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By TP Pilapil
“Consult not your fears, but your hopes and your dreams. Think not about your frustrations, but about your unfulfilled potential. Concern yourself not with what you tried and failed in, but with what it is still possible for you to do.”
-- Pope John XXIII, theologian
IINTRODUCTIION NTRODUCT ON HIITTIING AND SETTIING GOALS H TT NG AND SETT NG GOALS EFFECTIIVE STUDYIING EFFECT VE STUDY NG POSIITIIVE THIINKIING POS T VE TH NK NG STUDENT’’S RESPONSIIBIILIITIIES STUDENT S RESPONS B L T ES BUIILDIING GOOD HABIITS BU LD NG GOOD HAB TS TIIME MANAGEMENT T ME MANAGEMENT CLASSROOM IINSTRUCTIIONS CLASSROOM NSTRUCT ONS EFFECTIIVE READIING EFFECT VE READ NG TAKIING EXAMS TAK NG EXAMS MAKIING USE OF TUTORIING MAK NG USE OF TUTOR NG HEALTH MAIINTENANCE HEALTH MA NTENANCE MAKIING USE OF THE IINTERNET MAK NG USE OF THE NTERNET MANAGIING YOUR RESOURCES MANAG NG YOUR RESOURCES ABOUT THE AUTHOR ABOUT THE AUTHOR
o two people study the same way. What works for one person may not work for another. Everyone is different. For some students, studying and being motivated to learn comes naturally, while to some, additional effort is required. However, there are some general techniques that seem to produce good results. Success in high school or college is dependent on our determination to study effectively and efficiently. Success in studying does not just happen. It takes, among other things, dedication, commitment and motivation. It needs an active participation from the concerned student. This book aims to provide condensed guidelines and techniques required to be an effective, efficient and successful student. Effective students accept personal responsibility for creating the outcomes and quality of their lives. They discover life’s purpose to motivate them, characterized by well-defined goals and dreams which they consistently plan and take effective actions in pursuing them. Effective students become lifelong learners, finding valuable lessons in nearly every experience they have. They develop emotional maturity, characterized by optimism, happiness and peace of mind. Above all, they believe in themselves, feeling capable, lovable and worthy human beings. This material relies on hard work and determination. This is written primarily for high school and college students. Studying independently, away from the watchful eyes of their parents, these students need to develop a good system of studying in order to be an effective learner. In this day of information explosion, they need to study at peak efficiency. This is also written for parents. They have great influence in developing the student’s attitude towards studying. They provide input to students and this book is geared to help them understand better what the students need and should do in order to get more of studying. Teachers and school counselors can also make use of this book. Success or failure of a student reflects the teaching capability of a teacher. It is not enough for the teachers to improve their teaching efficiency. It is also important that the teacher learns how to improve the learning capability of the students. This book is written based on common sense and experience. To make use of this book, one must desire to possess a mind that is always open, malleable, teachable, and enthusiastic for newness. This book does not promise immediate results. Most techniques presented here involved character change for self-improvement. Changing character for the better needs time, hence, require determination and perseverance. These depend on one thing, and that is your willingness to improve and do well in school. You are the one who is responsible for your education, and effective
study skills can help you only if you do your job. So, invest in your future. Use this book to start changing. Take the first step and the next one will be easier. Go for it and start now!
Hitting and Setting Goals
hy do we need to go to school? Why do we need to study? When we are young we go to school because our parents wanted us to. But as we go older, we need to understand why our parents are doing it. We need to find the reasons why they get upset every time we show resentment in studying. For now we should be aware that success in life depends on how we prepare for it. It depends on our attitude towards studying, acquiring knowledge or learning new things. Knowledge is not acquired by chance. We need to work for it. Our parents try their best in developing our attitude towards learning. They tried to expose us to the right environment. They choosed our toys, our books, our friends, our school and even the way they talked to us were properly planned, especially when we were still very young. They believed that our capability of learning new things depends on our attitude towards it. But as we grow older we gradually take control of our life. Defining our targets and structuring ways to hit them has now become our prime responsibility. 1. The importance of setting goals With very few exceptions, nothing worthwhile in our studies really happens by accident. But what if it is as simple as deciding where you want to go and planning the route to get there? Goal setting is the process of deciding where you want to go in life and then mapping out a series of small steps to get you there. Success in studying is something we make for ourselves. Luck has nothing to do with it. Hitting a target starts with defining where the target is, knowing what is it then aim for it. All successful people set goals. Some may have a structured routine, others a “vision”. Some may not even consciously set goals at all. But the process is all the same. Successful people know what they want, determine the steps that will get them there and then they implement them. "Long-range goals keep you from being frustrated by short-term failures."
--James Cash Penney, retailer
By setting goals, you will use your time more productively, perform better and more efficiently and with every goal you achieve, your self-confidence will increase, motivating you to aim ever higher. If you have goals, you have purpose. If you have purpose, you have direction. If you have
Before beginning the work of actually setting sub-goals and supporting tasks it is important to understand the criteria for setting effective goals. Think of it as setting out on a long journey to somewhere you have never been before. 3. How to set goals The major cause of student’s failure to complete their studies is the lack of focus and determination.direction. You are the architect of your future. It is what you want that is important. plans produce action. For example “to be successful in life and retire at 50” could be your master goal and “completing a college degree” could be one of your sub-goals. Think of a single master goal and then subdivide it into several sub-goals. purpose generates plans of action. Don’t put limits on yourself. You are limited only by your imagination. You may even find some shortcuts. Some criteria for goal setting Now that we have a vision for our life. education. They get us where we want to go. financial. Planning is a blue-print of something we want to achieve or make happen. Make sure you have a map before you start out. Perhaps it is to be at the top of your profession. pleasure and attitude. You may decide to take some side trips along the way. Visualize yourself living your ideal life. Would you even put the key in the ignition unless you had a destination in mind and a map to get you there? Your studies and eventually your life is the longest and most exciting adventure you will ever take. . provide motivation and are means to measure progress. spiritual. you may just waste the entire journey driving around in circles and achieve nothing worthwhile. consistent action creates good habits and good habits produce good results. not what others want for you or for themselves through you. Goals create purpose. The first step to setting effective goals is to know what it is you want. Lack of these two factors result from insufficiently defined and studied goals. Goals provide direction and motivation for any undertaking. you do not waste time on activities and things that will not get you where or what you want. But if you leave without a map at all. Begin defining your goals by writing a master list. Perhaps to be selfemployed. social. it is time to start crystallizing our dreams and expressing them in terms of specific objectives. Think of categories such as career. 2. but you’ll at least reach your destination eventually. The best way to get good results is through proper planning and consistent implementation of what has been planned. personal life. family. Goals focus attention. What kind of house do you want to live in? Where do you want to live? What type of car do you want to drive? What exciting destinations do you want to travel to? There are no limits. physical. Don’t censor yourself. They are like road maps. Be positive.
you will not be able to internalize them in a way that will allow you to decide on precise actions to take to achieve them. Also. 4. There are many career goals we can choose from. By now. Financial aspect can also dictate where we will study aside from choosing the best school in terms of quality and reputation. We need to check which school they are available. you’ll stop at the first giant hurdle. they must also be challenging if you are to gain any real benefit from them. Do not set something for a goal if you can achieve it without doing any extra effort. ourselves or through scholarship. it must also be something that you can achieve as a result of your own efforts and not something that depends on someone else doing something. choosing goals sometimes mean choosing a career. If they are fuzzy and ill-defined. we must already have a short-list of careers we may possibly be considering. While it should be challenging. what subjects we can learn more easily than others. what is available where and what is in the market. We have to concentrate on the positive aspect of our well-being. We need to know who we are. While your goals must be realistic. teachers. we need to consider also our financial capability. family and friends and take general survey courses to see what interests us. your subconscious won’t perceive them clearly enough to act on them. Make it challenging. We go to school because we want to be someone someday. etc. know that education is just an instrument of achieving it. At this stage. we need to consider ourselves." --George Lucas. seek ideas from counselors. what are our strengths. we need to consider three areas. "You have to find something that you love enough to be able to take risks. you will not know whether you have achieved them or not. Whatever you set as a goal must be within your power. Star Wars movie First. . we need to research which career are available where. To choose the right one for us. If we don't have any idea what we want to do. Make your goals specific. How to choose goals In schooling. Furthermore.Be specific. jump over the hurdles and break through the brick walls that are always going to be placed in front of you. These three areas include us. If you don’t have that kind of feeling for what it is you’re doing. then we need to research various careers. which activities we love to do most. Will our studies be financed by our parents. Second. Make it realistic. Whatever you want to achieve in the future. Director.
hence. only to find out in the end that such career is already too saturated. But is choosing a career already enough? Many people achieved their goals. breaking your objective down into more manageable sub-goals. It is controlled by our mind. The goal plan Now that you have written down your master goal list and understand the criteria for effective goals it is time to begin translating your list into a goal plan. TV pioneer 5. For example. we need to be flexible with ourselves. we need to check what is hot in the market. You may want to complete your degree at 20 and start working. Hence. we might be forced to decide to study a career we don’t like. got the degree they desired but still find it difficult to earn a living. a goal should be fixed. express each sub-goal in terms of a long-term objective. what help." --David Sarnoff. To be practical. Think about what skills you will need to acquire and how to get them. We should never decide on any career until we learn how to like it because this could greatly affect our performance in school. Likes and dislikes are not something that is fixed within any individual. what information and knowledge. assistance and . Remember. you need to define where you will be at 40. The end result should be a daily “to do” list. And the best way to prepare for this competition is to start early – right at the start of classes. be depth free at 40 so that you can retire at 50. In this case. This is because finding a job itself is a competition. we need to do our best. it is necessary for us to learn how to like what we don’t like. etc. To win this competition. at 20. The objective of starting long-term and working backwards is to break each objective down into manageable steps. But it is not possible to work efficiently in something we dislike. We will learn more on how to be a top-notch student and stay at the top in the later chapters of this book. or the career that would possibly give us a good-paying job is not the one we like. etc. After considering these three areas. with too few jobs for too many job seekers. establish your own business at 30 and let it grow. Many students choose to study the career they like. We’ll concentrate on the positive aspect of things. we might find ourselves in a dilemma. you will need to work backwards. we might find out that the career we like to pursue is too expensive or is not available locally. it is changeable or could be improvised. Now we have chosen which career we will pursue. Take a moment to think though what you will need to achieve those longer term goals. Changing goals along the way could be disastrous simply because time spent will never come back.Third. "Nobody can be successful unless he loves his work. Starting with your master goal. For longterm or “life-time” goals. at 30. For example if you want to retire at 50.
