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(BOTANY) NO. 31
THE FOREST HERBARIUM NATIONAL PARK, WILDLIFE AND PLANT CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT BANGKOK, THAILAND DECEMBER 2003
Ceropegia hirsuta (Asclepiadaceae), a new record for Thailand………………….. Tanucha Boonjaras & Obchan Thaithong Notes on two Ixora species, new records for Thailand Voradol Chamchumroon The Rubiaceae of Ko Chang, south-eastern Thailand………...…………………. Voradol Chamchumroon & Christian Puff Two new species of Neohouzeoua (Gramineae-Bambusoideae) from Thailand and Myanmar………………………………………………………………. Soejatmi Dransfield, Rungnapar Pattanavibool & Sarawood Sungkaew A new description of Diospyros coaetanea (Ebenaceae)………………………... Sutee Duangjai & Chamlong Phengklai A new species of Spatholirion (Commelinaceae) from Thailand and further notes on S. ornatum……………..…Kai Larsen & Supee Saksuwan Larsen Notes on Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae)……………………………………………. Charan Leeratiwong & Pranom Chantaranothai Matoniaceae (Pteridophyta) - a new family record for Thailand………………… Stuart Lindsay, Somran Suddee, David J. Middleton & Rachun Pooma An acount of the Plantaginaceae of Thailand………………………John Parnell Thai Rubiaceae with hooks and thorns………………………………………...… Christian Puff & Voradol Chamchumroon Non–indigenous Rubiaceae grown in Thailand…………………………..……… Christian Puff & Voradol Chamchumroon Notes on the genus Alpinia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand………………………... Surapon Saensouk, Pranom Chantaranothai & Kai Larsen Karyology of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand……………………………. Puangpaka Soontornchainaksaeng & Thaya Jenjittikul Cytogenetic studies and taxonomic considerations in some taxa of Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand……………………………………………….. Puangpaka Soontornchainaksaeng, Pranom Chantaranothai & Chadapron Senakun Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp. yunnanensis (Capparaceae), a new record for Thailand. Prachaya Srisanga, Chusie Trisonthi & Kongkanda Chayamarit Radermachera eberhardtii (Bignoniaceae), a new record for Thailand…………. Prachaya Srisanga, Chusie Trisonthi & Thawatchai Santisuk Rhodoleia (Hamamelidaceae), a new generic record for Thailand………...……. Somran Suddee & David J. Middleton A preliminary study of Gonystylaceae in Thailand…………………………….... Chawalit Niyomdham & Metinee Tarumatsawat The Genus Porandra (Commelinaceae) in Thailand ……………………………. Thaweesak Thitimetharoch, Pranom Chantaranothai, & Robert B. Faden 1 7 13
27 34 39 44 47 53 67 77 97 107
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Printed at: PRACHACHON CO., LTD. 35 Soi Pipat, Silom Road, Bangrak, Bangkok 10500, Thailand. Tel. 66-2636-6550-8
THAI FOR. BULL. (BOT.) 31: 1–6. 2003.
Ceropegia hirsuta (Asclepiadaceae), a new record for Thailand
TANUCHA BOONJARAS *& OBCHANT THAITHONG **
ABSTRACT. Ceropegia hirsuta, a new record for Thailand, is described and illustrated.
There are approximately 170 species of the genus Ceropegia distributed in Southeast Asia, India, Madagascar, Tropical Arabia, the Canary Islands, Africa, New Guinea and Northern Australia. Four species were previously reported in Thailand (Kerr, 1951), namely C. arnottiana Wight, C. jucunda Kerr (= C. lucida Wall.), C. siamensis Kerr (= C. monticola W.W. Sm.) and C. sootepensis Craib. As there are no further reports of this genus in Thailand, the discovery of Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. at Pha Taem National Park in June 2001 represents a new record.
Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn., in Wight, Contrib. 30. 1834; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 71. 1883; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 5: 859. 1923; H. Huber, Mem. Soc. Broter. 12: 63. 1957; Stevens in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Distr.: 444. 1976; Ansari, Fasc. Fl. India 16: 16. 1984. Type: India, Wight Cat. no. 1510 (holotype K). Fig. 1, 2. Herbs or twining herbs; subterranean tuber not seen. Stem ca. 3 mm in diam., pubescent. Leaves opposite, decussate, elliptic to ovate ca. 6.5 by 3 cm, pubescent on both sides, apex acute, base rounded, margin entire, ciliate; petiole ca. 2 cm long, pubescent. Cymes axillary, few-flowered; peduncle up to 1 cm long, pubescent. Flowers large, pedicel ca. 1 cm long, pubescent. Sepals 5, free, linear, 5–6 mm long with gland at base, glabrous inside, pubescent outside. Corolla urceolate, 4–5 cm long, corolla tube ca. 3 cm long, curved, inflated at base, funnel-shaped above, sparsely hairy inside, puberulent outside, creamy yellow with purplish red spots; corolla lobes, broadly ovate, 7–8 by 4–4.5 mm, hairy inside, margin hairy, folded back, forming plate-like hairy keels inside; apex fused, forming an almost globose dome. Corona in 2 rows; outer corona 5, bifid, deltoid, hairy, inner corona 5, linear, erect, tip hooked, sparsely hairy. Pollinaria 5, pollinium ascending 0.4 mm long, yellow with deltoid pellucid tip, corpusculum spathulate, reddish-brown. Ovaries 2, ca. 2 mm long, marginal placentation, ovules numerous, style very short. Fruits and seeds not seen. Thailand.⎯ EASTERN: Ubon Ratchathani [Pha Taem National Park, T. Boonjaras 10 (BCU)]. Distribution.⎯ India.
Mahidol University. Flowering June–August. ∗∗Department of Botany. Siam.L. In: Pendleton. We also thank Mr Sahut Chantana-orrapint for the photographs. Chulalongkorn University. Thailand. Fl.).⎯ The whole plant is used as an analgesic. A. Bangkok 10330. Note.G.F. Vernacular. Bangkok 10400. Faculty of Pharmacy. REFERENCE Kerr. Asclepiadaceae. Thailand. Thanks are due to Dr Somran Suddee and Dr Chumpol Khunwasi for valuable suggestions.⎯ Khreua I Thao (เครืออีเฒา) (Ubon Ratchathani).⎯ On sandy soil in deciduous dipterocarp forest. (ed. 1951. R. Ecology.2 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 ∗Department of Pharmaceutical Botany. and is the only Asian species with this character. Enum. .⎯ Ceropegia hirsuta is distinguished by the hooked tip of the inner corona. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by National Research Council of Thailand. Uses. 3(1): 1–51. 250–300 m alt. Faculty of Science.
E. A NEW RECORD FOR THAILAND (T. proximal 1 cm view. B. A. Boonjaras 10 (BCU). 1. calyx and ovary. Drawn by T.CEROPEGIA HIRSUTA (ASCLEPIADACEAE). flower. habit. Boonjaras. corona. 1 mm . pollinaria. distal view. All from T. THAITHONG) 3 1 mm 5 mm 0. 2. D. BOONJARAS & O. Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn.1 mm 1 mm Figure 1. C.
4 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
habit. Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. flower. . A NEW RECORD FOR THAILAND (T. A. BOONJARAS & O.CEROPEGIA HIRSUTA (ASCLEPIADACEAE). THAITHONG) 5 A B Figure 2. B.
blades elliptic-oblong.6 mm long. lobes triangular with acute tips. Ixora L. Figs.n. two new records were found for Thailand.9 cm long. Craib (1934) listed ca. cuspidate. Co-phah. opposite at the base of the ovary. in a 1–2-seeded drupe.) 31: 7–12. Types: Cambodia. is reported from northern Thailand. 38 species and seven varieties in Florae Siamensis Enumeratio. Stipules with sheaths 0. axes. Bangkok 10900. 1923. Balansa s. (BOT. 1987).7)–1 by 0. There are 20 species in Peninsular Malaysia.4–0.8 by 0. Anthers pale orange.. pale orange.2 cm. with 6–8 pairs of lateral nerves. tube 0.5–12 by 3–3. Jullien s. herbaceous. Inflorescence erect. (syntype P). central first order axes 4 cm long. new records for Thailand VORADOL CHAMCHUMROON* ABTRACT. . ovate.2 by 0.1 cm.6–0. glabrous. awn 0. the pedicel of the central flower shorter than the pedicels of the lateral ones. tube 2. midrib prominent underneath.2 cm long. the hairs short. (0. glabrous or sparely ciliate at base. covered with spreading hairs outside and with colleters inside. corymbiform.1–0. the latter rather loose.n. Chatuchak. 1. opening by means of longitudinal slits. 1–2 cm in diam. 0. obtuse or rounded. shortly-hairy. lax. (syntype P).8 cm long. apex broadly acuminate. Ultimate flower triads with flowers pedicellate. peduncle 1–4 cm long. lobes 0. 0. Ixora cambodiana Pit. Descriptions and illustrations of the species are provided. Calyx usually densely hairy. bracteoles present on most pedicels. Seeds usually 0. Style exserted. semi-globose with one face flattened-convex. 1941). comprises ca. Notes on two Ixora species. describing 23 species and three varieties.1–0.THAI FOR. During a revision of Ixora for the Flora of Thailand. 2003. Ixora henryi.5–0. Whilst revising the genus for the Flora of Thailand the following new records have come to light.2 cm long. 10. base cuneate. Boonbundral (1978) carried out a preliminary study of the genus in Thailand.5 cm long.1–0.4–0. pedicels and calyces densely covered with short spreading hairs. pedicels 0.7–0.3 cm long. occurring in both lowland and upland areas (Corner. *The Forest Herbarium. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. without locality. narrowly triangular to filiform. between Hanoi and Bac-ninh. elliptic blades. petiole 0. 3. Ovary 0. National Park. first order bracts without the stipular parts. glabrous outside. Leaves elliptic.8 by 0. Flowers fragrant. BULL. Thailand. Shrub 3 m high. Vietnam. 300 species from Africa and Asia (Mabberley.5–3.2–0.4 cm long. articulate. Indo-Chine 3: 320. branchlets glabrous. 3 mm long.5–1. 8–9 cm wide and 6–8 cm long. Fl.4–0.4 cm. Corolla white or pale pinkish. lateral first order axes 5–6 cm long.5 mm long. previously known only from China.2 cm. Fruits globose.8–1 cm. Ixora cambodiana is recorded from near the border between Thailand and Cambodia. the inflorescence-supporting leaf pairs with smaller. stigma 0.2–0. oblong or oblong-obovate.
entire. Doi Phu Kha. herbaceous. K). Srisanga 498 (QBG). Doi Phu Kha. 3. Types: China.— Thailand. Fedde. Larsen. the pedicel of the central flower shorter than the pedicels of the lateral ones. Doi Phu Kha. glabrous outside. Doi Phu Kha. lobes triangular with ovate tips. Style exserted. 1 April 1968. 27 Feb. pedicels and calyces glabrous. awn 1–2.5–3. with 6–8 pairs of lateral nerves. 27 Dec. Pharsen.— NORTH-EASTERN: Mukdahan [Dong Bang-I. Puudjaa & Uerchirakan 44693 (AAU).4 mm long.5 cm long. Srisanga 1269 (QBG).8 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Thailand. glabrous outside and with colleters inside. 1999. lateral first order axes 2–3 cm long.2 mm long. 1 Nov. Vietnam. EASTERN: Buri Ram [Khao Phanom Dong Rak. 1995. obtuse or rounded. Distribution.. (AAU)]. 0. K). bracteoles present on most pedicels. & S. apex broadly acuminate. China. 7–8 mm in diam. Shrub 2–3 m high. Beusekom & Phengkhlai 271 (AAU. Pooma 1258 (BKF). 1921. Ovary 1. glabrous. Ixora henryi H.3–0. 2–3 mm long. Ultimate flower triads with flowers pedicellate.75 by 0.5–1 cm long. Indo-Chine 3: 324. Corolla white or pale pinkish. 1914. 2000. Nan [Doi Phu Kha. Srisanga & Maknoi 2040 (QBG). nerves in 8–10 pairs. Fl. petiole 0. Guizhou. (QBG).. 2. Tirvengadum.— NORTHERN: Chiang Rai [Doi Langka. S. narrowly triangular to filiform. central first order axis 0. Kerr 21489 (AAU. Srisanga 1206 (QBG). Larsen.6 cm long. opposite at the base of the ovary. Leaves opposite. Ecology. (QBG). Norgaard. simple. 3. Pitard. 8. K. Figs. fragrant. Thailand. pedicels 0. Seeds usually 5–6 by 5 mm. cuspidate. petiolate. Stipules with sheaths 0. BKF. Kerr 4943 (AAU. 22 Aug. 1990. Flowers solitary.4–0.6 cm. NORTH-EASTERN: Loei [Phu Rua. Cavalerie 3496 (syntype K!). Lév. 12 Jan. 3–5 mm long. 16 May 1930. 1965. Doi Phu Kha. Doi Phu Kha. Ubon Ratchatani Province. opening by means of longitudinal slits. Iwatsuki & Fukuoka T-3642 (BKF)]. Lampang [Jae Sawn.5–0. 13: 178. blades elliptic-oblong.5 cm long. greenish to red to black. glabrous. 22 Aug. 2. Middleton. Fig. 3 Dec. Puangpen & Uerchirakan 2010. 1923.— Chamchumroon 1472 is in cultivation at the Rubiaceae garden in Dong Fa Haun Botanic Gardens. pale orange.— Dry evergreen forest. Repert. midrib prominent underneath. Srisanga 2040 (QBG).5 cm wide and 2–3. Maxwell 97–167 (BKF)].1–0.5–12(–18) by 2–3. Phenology. Srisanga 1745. March 1909. Doi Phu Kha. Calyx tube 2–4 mm long. A. 12 Feb. seeds semi-globose with one face flattened-convex.2–0. Chantaranothai. Doi Phu Kha. Anthers pale orange. 1999. base cuneate. 2 March 1997. Yunnan. stigma 0. branchlets glabrous. 2001.8–1 cm.2 cm. 1998. Lou-fou. Inflorescence sessile. lobes 1–1. 5 May 2002 Chamchumroon 1472 (BKF)]. 21 Nov. 2001. BK. 5 March 1993.3 cm long or absent. Parnell & Simpson 1101 (K)]. 13 Dec. articulate. .5 cm long. 2000. Note. 11 Nov.— Flowering April–May. ovate. 7 Dec. SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi [Khao Lieuw Long. C)]. Larsen.9 by 0. tube 2. Fruits globose.1(–5) cm. axes.5–3. 1993. Srisanga 392. in 1–2-seeded drupe. Cambodia. S. Doi Phu Kha. Doi Phu Kha. Henry 11637 (syntype K!). first order bracts with the stipular parts the latter rather loose.
Dr Lily Kaveeta. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank DANIDA for a Scholarship which supported my Ph. Flora Siamensis Enumeratio 2(2): 147–234. Austria. REFERENCES Boonbundral. Kanlaya Phattarahirankanok and Narong Koonkhunthod for their help in various ways. IV: Ixora. I would like to thank my supervisors Dr Srunya Vajarothaya. studies at Kasetsart University and visits to Aarhus Herbarium and Copenhagen Herbarium and the ÖAD (Austrian Academic Exchange) for a scholarship which made it possible to carry out part of the work at the Institute of Botany. (in Thai). Chulalongkorn University. W. Craib. NEW RECORDS FOR THAILAND (V. Notes on the systematy and distribution of Malayan Phanerogams.— China (Guizhou. 1934. University of Vienna. Phenology. 11: 177–235. CHAMCHUMROON) 9 Distribution. 1987.— Flowering November–April.J.H. Ecology. The Plant Book. M. D. Str. especially during fieldwork. especially Dr Rachun Pooma. Thanks are also due to my colleagues at BKF. fruiting April–July. Corner. 92p. Settlem. Gard. thesis. Yunnan). and Dr Christian Puff for their valuable suggestions. Mabberley. 1941.NOTES ON TWO IXORA SPECIES.J.G. Cambridge.D. 1978. Bull. A primary on taxonomy of the genus Ixora in Thailand. Cambridge University Press.S. . Bangkok. S. 858 p. Dr Kongkanda Chayamarit.— Along streams in hill evergreen forest. E.
a portion of the inflorescence (x3). B. C. Drawn by V. .5).10 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 B A C D E Figure 1. All from Chamchumroon 1472 (BKF). a twig with terminal articulated inflorescence (x½). E. D. flower (x1.5). Ixora cambodiana Pit. petal (x1.: A. stipule with branch (x1). Chamchumroon.
E. petal (x1). NEW RECORDS FOR THAILAND (V. CHAMCHUMROON) 11 D A E B C Figure 2. Chamchumroon. flower (x1). stipule with branch (x1). Lév. Ixora henryi H.: A. a portion of the inflorescence (x2). .NOTES ON TWO IXORA SPECIES. B. C. a twig with terminal articulated inflorescence (x1). All from Maxwell 97–167 (BKF). D. Drawn by V.
. Ixora henryi H. Figure 3. Lév. Distribution of Ixora cambodiana Pit. Lév. and I.12 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Ixora cambodiana Pit. in Thailand. henryi H.
Fifteen taxa have been newly recorded since Schumann’s treatment. Schmidt. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. An example is the tribe Gardenieae. The Rubiaceae. Work on the family subsequent to Schumann’s treatment resulted in major taxonomic realignments of certain taxa. had several shortcomings. **Institute of Botany. Based on herbarium and field work. an *The Forest Herbarium. The main reason was the fact that the Berlin Herbarium (B) lacked sufficient material from Thailand and its surroundings for comparison with the Ko Chang specimens sent to Schumann. Thailand. The first treatment of the family for the island was written by Schumann (1902).) 31: 13–26. shrubs. the second largest island of Thailand. at the request of J. in the south-eastern region of Thailand. Chatuchak. close to the border with Cambodia (see map. only 20 of the 57 taxa names are still in use. Schumann in Schmidt’s Flora of Koh Chang. Ko Chang is the second largest island of Thailand. Although Schumann had a profound knowledge of Rubiaceae. which recognised 55 species in 27 genera. BULL (BOT. none of the new combinations have been maintained. climbers or herbs. INTRODUCTION Ko Chang. occurring in a variety of habitats. It is the core part of Mu Ko Chang National Park which became Thailand’s 45th National Park in 1982. 2003. is one of the largest angiosperm families in the Flora of Thailand (Puff. there are major changes in status of the taxa. Although the numbers of taxa in Schumann's treatment and ours do not widely differ. his treatment. editor of Flora of Koh Chang. The Rubiaceae of Ko Chang. is situated in Trat Province. where all Asiatic species of Randia are now placed into various other genera (see below). Bangkok 10900. Of the 10 species newly described in the Flora of Koh Chang. south-eastern Thailand VORADOL CHAMCHUMROON* & CHRISTIAN PUFF** ABSTRACT. Moreover. unpublished). Duplicates of Schmidt’s collections were sent to Berlin for Schumann to work on. The relatively large proportion of rubiaceous taxa showing a Ko Chang (or general south-eastern Thailand)/ peninsular Thailand disjunction is remarkable. unjustifiably) described several new taxa and came up with some unusual identifications (see below for details). For these reasons. National Park. 64 taxa belonging to 33 genera are currently recorded. University of Vienna. Rennweg 14. collecting activities during recent decades have revealed the presence of a considerable number of rubiaceous taxa not seen by Schumann. 1). He recognised 55 species in 27 genera. A-1030 Vienna. with around 100 genera and over 500 species and infrasepcific taxa. They are well represented on Ko Chang as trees. Fig. Thus he was unable to correctly match numerous collections and subsequently (in part. Its Rubiaceae were first treated by K. . Eight of the 27 generic names in Schumann’s treatment are no longer applicable.THAI FOR. Austria. only one is a good species.
Rainfall is very high (Trat Province has a mean annual rainfall of > 3000 mm. Ceriops decandra. S. Thai Land Development Department web site. Khao Salak Phet and Khao Yai. runs more or less parallel to the coast and appears very mountainous from the mainland due to the mountain ridge which runs down most of the length of the entire island. Khao Chom Prasat. gratum and Pandanus odoratissimus. Hibiscus tiliaceus and Cerbera odollam. Syzygium grande. are mostly concentrated in the western coastal areas. Ko Chang itself. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. 743 m asl. K. the tallest of which are Khao Lan. WU. as compared to 57/27 in Schumann (1902). Settlements. W. Khlong Phrao and Khlong Nonsi. Around the coastal villages of Salak Phet. Xylocarpus granatum. The mountains tend to have rounded slopes rather than sheer cliffs. Khlong Mayom. Mu Ko Chang National Park (NP) includes several small to very small islands (see map. while the reminder of the island is covered by largely undisturbed. Khlong Khangkhao. various woody climbers such as Bauhinia spp. RESULTS Overview Sixty-four taxa of Rubiaceae belonging to 33 genera are known from Ko Chang (Table 1). moluccensis. tagal. The principal rivers of the island are Khlong Son. dense tropical evergreen frest. B. Anisoptera costata and Hopea odorata. BKF. BK. Khao Khlong Mayom. in which 64 taxa in 33 genera are recognised. Khlong Son and Kh1ong Phrao Bay there are some ± large areas of Beach and Mangrove Forest. etc. They are primarily concentrated around the southern part of the main island. X. there are major changes in status of the taxa. Khlong Bang Bao. Avicennia alba. R. Typical mangrove taxa include Rhizophora mucronata.14 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 updated treatment of the Rubiaceae of Ko Chang is presented here. species of the tree-like monocots Pandanus and Caryota. Melaleuca cajuputi. GEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION OF KO CHANG Apart from Ko Chang. roads. 30 x 14 km. The rocks are mainly granitic and formed ca. apiculata. C. Dominant tree species include the Dipterocarpaceae namely Dipterocarpus spp. ca. and many very clear streams supply water all year round. is the highest peak.. . C. Dominant trees of the former include Terminalia catappa. Numerous Zingiberaceae such as Amomum spp. 1).. are common in the herb layer. The present study is based both on field work in Ko Chang and on a study of collections in the following herbaria: AAU. Fig. Although the numbers of taxa in Schumann's treatment and ours do not widely differ. parviflora. 230–195 mya. The ridge produces several summits. The latter. tourist facilities. Podocarpus neriifolius and Croton spp. which is amongst the highest in Thailand. undated). Salak Khok.
If transferred to . see Table 1). The five taxa of Randia recorded from Ko Chang are now placed in four different genera (Aidia. Randia armigera has been transferred to Fagerlindia and Randia eucodon to Rothmannia. 1984. only one is a “good species”. inset: location of Ko Chang (arrow). 1958. longiflora is not certain because the cited specimen could not be traced. 1983. siamensis Craib) is O. Randia oppositiflora (the epithet is mis-spelt as the basionym is Webera oppositifolia) is now considered a synonym of Aidia densiflora (cf. Wong. ex L. Taxonomic changes since the Flora of Koh Chang Genera that are not currently recognised are Borreria. Eight of the 27 generic names in Schumann’s Rubiaceae treatment in Flora of Koh Chang (RFKC) are no longer applicable (see below for details). Nauclea. the correct identity of R. None of the new combinations published in RFKC has been maintained. several of them are somewhat problematic and. Only 20 of the 57 names of taxa in RFKC are still in use. have been transferred to the genus Oxyceros. Damnacanthus.THE RUBIACEAE OF KO CHANG. Fagerlindia. PUFF) 15 Figure 1. Oxyceros and Rothmannia. Coffea. Whilst it is clear from the collections that R. at present. the remaining are synonyms of other taxa. and others). Ridsdale. The most significant changes concern Randia. Plectronia. four others are doubtful or incompletely known. (= R. Map of Ko Chang and surrounding islands (Mu Ko Chang National Park) (from Microsoft Interactive World Atlas 2001). differing from African and Asiatic Randia in having unisexual flowers with one-celled ovaries and pollen grains in tetrads. CHAMCHUMROON & C. After it had been realized that Randia Houst. Of the 10 new species described in RFKC. and tropical Asia (Tirvengadum. fasciculata sensu Schum. of more or less uncertain status. horridus. Randia and Stylocoryne. The two remaining Randia spp. A detailed account is given below. paleotropical taxa were re-investigated both in Africa (Keay. 1996). SOUTH–EASTERN THAILAND (V. and many others). represented an exclusively American genus. Petunga. However.
pubescens sensu K. The status of Plectronia siamensis. Robbrecht et al. This. Later on. The other species. a genus re-instated by Bridson (1985).) Leroy. and an obscure difference in flowers per inflorescence (pluri. As already discovered by Craib (1932). and his var. (adopted from Craib. 1932) may not hold. longiflorus.vs. Plectronia. is invalid (see Bridson. merguensis and var. Petunga schmidtii has not been formally transferred to Hypobathrum. but Tirvengadum (1982) cautioned that R. var. orientalis was forgotten so that. Leroy used leaf consistency.or uniflorous) to distinguish the two entities. This resulted in an odd distribution pattern: Leroy’s var. in turn. is largely confined to Africa and only presented in Asia by a few taxa. 1934). orientalis by their leaf sizes (smaller vs.. in RFKC are thus referable to other genera. It was transferred to Canthium siamense by Pitard (1924) but it is. cf. 1993). Several Canthium spp. While Craib (1934) distinguished var. only known from Schmidt’s Ko Chang type collection. horridus. orientalis Craib (Craib.16 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Oxyceros. Canthium in Thailand is not yet revised. 1985 for details). glabrous on the outside). This name. an altered set of leaf length and width differences. Whilst the transfer of three of the Plectronias to Canthium and Psydrax is merely the result of differing generic concepts within tribe Vanguerieae. as first described in RFKC. merguensis to Psilanthus merguensis (Ridl. below). it also occurs in Burma. 1932). Craib assigned it to Petunga. and for Asiatic material in general) is the generic delimitiation of Canthium. glabrum (see also under Damnacanthus. merguensis would be restricted to Burma (Tenasserim). P. but that genus is now considered a synonym of Hypobathrum. as used in RFKC. orientalis would occur in peninsular and in southeastern Thailand (according to him. schmidtii. malaccensis and D. 1989). it is a member of tribe Octotropideae (formerly Hypobathreae. but var.) Leroy var. was transferred to Paracoffea merguensis (Ridl. 1980. may belong to Psydrax. and the names currently used for the RFKC Plectronia spp. is not a Coffea segregate but belongs to Diplospora (D. 1971). is referable to Coffea merguensis Ridl. merguensis var.). Coffea schmidtii. 1987 for a survey of its complex nomenclatural history). however. the latter becomes O. at present. very close to C. as already noted by Craib (1932). is not accepted here. longiflora has often been confused with O. orientalis is not validly published. both Coffea spp. and by their geographic range (the former in southern Burma and peninsular Thailand. (D. The genus Coffea does not occur naturally in Asia (see Bridson. str. Leroy (in LobreauCallen & Leroy. larger) and corollas (sparsely pubescent vs. Coffea fragrans sensu Schumann. Schum. orientalis was somewhat odd. Also not yet resolved (for Thailand. A formal transfer to Psydrax has only been published for Canthium nitidum (Psydrax nitidum (Craib) Wong. Craib. orientalis (Craib) Leroy (Leroy. remains uncertain. The four Plectronia species in RFKC are now placed in three different genera. Leroy’s (1971) understanding of var. but we refrain from making the new combination here because the genus is in need of general revision which may render the new combination unnecessary. 1980) validly transferred C. was a mistake. the latter in south-eastern Thailand). Wong. Plectronia schmidtii. The latter is identical to two other wrongly identified Diplospora spp. but none of the specimens . According to Bridson (1992) Canthium s. Robbrecht. first published in RFKC. pauci.
pendulous ovule per locule (Robbrecht et al. we cannot offer a definitive solution. 1989). occurring from Japan westwards to China and northern India (Assam. SOUTH–EASTERN THAILAND (V. Damnacanthus indicus. 1979. 1963. Lo. it appears that M. characterized by paired short-shoot thorns. As disjunctions between peninsular Thailand and Ko Chang (and south-eastern Thailand in general) are relatively common (see below). Damnacanthus is a widely distributed genus.. or any other collection of Damnacanthus from Thailand. a hot and wet. 1978. Stylocoryne (also spelled Stylocoryna) is now generally considered synonymous with Tarenna. but so far it has only been recorded from peninsular Thailand and the Malay Peninsula (Wong. We cannot follow Leroy’s distinction of the two varieties. 1939. covers the entire area (Kanjilal et al. a variety of M. and Craib placed them under Neonauclea calycina which now is considered a synonym of N. Li. Sivarajan et al. hispida. Neither Craib (1934) nor us were able to trace the specimen cited in RFKC (Schmidt 282).l. the record of Damnacanthus indicus from Ko Chang. and at present we refrain from formally publishing infraspecific taxa within Psilanthus merguensis because the genus should be revised first for the Flora of Thailand area (currently. cf. cambodiana var. 372). Schumann’s new species Mussaenda lanceolata. The two taxa superficially resemble each other in having paired shoot thorns and clustered white flowers. Schumann’s species identifications were erroneous. As Canthium s. PUFF) 17 listed originated from that country). its geographic range passes north of Thailand. Apparently Schumann had problems with the identification of Ko Chang Oldenlandia. In the absence of the cited specimen. Fig. Two others were wrongly identified. The correct name for this should be Tarenna wallichii. 1991. as already noted by Craib (1932). and the weedy species recorded in RKCH becomes S. in RFKC need to be transferred to Neonauclea. cambodiana. Ridsdale. it is possible that the species does occur on the island. Nauclea has undergone marked changes in its generic delimitation. Thus. (Canthium and Psydrax) is not yet revised for the Flora of Thailand. The comment that the species is “frequently cultivated” also seems strange. Borreria is not generally considered a synonym of Spermacoce.. lanceolata (only known from Ko Chang) is not worth . see Table 1. we are only able to identify the species as a member of the Canthium horridum group. CHAMCHUMROON & C. 1987). seems very odd. Yamazaki. but the status of S. strictly tropical island much outside the species’ range.. 1992). Although the genus has not yet been revised for the Flora of Thailand. the most widely distributed species in the genus. As already noted by Craib (1932). wallichii in RFCK is not entirely certain because the specimen could not be traced by Craib (1932) or by us. pallida (cf. was. as the spiny plant hardly makes an attractive ornamental. but we have a strong suspicion that Schumann’s “Damnacanthus indicus” might be one of the thorny Canthium species that was encountered in Ko Chang. has further complicated the matter.THE RUBIACEAE OF KO CHANG. there is only a revision for India. and both genera have ovaries with a solitary. The new combination Oldenlandia costata is to be considered a synonym of Hedyotis venosa (Craib. We are certain that it is one of the worse misnomers in RFKC. according to Craib (1932). eastern Himalaya). 1932). The not entirely resolved generic delimitation between Oldenlandia and Hedyotis. “differing chiefly in the denser indumentum of branchlets and leaves”. and both Nauclea spp. 1989).
The species is hardly distinct from U. a distinct species only known from Ko Chang (the genus is currently under revision by one of us (V. Eleven of these are mentioned for the first time in Craib’s Enumeratio (Craib 1932. indicating they were wrongly determined. comm. or Duperrea scabrida (replaces the “northern” D. unpublished). harrisiana is a species widely distributed from India to Indochina and to the Malay peninsula (according to Schanzer (pers. In particular L. The only new species described in RFKC that can be maintained appears to be Ixora dolichophylla. chevalieri. pavettaefolia in the Southeast. Zhu (2001) noted that both are only known from the type collections. pers. O. harrisiana) with the former. is actually L. A revision of Thai Urophyllum might well show that its status as a distinct species cannot be upheld. a species common in the forests of peninsular Thailand. strigosus Wight. The only Urophyllum known from Ko Chang was described in RFKC as the new species U. lucidus. 7). lacking fruits. Vietnam and Hainan Island (China) (Zhu. is not yet certain. Of the remaining four Lasianthus species in RFKC. mungos and O.). oligoneurus and L. according to Zhu. only one. cambodiana (recorded mainly from south-eastern Thailand. Three species of Ophiorrhiza are listed in RFKC. The name O. the others are added by us. Fig. who has revised the genus for Flora of Thailand. for which Schumann noted that “it is supposed to be a Ceylon (species)”. hirsutus. oligoneurus is problematic as. l. cyanocarpus is now L. schmidtii. This and O. of which O. Lasianthus caloneurus became a synonym of L. and of which he claims he has also seen specimens from New Guinea. the name O. comm).)). blumeanum. maingayi. Puff.18 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 retaining but should be included in the variable M.C. brachycarpa are part of a polymorphic group of widely distributed taxa which is not yet fully resolved (Schanzer. schmidtii) is not fully resolved. Craib (1932) placed both other species in RFKC (O. the type is incomplete. and L. the species is restricted to southern India and Sri Lanka. 1934). . a total of 15 taxa have been newly recorded from the island (see Table 1). Taxa widely distributed in Thailand (and sometimes also in the surrounding countries).). In his revision of the genus.c. Good examples are Argostemma pulchellum (Sridith & Puff 2000. New records for the island include three categories of taxa are as follows: Taxa largely restricted to the south-eastern region of Thailand (and sometimes also extending to the neighbouring parts of Cambodia). L. New Records Since the publication of RFKC. The status of the two Lasianthus species newly described by Schumann (L. mungos certainly cannot be correct. a species restricted to south-eastern Thailand. brachycarpa was newly described. brachycarpa. has retained its name. rugosa). Examples are Psychotria adenophylla and some of the “weedy” Hedyotis species. harrisiana is predated by O. L. Thus the specific status of O. Cambodia and Laos).
maingayi. Psychotria angulata. Taxa or “species pairs” occurring both in Ko Chang (and the south-eastern region in general) and peninsular Thailand (cf. Timonius corneri. CHAMCHUMROON & C. Figure 2. 2) The relatively large number of Rubiaceae showing this kind of disjunction seems noteworthy. Hedyotis philippensis. L. map. Psydrax nitida. This represents 14% of all Ko Chang Rubiaceae. and mostly they extend further South to the Malay peninsula (and sometimes also to Sumatra).THE RUBIACEAE OF KO CHANG. In the peninsula. and Uncaria cordata). Distribution of Rennellia speciosa (based on collections in Thai herbaria). . these taxa often reach their northern limit in Ranong Province. 2. SOUTH–EASTERN THAILAND (V. Rennellia speciosa: Fig. latifolius. Fig. PUFF) 19 Taxa with a distinctly disjunct distribution range of south-eastern/peninsular Thailand such as Timonius corneri or Uncaria cordata (see also below). Lasianthus constrictus var. At present nine taxa known from Ko Chang fall into this category (Gardenia tubifera.
