RFID Based Protected Data Acquisition Access System with RF Communication.

(Seminar Report)

Submitted By: Venkatesh Grandhi M.Tech (S.E)

List of Images
Fig. 1: An RFID System Fig. 2: An RFID Tag Fig. 3: An RFID Tag Fig. 4: An Active Tag Fig. 5: A Passive Tag Fig. 6: The EPC Code Fig. 7: RFID Interrogators Fig. 8: The Working of an RFID System Fig. 9: Tag on a Cloth Fig. 10: Tag used for Animal Identification Fig. 11: Tag used as a Human Implant Fig. 12: Protest against RFID

List of Tables
Table 1: Active Tag vs. Passive Tag Table 2: RFID vs. Bar Code

List of Abbreviations RFID Radio Frequency Identification CONUS RF Continental United States Radio Frequency DSRC Dedicated Short Range Communication IRID Infra Red Frequency Identification EPC LFID Electronic Product Code Low Frequency Identification HFID High Frequency Identification UHFID Ultra High Frequency Identification IC Integrated Circuits Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering CASPIAN ICAO BEL IEEE International Civil Aviation Organization Bharat Electronics Limited Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers .

.«««..««««««««««««.««««««..««««««««.. XI Advantages««««««««««««««««««««««««« « XII RFID vs.«««.«««...««««..««« .....V The EPC Code«««««««««««. XVIII Initiatives in India on RFID««««««««««««««««««.«««« « IX How Does It Work? ««««««««««««««««««.«««««« ..««««.«..XXII .. II Components of RFID Technology««««««««««««.«. XXI References««««««««««««««««««««««««««.«« .. Bar Code«««««««««««««««««..««««««««.«....««««....«.. VIII Antenna Types «««..«««««««...««XX Future Scope«««««««««««««««««««..««..« I Introduction to RFID ««««.Contents History««««««««««««««««««««««««««««...«««.«««««««««. IV Types of RFID Tags«««««...«««.XIII Applications««««««««««««««««««««««..««« «VII Interrogators «.. III RFID Tags««««««««««««««««.«««««. « XIV Issues in Implementation of RFID Technology««««««««««« .««.«..«««««««.

S. powered by the interrogating signal. A very early demonstration of reflected power RFID Tags. RFID¶s earliest application was during World War II. both passive and active. and Robert Freyman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. and was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port. The largest deployment of RFID is the US Department of Defense use of Savi Active Tags on every one of its more than a million shipping containers that travel outside of the Continental United States (CONUS).History In 1946 Léon Theremin invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. not an identification tag. where United Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones. Patent 3. Alfred Koelle.148 in 1973 was the first true ancestor of modern RFID. pp 1196±1204. it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID technology. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit Tags. Mario Cardullo's U. The initial device was passive. This technique is used by the majority of today's UHFID and microwave RFID Tags. Even though this device was a covert listening device. was performed by Steven Depp. RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane. October 1948). not the kind of plane it was. a passive radio transponder with memory. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft to this day. Another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman. .713. titled "Communication by Means of Reflected Power" (Proceedings of the IRE.

In Electromagnetic spectrum. relying on storing and remotely retrieving data whenever required using devices called RFID Tags or transponders. IRID is more commonly used in imaging applications such as night vision & motion detection. animal. Therefore. IR frequencies are far higher than freq used for RFID. or a person. It is an automatic identification method. It is also called Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC). & they can¶t penetrate into solid objects. the main difference being the frequency of operation. . path losses are very high. At IR.Introduction to RFID RFID(Radio Frequency IDentification) is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object. IRID technology is almost similar to RFID. such as boxes to read the tags.

