Rocket Spanish version 1.01
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Table of Contents
1.1 How to Pronounce Spanish Words The Spanish Alphabet Pronuncation Practice Accent Marks Listen! 1.2 People, Places, and Things Understanding Nouns Is it a Boy or a Girl? Talking about People and Animals What “The”?! Same Endings, Different Story Talking about Things and Ideas Hermaphroditic Nouns When There’s More than One 1.3 Using “The” and “A” Understanding Articles How to Say “The” in Spanish How to Say “A” or “An” in Spanish 1.4 Talking about You, He, and We Pronouns in Spanish Which “You” Should You Use? 1.5 “To Be” Part 1: The Verb SER To Be or Not to Be Drop the Subject Talking about Whose It is and Where You’re From Talking about What You Do for a Living Be Careful with “To Be” Verbs 1.6 Numbers Starting out: 0 to 35 Masculine and Feminine Numbers Numbers from 36 to 102 Asking How Much or How Many Numbers from 101 Don’t Forget the Gender Reverse Puncuation: How to Write Big Numbers

12 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 20 20 20 21 22 22 22 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 29 29 30

1.7 Telling the Time Exception at One O’Clock Talking about Quarter Hours and Thirty Minutes Asking at What Time Something will Occur 1.8 Review 2.1 Verbs in the Present Tense Understanding Infinitives Isolating Verb Endings How to Conjugate a Verb 2.2 The Verb IR (to go) Going To a Place Using IR to Talk about What is Going to Happen 2.3 Asking Questions Inflection Funky Punctuation Marks Using a Statement as a Question Asking “Really? Is That True?” 2.4 “To Be” Part 2: The Verb ESTAR Where am I? Forming DEL from DE and EL How Do You Feel? 2.5 Review 3.1 Adjectives Part 1: Descriptions Getting Nouns and Adjectives in Order Describing Things Adjust the Adjective to Suit the Noun Adjectives that End in –o or –a Adjectives that End in –e Describing How Much in General Short and Simple: Adjectives like BUEN and MAL Big or Great? Using GRAN and GRANDE 3.2 Using ESTAR to Express a Feeling or Condition When to Use ESTAR, When to Use SER The Importance of Getting SER and ESTAR Right 3.3 Talking about the Weather

31 31 32 33 34 44 44 46 47 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 53 55 55 58 59 60 70 70 72 73 73 73 76 76 77 78 81 81 82


4 More about Us and Them: Prepositional Pronouns Understanding Prepositions Prepositional Pronouns The Exceptions: Entre Tú y Yo. Now an O. and That One over There Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish Demonstrative Pronouns A Note of Caution: Accent Marks 4.com 121 121 121 122 123 124 124 125 .6 Review 5.2 Indirect Object Pronouns To Whom? Adding Clarity to “Le” and “Les” 4.4 Adjectives Part 2: Who Owns What My Hat. Your Hat: Understanding Possessive Adjectives What is Owned v.2 Stem Changing Verbs in the Present What is a Stem Change? A Rare Stem Change: i to ie Another Rare Stem Change: u to ue The Last and Strangest Stem Change: o to hue 5.3. and Us: Direct Object Pronouns Understanding Direct Object Pronouns When People are Direct Objects 4. GO! Thinking about VALER -5www. Conmigo and Contigo 4.5 Talking about This.RocketSpanish.1 Talking about Me. Who Owns It This is All Mine 3. Her. Whether You’re Hungry.3 Irregular Verbs in the “Yo” Form Now a G.5 Review 4. What You Feel Like Doing 119 5. That. What You Have.1 Introduction to Irregular Verbs: TENER and VENIR 84 84 84 85 87 97 97 98 99 100 102 102 103 104 105 105 105 106 107 107 108 109 110 118 Why Complicate Things? The Role of Irregular Verbs in Spanish 118 Using TENER to Talk about Age.3 Putting Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns Together Which Object Comes First? Why Does ‘Le’ Change to ‘Se’? To Whom? Clarifying “Se” 4.

RocketSpanish.5 When Something is Happening Understanding the Present Progressive The Present Participles of Regular Verbs Irregular Stem Changing Verbs 5.3 Actions You Perform on Yourself: Reflexive Verbs Understanding Reflexive Verbs When a Verb is Reflexive and When It is Not To Get Emotional with a Reflexive Verb 6.6 Review 6.2 Talking about Ifs.com 126 128 128 128 129 130 138 138 139 139 140 141 141 142 144 145 146 148 148 149 151 153 163 163 164 164 165 166 166 167 169 169 170 170 171 .5.4 To Say and To Give: Using DECIR and DAR 5. or Thing Knowing Places 6.1 Talking about What’s Good. Ands. and Best Understanding Comparatives and Superlatives For Better or for Worse: MEJOR QUE and PEOR QUE The Best of All: LA MEJOR The Most of All: MÁS DE Super Cool: The Ending -ísimo Some More Comparisons: MÁS QUE and MENOS QUE Expressing How Things are Alike: TAN COMO and TANTO COMO 7.1 Talking about What You Know: SABER and CONOCER Strange Shades of Meaning SABER: To Know Information or How to Do Something CONOCER: To Know a Person. Love. and Lack Verbs without English Equivalents Using GUSTAR to Talk About What You Like Common Errors with GUSTAR Using FALTAR to Talk about What You Lack or Need Using the Verb QUEDAR 6. Better.2 Talking about What You Like. Buts Understanding Conjuctions 7. Place.3 Talking about Something and Nothing Understanding Indefinite Words Understanding Negative Words -6www.4 Review 7.

RocketSpanish.4 Review Appendix 1. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (English to Spanish) 173 183 187 193 206 -7www. Answer Key Appendix 3.com .7. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (Spanish to English) Appendix 4. Grammatical Concepts in English Appendix 2.

Speaking another people’s language is the best way to enter into their culture. No other how-to-speak-Spanish product gives you so much! You’ll get a great computer game to teach you the vocabulary you want to know … fun and informative illustrations on every page … and a complete audio recording of the entire book so that you can listen as you follow along! You’ll also get many exercises to practice what you have learned. The amount of memorization may have seemed enormous. and their way of life.  It’s quick. Instead of throwing lists and lists of words at you.com . and I want to congratulate you for taking the first step on the road to learning a very special language. Every little bit you learned was just a thimbleful of the vast ocean of words. and the sight of the streets bustling with vendors. their imagination. and traditions. your ability to share thoughts with them in their first language will be a special gift.RocketSpanish.Introduction Hello! Welcome to the first book of Rocket Spanish! My name is Mauricio. If someone in your life is a native speaker. Does this sound impossible? It’s not!! Did you know that in most languages half of ALL conversation is made up of only 150 or so words? If you can memorize those words. What You Get with My Book You may have tried other Spanish-learning products before and felt as if learning the language was an uphill battle. the sounds of the música folklórica (Andean music). because it represents my family. I hope that this book will inspire you to do so. Speaking Spanish brings back all the memories of my childhood … like the smell of our weekly asados (barbecues). -8www. you’ll be well on your way to becoming fluent—without having to spend hours and hours and HOURS memorizing. Viña del Mar. My first language has a very important place in my heart. even jugglers! I hope that you are learning Spanish because you want to speak with natives. If you are not yet planning a trip to a Latin American country. I grew up in one of the most colorful and friendly cities in Chile. I’m going to give you the bare minimum you need to understand how the language works. culture. musicians. Let me tell you now: this book is different!  It’s fun.

If you’re interested in expanding your vocabulary. however. If you’re not comfortable with English grammar. If you want to get exactly what you need. You’ll learn about the pitfalls and the common mistakes. but what you’ll also get is a focus on how those rules get applied in everyday sentences. you can pretend to shovel food in your mouth. to whom something belongs. Every concept is extensively illustrated with examples about what you can and can’t say. If you dedicate yourself completely to the material in this book. you. At the end of this book. for example. and more. (By the way. a handy appendix is included at the end of the book with a list of necessary concepts. you’ll find piles more words in the Beginners Supplemental Vocab Book. you’ll find a list of 20 of the 140 most common words in Spanish in the vocabulary review at the end of each section. it’s sandía.” “that. it will be easy to pick up what you need to know.” or “never. but. But you CAN’T do this with words like “this. and. if you want the verb “to eat” (comer). to ask a Spanishspeaking person what the word for watermelon is. not the ordinary nouns and verbs that other books give you. You HAVE to know these words. and adjectives. and I.) Or. rather than waste your mental effort on tricky concepts -9www. you’ll even be able to go to a party and have fun trying out your language skills on your new Spanish-speaking friends! Remember—it’s more important that you try to communicate with whatever amount of Spanish you know.” If you are immersed in a Spanish-speaking country and ask a non-English speaker to tell you what the word is for “many” in Spanish.” “always. With ordinary nouns. This list includes words like the. directions to an unfamiliar place.  It’s real. you’ll be able to engage in simple conversations about topics like how you’re feeling.That’s why I don’t bombard you with vocabulary from the start. This is the most important aspect that my book can offer you. or. verbs. Suitable for the Traveler If you’re planning to go to a Spanish-speaking country for a vacation or on business. the weather. you need to know the basics to keep from getting stranded.RocketSpanish. All you’ll need to do is point to a watermelon. You’ll get all the right grammar in this book.com . a/an. what time something is happening. you’ll find that it will be almost IMPOSSIBLE to communicate what you need to know! THAT’S why you need to focus on memorizing the essential words.

com . It is divided into seven parts on topics ranging from the basics to action words to descriptions. and the more you’re around other Spanish speakers. as well as a special list of 20 of the most commonly used words in Spanish. the faster your language facility will improve. If you are well and truly interested in increasing your vocabulary. and you’ll be able to apply your newfound skills by reading a short story.that are best mastered once you’re out there hearing others speak. Overview of What You’ll Learn Let me tell you a bit about the structure of this book. Each section concludes with a review chapter. There. After the vocabulary list. you have the option of continuing your learning with the Beginners Vocabulary Supplement. You’ll find a list of the concepts you should have mastered followed by a vocabulary list that contains all the Spanish words used in the section. Finally. you’ll find specialized vocabulary lists on topics ranging from sports to going on vacation. The more you speak Spanish. you’ll be able to test your knowledge of Spanish with exercises before moving on to the next section. You’ll also be able to practice your new vocabulary words by playing the Rocket Spanish Mega Vocab game. Memorization has never been so fun! Good luck! Mauricio . you will be able to read or listen to a conversation.RocketSpanish. in order to practice your comprehension and listening skills.10 www.

com .RocketSpanish. The Basics .11 www.Part I.

ch. you’d be right!  The ch sound is pronounced just as it is pronounced in English. Look at the Spanish alphabet below.  The rr sound is pronounced by trilling the r sound. c. e. y. Just remember to pronounce the letter combination “ay” as in “day” and the letter combination “ah” like you were opening your mouth for the dentist. g. w. as it is prounced in a variety of ways around Latin America.com . x. m. which means that as long as you memorize the sounds of each letter in the alphabet. ñ. ñ. and rr.  The ll sound is often pronounced like a y. o. See if you can’t pick out the letters that do NOT occur in the English alphabet: a. z If you said ch. h. s. p. Please note that this sound is difficult to pin down.1. f. like Charles. Think of a purring cat! Below is a guide to the pronunciation of the letters of the alphabet. q. n. b.12 www. l. d. v. and you’ll be fine! A B C CH D E F G H I J K L LL M N Ñ O P ah beh say chay day ay ef-ay hay ah-chay ee hotah kah el-ay ay-yay em-ay en-ay en-yay oh peh . i. j.1 How to Pronounce Spanish Words Spanish is such an easy language to speak. ll.  The ñ sound is pronounced like an n followed by a yay. u. r.RocketSpanish. t. you can read ANY word! The Spanish Alphabet You can form almost every sound in Spanish using the English sounds that you already know. It is phonetic. ll. k. rr. as in yo-yo.

If you ask someone to spell a word in Spanish for you. The Spanish ‘h. hielo (ice). You may also have difficulties with the Spanish sounds ‘g. that person may differentiate ‘b’ and ‘v’ by talking about beh grande (big ‘b’) and beh pequeño (little ‘v’).RocketSpanish.com . see if you can pronounce the following words: A: gata (cat) B: barra (bar) C: cabra (goat) CH: chancho (pig) D: dar (to give) E: edad (age) F: feliz (happy) G: gafas (glasses) H: hay (there is).’ This can make it difficult when you’re trying to spell an unfamiliar word that you’ve only heard before. That’s because. foreign) . Did you know that the letter ‘w’ is only used in words of foreign origin.Q R RR S T U V W X Y Z coo air-ay airrr-ay (roll those Rs!) es-ay (like ‘S’-ay) teh oo beh doh-bleh-beh eh-keys ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah Notice that the letters ‘b’ and ‘v’ sound alike.’ ‘h. there is no difference between the sounds of the two letters in Spanish: ‘v’ is pronounced just like ‘b.’ and ‘j.’ on the other hand. joya (jewel) K: kilo (kilogram) L: lado (side) LL: pollo (chicken).’ They sound rather different from their English counterparts! Both ‘g’ and ‘j’ can sound like the English ‘h’ (as in ‘hey’). bello (beautiful) M: madre (mother) N: no (no) Ñ: niño (child). hora (hour) I: ida (return) J: ja-ja (ha-ha). like grabadora (tape recorder) or vago (lazy).13 www. extraño (strange. like ‘Washington’? Pronuncation Practice Now. for most Spanish speakers... is usually silent! By the way .

14 www. esta ésta está Each of these three words has a different meaning. the more you’ll be able to recognize words as they’re spoken! In the next chapter we’ll work on nouns: words for people. Consider the following stressed vowels: á é í ó ú When you see one of the above vowels. places. the three words below all sound different.5. and things . You’ll learn more about them in Chapter 4.com . For example.RocketSpanish. stress that syllable. that) rojo (red) perro (dog) sábado (Saturday) tener (to have) tú (you) vosotros (you) wáter (toilet) éxito (success) ya (already) zapato (shoe) Accent Marks The final thing that you need to remember about pronouncing Spanish words is that accent marks will completely change the pronunciation AND meaning of a word. Remember: the more you listen. as well as different sound. Listen! That’s enough pronunciation practice for now.O: P: Q: R: RR: S: T: U: V: W: X: Y: Z: color (color) prueba (test) que (what.

Just as in English. The moon tends to be associated with feminine imagery.) You won’t be able to figure out the gender of most nouns from their English equivalents. it is feminine: la luna. while nouns that refer to females are generally feminine.RocketSpanish. the nouns that refer to males (such as a male doctor or a male animal) are masculine. Places.com Feminine nouns the woman the (female) dog the (female) cat . weather. Masculine nouns el hombre Ends with –o el perro el gato the (male) cat the man la mujer Ends with -a the (male) dog la perra la gata . such as “cat” or gato. you’ll be able to figure out the gender in a snap. however. however. in Spanish.15 www. Talking about People and Animals Masculine nouns often end in –o or –or. like “cats” or gatos. In other words. you will be able to distinguish between masculine and feminine nouns by the distinctive association to a gender. Once you know the word in Spanish. hat. In many situations. coffee. and in Spanish we find that its gender is also masculine: el sol. animal. is that all nouns also have a gender. You may find it impossible to figure out the gender of other nouns. picture. all objects and living things are either masculine or feminine. or idea.1.e. Examples include: girl. hotel. Spanish nouns can either be singular. place. more than one). while feminine nouns often end in –a or –ora. thing. and. Is it a Boy or a Girl? The concept of gender can feel confusing for new students of Latin languages. For example. how would anyone know whether a table or a cup is masculine or feminine? (La mesa and la taza are both feminine. the sun tends to be associated with masculine imagery. in most circumstances. The first thing that you must learn about Spanish. coat.. and Things Understanding Nouns Nouns are words used to name or identify a person.2 People. although. For example. or plural (i. Having a gender does not mean that nouns actually refer to male or female things. however.

4. La mujer está llorando.16 www.Where is the cat? Ends with -ista la pianista the (female) pianist 2.The woman is crying. Other nouns follow this pattern. This isn’t as confusing as it sounds! For right now.com .g.” In Spanish.The man is in Spain. use la. El hombre está en España. Different Story When you find a noun ending in –ista (e. What “The”?! One of the most common words in the English language is “the. In these cases. If followed by a feminine noun. the gender of the noun will be indicated by whether it is preceded by el (masculine) or la (feminine).When did the doctor go to see the lady? 3. Review the following: . is el. ¿Dónde está el gato? . pianista) you will notice the ending is the same for both the masculine and feminine forms. just remember that the word “the”. however. depending on the gender and quantity of the noun to which it is matched. “the” is not a single word. • • the the + + masculine noun feminine noun = = el la Same Endings.RocketSpanish. ¿Cúando fue el doctor a ver a la señora? . . . Rather it has four forms.Ends with –or el doctor el señor Ends with -ora the doctor la doctora the gentleman la señora the (female) doctor the lady Ends with -ista el pianista the pianist Examples: 1. if followed by a masculine noun. ¿Cómo está el señor? .How is the gentleman? 5.

–ma. –ción. figuring out the gender of these nouns from the English is impossible.17 www. Review the examples in the following table: Masculine nouns End with –o el cuchillo el zapato el pelo el ajo End with –ma el problema el sistema End with -s el país the country the problem the system the knife the shoe the hair the garlic End with -a la computadora la puerta la guitarra la ventana End with -ción la conversación la destrucción End with -dad la universidad la sociedad the university the society the conversation the destruction the computer the door the guitar the window Feminine nouns .Jose is the artist in the family. and –dad are generally feminine. . La atleta sale a correr todos los días. Jose es el artista en la familia. but you can figure out gender easily once you know how the noun ends in Spanish.com .The athlete goes for a run every day. • • Nouns that end in –o.RocketSpanish. . Nouns that end in –a. and –s (in their singular form) are generally masculine. Talking about Things and Ideas Who could guess that the word “problem” would be masculine? Or that the word “destruction” would be feminine? Non-living things can be quite tricky to assign a gender to. As mentioned before. 2.el artista the male artist el atleta the male athlete Examples: la artista the female artist la atleta the female athlete 1.

. . Examples: 1. but it is a feminine noun. it’s not that different from English. add an –s to make it plural. For nouns ending in a vowel. For example. Me gusta tocar la guitarra. you add the same endings in Spanish. 2. gato becomes gatos. however. 1. the el or la will come naturally.Hermaphroditic Nouns Of course. ¿Dónde está la puerta de salida? . There’s no way around it: some memorization will be necessary. Just as you add an –s or –es in English (such as cats or buses).I like playing the guitar. Once you get into the habit of associating a gender with each new noun you learn.I cut my hand with the knife. 3. there are always exceptions to the rules.Where is the exit door? When There’s More than One How do you take a singular noun in Spanish and make it plural? Amazingly enough.RocketSpanish. The rules of their application are just a bit different.18 www. Me corté la mano con el cuchillo.com . . la mano (the hand) finishes on –o.

always use the masculine plural form. For nouns that end in –z. doctor becomes doctores.com . For nouns that end in a consonant. 1 gato + 2 gatas = 3 gatos .19 www.RocketSpanish. When you refer to a group of mixed gender items or people. add –es to make it plural. pez becomes peces 4. 3. replace the –z with –ces.2.

How to Say “The” in Spanish Spanish has definite and indefinite articles as well.1.20 www.3 Using “The” and “A” Understanding Articles You may not have learned this in grammar school. 4. 2. 3.” you will get whatever mug they choose to hand you! That is because the words “a” or “an” are indefinite articles. “I want the mug. You can see how the Spanish forms of “the” are used in the following table: Masculine Singular el chico the boy Por ejemplo: 1. we speak of el hombre.com Feminine Plural los chicos the boys Singular la chica the girl Plural las chicas the girls . Spanish speakers must suit the form of the article to the gender of the noun it precedes. . we speak of la mujer.I bought the books from the bookstore. However. El libro está en mi maleta.RocketSpanish. Las chicas salieron a correr.The book is in my bag. For example. Las manzanas están podridas. Compré los libros en la librería. . . we speak of los hombres. if there is one man. That is because it points to a very specific thing. If there are two or more women.The apples are rotten. However. but in English the word “the” is a definite article. as mentioned before. “I want a mug. For example. .The girls went running. If there are two or more men. . if you tell them. Remember el hombre and la mujer? What you didn’t know then was that the article must also reflect the quantity of the noun—whether or not it is singular or plural. we speak of las mujeres.” assuming that they will bring you the mug you have in mind. you may tell someone. If there is one woman.

I have some flowers for my girlfriend.I need a pencil.” “an.” Masculine Singular un lápiz a pencil Plural unos lápices some pencils Singular una flor a flower Feminine Plural unas flores some flowers Por ejemplo: 1.There is a flower in the vase. .How to Say “A” or “An” in Spanish In Spanish.com . Hay una flor en el florero. 2.” or “some.RocketSpanish. 3. Necesito un lápiz. Tengo unas flores para mi novia. there are four forms of the indefinite articles “a. . . .21 www.

) él ella I you (familiar) you (polite) he she Be careful! Notice that él is spelled exactly the same as el … except for the accent mark over the e. “Hey. It has the same sense in which you would say. when talking to people or about people. you often use pronouns like I. Make sure that whenever you write ‘he‘ you don’t end up inadvertenly writing ‘the.4 Talking about You.22 www. not including yourself.Thank you very much for your contribution. you guys!” Por ejemplo: 1. Ustedes son el futuro del país. 2. .They (the girls) don’t have their plane tickets. they.’ Plural form nosotros/as vosotros/as ustedes (Uds. Muchas gracias a todos vosotros por su contribución. He. Spanish is the same … with a few twists. Ellas no tienen sus boletos de avión.1. Singular form yo tú usted (Ud. and them.You are the future of the country.com . . .) ellos ellas we you (familiar) you (polite) they (masculine) they (feminine) Which “You” Should You Use? Ustedes and vosotros are used when you are addressing or talking about other people. .RocketSpanish. you. and We Pronouns in Spanish In English. we. 3.

Addressing a child: Tú eres muy joven. In most of Central and South America.Helpful Hint: Spain is one of the only countries where you’ll hear the pronoun vosotros commonly used. but Spanish has maintained a distinction between familiar and polite forms of “you. or authority figures. the elderly. . family members.23 www. teachers.You can’t lift that weight.” A Bit of History: Thou and Thee Back in the days of Shakespeare.”  The familiar tú Use the “tú” form of “you” to speak to children. These familiar forms of “you” have fallen out of use in modern-day English. people used the words “thou” and “thee” to address their friends or loved ones (royals were addressed with the more formal “you” and “ye”).com .  The polite usted Use the “usted” form of “you” when you wish to be polite or show respect. relaxed way. Por ejemplo: 1. Addressing an elderly person: ¿Adónde va usted? . the pronoun ustedes is used for both plural forms of “you.Where are you going? . 3. . or loved ones in a casual. 4. 5. Addressing a coworker: Usted tiene el dinero. You might use it with strangers. Addressing a friend: Tú no puedes levantar esa pesa. Addressing a stranger: ¿De que país es usted? .RocketSpanish. .You have the money. friends.You are very young.What country are you from? 2.

 Eres joven. Tú eres joven. ellos. 6. These changes are called conjugations. The following table shows the conjugations of the verb ser in the present tense. or future). They are. Singular Subject soy Yo (I) eres Tú (familiar you) Ud. Ella es profesora.RocketSpanish.1. ellas (you.24 www. . she) es Por ejemplo: 1. past.I am from Spain. 3.com .You are all from Spain. ella (polite you. 4. Ustedes son muy inteligentes. Yo soy de España.  Somos de Nueva Zelanda. them) somos sois son Drop the Subject Each conjugation is so precise that you usually don’t need to include a subject at all! In Spanish you can simply say the verb:  Soy de España. Nosotros somos de Nueva Zelanda. In Spanish. . Plural Subject Nosotros/as (we) Vosotros/as (familiar you) Uds.We are from New Zealand. 2.She is a teacher. as well as the tense (such as present. ..5 “To Be” Part 1: The Verb SER To Be or Not to Be In English we know the forms of the verb “to be” without thinking. . 5. . . each verb changes to reflect the subject of the verb. I am. We are.You are young. . he. Vosotros sois de España. él.You are all very intelligent. You are.

It is Matthew’s shoe. . NOT “She is a professor” (Ella es una profesora). 3. 4. you should not include either un or una. . Yo soy actor. Por ejemplo: 1.Talking about Whose It is and Where You’re From The word “de” is widely used with the verb ser. “She is professor” (Ella es profesora).Whose shoe is this? 2.They are students.RocketSpanish. Literally: Of whom is this shoe? Literally: The shoe is of Matthew. El zapato es de Mateo. . or temporary characteristics) in Chapter 2. . Note that in Spanish you will say. It means “of” when used to indicate possession and “from” when used to indicate origin. When talking about occupation. José es piloto de aviones. Literally: Those are the passports of my parents. .José is an airplane pilot. 2.Those are my parents’ passports. ¿De quién es el zapato? . health. which describes location. Literally: From where is Edward? Talking about What You Do for a Living The verb ser is used to describe occupation. Ellos son estudiantes. . Esos son los pasaportes de mis padres.4. there are TWO verbs for “to be” in Spanish! You’ll learn about the second “to be” verb (estar. Be Careful with “To Be” Verbs Unlike English. . Eduardo es de España.com . 3.Where does Edward come from? 5.25 www.Edward is from Spain.I am an actor. Por ejemplo: 1. ¿De dónde es Eduardo? .