) H.) K. – Don H. respectively.p. Gardenia tubifera Wall. H. see text Damnacanthus indicus Gaertn. Petunga racemosa (Roxb. possibly not specifically distinct from C. Schum. Oldenlandia costata (Roxb. Petunga schmidtii. * same Canthium glabrum Blume Canthium siamense (K. philippensis (Willd. is not formally transferred to Hypobathrum.Clarke) Craib] *. Chamchumroon & Puff 1157. – *. BKF) Canthium horridum group ? Canthium umbellatum Wight Plectronia glabra (Blume) Kurz Plectronia siamensis K. 1932. an older name for Petunga brevispica. see text *. (pp. same Guettarda speciosa L.) Kurz [sensu K. wallichii Kurz Hydnophytum formicarum Jack same var. Robinson H. Clarke schmidtii (C. ex G. see text X. or new combinations.) Pitard ? Canthium sp.B. Schum.) Randia armigera K. Schum. Plectronia didyma (Roxb. identified to species by Craib (1932). see text XX. *. B. ** – H.) K. Don) O. horrridum group. same Hedyotis nodiflora Wall. – Column “Notes and comments”: X.Schum. congesta) see Craib (1932) see Craib (1932) **. C. List of Rubiaceae in Ko Chang. (with thorns.B. see text X (Craib 1934) * .] (p. confirmed by Sridith (1999) according to Craib (1932) *. Schum. Ktze. Craib Diplospora malaccensis Hook. H. ex. 1902] Ixora coccinea L. Schum. Schum. [sensu K. f. cibdela Craib – I. XX = newly recorded after Schumann’s treatment (XX = newly recorded by us). 1932) *. same Dentella repens Forst. pitardiana Craib Oldenlandia mollis Wall. [sensu K. subcarnosa Wall. Schum. Schum.]” rather than by the normally used “… sensu K. Schum. 1932) X (Craib. Column “Name in Schumann”: to retain the name as given by Schumann (1902). venosa Korth. siamensis Becc. f. G. Schum.) Masam. see Craib (1932) X (Craib. Schum.20 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Table 1. Schum. same Coptosapelta flavescens Korth. Schum.) Merr. glabrum. ** “Argostemma sp. Current name Aidia densiflora (Wall. ex G. Schum. wrongly applied names are indicated by the suffix “[sensu K. Hypobathrum schmidtii [Petunga Plectronia schmidtii C. * Tirveng.] Duperrea scabrida Craib – Fagerlindia armigera (K. same I. as H. Oldenlandia lineata Roxb. * – see text according to Craib (1932). non …” . Schum.] D. see text X (Craib.” Notes and comments **.) Thw. pinifolia Wall. ** mark taxa newly described in Schumann (1902).) Chassalia curviflora (Wall. pubescens Hook. Trat. see text XX *. Don Oldenlandia pinifolia (Wall.) Coffea schmidtii K.) K. [sensu K. same Diplospora schmidtii (K. Argostemma pulchellum Geddes Name in Schumann (1902) Randia oppositiflora (Roxb. dolichophylla K. ex – C..
[sensu K. Schum. Schum. [sensu K. * same Morinda citrifolia L. see text as Neonauclea calycina in Craib (1932). Schum.]. same Ophiorrhiza brachycarpa K. fulva does not occur in Thailand Psychotria jackii Hook. mungos L.f.. Schum. synonomy according to Craib (1932). Psilanthus merguensis (Ridl. see text *.] O.)Yamazaki ? Randia longiflora Lam. as Coffea merguensis Ridl. see text X (Craib.] L. see Craib (1934) Schum.] Oxyceros horridus Lour.) Bakh. nigricans R. Pitard [var.] same Plectronia didyma (Roxb.) Kurz as Canthium nitidum var.] Psychotria sarmentosa Blume see Craib (1934) [sensu K. see text *. rubra Poir. Schum.) Leroy see text XX X (Craib. sarmentosoides Val. Schum.) * Craib] Mycetia squamulosopilosa Pitard – Neonauclea pallida (Reinw. latifolius – Craib L. lucidus Blume same L. possibly O. I. no specimens seen (also [sensu K. ex Wight & Arn. schmidtii K.] Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd. – same Notes and comments I. serpens L.) suboblique Craib in Craib (1932). Schum. 1934) * *. Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack L. Psychotria sp. new combination in Wong (1989) .] not by Craib. oligoneurus K.f.f. stricta Roxb. [sensu K.] orientalis Craib in Craib (1934). 1932). P. Br. ex Havil. Schum.p. harrisiana Heyne [sensu K. lanceolata (K. Uncertain.) Roxb. angulata Korth. Randia fasciculata (Roxb. Lasianthus caloneurus K. var. var. hirsutus (Robx. PUFF) 21 Table 1. chinensis (Champ. Schum. * L. Name in Schumann (1902) I.THE RUBIACEAE OF KO CHANG. horridus. amoena Wall. ? * O. [sensu K. (continued).] O. CHAMCHUMROON & C. 194). Schum. blumeana Hook. constrictus Wight var.f. P. Nauclea purpurea (Roxb. 1932: see his note under P. Schum. 1934) Psychotria fulva Ham. maingayi Hook.f. ? P. P. p. see text – X (Craib.. [sensu K. Schum. Schum.) DC. P. see text *. Nauclea synkorynes Korthals [sensu K. 1934) – X (Craib. same. SOUTH–EASTERN THAILAND (V. see text Coffea fragrans Wall.) Benth.) Merr.) Merr. see text Psychotria adenophylla Wall. monticola.] (p. stricta Roxb.ex Hook. Lasianthus chevalieri Pitard XX Lasianthus strigosus Wight [sensu K. longiflorus (Lam. same Mussaenda cambodiana Pierre ex Mussaenda lanceolata K. Schum. kratensis Craib I. Schum. I. Schum. Current name Ixora javanica (Blume) DC. [sensu K. Psydrax nitidum (Craib) Wong as Randia siamensis in Craib (1934) no specimen seen. close to M. * same L. – L. malayana.
) Ridl. Schum. f. as T. Schum. Examples are the type collections of Ixora dolichophylla. etc. Ktze. Jacobs. plantations.) K. may need to be combined and considered geographical subspecies.f. one of the frequently cited localities. Tarenna hoaensis Pitard T. kratensis (south-eastern Thailand) which. Urophyllum longifolium Hook.) Bremek. 1962) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries have disappeared. “Klong Nonsi” (equals “Klong Munsé”). see text Borreria hispida (L. specimen not seen. the link between the peninsula and southeastern Thailand is represented by ca. schmidtii C. merguenis (peninsula) and “var. schmidtii. see Wong (1988) – X (Craib 1932. [sensu see Craib (1932) K. or Urophyllum blumeanum (peninsula) and the scarcely distinct U. there are several closely related entities showing the same pattern. For these reasons. Schmidt and Kerr (cf. and Ixora brunonis (peninsula) and I. Settlements. Schum. 20 % of all Rubiaceae taxa recorded from Ko Chang. wallichianus). Lasianthus oligoneuron and L. wallichii (Hook. If these are added to the statistics. Spermacoce hispida L. Further notes Prior to the establishment of Mu Ko Chang National Park at the end of 1982 (see above).22 Table 1. f. Clarke * THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Name in Schumann (1902) same Randia eucodon K.f. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Voradol Chamchumroon wishes to thank the ÖAD (Austrian Academic Exchange) for a scholarship which made it possible to carry out part of the present studies at the Institute of Botany.g. according to Chamchumroon (in prep. Rothmannia eucodon (K. Psilanthus merguensis var. 1989). Other examples are Mycetia malayana (peninsula) and the closely allied M.. sclerophylla) same same *. Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. all of which come from the Klong Nonsi area. farms. schmidtii (Ko Chang). In addition. e.] Stylocoryne wallichii (Hook. For instance. * same * Notes and comments as Borreria articularis in Craib (1934) Tarenna asiatica O. B. some of the “classic” collecting localities visited by. were established in the more accessible (± flat) coastal areas. is now a populated area near the Ko Chang District Office with no traces of natural vegetation left. for example. as U. None of these species have ever been recollected anywhere else. squamulosopilosa (south-eastern Thailand and Cambodia.). Schum. Fukuoka. see text Schum. (continued). there was negative human impact on the vegetation of Ko Chang. ? Timonius corneri Wong Uncaria cordata (Lour. – X (Craib 1932.) Merr. orientalis” (Ko Chang). blumeanum.) K. Current name Rennellia speciosa Hook. University of Vienna and also the Danish Scholarship . U. possibly not distinct from U.
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Bot. Advances in Rubiaceae Macrosystematics. 50: 69–77. ) 27: 86–137. New taxa and name changes in tropical Asiatic Rubiaceae. The genus Damnacanthus in Japan.M. 1–176. Blumea 34: 177–275. D. Bot. C. (Rubiaceae). K. C. E. (ed. E. Petaling Jaya. In: Robbrecht. 1992. Belg. 43: 491–518. Bull. D. A revision of Neonauclea. J. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand. 1991. Bot. Robbrecht..s. Bull. Schumann. Thai For. J. Sinica (Taiwan) 33: 209–224. The Antirheoideae (Rubiaceae) of the Malay Peninsula. f.S. Longman Malaysia. Kew Bull.). S. Thesis Licent. Thai For. K. The genera of Peninsular Malaysian Rubiaceae formerly confused with Randia. 1987. (Rubiaceae) in Southeast Asia and Malesia.M. 2001. The South Indian genus Octotropis (Rubiaceae). Sridith. Rubiaceae. with special reference to Thailand and surrounding areas.l. . Tirvengadum. 38: 1–57. Blumea 24: 307–366. Contributions to the knowledge of the vegetation in the Gulf of Siam. K. Bull. & Mathew. The Hypobathreae (Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae).). 1980. Korea and Taiwan [in Japanese]. Belg.). Sridith. ________. Bull. 1989. Robbrecht. Wong.P. Distribution of Argostemma Wall.D. Bridson. ________. ________. Rubiaceae. D. Blumea 41: 135–179. 6: 81–92. & Puff. Aarhus. 35: 69–74. E. 1996. C.E.D. Tidsskr. Revision of the genus Psilanthus Hook. 24: 329–341. Biju. Puff. Sci (unpubl. Delimitation and division of a new tribe. 3: 455–469. Bot. 1. Malay.B. 1989. Nordic J. Jard. (Bot. ________. 1902. (ed. In: Ng. A review of Aidia s. E. comments on the campylotropy in the Rubiaceae and the circumscription of the Morindeae. Tree flora of Malaya 4: 324–425. Zhu. Bot.). ________. Evidence for their close alliance. Op. V. Nat. A study of the tribe Gardenieae (Rubiaceae) of South and South East Asia. Robbrecht. (Rubiaceae tribe Coffeeae) in India. Acad. Phytogeogr. A synopsis of the genus Argostemma Wall. F. An investigation of its characters and reinstatement of the tribal name Octotropideae. Acta Phytotax. Flora of Koh Chang. T. K. 1984. Nature J. 1993. Yamazaki.V. 1983. A taxonomic revision of the genus Lasianthus Jack (Rubiaceae) from Thailand. 1978. 1988. The genera Mitchella and Damnacanthus. 1999. 1982. Taxon. (ed.. ) 28: 123–138. Generic delimitation and revision with enumeration of species. H. A revision of the tribe Naucleeae s. Sinica: 116–150. Blumea 35: 307–345. (Bot. In: Schmidt. & Igersheim. P. & Deb. 2000. Sivarajan..24 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Ridsdale. A.
. C. Puff). PUFF) 25 Figure 3. Psychotria angulata. A. F. near Than Mayom waterfall. Rennellia speciosa. E. Uncaria cordata. Rubiaceae recorded from Ko Chang. CHAMCHUMROON & C.THE RUBIACEAE OF KO CHANG. Gardenia tubifera. Ko Chang. B-F. Duperrea scabrida (Photographed by C. SOUTH–EASTERN THAILAND (V. B. D.
subtending sheaths/bracts are usually glabrous and the slender spikelets are arranged in a group of four (usually). dulloa and recent collections of N. because the six stamens have connate filaments. the palea lacks keels. Chatuchak. but are also found terminating leafy branches.THAI FOR. are less slender. ***Department of Forest Biology. indeterminate inflorescences with slender spikelets each containing one floret with the absence of a rachilla extension or with much reduced and slender rachilla extension. The genus was described in 1922 with two species. dulloa are much branched. Faculty of Forestry. Richmond. UK. 2003. with slender branches. Camus. she did not include descriptions of the habit. glumes or reduced glumes are absent. mekongensis and N. Chatuchak. (BOT. When A. Camus described the genus. The genus possesses erect culms with thin walls. mainly based on the description of material of N. the spikelets are not clearly arranged in four. the top of the style is level where the stigmas are borne with spreading bases. Thailand. Neohouzeoua A. K1 & K2).) 31: 27–33. In the new taxa. Camus and N. BULL. with glabrous glumes. Camus is found in tropical mainland Asia. 1. Two new species of Neohouzeoua (Gramineae-Bambusoideae) from Thailand and Myanmar SOEJATMI DRANSFIELD*. N. National Park. with short branches. similar to those of Schizostachyum. the subtending sheaths/bracts are covered with stiff hairs. are described and illustrated. The spikelets are usually arranged in a group of four along the main and branch axis. mekongensis (Dransfield. Bangkok 10900. In most bamboo genera possessing three stigmas. The inflorescences in N. **Silviculture and Botany Division. . and the lemmas and paleas are covered *Royal Botanic Gardens. This feature can be observed especially in mature spikelets and can be used to recognise Neohouzeoua. In Neohouzeoua the style apex or top is level on one side. Thailand. Here extended descriptions are added. The stigmas are borne on the level part (Fig. Surrey TW9 3AB. RUNGNAPAR PATTANAVIBOOL** & SARAWOOD SUNGKAEW*** ABSTRACT. kerriana and N. Camus differentiated it from Teinostachyum Munro. dipping down on the other side and filled with minute hairs. Kasetsart University. Kew. A. Bangkok 10900. the inflorescences are usually borne terminating the leafy branches. the palea lacks keels but has two long tips and because the rachilla extension is much reduced or absent. and from Schizostachyum Nees again because the filaments are connate. many branches of the same size at each node. N. 1997). Two new species of Neohouzeoua A. Camus (transferred from the genus Teinostachyum Munro). dulloa (Munro) A. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. mekongensis A. fimbriata from southern Thailand and Myanmar.
filaments joint. acuminate. no dominant primary branch. 12-nerved. the hollow internodes layered/lined with a white membrane (easily removed). 6 mm tall/wide. thin or stramineous. up to 36 cm long. densely hairy near the apex. setis brevibus. Superficially these new taxa do not resemble either N. connected with transverse nerves. glabrous. setis 12 mm longis. about 2 mm thick. glabrous or glabresent. stamens 6. often exceeding palea apex. bristles 12 mm long. lemma 16–18 by 8 mm. but we have included them in the genus. 10 by 4–5 mm. ligule very short. dulloa. found growing along roadsides. internodes up to 9 cm long. the rachilla extensions are absent and the stigma bases are erect or straight (Table 1). minutely serrate. R. paleas not-keeled. Inflorescences borne terminally on leafy branches. cylindrical. 6 mm long (resembling an awn). spreading or deflexed. cylindrical. pseudospikelets 2–3 cm long. because the filaments are connate. Fig. Neohouzeoua kerriana S. top horizontal or slightly curved in the middle. Typus: Thailand. about 4(–8) m long. Kerr 12070 (holotypus K!). It is also remarkable that these two common bamboos. Pattanavibool & S. base attenuate or slightly rounded. glabrous. 1. tops plumose. lodicules not present. have never been described before. erect/straight at the bases. glabrous. 25 mm long. Spikelets ca. with long slender tips of ca. the paleas have no keels on the back but bifid apices and two long tips. apex bifid. 1. bearing modified blades and erect auricles. hairs up to 5 mm long. erect.1 cm in diam. auricles large. 2 mm long. axis glabrous. internodes 20–25 cm long. 13-nerved. the same size. ligule very short.. 12–15 cm long. otherwise glabrous. girdle present. lemmatis dense hirsutis. It is interesting to note that in these two new species of Neohouzeoua the sheaths or subtending bracts in the inflorescences remain intact on the nodes of the main axis. or on leafless branches. stigmas 3. arranged in a group (usually of four) at nodes of the main or/and branch axis. covered with appressed pale hairs. 21 mm long. glabrous. laminis foliorum grandibus. sp. tapering to long tips. with light brown hairs. covered with light caducous brown hairs. similar to the culm-leaves. Culm-leaves rigid. ovary short. . Branches several at each node. 8–12 by 4–5 cm. 5–6 mm wide near the base. nov. usually glabrous. setis longis praeditis. tips arching almost to the ground or leaning on nearby vegetation. apice lemmatis apicem paleae longiore/superanti distincta. auricles large. auriculis vaginae culmi magnis erectis. 15– 20 by 4–6 mm. mekongensis or N. sheaths glabrous. subtending bracts/sheaths up to 25 mm long. entire. the upper parts covered with dark brown hairs. Sungkaew. auricles with short bristles. tapering to long tips. fringed with short curly hairs. up to 7 cm long. densely hairy towards the apex.28 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 with hairs. becoming glabrous and smooth. auriculis grandibus erectis stramineis. petiole 10–15 mm long. becoming glabrous. Sympodial bamboo. two tips of ca. Leaf-blades 22–30 by 4–7 cm. Dransf. pubescent near the base abaxially. Culms straight and erect. and bear modified blades and auricles. with relatively thick walls. anthers with two short apiculate tips. junction with sheath 4 mm wide. spreading. fringed with long bristles.. with long slender style. blades lanceolate.
ligule 4 mm long. subtending bracts/sheaths up to 3. along the route Ranong-Chum Phon Date. kerrianae S. base slightly swollen (above the junction with the sheath). Etymology. and fringed with long bristles. Kerr 12070 (holotype K!)]. N. light green with white wax and dark brown scattered hairs below the nodes. covered densely with appressed dark brown hairs. Notes. and the auricles of culm leaves are large.F. hairy on sheaths and auricles. alt. margins ciliolate.TWO NEW SPECIES OF NEOHOUZEOUA (GRAMINEAE-BAMBUSOIDEAE) FROM THAILAND AND MYANMAR 29 Thailand.— In the field this species can be recognised by its bushy habit with arching slender young culms emerging over the clump. hairs caducous. and large leaf-blades. erect.G.— PENINSULAR Chumphon [Langsuan. N. up to 1000 m. 24 Feb. 21 mm long. fl. kerriana can be found growing abundantly near streams along the road in Ranong. glabrous. tapering to very long fine tips. 14 mm long. Typus: Myanmar. Leafblades 26–52 by 6–12 cm. flared. large. 9 mm tall/wide. glabrous adaxially. Vernacular. caducous. the hollow internodes are lined with white membrane. often slightly scabrid towards the apex adaxially. Neohouzeoua fimbriata S. on slopes or river banks. Scrambling. deflexed. laminis grandibus affinis. Kerr. sp. ligule (inner ligule) very short but with long fimbriae (6 mm long). lemmate minus dense hirsute. nov. Khao Nam Sao. up to 3 cm long.— Southern Thailand. a thin white membrane found inside the internode. with relatively thin walls. internodes about 40 cm long. 1927. 2001. K!)]. Culm leaves 13–16 cm by 6. tapering to long tips. sympodial bamboo. The type was collected from higher altitude. Sungkaew & Pattanavibool 13 (BKF!. glabrous or pubescent.— Phai Racha wang (from Kerr 12070). 3 mm long/tall.5 cm long. bristles about 20 mm long. sed auriculis vaginae culmi magnis deflexis. hairs caducous. Inflorescences borne terminating leafy branches. 58 m. Culms up to 3 cm in diam. . Distribution. 800–1000 m. alt.— Primary or secondary/disturbed forest.. otherwise glabrous and smooth. petiole (pseudopetiole) 1 cm long. R. The sheath of the leaf-blade possesses a large auricle fringed with bristles. of the same size. auricles large. base rounded.5–9 cm near the base. 13–30 cm long. about 12 mm wide near the base. ‘callus’ or outer ligules prominent. Sungkaew. with light brown hairs towards the petiole adaxially. Dransf. with long bristles.— This species is named in honour of Dr A. up to 13 m long. bristles 25 mm long. alt. sterile. 2.. Dransf. blades ovatelanceolate. 4 mm high. 6 mm at the junction with the sheath. 13–21 cm long. auriculis laminorum foliorum grandis chartaceis deflexis.. setis longis praeditis. We believe this bamboo is widespread from Langsuan to Ranong. laciniate. Fig. Parker 2733 (holotypus K!). hairy abaxially especially near the base. deflexed/flared. margins smooth or ciliolate. Ecology. margins with long curly bristles. setis 25 mm longis. Pattanavibool & S. et al. apice lemmatis apicem paleae breviore differt. sheaths covered with pale hairs. glabrous or with scattered pale hairs adaxially. Branches many at each node. Ranong [Muang. auricles thick or chartaceus. 21 Feb. main and branch axis glabrous.
2001. bracts/sheaths subtending buds with long light brown hairs near the apex. and flowers frequently. .. very common on the Yangwa range of hills where it flowered gregariously. Tavoy. It seems that this bamboo is very common around Tavoy and Mergui in the southern part of Myanmar. Myanmar. base erect/straight. apex with long tips or with much reduced modified blades.— Yat-wan (Shan) (from Parker 2733). filaments fused. Thailand. In a letter to Mr Fisher (attached to the Parker specimens). and the tip of the lemma not exceeding the tip of the palea. 23 March 1930.c. Phangnga [Kopah. 17 Feb. auricles deflexed/flared.. plumose. pseudospikelets arranged in group at each node of the inflorescence axis. otherwise glabrous. 1 March 1927. ovary small with long glabrous style.— PENINSULAR: Ranong [Between Kapong and Ranong. 6 mm long.. Scott 951 (K!). stamens 6.. leaf-blades with large deflexed chartaceous auricles fringed with long bristles (25 mm long).c. alt. Maliwun. Parker wrote that ‘it is a gregarious scrambling bamboo. Karathuri-Bokpyin Range. otherwise glabrous. 22-nerved. light brown hairs near the apex and along the middle vein and the margins. sterile. 12 mm long.30 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 bearing modified blades. Rogers 322 (K!). tips 3 mm long. 25–30 mm long. leaf-blades. 1919. and the flowering branches. Ecology. N. Mergui. stigmas 3. fl.— Mergui. Notes. blades spreading or deflexed. fl. the ground in the flowered areas being covered with seedlings’. Yangwa Khlong. remains of the style 30 mm long. and large auricles. Young fruit obovoid. 1 March 1927. paleas 25 by 8 mm. Sungkaew & Pattanavibool 12 (BKF!.— Southern Thailand and southern Myanmar.. 6 Jan. lodicules absent. are Dendrocalamus inflorescences (Dransfield & Wong.— This species resembles Neohouzeoua kerriana in having a bushy habit with young slender culms projecting above it. fl. 8 Dec. acuminate with long tips. Etymology. 26 Feb..— On slopes of secondary growth or forest. l. l. Parker 2733 (holotype K!). the leafy branches match those of Neohouzeoua fimbriata. bristles up to 12 mm long. Vernacular. Su Koe 10980 (K!). 21-nerved. and large leaf-blades. 1917. which is chosen as the type of Dendrocalamus longifimbriatus. 19 March 1925. lemmas 15– 18 by 8 mm. K!)].5 mm in diam. In the letter it says that this bamboo is called Dendrocalamus longifimbriatus Gamble. Spikelets 20–25 mm long.. 2. Sukos 7659 (K!). alt. Parker 2736 (K!). apex bifid. Haniff & Noor SNF2066 (K!. It differs from the latter in having large deflexed or flared auricles of the culm leaves. and sheaths/subtending bracts in the inflorescences.— The specific name is based on the long bristles found along the margins of the large auricles of culm-leaves. fl. not exceeding the palea. the ligule with long fimbriae. Mergui. with long bristles. sterile. 3 m. cylindrical. Distribution. fl. fringed with long bristles. 1925. 1200 m.. light brown hairs near the apex. alt. R. 40 m.). occasionally climbing to a height of 40 ft. in prep. Maungpok Nwalabo ridge. sterile. SING!)]. 1–3 cm long. In fact Dendrocalamus longifimbriatus was described based on mix specimens.
rarely with modified blades 19 mm long glabrous glabrous 2 mm long ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Dr Kongkanda Chayamarit of the Forest Herbarium. erect. Neohouzeoua A. Thai For. glabrous large. with long bristles ovate-lanceolate. with modified blades and deflexed auricles 20 – 25 mm long pubescent near the apex hairy near the apex 3 mm long Habit Culms erect erect. (Bot. kerriana and N. Bull. . N. Camus. thick. nov. laciniate medium. deflexed 4 mm long. flared with long bristles racemose hairy. Bangkok (BKF). Soejatmi Dransfield received a travel grant from TOBU through Royal Botanic Gardens. Paris 1922: 100–102. relatively thick walled large. UK.) 26: 35–39. 1922. Dransfield. with short bristles racemose hairy. fimbriata mekongensis kerriana arching or scrambling erect. hairy abaxially large. for their help in the field. then drooping to the ground. erect. thin walled Auricle of culmleaves Blades of culmleaves Ligules of culmleaves Leaf-blades Auricles of leafblades Inflorescence Subtending bracts or sheaths Spikelet Lemma Palea Palea tip small. deflexed very short. REFERENCES Camus. Report on fieldwork collecting bamboos in Thailand. with long bristles lanceolate. and her staff. relatively thick walled large. Bull. minutely serrate large. Camus. gen. Kew. Comparative morphology of Neohouzeoua mekongensis A. flared. with short bristles lanceolate. with or without modified blades and erect auricles 25 mm long densely hairy towards the apex densely hairy near the apex 2 mm long fimbriata arching or scrambling erect. 1997. erect. A. deflexed 3 mm. Mus. then drooping to the ground. S.TWO NEW SPECIES OF NEOHOUZEOUA (GRAMINEAE-BAMBUSOIDEAE) FROM THAILAND AND MYANMAR 31 Table 1. glabrous small with long bristles much branched racemose glabrous. laciniate large. stramineous.
E. C. G. tip of leaf-blade. H. Ka. inflorescence terminating leafy branch. spikelet. B. F. . apex of style. J. back. A. front. Neohouzeoua kerriana: A. G–K from the type. lemma. apex of style. Kb. palea. part of inflorescence borne on leafless branch. D. tip of palea. Drawn by Soejatmi Dransfield. ovary and stamens. C–D from Sungkaew & Pattanavibool 13.32 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Figure 1. auricle of leaf-blade.
TWO NEW SPECIES OF NEOHOUZEOUA (GRAMINEAE-BAMBUSOIDEAE) FROM THAILAND AND MYANMAR 33 Figure 2. F. D. J. . Drawn by Soejatmi Dransfield. G. inflorescence. C–J from the type. lemma. ovary and stamens. B from Sungkaew & Pattanavibool 12. H. apex of leaf-blade. B. spikelet. Neohouzeoua fimbriata: A. fruit. C. apex of plea. E. palea. apex of style. A.
Rudimentary ovary pilose at apex. arched and anastomosing well away from the margin. Female flowers solitary. Following the discovery of female and fruiting specimens of Diospyros coaetanea. 15–17 mm long. Leaves elliptic or oblong. National Park.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son. Deciduous tree. BULL. Phitsanulok. Fletcher was based on specimens with male flowers only. Bangkok 10900. 5 mm in diam. Corolla urceolate. Type: Thailand. glabrous. 2: 366. Calyx campanulate. pedicel 2–3 mm long. Ovary ovoid. Using this material an emended description of D. blackish-tomentose on both sides.R. (Ebenaceae) was treated for the Flora of Thailand by Phengklai (1981). En. Phengklai in Fl. grey or black. (BOT. ± 20 by 7 cm. scalariform veins inconspicuous on lower surface.) 31: 34–38. Bangkok 10900. Siam. 8-locular. up to 20 m high. 56. Calyx campanulate. Duangjai 9 (BKF)]. pubescent on lower surface. 1–2. Bark scaly. CENTRAL: Saraburi [Phu Khae. base acute.5–7. endosperm smooth. apex of calyx lobes acuminate. glabrous inside. 1938. 6–10 mm long. female and fruiting specimens were discovered. inconspicuous on upper surface. . Fruit a berry. 4(–5)-merous. SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchaburi [Thong Pha Phum. 1937: 383. coaetanea is presented here.THAI FOR. **The Forest Herbarium. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. Duangjai 11 (BKF)]. lateral veins in ± 20 pairs. A new description of Diospyros coaetanea (Ebenaceae) SUTEE DUANGJAI* & CHAMLONG PHENGKLAI** ABSTRACT.5–5 cm. lobes not reflexed or plicate or undulate. C. subcoriaceous to coriaceous. tomentose outside. Mae Hong Son. Thailand. 5. Corolla tubular. divided to one-quarter. Figs. glabrous inside. Fletcher. 8 mm in diam. rounded or depressed at both ends. lobes as long as calyx-tube.5 by 3. blackish-tomentose on both sides.R. glabrous. EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima [Sakaerat. Chatuchak. pedicel 2–3 mm long.. prominent on lower surface. apex acute. 6–10 mm long. S. 5–17 mm long. tomentose on top. Kew Bull. without nerves. glabrous. SOUTH-EASTERN: Chachoengsao. Faculty of Forestry. the description and keys to this species are emended. During recent fieldwork by Sutee Duangjai in Kanchanaburi. Nakhon Ratchasima and Saraburi. Thailand. The description of Diospyros coaetanea H. S. lobes as long as calyx-tube. Fig. style solitary. succulent. Stamens 10–16. The genus Diospyros L. inner bark reddish. 4–5-merous. *Department of Forest Biology. fruiting calyx divided to middle.. Kasetsart University. Diospyros coaetanea H. tomentose on both sides. glabrous. Thailand 2 (4): 385. 2003. Staminodes 6–10. Male flowers cymose or paniculate. Duangjai 10 (BKF)]. stigmas 4. Thailand. Lampang. tomentose outside. glabrous on upper surface. Chatuchak. Kerr 5466 (holotype BM). petiole 7–10 mm long. in Fl. fruit-stalk 9–15 by 7–9 mm. S. divided to one-fifth. 1981. glabrous.
leaves hairy 29.5–7. REFERENCE Phengklai. fruit-stalk 7–9 mm across 56. Fruiting calyx 4-merous 10. fruit-stalk up to 4 mm across 54. D.5 cm across. D. wallichii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are grateful to Mrs Jintana Boonchern for preparing the line drawings. fruit 5. glandulosa We have also emended the key to fruiting specimens as follows: 15. Flora of Thailand 2(4): 281–392. Apex of fruiting calyx-lobes acuminate. D. corolla-lobes villous or tomentose outside. Apex of fruiting calyx-lobes acute. ferrea 16. areolata 24b. pendula 17b.5–7. corolla-lobes tomentose outside. In: Smitinand. Fruit up to 1 cm across 16. T.A NEW DESCRIPTION OF DIOSPYROS COAETANEA (EBENACEAE) (S.5 cm across 17. fruiting March– August.— Lam ta khwai (ล่ําตาควาย) (Northern). Fruiting calyx not dilated 17a. D. PHENGKLAI) 35 Distribution. D. Vernacular. & Larsen. Calyx divided to one fifth or a half. D. Flowering March–May. DUANGJAI & C. 1981. leaves glabrous 24a. Fruit 1. D. coaetanea 17. calyx divided to a half 56. K. The key to Diospyros based on female specimens in the Flora of Thailand is emended as follows: 23. corolla-lobes glabrous or only hairy along mid-line outside. calyx divided to one-fifth 26. Ebenaceae. (eds). C. Fruiting calyx 3-merous 3. Corolla campanulate.— Endemic to Thailand. Calyx divided to base or nearly so.— In mixed deciduous forest. Stigmata 4 24. Uses. . Corolla urceolate. coaetanea 24. D.— The fruits are edible. Fruiting calyx dilated between lobes 55. Ecology. buxifolia 15. fruit up to 5 cm across. corolla-lobes villous outside.
