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ASQ Certified Quality Engineer.

Ch 2. Quality Management.

Edited by Seung Hyun Lee (Ph.D., CRE/CQE) E-mail : lkangsan@iems.co.kr, bb Homepage : www.IEMS.co.kr

Quality Definition.
[CQE Primer p 3]

Definitions.
Fitness of use. (Joseph M. Juran) Conformance to requirements. (Philip Crosby)

The total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer. (Armand V. Feigenbaum) The totality of features and characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need. (The American Society for Quality : ASQ)

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Quality Definition.
[CQE Primer p 3]

Some of the Determinants of Quality.


Product
Performance. Features. Reliability. Conformance. Durability. Serviceability. Aesthetics. Perceived Quality.

Service
Reliability. Responsiveness. Competence. Access/Courtesy. Communication. Credibility. Security/Safety. Knowing the Customer.

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Philip B. Croshy (1928 - 2001)


Quality is conformance to requirements. Four absolutes of quality
1. Quality means conformance to requirements. 2. Quality come from prevention. 3. Quality performance standard is zero defects. 4. Quality measurement is the price of nonconformance.

14 step approach to quality improvement.


1. Management Commitment. 2. Quality Improvement Team. 3. Measurement. 4. Cost of Quality. 5. Quality Awareness. 6. Corrective Action. and Zero Defect Day. 8. Employee Education. 10. Goal Setting.
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11. Error Cause Removal. 13. Quality Councils. 14. Do it All Over Again.

7, 9. Zero Defects Planning 12. Recognition.

Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. W. Edward Deming (1900 - 1993)


The PDCA cycle and the concept of 85% management (system) versus 15% operator controllable improvement approach. Deming's Chain Reaction.
Improve quality Decrease costs (less rework, fewer delays) Productivity Improves Capture the market with better quality and price Stay in business
Provide jobs.

Deming's philosophy is one which focuses on individuals as fellow members of a system, and treats people as partners, as customers, as neighbors, and as friends. While the Deming philosophy benefits the individuals in a firm, the company itself should be able to reap benefits from this new philosophy.
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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Armand V. Feigenbaum (1920 - )


Statement on Total Quality Control (TQC). Principles for the success of TQC.
- TQC is a company wide process, all functions are involved. - Quality is what the customer says it is. - Quality and production costs are in partnership . . . higher quality will equate with lower costs. - Both individual and team zeal are required. - Quality is a way of managing, providing a continuous and relentless emphasis on quality through leadership. - Quality and innovation can be work together in product development. - As an ethic, all of management must be involved in quality, not just the specialist. - Requires continuous improvement, the use of new and existing technologies. - Is the most cost-effective, least capital intensive route to productivity and is implemented with both customers and suppliers.
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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa (1915 - 1989)


Company wide quality control(CWQC), the quality circle and fishbone diagram. Main characteristics of CWQC.
1. More education and training in quality control. 2. Quality circle are really only 20% of the activities for CWQC. 3. Participation by all members of the company. 4. Having QC audits. 5. Using the seven tools and advanced statistical method. 6. Nationalwide quality control promotion activities.

The concept of internal customer : "Next operation as customer".

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Joseph M. Juran (1904 - )


Juran Trilogy. Juran's basics of quality success.
- Top management must commit the time and resources for success. CEOs must serve on the quality council. - Specific quality improvement goals must be in the business plan and include : The means to measure quality results against goals. : A review of result against goals. : A reward for superior quality performance. - The responsibility for improvements must be assigned to individuals. - People must be trained for quality management and implement. - Workforce must be empowered to participate in the improvement process.

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Joseph M. Juran (1904 - )


Juran Trilogy.
Quality Planning. Quality planning is used to create the process that will enable one to meet the desired goals. Quality Control. Quality control is used to monitor and adjust the process. Chronic losses are normal in a controlled state, while the sporadic spike will cause investigations. Quality Improvement. Quality improvement will reduce the chronic losses and move the process to a better and improved state of control and that's the "last word".