Tengo veintiún años de edad.1.I am twenty-one years old. 12 – doce 13 – trece 14 – catorce 15 – quince 16 – dieciséis 17 – diecisiete 18 – dieciocho 19 – diecinueve 20 – veinte 21 – veintiuno 22 – veintidós 23 – veintitrés 24 – veinticuatro 25 – veinticinco 26 – veintiséis 27 – veintisiete 28 – veintiocho 29 – veintinueve 30 – treinta 31 – treinta y uno 32 – treinta y dos 33 – treinta y tres 34 – treinta y cuatro 35 – treinta y cinco Masculine and Feminine Numbers You don’t have to worry about gender with numbers 90% of the time.” We’ll learn more about that in Chapter 2. Now. una vaca.g. El pasaje de tren cuesta treinta y cuatro pesos. you need to change the ending to reflect the gender of the noun that the number is describing. e. Tengo dos lápices en mi mano.4. . . change the ending according to whether or not the number is referring to a masculine or feminine noun. If a number ends in 1.g.The train fare costs thirty-four pesos. not by whether the noun is singular or plural. or are using a number that ends in 1. 2. it’s time to learn Spanish numbers. However.I have two pencils in my hand. una flor. (The ending will only change according to gender. un perro. un lápiz “una” for feminine. una chica . 3. un año.) • • “un” for masculine.26 www. if you are talking about one thing. Starting out: 0 to 35 0 – cero 1 – uno 2 – dos 3 – tres 4 – cuatro 5 – cinco 6 – seis 7 – siete 8 – ocho 9 – nueve 10 – diez 11 – once Por ejemplo: 1.6 Numbers In the last lesson you learned about some ways Spanish uses the verb “to be. e. .com .RocketSpanish.

you will not have to worry about gender. Ciento + treinta + y + cinco = ciento treinta y cinco Although the number 100 is cien.Por ejemplo: 1. . as a numerical term rather than a quantity). “¿Cuántas?” as oranges are feminine. However … if you want to talk about the number 1 (or 21 or 31) on its own (i.” For example. Necesito veintiuna invitaciones más. . any number between 101 and 199 starts with ciento. you will say: Veinte más uno son veintiuno. . Eduardo tiene treinta y un años de edad. you must ask.I need twenty-one more invitations.e.RocketSpanish. 199 = ciento + noventa + y + nueve = ciento noventa y nueve Asking How Much or How Many In Spanish. For example. Numbers from 36 to 102 36 – treinta y seis 37 – treinta y siete 38 – treinta y ocho 39 – treinta y nueve 40 – cuarenta 41 – cuarenta y uno 50 – cincuenta 60 – sesenta 70 – setenta 80 – ochenta 90 – noventa 100 – cien 101 – ciento uno 102 – ciento dos Once you master the basic pattern. the question “How many?” is asked with one simple word: ¿Cuántos? If you are asking how many oranges (las naranjas) there are. however. You will simply use “uno. if you want to say that 20 + 1 = 21.27 www.com .Edward is thirty-one years old. you can construct any number. 2. how would you say 135? Simply remember: 135 = 100 + 30 + “and” + 5..

I have some flowers. ¿Hay flores en tu jardín? No hay flores en mi jardín.Are there flowers in your garden? There are no flowers in my garden. in Spanish there is no difference between “there is” and “there are. 3. ¿Cuántas manzanas hay en el refrigerador? Hay una manzana en el refrigerador. 2.” For example: • • Tengo unas flores. I want some pants.com .How many apples are there in the refrigerator? There is one apple in the fridge. ¿Cuántas (naranjas hay)? Hay diez naranjas.” For example. . . .How many things are in the bag? There isn’t anything. How many (orange are there)? There are 10 oranges. . ¿Cuántas cosas hay en la maleta? No hay nada. Quiero unos pantalones. You may also be interested to know that the words unos and unas can also mean “some. Fortunately.RocketSpanish.” You can say both of them with a single word: hay You can also use “hay” to ask the questions: “Is there?” or “Are there?” Por ejemplo: 1.28 www. ask: “¿Cuánto cuesta?” Can you guess why you use cuánto instead of cuántos Here’s a hint: is “el costo” singular or plural? A response to “How many?” will often begin “There are….If you want to know how much something costs (el costo).

you will also change the gender of numbers ending in –tos (i. Two thousand is dos mil. Hay miles de peces en el mar.200. .000 500. you do not say “one thousand” for the number 1000 in Spanish (un mil is incorrect).There are thousands of fish in the sea.500 pesos in the bank.There are 50.’ The only time mil is used in its plural form (miles) is when you talk about “thousands” of something in general. Don’t Forget the Gender Not only will you continue to change the gender of numbers ending in 1 when used as a quantity.000.RocketSpanish. .000 mil cien dos mil tres mil cinco mil cien mil quinientos mil un millón (de) dos millones (de) cien millones (de) Unlike English. Tengo un millón doscientos mil quinientos pesos en el banco. but simply use the word “mil. . . 101 102 110 150 200 500 700 900 1000 ciento uno ciento dos ciento diez ciento cincuenta dos cientos quinientos setecientos novecientos mil 1100 2000 3000 5000 100. there are more or less 13..000 automobiles on the highway.In Chile. using it in the sense of “many” rather than any particular number.000 inhabitants. En Chile hay más o menos trece millones de habitantes.Numbers from 101 Be careful … some of these numbers can be tricky. the hundreds) to reflect the noun they describe. mil.000. .000.000 100. does not have a separate plural form.000. Hay cincuenta mil automóviles en la carretera.e.” Also note that when you get to the thousands.000 1. For example.000 2.29 www.com .I have 1. NOT ‘dos miles. the word for “thousand” in Spanish.

For example.870. 3.95 is not a typo in Spain. .RocketSpanish.65. Although some parts of the Spanish-speaking world do follow the American convention.We manage six hundred clients in my company. 2. if you want to tell them that something costs $12. you need to write it down as $12. so don’t go looking for a missing final digit! . El rancho tiene cuatrocientas vacas.Por ejemplo: 1. it helps to know that €99.The ranch has four hundred cows.65. you need to be careful with your punctuation! Periods and commas are reversed in Spanish numbers.870.com . Reverse Puncuation: How to Write Big Numbers If you are in Spain and about to write down a number for some Spanish friends.There are two hundred girls in the school. . .30 www. Manejamos seiscientos clientes en mi compañía. Hay dos cientas niñas en la escuela.

All you need to ask is: ¿Qué hora es? Literally.31 www.com . ¿Me puede decir la hora. Exception at One O’Clock Nevertheless. 2. In most cases. Can you please tell me the time? You already have all the vocabulary you need to understand the answer. Por ejemplo: 1. Do you know why the feminine “la” and “las” are used? Hint: what gender is “hora”? . hours. ¿Qué hora es? (1:00) – Es la una. you could say ¿Me puede decir la hora. If it is only one o’clock. there is an exception. por favor? This question means. this question means: What hour is it? But we translate it as: What time is it? If you wish to ask a stranger for the time in a more polite way. you will start the answer with Es la…. The sentence structure for telling the time is similar to English. you will start the answer with Son las…. That is because the verb ser must agree with the quantity of the subject. All you need are the verb ser and the numbers. por favor? (3:32) –Son las tres y treinta y dos. – Son las doce y media.7 Telling the Time Do you want to know what time it is? Asking the time is simple in Spanish. ¿Qué hora es? (9:25) – Son las nueve y veinticinco.1.RocketSpanish. What time is it? ¿Qué hora es? – It is twelve thirty.

32 www. or in the evening.or 30-minute chunks. “¿Qué hora es?” asked as “¿Qué hora son?” Your answer will always begin “Son las…”. . 15 min/quarter 30 min/half Por ejemplo: 1. Por ejemplo … “¿Qué hora son?” “Son las una. you can also tell the time in 15. ¿Qué hora es? (1:30) – Son las dos y cuarto.International Variations In some parts of the Spanish-speaking world. ¿Qué hora es? (6:05pm) 3. a quarter to… Por ejemplo: 1. It’s half past one. you hear the question. regardless of whether the hour that follows is singular or multiple. = = cuarto media You can also tell how much time remains until striking the hour. It’s a quarter past two. you may say de la mañana de la tarde de la noche Por ejemplo: 1. ¿Qué hora es? (2:15) 2. ¿Qué hora es? (11:45pm) – Son las diez y veintitrés de la mañana – Son las seis y cinco de la tarde – Es cuarto para las doce de la noche – Es cuarto para las cuatro. = cuarto para las… for for for in the morning in the afternoon. ¿Qué hora es? (2:55) Is it Morning or Night? You can indicate morning or afternoon by using am and pm just as you would in English. Alternatively.com . – Son cinco para las tres. ¿Qué hora es? (3:45) 2. ¿Qué hora es? (10:23am) 2. For example.” Talking about Quarter Hours and Thirty Minutes As in English.RocketSpanish. – Es la una y media.

RocketSpanish. ¿A qué hora nos juntamos esta noche? . At what time…? Por ejemplo: 1. you can use the phrase: ¿A qué hora…? This means.com .At what time should we meet tonight? . ¿A qué hora te levantaste hoy? .Asking at What Time Something will Occur When you need to ask the time that a meeting or certain activity is going to take place.At what time did you get up today? 2.33 www.

you should know the following:  How to use nouns in Spanish o The difference between masculine and feminine nouns o The difference between singular and plural nouns  How to choose the correct “the” or “a”  How to talk about people: I. usted. he. Section Summary After completing this section. she. we.8 Review I. vosotros.1. “There are…” o How to write down numbers correctly  How to tell the time o How to ask at what time something will occur . and they o The differences between the four forms of you: tú. you.34 www.com .RocketSpanish. and ustedes  The basic use of the verb SER o How to say who something belongs to o How to say what you do  The numbers in Spanish o How to ask how much or how many o How to answer with.

la) automóvil (el) avión (el) banco (el) boleto de avión (el) carretera (la) chica (la) chico (el) cliente (el. and you’ll have made the first step towards becoming fluent! Vocabulary List #1 Spanish SUSTANTIVOS actor (el) ajo (el) artista (el. verbs. la) compañía (la) computadora (la) contribución (la) conversación (la) cosa (la) costo (el) cuchillo (el) destrucción (la) día (el) dinero (el) doctor (el) doctora (la) edad (la) escuela (la) España NOUNS actor garlic artist athlete automobile airplane bank. Vocabulary Review Now it’s time to review the vocabulary you’ve seen in this chapter! The vocabulary lists at the end of each section are handy resources to decipher the examples given in each chapter.com English . and 20 of the 140 MOST commonly used words in Spanish. the right words will come to mind without effort. bench plane ticket highway girl boy client company computer contribution conversation thing cost knife destruction day money doctor doctor (female) age school Spain . it will appear in the vocabulary list for each section in case you’ve forgotten it from before. Even if you don’t use any other part of the vocabulary. You will find that each section is completely independent: if a vocabulary word appears in several sections.RocketSpanish.35 www. other parts of speech. the more easily your speech will flow. Remember: the more time you invest in familiarizing yourself with these words. Each vocabulary list is divided into five sections: nouns. study those 20 words! You’ll be able to use them frequently in conversation.II. la) atleta (el. If you make Spanish practice a habit. adjectives.

Mrs. lady. la) hombre (el) hora (la) invitación (la) jardín (el) mano (la) lápiz (el) librería (la) libro (el) maleta (la) manzana (la) mañana (la) mar (el) mujer (la) naranja (la) niña (la) noche (la) novia (la) Nueva Zelanda padres (los) país (el) pantalones (los) pasaje de tren (el) pasaporte (el) pelo (el) perra (la) perro (el) pesa (la) pez (el) pianista (el.RocketSpanish. Mr.36 www. la) piloto (el) problema (el) profesora (la) puerta de salida (la) puerta (la) rancho (el) refrigerador (el) señor (el) señora (la) sistema (el) sociedad (la) tarde (la) universidad (la) vaca (la) ventana (la) student family flower vase future cat (female) cat (male) thanks guitar inhabitant man hour invitation garden hand pencil bookstore book bag.com . system society afternoon university cow window . la) familia (la) flor (la) florero (el) futuro (el) gata (la) gato (el) gracias (las) guitarra (la) habitante (el.estudiante (el. suitcase apple tomorrow sea woman orange girl night girlfriend New Zealand parents country pants train fare passport hair dog (female) dog (male) weight fish pianist pilot problem professor (female) exit door door ranch refrigerator gentleman.

com . there are today more or less half my nothing please that who? every day your COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH when? how much? how many? of. to join to lift to get up to cry to manage. may to leave to be (permanent condition) to have to touch to see ADJECTIVES intelligent young rotten OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH how? quarter where? there is.37 www. can. to drive to need to be able to. health. from he the she they (female) they (all male or mixed gender) in . los.zapato (el) VERBOS comprar correr cortar costar decir estar gustar juntarse levantar levantarse llorar manejar necesitar poder salir ser tener tocar ver ADJECTIVOS inteligente joven podrido EXPRESIONES COMUNES ¿cómo? cuarto ¿dónde? hay hoy más o menos media mi nada por favor que ¿quién? todos los días tu TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST ¿cuándo? ¿cuánto? ¿cuántos? de él el. la.RocketSpanish. emotion) to be pleasing to (to like) to get together. to tell to be (temporary state e.g. las ella ellas ellos en shoe VERBS to buy to run to cut to cost to say.

una unos.com/.com .) vosotros yo number two we all you (familiar singular) a. used in Spain) I Find a Conversation Partner! The best way to learn how to use these words—as well as learn new ones—is to find yourself a conversation partner. uno.) ustedes (Uds.meetup. an.RocketSpanish.38 www.número (el) dos nosotros/as todos/todas tú un. few you (polite singular) you (polite plural) you (familiar plural. one some. Discover one near you at http://spanish. . Many cities have informal Spanish conversation groups that meet regularly in members’ homes or cafés and are open to anyone who wants to speak or listen. unas usted (Ud.

com . Read the following dialogue. 90% of the words will fly right past your ear! That’s okay..39 www. in which Linda is trying to get to her class reunion. Try to understand what is being said without worrying about understanding every word. ¿Eres de Coquimbo? Sí. Sea uno de los treinta y dos ex-alumnos en la ciudad de Coquimbo a las doce de la tarde. and in time the words will resolve themselves in your head without your making any effort at all. las doce y media. Linda: Pablo: Linda: Pablo: Linda: Perdón.. Linda: Bienvenidos a la reunión anual de la clase de mil novecientos sesenta y cuatro. Se graduó de la universidad en mil novecientos sesenta y tres. ¿me puede decir la hora? Claro. Mi hermano es de Coquimbo. Linda pulls out the invitation and reads it aloud. Pablo: Linda: Pablo: Linda: Pablo: Linda: Pablo: PALABRAS NUEVAS estoy atrasada ¿te puedo ayudar? al norte de aquí bienvenidos anual sea uno de I’m late can I help you? to the north of here welcome annual be one of ex alumnos hermano se graduó ¿se llama? lo conozco que mundo pequeño former students brother he graduated is his name? I know him what a small world . ¡Doce y media¡ Estoy atrasada para una reunión importante. Son . ¡Yo lo conozco! Qué mundo pequeño.III. ¿Te puedo ayudar? Tengo un carro.. Tengo la invitación. La reunión está en una ciudad al norte de aquí. Bear with it.. Es artista.. Read the Conversation The best way to remember what you have just learned is to see it in the context of a conversation. Gracias.RocketSpanish. When you are learning a language. ¿Se llama Ricardo? Sí.

3. 1. 6. ______ manzana es deliciosa. 8. ________ familia vive juntos. _____ habitantes viven aquí. ________ doctora cura. _____ noche es fría. Insert the correct definite article (el. The first one is done for you. _____ atleta es rápido. unos. 7. _____ banco presta dinero. _____ compañía hace negocios. ______ flores son bonitas. _____ refrigerador está lleno.com . _____ profesores son inteligentes. 17. 12. 13. _____ país es grande. ______ cuchillo está afilado. la. Some may have MORE THAN ONE correct answer. _____ problema es difícil. ________ automóvil anda. una. ________ computadora calcula. 14. 9. 5.IV. 16. 4. 11. Exercise 1. 9. . or unas) before the noun. _____ atletas compiten. _____ pianista es buena. 4. ________ clientes compran. 3. ______ conversación es aburrida. 11. ______ gatas son de Anita. 7. ________ pianista hace música. Insert the correct indefinite article (un. 10.RocketSpanish. 12. 13.40 www. ______ zapato es negro. 15. _____ estudiante estudia. 2. ______ lápices son amarillos. 6. 10. 8. _____ peces nadan. _____ jardín es hermoso. ________ actora actúa. Ex. or las) before the noun. Exercise 2. 1. 14. 2. _____ perros ladran. Ex. 15. _____ pantalones son viejos. 5. Exercises Answers to the exercises can be found in Appendix 2 at the back of the book. ______ señores son importantes. los. _____ novia ama a su querido. Un piloto vuela. Los libros son interesantes.

eres ser somos es está son Exercise 4. 4.750. El costo del automóvil es $6. Ellas _________ muy chistosas. ___________________________________ 7. ___________________________________ . Vosotros _________ estudiantes.com . Nosotros _________de Argentina. 1. 5. Ud. Draw lines to connect the correct form of ser with the sentence in which it belongs. 4. Write out the cost of the products below in full words in Spanish.00. 2.41 www. Ex. Yo _________ artista.Exercise 3.00. El florero cuesta $21.50. Two words will be left unused. 3. El refrigerador cuesta $399. 3. soy sois 1.99. including the dólares (dollars) and centavos (cents). ochenta y cinco centavos ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 5. Ex. El costo del boleto es $46. Tú _________ de los Estados Unido. El costo de los zapatos es $65. El costo de la computadora es $1. El jabón cuesta 85 centavos.199. 2.  una persona amable.RocketSpanish. Los pantalones cuestan $100. ___________________________________ 6.

RocketSpanish. ¿Me puede decir la hora? Son las ___________________________ (1) ¿Qué hora es? (2) Son las ___________________________ ¿Qué hora tienes? Es _______________________________ (3) ¿Me puede decir la hora. “¿Qué hora es?” Ex. What time is it? Look at the picture of the watch and answer the question.com . por favor? (4) Son las ___________________________ ¿Qué hora es? Es ______________________________ (5) ¿Qué hora tienes? (6) Son las ___________________________ ¿Me puede decir la hora? Es _______________________________ (7) .42 www. ¿Qué hora es? Son las doce.Exercise 5.

43 www.RocketSpanish.com . Using Verbs .Part II.

2. the infinitive of a verb is formed by adding the word “to.RocketSpanish.1 Verbs in the Present Tense Understanding Infinitives The infinitive of a verb is.com . timeless. In Spanish. In English. present. and -IR. It is the unconjugated form of the verb and therefore has no tense (such as past.” Examples include: to learn. the infinitive of a verb is indicated by one of the following endings: –AR. to act. -ER. and to be. -AR verbs caminar … to walk dibujar … to draw preguntar … to ask estudiar … to study trabajar … to work . or future). as the name suggests.44 www. Here are some common verbs.

45 www. tell compartir … to share describir … to describe .RocketSpanish.-IR verbs escribir … to write sentir … to feel decir … to say.com .

RocketSpanish.com .46 www. the conjugations follow some very simple rules. All you have to do is change the ending of the verb according to the appropriate rule. Let’s start with the present tense and see how the verb endings change with each subject pronoun.-ER verbs comer … to eat leer … to read entretener … to entertain beber … to drink tener … to have Isolating Verb Endings Just as you saw with ser. every verb has a different conjugation according to the subject and tense of the sentence. . Fortunately.

. you first need to identify the verb “stem. -er. ER. Study the verb endings in the table below. (Tú) You run. ellas camin-o camin-as camin-a camin-amos camin-áis camin-an -ER verbs comer (to eat) com-o com-es com-e com-emos com-éis com-en -IR verbs escribir (to write) escrib-o escrib-es escrib-e escrib-imos escrib-ís escrib-en How to Conjugate a Verb In order to conjugate a verb. according to who is performing the action. dibuj + o Dibujo. ellos. in most cases. Por ejemplo: Verb dibujar preguntar leer compartir Stem dibuj pregunt le compart Now that you have the stem by itself. . How is each type of verb different? Can you detect any patterns? -AR verbs caminar (to walk) Yo Tú Ud. corr + es Corres..” The stem is the part of the verb that.Each type of verb—AR.47 www. remains constant. él. Por ejemplo: (Yo) I draw. and IR—has a different set of endings.RocketSpanish. Find the stem by taking the infinitive of the verb and removing the –ar.com . ella Nosotros Vosotros Uds. consult the table of verb endings and add the appropriate one. or –ir ending.

Por ejemplo: 1. Using Two Verbs in a Row When two verbs are used consecutively without changing the subject. ella) She asks. . él. 3. compart + ís Compartís.I hope to finish soon. le + emos Leemos.RocketSpanish. compart + en Comparten. . (Vosotros) You share. (Uds. 2. ellos.48 www.com . (Nosotros) We read. the second verb is usually written in the infinitive form. pregunt + a Pregunta.You need to study for the exam. Espero terminar pronto. .(Ud.The children need to rest this week. Tú necesitas estudiar para la prueba. . ellas) They share. Los niños necesitan descansar esta semana.

I am not an airplane pilot.When Something Isn’t Happening: Negative Sentences To convert a sentence into a negative form in Spanish. . Ella no necesita estudiar para la prueba. Be careful that you add the “no” before the conjugated verb—not the infinitive or subject. No vamos a terminar pronto.49 www. and use in the present tense. You’ll learn more about verbs in the next chapter. their endings.She does not need to study for the test. . . .We are not going to finish soon.RocketSpanish. Yo no soy piloto de aviones. Por ejemplo: ¡No ella necesita! (  incorrecto) ¡Ella no necesita! (  correcto) In this section you’ve begun to learn about verbs.com . all you need to do is add the word “no” immediately before the conjugated verb. 3. Por ejemplo: 1. 2..

ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. Like ser. 3. “Voy al mercado” … NOT Voy a el mercado. 2. it doesn’t follow the normal patterns for verb conjugations.” you must combine the two sounds of “a” and “el” into a single sound: “al. Ir happens to be a highly irregular verb. él.RocketSpanish. you know that you’ll have to add the word “to” after the verb “to go.50 www. ellas voy vas va vamos vais van Going To a Place If you want to say. ¿Van Ustedes con nosotros? . . as in “el mercado.We are going to the horse races.com . the verb ir is almost always followed by “a.” Similarly. you’ll have to memorize the following pattern for ir in the present tense: Yo Tú Ud..2 The Verb IR (to go) The verb “ir” (to go) is one of the most commonly used verbs in Spanish. If the noun that follows the “a” is masculine singular.” For example. if you wanted to say that you were going to the market.2. ellos. the preceding sentence would be translated as Voy a la playa. try to conjugate ir by taking the infinitive –ir ending away … and you’ll find there’s nothing left! Therefore. Voy al cine con Felipe. Nosotros vamos a las carreras de caballos.” a + el = al For example.I am going to the cinema with Phillip. in Spanish. you would say. It can be used for everything from announcing where you are going to what you are going to do. Por ejemplo: 1.” in English.Are you going with us? . “I am going to the beach. . Can you imagine why? For example..

The man is going to walk around the city. ¿Vas a estudiar esta noche? . 5. .com . In order to express what is going to happen. El hombre va a caminar alrededor de la ciudad. We are going to eat.Tomorrow the students are going to study in the library. 3.We are going to go for a walk Saturday. Vamos a nadar en la piscina. He Él is going va a to read. . Mañana los estudiantes van a estudiar en la biblioteca.51 www. 6. I’m going to walk to the beach. Vamos a comer.I am going to write it in the morning.Are you going to study tonight? . leer. 4.We are going to swim in the pool. . 2.Using IR to Talk about What is Going to Happen The simplest way to express that something is going to happen in the future is to use the verb to go—just as it was used in this sentence.RocketSpanish. . Vamos a salir a caminar el sábado. add the appropriate conjugated form of ir plus “a” before the infinitive form of the verb. Por ejemplo: 1. . Voy a escribirlo en la mañana. Voy a caminar a la playa.

you must also add an upside-down question (¿) mark at the beginning. If you wish to add a question mark (?) at the end of a sentence. Funky Punctuation Marks Punctuation marks in Spanish are almost exactly the same as English—except for two.52 www. if you wish to use an exclamation point (!). you ask the interrogative word in a higher-pitched voice and drop your pitch for the rest of the question. you don’t raise the pitch of your voice at the end of a question in Spanish.2. ¡Bien hecho! . ¿Cómo te va? How’s it going? Additionally.com Well done! . however. you must add an upside-down exclamation point (¡) at the beginning of the exclamation.3 Asking Questions There are many helpful words to enable you to ask questions in Spanish. The most common are: Interrogative word ¿Cuándo? ¿Dónde? ¿Adónde? ¿De dónde? ¿Cuánto/a? ¿Cuántos/as? ¿Qué? ¿Por qué? ¿Cómo? ¿Cuál? ¿Cuáles? ¿Quién? / ¿Quiénes? When? Where? Where to? From where? How much? How many? What? Why? How? Which Which ones? Who? Por ejemplo ¿Cuándo terminas? ¿Dónde está el baño? ¿Adonde vamos? ¿De dónde eres tú? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Cuántos son? When do you finish? Where is the bathroom? Where are we going? Where are you from? How much is it? How many are they? ¿Qué te gusta What do you like to tomar? drink? ¿Por qué preguntas? Why do you ask? ¿Cómo estas? ¿Cuál es mío? ¿Cuáles son tuyos? ¿Quién es él? How are you? Which is mine? Which ones are yours? Who is he? Inflection Unlike English.RocketSpanish. Rather.