C. E. F. Scale bars = 1 cm. Diospyros coaetanea H. D. young fruit. B. F from Duangjai 10 (BKF). A from Duangjai 11 (BKF). B-E. Drawn by J. Fletcher: A.R. . fruit. C from Duangjai 9 (BKF). seed. female flower. male flower.36 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 A B C D E F Figure 1. habit. Boonchern.
female flower.A NEW DESCRIPTION OF DIOSPYROS COAETANEA (EBENACEAE) (S.R. leaves. Fletcher: A. DUANGJAI & C. . D. PHENGKLAI) 37 A B C D Figure 2. Diospyros coaetanea H. fruit. male flowers. C. B.
ornatum. in terra calcarea sylvarum deciduarum crescenti. there is also a striking difference in the ecological requirements of the two taxa. (BOT. Spatholirion calcicola a new species from northern Thailand is described and illustrated. Nan. L!. ornatum KAI LARSEN & SUPEE SAKSUWAN LARSEN* ABSTRACT. ornatum in northern Thailand is a different species. P!). Denmark. the distribution and variation of Spatholirion ornatum Ridl. 2003. and that it “would be interesting to refind the species in southern Thailand and study the life form under the more humid climatic conditions here”. ornatum Ridl. K!. foliis ellipticis utrinque pallide viridibus. in Thailand was discussed. besides an old collection from Tomoh (= To Mo) in southern Thailand. all the other collections of the species were from the northern part of the country.S. Larsen sp. In BKF there is also a collection “C. & S.S. Larsen et al. BULL. studied in the wild. Typus: Thailand. caule ad basin cum innovationibus numerosis. ornatum were found. ornato Ridl. A key to Spatholirion in Thailand and adjacent areas is provided. *Department of Systematic Botany. differt caulibus non radicantibus. 1. the material from northern Thailand is described here as a new species.) 31: 39–43. what has previously been treated as S. Hala-Bala is situated on the Thai-Malaysian border adjacent to the Belum Nature Reserve in Malaysia. 46420 (holotypus AAU!. isotypi BKF!. It was also stated that the collections from northern Thailand. Besides the morphological differences. radicibus crassis tuberiferis. There it was stated that. In this habitat several populations of S. axe inflorescentiae floribusque masculinis violaceis. . University of Aarhus. Fig. 212” from Waeng. nov. did not match Ridley’s description in every detail. A NEW SPECIES OF SPATHOLIRION In an earlier paper (Larsen & Larsen. In 1995 the Thai-Danish Botanical Expedition visited Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary in Narathiwat province.S. Therefore. Kurosaki is shown to be synonymous with S. 1994).THAI FOR. dark and rich in humus. Spatholirion calcicola K. 1896): and therefore. These specimens fully match Ridley’s original description (Ridley. A S. A new species of Spatholirion (Commelinaceae) from Thailand and further notes on S. Spatholirion decumbens Fukuoka & N. The surroundings consist of primary evergreen forest with acid soil. near Waeng is close to the old mining village of To Mo visited by Ridley and from where he described S. named Sirindhorn Falls. The locality.
margin densely woolly. Inflorescence on a ca. Seeds browish. Larsen et al. pubescent. angulate.n. Geobot. 5 by 3 mm. 15–20 mm broad with pointed apex. perianth 3–4 mm long. and has been found to have the same number. particularly along the midvein in the lower part. at base of limestone cliffs. Tham Pa Toob. the outer whorl somewhat broader. Larsen 2762 (AAU)]. ornatum has now been counted for the first time. ornatum. otherwise sparsely pubescent on the upper surface. reniform with an orange aril. 1 mm long. Put 4010 (K). 43586 (AAU. 1995. K. Its flowers are preserved in alcohol and colour slides are deposited in AAU. 1963. Larsen et al. Rachis of inflorescence pubescent. 25 Aug. in shade among limestone boulders. anther ca. decumbens Fukuoka & N. 400 m. Kerr 3617 (K). K.40 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Acaulescent herb with innovation shoots at base. alt. Narathiwat. Bot. attenuate or truncate to cordate at base. Ecology. isotypes BKF!. alt. Flower buds with dense yellowish pubescence of patent hairs. 9–20 by 7–12 cm. Machado s. 24 May 1915. . stamens with a ca. limestone. 5 mm long filament. rugged limestone hills covered with secondary. 2–4 mm broad. Capsule puberulous. alt. 4 mm. ca. Sangkhachand 92 (BKF). Mae Huat. S.. Bract spathaceous. mixed deciduous forest and bamboo thicket. Nan [Tham Pa Toob. Pratu Pha. 1995. 46420 was chosen as the holotype as the chromosome number was determined from this plant. green on both sides. Legeh at Tomoh. Note. elliptic. stamens ca. 350 m. Leaves: petiole up 25 cm long. 7–10 mm long. NORTHERN: Chiang Mai [along the road Fang-Chiang Mai. stems not rooting. from living material brought back and grown at AAU.— Growing in crevices in limestone rocks or in scree.— S. 1931. Acta Phytotax. (lectotype SING!. Kurosaki. Kerr 20573 (K). L!. on rocks. Ovary minute. 1 cm long. K!. when opened subrotund to lanceolate. J. lamina sparsely pubescent on upper side.— Larsen et al. Jae Sawn Nat. Maxwell 95585 (BKF). BKF. Aug. apex acute to acuminate. FURTHER NOTES ON S. All three species have 2n=20. Lampang [Pang Puai. Ngao. Fig. Thailand. Bisexual inflorescence cream-coloured with 1–2 flowers. 1896. perianth subequal in length. 10 km N of Nan. 48: 147. 20 by 7–8 mm. Larsen & Larsen (1994. 1997. 13 Sept. pistil ca. 350−500 m. ORNATUM Spatholirion ornatum Ridl. 420 m. 500 m alt. Peduncle densely woolly. remaining inflorescence a panicle of male flowers. 250 m.— Without locality. 5–6 cm long peduncle with one basal bract enclosing the bisexual flowers. roots thick with spherical or fusiform storage tubers. 4–5 mm broad. Ngao. male flowers violet. 46420 (holotype AAU!. 9 July 1965. Sept. selected here). PSU) ]. P!). isolectotype K!. similar to the bisexual ones but smaller in all parts. This number refers to S. Distribution. 31) gave the chromosome number 2n=20 for S. not developing. alt. Cytology.— Endemic to northern Thailand.— All three species have been studied with regard to chromosome number. 1896: 329. Smitinand & Phengklai 8871 (BKF)]. canaliculate at base. alt. calcicola. Type: Thailand. Park. 3-valved.
calcicola) is excluded. S. petioles densely sericiously hairy with white hairs. Faden kindly read the manuscript. upper sides dark green. ornatum. Spatholirion decumbens thus falls within the circumscription of Sphatholirion ornatum when the northern material (now assigned to S. Øllgaard provided a latin traslation of the diagnosis. and they also misinterpreted the collections from northern Thailand in BKF. Consequently. ORNATUM 41 We have studied the type material of S. Pranom Chantaranothai and Mr Thaweesak Thitimetharoch for further information on the occurrence of S. calcicola for growing in the greenhouses in Aarhus. The sheet at Kew consists of one leaf and a packet containing a few flowers. Dr R. Thus it is reduced here to a synonym of S. . Leaves ovate with ± cordate base. Malaysia) 2. However. There are no significant differences between these new collections and the material of Ridley.B. male flowers violet. nor the material cited in Larsen & Larsen (1994). roots thin. both sides pale green. longifolium 1. On acid soil in evergreen forest (West Malaysia: Kelantan. Erect or decumbent herbs. upper sides patently hairy. calcicola in Thailand. Dr B. Thailand: Narathiwat) S. decumbens has recently been collected in Narathiwat province is very close to the type locality. According to their paper they saw a photo of the type collection in Kew. ornatum and S. ornatum deposited in K and SING. Inflorescence pale violet. calcicola ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are greatly indebted to Dr Christian Tange who forded a flooded valley in the limestone area North of Nan in order to bring back living material of S. stems rooting at the lower nodes. The field work was supported by the Danish Natural Science Research Council grant no 11-07-11 and the Carlsberg Foundation supported several visits to herbaria in Europe. it may even be the same place. Scandent herb. ornatum 2. Fukuoka & Kurasaki (1997) described their collection as a new species. decumbens. The following key will help to identify Spatholirion in Thailand and adjacent regions. stems not rooting. petioles less hairy. During our expedition to that area in 1995 we were told by the Head of a local forest station that members of the Japanese expedition were very interested in the plant. male flowers yellow-white. ornatum. but mistook the material from northern Thailand to be S. the sheet in SING has been selected here as the lectotype. roots thick with spherical storage tubers. We are also indebted to Prof. In crevices of calcareous rocks or at the base of calcareous boulders in deciduous forest (northern and north-eastern Thailand) S. as Fukuoka & Kurasaki correctly point out. ornatum and our new species. Leaves elliptic with attenuate or truncate to cordate base. leaves lanceolate to lanceolate-elliptic. leaves elliptic or ovate (Southern Thailand. Inflorescence creamy white. In 1994 a Japanese expedition to Thailand visited the area at Waeng in Narathiwat province and collected material of Spatholirion. which is now grown as an ornamental at the station. they did not see the better type material in SING. KEY TO THE SPECES OF SPATHOLIRION 1. long acuminate (China) S. however.A NEW SPECIES OF SPATHOLIRION (COMMELINACEAE) FROM THAILAND AND FURTHER NOTES ON S. It seems clear to us that this is a duplicate taken from the better material in SING. undersides purple. almost glabrous. The plate was skilfully drawn by Piyakaset Suksathan. a clear difference between the southern material and the material from northern Thailand. There is. They also give a very good description of the main differences between S. There is no doubt that the locality where S.
) 22: 89–91. Fukuoka. 109–128. Ridley. Larsen. S.42 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 REFERENCES Faden. K. & Larsen. N. Geobot. Blumea 11: 427–493. B.N. Commelianaceae. 1998. N. J. 1962. Lond. A new species of Spatholirion (Commelinaceae) from Peninsular Thailand. & Kurosaki. 48: 147–150. Bot. Springer-Verlag. Spatholirion ornatum (Commelinaceae) in Thailand.S. (Bot. . Acta Phytotax. 1997. (eds). 34: 329–330. Thai For. 1994. In: Kubitzki. K. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants IV: Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Berlin. 1896. A new genus of Commelinaceae. Reliquiae Kerrianae. pp. M. R. H. Bull. Jacobs. et al.
inflorescence. bisexual flower. 46420 (AAU). D. All from Larsen et al. habit. ORNATUM 43 Figure 1. male flower. Spatholirion calcicola: A. . B. E. stamen. F. Suksathan. seed seen in front and back view. C. G. Drawn by P. H–I. open capsule.A NEW SPECIES OF SPATHOLIRION (COMMELINACEAE) FROM THAILAND AND FURTHER NOTES ON S. lower part of infructescence with capsule.
simplex (Moldenke) Chen. Clerodendrum lasiocephalum and C. Songkhla 90112. Prince of Songkla University. Type: India.— Clerodendrum venosum Wall. Type: Thailand. Clarke var. simplex and C. (BOT. simplex differs consistently in the length of the corolla tube. This variety can be easily separated from the typical variety by the dense hairs on the twigs and the lower surface of the leaves. alt. It is known only from the type collection. simplex Moldenke. Clarke in Hook. 2003. ca. 1970. Notes on Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) CHARAN LEERATIWONG* & PRANOM CHANTARANOTHAI** ABSTRACT. Bull. var. Type: Thailand. Clerodendrum farinosum var. Misc. Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. Khon Kaen University.. **Applied Taxonomic Research Center. Clerodendrum farinosum (Roxb. Thailand. Kerr 6190 (lectotype BK!. Moldenke). A.THAI FOR. Myanmar and Thailand (except the peninsular part) to China. Misc. Therefore the former is reduced to the synonymy of the latter. A new combination. Fletcher. Faculty of Science. Ban Musseo.R. — C. alt. mixed forest.. Fletcher) C. Mishmee. chinense var. venosum. Chiang Mai. Six lectotypes are selected. F. chinense var.R. Bull. Kew 1938: 205.) Walp. selected here. Kerr 6190 had been named as C. philippinum Schauer var. Kew 1938: 428. lasiocephalum C. var. Phytologia 20: 338. Therefore. Daniel & Rajendran (1993) proposed C. isolectotype K!). pubescens is made. Floto 7634 (holotype herb. Griffith 6055 (holotype K!). However.f. BULL. Chantaranothai comb. 1885. Brit.. with a single layer of five lobes. macrophyllum are reduced to synonymy of C. . The species is widespread from India. Clerodendrum lasiocephalum is similar to C. pubescens by Fletcher (1938). 1938. pubescens H. Inform. Me Tun. ex C. schmidtii var. 400 m. nov. Khon Kaen 40002. venosum var. farinosum as the correct name for V. nov. Although closely related to the typical variety. Department of Biology. India 4: 594. var.— C. Novon 1: 58. Thailand. schmidtii. it is necessary to make a new varietal combination. Fl.B. The following nomenclatural and typification changes have arisen from work being carried out for the Flora of Thailand Clerodendrum account. Clerodendrum smitinandii is recorded from Cambodia and Vietnam for the first time. 600 m. Faculty of Science. respectively. Leeratiwong & P.F. pubescens (H. 1991.B. *Department of Biology.. 1938. Fletcher.) 31: 44– 46. synon. Inform.G. between Tak and Mae Sot. simplex.
Variety macrophyllum was based on Charoenphol. Kampot.B.— C. 20 km south of Koh Chang. Clerodendrum schmidtii C.G. respectively. & M. Type: Thailand. selected here. isolectotypes BM!. Kew 1914: 284.S. Misc. macrophyllum Moldenke. Inform. hastato-oblongum C.B.F. collected from Mt Basi. Clarke var. Misc. Inform. Pong Namrawn. CHANTARANOTHAI) 45 Clerodendrum garrettianum Craib. 1914. Chang Island.1972. Clerodendrum lloydianum is widespread in Thailand (except the peninsular part) and Indo-China.— C. obovate or cordate leaves. The syntypes were collected by botanists from Malaysia and Indonesia. The latter collection is selected as the lectotype. Klawng Nonsi. Craib (1911) described C. Phytologia 23: 180. Phrae. Bull. Bull. LEERATIWONG & P. isolectotype K!). Kerr 1309 (BM!. However. A.. Schmidt 692a (holotype C). The species is widespread from southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra. The species is widespread in north-eastern to southeastern Thailand and Indo-China. 26: 173. schmidtii C. umbratile by King and Gamble (1908). We conclude that Moldenke's variety (1972) does not warrant separation at that rank. Trat. as it is a comprehensive well preserved specimen. Phytologia 7: 79. Trat. Chiang Mai province. Tidsskr. 26: 173. Misc. are the first records for Cambodia and Vietnam. Charoenphol. Larsen & Warncke 5022. Bot. selected here. Clerodendrum umbratile King & Gamble. Tidsskr. Type: Thailand. 1908. Type: Thailand. Schmidt 740 (lectotype K!. Bot. Clarke. 1911. which has ovate. Koh Rangyai. Clerodendrum lloydianum Craib. 1959. Kerr 1435 (lectotype K!. May– July 1927. Vanpruk 499 (lectotype K!.B. The species is widespread from north and north-eastern Thailand to Indo-China. Doi Suthep. Type: Thailand. Kew 1908: 110. K) which was collected from Mt Bokor. 1904. intermediates exist between this variety and the typical plant. Chiang Mai. Vietnam. Smitinand 3197 (holotype herb. Dr King's collector 722 is selected here as the lectotype because it is in better condition than the other syntypes. Type: Malaysia: Perak. Type: Thailand. K!) and Kerr 1435.NOTES ON CLERODENDRUM (LAMIACEAE) (C. Larsen & Warncke 5022 (holotype AAU.. Clerodendrum smitinandii Moldenke. Eleven syntypes were cited in the protologue of C. Trat. Klawng Son. Moldenke). garrettianum based on two specimens. Chang Island. Cambodia and J. from Doi Suthep. selected here). Clarke. selected here). nov. Type: Thailand: Chanthaburi. . Kew 1911: 443. K!). Inform. Bull.. syn. 1904. Smitinand & Abbe 6519 (BKF. isotype BKF!). Dr King’s collector 722 (lectotype K!. Clemens 4261 (K).
and Thailand. QBG and US. Contributions to the Flora of Siam. BKF. Novelties from Brazil. Kew 1938: 199–209. isolectotype K!). Inform. K.continued. 1993. Contributions to the Flora of Siam. Misc. Fletcher.46 THAI FOREST BULLEIN (BOTANY) 31 Clerodendrum vanprukii Craib. Phytologia 23: 180–181. Type: Thailand. Inform. We also thank Dr David Simpson (K) for providing some information. the correct name for C. BRT 541075. BM. Misc. 1908. Additamentum XLIX. P. Bull. Taxon 42: 669–670. Inform. Venezuela.. Moldenke. List of Siamese plants with descriptions of new species . Bull. Anon.. selected here. H. 1911. BK. Kew 1911: 444. PSU.R. Vanpruk 207 (lectotype K!. Kew 1911: 443. Peru. LINN. venosum (Verbenaceae). 1911. Bull. Decades XLVII–XLVIII.. in some cases. This study is supported by the Biodiversity Research Program. W. Daniel. A. Bull..N. . 1972. 1938. for assistance during our visits to the institutions: BCU. & Rajendran. Decades kewenses. Misc. Inform. Clerodendrum vanprukii is endemic to northern Thailand. Phrae: Huai Kamin. Thailand. Plantarum novarum in herbario Horti Regii conservatarum. Kew 1908: 110.G. Misc. Clerodendrum farinosum. REFERENCES Craib. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We sincerely thank curators and staff of the following herbaria for the loan of material and. II. H.
National Park.Br.Br. and M.) 31: 47– 52. pectinata. been accepted as the northern limit of the distributional range of M. Subsequent research revealed that this species was Matonia pectinata R. Tryon & Lugardon. Bangkok 10900. 2003. the family is represented by only four species in two genera that are restricted to Southeast Asia. SOMRAN SUDDEE**. for many years. (BOT. DAVID J. 1985. 2000). The fern species Matonia pectinata R. pectinata R. 1988. was found near the summit of Phu Pha Mek.Br. and that another plant (specimen at BKF but its existence unpublished) had been collected in Yala province in February 2000. Riau Archipelago. Moluccas and New Guinea. It has a widespread and diverse fossil record (interpreted as 11 or more genera. 1968. pectinata. 1993): M. Kedah Peak. has recently been collected in two provinces in Peninsular Thailand (Trang and Yala). *Harvard University Herbaria. Matoniaceae is a small family of primitive leptosporangiate ferns. The two genera (which differ most noticeably in their ecological preferences and frond architecture) are Matonia and Phanerosorus. Boonkerd & Pollawatn. Its discovery there and in Yala raises the interesting possibility that more Malaysian species may yet be discovered on some of the underexplored mountains of Peninsular Thailand. 1998) but. Nishida et al. clearly absent from the pteridological literature for Thailand (see Tagawa & Iwatsuki. Trang is also the new northern limit of the known distributional range of M. During a plant collecting trip to the Khao Banthat Mountain Range in Trang province during 2003 a very unusual fern species. a mountain in the Kedah province of Peninsular Malaysia has. 22 Divinity Avenue. pectinata. today. Kramer. as a result of the discoveries reported here. foxworthyi Copel. 1979. see Holttum. MIDDLETON* & RACHUN POOMA** ABSTRACT. 1989. These two collections represent not only the first records for M. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department.a new family record for Thailand STUART LINDSAY*. USA. 1954. MA 02138.THAI FOR. Cambridge. Matonia has two species that are very similar (Kato. **The Forest Herbarium. However.. 1990. known from Borneo. Lingga Archipelago and Sumatra. the genus Matonia and the family Matoniaceae in Thailand. These collections represent the first records for this species. 1990. the Khao Banthat Mountain Range in Trang province of Peninsular Thailand has become the new northern limit of the known distributional range of M. BULL. . Chatuchak. the Philippines. known (until now) from Peninsular Malaysia. Matoniaceae (Pteridophyta) . pectinata in Thailand but also the first records for the genus Matonia and the family Matoniaceae in Thailand.. Thailand.
each with very distinctive frond architecture: Matonia R. 1968). an equal number (5–13) of progressively shorter pinnae. Fl. pinnae pectinate. Malaya 2: 59–60. Kramer in Kubitzki. 1990. 1840. deeply lobed. and densely covered with shiny. trilete. pedate. lamina perpendicular to stipe (umbrella-like). MATONIA Matonia R. t. pale. t. much longer than lamina. indusia. Parris. Sori: on the underside of fronds. 1968). Fl. Rhizome: creeping. multicellular. 5: 285–286. 1954 (also 2: 58–60. Copel. Asiat. consisting of a central pinna and. Fl. stipe brown or chestnut-brown. tricyclic-solenostelic. each consisting of a short thick stalk and a subglobose capsule with an incomplete oblique annulus. hairy at base but glabrous and shiny above. Parris. 1990. Fil. Sarawak 190. in Wall. Pflanzenfam. erect or pendant. multicellular. shiny on top.6.6. densely covered with shiny. 1864. 1847 [Gefässbündel Farrn 32. Terrestrial or lithophytic. sporangia few. 1947. 1926. and Phanerosorus Copel. ser. in one row on each side of costule or midrib. lamina pedate with pectinate pinnae. entire. 1847 was a pre-print of Abh. 172–173. free or .. Gen. Königl. Jermy. Jermy. surface granulate. Type species: Matonia pectinata R. Blumea 38(1): 167–172. Diels in Engler & Prantl (eds. orange-brown. Revis. Two genera. Bower. 3: 289–294. 1993. glabrous or hairy underneath. veins forming costal areoles. & Paul in Jermy. round or elliptic. Rhizome: creeping. 1947. 5(2): 340. 1: 16.. costae glabrous on top. simple or forked pinnules. deciduous.Br. Ferns 2: 220–227. Ges. with revolute margins. Sp. Fil. Vasc. Hook. 2. 1954 (also 2: 59–60. membranous and inrolled in marginal portion. Fam. 1900. 2. usually anastomosing in soriferous portions.16. Vasc.. t. simultaneously maturing. Pl. Revis. t. Terrestrial. Holttum. 1998. 4(194): 343–350. Kato.) Studies on the flora of Gunung Mulu National Park. t. 1848]. Böhm. Spores: tetrahedral-globose.. 172. Wiss. forked. uniseriate hairs. thick in central portion.) Nat. often glaucous and papillate underneath. dorsiventral. & Bauer. Copel. Kato. 1998.Br. Studies on the flora of Gunung Mulu National Park. dorsiventral.Br. in 1–3 layers in a circle around receptacle. Gefässbündel Farrn 32. or alternately pinnate with pinnae consisting of resting buds or bud-derived leaflets and linear. on each side of that. Rar. veins free or only weakly anastomosing in sterile portions. 1: 183–185. 1984. 1984. Sarawak 189. Fil. Fam. uniseriate hairs. pale-brown or orange-brown.43. & Paul in Jermy (ed. Gen. dicyclic-solenostelic or tricyclic-solenstelic. Malesiana ser. peltate. Fil. stipes slightly or very hairy at base (hairs identical to those on rhizome) but glabrous and shiny above. Gen. large. Hook. Fl.5. Kramer in Kubitzki. Pl. symmetrical. Fronds: alternate on the dorsal side of the rhizome. erect. Holttum. Gen. pinna segments linear-oblong and obtuse or narrowly deltoid and acute. Only Matonia is known in Thailand. Malesiana ser.. 2nd ed. 2nd ed. Kato. Camus. Malaya 2: 58–60. Camus. Presl. 3: 290–292. 1829. coriaceous. Gen.48 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 MATONIACEAE Matoniaceae C.6. linear. 1: 183–185. Fronds: alternate in two rows on the dorsal side of the rhizome. Pl.
pectinata is a thicket-forming fern adapted to poor sandy soils. sporangia 5–10 in one layer arranged in a tight circle around a prominent. Chamchumroon. surface granulate. 2000.5 cm apart. 2(3): 388. and 40–135 cm long. Puudjaa & S. India 2: 186.. P. Thailand. Matonia pectinata R. 1200 m. M.. 1815.. 1968). Spores: tetrahedral-globose. L)]. Sori and spores as in genus description above except that Thai specimens of M. indusia hemispherical. 3–3. Chonkunjana 6082 (BKF)]. BKF.— In Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia M.J. Throughout its range. Niyomdham. Rhizome: 4–6 mm in diam. capsules subglobose-polygonal with incomplete oblique annuli. pl. pl. Riau Archipelago. Only M. 1954 (also 2: 59–60. Revis. Sangala Khiri Mountain Range. 1993. 186. in Wall. Yala [Betong District. round. 1520 m. narrowly deltoid and acute and usually oblique and falcate. trilete. t. Mt Ophir (present day Gunung Ledang. Rar. Sp.. C. & Bauer.— PENINSULAR: Trang [Yan Ta Khao District. Khao Banthat Mountain Range. Pteridium aquilinum (L. Brit.Br.e. Fil.. 3: 289–292. receptacle. 5: 285–286. Blumea 38: 167–172. Bedd.1200 m. Distribution. near the summit at ca. usually 0–3 per segment (but occasionally 4 or 5). 10–26 shorter lateral pinnae (i. Holttum. Sarawak Mus. and M. Ann. Ecology.n. Fig. Lindsay. Type: Peninsular Malaysia. Hook. Handb.— Peninsular Malaysia. Pl. M. Tansley & Lulham. Copel. central pinna 15–38 cm long. Kato. Fl. seen on microfiche). often distributed with a bias towards the basiscopic sides of segments. near summit of Phu Pha Mek. Bedd. Hook.MATONIACEAE (PTERIDOPHYTA) -A NEW FAMILY RECORD FOR THAILAND 49 only weakly anastomosing in sterile portions of segments. Lingga Archipelago and Sumatra. and densely covered with shiny orange-brown hairs. pinna segments up to 2 cm long and 4–7 mm broad at base. pectinata R. pectinata has also been found at sea level. Kato. stipes 1–7 mm in diam.. pale. Pooma & S.. Suwanachat 1992 (A. Ferns Brit. lamina approximately 20–50 cm diam. pectinata is known in Thailand. t. Asiat. Middleton. Wallich List no. Farquhar s. 23 Feb. (Oxford) 19(76): 475–519. 1. 1840. S. 1866. always anastomosing in soriferous portions (sori centred on small circular veins fed by 5–9 radial veinlets). D. Fronds: 1–4. persistent. 31–33. Johor).Br.) Kuhn and various Gleichenia and Dicranopteris species . on each side of the central pinna). Fil. 1829. V. BCU. Malacca. Malaya 2: 59–60. Two very similar species: M.16 (illustrations of the holotype). Bot. peltate. India 19 1883. In the Riau and Lingga Archipelagos M. thick in central portion and membranous and inrolled in marginal portion. 1998.43 (illustrations of the holotype). Malesiana ser. 1: 16. 1917. 1864. pectinata grows only in exposed areas or in relatively open scrub on or near the tops of isolated mountains at altitudes of 750–2000 m. pectinata often grows with other thicket-forming ferns such as Dipteris conjugata Reinw. Gen. Sori: on the underside of fronds. 1905. foxworthyi Copel. (holotype K-W. an equal number (5–13). J. Fl. pectinata have 5–8 sporangia per sorus (and most commonly 6).184. Ferns. deciduous. R. 2.5 mm long. 2nd ed. 7 April 2003.
E. Berlin. 183–185. ________. Matoniaceae.. A.). stipes up to 180 cm long and laminae up to approximately 75 cm in diameter. Plants of Hala-Bala (title in Thai). 1998. A.U. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning.. We would also like to thank Orathai Kerdkaew for the illustrations. 2000) and Gleichenia microphylla R.. (ed. 2.M.— The family and genus descriptions given above are based on specimens of Matoniaceae from throughout the family’s range but the description of Matonia pectinata is based solely on the new Thai material. A. Bangkok. 1968). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants I: Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. The gametophytes of M.C. It remains to be seen whether plants this large will also be found in Thailand. New York. vol.M.S. 2000. 1905. Kuching Forest Department. 1952). like many “primitive” fern species. Bot.Br. Series II.. J. . 1954 (2nd ed. Kramer. Heidelberg. The description of M. R. & Paul. consisting of a central pinna 15–18 cm long and 10–14 shorter lateral pinnae) and stipes that are particularly thin (1–3 mm diam. 1984. pp. Camus. In: Jermy. & Nishida. Ferns of Malaya. 73: 26–34. Singapore.. B. Bangkok. 2000. (eds). It is important to remember that this new Thai material represents only two plants and to be aware that the one in Trang province has laminae that are particularly small (20–25 cm in diam. Ltd. A.. 145–233. K. Parris.C. SpringerVerlag. Matoniaceae. Holttum. Niyomdham. R. J. P. Jermy. pectinata in Flora Malesiana (Kato. Kato. Blumea 38: 167–172. A taxonomic study of the genus Matonia (Matoniaceae). C. & Green. Flora Malesiana. A revised Flora of Malaya. 3: 289–294. M. T.S. Parris et al. 1993. & Pollawatn. Kuching. Government Printing Office. 1998. 1984). pectinata are relatively large and long-lived and.50 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 (Tansley & Lulham. Nishida. Its main associates in Thailand are Dipteris conjugata (see photo on page 68 of Niyomdham. The Pteridophyta of Mulu National Park. M. REFERENCES Boonkerd. Sarawak. 1990. Amarin Printing and Publishing Public Co. can produce multiple embryos (Stokey & Atkinson. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the National Geographic Society for financial support for this work. Permineralized matoniaceous fossils from the Cretaceous of Japan. K. H.). 1998) reports rhizomes up to 8. Yoshida. Thailand. In: Kramer. Jap. Studies on the flora of Gunung Mulu National Park. Note.5 mm in diam.U. and Voradol Chamchumroon and Suwat Suwanachat for their assistance in the field. Pteridophytes in Thailand.. pp..
Spores of the Pteridophyta. ________. Bot.J. ________. 1952. M. New York. 3. L. 2. & Iwatsuki. B. 1905.R. A study of the vascular system of Matonia pectinata. ________. 4.Br. Bangkok. K. 3.B. 1989. 3. part. Flora of Thailand vol. part. & Lugardon. (Oxford). & Atkinson.F. Flora of Thailand vol. The gametophyte and young sporophyte of Matonia pectinata R. 1985. Royal Forest Department. 3.G. Heidelberg. Royal Forest Department. Royal Forest Department. Bangkok.A. Bangkok. part. Bangkok. Tagawa. part. Springer-Verlag. R. 1990. 1979. . Phytomorphology 2(2 & 3): 138–150. 1988. & Lulham. Royal Forest Department. Flora of Thailand vol. Berlin. M. Tansley. Tryon. 1. 3. 19(76): 475–519. Flora of Thailand vol. Ann.MATONIACEAE (PTERIDOPHYTA) -A NEW FAMILY RECORD FOR THAILAND 51 Stokey. A. A.
Matonia pectinata R. A from C. Middleton et al. 1992 (BKF). B–D from D.52 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Figure 1.: A.Br. sorus removed). frond. B. 6082 (BKF).J. . part of pinna showing the venation around one sorus (top segment) and under another (middle segment. rhizome. Drawn by O. C. D. Niyomdham et al. part of pinna with 4 intact sori. Kerdkaew.
. it would appear sensible to retain the family Plantaginaceae as a separate entity until more data from more taxa becomes available. Dublin. Plantago comprises the widespread P. It seems that Olmstead et al. Plantaginaceae comprises three genera and 250–260 species worldwide: Brougiera and Littorella contain three and one species respectively. the fact that these genera cluster together may be a false indication of a close relationship due to the Felsenstein effect or long-branch attraction (Felsenstein. 2003. The family is cosmopolitan. An account of the Plantaginaceae of Thailand JOHN PARNELL* ABSTRACT.. Judd et al. with the latter the larger. (2001) propose the submergence of the Plantaginaceae within a weakly defined clade which they have called the Veronicaceae. the correct name for this clade at family level is Plantaginaceae. pseudo-pedicel presence. 1999). As Olmstead et al. Olmstead et al. major. major which is taken to include P. leaf-lobing.) 31: 53–64. ndhF and rps2. asiatica and P. Therefore. However. Most recently. incomplete. anatomical and more substantial chemical evidence. their analysis shows that the branch lengths linking Plantago and Veronica are very long (209 and 108 respectively) (Olmstead et al. necessarily. At one point in their paper. Though field experience suggests that P. on the basis of DNA sequence data from the plastid genes rbcL. Olmstead et al. Dublin 2. (2001) accept but later they implicitly reject the concept that this clade (Veronicaeae) should be recognised at family level. 1978. seed number. major is fairly frequent throughout Thailand the number of collections housed in herbaria is very few and the distributional data given are. Investigation of stomatal density. being absent only from the Arctic and Antarctic. School of Botany. This is congruent with the opinions of Pilger (1937) & Rahn (1996) who clearly indicate that they consider the family monophyletic with the latter suggesting that the consistent presence of hairs in the leaf axils is an important autapomorphy. Ireland. Trinity College. stomatal length. (2001) indicate the name Plantaginaceae postdates the name Veronicaceae but has priority as it is conserved: therefore. It is closely allied to the Scrophulariaceae and in recent years. The detected difference is both small and the reverse of that expected from previous studies. the rest are all in Plantago. in the narrow conventional sense. with a single native species. 2000). seed size.THAI FOR.. inter-flower spacing and corolla-lobe length revealed that only the latter showed significant difference between material usually assigned to P. Certainly. (2001) prefer to retain the Plantaginaceae as a family. the most recent molecular evidence suggests that there is only weak support for the formation of this new clade (Soltis et al. *Herbarium. BULL. (BOT. asiatica (lectotypified here) and P. erosa (lectotypified here).. 1999). on the basis of rather limited molecular. In these circumstances. the two families have been considered as one (Judd et al. One genus. . is recognised in the Plantaginaceae following revision of Thai and associated materials. 2001).
in A. is currently excluded. spreading and usually reflexed at maturity. Sepals fused. 1852.. AAU. 4. in some introduced species. versatile. stigma bifid. BK. lobes triangular. exserted. Decne. being found as weeds amongst a crop of cumin and P.. Petiole forming a sheath at the base.) and Plantago ovata Forsk. all these species are included in this account and appear in the key..DC. Corolla largely fused. Stamens usually 4 (solitary in Bougeria). Prod. Fruit in all Thai species always a circumscissile capsule. P. (All native Thai material has a distinct blade and petiole. are grown for pharmaceutical use as bulk laxatives (Leung. with long filaments. 13: 694. opening by longitudinal slits. ovules 1-many on an axile placenta. alternating with corolla-lobes. Pl. 1852. the top segment falling off as a lid. major s. ABD. stipules absent. Plantago arenaria Waldst. Decne. Sp. Flowers (3–)4(–5)-merous. long. ovata is cultivated in Thailand: therefore. with ± parallel venation. capitate. Therefore. Bracts small. Leaves simple. therefore. exserted. 1994). BKF. Thai material never subshrubby. usually hermaphrodite. the distributional data given herein are even more than usually tentative. in A. hairs always present in leaf axils. anthers 2celled. Style 1. E.. K and TCD yielded only 59 collections from Thailand. entire or lobed. Inflorescences 3–7. persistent. & Diels. Pilger in Engl. PLANTAGINACEAE Juss. 13: 693–737.. 89. Species descriptions are based on original observations. 269: 1937. particularly Plantago indica L. Upright to spreading annual or perennial herbs with short stems. Leaves mainly radicle. 1753. 1789 (‘Plantagines’). largely of herbarium material.54 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 A survey of herbarium material in A. Ovary superior of 2 carpels. Three genera (only Plantago in Thailand) and ca. & Kit. 1980) and that the mucilage from the husk is used as a thickener in some food products (Chua et al. (listed as Plantago psillium L. 250–260 species. 55 of which are of P. Gen. C. Prod. the latter is sometimes as long as the blade. Pflanzenr. afra and P.DC.. It is known that a number of species. spicate or. margin entire or lobed to toothed. Plantago afra L. usually hairy. scarious. connective prominent. in long or short spikes on long peduncles. Though many collections were duplicated in more than one herbarium.l. has not yet been recorded from Thailand nor any of the immediate surrounding countries and. the family is clearly severely under-collected. Cosmopolitan. lobed. spirally arranged. Pl. As measurements have been taken from dried specimens they may differ slightly from fresh material. equal.. PLANTAGO L. Surprisingly. 112. introduced species may have linear . Plantago lanceolata L. arenaria have escaped from cultivation.