There are four keys to staying on track: commitment.collaboration. You will learn there is a certain feeling of satisfaction and sense of accomplishment in completing a task. Don’t let your objectives lock you into a path you don’t want to go down. If the target moves you need to re-position yourself. Write your goal in a poster-size paper and post it in place where you can see it frequently. Designing a goal plan and sticking to it requires commitment. The trick. is not to let them derail you from your course. Success is attainable only if we concentrate on our goals not on the obstacle. . With a daily task list. what resources. though. Preparing to hit a target does not just consist of making sure your gun is loaded. Be flexible. then perhaps they are not good enough reasons. you can be sure that you're investing your time and energies in activities that will bring you long-term benefit. If this happens to you. Maybe the objective is not something you want badly enough. If so. flexibility. Movie Producer But along the way you will encounter unexpected setbacks. Once you have a clear idea of what you will need. "The person who makes a success of living is the one who sees his goal steadily and aims for it unswervingly. This is what separates the success from failure. Soon you will find yourself becoming discriminating in what you give your time to. You will feel secure in the knowledge that you are taking care of your education. 6." Cecil B. Then try and anticipate obstacles and plan a way around them. Remind yourself constantly of your objectives. These activities will bring structure and purpose to your day and eliminate time wasters. Hitting your goal Now that you broken down your long-term goal into a daily task. you have now a clear direction of where you are going. you can build these things into your goal plan. Read them every morning and evening. Over the course of a lifetime you will go through many changes. Unless you are committed to improving your life nothing will happen to you. Write the reasons why you want to achieve a particular objective next to the objective in your goal plan. Prepare for all foreseen contingencies. Setting and achieving goals is a lifetime process. If your reasons don’t compel you to keep striving. change it. determination. discipline. These are all perfectly natural and normal. It also includes putting yourself in the best position where you can clearly see the target. You may find you get bored doing the same things day after day or any task not achieved. let it go. DeMille. What was important to you ten years ago may not be a priority any more.
Learn how to discipline yourself. Never give up. Many of the tasks you have to do on a daily basis to achieve your longer-term objectives will be laborious and may become boring. Your success is in your own hands. just hang on and keep going. Reach out and take it! . Never ever let anyone else make you doubt whether you can achieve your goals. Anyone can give up when the going gets tough but it is those who keep going in the face of setbacks who are ultimately victorious. Determination or persistence is what separates the winners from the losers. When you suffer setbacks. Discipline yourself to carry out those tasks every day even if you don’t feel like it.
Consistency means we study even after some exams. we need to have studying time everyday day. This is a nice schedule when followed strictly. we have to make studying a habit. choosing the right place to study and pacing your work. . If we follow our schedule diligently and go to school well-prepared. and still have sufficient time to study. Following a study schedule strictly doesn’t necessarily mean cutting ourselves from other activities. "Being busy does not always mean real work. A general rule is to budget about 3 to 4 hours of study for every hour of class. etc. intelligence. It’s a wrong attitude to study only in preparation for exams. Seeming to do is not doing. The general idea of studying is to prepare ourselves for future “encounters” with the teacher. then we are prepared to take any exam any time. This is important for conditioning our mind and making studying a habit. Scheduling study time and following it strictly with consistency and self discipline is a requirement for better grades. Generally. As much as possible. But we can only follow a schedule strictly if we have self discipline. Proper scheduling A good student should set aside a special time each day for studying.. The object of all work is production or accomplishment and to either of these ends there must be forethought. We need to find which time in any given day is suited for studying. say. 7 to 9PM everyday. Consistency is very important in scheduling our time to study. inventor 1. time to eat and sleep. Others have learned how to manage their time effectively so that they have time to play. the difference between low performers and high performers lies in the number of hours devoted each week to studying. system. and honest purpose. These aspects should include proper scheduling. as well as perspiration. planning.Effective Studying ffective studying requires good planning which should consider several aspects." --Thomas Alva Edison. This is what we call “proper scheduling”. We can always give ourselves a break but if we are serious in getting most of studying. It should be the time where we are usually free from any distractions and when we are usually not sleepy. time with friends. preparation.
perhaps just before lunch or late in the evening when everything is quiet. most students who are high-performers in school learned to use time to their own benefit. As students. Better move the schedule earlier than later. prioritize the list. studying is more important to us than any other things. Preparing yourself Preparing ourselves to get most of studying has three requirements. Proper scheduling Choosing the right place to study Preparing yourself Effective Student Concentration Get organized Repeat and recall Pacing your work In determining which hours are best for studying it is important to bear in mind that we probably perform better at different times of day. Make a list of what you intend to study. Generally speaking. and stick to it. eating and sleeping time. Create favorable conditions. "How you see yourself is the way you’ll end up being. club meetings. Maybe our best period of concentration is in the morning.Kenneth Cole." -. They are not the slaves of time as long as they use the time they have wisely. religious services. sports and other activities in which you know you will be participating and which will be taking time out of your daily schedule. Fill in the time blocks with your known time commitments such as classes. clothing designer .Prepare a Time Chart (Weekly Schedule). 2. There is no difference between us and them as long as we do what we are supposed to do as students. You can move your study time to accommodate any important event. generate a positive attitude and develop good techniques. Try to choose hours for studying when you know that you can get some peace and quiet moments and concentrate on what you are going to do. but never move it to the following day.
It is not possible to get better grades if we ourselves believe we are losers and not capable of doing anything. Get to know other students in your classes who are also concerned about learning and getting better grades. and when you study the easier ones. your mind is already tired. Get to know your classmates. whether it's something you can use now or later. It can easily get exhausted. So study easier subjects first when you are still fresh. Most of us vary in many different ways and subjects are different from each other. an hour here. these will also appear difficult you. Generate a positive attitude. Preparing ourselves to be effective students requires that we need to be masters of ourselves. we need to have a positive attitude towards ourselves also. But in order to get good grades in all subjects. we need to face them all. It is normal that we like some subjects and dislike others. share notes and thoughts about the subject which should result in better performance in school. Consider that your mind is not a machine.Create favorable conditions. But before we teach ourselves to have positive attitude towards anything. Try to find something in every subject that you can personally use. We need to know where we are fast and where we are slow. Develop good techniques. Make this a habit. Each individual must develop his own technique for every subject. Make use of everything coming your way. Avoid or remove distractions. Other subjects may not be so easily integrated into our life. Or to get most in reading . We can draw support from each other and help each other. college or university once (most likely) so we should not waste our time. Creating favorable conditions generally means making a study schedule in such a way that it can be easily followed. Break up times as much as possible. From here we can develop a system where we can get most of studying. We are already aware of the fact that some of the things we will be studying can be directly used in our eventual employment or in graduate school. by the time you finished studying it. We need to think we are winners and act like one. This technique may not be applicable to subjects which don’t require problem solving. Plan to study specific times each week. especially if we don’t like it. an hour there. Choose a location where you can concentrate. we'll only be in high school. So it is very important that we know how to develop a positive attitude towards anything. regardless of whether we like them or not. hence. we need to make ourselves believe that we can be whatever we want to be. We need to stop thinking “they are better than us” rather. solve problems as many as you can. Loud music or any TV reduces effectiveness. For example. the best way to study mathematics effectively is to practice solving problems. We cannot reach a goal we have not set. Remember. It's important that we develop a positive attitude concerning the act of studying. no single technique can be applicable to all. When you study difficult subjects first. We need to make the subject meaningful to us in some ways.
Vocalize important parts. Use repetition to increase absorption. Every 20 to 30 minutes. Pacing is a goal in itself. review them now and check if any were answered by this time and how. when they have a "special" place to study. . Some like to work in their bedroom at a desk. If we can concentrate on what we're studying we can absorb more in less time. and can study longer and study more efficiently. create flash cards and practice often. It should be well lighted. clean. It should be a place where you can concentrate. Choosing the right place to study Most successful students usually devote one place where they do nothing other than to study. others read in bed. Look for your special place. check key words. Feeling comfortable is an important part of effective studying. figures and summaries. If you yourself are efficient only for the first two hours of continuous studying. schedule a study break to recall what you have studied and to check through it once more. Some people can study more effectively in the first 1 hour only of a continuous studying. then you need to have time breaks every two hours. this is not a break to relax and take your snack. It will force you to organize the material in a way that is natural for memory improvement. Pacing your work All people are capable of learning but not all people learn at the same rate. not crowded. If you can not fine one. You will not tire as easily as you might with poor lighting. If you listed down questions. If your goal is to double your effective study time then increase the amount of time you study a little each week until you are satisfied that the time given to study is sufficient for completing your studies on schedule. some do their studying at the library and even have their own special studying room. create a onepage summary sheet. It needs to have comfortable chairs. then decide at what rate you would like to work in the future. you need to find your own rhythm. Having a special place to go where all we do is study can help towards creating an environment which aids in concentration. 3. etc. It is a break to refresh your mind of what you have studied so far. For intensive memorization. This will make reading easier and less tiring on your eyes. At most. no bad smell. while other could study effectively for the first three hour of continuous studying. It should be relatively quiet. any noise should be predictable and of low volume to avoid distractions. then create your own. Some people can learn more in a four-hour study period than others. Through practice. 4. create questions for each major topic. good writing surface at right height. read and answer these questions. Remember.textbooks. Some students can easily get into the mood for studying. The area should be comfortable. conducive to learning but not sleeping. you may need to survey first the section or chapter. you may be able to increase the effectiveness of your studying. You need to determine at what rate you work now. As a student.
stand up. Do not day-dream. 6. then gradually build up to longer sessions. and above all. concentrating as hard as you can. of other information. Having knowledge of something means being able to recall any stored information when the need arises. This means that we need to study a subject or topic several times when necessary in order to effectively digest it. To take a break. information should be hammered several times to effectively store it in place. think of something else but then get right back to the job at hand. 7. keep it there. When this happens. Concentration To concentrate properly on a subject matter and keep paying attention is vital to the learning process. Have a consistent place for everything. however. having 2 to 3 minutes break in between. After you have assembled the items you need. put them where you can reach them easily. .5. our stored information may soon be gone or be forgotten. Be mentally aware of which things are placed where. notes. Without reinforcement through repetition. Storing information is best accomplished by repetition. Sometimes. Get organized Create your own system of organizing yourself. Drumming a fact into your head repeatedly is still the best and fastest way to remember something. Storing and recalling information is what studying is all about. There is no point to waste a whole study session to accomplish little. walk around. Don't waste valuable time looking for books. it is beneficial that we take a break. Repeat and recall Effective studying means effectively storing information into one’s mind and recalling them once needed. Looking for a pen amidst cluttered papers can be time consuming sometimes. Like a nail. If you catch yourself daydreaming stop it immediately. we find it difficult to concentrate. Have everything needed for study handy beforehand. Try a short span at first.
When the mind is negative. A positive mind anticipates happiness. It does not matter what your circumstances are at the present moment. the generous qualities. and their results are very obvious. the constant guarding of the mind against negativity. Thinking positive requires vigilance. Some students continue to get poor grades because they concentrate on the obstacles rather than concentrating on their goals. "It is not the brains that matter most. frustration and disappointment. Importance of positive thinking to students Most students don’t do better in class because they believe they are. People do not change their attitude and thoughts overnight. Students who are good performers in class believe in themselves.Kenneth Cole. Think positively. poisons are released into the blood. If you choose the former you gain a great and beneficial power. . expect only favorable results and situations. Poor performers on the other hand believe that their capability is very limited when compared to other students. Positive and negative thinking are both contagious.Positive Thinking hinking positively means admitting into the mind only thoughts. but that which guides them – the character. joy." -. clothing designer Negative thoughts. It may take some time for the changes to take place. Whatever the mind expects. This makes it very difficult for them to try new things. expansion and success. which cause withdrawal feelings. but eventually they do.Writer "How you see yourself is the way you’ll end up being. It is the expectation of good and favorable results." --Fyodor Dostoyevsky . unhappiness and more negativity. instead they are usually dependent to other students. the heart. health and a successful outcome of every situation and action. Negative thinking is the way to failure. words and images that promotes growth. words and attitude bring up negative and unhappy moods and actions. it finds. Consistent application is necessary. progressive ideas. instead they strive to find “how’s” to their every “why’s”. and circumstances will change accordingly. Their lack of self confidence is their usual stumbling block towards getting good grades. 1. Most people are not successful because they think they can not be one. Their confidence in themselves is their motivation or driving force to move on. They don’t bother themselves with anything they can not do.