¿no? However.com . ¿verdad? . in English. Ustedes tienen mucha comida. ¿Estamos contentos? You are hot. we make a statement then add.Using a Statement as a Question As in English. When asking a question. The same is true in Spanish. Do Mary and John finish first? You guys have a lot of food. Estamos contentos. the order is as follows: ¿Complete verb(s) + subject + object? Por ejemplo: 1. ¿Tienes calor? 2. Maria y Juan terminan primero.” you’ll ask. no? You can do the same thing in Spanish: El museo está a la izquierda. Are you hot? We are happy. Por ejemplo: 1. right? The museum is on the left.53 www. “Right?” or “Really?” or “No?” For example: You’re going to take the garbage out. Are we happy? Note that in English the order of the subject and verb are switched when converting a statement to a question. ¿Tienen Uds. Do you have a lot of food? Asking “Really? Is That True?” Often. “True?” Vas a sacar la basura.RocketSpanish. when we want to know whether or not something is true. Tienes calor. instead of saying “right” or “really. mucha comida? Mary and John finish first. you may use a statement to ask a question as long as you raise the pitch of your voice at the end of the question. ¿Terminan Maria y Juan primero? 2.

El carro tiene gasolina.RocketSpanish. right? 2. ¿verdad? The car has gas. ¿no? The dress is very pretty. El vestido es muy bonito. El vestido es muy bonito.Simply remember to raise the pitch of your voice when you say “¿no?” or “¿verdad?” Por ejemplo: 1.com .54 www. El carro tiene gasolina. The car has gas. The dress is very pretty. no? .

Where is…? For example: ¿Dónde está el baño? ¿Dónde está mi carro? ¿Dónde está el hotel? Where is the bathroom? Where is my car? Where is the hotel? If you want to understand the answer. you’d be mistaken to use the “to be” verb that you learned in Chapter 1. Where am I? The most common way of asking the location of an object. él. If you wanted to say. The verb “estar” has a straight-forward conjugation in the present tense: Present tense of ESTAR Yo Tú Ud.2. you need to learn some basic direction and location words. person or place is: ¿Dónde está…? This means. ellas estoy estás está estamos estáis están Note the placement of the accent marks as well.4 “To Be” Part 2: The Verb ESTAR A couple of chapters ago. ser. . “I am sick.com . such as being married (casado) or being tall (alto) or skinny (flaco). is used to describe location. estar..” In this lesson we take a further look.” The accent marks.” or.55 www. distinguish completely separate words. in addition to indicating the correct pronunciation. or any condition that is only temporary. you certainly don’t expect to be sick or lost forever. “Ser” only describes permanent or nearly permanent states.” in Spanish. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds.RocketSpanish. esta means “this. The second “to be” verb in Spanish. we worked on the basic use of the verb “to be. In the above example.” as in esta cosa or “this thing.. health.5. While está can mean he or she is or you are. “I am lost. ellos.

Important Direction Words a la derecha … to the right a la izquierda … to the left adelante … in front delante de … in front of delante de … in front of en … in. on encima de … on top of .com .RocketSpanish.56 www.

RocketSpanish.com .57 www.cerca … near lejos … far away debajo … underneath sobre … above entre … between al lado … beside detrás … behind .

¿Dónde está el gato? El gato está al lado del perro.Where is my car? Está lejos.com .It’s to the right. 2.2.For example: ¿Dónde está el baño? . all the above direction words require de if they are followed by an object. . ¿Dónde está mi carro? .RocketSpanish. Where is the cat? The cat is beside the dog. Where is the bathroom? The bathroom is near the office.Where is the bathroom? Está adelante. Where is the pencil? The pencil is to Maria’s right.” More examples: 1. ¿Dónde está el hotel? . entre. Coming up next is a review of what you’ve learned in this part of the program. You’ll get more practice with the verb estar in Chapter 3. . .It’s far away. ¿Dónde está el lápiz? El lápiz está a la derecha de Maria.It’s in front. Forming DEL from DE and EL Remember that the word de means of? Except for adelante.Where is the hotel? Está a la derecha. For example: a la izquierda de la calle principal delante de la tienda cerca del parque al lado del museo nacional to the left of the principal street in front of the shop near the park beside the national museum Hint: The words “de” + “el” form the contraction “del. . 3. and en. ¿Dónde está el baño? El baño está cerca de la oficina.58 www.

thank you. 2. to a friend) How are you? (e. ¿Cómo está Juanita? Juanita está muy feliz. to a group of friends) How are you? (e. 3.. ¿Cómo está tu madre? Ella está muy cansada por el viaje.. How do you ask others how they feel? Yo Tú Ud. ¿Cómo están los pajaros de tu tío? Los pajaros de mi tío están enfermos. gracias. ¿Cómo estoy? ¿Cómo estás? ¿Cómo está Ud? ¿Cómo estamos? ¿Cómo estáis? ¿Cómo están Uds. How is Juanita? Juanita is very happy. Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. to a group of co-workers) Por ejemplo: 1. How are your uncle’s birds? My uncle’s birds are sick.g.. Therefore. to your boss) How are we? How are you? (e.g.com . How is your mother? She is very tired because of the trip.How Do You Feel? When you talk about how you feel—whether you be tired.g. Doctor? How am I. . How are you this morning? I am very well. ¿Cómo estoy. Doctor? Usted está muy saludable.RocketSpanish. You are very healthy. ¿Cómo estás esta mañana? Estoy muy bien. sad. or sick--you are usually talking about a temporary state.g. 5.? How am I? How are you? (e. you should use the “to be” verb estar. 4.59 www.

RocketSpanish.5 Review I.2. you should know the following:  How to use verbs in Spanish o What it means to talk about the “infinitive” of a verb o The steps of a verb conjugation  How to talk about where you’re going  How to talk about what you’re going to do  How to ask a question  How to ask for and give directions  How to ask how someone is feeling and express how you feel .com .60 www. Section Summary After completing this section.

RocketSpanish.com English . Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #2 Spanish SUSTANTIVOS baño (el) basura (la) biblioteca (la) calle principal (la) calor (el) carreras de caballo (las) carro (el) cine (el) ciudad (la) gasolina (la) gato (el) hombre (el) hotel (el) lápiz (el) madre (la) mañana (la) mercado (el) museo nacional (el) niños (los) pájaro (el) parque (el) perro (el) piloto de aviones (el) piscina (la) playa (la) prueba (la) sábado (el) semana (la) tienda (la) tío (el) verdad (la) vestido (el) viaje (el) VERBOS beber caminar comer compartir descansar describir dibujar entretener esperar estar estudiar gustar leer NOUNS bathroom garbage. to wait to be (health.61 www. location) to study to be pleasing to (to like) to read . store uncle truth dress trip VERBS to drink to walk to eat to share to rest to describe to draw to entertain to hope.II. feelings. cinema city gas cat man hotel pencil mother morning market national museum children bird park dog airplane pilot swimming pool beach test Saturday week shop. trash library principal street heat horse races car theater.

com . to the (masculine singular) well each as.RocketSpanish.necesitar preguntar sacar sentir terminar tomar trabajar ADJECTIVOS bonito cansado contento enfermo feliz saludable EXPRESIONES COMUNES adelante ¿adónde? al lado alrededor de cerca ¿cuándo? ¿cuánto/a? ¿cuántos/as? ¿de dónde? debajo delante de derecha detrás en encima esta hecho izquierda lejos mañana mío pronto sobre tuyo TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST a. happy sick happy healthy OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH in front where to? beside around near when? how much? how many? from where? underneath in front of right behind in. al bien cada como ¿cómo? ¿cuál? ¿cuáles? decir ¿dónde? entre ir to need (to) to ask to take out to feel to finish to drink. like. on on top this done left far tomorrow mine soon above yours COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH to. how how? which which ones? to say. to take to work ADJECTIVES pretty tired content. tell where? between to go .62 www.

a lot very why? first what? who? only still. yet once .mucho muy ¿por qué? primero ¿qué? ¿quién? ¿quiénes? solo.RocketSpanish.63 www.com . solamente todavía vez (una) much.

III. No. hasta el Hotel Windsor. set you’re welcome good luck you need it . ¿Cómo se llama la calle? Se llama la Calle San Isidro. No. Vas a ver un hotel grande. ¿Me puedes ayudar? Claro. pero no estoy seguro. Listo. señor! De nada. ¿Cómo se llama el hotel? Creo que se llama el Windsor. El Hotel Windsor. Read the Conversation Margarita is asking Esteban for directions. A la izquierda. Tres cuadras hasta la Calle San Isidro. vas a ir a la izquierda. El museo está detrás del hotel. el museo está detrás del hotel. See if you can follow their conversation. ¡La necesitas! PALABRAS NUEVAS estoy buscando ¿Me puedes ayudar? ¿Ves? edificio alto seguir una cuadra I’m looking for Can you help me? Do you see? tall building to continue a block . Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Estoy buscando el museo nacional. I believe that to be sure ready. Está cerca de aquí. Buena suerte. De allí.com Creo que estar seguro listo de nada buena suerte la necesitas I think that.64 www. camino cuatro cuadras— —tres cuadras. El museo está delante del hotel. Entonces. voy al edificio alto. ¿Ves el edificio alto? Sí. De allí. Desde ese edifício.RocketSpanish. vas a seguir tres cuadras. ¡Gracias. sigo la calle a la derecha— —a la izquierda.

2. Juan trabajar los días miércoles. Nosotros le preguntar a la profesora. ¿Necesitar ustedes algo? _________________________________ 10. Carlos y Pepe tomar jugo. El artista dibujar el paisaje. Exercises Exercise 1. Ex. Vosotros descansar ahora.RocketSpanish. Tú esperar el autobús. Los estudiantes estudiar todos los días. Casuela y yo nadar los fines de semana. _________________________________ 11. _________________________________ 8. . Yo caminar al parque.65 - _________________________________ www. _________________________________ 6.IV. Using the –AR verb endings that you have just learned. _________________________________ 5. A ella le gustar el chocolate. _________________________________ 7. Lupita y su hermano sacar la basura. _________________________________ 3.com . camino _________________________________ 1. _________________________________ 9. write in the correctly conjugated verb to the right of the sentence. _________________________________ 4.

Tú beber una cola. _________________________________ 6. Vosotros salir temprano. El doctor describir el problema. Tú me escribir un mensaje electrónico. La niña ver el jardín. _________________________________ 11.66 - _________________________________ www. Nadia y yo escribir cartas. _________________________________ 3. y yo leer todas las noches.Exercise 2. Cristóbal y Emilio comer hamburguesas. leen _________________________________ 1. _________________________________ 5.RocketSpanish. Luis.com . 2. Using the –ER and –IR verb endings that you have just learned. . Yo correr alrededor de la escuela. Ustedes leer los libros. German. write in the correctly conjugated verb to the right of the sentence. _________________________________ 8. La atleta correr rápidamente. _________________________________ 10. Mi tío compartir su sándwich conmigo. _________________________________ 9. Ex. _________________________________ 7. _________________________________ 4.

Vamos a nadar en el mar. ¿Cuánto cuestan los zapatos? ($21. Gloria y Juana comen pescado. Manejas el carro. 6. Termino los ejercicios.m.25) 1. Tenemos una fiesta. _____________________________________________ Exercise 4.RocketSpanish. Take each sentence and rewrite it as a future happening by using the verb ir. ¿Quién está en la casa? (Manuel) 5. 1. Camináis al parque. 2.) ________________________________________________________________________ 3. La mujer corta el pan. 3. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 4. ¿Cuál maleta es de Pablo? (la maleta negra) Los zapatos cutan veintiún dólar y veinticinco centavos. Ex.? (Brasil—hint: answer as “I”) 4. Write out the numbers. Nadamos en el mar.__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 8.67 www. Los niños preguntan por su amigo. ¿De dónde es Ud. Answer each question with the answer supplied. _____________________________________________ 5. Ex.Exercise 3. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 7. ¿Cuántas naranjas tenemos? (12) _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ .com . _____________________________________________ 2. Estudio por una hora. ¿Cuándo llega Elena a la estación? __________________________________________ (3:30 p.

Exercise 5. detrás de. 4. La calle está ________________________ parque. ¿Dónde está el gato? Ex.RocketSpanish. El automóvil está ______________________ niño. La guitarra está _______________________ niño. 7.68 www. El gato está debajo del pájaro. alrededor de. 1. en. debajo de. 3. encima de. and sobre—plus the correct form of “the. 5. El gato está __________________________ perro. Explain where each item is by filling in the blanks below with one of the following direction words—al lado de. El niño está _______________________ manzana.com . Look at the picture below.” Use each word once. . Los niños juegan ____________________ parque. 6. ¿Dónde está la manzana? ¿Dónde está la guitarra? ¿Dónde está la calle? ¿Dónde está el automóvil? ¿Dónde está el niño? ¿Dónde juegan los niños? 2. La manzana está ______________________ niño.

RocketSpanish.com .Part III. Describing Things .69 www.

Descriptive words always come after the noun they describe (such as gato gordo. you say “white horse. alto … tall bueno … good bajo … short caliente … hot .RocketSpanish.” In Spanish.com .70 www.3. “fat cat”). Here are some common descriptive words. In English.1 Adjectives Part 1: Descriptions Getting Nouns and Adjectives in Order One of the biggest differences between English and Spanish is the order of the adjectives and nouns. you say “horse white” (caballo blanco).

RocketSpanish.brillante … bright chico … small claro … clear fuerte … strong débil … weak grande … big frío … cold hermoso … beautiful .71 www.com .

3. .72 www. .The night is dark. Use “estar” because it is especially dark this night in particular. 4.lento … slow oscuro … dark malo … bad rápido … fast mojado … wet sucio … dirty Describing Things The two most common words used to link nouns and descriptive words are “ser” (to be—a permanent condition) and “estar” (to be—a temporary state). La señora es rubia. Use “estar” because the boy is just dirty right now. La noche está oscura.com Use “ser” because the horses will always be big. El niño está sucio. Use “ser” because the woman’s hair color is a stable characteristic. . Por ejemplo: 1. .The boy is dirty. . 2. .The woman is blond.RocketSpanish. Los caballos son grandes.The horses are big.

the noun “señora” is feminine and singular.The fighters are strong. El autobús está muy lento hoy. if the noun is feminine. simply add an “s” to the ending. Por ejemplo: fuerte (strong) Masculine fuert-e Masculine plural fuert-es Feminine fuert-e Feminine plural fuert-es 1. To change to the feminine form of the adjective. the adjective “grandes” is in a masculine plural form. the noun “caballos” is masculine and plural. If the noun is plural.Adjust the Adjective to Suit the Noun Adjectives in Spanish reflect the characteristics of the noun. Examine the examples above. the adjective will have a feminine ending. El viento está muy fuerte. simply add “s”. .The bus is very slow today. the adjective will have a plural form.RocketSpanish. they do change according to whether the noun is singular or plural. Adjectives that End in –e Adjectives ending in –e or any consonant will not change their form no matter what the gender of the noun.Maria is a slow reader. 2. Los luchadores son fuertes. In the first example.73 www.The wind is very strong.com . you need to change the –o to –a. Therefore. Por ejemplo … lento (slow) Masculine lent-o Masculine plural lent-os Feminine lent-a Feminine plural lent-as 1. . To convert the singular form to the plural. . For example. . . 2. Adjectives that End in –o or –a Adjectives ending in –o are already in masculine form. this means: Maria is slow to read. Nevertheless. Maria es lenta para leer. Literally. In other words. Therefore. To make an adjective plural. the adjective “rubia” is also feminine and singular. In the second example. their masculine and feminine forms are the same.

What Country are You From? Descriptive adjectives are also used to describe the nationality of people. Review the examples below: estadounidense … American (US) canadiense … Canadian español/a … Spanish francés/a … French inglés/a … English indio/a … Indian .74 www.com .RocketSpanish.

. Soy de Alemania. You can also express your nationality using the phrase Soy de… (I’m from…) that you learned in Chapter 1.com Soy alemán. .She is from France. .My father is German and my mother Spanish.My parents are English. 3. . . adjectives of nationality are not capitalized. 3. Por ejemplo: 1. Mis abuelos son peruanos.My grandparents are Peruvians.75 www. Yo soy chileno. Mi padre es alemán y mi madre española.RocketSpanish. Ella es francésa.5. 2.I’m from Germany. Ella es de Francia. unlike English. . or or or . 2.alemán/a … German peruano/a … Peruvian australiano/a … Australian chileno/a … Chilean Note that in Spanish. . .My parents are from England.I am Chilean. Mis padres son de Inglaterra.She is French. . . Mis padres son ingleses. Por ejemplo: 1.I am German.

Did we buy enough paper for everyone? 3. . 2. simple.Describing How Much in General You also use adjectives to describe quantity. Matías es un mal pescador. or Matías es un pescador malo. Unlike descriptions of qualities.. For example. enough Short and Simple: Adjectives like BUEN and MAL Adjectives that are very common. Some examples are: muchos/as pocos/pocas demasiado suficiente Por ejemplo: 1. 2. many few too much sufficient. Por ejemplo: 1.Matthew is a bad fisherman. . . you may place the following adjective either before or after the noun: • • • grande/gran (big. these adjectives are usually placed before the noun. . ¿Compramos suficiente papel para todos? .RocketSpanish.com . Hay un buen concierto esta noche. great) malo/mal (bad) bueno/buen (good) The above adjectives will change their structure if placed before a noun by dropping off their final syllable (i. and short may go before the noun in some instances.e.I have many apples in my bag.There is a good concert tonight.There are few people in the cinema. Hay poca gente en el cine.76 www. -de or –o). or Hay un concierto bueno esta noche. Tengo muchas manzanas en mi bolso. .

Es una gran carrera. He is a great singer. 2. It is a great race. Por ejemplo: 1.com . Es una carrera grande.77 www. It is a long race.RocketSpanish. He is a big singer. . Él es un gran cantante. Él es un cantante grande.Big or Great? Using GRAN and GRANDE The meaning of the adjective grande may change from “big” to “great” depending on whether it is placed in front of or after the noun.

78 www.com . a clean house will eventually become messy.My father and I are busy. and emotional states or feelings. a tidy room will soon become disorganized. 2. La tienda está cerrada. Por ejemplo: 1.RocketSpanish. Mi habitación está ordenada. Remember that these conditions or states must be temporary. ¿Estás cansado? . Estoy muy enojado. as it not only describes location but also physical. 2.I am very angry. Express a condition or feeling by adding a descriptive adjective after estar. 3. If you are describing a permanent condition of something (for example. On the following page is a list of common adjectives used with estar: .Are you tired? You can also use estar in this way to describe the condition of various places or things. Mi padre y yo estamos ocupados. mental. La casa está limpia. 3. . Por ejemplo: 1.My room is tidy.” or “The wall is white”). and a closed shop will eventually open.3. you must use ser. . In other words.The house is clean. . .The shop is closed. .2 Using ESTAR to Express a Feeling or Condition The verb estar is one of the most useful verbs in Spanish. “El pared es blanco. Let’s practice more with this important verb.

79 www.Physical conditions or states caliente … hot ordenado … tidy helado … icy oscuro … dark limpio … clean sucio … dirty lleno … full .com vacío … empty .RocketSpanish.

RocketSpanish.80 www.com .Mental or emotional feelings triste … sad nervioso … nervous feliz … happy cansado … tired ocupado … busy enojado … angry preocupado … worried adolorido … sore .

but no.com . The boy is bored. or cold.” “I have thirst. El niño es aburrido. however. it is because the statement “Estoy caliente” means—to be blunt—“I’m horny. Él es profesor.” to mean “I am hot” (rather than Tengo calor) people will look at you strangely! That is not because the sentence is grammatically incorrect. Here is a summary to help you clarify their use. you will use the verb tener (to have). El perro es malo.DO NOT use estar to describe feeling hungry. Use SER for. Por ejemplo: 1.” et cetera. If you try to say. Estás triste. Estás estudiando. 4. La manzana está verde. If you confuse ser and estar while you’re in a Spanish-speaking country. When to Use SER One of the most difficult things for new Spanish speakers to learn is the difference between ser and estar. The meaning of many sentences can completely change according to whether you use ser or estar … and sometimes in very embarrassing ways.RocketSpanish. they’ll still understand you … right? I hate to disappoint you. Use ESTAR for… Location Weather Physical Health Mental Health and Well Being Emotions Continuous actions in the present Por ejemplo Estamos en Perú. hot.” When to Use ESTAR.” “I have heat. The boy is boring. thirsty. El hombre está borracho. Using the proper verb to express feelings is very important. La manzana es verde. The dog is bad. Possession Nationality Occupation Permanent Characteristics Time Por ejemplo La casa es mía. The Importance of Getting SER and ESTAR Right You may wonder why all the fuss. You will learn how to use the verb tener in Chapter 5.. “Estoy caliente. El niño está aburrido. El perro está malo. The man is drunk. The apple is green. “I have hunger. . Rather.. Estoy enfermo. La puerta es vieja. as in.1. The man is a drunk. El hombre es borracho. The apple is unripe. Instead. Estamos cansados. Está nublado. 2. Son las ocho y media. Yo soy de España. The dog is sick.81 www. 3.

3.3 Talking about the Weather
If you find yourself with nothing left to say to your new Spanish-speaking friends, you can always talk about the weather. Imagine that you are on the phone to a friend in Spain and want to ask what the weather is like over there. There are two ways that you can do so. You can ask: ¿Qué tiempo hace? Or, you can ask: ¿Cómo está el tiempo? In fact, there are a variety of phrases you can use, including, “¿Cómo está el clima?” (How’s the weather/climate?) and “¿Cómo está por afuera?” (What’s it like outside?). The first two phrases are the most common, however. Both are interchangeable, but when you respond, you will have to decide whether to use one of two verbs: hacer and estar. Por ejemplo: 1. ¿Qué tiempo hace? Hace mucho frío. 2. ¿Cómo está el tiempo? Está lloviendo. What’s the weather like? It’s very cold. How’s the weather? It’s raining.

You are going to have to memorize the conditions in which you use “hace” as opposed to “está”. Here are some common weather conditions to help you: Use “hace…” (+ “mucho” if desired) Hace calor. Hace frio. Hace viento. Hace sol. Hace buen tiempo. Hace mal tiempo. It’s hot. It’s cold. It’s windy. It’s sunny. It’s good weather. It’s bad weather. Use “está…” (+ “muy” if desired) Está despejado. Está nublado. Está fresco. Está malo. Está bueno. Está lloviendo. Está nevando. It’s clear. It’s cloudy. It’s fresh. It’s bad. It’s nice. It’s raining. It’s snowing.

To emphasize a weather condition (in other words, add a “very” in front), you will use “mucho” for “hace” and “muy” for “está.” For example:  “Hace mucho calor.”  “Está muy bueno.” It’s very hot. It’s very nice.
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However, if the word following “está” is a verb (such as lloviendo or nevando), you cannot use “muy.” You will have to add a “mucho” after the verb.  “Está lloviendo mucho.” Por ejemplo: 1. ¿Cómo está el clima? Hace mucho frio. 2. ¿Qué tiempo hace? Está nevando mucho. 3. ¿Cómo está por afuera? Hace mucho viento. 4. ¿Cómo está el tiempo? Está muy despejado. How’s the weather? It’s very cold. What’s the weather like? It’s snowing a lot. What’s it like outside? It’s very windy. How’s the weather? It’s very clear. It’s raining a lot.

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3.4 Adjectives Part 2: Who Owns What
My Hat, Your Hat: Understanding Possessive Adjectives
Singular Noun mi tu su nuestro/a vuestro/a Plural Noun mis tus sus nuestros/as vuestros/as Translation my your (familiar) their, your, his, her , its our your (formal)

These types of adjectives are used to express possession or ownership. When the pronoun is singular, these adjectives do not change according to gender. However, when the pronoun is plural (nosotros or vosotros), the possessive adjectives do reflect the gender of the subject noun. As you can see from the table above, all possessive adjectives reflect the quantity of the noun to which they refer.

What is Owned v. Who Owns It
It may seem confusing to distinguish between the pronoun (e.g., I, you, we, them) implied by the possessive adjective, and the noun that is the subject of the sentence. Possessive adjectives will not reflect the gender or quantity of the person or persons owning a thing; rather, they’ll reflect the gender and quantity of the thing being owned. For example, take the sentence, “My hands are sore.” What is the subject? What is the possessive adjective? What is the descriptive adjective? hands my sore (in Spanish, manos) (in Spanish, mis) (in Spanish, doloridas)

Both the possessive and descriptive adjectives will reflect the gender and quantity of the subject noun, “hands.” Por ejemplo: 1. El color de mi vestido es negro. - The color of my dress is black. 2. Sus padres están enfermos. - Their parents are sick. 3. Nuestras carteras son iguales. - Our handbags are the same.
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This is All Mine
There is another way of referring to what you own. You may wish to say, “That car is mine,” or, “The purse is hers.” Use one of the following words. Singular mío/a tuyo/a suyo/a nuestro/a vuestro/a Por ejemplo: 1. El carro es mío. - The car is mine. 2. La cartera es suya. - The handbag is hers. 3. Las manzanas son nuestras. - The apples are ours. Just like an ordinary adjective, you must match the gender (masculine or feminine) and quantity (singular or plural) of the stressed possessive adjective to the noun. You can also use one of these words to replace the noun. Look at the difference between the following sentences:  Is this seat yours?  I don’t want to use yours. ¿Es este asiento suyo? No quiero usar el tuyo. Plural míos/as tuyos/as suyos/as nuestros/as vuestros/as Translation mine, my your, yours his, her, hers, its, your, yours our, ours your, yours

In the first sentence, “yours” is acting as an adjective. In the second sentence, “yours” is acting as a pronoun. To use mío, tuyo, suyo, etc. as pronouns, all you have to do is add an el, la, los, or las in front. For example, if you want to use “mine” as a noun (as in, “Mine is the best,” or, “You want mine”), you will use el mío, la mía, los míos, or las mías.