Stamens exserted. P. Stigma ca..AN ACCOUNT OF THE PLANTAGINACEAE OF THAILAND (J. PARNELL) 55 to narrowly ensiform leaves with the petiole not distinguishable from the blade. Hook. selected here). Perennial herb. 1:112. 1753. though often with a long acumen 3 3. Seeds angular. Springate.1 (lectotype LINN!). 41–56: 1937. 1936. Flora of Tamilnadu Carnatic 2: 1285. cream-coloured anthers and fragile white filaments. 1820. in A. Inflorescence capitate. Inflorescence branches hirsute and not evidently papillose (i. & Diels. 4. Rev. ovata 2. Thailand. 2 mm long. anthers often cauducuous. Pl. recurved. Type: Herb. but evidently. Gagnep. Corolla-lobes spreading. major var. Prod. 1753. Pl. broad blade and obvious petiole 1. 60–61: 1937. Corolla lobes reflexed at maturity.. Fl. Involucral bracts with long.) Decne. 269: 56–59: 1937. Hô. Pflanzenr... Decne. Fl. Fl. the upper lacking a long acumen 3. sometimes winged. Plantago major var. Ceylon 3: 389. ciliate hairs 2. 13: 695. Hndbk. with a single basal rosette of leaves. 1852. the lower often well separated from each other the upper usually congested. Inflorescence a spike.DC. Type: Herb Linn. Seeds black.— P. ciliate hairs. three species potentially cultivated. in Grierson & Long. Hand. erosa Wall. Carey) 423. asiatica L. with caducous. 144. lilac to whitish. 13: 694. Pilger in Engl. P. Pflanzenr. Khun Yam. Plantago major L. Prod. Chiang Mai. major 1. Type: Wallich 6412A. Doi Khun Huai Pong. Flowers hermaphrodite. Linn.4 (lectotype LINN!. 13: 694. scarious. Câyco Viêtnam 2: 1109. in Roxb. Inflorescence branches sparsely hirsute and minutely. Prod. 1993. (i. 1923. Bracts of two types.) Trimen. Pflanzenr. 1. P. Indo-Chine 4: 1047. Ridl. 1931.5 mm long. Ed. Fl. 1993. long and very short hairs evident). all similar. Pilger in Engl. silky. in Dassan. Chiang Rai (Doi . 4. India 4: 705. hairs apparently ± the same length). 5–20 cm tall. Fl. in A. & Clayton. ed.2 mm.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son (Kieo Lom).2 mm long. arenaria 3. apiculate. Matthew & Rani in Matthew. 269. 1). Ceylon 6: 237. leaves lacking a distinct broad blade and obvious petiole 2 2.f. Bracts ± ovate to triangular. oval. Sp. Capsule 3–4 mm.DC. rosette present on flowering. 269. 1885. 1895. afra 1. Dassan. 1 1: 113. usually green or brown. silky. selected here). glabrous or hairy.e. inconspicuous. Involucral bracts lacking long. obtuse or acute. much smaller than the flowers. keeled. Pilger in Engl. asiatica (L. exserted. connective 0.) Bracts triangular to ovate or obovate. P. Decne. 2002. asiatica (L. Hand. Sp.— P. leaves with a distinct.1–0. white. One native species in Thailand.e.DC. Flowers in long spikes 5– 15(–20) cm long. 1852. keeled. in A. Doi Inthanon. Doi Pui. Fl. prominent. sometimes largely green other times mostly membranous with a green midrib. Doi Chiang Dao... Alston in Trimen.. lower specimen (lectotype K-W!. keel green when fresh. Hô. Fruit enclosed in the remnants of the perianth segments at maturity. Flora of Bhutan 2: 1342. Bracts ovate to lanceolate. Fl. Ind. Mae Chaem. Mal Pen. 144.. membranous to herbaceous. 1–1. 1852. 4. Stamens 4. 2: 225. ed. Câyco Viêtnam 2: 1109. papillose. Chiang Mai (Mae RimSamoeng. the basal suddenly narrowing to a long acumen 3–4x as long as the base of the bract. & Diels. 1. peltate. brown when dry. 1996. somewhat angular (Fig. the base never suddenly narrowing to a long acumen 4. Calyx 2–2. Ceylon 10: 328–330. Brit. in Lecomte. & Diels. Doi Pa Hom Pok. Om Koi). 1 (ed. the top 50–60% forming a circumscissile capsule. Doi Suthep.— P. 1983.
006 F-value. open and disturbed habitats. asiatica (Thailand) Mean ± Standard Error Corolla-lobe length Stomatal number per mm2 Stomatal length (mm) 0. Rahn (1996) indicated that P.) or Rahn (op. P. 0.25. Mae Chan).) (Table 2). P asiatica L. Notes.02 143 ± 8.56 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Tung.38 0. asiatica Stomatal number per mm2 Stomatal index Seed length (mm) (125–)165(–200) (20. Phitsanulok (Phu Hin Rong Kla. Ecology.— P.7 0. erosa Wall.36 .) also indicated that he believed these species differed as follows: P.2 mm.2(–36. 1993).74 0.1–)27. not confirmed the existence of the putative differences between these species suggested by Linneaus (op. Linneaus (1753) & Barnéoud (1845) distinguished the latter two taxa on the basis that the scape of P.4) ≥2 P. Nan (Muang District. Lamphun (Ban Muang Nga.) or Taiken (op. in Roxb. Table 2. Phu Kha). 0. Taiken et al.256 ± 0. P. major s. major: flowers sessile. Uses. asiatica: flowers borne on a short pedicel-like extension of the calyx. 2n=24. En yuet (เอ็นยืด) (Northern).. p 4. (all non-Thai material) ± Standard Error 0.04 0. Lampang (Jae Son. P. largely recorded from elevations above 500 m and from damp or wet habitats.— Whole plant is powdered and applied to cuts to stop bleeding and infection and to treat strains. asiatica and P. Characteristics of measured material of P. Phrae (Ban Nam Klai. asiatica and P. 2n=12. Corolla lobes ≤1 mm. Mae Mo). Vernacular. major L. SOUTH–WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Sai Yok). asiatica was angled and the flowers were separated from each other along the scape. 0. have all been reported from Southeast Asia. asiatica and P. with a solitary exception. Putative differences between P. major differed in their chromosome number (2n=12 and 2n=24 respectively). Table 1.247 ± 0. Examination of all available Thai material and material from surrounding regions and elsewhere has. cit. asiatica and that P.81 ± 0.— Cosmopolitan.84. major (Taiken et al. and P. erosa was most likely to be a subspecies of P.007 P. major was rounded and the flowers ± imbricate whilst the scape of P. Seeds 6–34 per capsule. major (225–)285(–375) (20. In Peninsular Malaysia a decoction of the plant is used to alleviate coughs.— Ya en yuet (หญาเอ็นยืด). PENINSULAR: Yala Distribution. Mae Krae). (n=100). major. comm. cit. (1993) suggested that these taxa differed in various features shown in Table 1. Phu Miang). Seeds 5–9 per capsule. Corolla lobes >1. cit. (Bannang Sata).03 154 ± 8.9 ± 0.5–)26(–30) ≤2 Rahn (pers. Doi Khun Tan)..— Roadsides.s.81.
It has been already selected as the type. Table 2). Furthermore. erosa is indicated as Wallich 6412 by Dassanayake in Dassanayake & Clayton (1996). others have the flowers congested and all intermediate conditions may be found.) that the corolla-lobes of P.71 Seed length (mm) Seed number / Capsule 1.74 There appears to be no consistent or statistically significant difference between P. whilst some specimens have flowers well separated along the base of the scape. asiatica (144. . as stated before all intermediate conditions between this form and typical P. this finding appears to contradict the suggestion of Rahn (op. varietal rank might be warranted for this taxon. 0. There are two relevant specimens of P. major 0. and material normally assigned to P.13.it shows all the features Linnaeus thought distinctive and I therefore have typified by reference to that specimen. The type of P.56 ± 0. Sorensen.) Decne. On the basis of the available evidence. Larsen & Hansen 1777 (C)) tends to have high stomatal densities (≥ 250 per mm2). asiatica with leaf-lobes.) Lange has identical leaf-lobing to material of P. major and matches current thinking on this species. However. This conclusion is in concord with those of Hooker (1885). Examination of Southeast Asian material attributed to P. major is well summarized by Backer & Bakhuizen van der Brink Jr (1965) who state that ‘the extreme forms differ so much that they might be taken for different species. asiatica. However. in my view.1 mm longer than P. Of these.23 ± 0.59 0.3) in LINN and one of P. stomatal length. The sheet bearing the label 6412A in K-W is labelled P.05 8. no formal lectotypification has been made and 6412 is not an unique reference.20 ± 0. major subsp.at best. 144. asiatica as a separate species I also cannot follow Rahn’s suggestion that P.1 clearly corresponds to Linnaeus’s description of P. (1994). often has lobed leaves and the basal flowers in the inflorescence well separated out from the rest. 144. major (144. cit. major from Europe and elsewhere showed that material assigned to P.29.1). with many mature and younger flowers . major var. Leaf lobing is similarly inconsistently present and the angularity of the scape variable.g. 0.AN ACCOUNT OF THE PLANTAGINACEAE OF THAILAND (J. asiatica warrants recognition at the species level: indeed at present. were it not that they are connected by a series of intergrades’. Backer & Bakhuizen van der Brink (1965) & Chua et al. Corolla lobe length is statistically different between the two species with the lobes of P. As I do not recognise P. PARNELL) 57 0. even subspecific rank appears difficult to justify . Though Trimen (1895) was inclined to recognise this taxon at specific level. preferring varietal status. erosa be treated as a subspecies of P. asiatica. asiatica (L. material labelled as P.4 & 144. major exist. Also. major s. p≤0. The upper has only one mature leaf and is somewhat small and immature. My view of the pattern of variation P. asiatica are longer. erosa and consists of two specimens. also revealed that the pedicel-like extension (pseudo-pedicel) of the calyx is not consistently present in duplicate collections of material. erosa by Rahn (e. asiatica on average (F=4.s.82 1. intermedia (Gilib.5).4 is the more complete. he did not do so. The type of P. If varietal rank is accepted the correct name for such material is P. I do not believe that P. Gagnepain (1936). asiatica has not been chosen. asiatica in respect of stomatal density.05 8.25.05. Comparison of Southeast Asian material with undoubted material of P.81 ± 0. seed length or seed number / capsule (all p>0.
Sys. nom illegit. not seen). in A.— Europe to the Middle East and India. silky. Type: not located.— Cultivated. 51. opposite. Upper parts minutely papillose and sparsely and shortly hirsute.. Type: Egypt.... usually erect herb. Rahn. nom ambig. not seen) & 253 (syntype C. Bot. Decne. 4. Plantago arenaria Waldst. 30(–50) cm tall. it may be sold as ‘Psyllium husk’.— Europe to the Middle East and India.— N/A. Pl. 2. the upper bracts lacking a long acumen. 419. ciliate hairs which are normally numerous. Hung. Distribution. Decne.— Cultivated. 120: 184. sometimes woolly.— N/A. However. mature and with the features of P.. ed. Distribution. 6412E and 6412Suppl. the basal with a very long acumen 3–4 x longer than the rest of the bract. 250 (syntype C. erosa of Wallich. Forsskal 249. & Kit. Presumably it should be designated as 6412B (there is. Thailand. Leaves linear. not seen). 1. erect herb 4–15 cm tall with a rosette of leaves which are upward-pointing when flowering.. 1753. Notes. Fl. 1852. . Flowers in ovate to oblong heads of knobbly appearance. Prod. indica L. Pilger in Engl. Thailand. 1: t.— Plantago psyllium L. 269. Bracts with long.— Used in the pharmaceutical industry and widely cultivated.— P. 10. Sp. Soc. 1759. apparently. 1801.DC. 8: 735. ed.58 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 The lower is well preserved. shortly hirsute. J. 1852. very densely hirsute. & Diels.— Used as a source of laxatives and as a source of food thickeners. Pflanzenr. Therefore I have nominated this specimen as the lectotype. lacking a basal rosette of leaves when flowering. Ecology. All the material (four specimens) on sheet 6412C. Linn. 896. Uses. Prod. with fascicles in the axils and appearing as a whorl of ± equally sized leaves or as a whorl of leaves with two members of the whorl a little larger than the rest. erosa that Wallich thought distinctive. correspond to P. Annual. almost ensiform. D also corresponds to the concept of P. Ecology. Plantago ovata Forsk. 1775. Bracts winged. Arab. major L. 31. 1996. of two types. Pl. no sheet so labelled in K-W). partly (syntype C. narrow. 1: 115. about as long as flower heads. Flowers in numerous ovate to oblong heads of smooth appearance. 1937. Annual or biennial.. in A. 13: 706. Nat. Leaves linear. Aegypt. with the flowers closely packed. 3.DC. Rari.
Sp.. Uses. opposite. 1996. 2. 269. and is probably worth restating as the incorrect name continues to be applied in herbaria in the region and elsewhere. 1762. 1885.— Used in the pharmaceutical industry and cultivated. Pflanzenr. The first available. somewhat loose appearance. Flowers in ovoid spikes. & Diels. psillium in two different senses.AN ACCOUNT OF THE PLANTAGINACEAE OF THAILAND (J. indica is therefore a superfluous and invalid new name. The name P. 120: 184. Hook. The nomenclature of this species is confused and probably worth rehearsing as the incorrect name continues to be applied in herbaria in the region and elsewhere despite Rahn (1996).— N/A. ed. 1. Decne. ties in with that of the previous species. Pl. 1937. 1971) showed that Linnaeus used the name P. hairy. 1852. An escape from cultivation in Chiang Mai (Fang). The nomenclature of this species is complex. 4. Brit. psyllium L. 1: 115. Notes. psillium is a nomen ambiguum and therefore cannot be used: a view also ascribed to by Rahn (1996). Fl. indica was coined by Linneaus in 1759 as a new name for a species he had already described in 1753 as P. the name which is widely used is based on the later concept of Linnaeus which appeared in the second (1762) edition of Species Plantarum. with small fascicles in the leaf-axils and so appearing as a whorl of leaves with two members of the whorl larger than the rest or a whorl of ± equally sized leaves. 8–20(–40) cm tall. Panigrahi (1975) showed that the name P. However. Sp. PARNELL) 59 Uses.— Cultivated. Type: not located. an earlier name for what has . Distribution. of somewhat knobbly.— P. 168. 2. Thailand.. Unfortunately. Its usage in these preparations adds to the confusion as manufacturers report that the material is P. ed. non L. in fact.. ed.— Used as a source of bulk laxatives and of food thickeners.— Used in the pharmaceutical industry and cultivated. 13: 734.. 4. 1: 167. 1762 et auct. Ecology. Sp. in A. psillium as used in the first edition of 1753 is. whose work on the phylogeny of the group remains the most up-to-date summary. psillium.DC. Annual herb lacking a basal rosette of leaves when flowering. J. Verdcourt (1969. Linn. Pl. Soc. 424. Under the current ICBN rules formal application should. 1753. as until this is done it remains the correct name for this taxon. ‘psillium’ is certainly a taxonomically confusing epithet irrespective of its nomenclatural priority. Rahn.f. Bot. Plantago afra L. Notes. India 4: 707. mult.— Europe to the Middle East and India. 1971) has also shown that the name P. Pl. Upper parts covered in short hairs and sparsely or densely glandular. valid epithet is therefore that coined by Waldstein & Kitaibel. Pilger in Engl. Leaves linear. Unfortunately.— Used as a source of bulk laxatives and as a source of food thickeners. Prod. all similar and lacking a long acumen. probably. The epithet ‘psillium’ is widely applied to Plantago material used in Asian pharmaceutical preparations. be made to reject P. ovata. psillium: P. Bracts oval to lanceolate. Verdcourt (1969.
Hoot.. J. Syst. . J. Massachusetts. Wolfe. F.C. drugs..D. 1969. Rahn. Swensen. John Wiley & Sons. Soc. Tan. H.. dePamphilis... Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. Savolainen. J. J.. W.M. 2000. M. M.P. Plantaginaceae. Fay. Masson et Co.60 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 been called P. In: Lecomte. H. Felsenstein. P. C. H. New York. Chua. Paris. Linnaeus. Gagnepain. Monographie Générale de la Famille des Plantaginées. A note on Plantago exigua (Plantaginaceae) and related taxa. Das Pflanzenreich 4: 269 Neidriech. Trimen. 466 p.S. Verdcourt (op. R. indica (see above). R.C.E.. Barnéoud. A. Campbell. arenaria. R.M. Panigrahi. Flore Générale de l’Indo-Chine 4: 1046. W. & Tingyuo.W. A Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. K.T. Soc.M. Ray Society. P.. Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only) 2: 446.. Z. Kellogg. Judd. G.. rbcL. & Reeves. valid name (Verdcourt. Kew Bull. J. A Facsimile of the First Edition. China. 2001. 1993. Pilger. 1936. M. Prince. W. S. D.. London. Albach. & Diels F. (eds). This species is often confused with P. Linn.V. Hooker. C. psillium as a nomen ambiguum. N. Soltis. Gard. W. K. 1978. A phylogenetic study of the Plantaginaceae. Studies on the Plantago plants in China. K. afra as the first available.. M. L. J.M. I.. F. Young. 133: 381–461. N.Y. 464 p. & Farris.J. 1965.G. Olmstead.E. Kress.) therefore rejected P.D. T. C..W. Sinauer Associates Inc. & Humbert. (eds). Bot. Jr. D. Dulua & Co. The Netherlands. P. M. The Angiosperm Flora of Singapore: Part 3 Plantaginaceae. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA. 1994..B.D. 1971).A. Singapore 46: 103–107.A. Hahn.H. and atpB sequences. Forten. 1957.C. Elisons. H. & Turner. Nixon. 27: 401–410. V. 1845.F. 1895. Leung. 1999. Mort. & Bakhuizen van der Brink... E.J.S. C. Paris. Bot.F. 120: 145–198. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food. S. Zanis. K. 1885. Chase. 30: 669–673..S. A. and cosmetics. 1753. Taiken. Noordhoff.. London. 1975. Reeve & Co. 88: 348–361. This leaves P. Vol.. Bot. In: Engler.S..S.. A. 1937. A phylogenetic approach. Plantaginaceae. Soltis. & Stevens.A. Axtell. Groningen.. cit. Bull.. REFERENCES Backer. 3. Linn. Tanaka. Amer. 1980. Plant systematics.W.. Leaoning. Zool. Flora of British India 4: 705–706. Species Plantarum. Cases in which parsimony and compatibility methods will be positively misleading.
Larsen. C. Nielsen. H.n. T. T. Larsen.F. Yahara. 566 (BK). 1971. N. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Hansen. 17 (BKF). 1020 (AAU. Larsen. T-32590 (BKF). T. P. BKF. T. E. 2646 (BKF). & Ueachirakan. T-9569 (BKF. 478 (BK). G. E. T-15371 (BKF). 39 (BK). 16656 (K). 375 (BK). Plantago major L. & Pooma. BKF). H. H.n. 12761 (C). Chermsirivathana. T. 75 (AAU. Maxwell. 122 (C). BKF. Sorensen. 440 (C). 1014 (TCD). K. Nagamusu. E. C). Koyama. BKF.. 4721 (BKF. T-62552 (A. Umpai. 16 (A. T-40140 (A. Koyama. Umpai. Smitinand.. K. P. K. K. (BK35192) (BK). Brun.. AAU. I. Tagawa. Barnid.W. 94-680 (A. THAI SPECIMENS EXAMINED Plantago afra L. TCD). T-61863 (BKF). A. Tsugaru. L). T-61863 (A. 96-1277 (A. N. Terao. C. 569 (BK). y-1720-86. H. J.S. 19175 (L). C. Chantaranothai. 23: 509.S. PARNELL) 61 Verdcourt. Murata. Shimizu. 12841 (C). London. Umpai. & Santisuk. & Wongwan. K. Kerr. S. Puudjaa.. 44720 (AAU). B. Pharsen.. Larsen. T-49886 (BKF). C. Larsen. K. 508 (BK) .. Suvarnakoses. 4837 (C). 3354 (BK). H. Parnell.. & Smitinand. E). 87-1477 (L).T. H. W. M. 2931 (AAU.AN ACCOUNT OF THE PLANTAGINACEAE OF THAILAND (J. L). Winit. C. Takahasi.. Larsen. BKF). S. C.. T. Koyama. Verdcourt. BKF). L). T-9292 (BKF). B. & Warncke. Geesink.. Paisooksantivatana. C.. R. 44378 (AAU). Vacharee. A. T. T. 12891 (AAU. 1873 (AAU. 1808 (A). & Chinayungkun. Phengklai. BKF)... BKF. Khantchai. K. 463 (BK). S. (TCD) Java. K. H... Iwatsuki. C).. Niyomdham.. Plantago ovata L. Smitinand... Fukuoka. B. L. 5281 (BKF). T-32590 (BKF). y-1695-85. Suvatoa. s. In: Milne Redhead.F. Fukuoka. Larsen. & Charamphol. L). Iwatsuki. 1777 (C). Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations. Kew Bull. & CH. T.. 2859 (A. K.S.. y-2304-89 (BK). Norgaard. 7 p.A. Plantago arenaria L.. C. B.N. Nalampoon. & Chintayungkun. T-49891 (BKF). Toyokuni. 353 (BKF). 2912 (E. C. van Beusekom. 1969. R. K. Bjornland. 1702 (BKF). 370 (BKF). Iwatsuki. & Wongprasert. BKF). & Santisuk.. 41843 (AAU).P. K. J. (eds). B. Samrong. S. E...F. Schumacher... C.. Plantaginaceae. CC. Phengkhlai.L).. D. & Polhill. P.G. Koyama. BKF). Kermode. & Hansen. Simpson. R. & Warncke. E). K. A new plantain from East Africa. K. E. Bragg.D. A. Umpai. Anderson. A.M. T. BKF. 1873 (BK). Sutheesoen. s. 96-1245 (A.F. C. Santisuk. H. Phengklai. S.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31
REPRESENTATIVE, NON-THAI SPECIMENS EXAMINED Plantago afra L. Adomovic, s.n. (K) Greece; Al Ani, H.A., 9823 (K) Iraq; Ash, J., 2041 (K) Ethiopia; Asplund, E., 447 (K) Canary Islands; Ball, J. s.n. (TCD) Algeria; Balls, E.K. & Gowerlay, W.B., B713 (K) Turkey; Bally, P.R. & Melville, R., 157671 (K) Somalia; Bang, A.M., 1965 Bolivia; Bourgeau, E., 526 (K) Canary Islands; Bove, s.n. (TCD) Algeria; Bramwell, D. 787 (TCD) Canary Islands; Bramwell, D., Richardson, I.B.K. & Murray, B.G., 186 (K) Morocco; Casey, E.C., 243 (K) Cyprus; Chevallier, L. 474 (TCD) Algeria; Davis, P.F., 41426 (K) Turkey; Deane, H., s.n. (K) India; Ellman, E. & Hubbard, C., 398 (K) Spain; Evans, I., 44 (K) Ethiopia; Gaillardot, 2176 (TCD) Syria; Gillett, J.B., 15257 (K) Jordan; Gregor, A.G., s.n. (K) U.K.; Houck, D.F. 363 (BKF) U.S.A.; Joad, G.C., s.n., s.n., s.n., s.n. (K) France; Kotschy, T. 50 (TCD) Iran; Lehmann, F.C., 6317 (K) Ecuador; Mandon, G., s.n. (K) Madeira; Mosseray, R., s.n. (K) France; Metcalf, s.n. (K) Italy; Mooney, H.F., 2836 (K) Ethiopia; Morton, L., 3699 (K) Iran; Muschler, R., s.n. (K) Egypt; Newbould, J.B., 5687 (K) Kenya; Qazilbash, N.A., 2418 (K) India; Sine nom. s.n. (K) Britain; Trethewy, A.W., 186 (K) Algeria; Whiting, M.H. & Richmond, K., 56 (K) Morocco; Wright, E.P. s.n. (TCD) Algeria; Yip, H.G. 186 (BKF) China. Plantago arenaria Waldst. & Kit. Ball, J. s.n. (TCD) Italy; Bemrose, C.J.V., 32 (K) Britain; Bleak, A.A., s.n. (K); Black, A.A. s.n. (K) Channel Islands; Blom, C., s.n. (K) Sweden; Bogdan, V., 4169 (K) Russia; Boros, A., 100 (K) Hungary; Cadet, T., 4545 (K) Reunion; de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & de Wilde-Duyfjes, B.E.E., 9080 (K) Ethiopia; Favrat, L. & Barbey, W., s.n. (K) Switzerland; Fishwick, R.W., 18 (K) Iran; Gogina, E.E. 178 (TCD) Russia; Gregor, A.G., s.n. (K) Britain; Heginbotham, C., s.n. (K) Britain; Horwood, E.K. 61/42 (TCD) France; Hukseaeb, A., s.n. (K) Russia; Johnston, T.S., s.n. (K) Britain; Lambert, V., 1926 (K) Belgium; Mácel, L., s.n. (K) Slovakia; Melvill,e R., s.n. (K) Cult.; Mennell, H., s.n. (K) Channel Islands; Milne-Redhead, G. & Shaw, H.K.A. 1832 (K) Britain; Pickler, s.n. (K) Austria; Porta, s.n. (K) Italy; Scheppig, C., s.n. (K) Germany; Schwarz, Z., 472 (K) Poland; Sennen, F., 3483 (K) Spain; Shaw, H.K.A., 1832 (K); Sine nom. s.n. (K) Cult.; Tauscher, J.A. s.n. (TCD) Hungary; Tomassini, M. s.n. (TCD) Italy; Turrill, W.B., K557 (K) Bulgaria; Ussher, C.A., s.n. (K) Ireland; Verdcourt, B., 4498 (K) France; Wilkinson, J.W., H2229 (K) Britain; Wisniewski, T., s.n. (K) Romania. Plantago major L. Akeroyd, J.R. & Doogue, D., 7709 (TCD) Ireland; Akeroyd, J.R. & Preston, C.D., 881 (TCD) Greece; Averyanov, L, Ban, N.T., Binh, N.Q., Budantzev, A., Budantzev, L., Hiep, N.T., Loe, P.K., Tam, N.X. & Yakovlev, G., VH411 (AAU) Vietnam; Ball, P.W. & Chater, A.O., 108 (TCD) Serbia; Bonnet, s.n. (TCD); Bor, N.L., 229 (TCD) Ireland; Boufford, D.E., Bartholomew, B., Li, G. & Zhu, G.H., 24481 (AAU) China; Chao, J.M & Kao, M.T., 6233 (AAU) China; Chater, A.O. & Moore, D.M., 439 (TCD) Spain; Chow, K.S., 35 (AAU)
AN ACCOUNT OF THE PLANTAGINACEAE OF THAILAND (J. PARNELL)
China, 70 (TCD) China, 727 (AAU) China; Cirtu, D. & Cirtu, M., 724 (TCD) Romania; Coulter, T.C., 571 (TCD) U.S.A.; Dessanayake, M.D., 590 (TCD) Ceylon; Dixon, H.H., s.n. (TCD) Ireland; D.N.F.C., s.n. (TCD) Ireland; Florence, J., 10788 (TCD) Pitcairn; Gage, A.T., 63 (ABD) India; Ghosh, S.K., s.n. (AAU) India; Gupta, N.C., 36 (TCD) India; Inamasu, Y., 423 (AAU) Japan; Jeppesen, S. & Løjtant, B., 706 (TCD) Denmark; Johnson, E., s.n. (TCD) India; Kermode, C.W.D., 16656 (K) Burma; Kerr, A.F.G., 20968 (K) Laos; King’s Collector 155 (ABD) India; Larsen, K., s.n. (AAU) Ceylon; Lau, Y.E., 210 (AAU) China; Loc, P.K., Hoang, P.H. & Averyanov, L., CBL1325 (AAU) Vietnam, 1597 (AAU) Vietnam; Ling, P.P. & Yao, K., 39 (AAU) China; Løjtnant, B. Nielsen, I. & Esbensen, W., 145 (TCD) Denmark; McKee, H.S., 6141 (K) Burma; M’Ken, M.J., 110 (TCD) South Africa; Matthew, K.M., 40550 (AAU) India; Maxwell, J.F., 78-202 (AAU) Malaysia; 78236 (TDC) Singapore; Moore, A.G., s.n. (TCD) Ireland; Nakano, T., s.n. (AAU) China; Olney, S.T., s.n. (TCD) U.S.A.; Pearson, C., s.n. (TCD) Ireland; Pakuism, C.E., 1161 (K) Burma; Proskuriakova, G.M., 179 (TCD) Russia; Rahl, A., s.n. (ABD) Burma; Ravenel, H.W., s.n. (TCD) U.S.A.; Reporter on Economic Products, 10355 (TCD) India; Robinson, C.B., 1360 (K) Cambodia; Santisuk, T., s.n., (BKF) U.S.A.; 383 (BKF) China.; Strachey, R. & Winterbottom, J.E., s.n. (TCD) India; Thomson, T., s.n., s.n. (TCD) India; Thwaites, G.H.K., 2246 (TCD) Sri Lanka; Watts, W.A., s.n. (TCD) Ireland; Yao, K., 10441 (AAU) China; Yip, H.G., 186 (AAU, BKF) China. Plantago ovata L. Bornmüller, J., 589, 590 (K) Iran; Bourgeau, E., 1662 (K) Spain; Dinsmore, J.E., 18456 (K) Syria; Epling, E., Ellison, L. & Anderson, H., s.n. (K) U.S.A.; Hoover, R.F., 4289 (K) U.S.A.; Hudson, R., 2936 (K) Kenya; Kotschy, T. 836, 30.61 (TCD) Iran; Nelson, A. & Nelson, R.A., 1235 (K) U.S.A.; Nuttall, L.W., 600 (K) U.S.A.; Purpus, C.A., 120 (K) Mexico; Schweinfurth, G., 331 (K) Egypt; Sine nom. s.n., (K) Spain; Syngrasside, O., 313 (K) Cyprus; Townsend, C.C., 65/140a (K) Jordan; Tribe, A.R., T27 (K) Somalia; Wiggins, I.L. & Wiggins, D.B., 15792 (K) Mexico.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31
Figure 1. Seed of Plantago major L. (Chantaranothai, P., Parnell, J., Simpson, D. & Pooma, R. 1014 (TCD)).
one of *Institute of Botany.).). only those with such a habit have curved thorns). Flacourtiaceae (Flacourtia and Scolopia spp. occur in a large number of angiosperm families. in total. thorns then always above the leafy and/or flowering brachyblasts.).). **The Forest Herbarium. Thailand. Oxyceros. Tamilnadia). Thorns are either straight or curved (sometimes within a genus. and one to the Coptosapelteae (Uncaria). Rennweg 14. or Indorouchera griffithiana (Hugoniaceae. Tamilnadia). In the monotypic Dioecrescis. too. their presence is sometimes omitted in flora descriptions. ca. . Examples from the Thai flora include Artabotrys spp. 2003. Several woody Thai Rubiaceae (ca. Hooked thorns (curved or recurved thorns). Canthium spp. e. In the remaining taxa. (BOT. with straight thorns on older stems]. INTRODUCTION Thorns. paired thorns are primarily on lateral shoots which occur in clusters in the lower part of the trunk. “non-collectable” stem parts. (Annonaceae). thorns are short lateral branches which. Most of these taxa belong to the tribe Gardenieae (Catunaregam. thorns are short shoots produced in the leaf axils of long shoots. Thai Oxyceros spp.g. In Ceriscoides. The climbing hooks of Uncaria spp.l. 4A). 30 taxa) are distinguished by the presence of thorns or hooks (curved or recurved thorns). while thorns are vegetative lateral shoots with limited growth in all other taxa. or Linaceae s. bear very abbreviated leafy and/or flowering shoots. Noteworthy is the presence of two different types of hooks (and shoot morphology) within Oxyceros. Euphorbiaceae [Shirakiopsis indicum (syn. Ancistrocladus tectorius (Ancistrocladaceae). Dioecrecis. Oxyceros. Ceriscoides. in turn. morphologically represent modified inflorescence stalks. National Park. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. Sapium indicum). Unfortunately. University of Vienna. A small selection of examples from the Thai flora include families such as Apocynaceae (Carissa. Pithecellobium dulcis). Fagerlindia. Fagerlindia. often providing a good field character for identifying them. The majority of these belong to the tribe Gardenieae (Catunaregam. BULL.). Middleton. which are often based on herbarium specimens. because the thorns are sometimes only found on older. Bangkok 10900. Dioecrecis. Austria.g. Guttiferae (Cratoxylum spp. Ceriscoides. nine of the approximately 100 genera occurring in the flora of Thailand area have.) 31: 65–74. In the monotypic Tamilnadia. two to the Vanguerieae (Canthium. A key to the taxa is provided. short lateral branches terminally bear one or two pairs of short thorns. Thai Rubiaceae with hooks and thorns CHRISTIAN PUFF* & VORADOL CHAMCHUMROON** ABSTRACT. Meyna). have independently evolved in woody taxa of a number of families and typically occur in climbing or straggling shrubs. The presence of curved thorns or hooks is associated with a climbing or straggling habit (Uncaria. either solitary and straight or sometimes branched. in the introduced and cultivated “thorn of Madras”. often together with leafy and/or flowering short shoots (accessory bud/shoot formation... 30 woody taxa which develop either straight or curved or recurved or hook-like thorns. Their occurrence is not necessarily a generic character but may be confined to a number of species of a genus. 1999: fig. amongst the thorny Thai Canthium spp. A-1030 Vienna. Leguminosae (e. In the Rubiaceae. one or the other may not be developed). or Rutaceae (Citrus and Feroniella spp.THAI FOR.
and Coptosapelteae (Uncaria) (see Table 1). – Vanguerieae. Spines. are sharp-pointed outgrowths of primarily epidermal and subepidermal tissues. Survey of Thai Rubiaceae with thorns and hooks. Table 1. the others to the tribes Vanguerieae (Canthium. COP. Examples of the latter are the vicious spines on the leaves of the palm Elaiodoxa. 1988: 41). – Coptosapelteae Taxa Catunaregam (all 4 Thai taxa) Ceriscoides (all 3 Thai taxa) Dioecrecis erythroclada (monotypic genus) Fagerlindia (all Thai taxa) Oxyceros (all 5 Thai taxa) Tamilnadia uliginosa (monotypic genus) Canthium (ca. is applied: Thorns (either straight or hooked. The main aim of this paper is to describe and compare the thorny structures in these taxa. the standard work describing Rubiaceae character states. GAR. have phloem and xylem (this definition largely corresponds to that in “Tropical Woody Rubiaceae”. GAR. 10 taxa.e. X X X X X straight thorns X X X X X curved or recurved thorns. VAN. in contrast. – Gardenieae. Column “Tribe”: GAR. hooks A note on terminology In botanical literature. or the sharp-tipped outgrowths on the stems of Bombax spp. Being shoots. A key to the thorn-bearing taxa is also provided. not taking account the origin of the organs in question. based on traditional morphology. GAR. the remaining without thorns) Meyna (all 3 Thai taxa) Uncaria (all Thai taxa) Tribe GAR. . VAN. COP. without contributions from the woody body. VAN. Robbrecht. Meyna). typically abbreviated shoots with limited growth. the terms “thorn” and “spine” are often used interchangeably. they have a “normal” shoot structure. and to provide information on how these thorn-bearing taxa differ from each other.66 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 the largest in the flora area. In the present context. The article is especially intended to aid field botanists in identifying the genera. cf. GAR. the following definition. GAR. i. solitary or branched) are modifications of shoots. (Bombacaceae).
they are modified inflorescence stalks. 3–4 cm). but older stems often have a very “untidy” appearance because some lateral shoots ending in a thorn have become relatively long (to ca. bear leafy or fertile short shoots. 1983). Reza 2001). erythroclada. small tree on the right). and the arrangement and number of thorns are not uniform. thorns are lateral shoots with limited growth.THAI RUBIACEAE WITH HOOKS AND THORNS (C. in decussate pairs) on younger branches. All species of this genus of small trees produce thorns (cf. In view of the ontogenetic evidence and documentation provided here. CHAMCHUMROON) 67 OBSERVATIONS In Thai Rubiaceae. axillary. PUFF & V. but a closer examination reveals that they are produced on very short and much abbreviated lateral shoots. and the hooks themselves are typically paired at the nodes (cf. On older trees. They are normally only found on the paired lateral branches of the woody lianas (i. Noteworthy is the presence of two different types of hooks (and shoot morphology) in Oxyceros (see below). The modification of inflorescence stalks and axes into climbing hooks also occurs in several other plant families. i.f. and growth continues via a lateral shoot (sympodial-monochasial growth). 1E. In all other thorny rubiaceous taxa. 1D illustrates this for C. head-like inflorescences eventually stops and that the stalks are transformed into hooks (cf. Canthium spp. As opposed to the axillary hooks of Uncaria. genera or groups of genera can be distinguished quite easily: Ceriscoides (Hook. sessiliflora.. Thorns tend to be of equal length and regularly arrangement (i. A relevant ontogenetic study confirming this has been published for a Madagascan species of the genus (Guillaumin. The presence of curved thorns or hooks is associated with a climbing or straggling habit (Uncaria.) Tirveng. Ridsdale’s (1998) description of “vegetative lateral branches modified into hooks” cannot be upheld.e. straight thorns are normally found on most lateral branches of young individuals (Fig. only those with such a habit have curved thorns. Dioecrescis Tirveng. fig. Recurved or climbing hooks occur in all species of the genus. Observations on living plants sometimes reveal that the production of stalked. arrow). cf.). 1931). the “inflorescence hook” is terminal in Artabotrys. see below). thorns are either straight. thorns are typically seen on clustered lateral branches (presumably having arisen due to serial bud/shoot formation) . where a lateral branch ending in a thorn is seen which bears an abbreviated shoot with an inflorescence of which only one flower is left. paired. curved or recurved (sometimes within a genus. Fig. Tirvengadum. fig 1A). Uncaria Schreb. not on the main axes). Fruits often appear to sit on the thorny branches. A well known example is the Annonaceae genus Artabotrys. they represent modified fertile shoots. amongst the thorny Thai Canthium spp. 10 cm) while other thorns remain short (only to ca. in turn.e. 1B. e. Morphologically.g. Thai Oxyceros spp.e. Characteristic of this genus is that thorns or thorn-tipped lateral branches. In this monotypic tree genus (D. As thorn morphology..