This requires commitment. positive commitment to oneself. learning is enjoyable and exciting. learning is just okay. They are made. hence. We can be positive or negative. Concentrate on these ideas to get motivated. Avoid negative thinkers. "If you think you can. Then we get what we deserve. We have to teach ourselves how to get motivated. we should believe we deserve it. you can. has a great possibility to arrive at its destination in still great shape. and then we have to replace it again with a positive one. while a negative thinker likens to a person who while climbing a mountain is cursing the mountain itself. Once a negative thought enters our mind. It is just not possible for someone to learn while at the same time thinking that the subject matter is too difficult to tackle. To be positive. For others. If we want good grades. . This will lessen the inflow of negative ideas into your mind. Creating positive mindset People do not become positive thinkers by chance. gradually rejecting negative thoughts and accepting or entertaining only positive ones. In fact. Persistence will eventually teach our mind to think positively and ignore negative thoughts. active or passive. We need to make adjustments within ourselves. Not every lecture will be pleasing to our ears. Set goals and priorities for what you think and do. almost every lecture is boring. and we choose to look at one and disregard the other. The negative thought will try again to enter our mind. We are in control. We don’t wait to get motivated.In general. For many. We can not change the lectures according to our own taste. enthusiastic or dull. look for positive people to associate with. we need to look for one or more interesting ideas. The first one does not easily gets tired hence. something required on the road to a job. They undergo a process of change. students who are positive thinkers or those who have a great deal of self confidence are motivated to spend more time in studying while those who lack self confidence usually find studying boredom. we have to be aware of it and endeavor to replace it with a constructive one. For some. Founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics In every class. whether we know it or not. The biggest difference between people is their attitudes. in every lecture. 2. And if you think you can’t." --Mary Kay Ash. your progress will be faster. A positive thinker is comparable to a person who while climbing a mountain is enjoying the scenery. It is as if there are two pictures in front of us. you’re right. learning is drudgery. concentrating only on the positive aspects of anything. We need to keep our mind focused on important things.
This happens instinctively and on a subconscious level. the people we meet. Positive thinking is power in itself. With every idea you learned. This will deepen your knowledge of the subject matter. you will transform the way your mind thinks.Before attending any class. whether positively or negatively. Disregard any feelings of laziness or a desire to quit. Always visualize only favorable and beneficial situations. tackle it positively. do not give up. through thoughts and feelings transference. Use positive words in your thoughts or when talking with others. People are more disposed to help us if we are positive. good and happy thoughts in your mind. When the attitude is positive we entertain pleasant feelings and constructive images. as this helps to think positively. prepare questions for the teacher. Don’t bother yourself with every negative reaction from your friend. Smile a little more. This will increase your knowledge and strengthen your positive mindset. This is why we need to be around with positive persons and shun negative ones. They dislike and avoid anyone broadcasting negativity. explain it to your friends. Your questions will invite more questions from other students. but keep looking only at the beneficial. and see in our mind's eye what we really want to happen. . All of us affect. If you feel inner resistance when replacing negative thoughts with positive ones. rather. or through body language. If you persevere. Prepare questions not only for things you don’t know but also for those you already know.
be your own teacher. but it is my chief duty to accomplish small tasks as if they were great and noble." --Helen Keller. author 1. Make a general program of the whole course. evaluation and help. more self-directed and more self-critical. even at the very early stage. time and energy is being wasted. The fact is the teacher is exhausting his energy and time for the student’s sake. It is very irresponsible on the part of the student to go to school and wait to be fed. It is the responsibility of the student to do his part in the learning process.Student’s Responsibilities efore we decide to go schooling. The role of the teacher should be reduced to giving scope. When the student is in pre-school. students should become more self-sufficient. 2. Some students managed to complete a five-year course in four years time. Finally. education already consists of an active participation between the student and the teacher at school and between the students and parents at home. Be an active learner. However. as time goes on. direction and monitoring. As we grow older the participation of the parents become less and less. "I long to accomplish some great and noble task. Yet some were able to complete their course in twice the usual time duration. social activist. It is important to realize at this point that it is the student’s future that is at stake here. especially when the students enter high school or college where in general they prefer more independence. it is important to know what our responsibilities are as a good and responsible student. The first student controls his own learning process while the second one used the “free-wheeling” style of learning. the teacher provides example. Students’ responsibilities Take control of your own learning process. the student should become a teacher to himself. If you want to be a good and responsible student. . There is no such thing as free education even if we are on scholarships or even if the teacher is doing the teaching as a volunteer. The parents usually prepare the students how to behave in school. Control your own learning process. Whether he is being paid or not. then learn how to feed yourself. what subjects to take in what semester. If you are used to be in school where “spoon-feeding” is the way of teaching. The learning process Education is a two-way activity. Originally. direction.
Identify your negative aspects and make way to rectify it to your advantage. Do not repeat the questions of other students. Some questions will invite follow-up questions from other students. You can not do anything unless you believe you can do it. make it a success and use it to achieve goals. Most students consider studying as a simple reading and memorizing activity. Seek extra help from your teacher. But most good performers have developed their own learning techniques. Concentrate on open-ended questions. Rectify your failures to your advantage. Do not compare yourself with others because whether you like it or not there are always things where others are better than you. Act like a competent adult. Feel good about yourself regardless of your abilities. Always ask questions. Then out of your general goal. people define success as an attainment of a certain goal. why you go to school to study. An adult makes his own decisions and thinks independently. check which subjects are more difficult than the others. Accept and develop only positive ideas. Treat yourself like and adult. Usually. You need to know what success means to you. Most teachers are required to allocate consultation time for the students. Monitor your success. make use of it. even if you already know the answers.Organize the subjects. act like an adult and others will treat you as an adult. It is the responsibility of the students to seek extra help. You may also seek extra help from your friends and classmates. Explore your self. develop yearly goal. Screen ideas that enter your mind. It will increase your knowledge in the process. etc. Define success in your own terms. discover what your strengths are then make use of it to your advantage. Some students consider it an opportunity to help others because they also learn more things in the process. check which subjects are prerequisites to which subjects. with respect. Think and act positive. Develop your own personal learning strategies. monthly goal. learn how to spend less time in it so that you will have more time to other more difficult ones. make use of your payment. Define your general goal. Learn how to optimize the use your resources. Concentrate on positive questions. Most students . Concentrate on your positive aspects and develop it. Ask questions. It will only show that you are not listening or participating actively in class. questions that could encourage participation of others and could invite more questions. weekly goal and daily goal. Seek extra help. techniques that enable them to get more by exerting less. Take control of your own learning process through good planning. An adult takes responsibility of all his words and actions. You paid them to teach you. Your teacher will be glad to know you are interested to learn in his subject. If you like the subject.
Helping or teaching others doesn’t mean losing something because we gave it to others. Attending class is the best way to learn what you’re supposed to learn. especially our classmates. know and study in advance the next topic. But in general. So. As learners ourselves. Some students attend class just for the sake of showing up. including group projects are very important tools for learning because it gives the students the opportunity to learn at their own pace and strategies. what your professor will put on the exam. In trying to answer those questions. They can open their notes. This is a wrong attitude. Partial credit is always better than no credit. etc. when we teach others. and what’s expected of you in your homework. only very few students do their assignments diligently while others just wait and then copy. . It is the student’s responsibility to develop good techniques for efficient studying. In some classrooms. can do assignments and homeworks correctly and submit them on time. students like these seldom get good grades unless they really get perfect scores in exams. Do homeworks and assignments. hence we are always on the lead. Aside from learning more out of helping others. you’ll also end up having a free lunch. whether it is announced or un-announced. Attend and actively participate in class. In most cases when a teacher gives an assignment. So. we will discover some of our mistakes and other weak points and learn that there are still areas that we have not studied in detail. competition is intense and there is a tendency for those good performers to shun helping others. in helping others. This is wrong because to be successful students we need to get good grades in all subjects. Always turn in your homework even if it’s not completed.spend more to subjects they like. So if you are serious in learning. Homeworks and assignments are two very important learning tools that most students take for granted. Organize tutorial classes. They are also well-informed hence. It shows your professor what you know. you need to be punctual in attending classes. use as many books as they can. Help others in need. unless you have exceptional intelligence. interview other experts. we will be facing a lot of questions from our classmates. for taking exams and for solving problems. The source of learning avenues is endless. do your homeworks and assignments diligently. you need to prepare. because some teachers give up to 10% credits from class attendance. we also learn. Assignments and homeworks. To actively participate in class. Students who actively participate in class and attend class regularly perform well in any exam. Some students also seldom attend classes especially if the teacher is not very particular with class attendance.
. Continue improving yourself.Work smarter. Concentrate and prioritize doing activities that will yield the greatest benefit. not just harder. Cut out some of the non-productive activity in the learning process and focus on that which is productive. Do that and you will learn more and get better grades.
Athletes develop athletic skills. how to do it." -. If we can control it then we can choose which habit we want to develop. Observe also other students. There is no magic formula. we choose what to do. we actively give direction to our life. it is developed without the person actively knowing it. learning new ones and throwing out those which we think detrimental to our goal. It is purely natural development. musicians develop musical skills. he will be doing these things automatically without consulting his mental list. When a driver first study how to drive. But it doesn’t happen like magic – that if we follow what we outlined to do then the habit will automatically develop. How? By choosing our environment – we choose our friends. Our subconscious mind works through repetition. Developing learning habits means overhauling ourselves. 1. check how . we will notice that we can actually take control in its development. improving good habits we already have. We need to identify them. look left and right before crossing a street. But when he is already used to driving. he mentally prepares a list of things to do to start driving or while driving. They attained it by making training and studying a habit. This is how successful people hit their goal. Our subconscious mind is continuously collecting information from the environment and stores it in our brain. habits are something that is developed in a person naturally. "We first make our habits. then we should not be reading this article. etc. monitoring and evaluating our own learning styles. Building good habits can help us to be effective in studying. check which ones are effective and which are not. Our brain works that way. Each of us may have different learning styles in any subject.Building Good Habits f studying things is our habit. when to do it.John Dryden. learners therefore need to develop learning habits. In order to find success in schooling. managers develop managing skills. etc. Usually. like adjusting first his seat and checking the mirrors before turning on the ignition switch. and then our habits make us. To most of us. Improving and managing learning styles Improving and managing learning styles consists of planning. The development of a habit of a person is influenced mainly by the environment where that person is exposed to. They endured long and tiring training/studies in developing effective skills. writer If we study closely the process how our habits are developed. In other words.