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The flowers in my garden are all dry! – La mía está muy limpia. and mine too. aren’t they? .Do you have the books from the library? – Yes. ¿Las tuyas también.com . and yours? 3. ¡Las flores en mi jardín están todas secas! . y también tengo los míos. . y la tuya? .Mine is very clean. no? Yours are too.Por ejemplo: 1. ¿Tienes tú los libros de la biblioteca? – Sí. ¿Mi casa está muy desordenada.My house is very messy.86 www. 2. .RocketSpanish.

87 www. place. .3. her. our. when to use ESTAR  How to ask about the weather  How to say my. your. and their. or thing  How to express your nationality  How to talk about physical conditions or emotional states  When to use SER.com . you should know the following:  How to describe a person.RocketSpanish.5 Review I. Section Summary After completing this section. his.

la) carrera (la) cartera (la) casa (la) cine (el) clima (el) color (el) concierto (el) gato (el) habitación (la) hombre (el) libro (el) luchador (el) manzana (la) niño (el) noche (la) padre (el) padres (los) papel (el) pared (la) perro (el) pescador (el) señora (la) tiempo (el) tienda (la) vestido (el) viento (el) VERBOS comprar estudiar llover nevar tener ADJECTIVOS aburrido adolorido alemán/a alto australiano bajo NOUNS seat bus library bag horse heat singer race handbag house theater.RocketSpanish. Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #3 Spanish SUSTANTIVOS asiento (el) autobús (el) biblioteca (la) bolso (el) caballo (el) calor (el) cantante (el.II.com English .88 www. cinema climate. Mrs. store dress wind VERBS to buy to study to rain to snow to have ADJECTIVES boring sore German tall Australian short . weather color concert cat room man book fighter apple boy night father parents paper wall dog fisherman lady. also weather shop. time.

89 www.com .blanco borracho brillante caliente canadiense cansado cerrado chico chileno/a claro débil demasiado desordenado despejado enfermo enojado español/a estadounidense feliz francés/a fresco frío fuerte gordo helado hermoso igual indio/a inglés lento limpio lleno mojado mucho negro nervioso nublado ocupado ordenado oscuro peruano preocupado rápido rubia seco sucio suficiente triste vacío verde white drunk bright hot Canadian tired closed small Chilean clear weak too much disorganized clear sick angry Spanish American (US) happy French fresh cold strong fat icy beautiful same Indian English slow clean full wet many black nervous cloudy busy tidy dark Peruvian worried fast blond dry dirty sufficient. enough sad empty green .RocketSpanish.

com . on top of his. your (Uds) your (tú) old your (vosotros) . sus tu.RocketSpanish.TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST bajo bueno corto diferente gran grande largo leer mal malo mi. vuestros COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH under.90 www. your (Ud). her. wrongly bad my our small few without about. below good short different great big long to read badly. tus viejo vuestro. their. nuestros pequeño poco sin sobre su. above. mis nuestro.

estoy muy preocupado por Juan. He opens a window. no está lloviendo. Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Qué fiesta.com . Pero hace mucho calor. No te preocupes. Hernando looks outside. ¿Por qué? Porque está borracho. Yo le voy a hablar. pero va a estar enfermo si sigue tomando. Hernando: No.III. Hablé con un chico muy guapo. no está enfermo. Tiene el pelo rubio.RocketSpanish. ¿Qué tiempo hace afuera? Si no está lloviendo. ¿Está enfermo? No. ¿Y qué más? Estoy muy feliz. ¿no? ¡Sí! No está aburrida. Se llama John y es australiano. ¡Chévere! PALABRAS NUEVAS qué fiesta… pero afuera si sabes ¿por qué? porque what a party but outside if you know why? because cara media seguir tomando ¿y qué más? hablé con guapo chévere face a little bit to continue drinking what else? I talked with handsome cool . Read the Conversation Read the following conversation.91 www. y la cara está media verde. in which Sierra and Hernando take a break from their party to swap stories. Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sabes. podemos abrir las ventanas.

IV. brilliante. grande. mojado. feliz.RocketSpanish. enojado. write two adjectives that describe the picture. caliente __________________________________ (1) _________________________________ _________________________________ (4) _________________________________ _________________________________ (2) _________________________________ _________________________________ (5) _________________________________ _________________________________ .92 www. Exercises Exercise 1. rápido. frío. brillante. and sucio. Choose from the following list: bajo. Using the pictures below. caliente. hermosa. (3) _________________________________ Ex.com . fuerte.

tienes suerte que (5) _________ un hombre muy amable y que el bus (6) _________ casi vacío. Mira el reloj. El chofer (1) ________ una persona importante y (2) ________ muy ocupado. Es lunes dos de mayo. ¡Ya son las ocho! Corre para el autobús. _____________________________________________ 8. déjame pasar. (4) ________ muy tonta y me olvidé la cartera. —Señorita. Pick the correct form of ser or estar to fill in the blanks in the story. ¿Cúal cosa no tiene? Pilar se levanta a las ocho de la mañana. —¿Qué voy a hacer?—piensa ella—. por favor—dice el chofer. No me va a esperar.Exercise 2.com . Pilar se levanta tarde. ¿A qué hora se levanta Pilar? 7. ¿Cómo es el chofer? _____________________________________________ 10. No sea malito. ¿Cómo se siente Pilar cuando _____________________________________________ sube al bus? . descubrir—to discover) 9.93 www. señor—dice Pilar—. ¿Cómo se siente Pilar cuando _____________________________________________ descubre que no tiene dinero? (sentirse—feel. Pilar busca en su maleta.RocketSpanish. ¡La próxima vez va a levantarse más temprano! levantarse—to wake up sonar—to make a sound despertador—alarm pasaje—fare chofer—driver buscar—to search encontrar—to find esperar—to wait ahora—now perdón—excuse me tonta—foolish olvidarse—to forget lo siento—I’m sorry no sea malito—don’t be mean déjame—let me tener suerte—to be lucky casi—almost esta vez—this time la próxima vez—next time Ex. No encuentra su cartera. Pilar (3) _________ nerviosa ahora. Ella (7) ________ muy cansada. Lo siento mucho. then answer the questions below. —Perdón. porque no suena su despertador. —Pasaje. Puedes pasar … ¡esta vez! Pilar sube al bus.

94 www. hace frío. Ex. hace calor. Answer the question. “¿Qué tiempo hace?” by writing in the appropriate weather phrase next to the picture. Está lloviendo ____________________ (1) (2) ____________________ ____________________ (3) (4) ____________________ ____________________ (5) (6) ____________________ ____________________ (7) . está nublado.RocketSpanish. hace sol.Exercise 3. Chooose from the following descriptions: está nevando.com . hace viento. está despejado. está lloviendo.

Ex. 5. 7. 3. 9. ¿De quiénes son los libros? (ustedes) Son _________________ libros. 1. 12. . 10. ¿De quién son las cosas? (los niños) . ¿De quién son los papeles? (ella) Son sus papeles. 14. 11. ¿De quién es el perro? (Pepe) Es ___________________ perro. ¿De quién es la cartera? (tú) Es _________________ cartera.com Son _________________ cosas. ¿De quién es la invitación? (mi madre y mi padre) Es _______________ invitación. ¿De quién son los pantalones? (tú) Son _____________ pantalones. ¿De quién son los zapatos? (Carlita y yo) Son _______________ zapatos. ¿De quién es el rancho? (la familia Correa) Es _________________ rancho.RocketSpanish. 8.95 www. ¿De quién es el problema? (nosotros) Es _______________ problema. ¿De quién es la piscina? (vosotros) Es __________________ piscina. Answer each question by inserting the correct possessive adjective. 6. 2.Exercise 4. 4. 13. ¿De quién es el pasaporte? (yo) Es _______________ pasaporte. ¿De quién es el dinero? (usted) Es __________________ dinero. ¿De quién es el automóvil? (Juana y Diego) Es _______________ automóvil. ¿De quién es la guitarra? (yo) Es _________________ guitarra.

Part IV.RocketSpanish.com .96 www. More Pronouns .

not afterwards. “ate” is the verb.” the “cat” is the subject. them (masculine) you (formal. Estela tiene el libro. her us you (familiar. and “mouse” is the direct object.4. For example. The pronoun él replaces the proper noun Juan.” the pronoun he is used to replace the proper noun John. English me you (informal) you (formal. The direct object comes before the verb.Estela has the book. because he was sick. “The cat ate the mouse.” The pronoun “it” would refer to the mouse. Los estoy comprando. If you wanted to replace the direct object noun with a pronoun. There is another way in which pronouns are used: to avoid unnecessarily repeating the direct object of a sentence. masculine). in the sentence. Estela has it. Her. plural) you (formal. Let’s look at some direct object pronouns now. . them (feminine) . becomes becomes becomes becomes Estela lo tiene. plural). porque él estaba enfermo. Spanish me te lo la nos os los las Por ejemplo: 1. and Us: Direct Object Pronouns Understanding Direct Object Pronouns In English. . plural). him. For example.com .97 www. you could say. in the sentence. We have seen that pronouns can be used in the same way in Spanish. pronouns replace nouns previously mentioned to avoid unnecessarily repeating them.RocketSpanish. it you (formal. “John did not come to work. 2. Estoy comprando unos zapatos. In Spanish. The direct object is the object that the action in the sentence is happening to.1 Talking about Me. I am buying them. “The cat ate it. For example. the construction of direct object pronouns is a bit different from English.I am buying some shoes. the above sentence in Spanish would be: Juan no vino a trabajar. feminine).

. .98 www. .com . On the other hand. you need to add an “a” in front of the direct object noun. if you need to spell out the direct object and use a proper noun. Por ejemplo: 1. When human beings are direct objects. once you get the hang of them.I’m going to bring Mary. Voy a traer a Maria. Vamos a ver a mi abuela. you need to be careful about one thing.We are going to see my grandmother.When People are Direct Objects The nice thing about direct object pronouns is that they’re quick and simple. 2.RocketSpanish.

” The direct object is “letter.e. the indirect object pronoun still goes directly before the verb (see example 2). The subject in this sentence is “Jenny. them Unlike in English. the indirect object pronouns go directly before the verb. him.I want to buy her a gift.” You could also say the sentence in the following way: Jenny is writing a letter to him.” The indirect object—the person or thing for whom the action is being performed—is “father.4. you are ready to look at the concept of the indirect object..RocketSpanish.2 Indirect Object Pronouns Now that you understand the concept of the direct object (i. take a look at the following sentence: Jenny is writing a letter to her father. If the sentence is negative (has a “no” in it). . Quiero comprar un regalo para Teresa. usually indicated in English by the words “to” or “for.I want to buy a gift for Teresa. Por ejemplo: 1. Le quiero comprar un regalo. her. Him refers to Jenny’s father.” and the verb is “is writing.” For instance. if you know the indirect object pronouns. it us you you. Singular me te le Plural nos os les me you you. An indirect object is the person or thing for whom an action is being or has been performed. You can do the same thing in Spanish. .com . . the indirect object noun has been replaced by a pronoun. In this sentence.99 www. the object to which the action is being done in a sentence).

It can be attached to the end of an infinitive. it’s a good idea to use proper nouns in addition to the indirect object pronoun. 2.com . . Carlos quiere darles algo a ustedes. “Quiero comprarle un regalo. Lupe nos está hablando. No les voy a invitar a la fiesta.” In example 2 above. in which the indirect object pronoun can be placed somewhere else. him. the second sentence could be written.I’m not going to invite them to the party. . them! English is much more specific than Spanish in that sense. Le voy a llamar a Juan mañana. . Por ejemplo: 1.I’m not going to invite Peter and Ernest to the party. Jenny le está escribiendo una carta a su padre.I’m going to call John tomorrow.Lupe is talking with us.2. in example 1 above.RocketSpanish. For that reason. if it is unknown or unclear to whom the indirect object pronoun is referring.100 www. when you use the indirect pronouns le or les. For example. . however. “No voy a invitarles a la fiesta.Carlos wants to give you something. her. .Jenny is writing a letter to her father.” To Whom? Adding Clarity to “Le” and “Les” As you can see in the table above. 3. .Lupe is talking with us. the second sentence could be written. No voy a invitar a Pedro y Ernesto a la fiesta. 3. . There is one case. you could be referring to anyone: you. Lupe está hablando con nosotros .

com .I’m inviting you and no one else.3.RocketSpanish. however. .” “tú.” and “vosotros” forms are identical to reflexive pronouns! (You’ll study reflexive pronouns further in Chapter 6. so the only way you’ll be able to tell the difference is by the context of the sentence. . Por ejemplo: Te invito a ti y nadie más. A Note of Caution Indirect object pronouns in the “yo.You can also use the indirect object noun in addition to the pronoun if you want to emphasize to whom or for whom the action is occurring.101 www.) Their uses are quite different.” “nosotros.

Hector gave you them. followed by the direct object pronoun. la los. ¿Te los da Héctor? Ellos nos lo piden.3 Putting Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns Together Now that you’ve learned about direct and indirect object pronouns. or Hector gave them to you.) • Which Object Comes First? In English. You can attach the indirect object pronoun and the direct object pronoun onto the end of an infinitive. you can switch the order of the direct and indirect objects.com . on the other hand. To refresh your memory. For example: • • I will give it to him. “Voy a dártelo. the indirect object pronoun will ALWAYS come before the direct object pronoun. the direct and indirect object pronouns that you will use in combination are as follows: Indirect object pronouns me te se (this is le normally) nos os se (this is les normally) Direct object pronouns lo. Necesito dárselo mañana. o such as.RocketSpanish. what happens if you want to use them together? The sentences that follow are examples of both object pronouns being used together. • • • Does Hector give them to you? They ask us for it. you have two options. or I will give him it.4.” I’m going to give it to you. while the indirect object is underlined. In Spanish. las When you combine the direct and indirect object pronouns in a sentence. .” I’m going to give it to you. “Te lo voy a dar. The direct object is in bold.102 www. • You can put the indirect object pronoun. (Note that you must add an accent on the infinitive ending to preserve the correct pronunciation. as two separate words before the verb. o such as. I need to give it to him tomorrow.

Paula repairs it for you. They arrange them for us. • • • Try saying. the change of the indirect object pronoun in the third person makes pronunciation easier. www. Se los explican. Se la muestra. “Se lo voy a dar. Les muestra la casa. “Le loy voy a dar. Paula te la repara.RocketSpanish. Paula repairs the computer for you. They explain the jokes to you. We serve them the food. 3. Paula te repara la computadora. 3. George asks her for them. Les servimos la comida. They arrange our plane tickets for us.” Can you hear why le changes to se? I’m going to give it to him.103 - . Jorge le pide los libros a Carla. try saying. Nos los arreglan. Mi profesor me lo enseña. My professor teaches me to speak Spanish. Nos arreglan los boletos de avión. 4. Mi profesor me enseña hablar español. Les explican los chistes a Uds. George asks Carla for the books. My professor teaches me it. 2. He shows them it. He shows them the house. Se la servimos.Por ejemplo: 1. Why Does ‘Le’ Change to ‘Se’? As with so many irregularities in the Spanish language. Jorge se los pide.” Now. Por ejemplo: 1.com . 2. They explain them to you. We serve them it.

a él a ella a Uds. you…. To do so.104 www. To whom does he show the house? He shows it to them. it. them. Just as it is recommended to add a clarification after “le.com . it is also recommended to add a clarification after the use of “se” if the indirect object is not clear.” if your audience does not know to whom you are referring. 2. To whom do we serve the food? We serve it to him. 3. then append one of the following to the end of your sentence: • • • • • • a Ud. ¿A quién le servimos la comida? Se la servimos a él. her. ¿A quién les explicamos los chistes? Se los explicamos a Uds.RocketSpanish. ¿A quién le muestra él la casa? Se la muestra a ellos. use “se” as you normally would.To Whom? Clarifying “Se” The word “se” can refer to any number of indirect pronouns: him. To whom do we explain the jokes? We explain them to you. . a ellos a ellas Por ejemplo: 1.

Examples of prepositional phrases in use (with the prepositions in bold) include: • • • The cat was on the mat.” “crowd.Marco leaves before you. above.. . Me siento entre él y ella. before. 3. . against. the prepositional pronouns are exactly the same as the subject pronouns with the exceptions of “mí” and “ti”. look at the following sentences. The prepositional pronoun is in bold. beyond. 2. Marco sale antes de Uds.They want to go with us. the object of a proposition (in the above examples.4. • • • He sat in front of me. Prepositional Pronouns Sometimes. Everyone but them got to go.” or “it.” and so on. along.com . after. Quieren ir con nosotros. They include words like “about.” whereas “ti” has no accent mark. below. In Spanish. beside. around.I sit between him and her. There were many stars in the sky. beneath. Look at the chart below. él ella me you you him her nosotros/as vosotros/as Uds. ellos ellas us you (plural) you (plural) them them Note that the word “mí” has an accent mark over the “i.4 More about Us and Them: Prepositional Pronouns Understanding Prepositions Do you know what prepositions are? They indicate location as well as placement in time (such as before and after). mí ti Ud. behind. .” For example. between.RocketSpanish. “mat. The trapeze artist hung above the crowd..” and “sky”) is a pronoun like “you. .” “me. at. They left before us. Por ejemplo: 1.105 www. across.

Vamos a compartirlo entre tú y yo.” or. Try saying.Are you going to come with me? 2. “entre ti y mí” (between you and me).106 www. . . “with me.Mauricio wants to go with you.RocketSpanish. if you need to say.” It’s hard to keep the words separated. Another strange sound occurs when you want to say “with me” or “with you. isn’t it? For that reason. 2.com . Mauricio quiere ir contigo.Between you and me.The Exceptions: Entre Tú y Yo.We are going to share it between you and me. Conmigo and Contigo Some combinations can sound a bit strange.” Try saying “con mí” or “con ti. “with you. I think that he is a little strange. ¿Vas a venir conmigo? . Entre tú y yo. . .” use the following words: conmigo or contigo Por ejemplo: 1. though. pienso que él es un poco raro. The sequence of “ee” sounds can be hard to say! For that reason. if you need to combine “you and me” in a phrase. use the subject pronouns instead: entre tú y yo Por ejemplo: 1.

4.5 Talking about This, That, and That One over There
Understanding This and That
When you want to point to something, you often use demonstrative adjectives or pronouns. For example, imagine that you are in a café in Spain. You are selecting un pan, or a bread roll, from a glass case. The waiter is waiting with his tongs to select the roll you want. He points to one, which isn’t the roll you want. “No,” you say, pointing to the one nearest you. “Not that roll, this one.” While English only has two options—this for something close to you, and that for something farther away—Spanish has three: this, that, and that over there. The third option implies an even greater distance. To get a better understanding of the difference between that and that over there, imagine yourself standing with a friend at a harbor. Your friend tells you, “I’d like to own that boat.” You point to one at the other end of the dock, asking, “That one?” “No,” he tells you. He indicates a boat on the horizon. “That boat, way over there.”

Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish
Study the table of demonstrative adjectives below. Notice that they change according to the gender and quantity of the noun they describe. Close this these Farther Away that those At a Distance that (over there) those (over there) Por ejemplo: 1. ¿Puedes ver aquel barco? Can you see that boat over there? Masculine este estos ese esos aquel aquellos Feminine esta estas esa esas aquella aquellas

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2. Aquellas montañas me parecen muy altas. Those mountains over there seem to me very tall. 3. Esos lápices son de Pamela. - Those pencils are Pamela’s. 4. Esta revista es interesante. - This magazine is interesting.

Demonstrative Pronouns
The main difference between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is that the adjective comes before a noun (“Quiero este pan”) while the pronoun can stand on its own (“Quiero éste”). In English, the difference can be characterized in this way:  “I want that roll.”  “I want that.” demonstrative adjective demonstrative pronoun

You can review demonstrative pronouns in the following table. Close this (one) these (ones) Farther Away that (one) those (ones) At a Distance that (one over there) those (ones over there) Masculine éste éstos ése ésos aquél aquéllos Feminine ésta éstas ésa ésas aquélla aquéllas

Notice that the demonstrative adjectives and pronouns are exactly the same … except for one small difference: the accent mark. You may also be interested to know that if you don’t know whether something is masculine or feminine, there is a neuter form for each of the above demonstrative pronouns. • esto • eso • aquello Use these forms only if you’re referring to an abstract idea or an unknown object. For example...  ¿Qué es eso?
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What is that?

Por ejemplo:

1. ¿Cuáles zapatos quieres comprar? -Which shoes do you want to buy? Quiero comprar ésos. - I want to buy those.

2. ¿Cuál es tu carro? - Which is your car? Aquél es mío. - That one over there is mine.

3. ¿De quién son estos guantes? - Whose are these gloves? Éstos son míos. - These are mine.

A Note of Caution: Accent Marks
As mentioned before, accent marks are very important in Spanish, because a misplaced or missing accent mark can completely change the meaning of a word. For example, think of the words: esta ésta está

The first (esta) is an adjective that means “this ____” The second (ésta) is a pronoun that means “this.” The third (está) is a verb that means “is.”

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4.6 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

 The difference between direct and indirect objects  How to form direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish  How to identify a prepositional pronoun  How to form a prepositional pronoun in Spanish  How to point out this one, that one, or that one over there.

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II.111 www.RocketSpanish. to request to think to repair to leave. to go out to sit down. to seat oneself to serve to have to bring ADJECTIVES strange OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH something before that over there (adjective) . morning mountain father bread game professor gift magazine shoe VERBS to arrange to share to buy to teach to write to explain to talk to invite to go to show to ask for.com . Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #4 Spanish SUSTANTIVOS abuela (la) barco (el) boleto de avión (el) carro (el) casa (la) chiste (el) comida (la) computadora (la) fiesta (la) guantes (los) libro (el) mañana (la) montaña (la) padre (el) pan (el) partido (el) profesor (el) regalo (el) revista (la) zapato (el) VERBOS arreglar compartir comprar enseñar escribir explicar hablar invitar ir mostrar pedir pensar reparar salir sentarse servir tener traer ADJECTIVOS raro EXPRESIONES COMUNES algo antes de aquel / aquellos / aquella … English NOUNS grandmother boat airplane ticket car house joke food computer party gloves book tomorrow.

aquél / aquéllos / aquélla … conmigo contigo entre la las le les lo los más me nadie poco ti unos / unas TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST con dar ese / esos / esa / esas ése / ésos / ésa / ésas estar este / estos / esta / estas éste / éstos / ésta / éstas me mí mío nos os querer se se ser suyo te todo tuyo

that over there (noun) with me with you between direct object: you (Ud), her direct object: you (Uds.), them (feminine) indirect object: you (Ud), him, her, it indirect object: you (Uds), them direct object: you (Ud), him, it direct object: you (Uds), them (masculine) more, else me no one little prepositional pronoun: you (tú) some COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH with to give that (adjective) that (noun) to be this (adjective) this (noun) myself (reflexive) prepositional pronoun: me mine ourselves yourselves (vosotros) to want himself, herself, yourselves (Ud) themselves, yourselves (Uds) to be (permanent characteristic) his, hers, yours (Ud), theirs, yours (Uds) yourself (tú) all yours (tú)

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III. Read the Conversation
Read the following conversation, in which Tomás and Lucena have an argument about a book. Tomás: Lucena: ¿Me trajiste el libro? No, lo siento. Te traje este libro.

Lucena hands a book to him. Tomás: Lucena: Tomás: Lucena: Tomás: Lucena: Tomás: Lucena: Tomás: Lucena: No es el libro que necesito. Ese libro es viejo. Necesito el libro nuevo. Son iguales. ¿Por qué siempre me haces ésto? ¿Qué cosa? Siempre me prometes que vas a hacer algo, pero nunca lo haces. ¡Te traje el libro! ¿Qué más quieres? Dáme tu libro. ¿Mi libro? ¡No! Lo necesito para estudiar. Es mejor que el libro viejo que me trajiste. Vale.

Lucena takes the book she gave Tomás and gives him hers. Lucena: Voy a pensar dos veces antes de prometerte otra cosa.

trajiste (traer) lo siento traje (traer) siempre hacer prometer algo you brought I’m sorry I brought always to do to promise something nunca más querer dáme para es mejor que dos veces never more to want give me for, in order that it’s better than twice

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IV. Exercises
Exercise 1. Rewrite each sentence using a direct object pronoun. Ex. Inés tiene una manzana. 1. Javier tiene los guantes.

In la tiene.

2. El profesor quiere una computadora. _______________________________________ 3. Mi padre compra tres caballos. 4. Los estudiantes estudian los libros. 5. Nosotros ganamos la carrera. 6. Yo sé la verdad. _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

Exercise 2. Rewrite each sentence using an indirect object pronoun. Ex. Inés da las manzanas a Carlos y Ángel. 1. Describo el concierto a mis amigas. 2. Compras pan para el niño. 3. Escribo una carta a mis abuelos. 4. Sara invita a mí a la fiesta. 5. Felipe da unos regalos a nosotros. 6. Espero por tí.

In l da las manzanas.
_______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

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Exercise 3. Now, rewrite the sentence using both direct and indirect object pronouns. Ex. Inés les da las manzanas a Carlos y Ángel. 1. Compro doce lápices para mis amigos. 2. Esperanza pide dinero de su mamá y papá. 3. El hotel tiene una habitación para nosotros. 4. Ustedes muestran el trabajo al profesor. 5. Ellos comparten la comida con nosotros. 6. Tú le enseñas la información a la clase.