Often. shows these knob-like brachyblasts. Branches of this monotypic tree genus (T. 1C.). Fagerlindia shows accessory bud/shoot formation. The next one or two nodes of the lateral branch usually bear the “normal”. and are of uniform size (cf. the main shoots bear regularly arranged. Tamilnadia Tirveng. Only one bud . Strictly. Whilst in three of the species. Ridsdale. short lateral shoots. several tiers of such thornbearing branch clusters can be observed (Fig. and the following nodes are always hook less. this is not so in O. 1I. found in pairs at each node of a lateral branch. scandens. This feature is absent in Oxyceros. show a dimorphic pattern. the fang-like hooks face downward. much smaller. This undoubtedly is a much more sophisticated climbing aid than in the other taxa. bispinosus and O. so that very old individuals may lack thorns altogether. while in Oxyceros the main axes bend over (straggling or ± climbing habit). cf. and Oxyceros Lour. rather than one. the Thai species of Oxyceros. The presence of these thorn-bearing branches along the lower part of the trunks could be interpreted as a protection against browsing animals. shoots with these hook-bearing branches hang downward. in turn. but as the plant’s habit is scandent. Tirvengaum & Sastre. Tirvengadum.the one developing into hooked thorn-is developed in the axil of a foliage leaf (cf. from which the fruit depicted below was removed. 1979) bear decussately arranged. 2 cm). 1H). 1E. & Sastre. as depicted in Fig. Fig. In both. 1G (although the leaves in whose axils they have developed have already fallen off). Fagerlindia typically has erect main axes (trunks). 1H). Moreover.e. inset. 1I). as noted by Ridsdale (1985). decussate lateral branches which. buds. Fagerlindia invariably has straight thorns. The life-span of these branches is limited.68 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 which come from the basal parts of the main trunk. the hooks at the first (i. Fig. . such as in the banana. The association between these two kinds of shorts is visible in Fig.e. paired and arranged in a decussate fashion. In these two species. 1982. 1C). each of which terminally produces one or two pairs of short thorns (Fig. uliginosa. and both the basal lateral branch internode and this thorn pair are thick and massive (Fig. which is defined as follows: two. Fig. as opposed to collateral accessory buds. Leaves and flowers and fruits are typically produced on very abbreviated shoots immediately below the thorns. thinner hooked thorns. while the Thai species of Oxyceros always have curved or recurved thorns (Oxyceros species with straight thorns are known from Indochina and Southwest China. basal) node of a lateral axis are recurved and fang-like (see illustration on the right). the one immediately above the leaf axil) into a very abbreviated leaf. the two being arranged on top of each other (serial bud/shoot formation. The upper develops into the short-shoot thorn. the architecture of the two is basically very similar. arrows). species with no thorns from Vietnam and Sri Lanka. the hooked thorns are regularly arranged.. the lower (i.and/or flower-bearing short shoot. 1985.e. Fagerlindia Tirveng. These two genera are closely allied and. Thorn-bearing branches normally have a “regular” appearance as all thorns are of roughly the same length (often ca. cf. 1998). are produced in the axil of a long shoot leaf. i. Musa spp. bear thorns (no thorns on the main trunks!).
The ontogenetically younger leafy or fertile brachyblast does not always develop. only one thorn is developed but a pair of leafy brachyblasts (although not equally well developed) is present. erect shoots often show ternate leaf and thorn arrangements. spinosa. less commonly. thorns are not developed at all. The usually paired thorns are. all of which have a straggling. there are two major problems: (1) the generic limits are not resolved. rather massive thorns are present on orthotropic shoots and smaller thorns on lateral branches. ternately arranged thorns. the thorn pair is developed. Canthium Lam.THAI RUBIACEAE WITH HOOKS AND THORNS (C. development of either one thorn or one brachyblast of a pair may be suppressed. scrambling or climbing habit. . illustrates this: at the node on the left side. The result is a rather irregular appearance. hook-like thorns. In the group of taxa with thorns on lateral branches. at the node on the right side. CHAMCHUMROON) 69 Like Fagerlindia (above). and species with recurved. but in species such as C. Straight thorns on lateral branches are often short to very short (less than 1 cm long) to hardly discernible. for example. Data given here are preliminary. i. where leaf arrangement is variable (decussate and in whorls of three on one plant). In the mentioned species. Figure 1F. fail or be disturbed by external influences. With regard to Thai Canthium. only ca. showing four nodes of a branch of C. 10 poorly delimited species of shrubs and small trees. This seems to happen quite frequently in species of Catunaregam. all remaining taxa (Catunaregam. Thorns are typically arranged in decussate pairs. thorns and abbreviated leafy and/or flowering shoots are in immediate vicinity to each other. on the second node from the right. 2003 for further comment). paired. while plagiotropic shoots bear decussate leaves and thorns. and (2) there is no recent species-level revision (see also Chamchumroon & Puff. The thorn pairs develop before the leafy and/or fertile brachyblast pairs. but one of the short shoots of a brachyblast pair has failed to develop. in other species thorns are confined to lateral branches. tomentosa. Canthium. thorns are in a somewhat supra-axillary position. At least in some of the thorny taxa. so that on younger shoots only thorn pairs are visible. Meyna) show accessory bud/shoot formation. While thorns and brachyblasts are typically produced in pairs. All (including the three ill-defined species occurring in Thailand) possess paired or. they may be both paired and in threes. whereas the remainder are unarmed species. 10 are species with thorns. A small Afro-Asiatic genus of ca. Meyna Link. there are species with straight thorns (plants characterized by an erect habit). with solitary thorns intermingled with paired thorns along a long shoot.e. As the buds from which the thorns develop are some distance away from the subtending foliage leaf. A genus of shrubs or small trees with thorns on erect and plagiotropic shoots. Fagerlindia and Catunaregam. Of the numerous “Canthium” species listed in Craib (1932: 135–145). PUFF & V. produced immediately above the leaf and/or fertile much contracted short shoots. as in. Catunaregam Wolf.
e. white. usually > 1 cm in diam. fruits large. Flowers relatively large. stipules never bifid (3) 3. older corollas turning yellow to orange. Thorns often long. fruits small.to fewflowered inflorescences. to 4 cm. Character states for taxa outside the Flora area may deviate. Branches (long shoots) with paired hooked thorns (leafy and/or flowering brachyblasts not present in the vicinity of thorns). but development of the leafy/fertile brachyblasts may occasionally be suppressed (as seen in Fig. in fascicles on very abbreviated shoots. 1J. stipules typically bifid at apex Uncaria 2. 1K). always less than 1 cm in diam. Inflorescences not as above. 1H) Oxyceros pro parte 4. if relatively large. fruits drupaceous Canthium pro parte 3. typically more than 1 cm in diam. varies (cf. above). not green and not unisexual (8) 8. and these are normally very long and massive. All hooked thorns on a branch of the same kind (Fig. plants straggling or climbing. inflorescences terminal. Thorns neither with leafy nor with flowering abbreviated shoots (7) 7. straight thorns Tamilnadia 5.70 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 The genus is reputed to be very close to Canthium s. without stones (9) 9. in ± many. smaller. str. pedunculate. 1J). Thorns or thorn-tipped short lateral branches bearing very abbreviated leafy and/or flowering shoots (cf. flowers 5-merous. larger and more robust than hooked thorns at the following nodes (cf. often less than 1 cm in diam. old flowers not turning conspicuously yellowish or orange.). Catunaregam. flowers relatively large (to ca. branches (long shoots) with abbreviated leafy and/or flowering shoots and thorns immediately above them (arising at the same node. 1I) Oxyceros pro parte 1. 1. erect shoots (e. at least 2 cm long or in diam. Thorn pairs basal on lateral branches fang-like. never erect trees or shrubs (2) 2. i. too. Not as above. green. usually not more than 1 cm long. and shoot structure is very similar. Fig. 1K. At least in M. mostly greenish. both from the same individual). or solitary flowers terminal on abbreviated shoots. flowers relatively large. flowers relatively small. branches of the crown mostly thorn-less.. plants with erect main stems (5) 5. large (2 cm or more in diam. velutina. Consequently. globose. 2 cm in diam. decussate on some shoots and in whorls of three on others (also cf.. unisexual Dioecrescis 7.). Numerous pairs of thorns on often ± fascicled branches found in the lower part of trunk. Fig.to red-brown. fruits berry-like (4) 4. Catunaregam 9. Inflorescences many-flowered. velutina. fruits berry-like. Branches (long shoots) with abbreviated leafy and/or flowering shoots and thorns immediately above them (arising at the same node. leaf arrangement within a plant can be variable. flowers 5–10-merous. accessory bud/shoot formation). greenish-white or greenish-yellowish.. Arrangement of thorns not as above (6) 6. Dichotomous key to Thai Rubiaceae with hooks and thorns It is important to note that this key is valid only for taxa occurring in Thailand. compare with Fig. 1D) Ceriscoides 6. Fig. solitary (or in groups of few). Thorns smaller. thorn arrangement. mostly white (but turning yellow to orange with age in Catunaregam).to few-flowered terminal inflorescences. (Verdcourt & Bridson 1991: 859). Trees with branches bearing short lateral shoots which terminally produce one or two pairs of short. which in Thailand consists only of species with curved thorns but elsewhere contains some species with straight thorns. trunk and older branches typically rusty. Paired thorns are borne immediately above leafy and/or fertile short shoots on long shoots (lateral branches). usually in ± many. Thorns or hooks curved. Thorns are also found on old. Fig. accessory bud/shoot formation). Thorns straight. M. flowers either considerably smaller than above or. Fagerlindia .g. An example is Oxyceros.
D. Flora of Thailand 17(1): 1–153.THAI RUBIACEAE WITH HOOKS AND THORNS (C. A revised handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 12: 141–343. normally smaller. Canthium pro parte ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Voradol Chamchumroon wishes to thank the ÖAD (Austrian Academic Exchange) for a scholarship which made it possible to carry out part of the present studies at the Institute of Botany. C. Thorns often long. In: Polhill. mostly not more than 1 cm in diam. C.) Meyna 10. ovary 5-carpellate. ________. Rotterdam. Vol. drupes typically with 5 stones (sometimes fewer due to abortion) relatively large (to ca. & Sastre. greenish-white or greenishyellowish.).J. Blumea 31: 239–244. The Rubiaceae of Ko Chang. Sci (unpubl. In: Dassanayake. M. 3: 455–469.A. PUFF & V.G. of Malaya. Belg. D. Aarhus. Bull. Brookfield. in fascicles on very abbreviated shoots. (ed. pp. Generic delimitation and revision with enumeration of species. A List of the plants known from Siam with notes of their occurrence. 1: 1–271. Thorns typically much shorter (sometimes thin and inconspicuous and less than 1 cm long). Middleton. Sci. University of Vienna. Opera Bot. Tirvengadum. thesis. D. 8: 77–98. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 749–956.). always less than 1 cm in diam. Tropical woody Rubiaceae. 1983. A. 2003. opposite only. Craib. Verdcourt. D. mostly greenish. Balkema. 3 cm in diam. Flowers relatively small. (ed.) 31: 13–26. (Bot. 1979. E. 1998. due to arbortion. M. La signification taxonomique des modes des ramification de Randia et genres affines.. Ridsdale. 1932. Bangkok. Paris 192: 1264–1265. D. M. A study of the tribe Gardenieae (Rubiaceae) of South and South East Asia. Transformation de la partie inférieure de l'axe de l'inflorescence en crochet chez les Uncaria. ________.). & Larsen. 1991. A. W. sometimes both in whorls of 3 or opposite on the same individual. 1982. Apocynaceae. . Bot. C. Rubiaceae (part 3). & Bridson. & Puff. to over 5 cm. (eds). Robbrecht. 2. R. Tirvengadum. T. Systematic studies on Ceriscoides (Rubiaceae Gardenieae) with emphasis on the morphology and taxonomic position of recently documented Malesian taxa. Guillaumin. bin Mohd Azmi. REFERENCES Chamchumroon. V. 1988. D.E. a solitary stone). K. south-eastern Thailand. drupes with 2(–3) stones (or. C. In: Santisuk. Unpubl. Thai For. R. Thesis Licent.. 2001. Mauritius Inst. Ph. 1931. Florae Siamensis enumeratio. 1985. Austria. The genus Fagerlindia (Rubiaceae) in the Philippines. Bull. part 1: Caprifoliaceae & Rubiaceae (in part). Acad. CHAMCHUMROON) 71 8. ovary 2(–3)-carpellate. Nordic J. fruits drupaceous (10) 10. Reza. Siam Soc. Univ. Kuala Lumpur. New taxa and name changes in tropical Asiatic Rubiaceae.D. Rubiaceae. D. 1–145. B. 1999.
A–B. Puff).: A. shoot with paired axillary pedunculate inflorescences. O. Dioecrescis erythroclada. I. paired thorns.. F–G. H–I. branches with thorns and associated leafy and fruit-bearing short shoots. the arrow points to a developing inflorescence with clearly hook-like peduncle. O. axillary hooked thorns. thorntipped lateral branch bearing short shoot with inflorescence. Ceriscoides sessiliflora.72 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Figure 1. K. . D. Meyna velutina. J. B. each with fang-like hooks near their base. branch with paired. C. Further explanations in the text (Photographed by C. horridus. branch with shot lateral branches terminally bearing one to two pairs of thorns (inset: detail of short lateral branch showing two terminal pairs of thorns and very contracted short shoots immediately below with fruits). pictures from the same tree. branch with two pairs of lateral branches.. Catunaregam tomentosa (F) and Fagerlindia sp. Tamilnadia uliginosa. bispinosus. E. younger branches with thorns in whorls of 3. shoot with three pairs of axillary climbing hooks. H. small tree with thorn-bearing lateral branches on the right. old stems with large. trunk of old tree with clustered thorn-bearing branches (arrows) on the left. J–K. Oxyceros spp. Uncaria spp.
PUFF & V.THAI RUBIACEAE WITH HOOKS AND THORNS (C. CHAMCHUMROON) 73 .
74 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
minute. Psilanthus. with 7–10 pairs of lateral veins. as the genus. Coffea arabica L. It explicitly excludes Ixoras. probably the most commonly grown rubiaceous ornamentals.) 31: 75–94. The present paper presents a survey of these taxa and provides brief descriptions for them. 1934: 171–174) are referable to other genera. 2003. glabrous. Mussaenda and Pseudomussaenda. INTRODUCTION The Rubiaceae are an essentially tropical family. All other taxa listed under Coffea in older literature on the Thai flora (e. A survey of non-indigenous Rubiaceae that are either commercially important or cultivated as ornamentals is given. from Africa. only nonindigenous species are dealt with. Pentas. Flowers in axillary clusters of few to ca. narrowed to base. 4 m tall. are found in the country. University of Vienna. (BOT. often with very small indistinct teeth. Shrubs or small trees to ca. Hamelia. Leaves opposite. Bangkok 10900. with petioles to 10 mm long. The genus Coffea does not occur naturally in Thailand or the rest of Asia. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. glossy above. Craib. Gardenia. see below). It covers the genera Coffea. primarily Psilanthus (see Chamchumroon & Puff. Also excluded are taxa native to Thailand that are cultivated. Cinchona. Thailand. National Park. arabica and C. Only planted coffees. **The Forest Herbarium. 2A–D. liberica. Austria. Various Rubiaceae which originate from other parts of Asia. is currently being studied by one of us (VC). 6–15(–18) by 3–8 cm. acuminate at apex. 20. Rondeletia and Serissa.g. Carphalea. Rennweg 14. calyx ring-like. 2003). canephora (and possibly C. elliptic to ovate-lanceolate. fairly evenly distributed in the Old and New World.THAI FOR. . or from Central and South America are cultivated in Thailand. Madagascar. A-1030 Vienna. (ARABICA Coffee). and (b) ornamentals. COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS Coffea L. including ornamentals. These non-indigenous Rubiaceae found in Thailand fall in two categories: (a) commercially important plants. BULL. Chatuchak. Fig. corolla (4–) *Institute of Botany. Non-indigenous Rubiaceae grown in Thailand CHRISTIAN PUFF* & VORADOL CHAMCHUMROON ** ABSTRACT. namely C.
ovary 2-locular. 12–35(–40) by 5–11 cm. and southwestward to Angola.76 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 5(–6)-merous. exserted. glossy above. 1). 1. and southwestwards to Angola. The species occurs naturally from Sudan. Fruits drupaceous. only shows the core range of the species). style with bifid stigma slightly exserted. 9–16 mm long. 10–30(–50). lobes ca. greatest length ca. Seeds 2. Fig. map. ca. each locule with a solitary ovule. style with bifid stigma slightly exserted. lobes 8–18 by 3–6 mm. red. The natural distribution range of C. the solid lines refer to Coffea arabica (ARABICA coffee). Seeds 2. Leaves with petioles to 20 mm long. Distribution routes for the cultivated coffee crop in the tropics. 10–20 by 2–5 mm. exserted. numbers are the approximate years of introduction (Ferwerda 1976). acuminate at apex. with (8–)11–15(–17) pairs of lateral veins. ovary 2-locular. tube 7–11 mm long. red. . however. 10–20 mm when fresh. enclosed in a thin endocarp.— C. each locule with a solitary ovule. Coffea canephora Pierre ex Fröhner. Flowers in axillary clusters of ca. 7–11 mm long. ca. 2-4 m tall. calyx ring-like. Figure 1. Fruits drupaceous. Fig. enclosed in a thin endocarp. anthers to 10 mm long. canephora (ROBUSTA coffee). tube ca. oblong-ellipsoid. canephora (vertically hatched) is shown incompletely. greatest length ca. (ROBUSTA coffee). 2003). The natural distributional range of the species is confined to Southwest Ethiopia and to a few localities in neighbouring south-eastern Sudan and northern Kenya (cf. robusta Linden. the broken lines to C. Uganda and Northwest Tanzania westward to Sierra Leone. 2E–F. corolla 5–6(–7)merous. Fig. It grows in evergreen forest in Ethiopia at altitudes ranging from 1500– 1900 m (Puff. oblongelliptic to broadly elliptic. 5–15 mm long. minute. obtuse to cuneate at base. its stretches further westward as far as Sierra Leone. oblong-ellipsoid to ± globose. which. Shrubs or small trees ca. It is a component of the African lowland rain forest (cf. anthers to 10 mm long. 9–12 mm when fresh. glabrous.
Differences between Coffea arabica and C.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C.3–4 shallow 18–30 °C 2000–3000 mm Sea level to ca. 0. See text for further comments. 10%" Diseases: coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) Diseases: “coffee bean disease“ (beetle) Diseases: nematodes Diseases: “spider web disease“ Diseases: tracheomycosis (Giberella xylarioides) Major production areas World production . CHAMCHUMROON) 77 Table 1. canephora compiled from various sources. Character Leaf length (mm) Leaf width (mm) Pairs of lateral veins Flowers per axillary inflorescence Flowers: corolla lobes Fruit size (greatest length.5% 1. robusta) 120–350(–400) 50–110 (8–)11–15(–17) (8–)12–30(–50) 5–6(–7) 9–12 remaining on plant 7–11 allogamous 22 irregular 10–11 months ca. C.resistant susceptible especially Old World "ca. mm) Fruits at maturity Seed (“coffee bean”) length (mm) Breeding Chromosomes (2n) Flowering time Flower mature fruit "coffee beans": caffeine content "coffee beans": yield (in tons per hectare) Root system Optimal temperature (annual average) Optimal annual rainfall Altitudinal range Coffea arabica 60–150(–180) 30–80 7–10 (2–)6–20 (4–)5(–6) 10–20 falling off 9–16 autogamous 44 after rainy season 9 months ca. PUFF & V. 25%" "ca. 74%" "80–90%" Coffea canephora (syn. 1000 m ("lowland coffee") [usually below 1000 m in Thailand] resistant resistant resistant +/.5–1. 2–4% 2.5–3 deep 15–24 °C 1500–2000 mm Typically 1000 to 2500 m ("mountain coffee") [800–1500 m in Thailand] susceptible susceptible susceptible susceptible resistant primarily America "ca.
roasting techniques (primarily the length of roasting and temperature) influences the taste. 2Dc) are separated. there are many slight variations in flavour. In recent years. the seed-containing pyrenes (cf. Instant coffees are primarily made from the lower-priced ROBUSTA beans. such coffees are called “Pearl Coffee”). Coffee made from pure ARABICA beans is usually considered very palatable. for this reason. 2Da).78 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Morphological as well as other diagnostic characters between the two species are summarized in Table 1. The remaining few percent of world coffee production is contributed by LIBERICA and EXCELSA coffee (C. “pure” roasted ARABICA beans sell better . one of the two seed-containing pyrenes is always aborted. stenophylla (West African Highland coffee or “Highland coffee of Sierra Leone”) and others. Data on world production (Table 1. becomes ± globose. individual data may not always fully hold. 2D) The fruits are drupes with a skin-like exocarp and a fleshy mesocarp and typically contain two 1-seeded pyrenes (Fig. and the empty endocarp cases and seeds (Fig. ROBUSTA coffee production in Asia has drastically increased. 2Db) are first removed from the fruits in various ways. or blends of ARABICA and ROBUSTA. packed beans or ground roasted beans) are blends of ARABICA of different origin. due to the large numbers of cultivars in each of the two species. and the remaining pyrene. where they face each other (see Fig. Compared to other Rubiaceae with drupaceous fruits. slightly curved fold on the ventral side which extends to the inside (compare seed section and . Both in ARABICA and in ROBUSTA. Then the endocarps. containing the only well-developed seed. being thin. The seeds (“coffee beans” in commercial terms) show a characteristic. being larger and more “perfectly” shaped than those of ROBUSTA. are easily cracked open mechanically. the beans of ARABICA. Consequently. Fig. The two pyrenes are flat on their ventral surface. It should be noted that. so that it is likely to the world production ratio is shifting in favour of ROBUSTA (see also below). while coffee made from pure ROBUSTA beans is not well liked because it is bitter. and due to the continuous development of new strains. using Coffea arabica as an example (Fig. Many of the coffees (either roasted. Coffea is somewhat unusual in having very thin. last row) vary greatly from source to source. In coffee processing plants. A note on coffee fruits and “coffee beans”. Moreover. ARABICA coffee beans are generally considered to be of higher quality than ROBUSTA beans and always fetch higher prices. thick endocarps made up of numerous layers of sclerenchymatic tissue). and some other species such as C. liberica). growth of the same strain under different soil and climatic conditions also results in variation in flavour.and at a higher price. horn-like endocarps (rather than the more common. are more pleasing to the customer’s eye. The reasons for these differences are many-fold: different strains produce different flavours. 2Da) (in some cultivars. A general guidline is that the cheaper the coffee blend the more of the less expensive ROBUSTA will be in it.
Surat Thani. Lampang. However. Interesting and important from an Asiatic point of view is the introduction of ROBUSTA coffee to Java in 1900. Krabi and Nakhon Si Thammarat). is partly exported). Coffee-growers call this “silver-skin” (visible on the surface of the seeds in Fig.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. ARABICA growing in the North started in the 1970s. ROBUSTA. Locally used and processed ROBUSTA is mainly used for canned coffee drinks as well as instant coffee (which. At present. Larger scale coffee production in Thailand only started in the 1960s. ARABICA coffee. although introduced to Asia earlier than to the Americas. since then. 2Dc–d). CHAMCHUMROON) 79 ventral view. is primarily grown on a small scale. PUFF & V. Yet another unusual feature of a coffee seed is the structure of the exotesta (seed coat).A. the minute embryo (Fig. This was the starting point which has led to the current lead in ROBUSTA production in Asian countries (whereas ARABICA. arabica and C. Thai ROBUSTA has the reputation of being of good quality and is exported primarily to the U. primary ARABICA producers are Brazil and Colombia). arabica and C. Well over 95% (by volume) of the seed is occupied by endosperm. more disease-resistant. the seed coat of Coffea is discontinuous: during growth of a coffee seed the seed coat cannot “keep up” with the resultant increase in size and diameter and eventually breaks up into isolated “islands” of exotesta cell groups on the surface of the endosperm. production of ARABICA. Fig. in an oblique position (Fig.e. and . Japan and Singapore. the country was ranked seventh in world coffee production (i. of which about 60% (ca. Thailand officially became a coffee exporting nation. Tak). and other minor coffees put together). often by hill tribe families and villages. Phang-Nga. and the green “coffee beans” commercially sold are primarily endosperm (remnants of the seed coat are normally only left in the ventral fold of a “coffee bean”). in the majority of Rubiaceae. too. whereas the rest is processed locally (see below). canephora). 2Da and Dc). Whereas. can tolerate wider temperature and moisture extremes. almost all of which are processed and consumed locally. canephora seeds see Dentan (1985). ROBUSTA coffee is grown in large-scale plantations primarily in peninsular Thailand.. Only a few hundred tons of beans are produced annually. the exotesta is a continuous layer of cells covering the entire seed. Although ROBUSTA beans are generally considered to be of lesser quality than ARABICA beans. By the late 1990s. lags behind in terms of production. In contrast. Thailand ranks third (behind Vietnam and Indonesia). This silver-skin can be easily washed off. 2Dd). Thailand produces ca. as part of the opium crop replacement campaign. in Thailand’s northern provinces (Chiang Mai. 50. By 1976. For anatomical information of both C. ROBUSTA is easier to cultivate. Chiang Rai. Europe. Mae Hong Son. 2De) is located in the lower part of the seed. Amongst the Southeast Asiatic ROBUSTA coffee producers. there have been dramatic increases. 80. which is an unusual feature within the family. produces more beans and the fruits mature more quickly than ARABICA. History and economic importance for Thailand Figure 1 shows the distribution routes for cultivated ARABICA and ROBUSTA coffee (C. from Chumphon southwards (Ranong.000 tons) is exported.S.000 tons of ROBUSTA coffee per year.
possible that the specimens referred to by Craib are C. Craib’s comment that it is frequently cultivated would support this proposition. Coffea liberica Hiern. it remains uncertain whether their identity is correct.fao. 2G. ledgeriana (Howard) Trimen. Many coffee shop chains have opened in recent years. boncafe.— C. 5 m tall. Recommended standard references on cultivated coffee are Clarke & Macrae (1985–1988). ARABICA growing in Thailand is still somewhat experimental but it is to be excepted that. the other from Nakhon Si Thammarat. It is the most “robust” Coffea species: plants can become trees to 20 m tall (with trunks 30 cm in diam. liberica contained elements of two species. cuneate at base. with 7–9 pairs of lateral veins. namely C. and commented that the species is “frequent in cultivation”. too. 711). The species is also grown elsewhere in the tropics. 8–15 by 2–8 cm.80 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 was supported by the Royal Development Projects. Leaves oblong to ovate. having a range that more or less corresponds to that of C.co.— C. but is of minor importance (less than 5% of the world coffee production). excelsa A. trade statistics and economic-political trends concerning coffee. ca. rounded at apex.ico. Most of these serve ARABICAS of local production. The website of the International Coffee Organization (ICO) (http://www. (LIBERICA Coffee. ranging from botanical data. Inflorescences terminal. one from Chanthaburi province. Generalized statistical data are also available from the website of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) (htto://www. Is Coffea liberica Hiern in Thailand? Craib (1934: 172) mentioned two Kerr collections of cultivated plants of this species. liberica [sensu stricto] and C. The Boncafé Website (self-termed “The Thai Coffee Website”.). http://www. The situation is rather complex: Hiern’s original description of C. canephora. EXCELSA Coffee). Beans yield a very bitter coffee of low quality (coffee from EXCELSA strains is said to be somewhat less bitter than coffee from LIBERICA strains). Fig.apps.org/) provides extensive general information on various aspects. canephora. although not in large-scale plantations. This species occurs naturally in West Africa. due to increasing local demands. As these specimens could not be traced. It is. the United Nations and many other governmental and non-governmental organisations.th/thai-coffee/thai-coffee. Chev. are larger than in the other species. canephora (see Bridson & Vercourt. therefore. and nowadays numerous service stations and shopping centres have highly popular coffee outlets. this might change quickly. flowers and fruits. Clifford & Willson (1985) and Wrigley (1988). . plant breeding and ecology to coffee prices. Trees to ca.htm. 1988: 706. leaves can be to 55 cm long and over 20 cm wide. Cinchona calisaya Wedd.org). and links) gives excellent information in a Thai context and is recommended for further reading. many-flowered. It is fairly widely cultivated in tropical Africa.