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Joseph M. Juran (1904 - )

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Walter A. Shewhart (1891 - 1967)


Control chart. Shewhart framed the problem in terms of "assignable-cause" and "chance-cause" variation and introduced the "control chart" as tool for distinguishing between the two. Shewhart's charts were adopted by the American Society for Testing and Materials(ASTM) in 1933. The charts were used to improve production during World War ll in the form of American War Standards Z1.1, Z1.2 and Z1.3

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Walter A. Shewhart (1891 - 1967)


The Shewhart chart. The Shewhart cycle (PDCA) or Deming (PDSA) is a very helpful procedure to follow for improvement at any stage. This procedure can be used with or without a special cause being indicated by use of any statistical tool. This design cycle was adapted as a general problem solving technique by the Japanese. Deming in turn, modified the Japanese approach to a continual improvement spiral called PDSA.

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Quality Philosophies.
[CQE Primer pp7 - pp22]

Dr. Genichi Taguchi (1924 - )


Quality is the financial loss to society after the article is shipped. The evaluation of quality.
Use the loss function and signal-to-noise ratio as ways to evaluate the cost of not meeting the target value.

Improvement of quality and cost factors.


Use statistical methods for system design, parameter design, and tolerance design of the product. The methods could include quality function deployment, signal to noise characteristics, and design of experiments

Monitoring and maintaining quality.


Reduce the variability of the production line. Insist on consistency from the floor.
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Professional Quality Skill and Conduct.


[CQE Primer pp23 - pp26]

Roles of Quality Engineers.


Quality managers and engineers make their greatest contributions in the liaison arena, by making and maintaining good relations with personnel outside their chain of command.

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Professional Quality Skill and Conduct.


[CQE Primer pp23 - pp26]

Required Professional Quality Skills.


Motivating subordinates. Development and maintaining peer relationships. Establishing networks for the dissemination of information. Carrying out negotiations. Resolving conflicts. Securing and allocating resources. Making decisions. Making effective use of time.

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Professional Quality Skill and Conduct.


[CQE Primer pp23 - pp26]

Required Professional Quality Conduct.


Be sensitive to changes in the attitudes and performance of employees. Be willing to delegate authority and to make assignments that are commensurate with worker abilities, plant facilities, and employee training. Take every possible opportunity to make fair, attainable, and challenging assignments to all employees. Accept responsibility for personal mistakes and subordinates in taking corrective action when they make mistakes. Set an example for employees and be consistent in daily activities. Keep subordinates informed about relevant policies and issues. Review subordinates regularly and keep them apprised of performance and ratings. Exhibit a positive outlook and seek value in achievement. Be responsive to the needs of subordinates.
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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Vision and Mission Statement.


Having a team solve a specific process problem (little Q item) Having teams throughout the company solve problems. (big Q item) To be link-pin for the organization in the area of quality activities.

Quality Departmental Mission Statement : Examples.


We will reduce the response time of our departmental laboratory testing from 5 days to 1 day through better communication, improved equipment, change of operating shifts and procedures. On quality improvement projects, the quality department will provide "draft" documents to stakeholders within 48 hours of the request.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Management System Focus.


Quality mangers or engineers focus on organizational wide problems as much as 80% of their activities, such as
- Process operations quality requirements. - Customer specifications from marketing. - Purchasing and supplier quality requirements. - Team building issues. - Quality cost data. - Quality information systems. - Quality planing.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Strategic Planning.
Strategic planning is the process of considering the core competency that the CEO and upper management use to help shape and direct the organization's future. Strategic planning process should include the following.
- Develop a vision and statement of purpose for the company. - Gather data on the environment in which it operates. - Assess corporate strengths and weakness. - Make assumptions about factors outside company control. - Establish appropriate goals. - Develop steps (strategic and tactical) for implementations. - Evaluate performance to goals. - Reevaluate the above steps for perpetual use.
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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Strategic Planning and Quality.


At the highest level of the organization, quality planning will provide more recognition and commitment to the quality effort. Quality planning at the strategic level can be described as strategic quality management. Different terms describing strategic quality management.
- Total quality (TQ) - Total quality control (TQC) - Total quality management (TQM) - Company wide quality control (CWQC) - Strategic quality management (SQM)

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Strategic Quality Management Process.