In se las da.
_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

Exercise 4. Read the following paragraph. Find the answer to each question in the paragraph and underline it. Then, in the blank, rewrite the phrase using one of the following prepositional pronouns: ellos, ellas, nosotros, nosotras. En la escuela, mi asiento está entre los asientos de mis mejores amigas, Mercedes y Lola. La profesora tiene un escritorio en frente de los estudiantes. Ella se llama Maestra Hernández, y siempre habla con Mercedes, Lola y yo después de la clase. Quiere compartir su conocimiento con las mujeres del futuro. Tenemos mucha suerte tener una profesora como ella.
asiento—seat escritorio—desk maestra—teacher siempre—always conocimiento—knowledge tener suerte—to be lucky como—like, such as

Ex. ¿Dónde está mi asiento? 1. ¿Dónde está el escritorio de la profesora? 2. ¿Con quién habla la maestra? (hint: from the narrator’s point of view) 3. ¿Con quién comparte su conocimiento?
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entre los asientos de ellas
_________________________________ _________________________________


Sandra: Alejandro: Sandra: ¿ Esta maleta? No. Insert the appropriate demonstrative adjective or pronoun (esta. Sandra! PALABRAS NUEVAS ¿cómo te va? bien estoy buscando que dejé por aquí how’s it going? well I’m looking for that I left around here no se que bonita mira allí allá I don’t know how pretty look (informal command) there over there . ésa. Sandra holds up a bag and shows it to Alejandro. Read the dialogue below. (1) Entonces … Sandra searches below the table and behind the chairs. Sandra: Alejandro: ¿Es _________ tu maleta? (6) ¡Sí. pero no es mi maleta. la maleta.RocketSpanish. bien. ésta. Si no encuentro mi maleta. Sandra points to a bag on the far side of the room.com . ¡voy a llevar _________! (5) Sandra: Vamos a encontrar tu maleta. Alejandro.Exercise 5. She finds another bag and picks it up. no _________ maleta. ¿Dónde está la maleta mía? (3) Sandra spots another bag on top of the coffee table by the window. Alejandro: Sandra: Alejandro: ¡Hola.116 www. La mía es una maleta negra y grande. estoy buscando la maleta que dejé por aquí. esa. hidden among the books on a shelf. ¿Cómo te va? Bien. sí! _________ maleta es mía. no _________ maleta. Sandra. Sandra: Alejandro: ¿_________ maleta? (2) No. Sandra! Hola. ¿Es _________ tu maleta? (4) Alejandro: Es negra. Que bonita. Mira … allá hay una maleta. ¡Gracias. aquella. Sandra: ¡Ja! Allí está. Sabes. or aquélla).

117 www.com . Irregular Verbs in the Present .RocketSpanish.Part V.

irregular verbs have evolved as a result of spoken usage and ease of pronunciation. In other words.com . ellos. .118 www. right? No. its “yo” form would be “teno. The stem of the verbs changes in the tú. I come from Argentina. ¿verdad? No. yo vengo de Argentina.. Ud. él. with a ‘g’ added before the –o ending.1 Introduction to Irregular Verbs: TENER and VENIR Unlike most –er and –ir verbs we’ve learned. The second word sounds cleaner and clearer. The “e” is replaced by “ie”. 2. Why Complicate Things? The Role of Irregular Verbs in Spanish Why do irregular verbs exist in Spanish? Just as in English. Do you have family in Spain? Yes. tener and venir are both irregular verbs. Can you hear why the stem changes? Por ejemplo: 1. You come from Brazil. Now say tiene. For example. Try saying the word tene.” But it’s not.RocketSpanish. nosotros tenemos familia en España. compare the sounds of the word teno with the word tengo. doesn’t it? If tener was a regular verb. forms. 1. The “yo” form is completely irregular..5. we have family in Spain. ellas TENER ten-go tien-es tien-e ten-emos ten-éis tien-en VENIR ven-go vien-es vien-e ven-imos ven-ís vien-en The irregularity of the verbs occurs in two areas. 2. their verb endings do not follow the ordinary pattern for verbs with their infinitive endings. and Uds. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. Tú vienes de Brasil. Look at the verb endings for venir and tener in the following table: Subject Yo Tú Ud. ¿Tienen Ustedes familia en España? Sí..

or thirsty. “Tengo ganas de…” Por ejemplo: 1. start your sentence with. hungry.” or to be careful. “Tengo que ir al mercado. Tú tienes que venir conmigo. Tengo ganas de salir. A mastery of it will enable you to say everything from how old you are to whether you’re cold or thirsty. you will use tener to express your state. and What You Feel Like Doing The verb “tener” is extremely common in Spanish.” If you want to say you feel like doing something.I have to go shopping. For example. What You Have. Tener is also used in the colloquial phrase. . tener means “to have. . Do you feel like going with me? Tener can also mean the same thing as the English “to be” in many situations.Using TENER to Talk about Age. If you want to say that you have to do something.” For example.RocketSpanish.com . “Ella tiene 17 años.” means I have to go to the market.119 www. “Tengo un trabajo.I feel like going out.” means I have a job. o When you want to express how many years old someone is. “I feel like….” means I am [feeling] hot. you will use tener que. In its most basic meaning. o For example. cold.” In other words. She is 17 years old. you can say. You have to come with me. Tengo que ir hacer compras. “Tengo calor. if you feel hot. o You will also use tener in some expressions. like “tener cuidado. Whether You’re Hungry. ¿Tienes ganas de ir conmigo? . 2.

Tenemos que comer algo. Tengo mucha hambre. .We have to eat something.I am very hungry.Por ejemplo: 1.I am 26 years old. .One must be careful crossing the street. ¿Cuantos años tienes? . 3.com .How old are you? Tengo veintiséis años. 2. .120 www.RocketSpanish. . Hay que tener cuidado cruzando la calle. .

the stem will change in every form but two. ellas Por ejemplo: 1. they had a stem change in the tú. their yo form had a ‘g’ before the ‘o..com . forms.I measure my height every week. . él. Mido mi altura todas las semanas. but you will find a few verbs that make a different stem change: from i to ie.My cousins sleep a lot.We start the game.5.121 www. . or –ir ending. The stem of a verb is the part of the verb that is left once you take away the –ar.RocketSpanish. Let’s go back and review what a stem is. There are three common types of stem changing verbs: ‘e’ to ‘ie’. Ud. -er.. This notion of a stem change will become quite familiar to you over time. the stem does not change no matter what ending you add on to it. However. . in stem changing verbs.’ and second. 2. In regular verbs. comienzo comienzas comienza comenzamos comenzáis comienzan e to i MEDIR to measure mido mides mide medimos medéis miden o to ue DORMIR to sleep duermo duermes duerme dormimos dormís duermen A Rare Stem Change: i to ie The stem change patterns above are the most common. Mis primos duermen mucho. as many Spanish verbs are stem changing in every form exept nosotros/as and vosotros/as. . ‘e’ to ‘i’. ellos. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. and Uds. and ‘o’ to ‘ue. Nosotros comenzamos el juego.2 Stem Changing Verbs in the Present What is a Stem Change? Remember the two ways in which the verbs venir and tener were irregular? First. 3..’ Review the following examples: e to ie COMENZAR to begin Yo Tú Ud.

.RocketSpanish.Yo Tú Ud. If you want to say that you play the guitar. 2. Jugamos con ellos.The kids play in the park.” . ellos. ellos. .com . él. . .We play with them.My brother inquires about his football team. 2. Yo Tú Ud. ellas Por ejemplo: 1. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. as in. you will use the verb tocar. “Toco la guitarra. ellas Por ejemplo: ADQUIRIR to acquire adquiero adquieres adquiere adquirimos adquirís adquieren INQUIRIR to inquire inquiero inquieres inquiere inquirimos inquirís inquieren 1.. . Hoy tus padres adquieren una casa nueva.. Los niños juegan en el parque. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. Another Rare Stem Change: u to ue A verb that you will use often in Spanish is jugar (to play). juego juegas juega jugamos jugáis juegan Please note that jugar does not include the sense of playing music or an instrument. él. Mi hermano inquiere sobre su equipo de fútbol. Jugar is a stem-changing verb with a u to ue stem change.Today your parents acquire a new house.122 www..

huelo hueles huele olemos oléis huelen . you should note that the verb oler (to smell) is also irregular.. You’ll need to memorize this stem change if you want to talk of smelling the roses. él.com .123 www. Yo Tú Ud.The Last and Strangest Stem Change: o to hue Last of all. . ellos.RocketSpanish.I smell the air from the sea.. ellas Por ejemplo: Huelo el aire del mar. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds.

.3 Irregular Verbs in the “Yo” Form Now a G. ellas pongo pones ponen ponemos ponéis ponen TRAER traigo traes trae traemos traéis traen VALER valgo vales vale valemos valéis valen SALIR salgo sales sale salimos salís salen HACER hago haces hace hacemos hacéis hacen to bring to value to leave. Por ejemplo: 1. Well. go out to do. él. ella nosotros/as vosotros/as Uds. . For example. with an ‘i’ in addition to the extra ‘g’. to make Note that traer has an additional irregularity in the ‘yo’ form. ¿Dónde pongo tus maletas? .RocketSpanish.5. ellos. look at the table below. venir and tener aren’t the only verbs that add an extra ‘g’ before the ‘o’ in the ‘yo’ form. Many commonly used vebs in Spanish are irregular in the ‘yo’ form. even if that is the only irregularity they have. Te traigo un vaso de agua. Now an O. I said there were two different irregularities in the verbs venir and tener: a stem change and a change in the ‘yo’ form.124 www.I bring you a glass of water. GO! In the last chapter.Where do I put your bags? 2. ..com . PONER to put yo tú Ud.

What do I do with that? 5.RocketSpanish.” on the other hand.125 www. 4. is a catch-all phrase meaning. For example.3.” The phrase “vale. .” or “It’s fine.com . ¿Qué no valgo yo nada para ti? .” You’ll hear it a lot! . ¿Qué hago con eso? .” or “It’s no good.I leave immediately for Paris. Salgo inmediatamente para Paris. “Okay. the phrase “no vale” is often used to mean. “It won’t work.Am I not worth anything to you? Thinking about VALER You may be interested to know that the word “vale” is quite frequently used in Spain.

Like tener and venir.. ..4 To Say and To Give: Using DECIR and DAR As in English.com . 3. to tell digo dices dice decimos decís dicen DAR to give doy das da damos dais dan yo tú Ud. It is a good idea to memorize each individual form of these verbs.They give us the food. 5. . or he or she. unaccented—vosotros form). ¡Manuel te dice que no! . Ellos nos dan la comida. .5. Both are often used with indirect object pronouns. Tus amigos me dicen que la fiesta es el sábado.Your friends tell me the party is on Saturday. . the verb decir is both stem-changing (-e to –i) and irregular in the “yo” form.I give you the money.RocketSpanish. ella nosotros/as vosotros/as Uds.g. Por ejemplo: 1.126 www. In other words. You can also use decir and dar to practice combining direct and indirect object pronouns. on the other hand.Manuel tells you no! 2. as you will use them frequently. ellos. the action is performed for you or me. DECIR to say. él. is irregular in the “yo” form only (aside from an unstressed—e. . Yo te doy el dinero. 4.He gives me the book. ellas Remember those indirect and direct object pronouns from the previous section? These verbs will give you the perfect chance to practice. Él me da el libro. The verb dar.. the verbs decir (to say or to tell) and dar (to give) are widely used in the Spanish language.

127 www.They tell it to them.He tells me it. 2. 3. . you don’t capitalize the days of the week unless they start a sentence? The same goes for the months. DID YOU KNOW? Did you know that in Spanish. .RocketSpanish. Ellos se los dicen.You tell me it. . Nosotros se los damos.) .We give it to them. (We meet on the first Friday in March. . -I give it to you. Te lo doy. 5. For example … Nos reunimos el primer viernes en marzo. Él me lo dice.com . Vosotros me la decís. 4.Por ejemplo: 1.

Nosotros estamos corriendo. the present progressive is constructed in a similar way.” The Present Participles of Regular Verbs -ar verbs comprar esperar enseñar estudiar p.participle viviendo pidiendo abriendo saliendo .We are running. however.Sarah is travelling. that of fishing.” DO say.128 www. . In this case. “Vamos a pescar. Instead of ending the present participle with –ing.5 When Something is Happening Understanding the Present Progressive The term present progressive is a fancy way of describing the verb tense that emphasizes that an action is currently taking place as we speak. 2.com . In other words: DO NOT say “Vamos pescando. Rather.5.participle corriendo teniendo bebiendo comiendo -ir verbs vivir pedir abrir salir p. participle comprando esperando enseñando estudiando -er verbs correr tener beber comer p. Be careful. . Use the “to be” verb estar. 3.I am walking. For example:  I am studying. Sara está viajando. It is characterized by the verb “to be. You cannot use the present participle in this case in Spanish. In Spanish. the verb “to be” indicates a future occurrence.RocketSpanish.” followed by a second verb that ends with –ing (the present participle). though! In English you can also use the present participle in this way: We are going fishing. you must use an infinitive. Estoy caminando. . Por ejemplo: 1. you’ll end it with –ando or –iendo.  You are running.

RocketSpanish. Irregular Stem Changing Verbs Note the following irregular verbs. Estamos bebiendo la cerveza. 4.I am buying some socks. Nosotros estamos viniendo pronto.They are sleeping now.129 www. 2. Ellos están durmiendo ahora. which make a stem change in the present participle form: From e to i venir viniendo sentir sintiendo decir diciendo Por ejemplo: 1.You are sleeping on the bed. Estoy comprando unos calcetínes. . From o to u dormir durmiendo morir muriendo . . 3. . 2. . . Tú estás durmiendo en la cama.com .The general rules for creating the present participle of regular verbs are: 1.You are living in Argentina. The present participles never change … no matter which subject pronoun is used. –er verbs and –ir verbs will both end in –iendo. Me estoy sintiendo triste.We are drinking the beer.I am feeling sad. . Tú estás viviendo en Argentina. .We are coming soon. 3. Por ejemplo: 1. –ar verbs will end in –ando. 2.

Section Summary After completing this section. you should know the following:  What it means to call a verb “irregular”  How to use TENER to talk about: o o o o what you have what you feel like whether you’re hungry or thirsty. hot or cold how old you are  The different kinds of “stem-changing” verbs  That some verbs are only irregular in their “yo” form  How to talk about something that is happening at this moment .RocketSpanish.6 Review I.com .130 www.5.

RocketSpanish.II.131 www. boy park cousin week glass VERBS to open to acquire to drink to walk to start to eat to buy to run to cross to give to say. altitude socks street heat bed beer shopping age team family soccer guitar hunger brother game suitcase sea child.com English . to request . to tell to dream to teach to wait. to hope to study to inquire to go to play to measure to smell to ask. Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #5 Spanish SUSTANTIVOS agua (el) aire (el) altura (la) calcetínes (los) calle (la) calor (el) cama (la) cerveza (la) compras (las) edad (la) equipo (el) familia (la) fútbol (el) guitarra (la) hambre (el) hermano (el) juego (el) maleta (la) mar (el) niño (el) parque (el) primo (el) semana (la) vaso (el) VERBOS abrir adquirir beber caminar comenzar comer comprar correr cruzar dar decir dormir enseñar esperar estudiar inquirir ir jugar medir oler pedir NOUNS water air height.

all your (tú) colloquial phrase (Spain) meaning “okay” COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH now some. to go out to have to be hot to be careful to feel like to be hungry to be X years old to touch.132 www. earlier to look. in order to to seem to be able to.RocketSpanish. much sad OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH something one must… now. to watch to take. can. alguno/a año (el) ayudar día (el) haber hacer llamar antes mirar tomar nuevo para parecer poder significar tierra venir ver vivir to fish to put to leave. to do to call before. everyone. over every. may to mean. to drink new for. to signify earth.pescar poner salir tener tener calor tener cuidado tener ganas de tener hambre tener X años de edad tocar traer valer viajar ADJECTIVOS mucho triste EXPRESIONES COMUNES algo hay que hoy inmediatamente mi / mis nada pronto sobre todos tu / tus vale TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST ahora algún. today immediately my nothing soon about. to play (an instrument) to bring to be worth to travel ADJECTIVES a lot. any year to help day to have (only as a “helping” verb) to make.com . land or soil to come to see to live .

RocketSpanish.III. Yo estoy comenzando un régimen. Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: ¿Qué quieres hacer esta noche? Tengo ganas de salir.com . Mejor nos quedamos en casa y vemos una película. Me parece bien. ¿Tienes ganas de comer en un restaurante en la ciudad? Sí. debes tomar agua. yo estoy tomando una cerveza. PALABRAS NUEVAS me parece bien régimen puede ser engordar entonces it seems good to me diet (for losing weight) it could be to make fat /to fatten then solo bueno ya no… nos quedamos una película only. Ya no. me engorda. Sí. just well now I don’t… we stay a movie . Pero tienes hambre. Tengo que comer. Tú puedes tomar agua. También tengo ganas de tomar una cerveza. Tengo que tener cuidado con mi dieta. ¿Por qué? Eres bonita. pero no soy flaca. Soy gorda. Tengo hambre. Puede ser. Read the Conversation Read the following conversation. Bueno. Si tienes sed.133 www. in which Alfonso and Denisa discuss what they want to do this evening. Ya no quiero comer. Pero la cerveza no te engorda.

¿_______________ ustedes frío? Exercise 2. Nosotros queremos comer ahorita. Fill in the blanks in the story with the appropriate form of the verb indicated in parentheses. No voy a tener suficiente tiempo para practicar. diez carros. Marta. _______________ que ayudarme después. 1. Soy millonario. Exercises Exercise 1. _______________ hambre. Lupe es muy joven. Mis amigos Guillermo. el cual es mejor que el nuestro. Ex. Yo soy German. Ellos ___________ (jugar) en el parque mientras me esperan. 2. ¡_______________. Mi mamá me está llamando para ir a comer. ___________ (medir) mi altura todos los viernes para ver si estoy creciendo rápidamente. Ellos terminan de estudiar a las tres. Mamá! 5. Cada noche cuando ___________ (dormir) tengo sueños de ser un futbolista profesional. Yo ___________ (comenzar) la escuela en septiembre.com soccer player I am growing about class schedule to finish school year . _______________ de Argentina. Está nevando afuera. A mí me encanta el fútbol. Juan Carlos y Marcos son argentinos. 4. Mis amigos me ___________ (inquirir) sobre mi horario de clases. Dragones Rojos barrio el sur me encanta cada noche tener sueños Red Dragons neighborhood the south I love every night to have dreams futbolista estoy creciendo sobre horario de clases terminar de año escolar . Tengo que ser más grande para jugar con el equipo de San Rafael.134 www. Tengo tres casas. Raúl y yo jugamos (jugar) fútbol todos los días.IV. y mucho dinero en el banco. Todos nosotros ___________ (venir) del barrio San Pablo en el sur de la ciudad. 3. Necesitas hacer el trabajo antes de mí. No anticipo el comienzo del año escolar mucho. Solo _______________ ocho años de edad. Nuestro equipo de fútbol se llama los Dragones Rojos. Fill in the appropriate form of tener or venir to complete the sentences. 6.RocketSpanish.

Exercise 3. ¡Espero que sea un buen viaje! hacer una maleta—to pack un lado—one side el otro lado—the other side también—also bailar—to dance hospedaje—accommodations sea un buen viaje—be a good trip Ex. Salgo a Paris a las ocho de la mañana. ¿Para qué tiene un vestido? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. ¿Qué espera Sara? ___________________________________________________________________________ . Yo me llamo Sara. También tengo un vestido para bailar. Read the following story and answer the questions below. Voy a viajar a Francia mañana. Pongo todos mis pantalones y camisas en un lado de la maleta. Pongo todos mis zapatos en el otro lado.com . ¿A qué hora sale a Paris? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. ¿Dónde va a dormir en Paris? ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. Tengo hospedaje en un hotel muy caro.RocketSpanish. Esta noche estoy haciendo mi maleta. ¿Qué hace Sara mañana? Sara viaja a Francia mañana. 1 ¿Qué está haciendo Sara hoy? ___________________________________________________________________________ 2.135 www. ¿Qué pone Sara en la maleta? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3.

están — en Quito — ustedes — viviendo ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Place the parts of the scrambled sentence back into the correct order.136 www. la puerta — está — Pepe — abriendo — para mí ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. los — durmiendo — niños — están ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. está — rápidamente — Carla — corriendo ___________________________________________________________________________ 9. viniendo — el sábado — estoy — a tu fiesta Estoy viniendo a tu fita el sábado. en — estéis — vosotros — la universidad — estudiando ___________________________________________________________________________ .RocketSpanish. 1. Ex.com . comiendo — estamos — Ramiro y yo — hamburguesas ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. café — bebiendo — tú — estás ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. ¿ ? — estás — qué — diciendo — me ___________________________________________________________________________ 3.Exercise 4. esperando — Estela — el autobús — está ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. regalos — está — nuestra — para nosotros — madre — comprando ___________________________________________________________________________ 10.

Part VI.137 www. Special Verbs .RocketSpanish.com .

which can mean a key. The verbs saber and conocer fall into the latter category.  ideas.g.” They are very.6. As a result. If you understand which verb to use. but they are used in different contexts... Saber is used in the context of knowing information or I know how to cook.1 Talking about What You Know: SABER and CONOCER Strange Shades of Meaning You cannot expect to have a language that’s a literal one-on-one translation of another language. such as ser and estar. e. you find some Spanish words that seem to convey a million and one English meanings (such as the word llave. Present Tense… Yo Tú Ud.g.138 www.com . or a wrench). “I don’t know!” Which verb you use will depend on what is being known in your sentence.. Conversely. “Yo sé como cocinar. very useful in everyday life.. you are going to find many verbs in Spanish that have shades of meaning that don’t exist in English. or even tell people. ellas SABER sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben CONOCER conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen . él.” Conocer is used in the context of knowing a person or a place. You will notice that both ‘yo’ forms are irregular in the present. “¿Conoces bien la ciudad?” Do you know the city well? The present tense conjugations of the verbs can be seen in the following table. ellos. Both verbs mean “to know.RocketSpanish. ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. a tap. e. you can also ask someone if he or she knows someone else.

. ¿Sabes tú leer música? .” Por ejemplo: 1.They know how to play cards. Ellos conocen el sitio donde van a tener el concierto.I know this model. 3.139 www. such as. ¡No sé! .I don’t know! CONOCER: To Know a Person. as in. They know the site where they’re going to have the concert.RocketSpanish.Do you know how to read music? 2. 4. Place. as I almost bought it previously.I don’t know Stephanie’s grandfather. Conozco este modelo.I know how to write in Spanish.SABER: To Know Information or How to Do Something Saber is used when the subject knows a piece of information or how to do a specific task. Ellos saben jugar a las cartas. Yo sé escribir en español. or Thing Conocer is used when the subject knows a particular person or place. .” Por ejemplo: 1.” or “I know that outfit! I almost bought it last week. como casi lo compré anteriormente. 2. It can be translated as “to know” as well as “to know how. 3. No conozco al abuelo de Estefanía. . . “I know this computer. .com . I used to work on it before I switched desks. “Do you know where to go?” or “Do you know Jamie?” It can also be used in the context of knowing a particular thing.

If. ¿Conoces Nueva York? ¡Que chévere! . Por ejemplo: 1.Do you know my house? (Have you been to it before?) 2. they ask: ¿Conoces España bien? …they want to know whether you are familiar with the country. which means that you should add the word “a” before “el abuelo.e.140 www. For example. if someone asks you… ¿Conoces España? …they usually want to know if you’ve been to Spain.” Remember that a + el = al.RocketSpanish.Do you know New York? How cool! .com . the direct object is a person. Knowing Places The word conocer can be difficult to translate when you’re talking about places.Notice that in the third example. on the other hand. ¿Conoces mi casa? . i. whether you know it well..

com . however. to be liked Me gusta oír tu voz. .6. Everyday meaning / Literal translation I love Latin music. In English. Although they may be quite common in the Latin world. Rather. • I’m fascinated by Z. Love. the meaning conveyed by these verbs would usually have a person or people as the subject. Y. Many of these verbs follow a similar pattern. You may feel less confused if you do not try to translate them literally. Me falta dinero para comer. The verbs in the list below might seem quite complicated at first! However. while the person (I) becomes the direct object. to be lacked. and Lack Verbs without English Equivalents Not only are there Spanish words that convey shades of meaning that don’t exist in English. Verb encantar Meaning to delight or enchant to be missed.RocketSpanish. / Money is lacking for me to eat. and Z) becomes the subject. • I’m missing Y. their usage will seem strange to an English speaker. • X is pleasing to me. / Latin music delights me. there are also Spanish words that can’t be translated literally into their equivalent English meaning. Sound confusing? Perhaps the table below will help clarify things.2 Talking about What You Like. I was fascinated by the movie. In Spanish. get used to how they’re used and the contexts in which you hear them. I don’t have enough money to eat. For example: • I like X. • Y is missed by me. you will encounter them often enough that you should invest some time in understanding them. to be needed to fascinate Por ejemplo Me encanta la música latina. Me fascinó la pe lícula. / Your voice is pleasing to me. I like to hear your voice. faltar fascinar gustar to be pleasing to. • Z fascinates me.141 www. / The movie fascinated me. what would have been the direct object in the English sentence (X.