Fig.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. Commercially produced tonic water usually contains around 100 to 300 ppm quinine and up to a maximum allowable concentration of 70 mg/l-1(Taylor. during World War II. isolated an alkaloid chemical in the bark which provided the highest antimalarial effect and named it quinine. calisava was commercially known as yellow.). calisaya (often grown as C. tube ca. 1998: map. 8–12 mm long. The occupation of Java by the Japanese in 1942. and the importance of Cinchona as a commercial crop dropped dramatically. has been redelimited by the revisor of the genus (Andersson. These two species contain the highest amount of quinine alkaloids within the genus. 2002). 1998). that of C. Because of increasing problems with malaria strains which have developed a resistance to synthesised quinine drugs. 5-merous. Northern and southwestern India and Java are major areas of production.c. in 1638. played no commercial role as quinine producers. officinalis. synthetic products largely replaced natural quinine. and by 1944 the goal was successfully achieved. pubescens (often grown under the name C. but this may change. PUFF & V. ellipsoidal. styles and stigmas included. New strains of drug-resistant malaria can be treated effectively with natural quinine and/or quinine bark extracts (Taylor. the wife of the fourth Count of Chinchón and Viceroy of Peru. After her return to Spain. They quickly dominated the world production of quinine. After World War II. Quinine is very bitter tasting and commercially sold tonic waters often use quinine as its bitter ingredient/component. In the middle of the 19th century. Seeds flattened. to ca. research to develop a synthetic quinine alkaloid was intensified. 2 cm long. Pelletier and Caventou. . with septicidal dehiscence. she introduced the drug to European medicine. 1998) to a form that has no medicinal value at all. CHAMCHUMROON) 81 Flowers heterodistylous. succirubra). C. i. Some production of Cinchona bark is also supported by the soft-drink industry. Within the genus (ca. l. with strongly dentate to more or less fimbriate wing. natural quinine extracted from quinine bark and the use of natural bark tea and/or bark extracts are making a comeback in the management and treatment of malaria. seeds of Cinchona were smuggled out of South America by the British and the Dutch and planted and cultivated in Java by the Dutch and in India and Sri Lanka by the British. Fruits capsular. and C. Cinchona trees have been grown throughout the tropics for the extraction of quinine. corolla white to pinkish.e. Fig. whereas Bolivia and Peru. 14D). who. lobes to ca 5 mm long. 23 species confined to north-western South America) only strains from two species are of any commercial importance. was cured of a malarial type of fever by using a decoction made from the bark of Cinchona. Bark from C. The name Cinchona came from the Countess of Chinchón. Another species often cited as being of commercial importance. For this reason. conspicuously villous along the margins. included in longstyled flowers. pubescens as brown or (the succirubra strain) red (Andersson. In 1820 two scientists. tips of stamens exserted in short-styled flowers (cf. 7 by 2 mm. calyx with small teeth. C. ledgeriana). 2G). where the trees originated from. A neotropical species spontaneously occurring on the eastern slopes of the Andes from central Peru to central Bolivia (Andersson. to ca. resulted in major shortages of natural quinine.
1988: map. obconic. corymb-like. Cinchona was probably never planted on a large scale.82 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 In Thailand. calyx lobes enlarged. to 20 cm in diam. Propagation by cuttings also appears to be difficult (also cf. 3K. Inflorescences terminal.) in the Philippines and in Malaysia (in recent years. corolla tube narrowly filiform. The entire genus is characterised by the presence of coloured. carinata (not treated here). 1981). leaf sizes and shapes. 5 mm long. Fig. enlarged calyces. 2 cm long). narrowed to base. filaments and anthers exserted and styles and stigmas included in short-styled forms. A species native and endemic to Madagascar (Puff. Leaves mostly opposite but occasionally in whorls of 3. typically 1 fertile seed in each of the two locules. glabrous to variously hairy. Carphalea kirondron Baillon.5 cm long. it has been observed by one of us (C. . growth form. including both native and non-indigenous ones. crowned by the enlarged calyx lobes. heterodistylous. jasminoides Ellis. ca.5–2. Fruits indehiscent. Fig. plants have been regularly seen on sale in Kuala Lumpur markets). reddish. nut-like.) Merr. Descriptions may therefore deviate from those given for the taxa in their natural state (e. Gardenia Ellis. upper part of style and 2 filiform stigmas exserted in long-styled form. Seed germination rates at the Singapore Botanic Gardens was extremely low (only ca. unequal (1 more enlarged than the others and to ca. to 5 mm long. A well known locality for planted Cinchona calisaya (as C. ca.— G.— G. 2%. or flower colour may differ in cultivars). 4–10 by 2–5 cm. Outside Thailand. acute at apex. very many-flowered.g. ORNAMENTALS Taxa are presented here in alphabetic sequence. Fig. There are also some isolated trees near the Doi Inthanon National Park guesthouse. The most commonly seen cultivated native species is probably G. G. bright red. augusta (L. Several species. Ng Siew Yin. Puff. 1988: 304). 1. are cultivated in Thailand. with petioles to 2 cm long. The plant may not be easy to propagate. Shrubs to 3 m tall (much taller and becoming tree-like if allowed to grow). to ca. The species is infrequently seen in Thailand (several localities in Chiang Mai and Kanchanaburi provinces). lobes (creamy-) white. ledgeriana) is the medicinal garden (Forestry Experimental Station) on Doi Suthep (Chiang Mai province). florida L. It is a member of the tribe Hedyotideae. a name often used in horticultural literature. The brief descriptions are primarily based on cultivated material. 14B). Flowers mostly 4-merous. along with Pentas (see below).P. but not infrequently one or both seeds are aborted. 3A–B. lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate.
to ca. anther.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. naturally occurring from tropical Florida and Mexico southwards through Central America. Flowers are typical bird flowers. 1–2 m tall. yellow to red at first.) Merr. used elsewhere in the tropics as ground cover in protected. narrowed to base. Fruits or sterile “pseudo-fruits” longitudinally ribbed. corollas rather thick and robust. G. do not seem to be grown in Thailand. shortly petiolate. The most commonly cultivated native species is probably G. corolla white (turning creamy-yellow with age).5–2 cm long. ‘Prostrata’). Prostrate forms (cv. partly shady areas. Flowers 5-merous. ca. This fast-growing species is widely planted in all parts of Thailand. very small. Flowers solitary and terminal on abbreviated lateral shoots (thus seemingly axillary). they lack any scent. petiolate. 1 cm in diam. Taiwan. yellow to yellow-orange or orangered. smaller. 5-locular. ± coriaceous. 6–12 by 3–8 cm. inflorescence axes red. 5 cm long. PUFF & V. membranous. a name often used in horticultural literature. 1. coccinea Swartz). ± globose. G. (syn. augusta (L. 1976: map. l. the inner more numerous. H. florida L. sun birds (and also butterflies) were observed as pollinators in Thailand. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4. styles and stigmas mostly included. Cultivated plants are mostly of the “normal” shrubby type. (syn. 2–3 cm long. erecta Jacq. quickly occupying newly disturbed sites (Elias 1976). fragrant. if allowed to grow.. Seeds minute. being pollinated by hummingbirds in the New World. with distinct double-helicoid cymes as partial inflorescences. stipules sheath-like above insertion of petioles. are cultivated in Thailand. elliptic-ovate. tube and lobes to ca. glabrous. ovary often sterile in double flowers. the species is known to be rather aggressive. CHAMCHUMROON) 83 Shrubs ca. calyx made up of 6 linear (-lanceolate) lobes. Fig. ca. stamens poorly developed or petaloid. glossy. Shrubs or. glabrous to villous. these and the persistent calyx often turning bright orange-reddish. Fruits berry-like. dark blue-black when fully mature. Also forms with variegated leaves (cv. 5).5–5 cm. Japan and nearby regions of the subtropical eastern hemisphere. the West Indies. syn. carinata (not treated here).c. ovate-elliptic. As is typical for ornithophilous flowers. Fig. It is often also grown as a solitary bush and can be trimmed into various shapes without negative effects. The species is widely planted in all parts of Thailand. lobes erect. and South America to Chile and Argentina (Elias. In its natural distribution range. The species apparently also reproduces vegetatively by sending out runners and rhizomatous branches (Elias. narrowed to the base. It is often grown as a living fence or hedge and soon flowers again after pruning. small trees to 7 m. Individuals left untouched for several years become tree-like but are less attractive in such a state. . ovary red. very often double. numerous. Seeds (both in its natural range and elsewhere) are dispersed by birds and germinate readily. A species native to south-eastern China. ‘Variegata’) appear to be absent. ca. elliptic-obovate or oblong-lanceolate. 5–12 by 2.). A widespread tropical American species. double flowers: the outer (true) corolla lobes 6(–9). H. Several species. Hamelia patens Jacq. Inflorescences terminal. The most prominent non-indigenous ornamental is G. Leaves opposite or occasionally in whorls of 3.). including both native and non-indigenous ones. (sub)acuminate at apex. many-flowered.. acute to acuminate at apex. tube ca. jasminoides Ellis. 3F–G.
1965) suggested it should be merged with Mussaenda. Fig. coloured (“petaloid”) calyx lobes. Leaves with petioles to ca 3 cm long. a ring of dark red hairs surrounding the throat. foliaceous and coloured bright red (elliptic to round. to ca. 3H. but is not as commonly planted as the M. 1 cm long. a tree-like plant occurring in northern Thailand. variable. shortly acuminate at apex. many-flowered. often completely sterile. 10 by 8 cm). with numerous minute seeds. rounded. dehiscens. lanceolate to rounded. usually not seen in cultivation). In the present context. Inflorescences terminal. A species native to Western tropical Africa. ‘Doña’ and ‘Queen Sirikit’. glabrous to hairy.and short-styled forms. ca. The taxonomic position and relationship of the tropical African Pseudomussaenda has been much disputed. 6–10 by 4–8 cm. Based on a detailed investigation of the character states of the three genera. but 2–6 flowers per inflorescence with a single calyx lobe enlarged. hairy. anthers and style and stigmas included in the corolla tube both in long. calyx lobes of most flowers small. 3I. Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. Fruits berry-like. 7–12 by 5–8 cm. ovate to lanceolate. all calyx lobes of all flowers of an inflorescence enlarged. 1963. Leaves with petioles to 4 cm long. acute to acuminate at apex. stipules bifid. 5–15 by 3–7 cm. came to the conclusion that the three genera should be upheld. with stems to 8 m if allowed to grow. to ca. stipules bifid. yellow-orange to orange. The species is occasionally seen in gardens and parks. lanceolate. rounded to cuneate at base. but not all taxa grown as ornamentals are native. ca. It appears to be cultivated much more frequently in the peninsula than elsewhere in Thailand. 1 cm long. Shrubs. & Thonn. corolla yellow. to ca. Indigenous species of Mussaenda are well represented in the Thai flora. Baker & Bakhuizen van den Brink. Fruit not developed. elliptic to broadly ovate. to ca. lobes white to creamy-yellow. Schizomussaenda (S. Mussaenda philippica L. heterodistylous. Fig. 3 m tall. 1998). inflorescence axes densely covered with red hairs.84 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Mussaenda L. ellipsoid. Shrubs to 3 m (scandent and climbing. Flowers 5-merous. foliaceous and white or in various shades of pink. corolla tube with red hairs outside. sometimes rather tree-like. to ca. The most obvious character distinguishing Mussaenda from Pseudomussaenda is the fruit: it is indehiscent and berry-like in the former and a dehiscent capsule in the latter. Pseudomussaenda and Schizomussaenda are three genera characterised by enlarged. This was subsequently confirmed by DNA studies (Bremer & Thulin. Flowers 5-merous. . 1–1. ca. 2 cm long. 3 mm long. Bakhuizen van den Brink & Koster. round. Inflorescences terminal.5 mm long.g. Jayaweera (1963) suggested that Pseudomussaenda and Schizomussaenda are not sufficiently different to warrant the segregation as two genera. with red hairs. with a darker orange “eye”. and several authors (e. monotypic). Puff et al. ca. subcordate to cuneate at base. Rich.C. philippica cultivars described below. corolla tube and lobes to ca. (1993). is not treated herein as it is not used as an ornamental. and Pseudomussaenda Wernham Mussaenda. many-flowered.
NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. PUFF & V. CHAMCHUMROON)
“Normal” M. philippica shows the typical Mussaenda characteristics, i.e. it has only relatively few enlarged white calyx lobes per inflorescence. Usually, only one to four flowers of a partial inflorescence have one enlarged, coloured calyx lobe each, whereas the remaining calyx lobes remain small and inconspicuous. It is not grown as an ornamental. The origin of cvs. ‘Doña’ and ‘Queen Sirikit’ is partly documented in a University of the Philippines Newsletter published for the 1998 opening of a Mussaenda cultivar garden (http://www.up.edu.ph/newsletter/1998/01/donas.html). An unusual mutation of M. philippica was discovered in the 1930s on Mt Maquilin, in the vicinity of the Los Baños Campus of the University of the Philippines (Luzon). It differed from the “normal” M. philippica in having all five calyx lobes of all flowers of an inflorescence enlarged and coloured pure white. The aberrant form was eventually formally described as M. philippica var. aurorae Sulit. This sport was taken into cultivation by horticulturists at Los Baños and reproduced vegetatively. It became known as M. philippica ‘Doña Aurora’, named after the wife of former President Manuel L. Quezon. This set the precedent for naming subsequently developed cultivars after First Ladies (‘Doñas’). Pink ‘Doñas’ (cultivars with all enlarged calyx lobes in various shades of pink): all of these originated by basically crossing cv. ‘Doña Aurora’ (white enlarged calyx lobes) with M. erythrophylla (bright red enlarged calyx lobes; see above): white + red = pink. Further backcrossing of F1 hybrids with other cultivars resulted in slight colour variations, e.g. cv. ‘Doña Luz’ (mottled pink with whitish veins), cv. ‘Doña Hilaria’ (pure pink), cv. ‘Doña Evangelina’ (dark pinkish-red), and many others. Mussaenda philippica ‘Queen Sirikit’ also belongs to the group of 'pinks'. It was named after the Queen of Thailand during her visit to the Los Baños campus of the University of the Philippines in 1963. According to the Plant Science Department at the University of Connecticut (http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/199300381.html), cv. ‘Queen Sirikit’ resulted from the backcross of the F1 hybrid, M. erythrophylla x M. philippica ‘Doña Aurora’, to M. philippica ‘Doña Aurora’. Both white and pink M. philippica cultivars are widely grown in Thailand as ornamentals, not infrequently both are planted side by side (Fig. 3H). They appear to require continuously high humidity and undoubtedly are most commonly seen in the Peninsula, but are also frequent in Bangkok and can be observed as far north as Chiang Mai province, where they are grown in the low-lying areas. Whilst the white-calyx cultivars invariably are cv. ‘Doña Aurora’, it is not certain whether the pink-calyx cultivars seen in Thailand are always cv. ‘Queen Sirikit’. Cultivars in various shades of pink occur which, except for the colour tone of the enlarged calyces, are indistinguishable. It is likely that many of the pink cultivars are rather cv. ‘Doña Luz’ (a much older cultivar than cv. ‘Queen Sirikit’) which has been grown in many parts of Southeast Asia for a long time. Pseudomussaenda flava Verdc.— Mussaenda luteola Delile.— Mussaenda flava (Verdc.) Bakh. f. Fig. 3J.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31
Shrubs to ca. 3 m tall. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, elliptic to oblongelliptic, ca. 4–8 by 2–4 cm, acute to acuminate at apex, narrowed to the base, softly pubescent; stipules with 2 filiform fimbriae. Inflorescences terminal, severalflowered. Flowers 5-merous, heterodistylous; calyx lobes of most flowers small, ca. 2–5 mm long, filiform, hairy, but 1–2 flowers per inflorescence with a single calyx lobe enlarged, foliaceous and coloured white to creamy-yellow (oblong, ovate or elliptic, ca. 2–5 by 1.5–4 cm); corolla tube 2–3 cm long, greenish, lobes ca. 5–8 mm long, ovate, yellow, throat often with a ring of orange-yellow hairs; anthers and style and stigmas included in the corolla tube both in long- and short-styles forms. Fruits dry, capsular, oblong, to ca. 5 mm long, loculicidally splitting into two valves. The species seems to be cultivated primarily in peninsular Thailand. It usually is planted in groups and is sometimes seen as a living fence. Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Defl. Fig. 3C. Perennial herbs, sometimes a little woody at base, to ca. 0.5 m tall, or, in some cultivars, low and cushion-like. Leaves with petioles to ca. 1 cm long, ovate to lanceolate, 4–6 by 2.5–3 cm, acute to acuminate at apex, narrowed to the base, thinnish, pubescent to puberulous. Inflorescences terminal, many-flowered, of umbel-like appearance. Flowers 5-merous, mostly heterodistylous; corolla, depending on cultivar, white, in shades of pink, reddish-purplish or lilac or mauve, sometimes 2-toned (dark pink with white stripes, etc.), tube narrowly cylindrical, to ca. 2 cm long, lobes ovate to elliptic, ca. 0.5–1 cm long; filaments and anthers exserted and styles and stigmas included in short-styled forms, upper part of style and 2 filiform stigmas exserted in long-styled form. Fruits capsular, dehiscing into 2 valves, to ca. 5 mm long; seeds numerous, minute. A variable species, divided into several infraspecific taxa, occurring from Tropical East Africa to Ethiopia to Sudan and also extending into south-western Arabia (Verdcourt, 1976; Puff, 2003). A species sporadically seen cultivated (Bangkok, Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces) and presumably a relatively recent addition to Thailand’s horticultural scene. Low, cushion-like forms make attractive flowering borders. More erect growing forms are occasionally seen as pot plants. Psilanthus bengalensis (Heyne ex Schult.) Le Roy.— Coffea bengalensis Heyne ex Schult. Illustrations: Sivarajan et al. (1992: Fig. 2A–E); Pinratana (1980: 37). Shrubs to 2–3 m tall (if allowed to grow; plants usually pruned and kept low, and often less than 0.5 m). Leaves elliptic-oblong to broadly ovate, ca. 5–9 by 4–5 cm, shortly acuminate at apex, narrowed to the base, subcoriaceous, glabrous (except for veins below); stipules small, triangular-aristate. Flowers 1–5 together, terminal (on main shoots or on abbreviated axillary shoots), fragrant, 5-merous; calyx rim-like, with minute teeth; corolla white, tube to 2 cm long, lobes ovate to elliptic, ca. 1 cm long; tips of anthers exserted, style and stigmas included. Fruits subsessile, drupaceous, ellipsoidal, crowned by persistent calyx, ca. 1 cm long, blue-black when ripe, with 2 seeds.
NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. PUFF & V. CHAMCHUMROON)
A species naturally occurring from Bangladesh to India and Nepal (Sivarajan et al., 1992). An occasionally seen ornamental (Bangkok; northern provinces), probably grown for its sweetly scented flowers. Pinratana (1980) notes that the species is propagated by seed. Rondeletia odorata Jacq. Fig. 3E. Shrubs ca. 1–2 m tall. Leaves oblong (-obovate), 4–10 by 2–4 cm, rounded to acute at apex, obtuse or subcordate at the base, thick, leathery. Inflorescences terminal, several- to many-flowered. Flowers 5-merous; corollas red or red-orange, mostly with a distinct yellow-orange “eye”, tube ca. 1 cm long, lobes rounded, to ca. 5 mm long; anthers included; stigmas barely exserted from throat; ovary 2-locular. Fruits globose, ca. 4 mm in diam., capsular, splitting into 2 valves, releasing numerous very small, wingless seeds. A species naturally occurring from northern Central America (southern Mexico) southward to north-western South America, and also in the Caribbean. Only seen cultivated in a few places in peninsular Thailand, and in Bangkok. Serissa japonica (Thunb.) Thunb.— S. foetida (L.f.) Willd. Fig. 3D. Shrubs to ca. 0.5 m tall. Leaves shortly petiolate, oblong, ca. 1.5–2.5 by 0.5 cm, acute at apex, narrowed to base, thin-coriaceous, glabrous. Leaves and young shoots foetid when bruised. Flowers solitary or few together terminal on abbreviated short shoots, (4–)5–6-merous, heterodistylous; corolla white to pale pink, tube ca. 5 mm long, lobes ca. 2 mm, with acuminate tips; anthers exserted and filiform stigmas included in short-styled form, reversed in long-style flowers; ovary 2-locular. Fruits small, less than 5 mm long, opening by means of an operculum, with 2 pyrenes. A species native to south-eastern China and possibly an early introduction to Japan (see note in Puff, 1990). In Craib (1934: 230), and often also in horticultural literature, the species is wrongly called Serissa foetida. The species was originally associated with the genus Lycium and was described as L. japonicum in 1780 and as L. foetidum in 1781; hence “japonicum” is the oldest name. The characteristic foetid odour that is emitted when Serissa foetida plant tissue is damaged is due to paederoside, an iridoid glycoside (Inouye et al., 1988). Tissue damage leads to the release of an enzyme which splits the bad-smelling sulphur component off the iridoid glycoside. The same chemical compound is known from other rubiaceous genera and taxa occurring in Thailand, e.g. Paederia and Leptodermis (in the same tribe, Paederieae, as Serissa), Saprosma and species of Lasianthus. The species is fairly frequently planted in all parts of Thailand but is easily overlooked because it is not particularly showy. It is often used as in the borders of flower
Bushy shrubs to ca. too.— Gardenia macrantha Schultes. ORNAMENTALS EXPECTED TO BE GROWN IN THAILAND At least two spectacular rubiaceous ornamentals of extra-Asiatic origin. Corolla tube to over 20 cm long. compare with Mussaenda and Pseudomussaenda. redcoloured calyx lobes are. Propagation by cuttings is easy. a species that has been seen cultivated in Indonesia. have not yet been recorded for Thailand although they should do well. and the inside of the lobes is white with purplish or reddish markings. Illustrations: Bridson & Verdcourt (1988: Fig. (syn. Each several-flowered partial inflorescence has two flowers with a single much enlarged calyx lobe. flowers turn creamy-white with age. spike-like inflorescences to over 50 cm long. It is also a tropical African plant. 10 by 5 cm. They are only briefly mentioned below: Warszewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Klotzsch Shrubs with striking terminal. with a natural distribution range similar to Euclinia longiflora. A species naturally occurring from southern Central America to Brazil. 56. Serissa japonica is much used in Bonsai. An African rain forest species occurring from Uganda westwards to Guinea. Cultivars with double flowers are less often seen (formally described as ‘forma duplex’ and ‘forma pleniflora’.). but the corolla tubes are greenish or reddish outside. 20 cm long) which are erect and solitary. and south-west to Angola. observed in Malayan and Indonesian gardens. Illustration: Hallé (1970: Fig.— Randia macrantha (Schultes) DC. white 5-merous flowers mostly solitary at the end of branches. although not particularly so in Thailand. The plants are fast-growing so that attractive Bonsai trees can be formed by pruning and wiring in a relatively short time. produce very large flowers (corolla tubes to ca. 110). The plant is often called ‘Wild Poinsettia’ because the enlarged.88 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 beds or as a low hedge. 4 m tall with spectacular. Chin (1977). Corner (1988: 647) mentions that the species [as Randia macrantha] is frequently cultivated in Malay gardens and known as ‘Angel’s Trumpets’. at least in colour. Hara. lobes to 5 cm long. at least in the peninsula. Euclinia longiflora Salisb. fragrant. Fig. composed of numerous congested partial inflorescence arranged along the elongated inflorescence axis. cv. foliaceous. 3D). 1952). Randia maculata DC. Cultivars with variegated leaves (yellowish-white leaf aged. superficially similar to the bracts subtending the inflorescences of ‘Poinsettia’ (Euphorbia pulcherrima). . recurved. ‘Variegata’) are common (cf. which is leaf-like in shape and coloured bright red (to ca. This is not to be confused with Rothmannia longiflora Salisb. The bushes. 79). cf. above).
A. London.M. Coffee.). Tropical Press. New York. Backer. 4: Agronomy. Coffee. W. R. vol. M. Kuala Lumpur. A List of the plants known from Siam with notes of their occurrence. 1985. C. H. K. Jr. Pl.V. New York.A. Clarke. The Rubiaceae of Koh Chang. Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only). vol. 3: Physiology.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. & Thulin. ________. (Bot.. 2. Coffee.) 31: 13–26. & Bakhuizen van den Brink. & Puff.. D. Brookfield. phylogenetic relationships based on rbcL data. R.. 1988. J. L. Balkema.. London. 1988. Wayside Trees of Malaya. 1977. 2: Technology. Vol. Malaysian flowers in colour. Mem. New York. Croom Helm. Coffee. & Willson. 1998. B. CHAMCHUMROON) 89 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Voradol Chamchumroon wishes to thank the ÖAD (Austrian Academic Exchange) for a scholarship which made it possible to carry out part of the present studies at the Institute of Botany. Vol. T. Bakhuizen van den Brink. part 2: Rubiaceae (concluded) to Dipsacaceae. Groningen. C. Blumea 12: 61–69. ________. New York. New York. 1988. Clifford. E. Elsevier Applied Science Publ. Thai For.. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 415–747. Chin. re-establishment of Mussaendeae. University of Vienna. R. H. & Verdcourt. Gard. 1988. ed. G. R. 147–233. Notes on the Flora of Java VIII. 1985. and a new genus of Sabiceeae (Rubiaceae). Austria. N. Elsevier Applied Science Publ. A. (ed. New York Bot. Jr. 2. Rubiaceae (part 2). Malayan Nature Soc. London. Sydney. Noordhoff. _______. New York. Craib. Vol. 1988. & Macrae.. Kuala Lumpur. 1998.5: Related beverages.. A revision of the genus Cinchona (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae). 1987. 6: Commercial and technico-legal aspects. Vol. Florae Siamensis enumeratio.J. Chamchumroon. C. 2003. London. Bull. ________. & Koster. 80: 1–75. Elsevier Applied Science Publ. New York. R. 1934. In: Polhill. London. Collapse of Isertieae. Elsevier Applied Science Publ. V.).P.. B. 1963. Vol. biochemistry and production of beans and beverage. 1965. Botany. Coffee. ________. M. Siam Society. C. (ed. Elsevier Applied Science Publ. London. . Vol. south-eastern Thailand. Bridson. Vol. PUFF & V. Rotterdam. 1: Chemistry. REFERENCES Andersson. Bremer. Coffee. Elsevier Applied Science Publ. 3rd. Coffee. 211: 71–92. London. Syst. C. Evol.F. Corner.. 2. 1988.-N. Bangkok. J. (eds).
02G. London. Botany. Belg. Roseville. E. Pinratana. Flore du Gabon 17. Stoffelen. Bot. The affinities and relationships of the Japanese endemic Pseudopyxis (Rubiaceae-Paederieae). Botany. P. (eds). 4: 145–155. (ed. Herbarium. Meise. N. Bot. Jard. koffie ontsluierd: von koffiestruk tot kopje koffie. C.). Een botanische kijk op koffie. Coffee.D. Longman.M. H. Phytochemistry 27: 2591–2598.W. R..). London. Flowers in Thailand. N. Bull. B. 1992. V.P. F. Prima Publishing. Pl. Herbal Secrets of the Rainforest. 1963.. 1952. 257–260.1 Nat. & Rohrhofer. 1981.. N. D. U. Nat. 1995. Bangkok. Addis Ababa Univ. Wrigley. in press. Hallé. Observations on Carphalea Juss.. P. (Rubiaceae-Hedyotideae). & Dept. Kawa. 1988. M. Sileshi Nemomissa & Edwards. In: Robbrecht. IPR News (Parks & Recreation Dept. M. De plantekunde – bril opgezet. Enumeratio Spermatophytarum Japonicarum . K. 2003. vol. Elias. Bull. The rubiaceous genus Mussaenda: the morphology of the Asiatic species. Coffee. 284–304. In: Polhill. & Willson. E. Pseudomussaenda and Schizomussaenda (Rubiaceae): close allies of Mussaenda. Tokyo. J. London. Rubiaceae (part 1). . (Rubiaceae). Rubiaceae.. (eds). (ed.f. Jard. with particular reference to the Madagascan taxa and its taxonomic position.. 26: 81–144. A. Famille des Rubiacées (2e partie). In: Clifford. Bot. Gard. Evolution of crop plants. Y. 1985. Sinica 33: 209–224. Califonia.. Agents for Overseas Governments and Administration. Puff. In: Simmonds. Musée Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle. biochemistry and production of beans and beverage. (Rubiaceae). _______. A newcomer to the horticultural scene. Coffees. Paris. Nature Series no. Iwanami Shoten. Puff. 2nd ed. Hara. G.. 4. The microscopic structure of the coffee bean. pp. 2002.. Igersheim. Bot. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Bull. Spec. 63: 111–126. Chemotaxonomic studies of rubiaceous plants containing iridoid glycosides. (Rubiaceae tribe Coffeeae) in India. Revision of the genus Psilanthus Hook. S. 1981: 5. C. pp. Tropical Agriculture Series. Belg. Gard. C. Viratham Press.). Takeda. Biol. Biju. T. London. Verdcourt. T. Carphalea kirondron Baill. Sivarajan..S. & Robbrecht. New York Bot. Longman. Sydney. A. I. Coffea spp. Singapore) Jan.A. Uppsala Univ. Taylor.90 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Dentan. Brother Amnuay. Ng Siew Yin. New York. C.. Kanomi. A monograph of the genus Hamelia (Rubiaceae). Mem. Croom Helm. Belgium. 1980. Nishimura. Jayaweera. Okuda. 1970. 1976.. S. & Puff. Pars secunda. 1993. Arnold Arb. H. (ed. Ferwerda. E. 1990 [“1989”]. 62: 35–68. 58: 271–323. Flora of Tropical East Africa. _______. V. (1988). In: Hedberg. Acad. & Mathew. Syst. H. 1988. Inouye. 1976. Addis Ababa & Uppsala. L. 1976.
B–C. e. . c. b. D. Van de Kerckhove. embryo. A–D Coffea arabica. seed enclosed in endocarp. paintings by O.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. reproduced with permission of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium. two seeds (endosperm covered by “silver skin”). E–F C. d. CHAMCHUMROON) 91 Figure 2. 20). Puff. PUFF & V. modified. from Robbrecht & Stoffelen (1995: Fig. fruits. E. canephora: A. a. sectioned fruit showing two seeds. portion cut off to show position of embryo. Cinchona calisaya. flowers. A–C. G. F. E–F photographed by C. seed. D.
92 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
F. Serissa japonica. Carphalea kirondron. Puff. Pentas lanceolata. Mussaenda philippica cultivars (white: cv. M. Carphalea kirondron inflorescence showing red enlarged calyx lobes and some corollas. K. B. note coloured inflorescence axes. erythrophylla. CHAMCHUMROON) 93 Figure 3.NON-INDIGENOUS RUBIACEAE GROWN IN THAILAND (C. H. ‘Queen Sirikit’ or possibly ‘Dona Luz’). J. A. Gardenia augusta. All photographed by C. I. double flower. PUFF & V. ‘Dona Auror’. E. . D. Hamelia patens. Hamelia patens inflorescence. Rondeletia odorata. pink: cv. Pseudomussaenda flava. G. C.
Denmark. bearing many cincinni.5 cm. Br. elliptic. Australia. in prep. blepharocalyx var. calyx tubular. 4: 279.5 cm long. 47: 57. New Caledonia. . glabrous. C. glabrous *Applied Taxonomic Research Center. The genus Alpinia is the largest in the Zingiberaceae with more than 200 species. Furthermore one new species was discovered (Saensouk et al. 17 species and two varieties of Alpinia are recognized in Thailand. Malay Penins. Bracteoles ovate. 1899. Roy. shortly pubescent. green. Singapore 6: 260. fig. Bull.). blepharocalyx K. Khon Kaen University. each subtended by long sheaths. Alpinia scabra (Blume) Baker and A. Department of Biology. University of Aarhus. 1990. petioles up to 1. Two new records from Thailand. At present. the Solomon Islands. J. Holttum. 1899. 15–20 by 1. rachis rather stout. Flowers white. Fiji and Samoa (Larsen et al. lamina oblong. with stiff hairs on both surfaces. pubescent. Bull. (holotype ?L. Bot. base cuneate to attenuate. 1904. 4: 223. apex acuminate to caudate. tip of lobes shortly pointed. apex equally 3lobed. J. ca. 46): 334. 6–8 by 3 mm. BULL. ca. Thailand. Gard.. corolla tube slender.2. ca. Alpinia scabra (Blume) Baker in Hook. Schum. dorsal corolla lobe oblong.) T. in Engl.. A. Schum. 1930. 1914. 1950. shortly pubescent. India 6: 256.THAI FOR. apex hooded. 1892. sheaths 2–3. Figs. Bogor.— Languas scabra (Blume) Burk. apex acute. scattered stiff hairs along margin. apex rounded. 25–50 by 4–6 cm.. in Engl. peduncles shortly pubescent. Edinb. Alpinia scabra. Pl. shortly pubescent. Blume s. with two varieties are described and illustrated. Enum. ca.5 cm. Gard. Khon Kaen 40002. Bot. Type: Indonesia. Boerlage. Inflorescence paniculate. New Hebrides.-Mazz. Faculty of Science. Javae 1: 60. Icon. glabrior (Hand. peduncles of cincinni 1–2. Schum. 2.5 cm long with up to 6 flowers on each. 1 by 0. Asiat.. Ridl. white. 30–40 cm long. Fl. Brit. usually with 2–3 large branches in the lower part. blepharocalyx and A. Pedicels slender. Smith. It occurs throughout tropical Asia to New Guinea. 5–7 by 3 mm.5 cm long.) 31: 95–104. white.L. blepharocalyx var. 1827. PRANOM CHANTARANOTHAI* & KAI LARSEN** ABSTRACT. In Thailand 15 species were enumerated by Larsen (1996). Notes on the genus Alpinia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand SURAPON SAENSOUK*. 20 (IV. Ridl. Jahrb. Soc. apex acute. **Department of Systematic Botany. Leafy shoots 2–3 m tall.. apex acuminate to caudate to 1. Str. up to 3 mm long.5 cm. ligule ovate. shortly pubescent. shortly pubescent. 2–8 by 2 mm. K. Leaves: sheaths with short stiff hairs near base of petiole and ligule. (BOT.f.3. Bracts towards base of inflorescence very small. 10 by 3 mm. Singapore 13: 158. During revision of this genus for the Flora of Thailand. Wu were found in Thailand. white. 5 mm long.. 1998).— Hellina scabra Blume. not seen). 1 by 1 mm. 26: 275 t. 2003. Fl. 32: 164. K. to 3.n. ovate.. 1924. Pflanzenr..
apex unequally 3-lobed.— Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Java). Reip. pubescent.5–1 cm. ligules oblong-ovate or ovate.5–1 cm long. Distribution. Filaments ca. petioles 1. Bracteoles green to dark red when young. 1820. 5 by 3 mm. Linn. Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary.. obovate. Bull. the labellum shorter than the corolla lobes and the apex of labellum cleft to the base. deeply split to 1 cm on one side. S. 1997. 1996. Fl. pubescent. Fl. the tip of calyx lobes shortly pointed. corolla tube 2–2. glabrous with crimson spots. Fl. 2.7–4.H. 46): 334.L. 6 by 3 mm. 2. apex acuminate to caudate or mucronate. densely pubescent. 7–9 by 4–5 mm. Baker in Hook.S. dry and brittle when mature. stigma cup-shaped. ca. 10–20 cm long. P. Lower surface of lamina densely villous var. T. Pflanzenr. 3 mm long. China 24: 339. Sin. IndoChine 1: 95. pubescent. white. 1814. (Bot.— Flowering February. base attenuate. galanga but differs in having larger and richer inflorescences branches. J. Wu.5 cm long. apex hooded. Brit. lower surface densely villous. cleft almost to the base. glabrous.. Shan in Z. 1892. blepharocalyx 1. Wu & P. Leaves: sheaths shortly pubescent along margin near base of ligule and on petiole. dorsal corolla lobe . BKF)]. glabrous or pubescent. 1904.W. in Lecompte. Pop.) 24: 35. non A.: 2. the 2 halves with wavy margins. India 6: 256. glabrous.— In tropical rain forest. 47: 57. J. Trans. 1981. 1 by 1 mm. when young covered by 1 broad sheath. lateral staminodes elliptic to 1 mm long.W.5–1 by 0. glabrous except for cilia along margin. bracteata Rosc.5 by 2–2.5 cm. densely pubescent.. Pedicels 0. 11: 281.4–2. upper surface glabrous. bracteata Roxb. anther-crest ca. membranous. style slender. ca. densely brown pubescent. Raven. glabrior var. 1. H. The leaf surface is scabrate. white.. 1: 61. apex acuterounded or truncate. Figs. KEY TO THE VARIETIES 1. Tsai. glabrous. Bot. Phenology. 4. 0. Edinb. Fruit unknown. glabrous. Ovary ovoid. Fl. lateral lobes oblong. Ecology. densely brown pubescent. 16(2): 89. Fl. Smith.f.5–1 cm long. Gagnep.— PENINSULAR: Yala [Betong district. Lower surface of lamina sparsely pubescent along the margin and midrib. triangular. 55–60 by 7–12 cm. Calyx tubular. Ind.T. otherwise glabrous var.— A. 8 Feb. peduncles 1. 1908. Hort. Henry 11962 (holotype K!. flat. 15–20 cm long. ca. Epigynous glands 2. apex equally bilobed.— A. Soc.H.5–10 cm long. 10 mm long. Alpinia blepharocalyx K. anthers ca. P. Zhao & H. shortly brown pubescent.5–4 cm long.. in Engl. rachis stout. shorter than calyx. 1990. Thai For. scabra is similar to A. 20 (IV. blepharocalyx Leafy shoots 2–3 m tall. Note. Bengal. labellum shorter than the corolla lobes. Chen.96 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 with crimson spots. isotype E). Puudjaa 329 (AAU. glabrous. Inflorescence a drooping raceme. 2000 Type: China. Li.6 by 1 cm. bearing many cincinni. lamina oblong to lanceolate. Larsen. Tong. peduncles of 1-flowered cincinni 0.Q. Schum. 1814. S. broadly obovate when flattened. Thailand. Bract absent. 2 mm long.