A quality council. Quality policies. Strategic quality goals. Deployment of quality goals. Resources for control. Measurement of performance. Quality audit.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Council.
The first step is familiar to many companies when establishing major quality projects or programs : establishing a quality council. Quality council is a steering committee for the quality movement. The quality council has responsibility for the growth, control, and effectiveness of total quality (TQ), as well as the incorporation of TQ into the strategic business plan. In many companies, the senior staff will form the membership of the quality council. In a few companies membership may include respected external individuals, and individuals from different levels of the company.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Council.
Some of the specific tasks of the quality council.
- Develop an educational module. - Define quality objectives for each section of the organization. - Refine the improvement strategy. - Determine and report cost of quality data. - Develop and maintain an awareness program.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Policies.
The quality policy is the formal expression by top management of the overall intentions and direction of an organization. Quality policies should be concise and policies for the company. A quality policy usually has statements that indicates a company will meet or exceed customer expectation. Quality council should play a major role in developing quality policies for the company.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Strategic Quality Goals.


Strategic quality goals may gain priority and emphasis from the quality council. The goal, determined to be of a strategic nature, become a part of th e strategic business plan. Quality goals may be liked to product performance, service performance, customer satisfaction, quality improvement, or cost of quality. Having quality goals placed in the strategic business plan, indicates to all employees that quality goals have special importance.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Deployment of quality goals.


They quality council has the initial task of deploying (spreading out) the main strategic goals into bit-size pieces for the lower levels of the organization. As each level of the organization (function or team) receives its goals, it is expected that they should review their mission, capabilities, and resources. Hoshin Kanri or Hoshin planning.
As a management tool, Hoshin Kanri translates the company's vision into dramatic measurable results and strategic breaktrhoughs. The focus of Hoshin Kanri is to identifying the vital few breakthrough achievement.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Resources for control.


Resources, in forms of additional staff help, equipment, or external staff, are required for a total quality (TQ) effort to succeed. Quality manager has a vital role to play in controlling resources. The resources, to aid in TQ, may be coordinated directly by him. Thus, he can provide assistance and guidance. The quality council may depend on the quality manager to provide this assistance.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Audits.
The quality audit is a necessary step in the process to provide independent and unbiased information to all those who have a need to know. The scope of an audit will be determined by the guideline set forth by the quality council. Quality audit can be conducted through internal teams, outside auditors, upper managers, or by the top president. The audit by the president is conducted more frequently in Japanese companies. The role of the president in the audit process shows the company how important quality is.
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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Principles and Policies.


Quality Principles. The principles is defined to mean a basic foundation of beliefs, truths, . . . upon which others are based. The basic sharing of newly gained knowledge will result in some guiding principles for the company.
- Customer satisfaction is a key. - Defect must be prevented. - Manufacturing assumes responsibility for quality assurance. - The process must be controlled. - Every one participates in quality. - Quality is designed into the product. - TQ is a group activity. - Respect for humanity. - Adopt a revolutionary rate of quality improvement.
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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Quality Principles and Policies.


The top management (and quality council) will issue a statement(s) that indicate the position of the company on quality. These policies will be transmitted to all levels of the organization The policy statement should be thoroughly researched and understood by top management. A documented explaining the new quality policy, responsibilities, rationale, and expected benefits should be explained to the company personnel. To carry the quality policy down the organization, each individual department can develop its own quality policy, also.

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Quality Management Systems.


[CQE Primer pp27 - pp40]

Benchmarking.
One of the growing management tools to improve quality and overall competitiveness is benchmarking. One excellent source of firms to benchmark against is past winners and finalists in the MBNQA award. Benchmarking process.
- Identify critical success functions. - Determine the competitor or leader in the area felt to be deficient. - Identify the gap between present and the desired performance. - Align benchmarked goals to overall organizational goals. - Research the competitive intelligence. - Develop methods of measuring performance. - Undertake benchmarked improvement activities. - Measure performance. - Continuous improvement or repeat the process in other factor areas.
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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Definitions.
A temporary/one-time endeavor with a specific objective to be met within the prescribed time and dollar limitations and that has been assigned for definition or execution.
Perform ance R equired Perform ance

T arget T arget

D ue D ate

C ost Budget Lim it Tim e-Schedule

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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Project Scheduling : CPM.


A network planning technique for the deterministic analysis of a project's completion time, used for planning and controlling the activities in a project. Unique features of CPM include :
- The emphasis is on activities. - The time and cost factors for each activity are considered. - Only activities on the critical path are contemplated. - Activities with the lowest crash cost (per incremental time saving) are selected first. - As an activity is crashed, it is possible for a new critical path to develop.