Others study in groups or find study partner or partners. Time management Develop the habit of managing your time. Try different learning environments. Do not consider learning as a burden. The choice is endless. rather enjoy yourself learning. Be flexible." -.they study effectively. Develop the habit of accommodating only positive thoughts. big goals and do positive actions towards it. Positive thinking It is your responsibility to educate yourself. Make use of what is presently available. From time to time. Keep monitoring and improving your learning styles and skill. Though you paid the school or teacher. when you are in a group. Make a daily schedule and identify mentally which time could be squeezed and which one needs to be expanded. and follows that plan. We need to know other styles so that we may have several options to develop our own effective learning styles. Without your active participation. Don’t limit yourself to only one option. writing. So take charge of your future. writer 3. Try them and identify which one fits on you.Victor Hugo.John Wooden. Other stays in their room and study quietly. Others gather as much books as possible. You need this to develop self confidence and self-esteem. The point is you need to know what to do in any given situation. Try different learning avenues or tools. Others form groups to study together. Many high-performing students use any style applicable in any given situation. who every morning plans the transactions of the day. Also prepare some filler activities. Checking means you have to try them. Others browse the internet to gather more information. listening. activities you can do in times you . 2. asking each others questions. carries a thread that will guide him through a labyrinth of the most busy life. Keep improving your learning styles and make it a habit. Set goals. basketball coach "He. check how you do in reading." -. note-taking and/or problem-solving. Take charge of your own education. but they are just instruments for you to learn. "Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. Check which one is effective to you. They discuss together. Others don’t start studying until they gathered all the information available. For example. Always budget time to every activity and follow it faithfully. nothing will happen to you. Other prefers outdoors and study alone quietly. do not wait until you are alone in order to study. time-management.
It is needed in identifying main ideas and . It involves the skills of flexibility.being in control of yourself. processes. subject or topic. critical thinking is concerned with their evaluation. Creative thinking is generally considered to be involved with the creation or generation of ideas. cause/effect. especially our teacher. You can always make good schedules. fluency. try to be creative and critical at the same time. Develop the habit of self-discipline. attribute listing. classification. forced relationships. Self discipline Our parents. nice goals. In every situation. imagery. Creative and critical thinking Critical and creative thinking can be described as qualities of good thinking processes and as types of thinking. It’s the art of asking questions. You will need this kind of attitude for making decisions and solving problems. experiences or objects. modification.are vacant. forecasting and planning. Develop this habit. webbing. sequencing. originality. Critical thinking involves skills that enable the student to sort. 5. It allows you to stay focused on your goals. analyze. Creative thinking involves creating something new or original ideas. 4. You can cut out bad habits and create new good ones. Always make yourself busy. elaboration. Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison. and refine creative ideas. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence. It affects how you see yourself . students must possess a balance of creative and critical thinking skills. brainstorming. It enables you to stay in control of yourself and of your reactions to any situation. especially in dealing with other people.your self image is so much better when you know you can succeed and change. guardians and teachers try their best in instilling discipline in us. associative thinking. but there’s one aspect in a child’s life which we need to retain. good plans. Self discipline builds your confidence . metaphorical thinking. Ask questions like a child and make it a habit. but you can never follow or attain them unless you know how to discipline yourself. It affects your ability to make foresights. To be successful problem solvers. 6. This requires will power and determination but if you have self discipline you are in control. Spend your time wisely. deductive and inductive reasoning. analogies. Asking questions It’s a part of our natural process to grow up. patterning. But nothing will really happen if we ourselves don’t take positive actions. your emotions and actions boosts your confidence and esteem. Time is expensive and never comes back once spent. etc. With self discipline you can change your life anyway you want to.
If you do have to miss a class. Additional works will be assigned to you from time to time. focusing concentration. Whatever or whoever he is. Always try to create a good relationship with your teacher. Doing this means we are pressing the time. This lets you know what the subject is all about. Make it easy to follow and implement. This first classroom instruction is usually devoted for orientation. etc. You do it while it is fresh in your mind and while you still have plenty of time to try different materials and methods. Make it a habit of getting to know well three to four of your teachers. Make it a habit of attending and never missing a class unless you are really sick. lack of time. Create new habits Always study your environment. The whole subject is discussed here. Make extra reading to cover up your losses. It is also useful in generating interest. It is needed in expanding our knowledge. then you loss 75% of what is being discussed in the class when you are absent and just rely on the input of your friends. procrastination. Create a step by step process with time allotments. you will . how the teacher is going to handle it and what is expected of you. lack of self confidence. This will make you more active rather than passive. Being early in class brings many good things in us. assignments. Always have your calculator on your desk and have your text book out. Make a planning in developing this new habit. etc. Try to eliminate them. always call or see a classmate after the class to find out what you missed and if your teacher assigned anything that will be due when you return.supporting evidence. Implement and follow your schedule faithfully. Identify obstacles. check the habits of other successful people. even if you don’t like him/her. Make it habit of doing your homework the same day it is assigned to you. etc. Keep track of your progress and evaluate your self from time to time. 7. For example. If the teacher or any of your classmates is making some sort of computation in the board. There is a big difference between the time “beating us” and “us beating the time”. Make it a habit of being in the classroom a little bit early. Identify which one you need to develop. exams. You can always borrow notes or ask your friends what was discussed in the class. Justify to yourself how important it is to your life or your studies. This will keep you informed of all the rules regarding absences. Being late means the time is pressing us. but let us accept the fact that there are always communication losses. Doing it later will force you to squeeze your time and effort. Make it a habit of attending and never missing the first class meeting. do not wait for results. Make it a habit of being an active participant in the class. work along with him/her. If your absorption capability is only 50% and so do with your friend. motivation. You do not absorb 100% of what you hear and this is a reality. Make it a habit of reading the class syllabus and handouts the teacher passes out in any meeting. improving memory. This is how losers and winners are distinguished. Teachers often do problems out of the book as examples.
show your enthusiasm. Experience and exposure is what you need now. but you will also be getting to know people who have first hand experience of what you are studying.need him in the near future. Observe always your environment to scout for effective habits. Make this a habit. ask questions and show your interest. Study the lives of other successful people. identify their good habits. Just be active in class. Don’t care too much about salary. You don’t have to invite him/her for dinner. Make it a habit of getting summer jobs that are related to your course of study. Not only will you be doing something more mentally stimulating. accept what is available. Mind always your existing habits. . improve those needing improvements and eliminate those that need to be eliminated.
friends. "Time is the scarcest resource. Student’s life is busy and full of challenge. author Family. Time management means listing all your activities. We again need to know what subjects we need to load in any given semester. or simply a list of monthly activities for such subject. goal per week and goal per day. Listing of activities As discussed in chapter 1. Don't leave it to a chance that you will study whenever. The flow of time cannot be delayed and cannot be controlled. The only way to make use of time is to manage it properly. etc.Time Management ime is one very important resource we have which we rarely give due consideration. then to daily goals. goal per month. allot time requirements for each activity and define priorities. "The secret of getting ahead is getting started. we need to have a goal. two or three semesters. overwhelming tasks into small manageable tasks. Then in every subject we are taking in any given semester. writer So from one single complex goal. If necessary. You should make out daily plans for a week at a time. It is abundant to those who are doing nothing and scarce to those who are doing something. Drucker. Don't miss an important meeting or exam because you forgot. If for example we choose to study a four-year course. we break it down to goal per year. You don't need to waste time or make life more difficult by being disorganized. Schedule study time. Any given year might compose of one. we need to break it down in such a way that we will know what we will be doing in any given year. The secret of getting started is breaking your complex. There . determine which activities cannot be done without completing the other." --Mark Twain. before we embark into all-out studying.Peter F. work and play will compete with your education for time and resources." -. breakdown complex activities into several minor activities to make them manageable. Whatever our goal is. We again need to breakdown these monthly goals into weekly goals. 1. we need to set time limit. Listing of activities does not just mean setting down and listing down every activity that come into our mind which we think needed in our endeavor. goal per semester. when are we going to achieve it. we need to make monthly targets or monthly goals. and then starting on the first one. and unless it is managed nothing else can be managed.
we need to set the priorities by ourselves. laboratory. The more units the subject has the more important it is. lectures. The weight of any subject is usually given in terms of “units” which corresponds to the number of hours of classes each week. for monthly. consider the weight of the subject. The problem is how to determine that an activity is more important than the others. try to allocate at least three to four hours of advance study for every hour of class. social event. Whatever this system is. though all of them should be done. Define priorities Now. Some subjects need to be taken first before the others. then we need to assign time durations in such a way that we have enough time to study all the subjects. up to a level we consider manageable. However. Also allocate a period for sleeping and relaxation each day. First. With what is left. thus needs to be prioritized. We need to assign time duration into major activities and all its sub-activities. If we have exam the following week. priorities are usually defined by pre-requisites. Thus a six-unit subject means you have to attend six hours of classes per week. social.has to be a system we need to follow that could simplify the studying process. weekly and daily schedule. Next. and then each major activity into several sub-activities. You can always revise your schedule as circumstances warrant. What do we do next? At this point we need to consider that not all activities are equally important. Setting priorities means deciding which activity we have to do first before others. It needs to follow a system too. we need to consider the time available. You must focus on the "free time" available and how you will use it. For the yearly schedule and schedule per semester. There are really subjects which we are fast learners and there are some that are simply more difficult. This gives you a rough estimate of the time available. There are basic activities such as classes and so on that has to be incorporated. Assigning time durations to each activity does not just consist of closing the eyes and jotting down whatever time duration which come into our mind. 3. plan time for study. we have to consider that time is not free. First we need to consider the activity versus ourselves. and work time. Time assignments Time management does not stop at listing or breaking down of activities. lecture. Indicate times for classes. and this set up is usually controlled by the school. A schedule should take into account every class. 2. labs. There has to be some criteria we need to consider. . A six-unit subject is two times heavier than a three-unit subject though they may require the same length of time to study. we have a list of activities with corresponding time assignments. it should consider breaking the main objective into several major activities. and so on. Though we don’t buy time. We need to familiarize ourselves with our own natural capabilities. Defining priorities means re-arranging the list according to its importance. We assign longer time durations to more difficult subjects. and other work in which you engage. As a rule of thumb.
Most of us like easy subjects because this means easy work but we should always consider that we need to do all the activities. This could end in a disaster. A good schedule should be well-balanced. 4. We make monthly schedule for every subject. hence it is important to define priorities. hence. Third. There is a need for us to constantly monitor our current standing for every subject. consider easy subjects and prioritize them. But we still don’t know which to do in a given day. abuse this flexibility and find themselves enrolling those easy subjects first. all subjects are important. it is enough for us to follow this yearly/semestral schedule. Scheduling of activities Now. There is always a danger of not finishing all the activities we plan to do. we have a list of activities with corresponding time assignments. we need to get good grades in all subjects. and we also know which one to do first or which activities are dependent on other activities. This is prepared once we have finished enrolling the subjects we need to take in a semester. Yearly and semestral goals Schools usually have a prepared prospectus for every course of study. Through research and years of experience. month or year. But prioritize does not mean assigning more time to it. since the activity is easy. whether we like it or not. In effect. in their senior years they are forced to take all difficult subjects in a semester. we may find it necessary to revise this schedule. This time. The point is. as we go along with our studies. which . though not equally. There are still a lot of criteria that we can consider. the school was able to come up with this prospectus. Fourth. Some students however. Most difficult subjects are heavyweights (having big units). prioritize means doing them first before studying or doing the more difficult ones. and even take summer classes. we can do it more quickly and our brain does not exert much effort thus. preserving our energy for the more difficult ones. Monthly goals Monthly schedules are prepared every semester. with easy and difficult subjects distributed evenly. Here. prioritize means assigning them more time to study. Initially. After all. need more concentration.Second. consider difficult subjects and prioritize them. A good schedule should be flexible and should permit revision. They end up completing their course of study ahead of time. It’s a matter of arranging which to do first. a listing of subjects that need to be taken by the student every semester. So we should not trap ourselves into spending more time on easy subjects just because we like it. week. by taking more subjects than required in any given semester. Some students also are wise enough to re-arrange the prospectus given by the school. To be a successful student. However. Subjects which we are performing poorly at any given time need special attention. consider your current standing.