Larsen & Larsen 47310 (AAU). 7: 1322. C). Filaments 15–20 by 4 mm. Wu.) T. glabrous or sparsely shortly pubescent. Fruits unknown. apex acute. Shan in Wu & Raven. var. glabrous. Acta Phytotax.— Flowering December–May.5–5 by 3. Løjtnant & Niyomdham 162 (AAU). 3–4. Khon Kaen University and the AAU Herbarium for their facilities during this study. 1. curved. Type: China. 2000.— India. LARSEN) 97 oblong.— Languas blepharocalyx var. Sutheesorn 2263 (BK). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are deeply indebted to Department of Biology. Sin. 3. Nanakorn QBG 8777 (QBG). apex bluntly hooded. CHANTARANOTHAI & K. Pop. Faculty of Science. apex bluntly hooded. sparsely pubescent. Bangladesh. Kerr 8662 (BK.7–2. Handel-Mazzeti 5750 (holotype ?W. shortly pubescent. shortly pubescent. Nanakorn QBG 9420 (QBG). Specimens examined. Fl. China 24: 339. Ovary ovoid. The first author is very grateful to Mrs Supee S. Smitinand 10260 (BK). Wu & S. shortly pubescent. apex 3-lobed.5 cm. Wu in T. 1936. 16(2): 90. anther-crest 1 mm long. Kerr 20144 (BK). shortly pubescent along margin or wanting. Laos and Vietnam.— Nanakorn QBG 5468 (QBG).— Along margins of evergreen forest and open grassy pine forest. glabrous. Sin. Phenology. 1978. obovate to suborbicular. 7–8 mm long.— Flowering February–April. anthers 12–15 by 5– 6 mm.5 by 1–1. Chen. L. Larsen. 5 mm long.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai. 2 lobes nearly equal.— India. 1981. Reip. 16(3): 35.7–3. C). 2326 (AAU). glabrior (Hand. Epigynous glands 2. SAENSOUK.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai.5–4 cm. otherwise glabrous.5 cm.— Nanakorn s.5–4 by 1. Chen. densely pubescent. margin crinkled. Tong. who kindly advised and helped in many . Symb. J. 1000– 1400 m. Ecology. P.— Along margins of evergreen forest and open grassy pine forest. Distribution. 4–5 by 3–4 mm. South China. 2. oblong. glabrior Hand. stigma cup-shaped. Myanmar.n. Sadakorn 474 (BK). 800– 2000 m. apex acuminate or unequally 2-dentate. not seen). Løjtnant & Niyomdham 124 (AAU). South China. Lower surface of lamina sparsely pubescent along margin and midrib. Laos and Vietnam. Bangladesh. Zhao & Li. SØrensen et al.NOTES ON THE GENUS ALPINIA (ZINGIBERACEAE) IN THAILAND (S. apex 2. Lampang. Sin. L. style slender. Distribution. yellow along margin. Figs. pubescent at base of labellum. Suwatabhan 113 (BK). Maxwell 01–09 (CMU).-Mazz.. (QBG). lateral staminodes small. red. Thailand. NORTH-EASTERN: Loei. Myanmar. Specimens examined. lateral lobes smaller. Phenology.to 3dentate. Fl. ca. mid-lobe small. NORTH-EASTERN: Loei. Tsai. oblong to linear. Thailand. labellum strongly concave. Ecology. Kerr 4747 (BK.-Mazz.
474–495.J. Many thanks to Mr Piyakaset Suksathan and Mr Charun Maknoi for valuable advice and also to Ms Kamolhathai Phulphong for the photographs. BK. A preliminary checklist of the Zingiberaceae in Thailand. H.D. & Maas. P. Bull. Lock. The Families and Genera of Vascular plants IV: Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons.. KL. Zingiberaceae. QBG and S).. Scale bars = 5 cm. 1996. B. CMU. 1998. Berlin. J. C.98 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 ways while the first author was in Aarhus. blepharocalyx. Warm thanks also to the Curators and staff of the herbaria visited (AAU. K. Program (Thailand) is acknowledged for financial support. A B Figure 1. pp. PSU. In: Kubitzki. Maas. Larsen. The Golden Jubilee Ph. (eds). (Bot.) 24: 35–49. Lower surface of leaves in varieties of Alpinia blepharocalyx: A. et al.M. var. Springer-Verlag. glabrior. REFERENCES Larsen. Thai For. K. BKF. var.M. K. .
CHANTARANOTHAI & K. Alpinia scabra: Specimen collected from the Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary.NOTES ON THE GENUS ALPINIA (ZINGIBERACEAE) IN THAILAND (S. P. Puudjaa. Betong. BKF). . 8 Feb. 1997 (AAU. Yala by P. SAENSOUK. LARSEN) 99 Figure 2.
100 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
CHANTARANOTHAI & K. H: labellum and lateral staminodes. calyx. flower. C. ligule. K: style and stigma. J: ovary. B. G: lateral lobe. D. SAENSOUK.NOTES ON THE GENUS ALPINIA (ZINGIBERACEAE) IN THAILAND (S. LARSEN) 101 Figure 3. style and epigynous glands. . E. I: stamen. P. dorsal corolla lobe. Scale bars = 1 cm. Alpinia scabra: A. F. bracteole. bract.
102 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
blepharocalyx. CHANTARANOTHAI & K. Saensouk (B). blepharocalyx var. LARSEN) 103 A B Figure 4.NOTES ON THE GENUS ALPINIA (ZINGIBERACEAE) IN THAILAND (S. glabrior. P. . A. Phulphong (A) and S. Photographed by K. SAENSOUK. B. blepharocalyx var. Flowering specimens of Alpinia blepharocalyx: A. A.
Asia and one species in Madacascar. and J. Here we report the karyology of the five species present in Thailand. and J. J. Thailand. gossypifolia appear closely related to each other based on their meiotic configuration and morphological similarity.. Flower buds were fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stored in 70 % ethyl alcohol under refrigeration. J. *Corresponding author. curcas and J. whilst J. gossypifolia L.. Karyology of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand PUANGPAKA SOONTORNCHAINAKSAENG* & THAYA JENJITTIKUL ** ABSTRACT. J. Faculty of Science. The karyology of J. . J. J. 1) were collected from naturalised populations.67 µm. gossypifolia. multifida and. curcas is chromosomally similar to J.. Jatropha curcas has potential as a source of a combustible organic oil. podagrica has a meiotic configuration of 8ringII + 3rodII. The karyology of five species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand was investigated. gossypifolia was determined from first anaphase cells: the chromosomes separated to 11:11. J. perhaps. 1972). the Physic Nut. curcas L.) 31: 105–112. 2003. Mahidol University. There are many previous records of chromosome numbers in Jatropha as shown in Table 1. 2001). INTRODUCTION Jatropha L.THAI FOR. mainly in the tropics (Smith. J. It is particularly common in Tropical America and Africa. is a diverse and widespread genus of 175 species (Airy Shaw. are attractive ornamentals (Chayamarit et al. Several species are cultivated. Bivalent length ranges from 1–3. Most species have chromosome numbers of 2n = 22 and a base number of x = 11. are used as medicinal plants. Australasia or Oceania. multifida and J. podagrica (Fig. J. Most of them were paired as bivalents at first metaphase and separated to 11:11 at first anaphase. multifida. Payathai. (BOT. MATERIALS AND METHODS Jatropha curcas. Rama VI Rd.** Department of Plant Science. There are five species of Jatropha cultivated in Thailand. *. J. multifida L. BULL. curcas L. podagrica Hook. integerrima ‘Red flower’ and ‘Pink flower’. with a few species native to Southwest Asia. yields a powerful purgative. J. Chromosomes of the microsporocytes of Jatropha were well stained with propionocarmine. The bark of J. Both of these taxa have a meiotic configuration of 7ringII + 4rodII.. Bangkok 10400. integerrima Jacq. Chromosomes of the taxa studied are of very small size. dioica Sesse is used for tanning and dyeing. J. 2001). integerrima ‘Red flower’ and ‘Pink flower’ have the same meiotic configuration of 6ringII +5rodII. Slide preparations were made using the propionocarmine squash technique. None are native to Southeast Asia.
J. J. multifida and. 2). J. J. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The chromosomes of the microsporocytes of Jatropha were well stained with propionocarmine. The chromosomes of the Jatropha taxa studied are of very small size. Desmodium and Vigna (Leguminosae). The results suggest that Jatropha is fully fertile and stable in its naturalised habitat. Both of them have meiotic configurations of 7ringII + 4rodII. integerrima ‘Red flower’ and ‘Pink flower’ have the same chromosome number and meiotic configuration. Fig. As with many genera. multifida. J. Bangkok. integerrima ‘Red flower’ and ‘Pink flower’ show the same meiotic configuration of 6ringII + 5rodII. podagrica has a meiotic configuration that is different from the others of 8ringII + 3rodII. Chromosome numbers were determined approximately from 25 cells viewed under a light microscope (Olympus model BHA). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the TRF/BIOTEC Special Program for Biodiversity Research and Training grant BRT 140002. J. curcas is similar to J.67 µm. Most of the taxa have chromosomes number of 2n = 22 and a base number of x = 11 respectively. These results agree with previous studies (Table 1). such as Bauhinia. gossypifolia was determined in first anaphase cells: the chromosomes separated to 11:11 respectively. all members of Jatropha have the same chromosome numbers within a ploidy level. Bivalent length ranges from 1–3. Chromosome numbers of most of the studied species of Jatropha are in accordance with those of previous studies and are stable over a wide geographical range. perhaps. Rama IX. The best cells were photographed at 100x using an oil immersion objective. the Department of Biology Herbarium at Khon Kaen University and the Royal Garden Suanluang. Most of them were paired in bivalents at first metaphase and separated to 11:11 at first anaphase (Table 2. Voucher specimens were made for all samples and placed in the Department of Plant Science Herbarium at Mahidol University. gossypifolia appear closely related to each other based on their meiotic configuration and morphological similarity. Cassia.106 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Karyological observations were made from well spread chromosomes at stages of pollen mother cell development. . curcas is the only species which was found to be both diploid and tetraploid. J. curcas and J. The meiotic configuration of Jatropha is as follows: J. Crotalaria.
Moore (1973). 11 22 22 8. J. G = gametophytic count S = sporophytic count 11 - 22 22 Table 2. pandurifolia Andrews 13. 5. SOONTORNCHAINAKSAENG & T. Jatropha capensis Sond. hetrophylla Heyne 9. curcas L. 11 11 11 44 22 22 22 22 22 12. J. 11. 11. J. J. curcas L.44 Dehgan (1984) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Darlington & Wylie (1965). podagrica Hook.KARYOLOGY OF JATROPHA (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND (P. multifida L. collection number II = bivalent . J. Somboonsarn (1983). Moore (1973). cardiophylla Arg. Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) Sinpatananon & Hongthongdaeng (1993) Darlington & Wylie (1965). integerrima Jacq. J. 7. 3. Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Moore (1973). Missouri Botanical Garden (2003). J. Species J. Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) Species References 6. J. Chromosome number 2n 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 n 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 x 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Meiotic configuration s 11II 11:11 11II 11II 11II 11II 11II Locality Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Pathom Bangkok Bangkok Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Pathom Coll. J. gossypifolia L. J. No. Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) Darlington & Wylie (1965). J. gossypifolia L. Missouri Botanical Garden (2003). Somboonsarn (1983). integerrima Jacq. 041 042 194 195 196 197 Coll. Previous records of chromosome numbers of Jatropha. glandulifera Roxb. JENJITTIKUL) 107 Table 1. = P. multifida L. no. cordata Arg. ‘Red flower’ ‘Pink flower’ J. J. Chromosome number and meiotic configurations of Jatropha in Thailand. cathartica Teran & Berland 4. podagrica Hook. ‘Red flower’ ‘Pink flower’ 10. Missouri Botanical Garden (2003). 2. J. Chromosome number G 1. J. Soontornchainaksaeng et al. J.S 22 22 22 22 22. macrorhiza Benth.
C.. S.. 9: 467–478. Netherlands. Missouri Botanical Garden. Nanakorn. Soontornchainaksaeng.. Chayamarit. P. C. Chantharaprasong. Index to plant chromosome numbers for 1967–1971. K. The Euphorbiaceae of Siam. R. Thesis. . Chromosome number of local mulberry varieties. Systematic study of the family Euphorbiaceae in Thailand. H. Phylogenetic significance of interspecific hybridization in Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) Syst. A. P. Utrecht. Domstraat 5–13. K. In: Baimai. & Larsen. Morphological. P. R. anatomical and cytological investigation of some hydrocarbon plants. & Wylie. Bangkok. 1973. 78–88.108 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 REFERENCES Airy Shaw.. P. In: Modern genetics. 76–79. D. 8th Seminar on genetics. George Allen and Unvin. & Chaiyasut. 1965. K. V. 2003. Index of plant chromosome numbers (ICPN) database.mobot. 1984. T. Sinpatananon. 29 March–1 April 1993. N. Chantaranothai.. & Kumhom. T. 26(2): 191–363.D.. Biodiversity Research and Training Program. 2001.Sc. J. 1972. Santisuk. V. 1983. Moore.P. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants. Darlington.. Esser.. van. 1993.org. H. W. Thailand. B.M.. Kew Bull. Cytogenetic investigation of some Euphorbiaceae in Thailand.mobot. Welzen. pp. & Hongthongdaeng. Somboonsarn. Oosthoek’s Uitgeversmaatschappij B. A. Kasetsart University. London. Bangkok. Larsen. Cytologia 64: 229–234. BRT Research Report 2001.. 1999. M. URL: http://www. L. Dehgan.. Pooma. Phuphathanaphong. Boonthavikoon. (eds). C. Graduate school. Bot. pp.
curcas L. integerrima Jacq.. Morphological variation of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand: A. ‘Pink flower’. . C. F. J. integerrima Jacq. J. J. SOONTORNCHAINAKSAENG & T. ‘Red flower’. E. J.. B. multifida L. J. D. JENJITTIKUL) 109 A B C D E F Figure 1.. podagrica Hook.KARYOLOGY OF JATROPHA (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND (P. gossypifolia L. J.
110 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
KARYOLOGY OF JATROPHA (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND (P. SOONTORNCHAINAKSAENG & T. JENJITTIKUL)
Figure 2. Chromosomes in the pollen mother cells of Jatropha. A. First metaphase chromosomes of J. curcas (2n = 22; 7ringII + 4rodII). B. First anaphase chromosomes of J. gossypifolia (n = 11; 11:11). C. First metaphase chromosomes of J. integerrima (cv. Red flower) (2n = 22; 6ringII + 5rodII). D. First metaphase chromosomes of J. integerrima (cv. pink flower) (2n = 22; 6ringII + 5rodII). E. First metaphase chromosomes of J. multifida (2n = 22; 7ringII + 4rodII). F. First metaphase chromosomes of J. podagrica (2n = 22; 8ringII + 3rodII). Scale bar = 10 µm.
THAI FOR. BULL. (BOT.) 31: 113–122. 2003.
Cytogenetic studies and taxonomic considerations in some taxa of Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand
PUANGPAKA SOONTORNCHAINAKSAENG*, PRANOM CHANTARANOTHAI** & CHADAPRON SENAKUN***
ABSTRACT. An investigation into the cytogenetics of Thai Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) indicated that all plants have highly distinctive chromosomes at diakinesis and first anaphase. Bivalent length is 1.33–6 µm in pollen mother cells of 160–286.67 µm. The chromosome numbers of Mallotus can be divided into three groups, viz: 2n = 20 (10II), 22 (11II) and 24 (12II). Chromosome numbers of 11 species are recorded for the first time. The basic numbers of Mallotus are x = 10, 11 and 12. These dysploid numbers may have evolved through a decrease from 2n = 22 to 2n = 20. M. oblongifolius is taxonomically conspecific with M. peltatus but their chromosome numbers are different with 2n = 20 and 2n = 22 respectively. Therefore, these two species should be maintained as distinct taxa.
INTRODUCTION Mallotus Lour. is a paleotropical genus and comprises 150 species ranging from Africa and Madagascar through Southeast Asia and Malesia to Australia and the western Pacific. There are 35 species in Thailand of which two are new records and three newly described. They are used as medicinal plants (M. barbatus, M. floribundus, M. macrostachyus, M. paniculatus and M. philippensis), for wood (M. miquelianus), for dye (M. philippensis) and as ornamental plants (M. floribundus) (Chayamarit et al., 2001). Cytogenetics have played an active part in the understanding of hereditary mechanisms of plant diversity. They also represent one of the numerous disciplines that plant improvement relies upon. The data from this study will be useful for future taxonomic work on Mallotus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Chromosome counts were made from 13 species of Mallotus collected at various locations in Thailand (Table 1). The chromosomes were isolated from young flowers which were fixed in Carnoy's solution for 24–48 hours. The anthers were squashed and stained with propionocarmine and the chromosomes then examined using 100x magnification through an Olympus-BHA light microscope. Counts were made from 20 well-spread cells from each species at various stages of meiois. Voucher specimens are deposited at the herbaria of Department of Plant Science, Mahidol University, Department of Biology, Khon Kaen University and the Royal Garden Suanluang, Rama IX, Bangkok.
*Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Rd, Payathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Corresponding author. **Applied Taxonomic Research Center, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. ***Walairukhavaj Botanical Research Institute, Mahasarakam University, Mahasarakam, Thailand.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chromosomes of the microsporocytes of Mallotus were very well stained with propionocarmine. Most of them were identified at diakinesis with a bivalent length 1.33–6 µm in cells of 160–286 µm. Chromosome numbers and meiotic figures could be divided into three groups. Group I had 2n = 20 (10II) and comprised M. oblongifolius and M. pallidus. Group II had 2n = 22 (11II), and comprised M. barbatus, M. macrostachyus, M. miquelianus, M. montanus, M. peltatus, M. repandus and Mallotus sp. Group III had 2n = 24 (12II) and comprised M. paniculatus, M. resinosus and M. spodocarpus (Table 1; Figs. 19–33). Most species studied showed balanced first anaphase cells. Chromosome numbers of 11 species were recorded for the first time. The results revealed that Mallotus has basic numbers of x = 10, 11 and 12. These agree with the findings of other workers. Perry (1943) reported that M. japonicus has 2n = 36, Soontornchainaksaeng & Chaiyasut (1999) and Missouri Botanical Garden (2003) reported that M. babatus has 2n = 22 and M. apelta and M. philippensis have 2n = 11, respectively. These dysploid numbers may reflect ploidy level variation combined with hybridisation in species or cytotypes during evolution. Dysploidy is of relatively frequent occurrence among seed plants within populations or genera. Airy Shaw (1972) accepted both M. oblongifolius and M. peltatus as distinct species. However, van Welzen et al. (2000) reduced M. oblongifolius to a synonym of M. peltatus, suggesting that the only difference between them was the absence or presence of a peltate leaf base. However, specimens (referred to M. peltatus) with peltate leaves often have non-peltate ones and specimens (always referred to M. oblongifolius) with non-peltate leaves often have peltate ones. Our cytological investigation showed that the chromosome numbers of these two species are different, suggesting that the two taxa should be maintained as distinct. Further study is needed to confirm their status. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Dr Kongkanda Chayamarit, Assistant Professor Chirayupin Chantharaprasong, Mrs Leena Phuphathanaphong, Mr Phongsak Phonsena and the staff of the Euphorbiaceae Project in Thailand for kindly providing valuable information and some materials. This work was supported by the TRF/BIOTEC Special Program for Biodiversity Research and Training-BRT 140002. REFERENCES Airy Shaw, H.K. 1972. The Euphorbiaceae of Siam. Kew Bull. 26: 191–363. Chayamarit, K., Santisuk, T., Larsen, K., Welzen, P.V., Esser, H. J., Nanakorn, W., Chantaranothai, P., Boonthavikoon, T., Pooma, R., Phuphathanaphong, L., Chantharaprasong, C. & Larsen, S. 2001. Systematic study of the family Euphorbiaceae in Thailand. In: Baimai, V. & Kumhom, R. (eds) BRT Research Report 2001, pp. 78–88. Biodiversity Research and Training Program (BRT), Bangkok, Thailand.
6. Arg. Coll. oblongifolius Müll. Meiotic chromosome counts of Thai Mallotus II = bivalent. M. Soontornchainaksaeng et al. (Bot. & Chaiyasut. P. Species 1. 3. no. Arg. miquelianus Boerl. resinosus Merr. C. No. spodocarpus Airy Shaw 12.. J. Senakun & W.org. = P. Arg. Index of plant chromosome numbers (ICPN) database. A. M. M. van. P. M. no. Bot. 10. Thai For. Chromosome number and phylogenetic relationships in the Euphorbiaceae. macrostachyus Müll. M. M. 2000. 4. 2. Arg. Soontornchainaksaeng. (1999). montanus Airy Shaw 5. = reference number. pallidus Airy Shaw 7. Bull. Tongpubal.mobot. paniculatus Müll. URL: http://www. barbatus Müll. K. = C. 2003. M. = Soontornchainaksaeng. Cytogenetic investigation of some Euphorbiaceae in Thailand. B. M. M. 9. Checklist of the genera of Thai Euphorbiaceae I.) 28: 59–112. Welzen. Perry. Amer. 8. Arg. 148 375 276 281. & Chaiyasut K.mobot. 13. tiliifolius Müll. 1999. Ref. Arg. M.CYTOGENETIC STUDIES AND TAXONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN SOME TAXA OF MALLOTUS (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND 115 Missouri Botanical Garden. 291 278 261 296 411 386 *70 203 150 138 . Table 1.) prev 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st Locality Prachuap Khiri Khan Trang Songkhla Songkhla Songkhla Prachuap Khiri Khan Songkhla Chanthaburi Sa Kaeo Prachuap Khiri Khan Lop Buri Chumphon Chachoengsao Coll. Chromosome Number 2n n x 22 22 22 22 20 20 24 22 22 24 24 24 22 11 11 11 11 10 10 12 11 11 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 12 11 11 12 12 12 11 Meiotic figure 11II 11II 11II 11II 10II 10II 12II 11II 11II 12II 12II 12II 11II Record /(Ref. repandus Müll. Mallotus sp. 11. Arg. 1943. Cytologia 64: 229–234. peltatus Müll. *Coll. M. M. 30: 527–543. prev. P.
116 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
paniculatus. miquelianus. pallidus. 6. Mallotus spp. 9–10. montanus. macrostachyus. M. 4–5. barbatus. M. . M.CYTOGENETIC STUDIES AND TAXONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN SOME TAXA OF MALLOTUS (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND 117 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figures 1–10. M. M. 7–8.: 1. M. 2–3.
118 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
peltatus. paniculatus. 16. spodocarpus. Mallotus sp. M. Mallotus spp. 17.: 11–12. .CYTOGENETIC STUDIES AND TAXONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN SOME TAXA OF MALLOTUS (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND 119 13 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 Figures 11–18. 13–14. M. M. M. M. 18. resinosus. 15. tiliifolius.
120 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
2n = 22. & 29. 2n = 24. 26. 28. & 20. montanus. pallidus Figs. macrostachyus. 22–29. 27. M. paniculatus. M. M. peltatus. 25. 24. M. Scale bar = 10 µm. M. 2n = 20. Mallotus sp. Diakinesis cells of 13 species of Mallotus: Figs. 19–21. 19. 22. 31. M. miquelianus. 33. tiliifolius Arrows indicate nucleolus. 32. 21. M. 30. M. 30–33. barbatus. M.CYTOGENETIC STUDIES AND TAXONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN SOME TAXA OF MALLOTUS (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN THAILAND 121 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 33 31 32 Figures 19–33. . oblongifolius. 23. resinosus. M. spodocarpus. M. rependus. M. Figs.
Nan province in March 2000. petioles 7–10 mm long. 1965. inner pair slightly smaller. brown-pubescent. . J. margin entire. pericarp 2–5 mm thick. yunnanensis (Craib & W.W. Chiang Mai 50180. Inflorescences solitary in leaf axils or a lax corymb (2–4-flowered) axillary or on the terminal part of the twig. Leaves chartaceous. Edin. Sepals 4. Sm. For. thorns slightly recurved. Sin.THAI FOR. stipe 7–8. straight.5 cm. Soc. Bot. 1991). fohaiensis B. 4–6 m high. Acta Phytotax. P. Arb. yunnanensis (Craib & W. K. densely tomentose inside. sikkimensis Kurz subsp. were recorded. Bangkok 10900. 1–2. glabrous. Flowers fragrant.) Jacobs is newly recorded for Thailand from Doi Phu Kha National Park in Nan province. secondary veins in 6–8 pairs. base rounded or broadly cuneate. Merr. US). fig. brown pubescent on both sides. roxburghii (non DC.. Linn. placentas 4. Henry 12986 (holotype E.) Dunn. Sm. Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp.. 1916. 1964. Notes Bot. Chatuchak.) 31: 123–128. 15–20 by 10–15 mm.W. **Biology Department. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. yunnanensis (Craib & W. brown-pubescent. Seeds 3–4. Gard. Stamens 60–80. *Herbarium.O. yunnanensis Craib & W. a new record for Thailand. Petals 4.5–4 cm long. During an expedition by the first author to Doi Phu Kha National Park. pubescent on both surfaces. 9: 91. BULL. orbicular concave or shallowly saccate.— C.) Jacobs. apex acute or cuspidate.5 cm long. free. glabrous. 3: 127.5 cm long. Figs. yunnanensis (Capparaceae). 39: 426. n. 13–19 by 11–18 mm. In the account of Capparaceae for the Flora of Thailand (Chayamarit. glabrous except for tomentose basal parts outside. They were later identified as C. pedicels up to 4. National Park. isotype A. brown pubescent. hairy at base. Sm. ***The Forest Herbarium. shallowly furrowed. Gynophore 2. Thailand. pubescent. Ovary ellipsoid. Box 7. Fruits ellipsoid. later glabrescent. A description and illustration of the taxon are provided. Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden. 1941. Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp. Lond. Thailand.5 cm long. yellow. 4. 4–5 by 2. Arn. raised and prominent below. 1942. Blumea 12 (3): 496. Scandent shrub or large climber. 2003. young shoots and inflorescences not surrounded by cataphylls. Sun. biseriate. dehiscing by lateral slits. 3–4 by 2–3 mm. Torus 4–5 mm wide. in pairs. obovate. (4. free. The description below is based on the Thai material. CHUSIE TRISONTHI** & KONGKANDA CHAYAMARIT*** ABSTRACT.5 cm long. hairy at base. 23: 167. Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp. specimens belonging to this genus were collected.) Jacobs. A. elliptic or ovate. 9: 114. anthers ca.s. Ind. 1911.W. shortly clawed. Rec. peduncle 2–4. Sm. Yunnan. Chiang Mai University.— C. filaments ca. Thailand. Faculty of Science. 3–4 mm long.5–)11–13 by (3–)5–6. midrib impressed above.— C. Type: China. (BOT.— C. Chiang Mai 50200. a new record for Thailand PRACHAYA SRISANGA*. prominent on lower surface. 3. bhamoensis Raizada. 20–25 by 8–12 mm.5–3 cm.W. 25 indigenous and one introduced species of Capparis L.S. branches terete. 2 mm long. J. later glabrescent. brown pubescent. Mae Rim.
Fruiting: September–January. and for his division into subspecies. and C.) Jacobs in southern and south-eastern China. C. T. (1916). yunnanensis is distinguished by its brownish pubescent sepals on both sides. sikkimensis distributed in north-eastern India and western Myanmar. & Larsen. masaikai (Lévl. Distribution. This work was supported by a grant from the Thailand Research Fund.W. M. sikkimensis is divided into four subspecies: C. Myanmar and Vietnam.— C. no more than 30 collections were available. long filaments (ca. As noted by Jacobs.) Jacobs distributed in Riu Kiu Islands. G. (eds).) Jacobs in northern Myanmar. Craib. yunnanensis Craib & W. 1965. Jacobs.— Lower montane forest. and later reduced to subspecific rank under C. QBG). We are grateful to Ms Soraya Klankoom for the line drawing and Mr Pasakorn Kaewket for technical assistance. is needed to re-examine the status of the subspecies. Note. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Much appreciation is due to the curators and staff of BKF. C. Flora of Thailand 5(3): 241–271. & Smith. Capparaceae. yunnanensis (Craib & W. More material. W. Srisanga 1359 (BKF. P and QBG for their kind permission to study specimens. C. yunnanensis was originally described as C. 1991. China (Yunnan) and Vietnam (Tonkin).5–4 cm). especially from Myanmar-Yunnan. Srisanga 2337 (QBG)]. C. sikkimensis subsp. In: Smitinand. W. Srisanga 1692 (QBG). 9: 91–92.5 cm) and long gynophore (2. Notes Bot. Edinb.— NORTHERN: Nan [Doi Phu Kha National Park 19° 13′ N 101° 06′ E. Flowering: March– April. sikkimensis subsp. Sm.W. large petals (20–25 by 8–12 mm). sikkimensis is highly polymorphic. sikkimensis subsp. Blumea 12 (3): 385–541. 1500–1600 m altitude. REFERENCES Chayamarit. Ecology. K. sikkimensis subsp. sikkimensis subsp. 1916.124 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 Thailand. The genus Capparis (Capparaceae) from the Indus to the Pacific. formosana (Hemsl. Taiwan and Hainan. sikkimensis subsp. K. Gard. 3. KUN.— China. For now we have followed Jacobs’s treatment. and to the staff of Doi Phu Kha National Park for assistance in the field. Sm. . C. CMU. sikkimensis Kurz by Jacobs (1965). Diagnoses Specierum Novarum. W.
Scale bars = 1 cm. Sm. YUNNANENSIS (CAPPARACEAE).W. Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp. flowering branch. Klankoom. flower. A NEW RECORD FOR THAILAND 125 Figure 1. yunnanensis (Criab & W. Drawn by S. Drawn from Srisanga 1359 (QBG). B. .) Jacobs: A.CAPPARIS SIKKIMENSIS KURZ SUBSP.
126 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 .
Radermachera eberhardtii (Bignoniaceae). Radermachera eberhardtii Dop: A. infructescences. A NEW RECORD FOR THAILAND 127 Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp. . B. Capparis sikkimensis Kurz subsp.W. Sm.) Jacobs: A. fruit. yunnanensis (Capparaceae). flowers. B. yunnensis (Craib & W. a new record for Thailand A B Figure 2. inflorescence. YUNNANENSIS (CAPPARACEAE). a new record for Thailand A A B Figure 2.CAPPARIS SIKKIMENSIS KURZ SUBSP.