Components of RFID Technology Tags (Chip + Antenna): An RFID Tag is an object that can be stuck on or incorporated into a product. . Interrogators (Antenna + Reader): Interrogators are used to read the Tags & in certain cases even write on them. Middleware provides a range of functions: · Data Filtering · System Monitoring · Multiple Reader Co-ordination Business Application Software: It is used to manage & process the collected data. Middleware: Middleware is the needed interface between the existing company databases & information management software. animal or a person for the purpose of identification using radio waves.

load modulation techniques can be used to manipulate the reader's field. as arriving signals can be very weak and must be differentiated. TVs. whereas load modulation applies in the near field. laundry · people. camcorders Fig.RFID Tags An RFID Tag is a transponder which receives a radio signal and in response to it. Tag contains an antenna. and optionally permanently locked. sends out a radio signal. Tags respond to queries generating signals that must not create interference with the readers. 2: An RFID Tag To communicate. and a small chip that stores a small amount of data. Tags can be attached to almost anything:  · pallets or cases of product · vehicles · company assets or personnel · items such as apparel. backscatter is used in the far field. Fig. Besides backscattering. Typically. partition able. 3: An RFID Tag . within a few wavelengths from the reader. or pets · high value electronics such as computers. Tag memory can be factory or field programmed. livestock. luggage.

Ani al tracking Tags.T R T Tags are available i a wi e variet of shapes and si es. greater cost. heavy-duty 5X4X2-inch rectangular transponders used to track intermodal containers or heavy machinery. Active Tags 2. and railroad cars for maintenance and tracking applications are R ID tags. depending upon operating temperatures and battery type). The trade off is greater si e. In addition. some systems operate with up to 1MB of memory. i. There are two basic types of R ID Tags: 1. a Tag might give a machine a set of instructions. or credit-card shaped for use in access applications. can be as small as a pencil lead in diameter and one-half inch in length. An Active Tag's memory si e varies according to application requirements. The anti-theft hard plastic Tags attached to merchandise in stores are R Tags.e. Tags can be screw-shaped to identify trees or wooden items. trucks.. In a typical read/write R ID work-in-process system. This encoded data would then become part of the tagged part's history. and the machine would then report its performance to the Tag. Tag data can be rewritten and/or modified. Passive Tags Active Tags Active R ID Tags are powered by an internal battery and are typically read/write. and a limited operational life (which may yield a maximum of 10 years. . The battery-supplied power of an Active Tag generally gives it a longer read range. inserted beneath the skin.

The trade off is that they have shorter read ranges than Active Tags and require a higherpowered reader.Passive Tags Passive RFID Tags operate without a separate external power source and obtain operating power generated from the reader. usually less Few hundred within 3m of reader 128 bytes of read/write Data Storage Up to 128 Kb or read/ Write & search Table 1: Active Tag vs. Passive Tags are consequently much lighter than Active Tags. and offer a virtually unlimited operational lifetime. reference a database containing modifiable product-specific Active tag Tag power Source Internal to Tag Passive Tag Energy transferred using RF from reader Tag Battery Required signal strength to tag Range Multi-Tag reading Yes Very Low Up to 100m 1000¶s of Tags recognized ± up to 100mph No Very High Up to 3-5m. less expensive. Passive Tag . Read-only Tags are typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually 32 to 128bits) that cannot be modified. Readonly Tags most often operate as a license plate into a database. in the same way as linear barcodes information.

The EPC Code The objective of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) is to provide unique identification of physical objects. much as the Internet Protocol (IP) Address allows computers to identify. organize and communicate with one another. there was no standard range of the EPC code. has been devised which suggests the standard length of EPC Code of 96 bits. Fig. 6: The EPC Code Due to the lack of global standards. But recently a globally standardized standard. named as the EPC Global.G.23000. 613.123456.Could describe the product type (20 Bits) · Serial Number ± Unique ID for that product item (34 Bits) . The EPC will be used to address and access individual objects from the computer network.123456789 (96 bits) · Header ± defines data type (8 bits) · EPC Manager ± describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer)(34 bits) · Object Class . It could range fro a mere 36 bits to 128 bits. E.

