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television. Once you determine your goals. including traditional media such as newspapers. magazines. to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular brand. interest groups. Ads should be written to communicate a message that your target audience considers important. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties. You want advertising to increase awareness of your business. Explore the full range of possibilities. Non-profit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion. develop the loyalty of your current customers or generate sales or sales leads. you can target the right audience to receive your advertising messages. Planning Ask yourself the following four key questions when planning your ad campaign: • • • • What do I want my advertising to accomplish? Who should my advertising speak to? What should my advertising say? What advertising medium should I use? Each question can have a number of answers. radio. such as a public service announcement. What's important is to prioritize your goals. you may need several advertising strategies for your particular business. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer. Have a specific customer type or group in mind when developing your ads. religious organizations and governmental agencies. Stress the benefits of your product or service and keep AIDA in mind: . In 2009 spending on advertising was estimated at more than $150 billion in the United States and $385 billion worldwide.Advertising Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers. Advertising works best when it's developed to meet one goal at a time. "Mass market" advertising rarely is successful. or new media such as websites and text messages. readers or listeners) to take some action. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding. which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. depending upon the specific business situation. outdoor or direct mail. You may want it to do all of these things. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.
However. Instead of carefully planning their marketing investment. The answers to these questions will help you select the marketing media that will give your small business the best return on your investment. for example. more expensive ad in a highly targeted trade publication whose readership is made up of your targets. it can be expensive and it is difficult to evaluate its effectiveness. The important thing to remember about placement is to go where your targets will have the greatest likelihood of seeing or hearing your ad. or will purchase from you in future. While getting the maximum number of impressions per ad dollar spent is important. For instance.help you plan and execute your ad campaign. In addition to the "traditional" print and broadcast media. you should start by analysing who your customers are. there are dozens of other options for placing your ads -. Before you choose to invest in any marketing medium. Choosing the Right Advertising Medium Advertising can be an excellent promotional tool enabling businesses to build awareness and inform a wide range of potential customers about their products or services. It may also be time to consider having a professional -. Your choice of media should fit your advertising goals. but it is crucial that you have a very clear notion of who you are targeting the advertisement towards before you can choose the right type of media. Many small business owners struggle to decide how to choose which advertising medium to use.• • • • attract Attention. what is even more important is that the right people see your ad. and draw some conclusions about who and what type of person is already buying. arouse Desire and motivate Action. they can help you refine your advertising goals and strategies. It is pointless using local newspapers to advertise the latest designer clothes if most of the readers are pensioners and unlikely to be interested in such products. hold Interest. they accept the first apparently good 'deal' that comes their way with no indication as to whether that medium will bring the results they had hoped for. running a larger. effectively reaches your target(s) and is cost-effective. than running a small ad in a larger circulation publication that may or may not have readers which fall into your target category. You may be better off. To get a good feel for who your best target market(s) is. What is your target market(s)? This question sounds simple enough.from kiosks to web pages to billboards. step back and ask yourself five basic strategic marketing questions. There are many trade and industry associations that can point you to highly reputable people who specialize in your business area. The five key questions to determine your optimal marketing mix are: 1. plan your media placements and write highly effective ad copy designed to achieve your objectives. you might . While you will pay for their services.either an independent contractor or advertising agency -.
the radio stations they listen to. 2. you can also find inexpensive advertising opportunities in local community bulletins.000 (people exposed to your ad) = $0.011 This means that you are paying just over a cent for every person who is exposed to your advert. the associations or groups they belong to. For example. and the radio station's data shows that 45. . the next step is to do some research into what specific media they pay attention to. You can use this tool to analyse each media package you're considering.find that lawyers make up a large part of your customer base. The best way to find this out is simply to ask the names of the publications they subscribe to. targeted lawyer mailing lists.000 'exposures'. as both can provide cost-effective ways of reaching your market. if your airtime for running a local radio spot costs $500. Further research to establish where your competitors do and don't advertise will also provide useful information.000 people matching the age of your target market audience are listening during the time period you're considering. professional newsletters and targeted direct mail lists. Don't dismiss opportunities to advertise in newsagents' windows or in local community magazines. A commonly used media-buying measurement is the 'CPM' calculation. What media does your target market watch. CPM stands for 'Cost Per Thousand' (from the Latin 'mille') people that view or receive your advertisement. then you would calculate CPM as follows: CPM = $500 (advertising cost) / 45. The vast majority of small business owners only consider obvious media options such as the newspapers. the television programmes they watch. Which media can extend your message to the most people in your target market per marketing pound? This is perhaps the most important issue for the small business owner and to resolve it you require a method of comparing the relative marketing investment of one medium with another by using an objective tool to measure what you get for your marketing pound. This might lead you to consider investing in media that specifically targets lawyers. radio and television stations however. such as local legal newsletters. The CPM calculation allows you to break down your media investment into cost per 1. The reason that many business owners don't discover these less well-known advertising opportunities is because it requires a concerted research effort. or the type of mail they open and read. or sponsoring opportunities for legal clubs and associations. 3. listen to or read? Once you have determined who your target market(s) is.