Daily schedule is prepared so we may know the activities to be done in a day. From this list. we will be forced to follow it diligently because we see the whole picture. etc. how many major exams will be given and the tentative dates of the major exams. then we can insert in our study periods. with no specific timing. meetings. time for worship. our goal would seem difficult or may be impossible to achieve. it should be prepared in such a way that progress can be monitored and corrective action could be taken once our actual progress lags behind the schedule. we can achieve our goal one step at a time. We list down all the routine activities we need to do in a day. We need to have time being with friends and/or relatives. Study periods should be distributed throughout the day to avoid overloading our mind. With detectable problems.chapter or chapters will be done this month. we will know which time of the day we are free. we go directly to the next activity. 5. . With all the activities scheduled to be done in a specific time. Advantages of proper time management Converting impossible into possible At first. Also. But by breaking down our goal into sub-goals up to a more manageable level. take a bath. Like any other schedule. Daily schedule should also permit revision but revision should be done mentally. daily schedule should be flexible enough to our own advantage. time for relaxation and entertainment. We are social beings and our life will be very boring without social activities. Measure progress With a well-defined schedule. From our list of activities. attend classes. We know what will happen if we don’t follow the schedule. In preparing weekly schedule we need to consider also other activities aside from studying. we can easily measure our progress and detect possible problems. Daily goals Weekly schedule is still difficult to implement because it is still too general. weekly schedule should be updated every week to take into account the actual progress. etc. Monthly schedule should be flexible enough to permit revision once the need arises. Eliminate procrastination With a well-prepared schedule. procrastination could be eliminated. Our instructor will usually give us the subject outline at the beginning of each class in a semester. eat. We set the time we wake up in the morning. we know we have to do it because there is another activity schedule for eight o’clock. with corresponding time when to do them. we group together the activities we need to study in any given week. Don’t waste time. Weekly goals Monthly schedule is broken down in a weekly basis. If we schedule the activity to be done at seven o’clock. our productivity is improved and possible problems could easily be rectified without spoiling other activities. etc. From this data we can prepare our monthly schedule. Also. listing down the topics to be taken up. When we budgeted two hours for a certain activity and we finished it in less than two hours.
the brain is still processing the information. Some tips for proper use of time Know yourself There are times of a day when we are mentally alert and when we are mentally down." This type of studying is efficient because while you are taking a break. Some students are effective at studying during night time. need more time to learn. know which time is best for you to study.." If there are times in the residence halls or your apartment when you know there will be noise and commotion. use that time for mindless tasks. Poor health is therefore a waste of time when it comes to studying. exercise regularly and have proper diet. This keeps you from getting fatigued and "wasting time. Use your power times to study. so that you can put it in your pocket or handbag.g. Know your self. Poor health means poor mind. Choose study areas that are conducive to studying This will allow you to reduce distractions which can "waste time. Make your study materials handy and portable Write your notes and other study materials in flashcards. use the down times for routines such as laundry and errands. while waiting for a bus or while waiting for your turn in a bank. Make this a habit. some during morning. and yet some at early dawn. e. .6. Distribute study time Study in shorter time blocks with short breaks between. You can open them anywhere when you find extra time. small notebooks or a loose sheet of paper. Be health conscious Have enough sleep. Poor mind can not study efficiently hence.
Toastmasters International 1. Preparing for class Make it a habit of attending class well-prepared. Develop your own style of taking notes. If you try to keep up with a lecturer by taking down every word you won't be able to understand it. Read assigned pages/chapters before coming to class. hence get good grades. unless you have exceptional intelligence. It is advisable to write down keywords or phrases only. Participate actively in class. Be prepared to take notes and raise questions. especially during study time. Knowing the objectives will provide a framework for your studies for the entire semester. In general." --Ralph C. So. you need to prepare. your chances of real success are proportionately increased. You can ask the instructor about it or look it up at a later time. The importance of note taking is to maximize retention and for easy recollection of the lecture. and when to remain silent. you need to be punctual in attending classes. The biggest mistake students make is that they don’t know what they’re supposed to learn in their classes. Don't take down every word. Note what parts of the readings made sense to you. Some students also prefer not to attend classes especially if the teacher is not very particular with class attendance. To actively participate in class. most often during the first week. Students who actively participate in class and attend class regularly perform well in any exam. If there is a word or phrase you don't know. Taking Notes Students don't always recognize how important it is to take good notes. Write down ideas and put them in words you understand. 2. ask your instructor if you can record the lecture. Smedley. and which ones did not. Rarely will you discover the objective by reading the textbook. if you know how and when to speak. know and study in advance the next topic. students like these seldom get good grades unless they really get perfect scores in exams. "Whatever your grade or position. write it down. . Usually the professor reveals that in class. It will be these things you will want to pay special attention during the lecture. If you think you need every word.Classroom Instructions ome students attend class just for the sake of showing up.
Don't write too much or too little. It takes too much time and effort and you can not catch-up with the lecture. readings and assignments. Write down the information presented in as organized a way as possible. Come to class with all homework finished. Within 7 days. Cover your main notes and recite key points out loud. Generate interest and motivation. Be flexible. . It is more likely to show up on tests. Taking accurate and concise lecture notes is essential. Add comments. Review again. Always put a date in your notes. Your main job in taking lecture notes is to be a good listener. and then later reorganize them in your own words. Convince yourself it's important. Think about how your notes relate to other parts of the class. then the notes. Try to develop and keep your own set of abbreviations. 4. Don't let the lecture become meaningless material. After class. Get them down. Review the last lecture notes. ask the teacher what will be covered next time. Check the notes of your classmates to see if you missed any important items.As soon after class as possible. 3. Within 24 hours. Effective note taking Be physically and mentally present in class. As you write notes. Make an attempt to understand how the various parts fit together. Teachers usually try to integrate lectures. Loose papers are considered best because you can insert handouts and other notes into them. You may use notebooks or loose papers. review and edit your notes. Review them while they are fresh in your mind. You will need this in increasing your notetaking efficiency. To be a good listener. You may find it necessary to edit this list from time to time. review your outline and notes. concentration and a systematic method of recording information. On the other hand. make sure you understand what you're writing. Sit in front of the room. Don't write complete sentences. don't be too lazy to the extent of missing some points. Copy anything put on the board. create a short outline about the lecture. Preview material before lecture. except for definitions or quotations. Don't talk to others regarding other matters during lecture. formulate questions as you listen. Add and edit the notes for accuracy and to make them read more clearly. Good note taking requires motivation. Be active and be prepared. This recitation is one of the best ways to strengthen understanding. review the outline first. you must learn to focus and concentrate on the main points of the lecture. As soon as possible. If you wait weeks or even a day or two before reading your notes you will have lost a lot. You can also arrange and re-arrange them as you like. thumb through the chapter on the topic for the day. as passive spectators. When you listen to a lecture. Getting most from lectures Some students watch lectures like they watch television.
6. Learn how to listen aggressively. Pay attention to the course outline or syllabus. While you’re taking notes. important points and materials are referenced here and repeated. why. You’re alert. discuss it. and aware of what’s being said and what’s going on around you. Don't be afraid to ask the teacher if there is something you don't understand. Be like children and scientists. Ask questions to clarify a point. or in other ways become aggressively involved in cementing the material in your memory. Be aware how the lecture fits with the objective. These are the questions in the form of “cause and effect”. generate some questions and have them ready to roll. The secret to aggressive listening is to make your mind like a radar. You're less likely to miss something important. clarify ideas. improve listening skills and improve test-taking. The two most effective groups of learners are children and scientists. Curiosity and questions are the motivation and means of learning. Learn how to use basic forms of questions. stimulate interest. even if you don't verbalize them out loud. 7. Note taking also aids in increasing your absorption efficiency. it is assumed that you know how to ask good questions. . Refresh yourself always about the object of the lecture. Effective listening also needs the use of your mouth. Both are naturally curious. where. who and how. Average students are able to recall about eight times more of the content when they become involved than when they just listen. To help avoid distractions. These are the familiar questions starting with "what. curious. Examine and probe the topic carefully in order to gain full understanding. when. It will help you focus on the lecture. apply it." You may go into advanced form of questions as you go deeper into the topic. either in class or after class. Both seek answers to their every question. sit near the front of the class. and there are far less distractions at the front than any other location. Listen with aggressiveness Be physically and mentally present in the class. By the time you get to high school or college. or “what if” scenario. How to Use Questions Questions can be used to organize information. Most teachers will be glad to clarify for you. Dealing with distractions Distractions in the classroom are sometimes cannot be avoided. Generally. Twenty-four hours after a class. Be active in class to be less affected by distractions.5. you will remember only about 10 percent of what you heard unless you repeat it.
They are the ones you need to concentrate your subsequent study efforts on.” --Socrates 1. You need to be finding something in what you are reading. what the author thinks is important for you to know and how the information is organized. But what. There have to be some questions which answers you are trying to search. Look at the table in some detail. Doing this gives you an idea of what the author thinks is important. Make a note of them. Just reading one paragraph after another with tidbits of information strewn . Try to know in advance what the book is all about. Textbook authors go to great pains to select appropriate titles for their books and chapters. It often contains hints on why the book was written. most students give it no thought whatsoever. you need to develop techniques to improve your absorption efficiency. Start reading the parts of the book which give overall picture of the whole book. Read all the headings and subheadings.Effective Reading earning how to read and retain what you read is critical to being a successful student. You want to learn as much as possible. Read the table of contents. If the text provides a glossary at the end of each chapter read it next. Every line in here is important. Before reading the main text turn to the end of the chapter and read the summary. Read the preface. is it that you are looking for? You need to be motivated. It aids in the retention of information and serves as a necessary addition to the information you gain in class. Be motivated You might be very enthusiastic to start reading the first chapter. Some students can easily absorb what he is reading. You can improve your reading skills by making the following changes in your current style. Survey the material and the information contained therein. Some need to read and reread the topic several times before he can fully absorb it. "Employ your time in improving yourself by other men’s writing so that you shall come easily by what others have labored for. Still. exactly. Try to absorb. also to make the information flow in the most logical and natural way. Learning to read effectively is an important study skill. Reading textbooks Read the summary and conclusion first. Don't read a textbook like you would a novel from the front to the back. As a student. Now you can read the main text with a better idea of where to focus your attention.