7: RFID Interrogators .Interrogators An RFID Interrogator (or Reader) is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID Tag. Fig. The reader has two basic components: · A scanning antenna · A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data Readers can be at a fixed point such as: · Entrance/exit · Point of sale · Warehouse Readers can also be mobile. or wireless. tethered. the Tag responds by sending back its data. The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves. hand-held.

but two metal layers and an insulator layer are needed to allow for the crossover connection from the outermost layer to the inside of the spiral where the integrated circuit and resonance capacitor are located. and capacitive tip-loading or bowtie-like broadband structures are also used. These coils are less costly to produce than LF coils. HFID and UHFID Tag antennas are usually fabricated from copper or aluminum. Compact LowFID Tags. many coil turns are needed to produce enough voltage to operate an integrated circuit. reducing cost of manufacturing. and because the voltage induced is proportional to frequency. At 13. since they can be made using lithographic techniques rather than by wire winding. and the need to provide a ground layer and ground connection increases cost relative to simpler single-layer structures. a HFID or HighFID Tag. like glass-encapsulated Tags used in animal and human identification. Conductive inks have seen some use in Tag antennas but have encountered problems with IC adhesion and environmental stability.56 MHz. Half-wave dipoles (16 cm at 900 MHz) are too big for many applications. LFID or Low FID Passive Tags are normally inductively coupled. . Only one metal layer is required.Antenna Types The Antennas used for an RFID Tag are affected by the intended application and the frequency of operation. antennas can be bent or meandered. Patch antennas are used to provide service in close proximity to metal surfaces. Tags embedded in labels must be less than 10 cm (4 inches) in extent. use a multilayer coil (3 layers of 100±150 turns each) wrapped around a ferrite core. using a planar spiral with 5±7 turns over a credit-card-sized form factor can be used to provide ranges of tens of centimeters. To reduce the length of the antenna. Low-frequency is 30±300 kHz. for example. but a structure with good bandwidth is 3±6 mm thick. UHFID and microwave Passive Tags are usually radiatively-coupled to the reader antenna and can employ conventional dipole-like antennas. High frequency is 3-30 MHz. Ultrahigh-frequency or UHF is 300 MHz-3 GHz.

‡ Reader decodes the data & results are returned to the host application. ‡ Reader and Tag communicate via RF signal.How Does It Work? Fig. ‡ Carrier signal sent out through the antennas. ‡ Carrier signal hits Tag(s). . ‡ Tag receives and modifies carrier signal & sends back a modulated signal or reflects back the incoming signal depending upon the type of the Tag. ‡ Antennas receive the modulated signal & send them to theReader. 8: The Working of an RFID System Sequence of Communication ‡ Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands. ‡ Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from thehost application).

Add a cost for label changes and replacements for "non readable" codes. And add another for administrative costs for labels that aren't read properly. ‡ The Tags can be used repeatedly ‡ Relatively low maintenance cost ‡ No line-of-sight necessary to read/write data.Advantages The read-only Tag code data is 100% secure and can not be changed or duplicated. In addition. They don¶t identify unique items ‡ Extremely low error rate ‡ RFID technology is a labor-saving technology. sizes and materials ‡ No need for physical contact between the data carrier and the comunication device. ‡ Very robust Tags that can stand extreme conditions and temperatures ‡ Tags are available in a great range of types. When using bar codessanners have to have line of sight to read them ‡ An RFID Tag could identify the item (not just its manufacturer and category). on average. which causes inventory errors and non-compliant returns and penalties. Bar codes only provide a manufacturer and product type. Using bar code technology costs. This translates to cost savings. . labor is required to put each label correctly on each plastic crate holder or panel. 7cents in human labour to scan a bar code. This makes it possible to use Tags in harsh environments and in closed containers/structures.

No need to bring the tag Scanner needs to see the bar code to read it near the reader RFID is comparatively fast Can read multiple Tags Relatively expensive as compared to Bar Codes (Reader 1000$. Tag 20 cents a piece) Can be reusable within factory premises Cannot be reused Can read only one Tag at a time Table 2: RFID vs. Therefore. Bar Code Bar Code Technology is the nearest competitor to the RFID Systems. Bar Code . here¶s an analysis of the two systems in a tabular form: RFID Forging is difficult BAR CODE Forgiving is easy Scanner not required.RFID vs.