.RocketSpanish. I don’t care about anything. Using GUSTAR to Talk About What You Like As an example of these verbs. because it enables you to express what you like and don’t like.We lack a desk for the office. interesar molestar Me molestan los mosquitos.com . . Por ejemplo: 1. Juanita siempre me molesta cuando estoy intentando trabajar. I’m interested in politics. Me quedó el vestido. quedar You will find the verbs above in the third person singular and plural forms almost exclusively. / Politics is interesting to me. No me importa nada to be cared about to interest. The dress suited me. / Nothing is important to me. The mosquitoes annoy me. ¿No te interesa ver la televisión conmigo? . let’s take the verb gustar. This is one of the most common verbs in Spanish.142 www.Aren’t you interested in watching television with me? 3. . Nos faltan dos jugadores en el equipo de fútbol.We’re missing two players on the soccer team. to bother to fit. . and they always be accompanied by an indirect object pronoun. A ella le encanta pasar por las huertas botánicas.Juanita always bothers me when I’m trying to work. 4. to suit Me interesa la política. 2.importar to be important to. 5. to be interesting to annoy. .She loves to walk through the botanical gardens. Nos falta un escritorio para la oficina.

When you are learning a new language for the first time. like running or cooking.I don’t like to get wet. Languages don’t work like that! If you are going to learn to speak a new language.Por ejemplo: 1. then use the singular form of gustar followed by the infinitive form of the verb. However. you will use the third person plural form of gustar. . Literally. Me gustan los colores azul y verde. Notice that. If you are constructing a sentence using gustar or one of the verbs in the above table. .) Remember that the correct form of the verb does NOT follow from the pronoun. “The Spanish food pleases me. (If what you like is a verb. that you like the cats.RocketSpanish.143 www. depending on the tense and the quantity of what is being liked. . • • Me gustan las gatas.” The second example literally translates as. For example. Me gusta la comida española. or the colors blue and green. If you want to say that you like more than one thing—for example. put the elements of the sentence in the following order: indirect pronoun + conjugated verb + subject You may wish to use the handy table below. rather than coming first. you may feel as if you need to know exactly what each word means in English so that you can do the translation in your head. they will nearly always come after the verb.” Obviously. Choose one pronoun from the first column and the correct form of gustar from one of the other two columns. the first example translates as.I like Spanish food. but rather from what is being liked. “las gatas” and “los colores azul y verde” are actually the subjects of the sentences. you have to allow your mind to connect words and ideas in Spanish ways … ways that may be untranslatable in English.com . No me gusta mojarme. 2. it can be quite unhelpful if you feel as if you have to understand every expression in terms of its direct English translation. “To get wet does not please me. in the above examples.

formal you.” DO SAY “Me gusta correr. 3. Me gustó la fiesta. Example #4 is a bit trickier than the other examples. but the sentence would be much clearer if you heard it like this: A Lorena le gustan los chocolates.They liked the two movies. How would you know who liked the chocolates? You would be able to guess that it is a male. os. te. le Nos.Cecilia likes soccer.We like studying geography. A Cecilia le gusta el fútbol. 4. “I like running. . . a female. do not say in Spanish. For example. . . or A Ud. les Por ejemplo: 1.Pronoun Me. you’ll need to clarify who the pronoun is referring to.RocketSpanish. Common Errors with GUSTAR Mistake #1  DO NOT say “Me gusta corriendo. Les gustaron las dos películas.com .I liked the party. . follow gustar with the infinitive form of the verb (“to run”) rather than the present participle (“running”).” Do say “I like to run.” In other words. Present gusta gustan Past (preterite) gustó gustaron 2. le gustan los chocolates. or them). she. Nos gusta estudiar la geografía.144 www. If you use le or les (for he. if you heard the following sentence: Le gustan los chocolates.”  Rule: If you are talking about an activity you like. or you (formal singular).

or don’t have enough of.. missing. find some other way to express your affection towards him. “Jorge me cae mal.”  Rule: Avoid using gustar to talk about liking people.com .” acampar. do not say in Spanish. “Me falta dinero para comprar la leche” (I don’t have enough money to buy the milk). It can be difficult to translate directly.” In other words.” Mistake #4  DO NOT say “Me gusta Jorge. you can use the phrase.  Rule: If what you like is a noun. For examp le.” Think about the following … what would someone’s intentions be if they came up to you and said. In another example.. not the quantity of the people doing the liking. In another common usage. always include the correct form of “the. .” as in. For example. Similarly.” DO SAY “A mí me gustan las piñas. Me hace falta un auto. “Me cae mal.” even when you are talking about pineapples in general. The verb faltan must be plural to reflect the plural tareas.” people will assume that you find Jorge attractive and would like to date him! If you just like Jorge as a friend. if you don’t like someone. If you say “Me gusta Jorge. if you want to say that you’re lacking three assignments to finish the course. You will also notice that the verb “hacer” is often used with “faltar. “I like the pineapples.” DO SAY “Jorge me cae bien. “Me gustas tú”? (Answer: It would usually mean that they liked you—and I don’t mean as friends!) Using FALTAR to Talk about What You Lack or Need You will find the verb faltar to be a very useful tool as you talk about what you’re lacking. Me faltan tres tareas para terminar el curso. you’d say.” DO SAY “A ellos les gusta  Rule: Make sure that the verb gustar reflects the quantity of what is being liked (“to camp” is a single thing”).Mistake #2  DO NOT say “A ellos les gustan acampar. “Me cae bien” is a much more neutral phrase to express positive feelings towards an acquaintance or friend. I need (or am lacking) a car.145 www.RocketSpanish.” Do say.” This gives emphasis to the need or lack. “I like pineapples. Mistake #3  DO NOT say “A mí me gustan piñas. this phrase can be used to talking about what you miss (extrañar). the verb falta will reflect the singular la leche.

Me faltan los últimos dos certificados. Using the Verb QUEDAR The verb quedar is also quite commonly used in Spanish.I’m lacking a dress for the dance. 5.RocketSpanish.com . . It can mean a variety of things and be used in a variety of contexts. Me hace falta tomar café contigo. Me haces falta.I miss you. 6. 4. . .We agreed to leave at seven. Me falta un vestido para el baile. Me falta un lápiz para dibujar. .I miss drinking coffee with you. . For example. . 3. .Por ejemplo: 1. Me hace falta estar con mi familia.I’m lacking the last two certificates.I need a pencil for drawing. 2.I miss being with my family. you can use it to express: • Agreement Nos quedamos en salir a las siete. .146 www.

Location La tienda queda dos metros de la estación del tren. - The store is two meters from the train station.

• What is left or remaining No queda más. - There’s nothing left. • How much is left to go Quedan dos días para el fin de semana. - There are two days to go until the weekend.

How something fits or looks Esa camisa te queda muy bien. - That shirt suits you very well.

Don’t stress about memorizing all of these! For now, just be familiar with the concepts behind each of these important words. As you hear more Spanish being spoken, you’ll start to pick up the nuances of meaning that are impossible to convey in a book. Language is an organic, living thing. Seek out conversation practice wherever you can!

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6.3 Actions You Perform on Yourself: Reflexive Verbs
Understanding Reflexive Verbs
At last, you’ve come to the final section on pronouns. This is one of the more complicated sections (but no more complicated than the last section!). In Spanish, when you talk about an action being performed on yourself, you show the reflexive nature of the action with a reflexive verb. Reflexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performed an action on itself. In other words, in a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object. Examples of reflexive actions are the following: • • • • • José got up. He put his shoes on. Eva got sick. I asked myself a question. The girl brushed her teeth.

You may look at the last example and say, “But the object is teeth! Why should that verb be reflexive?” In Spanish, parts of the body are never preceded by personal pronouns. In other words, you never talk about “my teeth”—you talk about “the teeth,” with a reflexive verb preceding it. For example, in English you would say: • • • I comb my hair. I wash my face. I scratch my arm.

In Spanish, you would say: o Me peino el pelo. o Me lavo la cara. o Me rasco el brazo.

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All reflexive verbs are preceded by reflexive pronouns. Reflexive pronoun me te se nos os se Example using “peinarse,” to comb Me peino el pelo. Te peinas el pelo. Ella se peina el pelo. Nos peinamos el pelo. Os peinais el pelo. Ellos se peinan el pelo. Translation I comb my hair. You comb your hair. She combs her hair. We comb our hair. You comb your hair. They comb their hair.

Yo Tú Ud., él, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas

When a Verb is Reflexive and When It is Not
If you are reading Spanish, you will know that a verb is reflexive by the ending –se tacked onto its infinitive form. Below is a list of some common reflexive verbs. Note the common –se ending.

alegrarse … to be happy

enojarse … to get angry

cepillarse … to brush (yourself)

lavarse … to wash (yourself)

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cortarse … to cut yourself

levantarse … to get up

despertarse … to wake up

quemarse … to burn yourself

enfermarse … to get sick

meterse … to put (yourself)

A verb is not reflexive if it does not have this ending. For example, compare: Me despierto. with Te despierto.

The first example is reflexive, but the second one is not! In the first example, the subject is performing the action on his/herself (e.g., I wake myself up), and the verb is despertarse. In the second example, the subject is performing the action on someone else (e.g., I wake you up), and the verb is despertar. Now compare: Te enojaron. with Nos enojamos.

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if you get angry.2. Me alegro por ti. 4. Nos metimos en una mala situación. you learned how to use estar with descriptive adjectives to express emotions. ¿Te enfermaste ayer? .RocketSpanish. become sad.com .We got ourselves into a bad situation. Los niños se quemaron con los juegos pirotécnicos. 3. . Back in Chapter 3. Mis padres se enojan cuando no los llamo. Estoy enojado … I am angry. the verb used will often be reflexive.Mary combs her hair every night. For example. Me lavo la cara todas las mañanas. you will need to express yourself using a reflexive verb. . Some verbs are ALWAYS reflexive. 2.Did you get sick yesterday? 8. The second example is reflexive (We got angry) and uses the verb enojarse. like enfermarse.151 www.My parents get angry when I don’t call them. 6.Can you guess which example uses a reflexive verb and which does not? • • The first example is not reflexive (They made you angry) and uses the verb enojar. . 5.The children burned themselves with the fireworks. 7. Maria se peina el pelo todas las noches. . When you say how you feel in this way. Por ejemplo: 1. . or feel happy for someone.I’m happy for you.I wash my face every morning. Francisco se cortó la mano. . . To Get Emotional with a Reflexive Verb When a person becomes emotional. Estoy feliz … I am happy.Francis cut his hand. you’re expressing your emotional state at that moment. This can seem a bit confusing at first. Estoy triste … I am sad. .

152 www. You’ll need a reflexive verb.RocketSpanish.com . It makes me happy to hear your voice. estar simply won’t do.However. It made me sad. Me enojé rápidamente. Me alegro oír tu voz. . Don’t worry too much about this nuance of reflexive verbs! The more you hear verbs in action. the more you’ll naturally pick up which verbs are used reflexively and which are not. Me puso triste. • • • I quickly got angry. when you want to describe how your emotional state has changed over time or as a result of something.

Section Summary After completing this section.6.153 www. you should know the following:  How to talk about what or whom you know o the difference between SABER and CONOCER  How to talk about what fascinates or interests you  How to talk about what you like  How to talk about what you need or lack  How to talk about whether your clothes fit or look good on you  How to talk about what is left or remaining  How to talk about your personal daily routine (waking up.)  How to recognize a reflexive verb by its “-se” ending  How to talk about becoming angry or being happy for someone .RocketSpanish.com .4 Review I. etc. brushing your hair. showering.

RocketSpanish.II. letter toothbrush certificate chocolate city color Spanish food concert room (also habitación) team desk train station party end. Vocabulary Building Vocabulary List #6 Spanish SUSTANTIVOS abuelo (el) baile (el) café (el) camisa (la) cara (la) carta (la) cepillo de dientes (el) certificado (el) chocolate (el) ciudad (la) color (el) comida española (la) concierto (el) cuarto (el) equipo (el) escritorio (el) estación del tren (la) fiesta (la) fin (el) fin de semana (el) fútbol (el) gato (el) geografía (la) huerta botánica (la) juegos pirotécnicos (los) jugador (el) lápiz (el) mano (la) metro (el) modelo (el) mosquito (el) música (la) música latina (la) oficina (la) película (la) pelo (el) piña (la) política (la) sitio (el) situación (la) televisión (la) vestido (el) voz (la) VERBOS acampar English NOUNS grandfather dance coffee shirt face card. ending weekend soccer cat geography botanic garden fireworks player pencil hand meter model mosquito music Latin music office movie. film hair pineapple politics site situation television dress voice VERBS to camp .com .154 www.

155 www.alegrarse cepillarse cocinar correr cortarse despertarse dibujar encantar enfermarse enojarse escribir faltar fascinar hacer falta importar intentar interesar ir jugar lavarse leer levantarse llamar meterse mojarse molestar oír pasar peinarse ponerse triste quedar quemarse tener tomar trabajar ADJECTIVOS azul enojado triste verde EXPRESIONES COMUNES algunos / algunas anteriormente ayer bien casi chévere como conmigo este (esta. to be missing. to stroll to comb (yourself) to become sad to fit. estos. to be left to burn yourself to have to drink.com . to be remaining.RocketSpanish. to bother to hear to pass. to suit. to be needed to fascinate to miss something (emotionally) to be important to try to be interesting to go to play to wash (yourself) to read to get up to call to put (yourself) to get wet to annoy. amazing how with me this (adj) more I like… (in the context of liking someone) . to be happy to brush (yourself) to cook to run to cut yourself to wake up to draw to enchant (love) to get sick to get angry to write to be lacking. estas) más …me cae bien. to take to work ADJECTIVES blue angry sad green OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH some previously yesterday well almost cool. great.

nada para por ti propio rápidamente TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST acá allá allí amigo aquí conocer cual (el.com . than who. or thing) which when after.… me cae mal. which.RocketSpanish. quienes saber siempre último vez I don’t like… nothing for for you own rapidly COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH over here over there there friend here to know (a person. who. for. an idea) always last once . whom to know (knowledge. later where to find happy to be pleasing to (like) through. place.156 www. la) cuando después donde encontrar feliz gustar por que quien. by that. along.

¡Me alegro que tienes un trabajo nuevo! ¿Dónde trabajas? Trabajo en una compañía de música.157 www. No te quito más tiempo. Estaba cocinando el desayuno. clothes professional panadería estaba cocinando desayuno pan leche quitar hasta luego bakery I was cooking breakfast bread milk to take away until later . ¿y tú? Bien.RocketSpanish. Son las seis de la mañana. un poco cansado. Mateo. ¿Adónde vas? Me gusta levantarme temprano. Sí. y además voy a mi nuevo trabajo. Bueno. creo que tus hijos te están esperando. Ayudo a los artistas con sus necesidades. ¡me gustan! ¿Adónde vas tú? Voy a la panadería.III. as they meet on the street unexpectedly. Mateo: Marta: Mateo: Marta: Mateo: Marta: Mateo: Hola. pero me faltan pan y leche. very early in the morning. Read the Conversation Read the following conversation between Marta and Mateo. ¡Chao! Marta: Mateo: Marta : Mateo: Marta: Mateo: PALABRAS NUEVAS qué sorpresa un poco cansado temprano además necesidades ropa profesional what a surprise a little tired early furthermore necessities clothing.com . Marta. ¡Qué sorpresa! ¿Cómo estás? Estoy bien. Te levantaste temprano. Bueno. ¿Te gusta? Tus pantalones negros te quedan bien. Hasta luego. Tuve que comprar ropa nueva para parecer más profesional.

Al Señor Salazar le gustan los carros japoneses.158 www. ¿Te gusta nadar en el mar? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. ¿Te gustan las clases de español? ___________________________________________________________________________ .RocketSpanish. A nosotros nos gusta nadar en el mar. ¿Te gusta bailar? Answer the following questions according to your own personal Sí. ¿A ti te gusta hablar? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. A Javier.IV. A Rosario le gusta jugar fútbol. A mí me gustan las clases de español. ¿Te gusta manejar rápidamente? ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. me gusta bailar. hamburguesas? ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Exercises Exercise 1. ¿Te gustan los carros japoneses? ___________________________________________________________________________ 6.com . preference. no me gusta bailar. ¿Te gusta jugar fútbol? ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Ex. A Maria le gusta bailar. Me gusta la música latina muchísimo. Jorge y yo nos gusta manejar los carros rápidamente. or No. ¿A ti te gusta la música latina? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. A Eduardo y Ramón les gusta comer las hamburguesas. A mi profesor le gusta hablar. Ramiro. ¿Te gustan las 1.

Exercise 2.¿Te falta un sombrero? ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. A Wilfredo le falta un carro para ir a la universidad.159 www. No me gusta el primer año de universidad. ¿Te falta un carro? ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. ¿Te falta una computadora para trabajar? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. me falta dinero.” Ex. Le hace falta un reloj. ¿Te hace falta tu familia? ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. ¿Te hace falta un esposo/a? ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. Use the verb “faltar. no me falta dinero. ¿Te hace falta un reloj? ___________________________________________________________________________ .com . ¿Te falta dinero? Sí. 1. A Maria le falta dinero. A Rodrigo y Miguel les faltan sombreros para el sol. Jaime siempre llega tarde. ¿Te falta un lápiz para escribir? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Answer the following questions according to your own personal preference. Me falta dinero para comprar almuerzo.RocketSpanish. Nos falta una computadora para trabajar. or No. A Ramona le falta un lápiz para escribir. A Marcela le hace falta un esposo con mucho dinero. ¿Te falta dinero para comprar almuerzo? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Me hace falta mi familia.

160 www. A ________________________________________________ Tia __________________________________________________ 5. A las ____________________________________________ Tia ________________________________________________ 4. A las ____________________________________________ Tia ________________________________________________ . A las sie de la mañana se levanta Tia 1.RocketSpanish. Describe Tia’s morning routine.com . A las ____________________________________________ Tia ________________________________________________ 2.Exercise 3. Ex. using the pictures below. A las _____________________________________________ Tia _________________________________________________ 3.

El padre de Enrique se enoja cuando sus hijos ven demasiado televisión.RocketSpanish. Estaba tan enferma ayer. Me llamo Carmen.   10.   8.   12. Mi hermana siempre me despierta todas las mañanas.   4. mientras los profesores interesantes me alegran. Las amigas se ayudan a cepillar el pelo. Me lavé el pelo antes de salir del baño.   9.   3. Decide whether the underlined verb is reflexive or not and check in the appropriate box. Los profesores aburridos me enojan.   11. Hay tener cuidado con los cuchillos. Nos llamaron desde la estación de tren.   5. como una persona puede cortarse.161 www. Me enfermé rápidamente. El gato se metió en un árbol y no quería salir.com .   13.   7. Mi mamá siempre me cepilla el pelo.   6. La niña se pone los zapatos. .Exercise 4. Reflexive NOT Reflexive  Ex.   2.    1. Necesito una alarma para despertarme en la mañana. Es importante lavarse las manos antes de comer.

Part VII.162 www.RocketSpanish.com . Special Words .

.7.163 www.  Words that put something at the top or bottom of the class..) Let’s say that you want to talk about your favorite soccer team.1 Talking about What’s Good. Look at the table and follow each word from left to right.g. it’s the best. Say that you want to claim that your favorite soccer team is better than your friend’s. Below are some common comparatives and superlatives in Spanish. My favorite soccer team is better than yours. it’s better. My favorite soccer team is very good. Better.com . best. it’s good. When you’re talking about one thing.RocketSpanish. You can compare things just as easily in Spanish as you can in English.. so to speak. and how your friend’s car compares with yours. • Mi equipo de fútbol favorito es mejor que el tuyo. When you say that it is better than anything else. • Mi equipo de fúbol favorito es muy bueno. oldest) are called superlatives. better. When you’re comparing it to something else. If you understand this. (e. Adjective bueno malo viejo joven Translation good bad old young Comparative mejor que peor que mayor que menor que Translation Superlative better worse older younger el / la mejor el / la peor el / la mayor el / la menor Translation the best the worst the oldest the youngest (You should also know that bien and mal share the same construction as bueno and malo. and Best Understanding Comparatives and Superlatives Now let’s take a breather and go to something easier and more fun! Let’s talk about the best band of all time. older) are called comparatives. better. you already know what a comparative and a superlative are.g.  Words that compare one thing to another (e. who is the oldest person in your class. and best. You should already be familiar with the concept of good.

The Best of All: LA MEJOR If you want to say that your sister is the oldest in your family. you will simply add the article “the” to the comparative form of the adjective.The first band was better than the second. say that you want to boast that your soccer team is the best of all! • ¡Mi equipo de fútbol es el mejor! My soccer team is the best! For Better or for Worse: MEJOR QUE and PEOR QUE When you want to compare the age (older. for example. . La primera banda fue mejor que la segunda. . you will say.The black hat is better than the white hat. El hermano de Juan es mayor que él.164 www. . best) of two things.” Por ejemplo: 1.com .Now. 3. 2. “Mi hermana es mayor que mí. that your sister is older than you are. The sentence becomes: “Mi hermana es la mayor. El sombrero negro es mejor que el sombrero blanco. younger) or quality (better. For example: o o o o better than = mejor que worse than = peor que older than = mayor que younger than = menor que If you want to say.RocketSpanish.” .Juan’s brother is older than him. you will use the comparative form of the adjective plus than.

3. remember: de + el = del The Most of All: MÁS DE You can also form superlatives by talking about the strongest. the phrase “the hottest day of the summer” will become: . El jugador es el mejor de todos. Más means most. fastest thing of all.Margaret is the youngest daughter. Whereas you form these superlatives in English by adding an –est to the end of the adjective or adverb.” Sound strange? Remember that in English. de has combined with el to form del. If you wish to talk about “the hottest day of the summer” in Spanish. La señora es la mayor del barrio. . you’ll have to say “the day most hot of the summer. .Por ejemplo: 1. 2.She is the worst student in the class. You will notice that the word de is often used with superlatives.Lupe is the best worker in the group. All other superlatives will be formed using the sentence construction below.” That’s exactly how it’s done in Spanish.RocketSpanish. .com . Notice that in the second example.” Por ejemplo: 1.He is the best singer in the world. Él es el mejor cantante del mundo. Anytime you see de and el together. . Ella es la peor estudiante de la clase.165 www. . 2. When used after a superlative. noun + “más” + adjective or adverb + “de” + noun In Spanish. de can mean “in” or “of. then. coolest. you form them in Spanish by using the word más instead.The player is the best of all. 4. not all adjectives can be transformed with an –est ending. you form the superlative just as it is done in Spanish: you talk about the “most beautiful” or the “most expensive. . This is identical to the formation of al from a and el. Margarita es la hija menor.The lady is the oldest in the neighborhood. Lupe es la mejor trabajadora del grupo. You can’t say “beautifulest” or “expensivest”! In those cases.

The night was super cold. . Los matadores profesionales solo usan los toros más fuertes de España. .John has the most expensive guitar in the group. Super Cool: The Ending -ísimo In Spanish. Some More Comparisons: MÁS QUE and MENOS QUE Other comparisons you will make will be of the greater and lesser sort.RocketSpanish. . . 3. This is the English equivalent adding a “very” or “super” before the adjective. La noche estuvo heladísima. mi hija. Juan tiene la guitarra más cara del grupo. 5. my daughter. Por ejemplo: 1. La comida está riquísima.The spring is the wettest season in my region. . .Today is the hottest day of the summer.These are the most beautiful flowers of my garden. .166 www. 2. Estás bellísima. there’s another way of expressing how something is just the “most-est. For example. 2.You’re gorgeous. .Professional bullfighters only use the strongest bulls in Spain.el día + más + caluroso + del + verano Por ejemplo: 1. .The food is super delicious. La primavera es la estación más lluviosa en mi región. Hoy es el día más caluroso del verano. you will say that something has more or less of a quality than the other thing.” You can intensify the meaning of any adjective by adding the ending -ísimo.com . El atleta corrió rapidísimo en la competencia. .The athlete ran super fast in the competition. Estas son las flores más hermosas de mi jardín. 4. 4. 3. In other words.

it’s just the same. . Elena tiene menos dinero que Nadia.  Use tanto … como for “as many … as” or “as much … as.Javier is stronger than his brother. 5. there is a distinction. Annette has more than her sister. Go back and look at the sample sentences in English above. más que = menos que = Por ejemplo: 1. El pasaje de tren cuesta menos que el de avion.com .Ellen has less money than Nadia. .” when the characteristic in common is a noun. . 3. Pedro come menos que Miguel. In Spanish. or adverb. more (or greater) than less (or fewer) than Expressing How Things are Alike: TAN COMO and TANTO COMO You can also use comparatives to describe how similar two things are.The train ticket costs less than the airplane ticket. adjective.Peter eats less than Michael. Can you guess which would . . whether or not the word that the two things have in common is a noun. When you compare two things that are similar in English.” In Spanish. Javier es más fuerte que su hermano. For example. When it comes to shoes. however.  Use tan … como for “as … as” when the characteristic in common is an adjective or adverb. you often use as … as. Notice that the words “more” and “less” are followed by a “than. I have as many toys as you. 4. you might wish to say: • • You’re as nice as your sister.• • • Julie has more pens than Matt. 2. but instead of talking about “more than” you will talk about más que. .RocketSpanish.167 www. San Francisco has fewer people than Los Angeles. Expressions like tan … como and tanto … como help you do that. Ricardo es más inteligente que José.Richard is more intelligent than Joe.