Unlike novels. "The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who can not read them. Use a highlighter to mark up important points. any independent and dependent variables. read this first then go to the summary and conclusions section at the end of the article. Take note of the author(s). key findings. Do not try to re-write the book. 2. referred to as abstract of 100 to 250 words. however. read them before class. Research articles usually include a summary. Be aware of how the current chapter relates to other parts of the book. you empower the learning process. you are reading a textbook. Take notes as you read. . at the end of the book. the author will list some recommended readings and references. how these variables were measured. check if they are consistent with the hypothesis and conclusion. writer Like the textbook. wastes a lot of time. This will definitely arouse your curiosity and that assures that you become properly motivated. are you ready to start the textbook with chapter one. wanted them to jump out at you.” --Mark Twain. especially if they are assignments. Then think about how the reading relates to lectures and assignments. It will give you a broader understanding of how the author summarizes and integrates information. or copy word for word. Those are sample questions you are required to answer correctly as affirmation of your learning progress. In the end you may get nothing you need or get many things you do not need. not a novel. you stay alert. The author. Pay special attention to graphs. photos and inserts. Too often students tend to skip over these. Having questions in your mind which need answers you are now ready to read with purpose. Like your textbook. and only then. tables. Sometimes. textbooks give sample questions at the end of each chapter or near the end of the book. Fortunately.here and there. Reading research articles For some introductory and many advanced courses you will be required to read related published research articles. Read a recommended reading or reference. Try to read them if you have time or if you can get hold of them. title. Then. Look them up now. Try to make a wild guess of the answers in advance before you start reading. Take notes. purpose or hypothesis of research.
middle and end. Also. Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning. If you are reading your own book. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. If you're wrong. Keep building up your vocabulary. If you're right. Only highlight or underline main ideas. you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day. use a highlighter to highlight some important lines in the book. the faster is your comprehension. this is a lifetime project. Broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers. graphs and inserts. abstract. Or. Become interested in world events. Before reading the main text. graphs and headings. Try to find out why your instructor wanted you to read it. don’t overdo it with your highlighter. If you see a point on a page that relates to something you have read previously.Pay special attention to tables. Think about how this research is related to other readings. Try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions. Always keep a dictionary with you while reading. These are what the author thinks are most important. To develop a deeper understanding. the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details. make notes in the margin of each page referring to the other page that has related information. mental frameworks for holding ideas. concentration and good study techniques. 3. introduction. magazines and books. Study pictures. Create motivation and interest. keep a dictionary to check for words you don’t understand. Also. summarize and review important ideas. you have to highlight. try to develop questions which answers you need to find out in reading the main text. keep a paper and pen handy to take down notes. summary and glossary or index. names of important people or dates. Use cross-referencing while you read. this reinforces your understanding. try to learn why the book is written and what is being achieved. Often. Just reading a book once is not enough. Improving reading comprehension Reading comprehension requires motivation. You can do this by reading first the preface. key terms. . Keep pouring ideas into your mind. As you read. Try to survey the book first. Keep reading. look for transitional words. As you read the main text. phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. you make adjustments quicker. For most educated people. lectures and assignments for the course. Try to develop a systematic reading style. The stronger your interest. You need to be interested on what you are reading. or statements that summarize the main elements of the passage. table of contents.
while others prefer to read mentally. Make sure all the problems are solved before you move on to the next chapter. Verbally summarize what you have read to help improve your retention. It is important to monitor your attention. Then review the book to find out what you have missed. Right reading environment Before you start reading. Make sure that you aren’t hungry or too full. If you move on without understanding the prior information. Some can read a book while the mind wanders away. Try to find which way you can concentrate effectively. Try to stay focus on what you are reading. Review what you’ve read frequently. Go through your notes. review mentally what you have learned from the reading. Controlling your environment in this way will help you concentrate and get more out of what you are reading. Make sure that the place where you want to read is conducive to reading. you are likely to understand even less in the following chapters. and that you keep distractions to a minimum. concentration and effectiveness. Reading problem-solving textbooks Reading mathematics and science books involve problem solving to acquire mastery of the subject. it is important to prepare yourself. you need to add “practice” stage for solving problems during the review stage of your reading. If you have trouble solving the problems.After reading the main text. Write down any areas that were confusing or if you had questions about and ask your instructor as soon as possible. . In addition to the steps in reading other textbooks. 5. or over-tired. Make sure that the room is well-lighted. 4. Others find it beneficial to read aloud. form a study group with others or visit your instructor. a place where you can concentrate in your work or where you can not disturb anybody if you wish to read aloud.
There is only one formula in getting more in any exam aside from having good health. tests." --Benjamin Franklin ." --George Patton. papers. The point is. "By failing to prepare. Confidence makes us relax before. Scheduled exams are those major exams that are announced in advance. Being relax gives us focus. This is the only way to get good results in any exam. There is no specific technique to handle unscheduled or scheduled exams. No matter how you look at it. Being prepared builds up confidence. Keep a record of assignments. etc. Unscheduled exams are those given by teachers when he feels he likes to. These include daily quizzes. during and after the exam. short tests. home works. Be prepared. if you are prepared to face unscheduled exams. prepare your outlines or term papers and projects ahead of schedule. US Army general We are talking here about exams that are scheduled and/or unscheduled. You are not supposed to be one of them. field trips and anything else that is related directly to your class work. They usually don't do well on their tests because they were not prepared. you are preparing to fail. "Most battles are won before they are ever fought. Passive students are those who used to wait for actions then make reactions. Active students are those who are making actions. Do your assignments ahead of time. You'll have enough time to show your professor your written work and still have the time to modify it if there is such a need. You'll walk into exams relaxed and ready to perform well. chances are you are also prepared to take that scheduled exam Don't let yourself get into this situation. Keep a pocket-sized or notebook calendar with you in all your classes and when you study.Ta k i ng E x a m s ost students can be found in hallways or at their desks just before an exam hurriedly going through their notes or texts. be an active student. assignments. do your home-works diligently. you are prepared. In other words. relaxed and have increased your odds of performing better. You can almost see the desperate and panicky look in their eyes.
Chances are. what is the coverage of the major exams.. Follow your study schedule diligently. More often than not these skills are tested on exams. It is the student’s responsibility to know who his teacher is. etc. Classes are supposed to be a two-way activity. Good preparation. Concentrate on the positive aspect of anything. Learn how to handle every situation to your benefit. quizzes. A majority of students prepare for major exams only. He usually tells the student how he handles the subject matter. our performance in class is affected by our personal feelings towards the teacher. well prepared. if he used to give assignments. Do the assignments and exercises. We need to know whom we are dealing with. A week or less before any major exams they go into extensive preparations. It consists of the active participation of the both parties. Be an active student. if he is very particular with attendance. we need to have good grades no matter if we like the teacher or not. We need to review our goal. the student is not performing well because he doesn’t like the teacher. we should prepare as many questions as we can before attending any class. the students and the teacher. Read your assignments. Many students don't read the assigned readings and few read the suggested one. etc. what is his grading system. Review your notes. A class does not just consist of a teacher giving a lecture alone. The day or two before an exam should be for review not to do the readings or assignments. . we should already have a picture of what will be discussed in the class. Preparation The key to getting good results in any exam is preparation. Teachers usually make assignments and exercises to teach specific skills. Neither students nor teachers like exams. But the fact is exams are a part of our student’s life. etc. in turn. Sometimes. leads to confidence and being relaxed. how he give grades. his background. In the first day of classes. taking exams with no enough sleep. they learn very little and their health could be affected. Sometimes. Whatever our goal is. They seldom perform well in any exam. Teach yourself how to convert into positive whatever negative feelings you may have.1. studying overnight the whole week. In this way. the teacher usually gives an orientation. homeworks. if he is generous in giving grades. rather. Readings should be kept up with and read before the class. Before attending a class. The teacher may give a short quiz any time and the student should be prepared for this. our learning rate will be faster and we should not have trouble if the teacher gives any test any time. Ask other students who have experience with him being his teacher. Preparing for short tests or quizzes The best preparation for any exam is to be prepared for class everyday. Leave time for review. Make sure to attend every class. This will help us in our every encounter with the teacher and this will greatly affect our performance in the class and our grades. We should not wait to be asked questions. how often he gives short exams.
Check also if the exam would be an open books/notes exam. relax and be confident in having done all that preparations. Review your notes. bring extras. Check if you already have studied them all. not carbohydrates (they can make you sleepy). as if you are taking the real exam – no open books or notes. etc. But this is not enough. Monitor your efficiency. the possible topic. you will learn more. Make your own test questionnaire. Put time allotment in every question or topic. we are also prepared to take any long exams. One secret in preparing for any exam is to be actively engaged on the subject matter. review the areas where you perform poorly. It’s examination time. papers. Coverage of scheduled long exam is usually announced in advance. Keep to yourself and remain confident that you have done every preparation necessary. then study more. don't chat with others. Your friends will ask some questions and you will find out that there are still areas which you need to study more. try to anticipate questions. the possible question or whether the exam is difficult or not. Talk to your teachers. you'll find your teachers are cooperative and appreciative of the fact that you care enough about your participation in class to come in and clear this matter up for yourself. Preparations are over. Eat a light high-protein meal. Monitor your health. Be early to the test. The day before the exam should be devoted to review. Try to get enough sleep at least two nights before the exam and especially the night before the exam. Take a rest. Think positive. Some teacher will include your assignments or homeworks in the exam to check if you were really the one who did them. As a result. some not. This will give you an idea what type of exam he will be giving. .Preparing for major exams If we are prepared to attend every class everyday. Then answer your own questionnaire diligently. calculator. In general. Make an effort to avoid making any last minute reading and especially avoid talking about your prospects with other students. chances are. Review your assignments and homeworks. Relax. resting and relaxing. 2. snacks. pencils. Check all the things you need to bring. You may find it useful to form a study group with your friends then take the mock exam together. We need to review the coverage of the exam. Never take any mock exam the day before the test. Taking the exam Do not go to the examination room with an empty stomach or with an overloaded stomach. try to know in advance what type of exam he will be giving. Do not bring notes or books to the examination room unless your teacher tells you that the exam would be an open books/notes exam. It would be counter-productive. Some teacher will announce the type of exam. check if you missed anything. You can only get depressed recalling the topics you should have paid more attention to but for some reason have not. An accidental lower score may only confuse and upset you. pens.
If you answer the exam in chronological order. This is to make sure you don’t miss anything. Usually. use the elimination technique. you can always come back to it later if you still have time. Your job is to pick the alternative that is more nearly true than the others. put a marker indicating that you have not answered it yet. If you get stuck. and then expand your argument. Then for each question. Your mind might be cleared about its correct answer as you go through with the other questions. Read multiple-choice questions the same way as for true-false. only one alternative is correct. Go on to the next question. Use guessing only as a last resort and make sure there is no penalty for guessing. Read the questions very carefully and be sure you understand them fully before selecting the correct answer. do not start immediately without surveying first what the exam is all about. Discard first those choices which you are sure are obviously not the correct answer before making your guess. Make sure your answers are clear. Always start answering with the easy ones and do not spend much time on the questions you are not sure of the answer. The general rule is not to get carried away on one or two questions to the extent that you cannot answer the other questions in the time allotted. even though the answers themselves are the same. Make your first sentence answer the question. . Check which part of the exam you know best. If you are not sure of the answer. Good handwriting and correct grammar is also very important in essay-type exams. organize your ideas before writing your answer. If the exam allows you to choose from a number of questions. For example. go on to another question. Put this on a scratch paper then label or number it according to its importance. You can come back to it later when you have answered all the easy ones already. In guessing. don't make any guess unless you can reduce the choices to two. and you might not have enough time and energy to answer those easy ones. Do the easy questions first. Easy to read and well-written grammatically correct answers almost always receive higher grades than poorly written grammatically incorrect answers. Essay type questions Read all the questions first and budget your time. Determine what the scoring rules for the test are and follow them to your advantage. Don't "write around" the question but answer it directly. be sure to number your answers exactly to match the questions.Before starting the test When the go-ahead signal is given to start the exam. The important points here are budgeting your time and preserving your energy. Indicate your answers exactly the way the directions state. You can come back to it later if you still have time. Your energy might be exhausted and your valuable time might be wasted. Glance through the test briefly and budget time mentally according to points assigned to questions. chances are you may be answering difficult questions first. Multiple-choice questions Multiple choice questions are essentially true-false questions arranged in groups. leave the question for a while. Read the directions word for word and make sure you understand it. if wrong answers are penalized.