9: Tag on a Cloth In Feb 2008. replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards. Belgium. . The Netherlands. Part 1. Poland. and are contained in ICAO Document 9303. Australia and the United States. ICAO standards provide for e-passports to be identifiable by a standard e-passport logo on the front cover. including Malaysia. and apparel and pharmaceutical items tracking. airline baggage tracking. Volumes 1 and 2 (6th edition. Emirates airline started atrial of RFID baggage tracing at London and Dubai airports. pallet tracking. New Zealand. Germany. Japan.Applications Passports RFID Tags are being used in passports issued by many countries. building access control. jewelery tracking. Norway. ICAO refers to the ISO 14443 RFID chips in e-passports as "contactless integrated circuits". Ireland. Standards for RFID passports are determined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The United Kingdom. Product Tracking High-frequency RFID or HFID/HighFID Tags are used in library book or bookstore tracking. These badgesneed only be held within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the holder. Fig. Portugal. High frequency Tags are widely used in identification badges. The American Express Blue credit card now includes a HighFID Tag. Pakistan. 2006).

CDs. without having to be pointed to a separate database (but this is rare in North America). the technology provides an accurate knowledge of the current inventory. which replaces the standard barcode reader commonly found at a library's circulation desk. Libraries Among the many uses of RFID technologies is its deployment in libraries. Shipping & Freight and Distribution Centers are some areas where RFID tracking technology is used. For example. Yard Management. . The transponders are more wellknown as animals passive RFID technology. and the reduction of inventory. Notably. The information is read by an RFID reader. Other benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labour costs. or simply "Chips" on Inventory Systems An advanced automatic identification technology such as the Auto-ID system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has significant value for inventory systems.Transportation & Logistics Logistics & Transportation is a major area of implementation for RFID technology.1 and 15 units a day. DVDs. such as a book's title or material type. Animal Identification Implantable RFID Tags or transponders can be used for animal identification. Transportation companies around the world value RFID technology due to its impact on the business value and efficiency. In an academic study performed at Wal-Mart. the simplification of business processes. This technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional barcodes on library items (books. etc.). RFID reduced Out-of-Stocks by 30 percent for products selling between 0. The RFID Tag can contain identifying information.

to both track attendance and prevent unauthorized entrance. An early experiment with RFID implants was conducted by British professor of cybernetics Kevin Warwick. California. who implanted a chipin his arm in 1998. Night clubs in Barcelona. started September. The eXspot system enables the visitor to receive information about the exhibit and take photos to be collected at the giftshop. . England. A visitor entering the museum receives an RF Tag that can be carried on a card or necklace. And not only the books. Schools & Universities School authorities in the Japanese city of Osaka are now chipping children's clothing. a science museum in San Francisco. An example is the custom-designed application "eXsport" at the Exploratorium. St Charles Sixth Form College in West London. 2008. who in turn use it to pay for drinks.The RFID Tag found on library materials typically measures 50 mm X 50 mm in North America and 50 mm x 75 mm in Europe. The Netherlands. Museums RFID technologies are now also implemented in end-user applications in museums. It can also act as a security device. England is piloting a monitoring system designed to keep tabs on pupils by tracking radio chips in their uniforms. and student IDs in a primary school. the visited exhibits and the taken photographs can be viewed. back packs. Human Implants Implantable RFID chips designed for animal tagging are now being used in humans. offering a different means of inventory management by the staff and self service by the borrowers. use an implantable chip to identify their VIP customers. Spain and in Rotterdam. A school in Doncaster. is using an RFID card system to check in and out of the main gate. but also the membership cards could be fitted with an RFID Tag. Later they can visit their personal Web page on which specific information such as visit dates. It may replace or be added to the barcode. taking the place of the more traditional electromagnetic security strip.