(“nice” is an adjective) (“toys” is a noun) Remember that the word tanto must reflect the gender and quantity of the noun it describes. . Ella tiene tantos zapatos como su amiga. .Charles is as handsome as his brother.Your car is as slow as a snail. Tú tienes tantas ideas como yo. . .You have as many ideas as I do.We have as many cows as sheep. (“slow” is an adjective) (“cows” is a noun) (“handsome” is an adjective) (“ideas” is a noun) . 4.RocketSpanish. Tengo tantos juguetes como tú.com . Tu auto es tan lento como un caracol. 3. Ustedes tienen tantas cosas como nosotros. Tenemos tantas vacas como ovejas.use tan … como and which would use tanto … como? • • Eres tan amable como tu hermana. 2. Carlos es tan guapo como su hermano.168 www. Por ejemplo: 1. Nosotros tenemos tanta comida como los otros. • • • • Tengo tanto dinero como él.

” . The most common are: o pero si y porque or but if and because You will use these conjunctions in the exact same way you do in English.I want the red shirt and the blue shirt. 3. . Por ejemplo: 1.I like this one.  Si means “if. These are words that join two parts of a sentence together. 2.RocketSpanish. you’ve only been able to speak in simple sentences. Ands.169 www. Watch those accent marks! Make sure that you don’t confuse si with sí.We can choose between this option or the other. “I like this one. 4. but I prefer that one. Si quieres ir con nosotros. But what if you want to say. “I want the red one and the blue one?” Or. I can take you. but I prefer that one”? To create complex sentences. Buts Understanding Conjuctions Up until now.com . te puedo llevar.If you want to go with us. Quiero la camisa roja y la camisa azul. pero prefiero ése. Podemos elegir entre esta opción o la otra. .7. you need to be able to use conjunctions. . Me gusta éste.2 Talking about Ifs.”  Sí means “yes. .

Alguien está en mi cuarto. Alguno also changes form according to quantity (in which case it translates as “several”).170 www. .We’re going to take several in case of emergency. 4. . These sorts of words are indefinite words. Algo pasó en el banco. Alguna vez en mi vida. Spanish has them just as English does.RocketSpanish. sometime some.Something happened in the bank. any whichever. too . Por ejemplo: 1. whatever Note that algo and alguien never change forms—there is NO such thing as “algos” or “alguienes. ¿Cuál bebida te gusta? —No me importa. Some other useful words along this vein are: siempre también always also.Someone is in my room. or someone. . alguno and cualquier do change forms according to gender. .Which drink do you like? —I don’t care. Vamos a llevar algunos en caso de emergencia. I’d like to fly in a small plane. It could be something. algo alguien alguna vez alguno/a cualquier/a something. anything someone. or anyone.3 Talking about Something and Nothing Understanding Indefinite Words Sometimes you don’t exactly know what you want to refer to. whichever is fine for me.com . cualquiera está bien para mí. 2. 3. 5. somebody once.Sometime in my life. quiero volar en un avión pequeño. . for that matter.” However.7.

—Me neither. . Perhaps you prefer to talk about nobody and nothing. Héctor siempre va al colegio en bus. . ¿Cuál bebida quieres? —Ninguna. Understanding Negative Words Perhaps. ¿Quieren ustedes ir conmigo? —No. there is a word with exactly the opposite meaning for each of the positive words you learned above. Quiero ir con usted también.I have never played soccer.I want to go with you. These are negative indefinite words.No one wants to go out. I don’t like these drinks.com . No me gustan estas bebidas. . 3. Nadie tiene ganas de salir. In Spanish. though. Jamás he jugado fútbol. . —Yo tampoco. 4. too. 2.Hector always goes to the high school by bus.RocketSpanish. 2. Positive Indefinite algo alguien alguno cualquier o siempre también Negative Indefinite nada nadie ningún ninguno/a ni nunca. you don’t want to talk about somebody or something. Por ejemplo: 1. .Por ejemplo: 1. . Sometimes you can form a negative sentence in Spanish just as you would in English. .Which drink do you want? —Neither one.171 www.Do you want to go with me? —No. jamás tampoco Translation nothing no one / nobody not any neither one neither / nor never neither / not either Forming negatives in Spanish can be tricky.

I have nothing. If you want to add a negative indefinite word like “nobody” or “nothing” to a negative sentence. . No tengo nada.) 2.I don’t want either this one or the other.RocketSpanish. because that’s the proper way to form those sentences grammatically. No quiero ni éste ni el otro. I don’t want neither this one nor the other. 3. . . Por ejemplo: 1.  No hay nadie aquí.172 www.) Por ejemplo: 1. (Literally. There isn’t no one here. No quiero ir. He don’t know nothing.) . In fact. (Literally. however. Sarita y Tomás no están en la clase hoy. Ellos no van mañana. I don’t have nothing.com . 2.They aren’t going tomorrow. . (Make sure that you do NOT place it before the subject.I don’t want to go. you have to form double negatives in Spanish. These are called double negatives … and they’re perfectly fine in Spanish!  No lo he hecho nunca.Sarah and Thomas are not in class today. This involves placing the word no before the verb. you’re going to have to unlearn some English grammar! Remember how you learned in school that you should never say things like… • • • I ain’t never done it.There’s another way of forming negative sentences. .  Él no sabe nada.

 Why you should use “double negatives” in Spanish.7. prettiest. no one.173 www.RocketSpanish.com . and something else is the best  How to talk about the oldest and youngest people in your family  How to talk about the hottest. Section Summary After completing this section. wettest.” or “but  How to talk about something. etc. strongest. etc.” “and. nothing. .4 Review I. you should know the following:  How to say when something is good. something else is better. anything.  How to talk about who has more or less than others  How to compare two things  How to interject an “if.

la) caracol (el) clase (la) colegio (el) comida (la) competencia (la) cuarto (el) día (el) dinero (el) estación (la) estudiante (el.174 www. blouse singer snail class high school food competition room day money season.II. la) auto (el) avión (el) banco (el) banda (la) barrio (el) bebida (la) bus (el) camisa (la) cantante (el.RocketSpanish. Mrs. la) flor (la) fútbol (el) grupo (el) guitarra (la) hermana (la) hermano (el) hija (la) idea (la) jardín (el) jugador (el) juguete (el) matador (el) mundo (el) noche (la) opción (la) oveja (la) pasaje (el) primavera (la) región (la) señora (la) sombrero (el) toro (el) trabajadora (la) tren (el) vaca (la) verano (el) vida (la) English . Vocabulary Building Vocabulary List #7 NOUNS athlete car airplane bank band neighborhood drink bus shirt. station student flower soccer group guitar sister brother daughter idea garden player toy bullfighter world night option sheep fare spring region lady.com Spanish SUSTANTIVOS atleta (el. hat bull female worker train cow summer life .

175 www. feeling) to be pleasing to (to like) to go to play to take.com .VERBOS comer correr costar elegir estar gustar ir jugar llevar pasar poder preferir querer saber salir ser tener tener ganas de volar ADJECTIVOS amable azul bella (bellísima) blanco bueno caluroso caro fuerte helado (heladísimo) hermoso inteligente joven lento lluvioso malo negro pequeño profesional rápido (rapidísimo) rica (riquísima) rojo viejo EXPRESIONES COMUNES algo alguien alguna vez alguno/a aquí conmigo cualquier/a VERBS to eat to run to cost to select. location.RocketSpanish. whatever . can. sometime some. handsome intelligent young slow rainy bad black small professional fast (extremely fast) delicious (extremely delicious) red old OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH something. may to prefer to want to know (information) to leave. to stroll. to carry to happen. anything someone. to elect to be (health. any here with me whichever. to pass to be able to. to go out to be (permanent condition) to have to feel like to fly ADJECTIVES nice blue beautiful (extremely beautiful) white good hot expensive strong icy cold (extremely icy cold) beautiful. somebody once.

not or other but because if yes also. nobody neither.. there are today never older better younger nothing no one. fewer same not any neither one no. of the oldest the best the youngest the worst in case of emergency between that one (masculine singular) this (adj. nor never for worse first second always neither / not either all COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH in the.176 www.com .de el / la mayor el / la mejor el / la menor el / la peor en caso de emergencia entre ése esta éste hay hoy jamás mayor mejor menor nada nadie ni nunca para peor que primera segunda siempre tampoco todos TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST del entonces hola más menos mismo ningún ninguno/a no o otro (el) pero porque si sí también tan … como tanto … como usar y in. as much … as to use and . of the (masculine singular) then hello more less. singular feminine) this one (masculine singular) there is. too as … as as many … as.RocketSpanish.

in which Carlota and Tonio argue over who is older.III. ¡Sí soy! ¡No eres! Tú eres tan lento como un caracol. Read the Conversation Read the following conversation. Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: ¡Yo soy mayor que tú! ¡No. Tú no eres tan alta como yo. Tú eres tan lenta como una piedra. No puedes tener una media vela. Eso no es nada. entonces soy la mayor. yo soy mayor que tú! Yo tuve una fiesta de cumpleaños.com . y tenía ocho y media velas. ¿Está alguien hablando conmigo? No sabes nada. Yo tuve mi fiesta de cumpleaños. Tonio. Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: PALABRAS NUEVAS tuve / tenía fiesta de cumpleaños vela I had birthday party candle torta media piedra cake half rock .177 www. ¿Por qué? Porque … porque… Tengo más velas que tú.RocketSpanish. Tenía ocho velas en la torta. Pero todavía soy la mayor.

__________________ son mejores que__________________. avión. __________________ es _______ mejor. Exercises Exercise 1. __________________ son _______ mejores. piscina __________________ es buen___. Ex. Rank the following three things in order of how much you like them. caballos. 3. parque. agua. 4. manzanas. . automóvil __________________ es buen___. perros __________________ son buen___.RocketSpanish. es mejor que es el agua mejor. 2. naranjas. __________________ es mejor que__________________. __________________ son mejores que__________________. . __________________ es mejor que__________________. autobús.com .IV. la 1. piñas __________________ son buen___. cerveza El agua El café La cerveza es buen o .178 www. museo. __________________ son _______ mejores. __________________ es _______ mejor. café. gatos.

com . ¿Quién es la persona más mayor de la familia Jiménez? Carlos  el mayor de la familia. ¿Quién es el hijo mayor? ___________________________________________________________________________ . Who is youngest in the family? Who is oldest? Read the paragraph about the Jiménez family and answer the following questions. Lorena. Mis hermanas se llaman Dolores y Maricruz. y tienen doce años y quince años respectivamente. Tiene dos años más de edad que mi mamá.Exercise 2. quiero ser bombero! respectivamente— respectively mientras—while abogado—lawyer científica—scientist bombero—fireman Ex.179 www. Yo tengo ocho años de edad. Es una familia grande. y soy de la familia Jiménez.RocketSpanish. Mis hermanos se llaman Diego y Francisco. ¡Hola! Yo soy Ricardo. ¿Quién es el menor? ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Tengo cuatro hermanos. ¿Es Carlos menor que Lorena? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4 ¿Quién es menor: Dolores o Ricardo? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ella es científica y tiene cuarenta años de edad. mientras Francisco tiene dieciséis años. ¡Algún día. Diego tiene catorce años de edad. Mi papá se llama Carlos. Él es abogado. ¿Es Maricruz mayor que Diego? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. 1.

(día — frío — invierno) 1. ¿Quién está en el baño? (El baño está vacio. or siempre.com . Answer the question according to the hint below. Hoy es el día más frio del invierno.) . _____________________________________________ 1. Complete the sentence by making a superlative from the fragments below. nada. Use one of the following words: cualquier/a.) 2. ¿Cuál camisa prefieres? (Todas las camisas son buenas.Exercise 3. Ex. Tenemos ________________________________________________________________ (auto — rápido — barrio) Exercise 4. Ex. Cualquiera.RocketSpanish. ¿Ves mucha televisión? (todo el tiempo) _____________________________________________ 3. ¿Qué tienes en la maleta? (La maleta está vacia. ningun/a. nadie. Tú eres _________________________________________________________________ (persona — amable — que conozco) 5. Emilia es ________________________________________________________________ (chica — bonita — ciudad) 3.180 www. José es _________________________________________________________________ (hijo — alto —familia) 2. Nosotros somos __________________________________________________________ (estudiantes — inteligentes — universidad) 4. ¿Cuál pasaporte es tuyo? _____________________________________________ (Mi pasaporte no está en el grupo.) _____________________________________________ 4.

or the same as one another.RocketSpanish. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 2. less. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 4.181 www. Felipa tiene más lápic que Pepe.com . Ex. Look at the picture and express whether Pepe y Felipa have more. 1.Exercise 5. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ . _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 3.

RocketSpanish. get out there and start speaking some Spanish! Sincerely yours… Mauricio . All those topics and more are coming up in the Rocket Spanish Advanced Book. There is so.com .Conclusion You’ve done it! You’ve just mastered nearly 200 pages of material. Now. so much more to learn … like how to discuss what will happen in the future. Now. don’t forget to keep practicing what you have learned. What can you say now in Spanish that you couldn’t before? This book has given you an insight into a completely different world. how to tell someone to do something. and how to talk about what you’re certain about or what you doubt.182 www. You can use the topics and exercises in the Beginners Vocabulary Supplement to learn the vocabulary that you need to know for whatever situation you find yourself in. how to talk about what you want or desire.

” . or. or them) is the direct object of a sentence. Means that you should stress that sound. you.Appendix 1. as in. Such as this (one).com adverb article comparative conjugation conjunctions contraction definite article demonstrative adjectives demonstrative pronouns direct object direct object pronouns . such as better. I am including a handy glossary of grammatical terms.RocketSpanish. “the”— el. worse. When two words are combined to create one for ease of pronunciation. A word that modifies or describes a noun. but. that thing. such as á. if. such as del (de + el) and al (a + el). Comes after the verb is describes. In Spanish. us.” see definite article or indefinite article When one thing is compared to another thing. as in “cat black” or “fish cold. him. that (one). such as and. adjectives come before the nouns they described. la. Grammatical Concepts in English Because you may not be familiar with many of the grammatical concepts I’ve used in this book. accent mark adjective A slanted line above a letter. that (one) over there. Pronouns used when a person (like me. When you take a Spanish verb from its infinitive form and combine it with a subject. Joining words that combine two sentences or clauses.183 www. “We did it quickly. For example.” See also possessive adjectives and demonstrative adjectives. “I called you. See also direct object pronouns. and older. that thing over there. los. and because. The person or thing that an action is being done to. A word that modifies or describes an action. her. las Such as this thing.

with. ser. “We don’t never do it. your. two unique prepositional pronouns are conmigo and contigo. A person. not any. nobody. An adjective used to describe whose something is. such as. her. between. May be masculine or feminine. on. Pronouns used when a person is the indirect object of a sentence. Words like above. and neither. no one. anything. Verbs can be regular in one tense but irregular in another. sometime. una. like my.” In Spanish. Pronouns used when a person is the object of a preposition.RocketSpanish. to want. unas Words such as something.184 www. negative words noun plural possessive adjective preposition prepositional pronouns . For example. someone. or querer. some.” The “timeless” form of a verb that begins with “to. The person or thing that an action is being done for. whichever. its.” A characteristic of nouns in Spanish. like Where? or When? A verb that does not follow the normal pattern of verb endings for a specific tense. place.com . See also indirect object pronouns. “I ain’t got nothing. Words such as nothing. “a” or “an” — un. Examples include “between you and me” and “written by him. unos.double negative gender indefinite article indefinite words indirect object indirect object pronouns infinitive interrogative word irregular verb When two negatives are used in a row. and our. for. by. in. thing. “I gave her the money. never. any. and whatever. his. their. or idea Referring to more than one thing.” such as to be. A word that is used to ask a question.” or.

See also subject pronouns. we. she. such as “I am doing it. such as I. such as I. -e to -i. The part of the verb that is left when you take away the verb ending. te. them. he. it. eating).185 www. like peinarse or cortarse. In Spanish. These are similar to the English myself. Pronouns that function as the subject of a sentence. ourselves. himself. me. present participles are distinguished by their –ando or –iendo endings. Distinguished in Spanish by the –se tacked onto its infinitive form. “Lo estoy haciendo. These pronouns indicate when an action is being performed by the subject on him/herself. running. reflexive pronouns. him.” An action that is occurring right now.present participle A verb form used to create the present progressive tense.RocketSpanish. prepositional pronouns. In Spanish. se. A type of verb in which the subject of the sentence performs the action on him/herself.” Characterized by a form of verb “to be” followed by a present participle.com . you. For example. and demonstrative pronouns. Words that refer to people. Referring to one thing. direct/indirect object pronouns. yourself. us. he. Some common stem changes in Spanish include -e to -ie. and os. In English. present progressive present tense pronouns reflexive pronoun reflexive verbs regular verb singular stem stem change subject subject pronouns . The person or thing that performs the action in a sentence. A tense used to describe action in process. When the stem of a verb changes when it is conjugated. they include me. present participles are distinguished by their –ing ending (like doing. A verb that follows the normal pattern of verb endings for a specific tense. you. nos. and -o to –ue. herself. and they.

An action word. and –IR (vivir). and reflexive verbs. stem changing. verb ending .superlative verb When one thing is compared to two or more things. regular verbs. like ran or lived. verb endings. stem.RocketSpanish. grouped into three main categories: -AR (hablar).186 www. or the most of all. worst. such as best. The ending of a verb.com . See also irregular verbs. conjugations. -ER (comer).

sois 5. son 3.RocketSpanish. Los 10. La 11. 4. Answer Key PART 1 Exercise 1 1. 3. Unos 11. Unos / unas 13. cuarto para las once . 6. El 13. somos 2. Unos / unas 14. 6. 6. El 9. 8. siete y cinco 7. El 14. eres Exercise 4 1. 7. 3. La El El La Los Las Los Las 9. 2. veintiún dólares cien dólares cuarenta y seis dólares sesenta y cinco dólares y cincuenta centavos tres cientos noventa y nueve dólares y noventa y nueve centavos mil setecientos cincuenta dólares seis mil ciento noventa y nueve dólares Exercise 5 1. 7. 4. 3. 8. El 12.com . 2. la una y cuarto 6. 3.187 www. tres y media dos y veinte cuarto para las nueve cinco para las cuatro 5. 4. 5. 4. Una Unos / unas Una Una Un Un / una Una Un Exercise 3 1. 5. El 17. Una Exercise 2 1. Los 16. 2. 2.Appendix 2. Un / una 12. Una 15. La 15. 7. 5. soy 4. Unos 10.

Manuel está en la casa. 4. corro Exercise 3 1. Exercise 4 1. 6. 7. Vamos a tener una fiesta. 7. Soy de Brasil. 6. 3. 5. sacan 8. 5. Vais a caminar al parque. necesitan 10. 4. escribes 10. esperas 9. 3. 6. 4. 5. 8. 2. 4. Voy a terminar los ejercicios. Exercise 5 1. sobre encima del al lado del alrededor del detrás del debajo de la en el . 5.com . 2. ve 9. 6. salís 8. La maleta negra es de Pablo. leemos 11. Vas a manejar el carro. Elena llega a la estación a las tres y media de la tarde. gusta Exercise 2 1. 3.PART 2 Exercise 1 1. 4. Los niños van a preguntar por su amigo. 3. preguntamos estudian trabaja dibuja descansáis nadamos 7. 2. toman 11.188 www. La mujer va a cortar el pan. 5.RocketSpanish. Voy a estudiar por una hora. Tenemos doce naranjas. escribimos bebes comparte describe comen corre 7. 2. Gloria y Juana van a comer pescado. 2. 3.

Exercise 4 1. nuestros 14. Felipe nos da unos regalos. mojado enojado. 6. Hace viento. 5. sus PART 4 Exercise 1 1. mi 10. grande frío. 6. Nosotros la ganamos. su 9. Exercise 3 1. 3. es está está estoy soy está 7. Hace sol. No tiene su cartera. sucio bajo. 3. Les escribo una carta. 4. 4.PART 3 Exercise 1 1. 9. 4. 11. 2. 2. . 4. 7. su sus tus mi su su nuestro 8. 5. . 2. Exercise 2 1. 5. 5. Está nublado. Yo la sé. fuerte. Sara me invita a la fiesta. vuestra 11. Está nevando. 3. 3.com 4. Hace frío. Javier los tiene. 3. está 8. 2. tu 12.189 www. 3. El profesor la quiere. 5. 6. 4. El chofer es un hombre muy amable. 7. Te espero. 2. 5. 6. Se siente muy cansada. 6. Pilar se siente nerviosa. Les describo el concierto.RocketSpanish. su 13. rápido feliz. hermosa Exercise 2 1. 2. 10. Los estudiantes los estudian. Mi padres los compra. Le compras pan. Está despejado. Hace calor.

2. Exercise 4 1. Vienen 3. en frente de ellos (los estudiantes) 2. ésa 6. Ustedes están viviendo en Quito. Tiene un vestido para bailar.Exercise 3 1. juegan Sara está haciendo su maleta. Ellos nos la comparten. 3. Tú se la enseñas a la clase. Venimos 2. 5. 5. Comienzo 5. Esperanza se lo pide. Vengo 5. Va a dormir en un hotel muy caro. 4. Exercise 4 1. Lola y yo) 3. 10. 2. 8. Se los compro. 9. Aquella PART 5 Exercise 1 1.com . .190 www. 4. 6. Los niños están durmiendo. 4. 4. Sale a Paris a las ocho de la mañana. 3. camisas.RocketSpanish. 4. duermo 3. 6. 2. Sara espera que sea un buen viaje. Sara pone sus pantalones. tiene 2. inquieren 6. Tenemos 4. Mido Exercise 3 1. Ramiro y yo estamos comiendo hamburguesas. Ustedes se lo muestran. Tienes 6. Tienen Exercise 2 1. y un vestido en la maleta. 5. Estela está esperando el autobús. Tú estás bebiendo café. zapatos. Vosotros estáis estudiando en la universidad. aquélla 7. con nosotras (Mercedes. 7. 2. El hotel nos la tiene. ¿Qué me estás diciendo? 3. 6. esa Esta esa ésa 5. 3. Pepe está abriendo la puerta para mí. con ellas (las mujeres del futuro) Exercise 5 1. Nuestra madre está comprando regalos para nosotros. Carla está corriendo rápidamente.

me gusta nadar en el mar. Sí. Sí. A las siete y treinta y cinco. / No. A las siete y media. no me hace falta un esposo/a. 8. 4. / No. Sí. 7. Tia come (el desayuno). me falta un carro. reflexive 13. a mí no me gusta la música latina. 3. Sí. me falta dinero para comprar almuerzo. Sí. me falta una computadora para trabajar. no me gusta nadar en el mar. reflexive 7. not reflexive 3.191 www. / No. me falta un lápiz para escribir. me hace falta un reloj. 2. Sí. a mí me gusta la música latina. Exercise 4 1. / No. Sí. Sí. a mí no me gusta hablar. no me falta dinero para comprar almuerzo. me hace falta un esposo/a. reflexive 2. A cuarto para las ocho. reflexive 5. 4. 3. / No. no me gusta jugar fútbol. not reflexive . 8. reflexive 10. me gusta manejar rápidamente. no me falta un lápiz para escribir. reflexive 9. me gustan las clases de español. Exercise 2 1. Sí. 2. a mí me gusta hablar. Tia espera el bus. / No. 4. me gustan los carros japoneses. Tia se cepilla el pelo. no me falta un carro. A las ocho. no me hace falta un reloj. / No. Sí. 5. A las siete y cuarto. no me gusta manejar rápidamente. / No. me hace falta mi familia. / No. / No. Exercise 3 1. reflexive 4. / No. no me gustan las hamburguesas. 3. / No. 5. 6. no me falta un sombrero. Tia se ducha. me gusta jugar fútbol. Tia se cepilla los dientes. Sí. reflexive 12.com . not reflexive 8. Sí. Sí. Sí. me gustan las hamburguesas. / No. 7.PART 6 Exercise 1 1. no me falta una computadora para trabajar.RocketSpanish. me falta un sombrero. reflexive 11. 6. / No. no me gustan las clases de español. Sí. no me gustan los carros japoneses. / No. Sí. not reflexive 6. 5. / No. no me hace falta mi familia. 2.

El avión es mejor que el autobús. Sí. 5. / Felipa tiene tantas peces como Pepe. 3. 3. El museo es bueno. Nosotros somos los estudiantes más inteligentes de la universidad. El autobús es bueno. Exercise 5 1. Los perros son los mejores. 3. 4. Felipa tiene más flores que Pepe. José es el hijo más alto de la familia. 2. Las manzanas son buenas. 2. 3.RocketSpanish. Los caballos son buenos. The following is an example only. El parque es mejor que el museo. 4. / Pepe tiene menos flores que Felipa. No. Las piñas son las mejores. Ricardo es menor que Dolores. Exercise 3 1. Ricardo es el menor. Carlos no es menor que Lorena. nadie / Nadie está en el baño.PART 7 Exercise 1 Your answers need not follow this format. 2. 2. Tenemos el auto más rápido del barrio. El automóvil es el mejor. nada / Nada está en la maleta. ningúno / Ningún pasaporte es mío. Emilia es la chica más bonita de la ciudad. Los gatos son mejores que los caballos. Tú eres la persona más amable que conozco. Exercise 2 1. Pepe tiene más manzanas que Felipa.192 www. Las naranjas son mejores que las manzanas. Exercise 4 1. Pepe tiene tantos libros como Felipa. / Felipa tiene tantos libros como Pepe. Maricruz es mayor que Diego. 4. 4. 2. siempre / Siempre veo la televisión. 4. 5. 1. Francisco es el hijo mayor. . 3. / Felipa tiene menos manzanas que Pepe. La piscina es la mejor.com . Pepe tiene tantos peces como Felipa.