try to spot which problem or problems appear easy to you. Read the problem very carefully. Present your solution in a step by step fashion. Label every step or equation you make. most difficult problems usually have more points assigned on them. Clarify with the teacher first if formulas are supplied or whether you are allowed to use calculators. Sometimes answers will just pop-up in your mind as you go along with other questions. A man could not run that fast. List down the data given and what is required. You must have developed a system how to deal with this kind of exam. Use your common sense. something must be wrong with your solution. Always start with the easy ones and solve it as fast as you can. Check the instructions again. you must have practiced with problems like this at home already. If you don't know the answer. Before you start answering. Try to identify key words in each list. If you get stuck in one problem. leave it. Make sure your teacher can follow your solution. Always read the entire list of alternatives before selecting the match. Before you take exams of this type. you have to budget your time well. Be careful in writing the final answer. but use guessing only as your last option.Math or science problems Before you take any math or science exams. Other problems which appear difficult to you might require more time. This can happen to anyone no matter how prepared you are. you might be required to make assumptions. proceed to another problem. . Read all the questions briefly before you start answering. Know the practical limits. Sometimes you are not allowed to box or en-circle your answer. Be systematic with your solution. always bring a lot of scratch papers. Do not spend too much time in one problem. If you think the data is lacking. Try to go on with the other questions first. When this happens. You need to know by heart whether your answer is practically correct or not. read the problem again. Write legibly. You can go back to it later if time permits. And remember. Like other exams. Mental block Some people develop a mental block when the exam paper hits their hands. This is one way of simplifying the problem. Don’t worry and don’t panic. You might not be able to complete the whole exam. Try your solutions first in a scratch paper before finalizing it in the test paper. Check with the formula if you can arrive at the answer with the given data. along with extra pencils or pens. Don’t waste any time trying to beautify your solution. For example if the problem is asking for a speed of a man running and you arrived at an answer greater than 100 mph. be sure that you have studied the theory and principles in detail. just relax. Other types of exams The methods used to answer true or false and multiple choice questions apply to matching questions as well. give it your best guess. In taking math or science exams. Close your eyes and try to recall any moment when you were very confident of yourself.
Your composure will slowly go back. . worry and panic will just make the situation worst. You can do it! Now open your eyes and start. Read the examination paper and select the easiest question to start with. Deal with the present situation positively with confidence. Then give yourself the 'go ahead' signal. It’s examination time. You are alone. nobody can help you but yourself only.Recall how you did your assignments and try to feel you are actually doing it. Remember.
tutoring is a learning matrix wherein every participant learns. clear it up quickly. and tutee or tutees who receives such information. "One man gives freely. usually. and sometimes they just limit the tutorial class to their members. Associate with other students who are actively pursuing their dreams. The tutor learns because he prepares for his assigned topic. What makes tutoring even better is the fact that it is usually free of charge with less time constraints and pressures. some students who find it difficult to participate in the usual student-teacher class can easily participate in tutorial classes. Some students just form a group and organize tutorial classes. He even learns more when the other members ask him questions which can make him think hard for answers. yet grows all the richer. don't wait too long.just at the right pace. They may invite a teacher friend as a tutor or seek volunteers from among the group to act as tutor. each member given the task to be a tutor. Everyone needs a tutor at some time. . 1. It is usually composed of students actively seeking knowledge. It is composed of a tutor to share information to other students. The most important advice to students who need help is. Tutoring is one of the best ways to learn. In other words. and get involved with tutorial activities. The tutees learn from what the tutor teaches and from the questions ask by the tutees themselves.Making Use of Tutoring utoring is a method of learning that’s gaining popularity among students. Because the learning environment is informal. both for the tutor and the tutee. Sometimes. It is far easier to stay up with a class than it is to catch up. take positive actions. no time restrictions. assigned their respective topics. Get involved with tutoring Be an active learner. If you're having trouble. It is simply a group of students teaching other students. they invite other students to attend their tutorial class. and only suffers want" --Proverbs 12-24 What makes tutoring work is the one-on-one involvement and focused help . The tutor can be a teacher or just a fellow student. Don’t wait. another withholds what he should give.
His knowledge is still very limited. it is worthwhile to share your techniques to others. 3. The tutor should focus on guiding or showing the tutees what to do. Do your homework yourself and seek help if needed. rather than telling them how to do it.and reap anew. You must use them and get other riches in return. "You cannot hold on to anything good. In sharing you will learn more. Focus on quality. Being a tutor The role of the tutor is similar to that of the teacher – to let the tutees learn. He should prepare in advance to appear knowledgeable in front of the tutees.and getting. You cannot hold on to your seed. If you have good grades. you should seek outside help. Don't come if you haven't read the book or tried the homework. View tutoring as a form of .Robert Collier. 2. Being a tutee Do not take tutorial classes for granted. Prepare as many questions as you can think of and attend tutorial class with a positive attitude. You must be continually giving -. Do not ask the tutor to do your work. It should be more on problem solving and questions and answers session. You must sow it -. but you still need tutorial classes when it is available. Either way. it can be organized. somebody has sacrificed his resources for your benefit. it can be tailored to suit our needs.” -. get involved with tutoring. Let them do the work rather than you do it. Everyone can be a tutor at some time. a topic should be thoroughly learned before jumping to another subject matter. The goal of any tutor is to provide an encouraging environment that helps the students learn better and easily. the tutor is just a student like you. Do not attend a tutorial class without preparing yourself. writer.Participate in tutorial classes. Because there are no commitments to complete a topic at a certain time frame. rather than quantity. A tutee will learn more easily when praised rather than criticized. Though it is usually free of charge. A tutorial class should be more on a hands-on exercise or a work-shop type rather than discussing theories. if there are no tutorial classes available. publisher You may or may not be satisfied with your grades. Participate actively. talk to your classmates and organize your own. If you are not satisfied with your performance in class. So. rather than waiting to be fed. Remember. You will get more out of tutoring through active participation. You cannot hold on to riches. One good thing with tutorial class is that. The tutor's role is to help you do the work. Therefore. You might not be attending a tutorial class as a tutor but you should know what you need from this tutorial class.
To get the most of it. Everybody contributes.cooperative learning. students should follow a more active and more responsible role in the learning process. everybody learns. .
meningitis inoculations. Others find studying too difficult because they easily feel sleepy when studying. Talk to your doctor about preventive actions needed. Say good night to your worries and shut the bedroom door on them. Make sure to sleep in a comfortable quarter. Schedule your sleeping time and follow it diligently. it needs your active participation. literally." -. In intellectual terms. and if you have it. Both need self discipline to get most of studying. In health terms. Remove all factors that could undermine your sleeping. Sleeping is too easy for some and could be too difficult for others. say. it simply means exposing yourself to more health risk. "Look to your health. this can be stimulating. and tetanus vaccines. for health is the second blessing that we mortals are capable of. Others spend several hours in the bed and still can not find sleep. measles-mumps-rubella. Getting immunized put our health safe against most known disease which could undermine our learning capability or which could keep us away from school. tuberculosis. Have just enough sleep and make it a habit. heading to more challenges and adventures. hepatitis B vaccine. This is the reason why studying should be done regularly. For freshmen or students who are away from their family for the first time. and value it next to a good conscience. As a result. regardless of whether there are exams or not. Immunization and other preventive shots do not work unless we actively pursue good health. If you find sleeping is difficult. Don’t just wait until you feel sleepy. they end up having sleepless nights and they rarely make good in any exam. If you have health insurance. a yearly flu shot. Most people sleep best in a room that's a bit cooler than normally desired when awake. 1. Make sure your bed is comfortable to you. But there are also less known health hazards which could not be prevented through immunization which we need to address. Make sure your bedroom is conducive to sleeping. praise God. this means learning to care for their own health. Have enough sleep Some students postponed studying until the exam is only few days away. Do something. with geographically diverse populations now converging on campus. make sure you carry a valid insurance card at all times and know how to use it. etc. Maintaining good health and preventing illness need our active participation.Health Maintenance eading off to school means heading off to a new environment.Isaak Walton You may consider getting immunized. a blessing that money cannot buy. .
You can't force yourself to sleep. The goal is to increase the blood oxygen level reaching the brain. since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds. After another 30 minutes or so. Stop thinking. Eat just enough. Eat just enough good food. the exercise has to raise heart and breathing rates. 2. or stay awake. The decision to carry out a physical fitness program requires a long term commitment of time and effort. fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability. If you can not sleep. Eat to live. like bathing and brushing our teeth. If you can't sleep. if your body so chooses. intense conversations. Include daily exercise in your schedule. try sleeping again. Exercise must become one of those things that we do without question. When it’s eating time. things to do. Eat enough good food Eat just enough good food. Let your mind rest. The late afternoon workout provides a welcome change of pace at the end of the work day and helps dissolve the day’s worries and tensions. you may as well be productive. you will not succeed. concentrate on sleeping. Put "exercise appointments" on your calendar. In other words. Do this regularly. Let your mind take control. nuts. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us look. get up after 30 minutes or so and do something you like or need to do.Sometimes we find it difficult to sleep because our mind is actively wandering away. stop what you are doing and eat. Stick to a regular time every day. vegetables. Too much or too little is counterproductive. Be patient. Forget about those scary movies. Unless you are convinced of the benefits of fitness and the risks of unfitness. Allow yourself to sleep. emphasize on fruits. Follow your schedule diligently. problems. so is your mind without proper nourishment. It enables us to perform up to our potential. Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs. Another popular time to . Make use of your time. Continue studying or read something. To be useful. 3. don't try to force or control anything. You need to be aware of it. Do not skip eating or postpone it at a later time. The hour just before the evening meal is a popular time for exercise. Eat healthy foods. Do not take food that contributes more harm than good to promote good health. seeds and grains. Make exercise a habit. High protein meals give high energy and are best eaten in the morning. And. not your craving. etc. don't live to eat. Do physical exercise regularly Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. As the vehicle does not run without fuel. feel and do our best. and the muscles of the body. High carbohydrate meals produce sleepiness and are best eaten in the evening.
we need to choose something we like to do which suits us physically. You have the choice to have a positive outlook. A good goal for many people is to do physical exercise 4 to 6 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes at a time. They also aid in protecting you from heart disease. Minerals play an important role in controlling the actions of certain hormones and enzymes in your body. which can often be avoided by taking supplements. Chances are when you choose to think positively. and they can be very powerful.work out is early morning. Vitamins and minerals are vital for good health. then try a daily vitamin and mineral supplement for three months to see if you feel better. Some people never need vitamins and minerals. and nerves. Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals can produce serious health problems. Vitamins help you to digest your food and make new cells. Vitamins and minerals Vitamins help store and release energy and maintain your bones. Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. body function. such as eating right and being active. It also helps to a get a partner. . Your exercise schedule should correlate to your study schedule. To start and stick with an exercise program. blood. you can do it. Your thoughts can be defeating. increases energy and endurance. helps us sleep better and helps us maintain a normal weight by increasing our metabolism. 5. Positive thinking and good health Your thoughts are in your control. osteoporosis. You need to find out what you need or if you really need some. your attitude is something you can control. tendons and ligaments flexible so it's easier to move around. and health. diabetes and obesity. 4. It keeps joints. Some people need them most of the time. and a host of other diseases. before the work day begins. But the reverse is also true. It helps relieve stress and anxiety. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients: substances required in small amounts that are nevertheless vital for normal growth. Exercising with someone else can make it more fun. Best of all. high blood pressure. Some minerals also provide the raw materials your body needs to build and maintain body parts such as your bones and teeth. It contributes to our mental well-being and helps treat depression. A "can-do" attitude may be just what it takes to jumpstart a healthier lifestyle. you'll feel better about yourself and be able to perform better in whatever you do. cancer. If you set your mind to something. Some people need them occasionally. If you get sick or have low energy levels or eat mostly processed food. Positive thoughts can motivate healthy behaviors.