often at a specific time. You should determine what your objectives are at a very early stage. Media packs are useful not just because they provide hard data on costs of advertising and readership statistics. which gives prices for different types and sizes of advertisements. and television and radio figures are expressed in terms of 'rating points'. • • • Do you want more people to visit your shop? Do you want potential customers to ring a telephone number? Do you simply want more leads or do you need to generate more hits to your website? You should decide exactly what you want to get out of the marketing activity and match this to the media that can best achieve it. Determining what your advertising objectives are.and tactical objectives. the numbers of copies sold (circulation). If you only want to advertise to specific neighbourhoods you should narrow down your choice of media to those that allow you to pinpoint those target areas. and only choosing media options that help you meet them. you should think twice before investing in it. Therefore it is important to be clear about your aims and to distinguish between strategic objectives . will quickly help you narrow down the best media choices for you. and whether or not its readership fits your customer profile and target market. If the media you are considering doesn't have a way for you to determine CPM. you only need to consider media that allows you to develop the advertisement and promote it in a very short timeframe. . which aim to encourage specific market segments to buy a certain product or service.which aim to raise awareness of your business and develop image over the longer term . Local newspapers could meet both of these objectives. including advertising rates. For example. 4. newspaper and magazine viewing statistics are expressed in terms of 'circulation' or 'distribution' numbers. Most newspapers and magazines publish media packs giving information about the publication. You should always have a way to determine your media buying power objectively. but it still doesn't answer the question of how effective it will be to meet your advertising objectives. What are your advertising objectives and how well does this medium help you to accomplish them? Using the CPM calculation helps to answer which medium can extend your message to the most people per marketing pound. actual readership and reader profiles.Every medium has viewing statistics. but because they can help you to judge whether the image of the publication is right as a vehicle for the promotion of your business. If you want to advertise a time-sensitive special promotion. You can also obtain a rate card.
this works when smaller sites direct traffic to larger sites through an advertisement. you must have clear objectives for what you want to achieve. . Competition for audience attention: is there too much noise or clutter in the type of medium under consideration? If so. Large companies like Amazon often offer this type of affiliate deal. How well will this medium allow you to measure the return on your marketing budget? It's the 'return on your marketing pound' (ROMP) that counts the most. Many businesses. In the end.5. you'll never be able to track it. but you should also think about your product or service and how the type of advertisement you are planning will work. If you don't know what media is or isn't working for you. if you can't accurately measure the response to an advertisement. you should consider: Search engine optimisation. To achieve the most effective results from Internet advertising. as with any marketing campaign. you'll never know what media is working for you and what isn't. so always start small to minimise potential losses. you're probably wasting a lot of money on media that simply doesn't work. Don't make the mistake of relying on asking your prospects where they heard about you. will this distract audience attention? Internet advertising for small businesses The boom in the number of people using the Internet and the availability of highspeed connections have made the web an increasingly popular advertising medium. including large firms. Complexity of the message: try to avoid overly complicated advertisements. It has been demonstrated in studies that people can't accurately tell you where they heard about you and if you rely on this type of information to allocate your marketing budget. Affiliate online marketing is a system whereby one business' website is promoted on the site of another business whose owners have decided the products advertised fit with their audience. in return for a commission if the consumer purchases from the larger business. The type of advertisement you choose must also be able to convey the correct appeal. However. You should also give some thought to: The nature of your unique selling proposition (USP): a balance must be struck between the type of media image you want to portray and the product or service you are selling. These five basic steps will help you narrow down your media choices. you might be making a big mistake. which is the process of promoting your business online to achieve a better search engine ranking for certain key words and phrases. In some cases. The only way to judge the right media is through trial and error and you need to test and test again. Never choose a medium or develop an advertisement that doesn't allow you to track precisely and calculate your results. have simply gone online because they wanted to jump on the bandwagon. If you can't track it.
