewing and staged public appearances intended to convey self-serving definitions of reality. 5. The mass media require the presence of an audiencewhether it is small and well defined or large and amorphous. With increasing numbers of media outlets has come more and more targeting of segmented (or specialized) audiences. 6. Social researchers have studied the role of opinion leaders in influencing audiences. 7. The media industry is becoming more and more concentrated, creating media conglomerates. This concentration raises concerns about how innovative and independent the media can be. In some countries, governments own and control the media. 8. The Internet is the one significant exception to the trend toward centralization, allowing millions of people to produce their own media content. 9. The media have a global reach thanks to new communications technologies, especially the Internet. Some people are concerned that the media's global reach will spread unhealthy influences to other cultures. 10. Sociologists are studying the ways that scenes of violence in the media may promote aggressive behavior or desensitization to violence in viewers. Learning Objectives (See related pages)

1. Discuss the various roles of the media from the functionalist perspective. 2. Define and discuss the narcotizing effect of the media on society. 3. Define gatekeeping and the dominant ideology, and discuss the consequences of both for society. 4. Discuss the role of the media from the feminist perspective. 5. Discuss the role of the media from the interactionist perspective. 6. Discuss the various aspects of an audience from both micro-level and macro-level views. 7. Describe the nature of media concentration. 8. Describe the global nature of the media and its effect on society.

Chapter 7 Summary/Learning Objectives


Conformity and deviance are two ways in which people respond to real or imagined pressure from others. In this chapter, we examined the relationship between conformity, deviance, and mechanisms of social control. 1. A society uses social control to encourage the acceptance of basic norms. 2. Stanley Milgram defined conformity as going along with one's peers; obedience is defined as compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure. 3. Some norms are so important to a society, they are formalized into laws. Socialization is a primary source of conforming and obedient behavior, including obedience to law. 4. Deviant behavior violates social norms. Some forms of deviance carry a negative social stigma, while other forms are more or less accepted. 5. From a functionalist point of view, deviance and its consequences help to define the limits of proper behavior. 6. Some interactionists maintain that people learn criminal behavior by interacting with others (cultural transmission). To them, deviance results from exposure to attitudes that are favorable to criminal acts (differential association). 7. Other interactionists stress that for a crime to occur, there must be a convergence of motivated offenders and suitable targets of crime (routine activities theory).

8. An important aspect of labeling theory is the recognition that some people are viewed as deviant, while others who engage in the same behavior are not. 9. From the conflict perspective, laws and punishments are a reflection of the interests of the powerful. 10. The feminist perspective emphasizes that cultural attitudes and differential economic relationships help to explain gender differences in deviance and crime. 11. Crime represents a deviation from formal social norms administered by the state. 12. Sociologists differentiate among victimless crimes (such as drug use and prostitution), professional crime, organized crime, white-collar crime, and transnational crime. 13. Crime statistics are among the least reliable social data, partly because so many crimes are not reported to law enforcement agencies. Rates of violent crime are higher in the United States than in other Western societies, although they have been dropping. 14. The majority of people in the United States approve of the death penalty for particularly horrible crimes. However, sociologists have questioned the effectiveness of capital punishment as a deterrent to crime, and have pointed out that it falls disproportionately on those who are poor and non-White. Learning Objectives 1. Define and discuss the elements of social control. 2. Discuss informal and formal social control. 3. Define deviance and social stigma. 4. Discuss the various functionalist concepts and views explaining deviance. 5. Discuss the various interactionist concepts and views explaining deviance. 6. Discuss the explanations of deviance from the conflict and feminist perspectives. 7. Describe the various types of crime. 8. Discuss the nature and extent of crime in the United States.