Yin (1979) established R. Corolla tube more or less straight. In the account of Bignoniaceae for the Flora of Thailand (Santisuk. (Paris) 32: 233. 76948 & 81097.) 31: 129–131. eberhardtii 1. l. P. Borneo and Indonesia (Steenis. widely spaced 6. those collections of R. BULL. R. They were later identified as R. evenly truncate or subtruncate. smaller calyx (3–5 mm long and wide). and leaflets with some scattered immersed minute glands on the lower surface. Ryu Kyu Is. 1926. Malaysia. more or less straight corolla tube. & Moritzi consists of ca. Hence. the authors feel that R. ***The Forest Herbarium. i. Taiwan. eberhardtii. Myanmar. 10900.L. microcalyx for a plant from southern China (Guangxi and Yunnan). 22: 17.c. **Biology Department. Radermachera eberhardtii (Bignoniaceae). Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. They recognised this species as showing affinity with R.: 234. Steenis. C. Laos. Capsules straight. 1976. R. Wang 75298. Chiang Mai 50180. glandulosa 1.C.O.Y. National Park.V. . Thailand. The following emendment is made to the Flora of Thailand Radermachera key: 1. Thailand. CHUSIE TRISONTHI** & THAWATCHAI SANTISUK*** ABSTRACT. Wu and W. glandulosa (Blume) Miq. Santisuk. 15 species. C. Leaves 2. Bull. microcalyx should be treated as conspecific with R. five indigenous species in the genus Radermachera Zoll. Nat.or 3-pinnately compound or biternate Radermachera eberhardtii Dop. South China. Bangkok. yellow. Thailand. Thailand. Nan province. microcalyx matched well with R. (BOT. Chiang Mai 50200. During an expedition by the first author to Doi Phu Kha National Park. 1930. Chatuchak. Chiang Mai University. hanging in bunch 1. Cambodia.*Calyx cupular.. is placed in the synonymy of R. Santisuk & Vidal in Fl. specimens belonging to this genus were collected. The key to Radermachera in the Flora of Thailand is emended. Siam Soc. acuta Dop. 1985). 1987). is described and illustrated. eberhardtii.W. After examining some of the paratype specimens cited in the protologue (C.C.e. Philippines. a new record for Thailand PRACHAYA SRISANGA*. Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden. a new record for Thailand. 33(2): *Herbarium. Blumea 23 (1): 125. Leaves 1-pinnately compound 1. Capsules tortuous. Bull. Wu & W.THAI FOR. Mus. 1985.Y. Hist. in Fl. Radermachera eberhardtii Dop. eberhardti (i. var. Santisuk. a new record for Thailand.*Calyx tubular with 5 irregular lobes. Mae Rim. Indo-Chine 4: 587. Faculty of Science. tubular calyx with five irregular lobes. Vietnam. Radermachera microcalyx C. yellow flower. Nat. previously known from China (Guangxi and Yunnan). Yin. Radermachera Zoll. Hist. incl. but differing in some quantitative characters. white tinged pink or purplish. all in KUN). 2003. Box 7.. Corolla tube slightly curved. 1976. crowded.e. & Moritzi are recorded. eberhardtii Dop. The distribution is in tropical Asia: India (Assam).
Evergreen tree 7–15 m high. . ________. & Larsen. 197. longer pair 5–6 mm long. Srisanga 1450 (QBG)]. 1979. minutely glandular. K. P and QBG for their kind permission to study specimens and staff of Doi Phu Kha National Park for assistance in the field. and Raven. Distribution. Nat.5 mm long. Yin in Wu. microcalyx C. Siam Soc.— By shady stream in evergreen forest. margin entire. Steenis. 19° 13′ N 101° 05′ E.5–)4. synon. 1998. nov. minutely glandular throughout and with sparse medium glands around base on lower surface. glabrous. stigma bilobed. minutely glandular. lobes ovate to orbicular. didynamous. 2– 2. apex acute.6–1 cm long. C. curved. 1985. (eds).5–6(–11) cm. China 18: 218.5–3 cm long. We are grateful to Ms Soraya Klankoom for the line drawing and Mr Pasakorn Kaewket for technical assistance. Calyx green. lenticellate. rachis minutely glandular. (ed. Y. acuminate or caudate. In: Wu. Blumea 23: 121–138. Fl. Flowers in terminal panicle. 1979. glabrous. 1. P. In: Wu. hairy especially outside. tube 4–5 mm long. valves 4–6 mm wide. medium glands in groups at middle. 300–950 m altitude. Type: China. 1–4. style 7–10 mm long.C. Thailand. hairy at insertion.130 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 71. Bignoniaceae. Wu & W. 2 sheets). 4 mm long. 0. 2: 711. Flora Yunnanica 2: 711. ca. Capsule terete. Bull. Bignoniaceae of mainland South-east Asia. KUN.H. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Much appreciation is due to the curators and staff of AAU. midrib raised and prominent below. Eberhardt 1594 (P!. Figs. C. irregular. anthers glabrous. Fl. 1985. 25–30 cm long. Ecology. fig. Chiang Mai [Doi Suthep.J.— China (Guangxi and Yunnan) and Vietnam. oblique. Type: Vietnam. Stamens 4. Disc ca. Y. Flowering March–April. minutely glandular. leaflets 5–7. Maxwell 88-276 (AAU)]. both surfaces glabrous. shorter pair ca.Y. 2 mm long. 2 (p. ca. minutely glandular. Staminode 1.5–2 mm long. and W. Y. (eds).5 cm long.— NORTHERN: Nan [Doi Phu Kha National Park. van. 10–25 cm long. minutely glandular. Bignoniaceae. C. CMU. Wu. minutely glandular. C. Yunnan. 3–3. (10–)14–20(–25) by (3. Bignoniaceae. Ovary cylindric. Hist. In: Smitinand. This work was supported by a grant from the Thailand Research Fund. QBG). REFERENCES Santisuk. T. Flora of China 18: 218. minutely glandular. Yunna. pedicels 5–10 mm long. dehiscing by 2 valves. 127). 2 mm long. filaments glabrous. and T. Zhang. 1987. Conspectus of the genera Radermachera and Fernandoa in Indo-Malesia (Bignoniaceae). lamina chartaceous to subcoriaceous. C.G. tube 2. elliptic to ovate. base cuneate. Flora of Thailand 5(1): 32–66. 0. secondary veins in 6–10 pairs. dehiscing by longitudinal slits. BKF.). Yin. Yan Hui Li 380 (not located). Corolla yellow.5 mm high. Z. lobes 5. — R. 8–15 by 1–2 mm included wing. Fruiting April–December. margin fimbriate. 1. 20 cm long. Srisanga 1324 (BKF. Branchlets terete. 1976. Zhang & Santisuk in Wu & Raven. petioles 1–2 cm or up to 6 cm in terminal leaflet. minutely glandular. Seeds flat. Xishuangbanna.G. 1998. Leaves 1 pinnate. 33(2): 61–101. apex acute. T. 6–7 mm long. Santisuk. ca.
B. leaves. inflorescence. E. A–F from Srisanga 1324 (BKF. corolla. QBG). G–H from Srisanga 1450 (QBG). seed.RADERMACHERA EBERHARDTII (BIGNONIACEAE). fruit. D. stamen. A NEW RECORD FOR THAILAND 131 Figure 1. G. . opening corolla. C. Drawn by Soraya Klankoom. H. F. calyx. Radermachera eberhardtii Dop: A.
22 Divinity Avenue. Endress in Kubitzki.f.. Mag. has been recorded from Southern China. BULL. Sepals rudimentary.f. Chatuchak. Stamens 6−11. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. Endress (1993) notes that a revision is needed of the genus but in the meantime we will follow Vink’s species concept. MA 02138. Puudjaa and C. Seeds narrowly winged. entire. Vasc.f. 1993. long and slender. Leaves simple. secondary venation pinnate. Phetchaburi province. 1933.THAI FOR. Exell (1933) distinguished seven species in Rhodoleia. in peduncled heads. only those along the outer margin of the head well developed. woody. Narathiwat by P. each with 4 pollen sacs. Cambridge. styles 2. As part of a joint collecting initiative between the Forest Herbarium in Bangkok and Harvard University Herbarium the authors found several trees of Rhodoleia championii in Kaeng Krachan National Park. dehiscing by 2 septicidal slits to produce 4 narrow valves. Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia (Vink. spathulate to obovate. Malesiana ser. National Park. 5: 371. Ovules 6−8. (BOT. . reduced these to one species and provided a discussion of the variation patterns in this polymorphous species. Rhodoleia (Hamamelidaceae). is newly recorded for Thailand. Fam. In addition a number of collections of this species have also recently been made from Sukhirin District. Curiously. 1850. Vink. 4509. Capsules basally united. surrounded by an involucre of bracts which are caducous after anthesis. Bangkok 10900. Pl. MIDDLETON** ABSTRACT. 1957). Sunyatsenia 1: 95. Niyomdham. 2-locular. Rhodoleia championii Hook. Stipules mostly absent.. Thailand **Harvard University Herbaria. Vink (1957). 1957. The Hamamelidaceae has recently been published in the Flora of Thailand and included five genera with a total of six species (Phengklai 2001). Vietnam. The genus Rhodoleia with one species. III. Exell. Bot.) 31: 132–135. however. The genus and species are described and a new key to the Hamamelidaceae is presented. Flowers bisexual. 1. connate. Bisexual shrubs or trees. 2: 329. USA. RHODOLEIA Champion ex Hook. *The Forest Herbarium. Burma. the genus Rhodoleia was not known from Thailand even though the single species.. Rhodoleia championii Hook. a new generic record for Thailand SOMRAN SUDDEE* & DAVID J. Fl. Ovary half-inferior. 6: t. Gen. Petals 0−4. 2003.
Pachok Puudjaa 254 (BKF). Stipules mostly absent. Stuart Lindsay. Evergreen tree to 40 m tall. Ovary superior. Sepals 6. Sepals not rudimentary.5 cm long. anastomosing before margin.. Leaves pinnately nerved 4. isotypes BM. SUDDEE & D. brownishtomentose on abaxial side. Exell.9−2. 1850. Sepals and petals absent. tertiary venation laxly reticulate. adapted from Phengklai (2001).2 by 2−5. ripening brown. 1997. K. base acute to obtuse. sometimes caducous 5. 4. 1000 m alt. Filaments 1–1. idem. (holotype K. fertile seeds narrowly winged. Capsule not surrounded by receptacle Altingia Distylium Symingtonia Rhodoleia Sycopsis Loropetalum . Leaves: petioles red. Bark rusty-brown. MIDDLETON) 133 One species (but see note above) in Southern China. blades dark green above. 17 Feb. Bracts shortly ovate to obovate-oblong. MO)]. Sumatra. Burma.3 cm. Either sepals (sometimes minute) or petals or both present 3. Chandee Hemrat. 1.— SOUTH-WESTERN: Phetchaburi [Kaeng Krachan District. Kaeng Krachan National Park. BKF. Sunyatsenia 1: 96. Champion s. J. Capsules free. Vink. 1. Lower half of capsule surrounded by a receptacle 5. 6: t. 5: 372. trail from Khao Phanoen Thung Ranger Substation to Than Thip Waterfall.4509. One species in Thailand. if caducous. Ovary semi-inferior. glabrous on adaxial side. Ovary glabrous. ovate. Fruit heads green. III. Petals present. A NEW GENERIC RECORD FOR THAILAND (S. apically ciliate. dbh to 1 m. 12–18 by 1–3 mm.6 cm across. Distribution.f. Stipules present or. is presented. AAU.RHODOLEIA (HAMAMELIDACEAE).n.5 by 2.. apex acute to shortly acuminate. Fig. For synonymy see Vink (1957). 1–2 mm long. Leaves palmately nerved 3.— Primary evergreen forest to 1000 m altitude. glabrous.5–3 mm. anthers elliptic-oblong.— With the addition of another genus to the Hamamelidaceae of Thailand a new key. Peninsular Malaysia. Rhodoleia championii Hook. 1933. Bot. 1957. 665 m alt.4−12. 1. 1. Seeds not winged 1. 2. Pachok Puudjaa 385 (BKF)]. Seeds winged 2. Malesiana ser. Mag. PENINSULAR: Narathiwat [Sukhirin District. Flowers recurved. leaving a scar.8−4 cm long. with large paler lenticels. Capsules united into a globular or obpyramidal head. Fl. Note. Type: Hong Kong... Indochina. prominent beneath. David J. inner bark pale salmon pink. midrib flat to slightly sunken above. 3–15 by 4–10 mm. wood white. 28 March 2003. Sepals rudimentary 4. Ecology. ellipsoid. 1996. Khao Nakharach. Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. E). in 7−9 pairs at a steep angle to the midrib. 8 August 1996. 0. glaucous beneath.. Petals absent. sterile seeds wingless.— Southern China. secondary veins flat above and beneath. Petals bright red. Thailand. Seeds 3–4. L. Vietnam. Somran Suddee & Suwat Suwanachat 1780 (A. upper bracts largest. Sepals 4. glabrous. Middleton. Chawalit Niyomdham 4834 (BKF). Sepals rudimentary. 20 Oct. idem.
(eds). Chandee Hemrat. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants II: Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. C. 1993. Sunyatsenia 1: 95–102. pp. K. Flora of Thailand 7: 400–411. 1957. REFERENCES Endress. 5: 363–379. and the staff of Kaeng Krachan National Park. et al. Hamamelidaceae.134 THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) 31 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the National Geographic Society for financial support for this work. Phengklai. (eds). Hamamelidaceae. Hamamelidaceae. Berlin. Flora Malesiana ser. et al. P. Springer-Verlag. 1. 1933. A. In: Kubitzki. Exell.K.W. 322–331. Stuart Lindsay and Suwat Suwanachat for their assistance in the field. Vink. T. We would also like to thank Orathai Kerdkaew for the illustrations. . 2001. In: Santisuk. W. A revision of the genus Rhodoleia.
B–D from P. Puudjaa 385 (BKF). Rhodoleia championii Hook. Middleton et al. J.: A. B. Kerdkaew. .RHODOLEIA (HAMAMELIDACEAE). D. C. MIDDLETON) 135 Figure 1. capsules. Drawn by O. inflorescence. habit.J. from D. seeds. SUDDEE & D. 1780 (BKF).f. A. A NEW GENERIC RECORD FOR THAILAND (S.
Ic. pendulous from near the apex. more or less elongate. 1: 321–323. Hook. Calyx thickly coriaceous. always hairy inside. Flowers hermaphrodite. Trees or shrubs. alternate. Flowers longpedicelled. 1947. National Park.3474–3475. Mal. Kew Bull. Fl. Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw. 4: 349.THAI FOR. Inflorescence usually paniculate. irregular. petals small. imbricate. 1947. Stigma small. Gonystylaceae is considered to be a rare plant family. and Fiji. Ridl. GONYSTYLUS Teysmann & Binnendijk. A preliminary study of Gonystylaceae in Thailand CHAWALIT NIYOMDHAM*& METINEE TARUMATSAWAT* ABSTRACT. Zeit. Pen. Bangkok 10900. rarely twice as many. BULL. Kew Bull. Thailand. 1862. Stamens about equal in number to the petals. A few specimens have been collected in Narathiwat province and are described herein. One species. Tree Fl. often reduced to fascicles. imbricate or sub-valvate. . is indigenous to Thailand and is found only in peat swamp forest and lowland dipterocarp forest. Mal. 2-loculed. Whitmore. 1922. Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. seed large. filaments very short and slender. Gonystylaceae is considered to be a rare plant family. 35. 7–40.. 1973. Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw. Fruit a capsule. broadly or *The Forest Herbarium. 1950. consisting of extremely condensed. without endosperm. falling very early. Ovary 3–5loculed. the lateral branches short. deltoid or subulate. Leaves simple. capitate. 9–16. A monotypic family of about 30 species. Ovules solitary in each locule. Inflorescence paniculate. GONYSTYLACEAE Trees or shrubs. more or less cupular. anthers basifixed. 20 : 265. Leaves alternate. 2003. nodulose racemes. 2: 387. from the Nicobar Is. 1953. opening by longitudinal slits. is indigenous to Thailand. The species is found only in peat swamp forest and lowland dipterocarp forest: a few specimens have been collected in Narathiwat province. exstipulate. Calyx 5-lobed. Pl. free. anthers basifixed. Style filiform.) 31: 136–140. One species. Mal. (BOT. chartaceous to coriaceous with translucent gland dots. Bracts small. numerous. the main branches few. 138–147. actinomorphic.. calyx-teeth 5 slightly unequal (3 larger and 2 smaller). t. through Malesia to the Solomon Is. Airy Shaw. Fl. Petals often joined at base. Chatuchak. Bot.
6569 (BKF). Distribution. Tree Fl. Petals ca. Malesiana 4: 357. Kew Bull.5–9 cm wide. conspicuous on both surfaces. scurfy. 5–20 cm long. 20 Sept. Tarumatsawat 03-3 (BKF). Su Ngai Ko Lok. globose. apex cuspidate to abruptly short acuminate. style filiform. (1–)2–3-seeded. Niyomdham et al.5–23. capitate. TARUMATSAWAT) 137 narrowly oblong to obovate. Tree up to 30 m tall.loculed. soft. Fl. aril creamy white.3–3. subulate-filiform 3–4 mm long. peat swamp areas Narathiwat: 242. Phengklai & Niyomdham. petiole 1–2 cm. 2001. rusty brown. glabrous or pubescent. T. Vernacular. for their help and hospitality during field work in Narathiwat province. Mal. M. Ban Pa Ye. 11 Sept.— PENINSULAR: Narathiwat [Su Ngai Pa Di. Ovary sessile. Tarumatsawat 032 (BKF)]. adherent scales. Fruiting June–September. 220 cm girth. parallel. 3. Tarumatsawat 03-1 (BKF). 1–3. 17 June 2003. wiry. Ecology.— Tan yong phru (ตันหยงพรุ). Toh Daeng canal. Mr Apichat Rattanavirakul. 17 June 2003. Flowering August–November. Figs. 2. Niyomdham et al. Su Ngai Ko Lok. Calyx 4–5-lobed. young part and inflorescence hairy. stigma small. Tam yao (ตําหยาว) Note. venation slender.8–4 cm long. NIYOMDHAM & M. 3–4 mm wide. anatropous.5 across. Fruit a capsule. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks are due to Mr Tanit Noo-Yim. Fl. 1973. 30. (2–)3–5(8)-locular. Ovary hairy. pendulous from the apex. However the materials available match the description in Airy Shaw (1947) very well. inner bark fibrous. bark dark brown with elongate.— Peat swamp and evergreen low land dipterocarp forests. 02-2 (BKF). King’s Collector 3778 (holotype K. and in upper leaf axils. Waeng.5 cm across. C. T. 2. 2: 10. 2. (2–)3(–4). elongate. Noo-Yim et al.5–3. 2-locular. 1991.A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF GONYSTYLACEAE IN THAILAND (C. Fruit globose-ellipsoid. 18 June 2003. Larut. 00-36 (BKF). sometimes with few. splitting into 2–5 parts. Type: Malaysia. 960 (BKF). splitting into 2–3(–4) parts. rubber tree plantation. Ovules solitary in each cell. Flowers small.— Malay Peninsula and Indonesia (North Sumatra). Mr Sunthorn Toh Dam and Mr Pachok Poodjaa. tomentose outside. M. 22 June 2002. adpressed hairs near the midrib beneath. Inflorescence terminal. sitting on the remaining calyx. 2: 191. 1953. 25 July 2000. 1947. M. with thick woody wall. joined at the very base. Noo-Yim et al. Perak. coriaceous. 6 mm across. . base subcuneate to rounded. Whitmore. 1985. Thailand.5 cm long. 4–6 cm long. Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw. 6. reddish to yellowish brown. C. not seen). Seeds large. ca. globose-ellipsoid to oblong. sapwood white. One species in Thailand. Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate-oblong. 5–6 mm long.— The authors have not seen type specimens of this species. glabrous on both surfaces. arillate. Pa Wai. up to 600 m altitude. ellipsoid to ovoid. Sirindhorn Waterfall.
1947.K.G. A.138 THAI FOREST BULLETIN 31 Finally. REFERENCES Airy Shaw. (Thymelaeaceae). my appreciation is extended to Dr Kongkanda Chayamarit. Fl. & Binnend. . Notes on the genus Gonostylis Teijsm.). Malesiana Ser. 1. van (ed.J. Curator and all the scientific staff of The Forest Herbarium.G. Thymelaeaceae-Gonostyloideseae. who kindly helped to bring this publication out on time. 4: 349–361. In Steenis. ________. 2: 9–16. Kew Bull. C. 1953.
Flowering twig. showing fibrous. C. TARUMATSAWAT) 139 A B C D Figure 1. D. . Trunk and leaves. Fruits and seeds (Photographed by C.A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF GONYSTYLACEAE IN THAILAND (C. NIYOMDHAM & M. Tarumatsawat). Fruiting twigs. B. A. reddish to yellowish brown inner bark (Photographed by M. Slash. Niyomdham). Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw.
All the species are found in Thailand. Leaf blades alternate. Three species mainly from southern China and adjacent areas. P. Hong and P. A revision of the genus Porandra D. sepaline. Petals free. Khon Kaen 40002. scandens and they may also be present in P. All species except P. filaments bearded. Pl. ramosa and P. anthers dehiscing by apical pores. The Genus Porandra (Commelinaceae) in Thailand THAWEESAK THITIMETHAROCH*. FADEN** ABSTRACT. Sepals equal. ramosa. microphylla are newly recorded for the country. *Applied Taxonomic Research Center.Y. subsessile. subsessile. (BOT. not clawed. Sin. 12(4): 462. ramosa D.O.Y. Hong in Thailand is presented. Inflorescence a very compact globose head. scandens D.Y. The genus was separated from Amischotolype by its climbing habit and anther cells opening by apical pores. USA. Thailand.Y. scandens D. although Hong (1974) and Hong & DeFillips (2000) stated that rhizomes were absent. Hong and P. P. Box 37012 Washington DC 20013-7012. P. Fam. Smithsonian Institution. A key to the species is provided together with illustrations. ramosa D.) 31: 141– 148. seeds 2 per locule. BULL. 1998. Faculty of Science. Faden. all fertile. microphylla Y. Seeds arillate. Wan has been described from China (Wan. free. The first two species are newly recorded from Thailand. Wan. Gen. Khon Kaen University. 1974. although we found long horizontal underground rhizomes in P. Type species: Porandra ramosa D. Since his work a third species. Three species are recognised. 2003. 4: 120. microphylla Y.Y. TAXONOMIC ACCOUNT PORANDRA D. In addition. P. **Department of Botany. Stamens 6.Y. Capsules trilocular. trivalved. Hong. Hong. Hong. equal. . In the course of preparing Commelinaceae treatments for the Flora of Thailand.Y.THAI FOR. Vas. Flowers bisexual. Perennial rhizomatous scandent herbs. distributions and ecological data. scandens were considered endemic to China. Faden (1998) considered Porandra to be probably conspecific with Amischotolype but Hong & DeFilipps (2000) maintained the genus. 1986). namely P. PRANOM CHANTARANOTHAI* & ROBERT B. microphylla and P. INTRODUCTION The genus Porandra was established by Hong (1974) based on two species. equal. Department of Biology. P. Hong in Acta Phytotax. petiole unwinged.
broadly elliptic or oblanceolate. Capsules green. Thailand. Figs.3–1 cm. microphylla 1. Notes. Porandra ramosa D. Khon Kaen University). ca. Anthers drip-shaped. Petioles glabrous. 1G–L & 2B.5 cm. glabrous or ciliate at the apex. 5–8 mm long. Hong in Acta Phytotax. Specimens examined: G. Inflorescence a head ca. 1A–F & 2A. alt. sepals and capsule densely pubescent 2. bracteoles ovate. glabrous or with a line of dense puberulence above near the margin.5–4. Petioles. stems to 3 m long. 1986. China 24: 24. Sin. Bot. but now it seems to have a much wider range. 10 mm long. bearded. China 24: 24. Flowers white. Murata et al. 2.5 by 0. mouth long-ciliate. Ovary subglobose. 5–15(–16) by 1..T. C. densely puberulent on one side. It was first recorded from China. 7170 (BKF. pubescent on the outside. apex abruptly acuminate to caudate. T-15173 (BKF).5 cm.Y. not seen). Smitinand & J. Woody-like scandent herb. Yunnan. usually with (2–)4–6 flowers. ascending to 1. Leaves 5–15(–16) by 1. anthers subglobose-oblong.142 THAI FOREST BULLEIN (BOTANY) 31 KEY TO SPECIES 1. 8–10 by 6–8 mm. Alsterlund 6656 (K). Sepals green. Res. densely ciliate along margins 3. glabrous. Anthers subglobose-oblong or lanceolate-oblong. margins slightly undulate. 1. glabrous. P. Longhushan Conservation Area. T. base cuneate to obtuse. Feng Qing.5 m tall.A. 6(4): 153. Figs. Anderson 7267 (BKF). pubescent throughout. 6–7 by 2. rarely sparsely pubescent beneath. sparsely puberulent. style ca. Inst. Hong & DeFilipps in Fl. ca.Y.— P. Stamens: filaments 6–8 mm long. Distribution. Long an. scandens 2. petioles pale green or dark purple.5 cm. Petals white.. T. 4 by 3 mm.5–3 mm. D. T. Leaves usually glabrous. T. ellipsoid. 1–1. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic-lanceolate. Ecology. K). Phengklai et al. 2.5–4 mm. rarely glabrous with dense pubescence at the apex. Thitimetharoch 458 (Herb.— Phak plap doi (ผักปราบดอย) (Doi Chiang Dao-Chiang Mai). leaf sheaths 2–6. Wan Fu 85011 (holotype IBG.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Doi Chiang Dao. Forest. Type: China. margin glabrous or ciliate at apex 1. microphylla is distinct because of its leaves which are smaller and rather glabrous and its anthers which are subglobose-oblong and often smaller than in the other species. Guangxi. Leaves often densely pubescent beneath. Vernacular. T-15658 (BKF). Sepals and capsule sparsely pubescent or glabrous 2. Porandra microphylla Y. Yü 16255 (holotype PE. 1.5 cm in diam. not seen). P. isotype GXSP. 12(4): 462.5–4. D. 2000. 6–7 by 2. 2000. 800–2000 m. 1974. North-east. Seeds ellipsoidreniform. . ca. Hong & DeFilipps in Fl. Wan in Bull. ovoid.— China. Doi Inthanon).2 by 1 mm. Leaves (15–)18–25 by 3–5. Type: China. sparsely pubescent on the outside and margins.R.Y. glabrous or with a line of dense puberulence near margin above. not seen.2 mm in diam.5–3 by 3–4 mm. P. Smitinand & I. flowering and fruiting from August to February.— Common in hill-evergreen forest. ramosa 1. 1–3 in a head.
margins often sparsely ciliate. China 24: 24. Sepals pale green or pinkish purple. Distribution. ovoid. mouth long-ciliate. 1. densely brownish or rusty pubescent beneath or rarely densely pubescent at the apex. 12(4): 462. bracteoles broadly ovate. pubescent throughout and/or on one side. drip-shaped. Porandra scandens D. anthers purple. petioles pale green or dark purple..5 mm. 6–8 by 4–5 mm. Loei (Khawk Moei-Phu Kradung). densely pubescent along midvein outside. margins ciliate. 1. Doi Suthep. 7–11 by 5–8 mm. densely pubescent beneath or on both sides. broadly ovoid or subglobose. mouth ciliate. leaf sheaths ca. leaf sheaths 3–5 by 0. bracteoles broadly ovate. oblong-lanceolate. 7–8 by 3–4 mm. densely pubescent especially on midvein outside.5 by 3–5 mm.3–1 cm.5 by 2. sometimes sparsely pubescent above. sepals. Flowers pinkish purple. 1 mm in diam. margins often sparsely ciliate. Specimens examined: H. style 10–13 mm long. CHANTARANOTHAI. ellipsoid. Notes. Ovary subglobose. 2. B. FADEN) 143 Woody-like scandent herb. base acute to cuneate. Fang). 2000. glabrous or sparsely pubescent. anthers purple. Type: China. Woody-like scandent herb. 4–7 by 3–3. 1–3(–6) in a head.5–2 cm in diam. glabrous or sparsely pubescent on outside.5 mm. . ellipsoid. Xishuangbanna. 6–8 by 2. elliptic-oblanceolate.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Doi Inthanon. Wang 77909 (holotype PE).5 mm. 1974.G. ca. flowering and fruiting from April to December.5–4 by 3–5 mm.or purplishbearded. EASTERN: Thailand.5–4 by 4–5 mm.5 cm. pubescent apically. Petals greenish white.5 by 1–1. 8–11 by 5–9 mm.2–1. 3–10 mm long.5 cm in diam. Chiang Rai (Mae Sariang. 10–16 by 3–4 cm. Mae Ka Pak).5 by 0. Stamens: filaments 7–10 mm long.Y. Yunna. Capsules purple. 1000–1500 m.5–2.5 by 1. Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate. T.W. style 10–13 mm long. apex acuminate to caudate. Mae Wong). base acute-cuneate. 4. stems to 6 m long. Ovary subglobose. 1 mm in diam. pubescent.— In hill-evergreen and gallery forests. Formerly known only from southern China but now known to occur in northern and north-eastern Thailand. 3. 3–6 mm long. Sin.THE GENUS PORANDRA (COMMELINACEAE) IN THAILAND (T. C. margins sometimes sparsely ciliate. Hong & DeFilipps in Fl.. glabrous or sparsely pubescent on upper part. THITIMETHAROCH. Inflorescence a small compact globose head ca. Smitinand 2526 (BKF. Seeds ellipsoid-reniform. ramosa is readily distinguished from all other members of its genus by its unique drip-shaped anthers and densely pubescent petioles. 4–7. alt. boat-shaped. & R.B. Thailand.— NORTHERN : Chiang Mai (Doi Chiang Dao. Seeds ellipsoid-reniform. 7–8. P. 1M–R & 2C. Inflorescence a head 1. Flowers white. petioles dark purple. glabrous. margins ciliate.Y.5 mm. white. Mae Sruai). apex acuminate-caudate. Hong in Acta Phytotax. densely pubescent on one side. K). usually with (4–)6–8(–10) flowers. 1132 (K. Sepals pale green or pinkish purple.5–3 mm. US).5–3.5 cm.— P. ellipticoblanceolate. Kamphaeng Phet (Klong Lan.— China.. Figs. Capsules 1– 3(–6) in a head. Petals pinkish. Garrett 561 (K).. D. 2–2. NORTH- Ecology. ca. capsules and leaves. Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate. Stamens: filaments 6–8 mm long. pinkishbearded. 3. usually with (4–)6–8 flowers. 18– 25 by 3–5.
1974. K. Hong. Khon Kaen University and the Smithsonian Institution. Sang phai (ซางไผ) (Phu Kradung-Loei). 2546 (K).KK/42/B. et al. Phak kap plee (ผักกาบปลี) (Kamphaeng Phet).B. K). A. Khon Kaen University). Kerr 3234 (K).F.F.(BK) 87–2083-Y . flowers opening in late afternoon. Niyomdham et al. (eds).— Cooked young leaves are edible (Suan Phueng-Ratchaburi). Geesink & P. US herbaria and also Khon Kaen University Herbarium for permission to study specimens. Ratchaburi (Suan Pueng). CMU. K). Sinica 12(4): 459– 488. 250–1800 m. T. R. Bunchuai 1684 (K). K). Khon Kaen University). 4. Kostermans 834 (BKF. Put 3271 (BK. Sangkachand . EASTERN: Chaiyaphum (Ban Nam Phrom. Phak plap doi (ผักปราบดอย) (Chiang Dao-Chiang Mai). 95–728 (BKF). A. We are very grateful to the directors and curators of BCU. BM. 241 (US). 2695 (BKF. K). Laos. Washington for their facilities. T. pp. Acta Phytotax. Notes.— Yaa ton (หญาตน). Uses. K. Maxwell 73–187 (BK).— In evergreen forest. Larsen 43579 (US). Berlin. Hiepko 7890 (BKF. 425 (Herb. Khon Kaen University).G. Paisooksantivatana & P. . J. 4545 (BK. Phengklai 6700 (K).B. 4377 (BKF). P.144 THAI FOREST BULLEIN (BOTANY) 31 Lampang (Jae Sawn). K). 445 (Herb. S. T. Garrett 1409 (K). Si Sawat). alt.G. Commelinaceae. Triboun 1300 (Herb.from Ratchaburi province . Paisooksantivatana & P. In: Kubitzki. B. R.F. Vernacular. Phu Luang). C. Thitimetharoch 410 (Herb. Ecology. NORTH-EASTERN: Loei (Phu Kradung. BM. Revisio Commelinacearum Sinicarum. 6850 (K). D. Tak (Um Phang). Distribution. LINN. BK. Khon Kaen University). Springer-Verlag. BM. We also thank the Department of Biology. R.1) for financial support. PSU. Faculty of Science. REFERENCES Faden. H. Y. Phu Kheio). SOUTH-EASTERN: Chantaburi (Khao Soi Dao). BKF. Vietnam. Prayad 939 (BK). Rock 176 (US). 1998. 472 (Herb. 109–128.xtent of its rangee most-southern represents the Specimens examined: K. 1170 (K). Sangkhachand Y-2083-87 (BK). scandens is widespread from southern China to Thailand. K.— P. Hattink & C. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the Royal Golden Jubilee Program (RGJ: grant No. Khon Kaen University). Sutheesorn 2598 (BK). K). J. Santisuk & E. Geesink. Larsen. Warncke 2396 (BKF. K. Y. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants IV: Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. QBG. flowering and fruiting from April to December. SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Kwae Noi River Basin.— China. Y.
Flora of China (Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae) Vol. P. Drawn by T.Y. P. stamen. sepal. Beijing. O. & R. R. leaves. pp. FADEN) 145 Hong. petal. petal. B. (eds). Y. capsule and persistent calyx. Y. A–F: Porandra microphylla Y. Commelinaceae. Thitimetharoch. Hong: M. B. scandens D.THE GENUS PORANDRA (COMMELINACEAE) IN THAILAND (T. H. F. L. Q. capsule and persistent calyx. . K. H. sepal. E. & Raven. C.Y. 2000. Wan: A. D. stamen. Figure 1. 24. sepal. leaves. I. ramosa D. A. R. Science Press. capsule and persistent calyx. In: Wu. & DeFilipps. Z. petal. THITIMETHAROCH. CHANTARANOTHAI. J. Hong: G. D. leaf. G–L: P. N. 19–39. stamen. pistil. pistil. pistil. P. M–R: P.
146 THAI FOREST BULLEIN (BOTANY) 31 .
Wan. scandens D. . P. Photographed by T. Porandra microphylla Y. from T. Smitinand 2526 (K). Hong. & R. A. FADEN) 147 A B C Figure 2. ramosa D. B. P.Y. THITIMETHAROCH. P. CHANTARANOTHAI. Thitimetharoch.THE GENUS PORANDRA (COMMELINACEAE) IN THAILAND (T. B.Y. C. Hong.