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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Project Scheduling : CPM.

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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Project Scheduling : PERT.


The PERT can be used for estimating completion times. PERT is basically an extension of CPM, which incorporates variabilities in activity duration(time estimates) into the network. PERT incorporates the potential uncertainties in activity duration by using three time estimates and variance for each activity. Three time estimates are
- The Optimistic, The Pessimistic, Most likely. - The expect time and the standard deviation t e 1. t e = 2. t =
t o +4t m+t p 6 t p-t o 6
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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Project Scheduling : PERT.

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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Project Scheduling : Gantt Chart.


The earliest and best-known type of planning and control chart, especially designed to show graphically the relationship between planned performance and actual performance over time. Roles of Gantt Chart. - For machine loading. - For monitoring job progress.

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Project Management.
[CQE Primer pp41 - pp51]

Project Scheduling : Gantt Chart.

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Quality Information System.


[CQE Primer pp53 - pp55]

Quality Information System (QIS)


Quality information system is an organized method of collecting, storing, analyzing and reporting information on quality to assist decision makers at all levels. The purpose of an effective QIS is to achieve timely corrective action.

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Leadership and Team Building.


[CQE Primer pp56 - pp89]

Motivation.
Employees Involvement.
The concept of using the experience, creative energy, and intelligence of all employees by treating them with respect, keeping them informed, and including them and their ideas in decision-making processes appropriate to their areas of expertise.

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Leadership and Team Building.


[CQE Primer pp56 - pp89]

Internal Customer.
Internal Customer.
Include not only other divisions of a company, but others that are affected, such as a purchasing department that receives an engineering specification for procurement.

External Customer.
Include not only ultimate users but downstream processors and merchants as well. Other customer are those who have some connection to product, such as government regulatory bodies.

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Leadership and Team Building.


[CQE Primer pp56 - pp89]

Team Approach.
Cross-Functional Problem Solving Teams.
Cross-functional problem solving teams involve workers from different departments who recommend solutions to solve major company-wide problems.

Self-Directed Work Teams.


A self-directed work team is generally a small, independent, self-organized, and self controlling group in which members flexible plan, organize, determine, and manage their duties and actions, as well as perform many other supportive functions.

Quality Circles.
A quality circle is a small group of people who normally work as a unit and meet frequently to uncover and solve problems concerning the quality of items produced, process capability, or process control.
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Leadership and Team Building.


[CQE Primer pp56 - pp89]

Brainstorming.
Brainstorming is an intentionally uninhibited technique for engineering creative idea when the best solution is not obvious.

Nominal Group Techniques (NGT).


This technique bring people together to solve problems but limits initial interaction among them. This concept is to prevent peer or social pressures from influencing the generation of idea.

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Leadership and Team Building.


[CQE Primer pp56 - pp89]

Conflicting Resolution.
Assertive

Competing

Collaborating

Compromising

Unassertive

Avoiding
Uncooperative

Accommodating
Cooperative
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Leadership and Team Building.


[CQE Primer pp56 - pp89]

Conflicting Resolution.
Avoiding (You lose, I lose). The individual withdraws from the situation. Accommodating (You win, I lose). The individual yields to the wishes of others. Competing (You lose, I win). The individual tries to win, even at the expense of others. Collaborating (You win, I win). The individual want things done their way, but is willing to explore solutions which satisfy the other person's needs as well. Compromising (Neither win or lose). The individual is willing to partially give in to reach a middle position, splitting the differences, and partially satisfying both parties.
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Cost of Quality.
[CQE Primer pp91 - pp102]

Failure Cost.
Internal failure costs.

- The cost of correcting problems that occur while the goods are still in the floor. - Scrap, rework, and spoilage.
External failure costs.

- The cost of correcting problems after goods or services have been delivered to the customer. - Warranty cost, field servicing of customer goods, and all the other costs associated with trying to satisfy customer complaints.

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Cost of Quality.
[CQE Primer pp91 - pp102]

Control Cost.
Appraisal costs.

- The costs associated with checking and auditing quality in the organization. - Product inspection, quality audits, testing, and calibration.
Prevention costs.

- The costs of avoiding trouble by doing the job right in the first place. - Training, statistical process control, machine maintenance, and quality planning costs.

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Cost of Quality.
[CQE Primer pp91 - pp102]

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