Ch. 10 Summary and Learning Objectives

The social dimensions of race and ethnicity are important factors in shaping people's lives, both in the United States and in other countries. In this chapter, we examine the meaning of race and ethnicity and study the major racial and ethnic groups of the United States. 1. A racial group is set apart from others by physical differences; an ethnic group is set apart primarily by national origin or cultural patterns. 2. When sociologists define a minority group, they are concerned primarily with the economic and political power, or powerlessness, of the group. 3. The meaning people attach to the physical differences between races gives social significance to race, producing stereotypes. 4. Prejudice often leads to discrimination, but each can occur without the other. 5. Institutional discrimination results from the normal operations of a society. 6. Functionalists point out that discrimination is both functional and dysfunctional for a society. Conflict theorists explain racial subordination through exploitation theory. Interactionists pose the contact hypothesis as a means of reducing prejudice and discrimination. 7. Four patterns describe typical intergroup relations in North America and elsewhere: amalgamation, assimilation, segregation, and pluralism. Pluralism remains more of an ideal than a reality. 8. Worldwide, immigration is at an all-time high, fueling controversy not only in the United States but in the European Union. A new kind of immigrant, the transnational, moves back and forth across international borders in search of a better job or an education. 9. Contemporary prejudice and discrimination against African Americans are rooted in the history of slavery in the United States. 10. Asian Americans are commonly viewed as a model or ideal minority, a stereotype not necessarily beneficial to members of that group. 11. The various groups included under the general term Latinos represent the largest ethnic minority in the United States. 12. Racial profiling is any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior. Although the practice is based on false stereotypes of certain racial and ethnic groups, reaction to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, has increased racial profiling by police and intelligence agents. Learning Objectives: 1. Define racial, ethnic, and minority groups. 2. Discuss the social construction of race. 3. Discuss prejudice and its correlation with racism. 4. Discuss discrimination and institutional discrimination, and their impact on social relations. 5.

Identify the views of functionalism, conflict theory and interactionism regarding racial and ethnic inequality. 6. Describe the various patterns of intergroup relations. 7. Describe the patterns of immigration to the United States and elsewhere. 8. Describe the various population patterns of racial and ethnic diversity in the United States. 9. Discuss the relative economic positions of various racial and ethnic groups in the United States.

Ch. 11 Summary and Learning Objectives


Summary: Gender and age are ascribed statuses that provide a basis for social differentiation. This chapter examines the social construction of gender, theories of stratification by gender, women as an oppressed majority group, theories of aging, role transitions throughout the life course, and age stratification in the United States. 1. In the United States, the social construction of gender continues to define significantly different expectations for females and males. 2. Gender roles show up in our work and behavior and in how we react to others. 3. Though females have been more severely restricted than men by traditional gender roles, those roles have also restricted males. 4. The research of anthropologist Margaret Mead points to the importance of cultural conditioning in defining the social roles of males and females. 5. Functionalists maintain that sex differentiation contributes to overall social stability, but conflict theorists charge that the relationship between females and males is one of unequal power, with men dominating women. This dominance shows up in people's everyday interactions. 6. As one example of their micro-level approach to the study of gender stratification, interactionists point to men's verbal dominance over women through conversational interruptions. 7. Women around the world suffer from sexism, institutional discrimination, and sexual harassment. 8. As women have taken on more and more hours of paid employment outside the home, they have been only partially successful in getting their husbands to take on more homemaking duties, including child care. 9. Like other forms of stratification, age stratification varies from culture to culture. 10. In the United States, being old is a master status that seems to overshadow all others.

11. The particular problems of the aged have become the focus for a specialized area of research and inquiry known as gerontology. 12. Disengagement theory implicitly suggests that society should help older people to withdraw from their accustomed social roles. In contrast, activity theory suggests that the elderly person who remains active and socially involved will be better adjusted. 13. From a conflict perspective, the low status of older people is reflected in prejudice and discrimination against them and in unfair job practices. 14. About 40 percent of those who look after their elderly relatives still have children to care for; these people have been dubbed the sandwich generation. 15. As we age, we go through role transitions, including adjustment to retirement and preparation for death. 16. An increasing proportion of the population of the United States is composed of older people. 17. Ageism reflects a deep uneasiness about growing old on the part of younger people. 18. The issue of abortion has bitterly divided the United States (as well as other nations), pitting pro-choice activists against pro-life activists. Learning Objectives: 1. Describe the social construction of gender roles. 2. Discuss the various sociological views used to explain gender stratification. 3. Define sexism and discuss the effects of sex discrimination. 4. Discuss the status of women in the U.S. and worldwide. 5. Discuss the impact of women in the workforce. 6. Discuss the issues surrounding abortion. 7. Discuss the aging process as viewed from the major sociological perspectives. 8. Discuss the various role transitions throughout the life course. 9. Discuss the "graying of America" as a social phenomenon. 10. Discuss the nature and extend of age stratification. 11. Define ageism and discuss the effects of age discrimination.