193 www. altitude artist seat athlete car bus automobile airplane dance bank band bathroom boat neighborhood garbage. letter handbag house toothbrush .RocketSpanish. la) asiento (el) atleta (el. la) cara (la) caracol (el) carrera (la) carreras de caballo (las) carretera (la) carro (el) carta (la) cartera (la) casa (la) cepillo de dientes (el) NOUNS grandmother grandfather actor water air garlic height. la) auto (el) autobús (el) automóvil (el) avión (el) baile (el) banco (el) banda (la) baño (el) barco (el) barrio (el) basura (la) bebida (la) biblioteca (la) boleto de avión (el) bolso (el) bus (el) caballo (el) café (el) calcetínes (los) calle (la) calle principal (la) calor (el) cama (la) camisa (la) cantante (el.Appendix 3. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (Spanish to English) VOCABULARY Spanish SUSTANTIVOS abuela (la) abuelo (el) actor (el) agua (el) aire (el) ajo (el) altura (la) artista (el.com English . trash drink library airplane ticket bag bus horse coffee socks street principal street heat bed shirt singer face snail race horse races highway car card.

RocketSpanish. cinema city class client climate. la) clima (el) colegio (el) color (el) comida (la) comida española (la) compañía (la) competencia (la) compras (las) computadora (la) concierto (el) contribución (la) conversación (la) cosa (la) costo (el) cuarto (el) cuchillo (el) destrucción (la) día (el) dinero (el) doctor (el) doctora (la) edad (la) equipo (el) escritorio (el) escuela (la) España estación (la) estación del tren (la) estudiante (el. ending weekend flower vase soccer future gas cat (female) cat (male) geography thanks group gloves .certificado (el) cerveza (la) chica (la) chico (el) chiste (el) chocolate (el) cine (el) ciudad (la) clase (la) cliente (el. station train station student family party end.com .194 www. la) familia (la) fiesta (la) fin (el) fin de semana (el) flor (la) florero (el) fútbol (el) futuro (el) gasolina (la) gata (la) gato (el) geografía (la) gracias (las) grupo (el) guantes (los) certificate beer girl boy joke chocolate theater. weather high school color food Spanish food company competition shopping computer concert contribution conversation thing cost room knife destruction day money doctor doctor (female) age team desk school Spain season.

guitarra (la) habitación (la) habitante (el.com .RocketSpanish. suitcase tomorrow. boy children night girlfriend New Zealand office option sheep father parents country bird bread . la) hambre (el) hermana (la) hermano (el) hija (la) hombre (el) hora (la) hotel (el) huerta botánica (la) idea (la) invitación (la) jardín (el) juego (el) juegos pirotécnicos (los) jugador (el) juguete (el) lápiz (el) librería (la) libro (el) luchador (el) madre (la) maleta (la) mañana (la) mano (la) manzana (la) mar (el) matador (el) mercado (el) metro (el) modelo (el) montaña (la) mosquito (el) mujer (la) mundo (el) museo nacional (el) música (la) música latina (la) naranja (la) niña (la) niño (el) niños (los) noche (la) novia (la) Nueva Zelanda oficina (la) opción (la) oveja (la) padre (el) padres (los) país (el) pájaro (el) pan (el) guitar room inhabitant hunger sister brother daughter man hour hotel botanic garden idea invitation garden game fireworks player toy pencil bookstore book fighter mother bag.195 www. morning hand apple sea bullfighter market meter model mountain mosquito woman world national museum music Latin music orange girl child.

lady.196 www. also weather shop. system site situation society hat afternoon television time.com . la) piloto (el) piloto de aviones (el) piña (la) piscina (la) playa (la) política (la) primavera (la) primo (el) problema (el) profesor (el) profesora (la) prueba (la) puerta (la) puerta de salida (la) rancho (el) refrigerador (el) regalo (el) región (la) revista (la) sábado (el) semana (la) señor (el) señora (la) sistema (el) sitio (el) situación (la) sociedad (la) sombrero (el) tarde (la) televisión (la) tiempo (el) tienda (la) tío (el) toro (el) trabajadora (la) tren (el) universidad (la) vaca (la) pants paper wall park game fare train fare passport movie. film hair dog (female) dog (male) weight fisherman fish pianist pilot airplane pilot pineapple swimming pool beach politics spring cousin problem professor professor (female) test door exit door ranch refrigerator gift region magazine Saturday week gentleman.pantalones (los) papel (el) pared (la) parque (el) partido (el) pasaje (el) pasaje de tren (el) pasaporte (el) película (la) pelo (el) perra (la) perro (el) pesa (la) pescador (el) pez (el) pianista (el. store uncle bull female worker train university cow . Mr. Mrs.RocketSpanish.

to hope to be (health.com . to lack something to be important . to tell to rest to describe to wake up to draw to dream to select. to elect to enchant (love) to get sick to get angry to teach to entertain to write to wait. to be needed to fascinate to be pleasing to (to like) to talk to miss something.RocketSpanish. location) to study to explain to be lacking.197 www. feelings. to be missing.vaso (el) ventana (la) verano (el) verdad (la) vestido (el) viaje (el) vida (la) viento (el) voz (la) zapato (el) VERBOS abrir acampar adquirir alegrarse arreglar beber caminar cepillarse cocinar comenzar comer compartir comprar correr cortar cortarse costar cruzar dar decir descansar describir despertarse dibujar dormir elegir encantar enfermarse enojarse enseñar entretener escribir esperar estar estudiar explicar faltar fascinar gustar hablar hacer falta importar glass window summer truth dress trip life wind voice shoe VERBS to open to camp to acquire to be happy to arrange to drink to walk to brush (yourself) to cook to start to eat to share to buy to run to cut to cut yourself to cost to cross to give to say.

to request to comb (yourself) to think to fish to be able to. to be remaining. to be left to burn yourself to want to repair to know (information) to take out to leave. to go out to sit down. to carry to cry to rain to manage.RocketSpanish. to bother to show to need (to) to snow to hear to smell to happen. to play (an instrument) . can.com . to join to wash (yourself) to read to lift to get up to call to take.198 www. may to put to become sad to prefer to ask to fit. to suit. to pass to ask for. to drive to measure to put (yourself) to get wet to annoy. to seat oneself to feel to be (permanent condition) to serve to have to be hot to be careful to feel like to be hungry to be X years old to finish to touch. to stroll.inquirir intentar interesar invitar ir jugar juntarse lavarse leer levantar levantarse llamar llevar llorar llover manejar medir meterse mojarse molestar mostrar necesitar nevar oír oler pasar pedir peinarse pensar pescar poder poner ponerse triste preferir preguntar quedar quemarse querer reparar saber sacar salir sentarse sentir ser servir tener tener calor tener cuidado tener ganas de tener hambre tener X años de edad terminar tocar to inquire to try to be interesting to invite to go to play to get together.

com .tomar trabajar traer valer ver viajar volar ADJECTIVOS aburrido adolorido alemán/a alto amable australiano azul bajo bella (bellísima) blanco bonito borracho brillante bueno caliente caluroso canadiense cansado caro cerrado chico chileno/a claro contento débil demasiado desordenado despejado enfermo enojado español/a estadounidense feliz francés/a fresco frío fuerte gordo helado (heladísimo) hermoso igual indio/a inglés inteligente joven to drink.199 www. happy weak too much disorganized clear sick angry Spanish American (US) happy French fresh cold strong fat icy cold (extremely icy cold) beautiful.RocketSpanish. to take to work to bring to be worth to see to travel to fly ADJECTIVES boring sore German tall nice Australian blue short beautiful (extremely beautiful) white pretty drunk bright good hot hot Canadian tired expensive closed small Chilean clear content. handsome same Indian English intelligent young .

200 www. somebody once. great. anything someone. sometime some.com . much black nervous cloudy busy tidy dark small Peruvian rotten worried professional fast (extremely fast) strange delicious (extremely delicious) red blond healthy dry dirty sufficient. any some around previously before that over there (adjective) that over there (noun) here yesterday well almost near cool. amazing how how? what? .RocketSpanish. a lot.lento limpio lleno lluvioso malo mojado mucho negro nervioso nublado ocupado ordenado oscuro pequeño peruano podrido preocupado profesional rápido (rapidísimo) raro rica (riquísima) rojo rubia saludable seco sucio suficiente triste vacío verde viejo EXPRESIONES COMUNES adelante ¿adónde? al lado algo alguien alguna vez alguno/a algunos / algunas alrededor de anteriormente antes de aquel / aquellos / aquella … aquél / aquéllos / aquélla … aquí ayer bien casi cerca chévere como ¿cómo? slow clean full rainy bad wet many. enough sad empty green old OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH in front where to? beside something.

it direct object: you (Uds). else more or less older the oldest me I like… (in the context of liking someone) I don’t like…(someone) half better the best younger the youngest my mine nothing no one. la) mi / mis mío nada nadie ni with me with you whichever. them (feminine) indirect object: you (Ud). estos. media mejor mejor (el. estas) hay hay que hecho hoy inmediatamente izquierda jamás la las le lejos les lo los mañana más más o menos mayor mayor (el. there are one must… done now. nor . … me cae mal. la) me … me cae bien. la) menor menor (el. them (masculine) tomorrow more. nobody neither. today immediately left never direct object: you (Ud). of from where? underneath in front of right behind where? in. it far indirect object: you (Uds).201 www. singular feminine) this one (masculine singular) this (adj) there is.com . on in case of emergency on top between that one (masculine singular) this (adj.conmigo contigo cualquier/a ¿cuándo? ¿cuánto/a? ¿cuántos/as? cuarto de ¿de dónde? debajo delante de derecha detrás ¿dónde? en en caso de emergencia encima entre ése esta éste este (esta.. her. him. them direct object: you (Ud).). whatever when? how much? how many? quarter in. him.RocketSpanish. her direct object: you (Uds.

la) peor que poco por favor por ti primera pronto propio que ¿quién? rápidamente segunda siempre sobre tampoco ti todos todos los días tú tu / tus tuyo unos / unas vale 140 MOST COMMON WORDS a.RocketSpanish. earlier year here to help under. everyone.nunca para peor (el. place. or thing) short which which? which ones? when when? how much? how many? to give . how how? with to know (a person. all every day you (familiar) your (tú) yours some colloquial phrase (Spain) meaning “okay” IN SPANISH to. over neither / not either prepositional pronoun: you (tú) every. like.com . alguno/a allá allí amigo antes año (el) aquí ayudar bajo bien bueno cada como ¿cómo? con conocer corto cual (el. any over there there friend before. la) ¿cuál? ¿cuáles? cuando ¿cuándo? ¿cuánto? ¿cuántos? dar never for the worst worse little please for you first soon own that.202 www. al acá ahora algún. which who? rapidly second always about. below well good each as. to the (masculine singular) over here now some.

203 www.RocketSpanish. nuestros nuevo número (el) of. las ella ellas ellos en encontrar entonces entre ese / esos / esa / esas ése / ésos / ésa / ésas estar este / estos / esta / estas éste / éstos / ésta / éstas feliz gran grande gustar haber hacer hola ir largo leer llamar mal malo más me menos mí mi. from to say.de decir del después día (el) diferente donde ¿dónde? dos él el. later day different where where? two he the she they (female) they (all male or mixed gender) in to find then between that (adjective) that (noun) to be this (adjective) this (noun) happy great big to be pleasing to (like) to have (only as a “helping” verb) to make. to watch same much. wrongly bad more myself (reflexive) less. not ourselves we our new number . fewer prepositional pronoun: me my mine to look. a lot very not any neither one no. tell in the. los. mis mío mirar mismo mucho muy ningún ninguno/a no nos nosotros/as nuestro. to do hello to go long to read to call badly. of the (masculine singular) after.com . la.

your (Ud). above. may through. yours (Uds) also. by why? because first that. an idea) himself. whom who? to know (knowledge. along. too as … as as many … as. few to use you (polite singular) you (polite plural) to come to see once old to live you (familiar plural. for. tus tuyo último un. used in Spain) . yourselves (Uds) to be (permanent characteristic) if yes always to mean. to signify without about. which. theirs. can. your (Uds) his. yours (Ud). yourselves (Ud) themselves. sus suyo también tan … como tanto … como te todavía todo todos/todas tomar tú tu.o os otro (el) para parecer pequeño pero poco poder por ¿por qué? porque primero que ¿qué? querer quien. una unos. quienes ¿quién? ¿quiénes? saber se se ser si sí siempre significar sin sobre solo. hers. herself. solamente su. as much … as yourself (tú) still.RocketSpanish. her. in order to to seem small but few to be able to. an. on top of only his. one some.com . uno.) ustedes (Uds.204 www. their. yet all all to take. than what? to want who. unas usar usted (Ud.) venir ver vez (una) viejo vivir vosotros or yourselves (vosotros) other for. to drink you (familiar singular) your (tú) yours (tú) last a. who.

vuestro.com .RocketSpanish. vuestros y yo your (vosotros) and I .205 www.

bus (el) carro (el).com . maleta (la) banda (la) banco (el) baño (el) playa (la) cama (la) cerveza (la) pájaro (el) barco (el) libro (el) librería (la) huerta botánica (la) chico (el) pan (el) hermano (el) toro (el) matador (el) autobús (el).RocketSpanish.Appendix 4. la) automóvil (el) bolso (el). letter cat (female) cat (male) certificate child children chocolate city class client climate. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (English to Spanish) VOCABULARY English NOUNS actor afternoon age air airplane airplane pilot airplane ticket apple artist athlete automobile bag band bank bathroom beach bed beer bird boat book bookstore botanic garden boy bread brother bull bullfighter bus car card. weather coffee color company competition computer Spanish SUSTANTIVOS actor (el) tarde (la) edad (la) aire (el) avión (el) piloto de aviones (el) boleto de avión (el) manzana (la) artista (el. la) atleta (el. la) clima (el) café (el) color (el) compañía (la) competencia (la) computadora (la) . auto (el) carta (la) gata (la) gato (el) certificado (el) niño (el) niños (los) chocolate (el) ciudad (la) clase (la) cliente (el.206 www.

com . juego (el) basura (la) jardín (el) ajo (el) gasolina (la) señor (el) geografía (la) regalo (el) niña (la). ending exit door face family fare father fighter fireworks fish fisherman flower food future game garbage garden garlic gas gentleman. geography gift girl girlfriend glass gloves grandfather grandmother group guitar hair hand handbag hat heat height concierto (el) contribución (la) conversación (la) costo (el) país (el) primo (el) vaca (la) baile (el) hija (la) día (el) escritorio (el) destrucción (la) doctora (la) doctor (el) perra (la) perro (el) puerta (la) vestido (el) bebida (la) fin (el) puerta de salida (la) cara (la) familia (la) pasaje (el) padre (el) luchador (el) juegos pirotécnicos (los) pez (el) pescador (el) flor (la) comida (la) futuro (el) partido (el).concert contribution conversation cost country cousin cow dance daughter day desk destruction doctor (female) doctor (male) dog (female) dog (male) door dress drink end.207 www. Mr. chica (la) novia (la) vaso (el) guantes (los) abuelo (el) abuela (la) grupo (el) guitarra (la) pelo (el) mano (la) cartera (la) sombrero (el) calor (el) altura (la) .RocketSpanish.

high school highway horse horse races hotel hour house hunger idea inhabitant invitation joke knife lady. la) invitación (la) chiste (el) cuchillo (el) señora (la) música latina (la) biblioteca (la) vida (la) revista (la) hombre (el) mercado (el) metro (el) modelo (el) dinero (el) mañana (la) mosquito (el) madre (la) montaña (la) película (la) música (la) museo nacional (el) barrio (el) Nueva Zelanda noche (la) oficina (la) opción (la) naranja (la) pantalones (los) papel (el) padres (los) parque (el) fiesta (la) pasaporte (el) lápiz (el) pianista (el.208 www. la) piloto (el) piña (la) jugador (el) política (la) calle principal (la) problema (el) profesora (la) profesor (el) carrera (la) rancho (el) . Latin music library life magazine man market meter model money morning mosquito mother mountain movie music national museum neighborhood New Zealand night office option orange (fruit) pants paper parents park party passport pencil pianist pilot pineapple player politics principal street problem professor (female) professor (male) race ranch colegio (el) carretera (la) caballo (el) carreras de caballo (las) hotel (el) hora (la) casa (la) hambre (el) idea (la) habitante (el.com .RocketSpanish. Mrs.

cuarto (el) sábado (el) escuela (la) mar (el) estación (la) asiento (el) oveja (la) camisa (la) zapato (el) tienda (la) compras (las) cantante (el. la) maleta (la) verano (el) piscina (la) sistema (el) equipo (el) televisión (la) prueba (la) gracias (las) cine (el) cosa (la) tiempo (el) mañana (la) cepillo de dientes (el) juguete (el) tren (el) pasaje de tren (el) estación del tren (la) viaje (el) verdad (la) tío (el) universidad (la) florero (el) voz (la) pared (la) agua (el) tiempo (el). la) hermana (la) sitio (el) situación (la) caracol (el) fútbol (el) sociedad (la) calcetines (los) España comida española (la) primavera (la) estación (la) calle (la) estudiante (el.refrigerator region room Saturday school sea season seat sheep shirt shoe shop.RocketSpanish.209 www.com . clima (el) semana (la) . store shopping singer sister site situation snail soccer society socks Spain Spanish food spring (season) station street student suitcase summer swimming pool system team television test thanks theater thing time tomorrow toothbrush toy train train fare train station trip truth uncle university vase voice wall water weather week refrigerador (el) región (la) habitación (la).

RocketSpanish.210 www.com . feelings. location) to be (permanent condition) to be able to to be careful to be happy to be hot to be hungry to be important to be interesting to be lacking to be left to be missing to be needed to be pleasing to (to like) to be remaining to be worth to be X years old to become sad to bother to bring to brush (yourself) to burn (yourself) to buy to call to camp to carry to comb (yourself) to cook to cost to cross to cry to cut to cut yourself to describe to draw to dream to drink to drink fin de semana (el) pesa (la) viento (el) ventana (la) mujer (la) trabajadora (la) mundo (el) VERBOS poder poder adquirir molestar arreglar preguntar pedir estar ser poder tener cuidado alegrarse tener calor tener hambre importar interesar faltar quedar faltar faltar gustar quedar valer tener X años de edad ponerse triste molestar traer cepillarse quemarse comprar llamar acampar llevar peinarse cocinar costar cruzar llorar cortar cortarse describir dibujar dormir beber tomar .weekend weight wind window woman worker (female) world VERBS can (to be able to) may (to be able to) to acquire to annoy to arrange to ask to ask for to be (health.

RocketSpanish.211 www.com .to drive to eat to elect to enchant (to love a thing) to entertain to explain to fascinate to feel to feel like to finish to fish to fit to fly to get angry to get into to get sick to get together to get up to get wet to give to go to go out to happen to have to hear to hope to inquire to invite to join to know (information) to lack something to leave to lift to like (to be pleasing to) to love (a thing) to manage to measure to miss something to need (to) to open to pass to play to play (an instrument) to prefer to put to rain to read to repair to request to rest to run to say to seat oneself to see manejar comer elegir encantar entretener explicar fascinar sentir tener ganas de terminar pescar quedar volar enojarse meterse enfermarse juntarse levantarse mojarse dar ir salir pasar tener oír esperar inquirir invitar juntarse saber hacer falta salir levantar gustar encantar manejar medir hacer falta necesitar abrir pasar jugar tocar preferir poner llover leer reparar pedir descansar correr decir sentarse ver .

to select to serve to share to show to sit down to smell to snow to start to stroll to study to suit to take to take to take out to talk to teach to tell to think to touch to travel to try to wait to wake up to walk to want to wash (yourself) to work to write ADJECTIVES American (US) angry Australian bad beautiful (extremely beautiful) black blond blue boring bright busy Canadian Chilean clean clear clear (without clouds) closed cloudy cold content dark delicious (extremely delicious) dirty disorganized elegir servir compartir mostrar sentarse oler nevar comenzar pasar estudiar quedar tomar llevar sacar hablar enseñar decir pensar tocar viajar intentar esperar despertarse caminar querer lavarse trabajar escribir ADJECTIVOS estadounidense enojado australiano malo bella (bellísima) negro rubia azul aburrido brillante ocupado canadiense chileno/a limpio claro despejado cerrado nublado frío contento oscuro rica (riquísima) sucio desordenado .RocketSpanish.212 www.com .

drunk dry empty English expensive fast (extremely fast) fat French fresh full German good green handsome happy healthy hot icy cold (extremely icy cold) Indian intelligent many. caluroso helado (heladísimo) indio/a inteligente mucho nervioso amable viejo peruano bonito profesional lluvioso rojo podrido triste igual bajo enfermo lento chico.com .RocketSpanish.213 www. much nervous nice old Peruvian pretty professional rainy red rotten sad same short sick slow small sore Spanish strange strong sufficient. contento saludable caliente. enough tall tidy tired too much weak wet white worried young OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH about almost borracho seco vacío inglés caro rápido (rapidísimo) gordo francés/a fresco lleno alemán/a bueno verde hermoso feliz. a lot. pequeño adolorido español/a raro fuerte suficiente alto ordenado cansado demasiado débil mojado blanco preocupado joven EXPRESIONES COMUNES sobre casi .

her direct object: you (Ud).always any. not either never no one. it direct object: you (Uds). them (masculine) direct object: you (Uds. nor neither. else my near neither. everyone. him.RocketSpanish.com . amazing direct object: you (Ud). it indirect object: you (Uds).). nobody nothing of older oldest (the) siempre alguno/a alrededor de antes de detrás al lado mejor (el. all far first for for you from where? half here how how many? how much? how? what? I don’t like…(someone) I like… (someone) immediately in in case of emergency in front in front of indirect object: you (Ud). … me cae bien. them left little me mine more or less more.214 www. la) . him. por por ti ¿de dónde? media aquí como ¿cuántos/as? ¿cuánto/a? ¿cómo? … me cae mal. great. them (feminine) done every day every. her. inmediatamente en en caso de emergencia adelante delante de le les izquierda poco me mío más o menos más mi / mis cerca ni tampoco nunca. la) mejor entre vale chévere la lo los las hecho todos los días todos lejos primera para. some around before behind beside best (the) better between colloquial phrase (Spain) meaning “okay” cool. jamás nadie nada de mayor mayor (el.

anything soon that one (masculine singular) that over there (adjective) that over there (noun) that. todos/todas también siempre y tan … como tanto … como . an. whatever who? with me with you worse worst (the) yesterday you (familiar) younger youngest (the) your (tú) yours 140 MOST COMMON WORDS a. above.RocketSpanish.com . unos / unas alguien algo pronto ése aquel / aquellos / aquella … aquél / aquéllos / aquélla … que hay este (esta. una sobre después todo. later all also always and as … as as many … as. uno. estos. somebody something. there are this (adj) this one (masculine singular) today tomorrow underneath well when? where to? where? whichever.on on top once. one about.215 www. which there is. sometime one must… over own (as in “my own”) please prepositional pronoun: you (tú) previously quarter rapidly right second some someone. on top of after. la) ayer tú menor menor (el. as much … as en encima alguna vez hay que… sobre propio por favor ti anteriormente cuarto rápidamente derecha segunda algunos / algunas. la) tu / tus tuyo IN SPANISH un. estas) éste hoy mañana debajo bien ¿cuándo? ¿adónde? ¿dónde? cualquier/a ¿quién? conmigo contigo peor que peor (el.

your (Ud). solamente o otro (el) nuestro. wrongly because before. a lot my myself (reflexive) neither one new no.com . fewer long mine more much. like. in the (masculine singular) of. herself. earlier below between big but day different each few first for. their. not not any now number of the. sus suyo ¿cuánto? ¿cuántos? ¿cómo? yo si en último menos largo mío más mucho mi. her.as. from old once only or other our ourselves over here como malo mal porque antes bajo entre grande pero día (el) diferente cada poco primero para amigo bueno gran feliz él hola aquí se su. how bad badly. mis me ninguno/a nuevo no ningún ahora número (el) del de viejo una vez solo. your (Uds) his.216 www. yours (Ud). nuestros nos acá . in order to friend good great happy he hello here himself. theirs.RocketSpanish. hers. yours (Uds) how much? how many? how? I if in last less. yourselves (Ud) his.

com . yet that (adjective) that (noun) that.RocketSpanish. along. al también dos bajo muy . any some. for. may to be pleasing to (like) to call to come to do to drink to find to give to go to have (only as a “helping” verb) to help to know (a person. or thing) to know (knowledge. yourselves (Uds) then there they (all male or mixed gender) they (female) this (adjective) this (noun) through. igual ella bajo corto pequeño algún. place. los. unas todavía ese / esos / esa / esas ése / ésos / ésa / ésas que el. location. can.over there prepositional pronoun: me same she short (height) short (length) small some. feelings) to be (permanent characteristic) to be able to. an idea) to live to look to make to mean (to signify) to read to say to see to seem to take to use to want to watch to. to the (masculine singular) too two under very allá mí mismo. la. who. few still.217 - www. las se entonces allí ellos ellas este / estos / esta / estas éste / éstos / ésta / éstas por estar ser poder gustar llamar venir hacer tomar encontrar dar ir haber ayudar conocer saber vivir mirar hacer significar leer decir ver parecer tomar usar querer mirar a. which. than the themselves. by to be (health. alguno/a unos.

vuestros tuyo te os .) usted (Ud.218 www.RocketSpanish. la) ¿cuáles? ¿cuál? quien. whom who? why? with without year yes you (familiar plural.we well what? when when? where where? which which ones? which? who. tus vuestro.) tu. quienes ¿quién? ¿quiénes? ¿por qué? con sin año (el) sí vosotros tú ustedes (Uds. used in Spain) you (familiar singular) you (polite plural) you (polite singular) your (tú) your (vosotros) yours (tú) yourself (tú) yourselves (vosotros) nosotros/as bien ¿qué? cuando ¿cuándo? donde ¿dónde? cual (el.com .

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