or some external factor such as a decline in competition. for the nonprofits) a change in corporate direction or introduction of a new product or service a misperception of product service offerings exists among potential customers The business should consider a holistic approach that not only encompasses paid advertising. Some forms of advertising may be very successful at attracting attention. especially at local level. as these could provide a forum for your business promotion. Hints and tips • • • If someone responds to your advertising or publicity by telephone. but not all enquiries will necessarily convert into sales. but also includes re-evaluation of the corporate positioning and image. Evaluating various types of advertising media In order to determine the success of a campaign and the effectiveness of your chosen type of media.Traditional advertising and marketing initiatives. If possible. These are popular with many businesses. ensure that you record their name and address. Other forms of advertising are more difficult to evaluate and it's hard to know if an increase in sales is due to good advertising. and even then the answers can be ambiguous. such as display and classified advertisements. are prevalent on the Internet in the form of banner. usually by telephone. Such issues can only be explored properly through the use of in-depth advertising research methods such as surveys and recall tests. When is it time to start an advertising campaign? A small business will usually consider undertaking an advertising program at a pivotal point in its maturity. and have been shown to drive more traffic to a website than traditional advertising formats. This point might be: a desire or need to grow a sense competitors are growing at a faster pace research shows competitors are better known a drop in business profits (or donors/donations. Otherwise the well-established small business must rely on their own understanding of what type of people their customers are. An advertisement may have reached the right audience. but with the wrong message. pop-up and popunder advertisements. How to Start Your First Advertising Campaign Here are the first steps a small business can take toward upping the promotion of its products and services. participation in special . and how they make their purchasing decisions. Be aware of new or innovative advertising opportunities. This is simple to do when you are looking for a direct response. pre-test any advertising before its launch. there must be some way of measuring the results. collateral materials. from the customer. public relations.
If you have a highly specialized product that's only used by certain industries or professionals. the geographic area to be covered. freelancers might be a good route. It's simple. Is there a calculator or formula you recommend the business owner use to determine their advertising budget? Does it vary by industry? It truly does vary by industry.000-50. or posters in schools or youth centers. How does the business owner know what media will suit them business best? First. For example. it pays to have professional help! . you have to define the target audience. feet of office space. each message reinforces and extends the effects of the others. It is eye-stopping. What is the definition of good advertising? Good advertising is more relevant to the audience than the advertiser! It solves a problem. trade and professional journals may provide the best outlet for advertising. In this way. and so on. They also have the best negotiating power in the marketplace and can often save you money in ad placement. media selection becomes easier. It meets a need. Not only will they have the copywriting and graphic design talent on staff. gross sales for the company. How does a business owner evaluate whether an agency or a freelancer is her best resource? If you have a reasonable budget ($25. and the most successful campaigns include a combination of approaches.000 sq. they'll have a full-time media planner/buyer on staff as well. If you have a limited budget and you're willing to handle ad placement yourself. teenagers are best reached through radio and select television programming. target audiences. and the market. sales objectives. It gets across one clear idea. There is a true art to writing ad copy and when every word counts. you may want to create 50 unique direct mail packages costing $500 apiece and have them hand delivered to 50 CEOs. along with ensuring you get the best reach and frequency with your target audience.events. It motivates the reader or viewer to take action. There are many. advertising in New York and California is considerably more expensive than in Maine.000 computer management system to the top 50 companies in the pharmaceutical industry. If you're selling a $500. Use a freelance designer and a writer. For example. consider using a fullservice agency. cost of the product or service you are selling. once you've defined the audience. Whether it's business executives between the ages of 35-55 or teenaged boys ages 15-18. a classified ad running 40 weeks a year might do the trick. An experienced media buyer will know your market and be able to offer the best media recommendations including broadcast and print. even though you may be tempted to write the copy yourself. many ways to reach your target audiences beyond paid advertising.000 and up). If you are selling office cleaning services to businesses with 12.
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