12. Discuss the controversies surrounding the abortion issue.

y ch. 8 - Learning Objectives and Summary


1. Describe the various systems of stratification. 2. Discuss the various sociological perspectives on stratification. 3. Identify the methods used to measure stratification. 4. Discuss the distribution of wealth and income. 5. Discuss the issues surrounding the study of poverty. 6. Discuss the relationship between stratification and life chances. 7. Define social mobility and identify the various types of social mobility. 8. Discuss the impact of various social factors on social mobility. Stratification is the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society. In this chapter we examined four general systems of stratification, the explanations offered by functionalist and conflict theorists for the existence of social inequality, and the relationship between stratification and social mobility. Chapter Summary 1. Some degree of social inequality characterizes all cultures. 2. Systems of social stratification include slavery, castes, the estate system, and social classes. 3. Karl Marx saw that differences in access to the means of production created social, economic, and political inequality, as well as two distinct classes, owners and laborers. 4. Max Weber identified three analytically distinct components of stratification: class, status group, and power. 5. Functionalists argue that stratification is necessary to motivate people to fill society's important positions. Conflict theorists see stratification as a major source of societal

tension and conflict. Interactionists stress the importance of social class in determining a person's lifestyle. 6. One consequence of social class in the United States is that both wealth and income are distributed unevenly. 7. Many of those who live in poverty are full-time workers who struggle to support their families at minimum-wage jobs. The long-term poorthose who lack the training and skills to lift themselves out of povertyform an underclass. 8. Functionalists find that the poor satisfy positive functions for many of the nonpoor in the United States. 9. One's life chancesopportunities for obtaining material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiencesare related to one's social class. Occupying a high social position improves a person's life chances. 10. Social mobility is more likely to be found in an open system that emphasizes achieved status than in a closed system that focuses on ascribed status. Race, gender, and family background are important factors in social mobility. 11. Today, many governments are struggling with the question of how much tax revenue to spend on welfare programs. The trend in the United States is to put welfare recipients to work.

ch. 9 Learning Objectives and Summary


Learning Objectives (See related pages)

1. Discuss stratification in the world system. 2. Describe the significance of colonialism and multinational corporations. 3. Discuss the impact of modernization. 4. Discuss stratification within nations. 5. Describe the significance of wealth and income distribution, prestige, and social mobility. 6. Discuss stratification in Mexico. 7.

Describe the significance of Mexico's race relations, status of women, economy and environment, and the borderlands. 8. Discuss the social policy section on universal human rights. Summary Worldwide, stratification can be seen both in the gap between rich and poor nations and in the inequality within countries. This chapter examined the global divide and stratification within the world economic system; the impact of globalization, modernization, and multinational corporations on developing countries; and the distribution of wealth and income in various nations. 1. Developing nations account for most of the world's population and most of its births, but they also bear the burden of most of its poverty, disease, and childhood deaths. 2. Former colonized nations are kept in a subservient position, subject to foreign domination, through the process of neocolonialism. 3. Drawing on the conflict perspective, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein's world systems analysis views the global economic system as one divided between nations that control wealth (core nations) and those from which capital is taken (periphery nations). 4. According to dependency theory, even as developing countries make economic advances, they remain weak and subservient to core nations and corporations in an increasingly integrated global economy. 5. Globalization, or the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas, is a controversial trend that critics blame for contributing to the cultural domination of periphery nations by core nations. 6. Multinational corporations bring jobs and industry to developing nations, but they also tend to exploit workers in order to maximize profits. 7. Poverty is a worldwide problem that blights the lives of billions of people. In 2000 the United Nations launched the Millennium Project, whose goal is to eliminate extreme poverty worldwide by the year 2015. 8. Many sociologists are quick to note that terms such as modernization and even development contain an ethnocentric bias. 9. According to modernization theory, development in periphery countries will be assisted by innovations transferred from the industrialized world. 10. Social mobility is more limited in developing nations than in core nations. 11. While Mexico is unquestionably a poor country, the gap between its richest and poorest citizens is one of the widest in the world. 12. The subordinate status of Mexico's Indians is but one reflection of the nation's color hierarchy, which links social class to the appearance of racial purity. 13. Growing recognition of the borderlands reflects the increasingly close and complex relationship between Mexico and the United States. 14. Human rights need to be identified and abuses of those rights corrected in countries throughout the world.