. normally on their arm.Social Retailing When customers enter a dressing room.The casimo group Ltd sells such a system. When they complete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and log their lap time. the mirror reflects their image and also images of the apparel item being worn by celebrities on an interactive display. This creates an interaction between the consumers inside the store and their social network outside the store. The technology in this system is an RFID interrogator antenna in the dressing room and Electronic Product Code RFID Tags on the apparel item. Riders have a transponder on their person. A webcam also projects an image of the consumer wearing the item on the website for everyone to see. Lap Scoring Passive and Active RFID systems are used in off-road events such as Enduro and Hare and Hounds racing.

Security Concerns A primary RFID security concern is the illicit tracking of RFID Tags. · If a tagged item is paid for by credit card or in conjunction with use of a loyalty card. Such concerns have been raised with respect to the United States Department of Defense's recent adoption of RFID Tags for supply chain management. are two prominent critics of the technology who refer to RFID Tags as "spychips". cofounders of CASPIAN (Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and numbering). Most concerns revolve around the fact that RFID Tags affixed to products remain functional even after the products have been purchased and taken home and thus can be used for surveillance and other purposes unrelated to their supply chain inventory functions. privacy organizations have expressed concerns in the context of ongoing efforts to embed electronic product code (EPC) RFID Tags in consumer products. Furthermore. Tags which are world readable pose a risk to both personal location privacy and corporate/military security. . More generally. it becomes possible to gather sensitive data about an individual without consent.Issues in Implementation of RFID Technology Global Standardization The frequencies used for RFID in the USA are currently incompatible with those of Europe or Japan. Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre. no emerging standard has yet become as universal as the barcode. then it would be possible to indirectly deduce the identity of the purchaser by reading the globally unique ID of that item (contained in the RFID Tag). Privacy The use of RFID technology has engendered considerable controversy and even product boycotts by consumer privacy advocates. The two main privacy concerns regarding RFID are: · Since the owner of an item will not necessarily be aware of the presence of an RFID Tag and the Tag can be read at a distance without the knowledge of the individual.

such as the Baja Beach nightclub in Barcelona. 2006. showing that the chip is not hack-proof as was previously believed. .Human Implantation The Food and Drug Administration in the US has approved the use of RFID chips in humans. This has provoked concerns into privacy of individuals as they can potentially be tracked wherever they go by an identifier unique to them. at a conference in New York City showed that they could clone the RFID signal from a human implanted RFID chip. This has provoked Barcelona. Newitz and Westhues . On July 22. There are concerns this could lead to abuse by an authoritarian government or lead to removal of freedoms. Reuters reported that two hackers. . Some business establishments have also started to chip customers.

which transports 3. . has implemented the use of RFID ticket cards. y Buses inside the BEL campus were tracked with the aim of gauging employee punctuality. y Intellicon: Pilot project for BEL Bangalore. y Patni Computer Systems Lab: Implemented Animal Tracking System. Tags installed on employee buses.5 million commuters per day. y Delhi Metro: The underground subway or metro system implements RFID ticket coins.Initiatives in India on RFID  y  Wipro Technologies : Member of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) y Setting up a lab to study RFID y Working on pilot projects y Infosys Technologies: RFID consulting on logistics player in the RFID space. y Mumbai: The busiest Suburban Rail Transport in the world. y TCS: Tied up with Hyderabad University to produce RFID tagged mark sheets & degrees to deter use of fake degree.

once various limitations like lack of a global standard. It has the potential of revolutionizing the way we travel. but also to consumers. the cost factor etc. . are overcome and this technologies fully implemented. the way we open the locks of our homes. it can transform the way we live our lives. security concerns. the way we purchase goods. the benefits would accrue not just to business.Future Scope The worlds will be very different once readers and RFID tags are everywhere. In an RFIDenhanced future. the way we do the business and much more.

org y http://www.rfidjournal.howstuffworks.com .wikipedia.com y http://www.References y IEEE Spectrum Magazine y http://www.

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