Try to improve each day. Overcoming stress The major cause of stress is uncertainty. Fortunately. You believe you'll just have to cope until the situation improves. friends. Smile easily. Your mouth gets dry. you can turn around a negative situation. it can be improved. worry won't help. . As with any problem. You know how it feels when things get tough. Sometimes it is actually best to put aside a stressful problem until a later time when it can be dealt with more effectively. Start dealing with harmful stress by transferring doubts and worries to a list and by relaxing. and be friendly and helpful. The good thing is you don't have to put up with the negative effects of stress. uncertainty about jobs. Sometimes when under stress. exercising and cultivating a positive attitude. you start to sweat and your heart begins to palpitate. When you are under extreme amounts of stress. But remember. school. health. money. This can lead to dehydration and even more severe symptoms. You can fight back and come out on top. you may also forget to drink. you have to take care of yourself. 6. A positive self-image is crucial for success. such as becoming more physically active or limiting your sugar intake. By dealing with your stress in a positive manner. Practice positive thinking and positive self-talk. Drinking water can greatly improve how you feel. you may feel like there is no way you can overcome your problems. lovers and self-esteem. It's not hard to do. Visualize yourself being the person you want to be.Positive thinking can help you achieve and maintain healthy behaviors. in order to feel better. laugh often. if you can't control something. Get some water and help your body return to its normal state. Uncertainty puts an extra burden on the body's adaptive system by keeping a person in a constant state of worry and tension.
all in a point-and-click interface. Learn how to upload or download files. You will need more as your computer-based knowledge increases. and the reach of television . Some learn from their friends. Having an internet access needs additional budget. 2. This can be best learned through your own initiative. you need to keep using it to gain mastery. this should not be considered and obstacle. we can now obtain unlimited information anytime with just a click of the mouse from the comfort of our room. .. To get most of studying through the internet. we need the following: "The Web. the interactivity of the telephone.. You may start with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel as your initial word processing and spreadsheet tools. Computer skill There are many ways to acquire computer skill. or its future descendant. learn and understand the electronic mail system and how you can make use of them. These are basic tools you will need in computer-based learning. learn and understand how your studies can benefit from this technology. . Learning computer is like learning how to play a guitar. On-line access A computer set is quite an expensive tool. To acquire and retain the skill. some took computer classes while some learn by themselves. However. It combines the impact of the printing press.Making Use of the Internet ith cyber technology. is the technology that delivers on the promise of the information superhighway. Above all. We can also contact and communicate with anybody from any part of the globe to discuss or share any information. learning is no longer limited to the classrooms or libraries. The fastest way is to have your own computer and learn by yourself." -. you need to learn some basic word processing and spreadsheet software as well. Learn and understand also how the internet works and how you can benefit from it. June 1995 1. Most schools have computers with internet access for the students to use. Apart from learning the basics of computer.PC World. With computer and internet access. You don’t have to attend formal education for this matter. By understanding how the computer and internet works. you will know what you can get from them.
you need to have at least 56K modem and email account. As an optional tool. Documents can be shared around very easily. Most of these free email accounts are more than enough for the students’ need and can be accessed in any computer connected to the internet. Most internet subscription already includes an email account. World-wide-web by its name is very wide – it covers the whole world – at our fingertip. do not be dependent heavily on others. Sometimes. Gmail. . However. Motivation Internet could be a very powerful tool for your studies. it is most likely that we will lose control of using our time. group meetings can be done without leaving your room. Our mind will be craving for more information. Free email accounts are also available from Yahoo. Be an active learner. For example. Don’t wait to be told. we don’t have any more reasons not to learn. So with internet. or we could be gathering a lot of information that we no longer have enough time to process them. Learn how to create your own motivation. With the use of email. Self-discipline Time is one very important resource we have which use needs thorough planning. Learning is easier and more effective with shared-document conferencing where postings and comments can be in the same document and where groups can jointly construct assignments. all we have to do is open yahoo or goggle then search “quadratic equation”. some we really need and some we just want but not necessarily need in our studies. we will be presented with so many article. 4. We could be losing our valuable time. The computer will return with thousands of results. many will appear to be very important to our studies. you may need also a good anti-virus software (McAfee or Norton) and Firewall (Zonelabs. its power is dependent on how motivated we are of learning how to make use of it. or use MS XP built-in) to keep hackers out of your computer. unless we ourselves really don’t want to learn. if we want to know how to solve quadratic equations. Lack of books or lack of reading materials is no longer a valid reason to keep us from learning.For those who have their own computers. Learn how to work independently. etc. Our time is limited hence need proper budgeting. With internet. group meetings can not be done due to physical constraints. MSN. 3. we can obtain information from experts without disturbing them in their busy schedules. When we search some information in the internet. with our unlimited access to whatever information we want in the internet. However.
.Self-discipline is what we needed here. We should not use our scheduled time for gathering information not needed in our studies. we know how much time is allotted for web-surfing. From our schedule. We should not attempt to gather “everything” to the point that we could no longer handle them to our own advantage. We need to follow it. we need to set limits in gathering information from the net. Also.
The flow of time cannot be delayed and cannot be controlled. "Whatever failures I have known. whatever errors I have committed. Time Time is one very important resource we have which just come and go freely. Budget your resources well. . To build the foundation of our future we need to be aware of the resources we need and learn how to utilize them properly. you are possibly not earning your own money yet. 2. The resources which the student should utilize properly depend on the individual but will usually include time. This means the budget is considered an investment. Emphasize on fruits. Time management is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. as a student. 1. they are not always available. Budget preparation could also be an opportunity to influence change in our personal habits and guide our overall direction. Food supplies Stocking food supplies is connected to our eating habits.Bernard M. Eat to live. You are using money which is not a fruit of your own labor. The only way to make use of time is to manage it properly. It is your reference point for all the resources needed in building the infrastructure. Baruch. Act like an adult and don’t expect anybody to do the planning for you. books. notes. Financier Budgeting means tight monitoring of all the resources we need with little to no flexibility in adjusting it. so it is worth planning. etc. Let your mind take control. not your craving. Concentrate on stocking healthy foods. seeds and grains. A budget must be well-planned. not a cost. don't live to eat. food supplies. nuts." -. whatever follies I have witnessed in private and public life have been the consequence of action without thought. money. supplies. Too much flexibility could result in overspending and could kill the budget.Managing Your Resources t is difficult to build a structure without a blueprint. Always remember. even if you belong to a rich family. vegetables. Use your resources wisely.
Read them frequently to keep the lectures and reading fresh in you mind. do not borrow or rent. Notes Notes are one of the important resources the student must have. With this information you can decide if you need to buy books or not. we might no longer need it. determine in advance what are the books you need and where to get them. But first. be aware of the books you need. Make sure that your notes are available to you when you need them. borrowing or renting them. These are gathered and accumulated through lectures and reading. You might find it necessary to adjust your eating habit to suit your budget. . 4. hence. and maybe by the time we need to use the book. You also need to consider the importance of the subject with regards to your chosen field. we need to rely on somebody’s work. We can obtain books by purchasing. Check which bookstores they are available. Make sure they are complete and well organize. be aware of your ideal consumption rate. We need books all the time. plan in advance. not you want. Sometimes we need to borrow notes from our classmates. Stock enough food. This may take time. Check also your library if it has enough reference books. apply your time management. If you used to write something in the book while reading or studying. check your school library if it has enough books for the class. sometimes from other countries. Budget your stock well to avoid unnecessary out-ofschedule shopping. Be aware about your study times and scheduled exams. Coordinate with your teacher regarding books requirement. and we might find it necessary to order them somewhere. you need to use your own book. How often do you receive money from home. If you indeed need to buy the books you need. Check also your friends who have taken the subject already about reference books they can recommend. Be aware of the rate of inflow of money. You also need to consider your own studying habit. it might not yet be available. Do not put yourself in a situation where you still have to find food when you need one. Make this known to your borrowers. etc? Also. concentrate only on the books you need. and when the book arrives. Be careful. the books we need are not available in a local book store. Before the start of every semester or school year. Check if it is worth buying the book even if the library has enough copies of it.Schedule shopping. Minimize time spent on shopping. Check also if the books are available for rent for the whole term or if they are available only for short term borrowers. Always refer to your schedule. say for a week. Sometimes. First. Books and other reading materials When we study. if you are shopping weekly. it is also possible that we let our classmates borrow our notes. 3.
in the order of priority. save any extra money you may have. Bond papers on the other hand are handy. you are not in control of the inflow of money and you should consider that just like other resources. 5. revise it. self supporting or on a scholarship. .Whether you buy. Nothing is more frustrating than discovering you are out of glue or your markers are all dried up. Just like your other resources. experience suggests that it is better to use bond paper for taking notes than notebooks. At the end of the semester. sometimes we need to borrow books from our classmates. and you can keep your notes together using a ring binder. This is not selfishness. If you find your budget is too lax. pens. it is also possible that we let our classmates borrow our books. it’s nobody’s fault. but yours. Supplies Stay well stocked. Keep your supplies away from the site of your friends. if given a chance to save. Make sure that your books are available to you when you need them. borrow or rent a book. most notebooks are not fully used. a waste. Money Whether you get supports from your parents. This means that when you go to school. etc. Purchase good school supplies and keep them in stock. Hence. Have enough stock of notebooks. monthly and weekly budgets. pencils. In most cases. money is not always available. in which. hence. As with bond paper versus notebooks. Don’t be extravagant in using your supplies. Being a student. you can bring only what is needed. you need to budget your money and spend them wisely. Concentrate on what is needed. 6. If you put yourself in a situation wherein it’s already time to study and you are still looking for your study material. you can have your notes bookbound and it can last longer. Be aware of the usual inflow of money. Establish yearly. you use only what you need. hence. straight edge. plan in advance. glue. The book must be available by the time you need them. Make a list of probable expenditures in advance. The same with notes. at the end of the semester. just a way of making it sure that your supplies will last as intended. paper. rather than wants. budget your supplies well. your budget should be based of. just as you are beginning the project that is due the following day.
Thailand in 1990 to 1992.About the Author TP Pilapil is a practicing Structural Engineer and presently residing in New Zealand.com . Philippines in 1979 to 1984 and the King’s Scholarship grant for his Master’s degree in Construction Engineering and Management. COMMENTS ABOUT THIS BOOK For any comments about this book. please email: tppilapil@gmail. Mindanao State University. Asian Institute of Technology. He was a recipient of the MSU Full Scholarship grant for his Civil Engineering degree.
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