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A policy pursued by a nation in its dealings with other nations, designed to achieve national objectives. Which department was established in November 1962? The Department of Defence Production was established in November 1962. Which party was floated by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose? Netaji created a party named Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj in the year 1942. Mention the major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy? The major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve the hard earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity and promote rapid economic development. Name political parties which wanted India to follow a pro- US foreign policy. Parties like Bhartiya Jan Sangh, Swatantra party wanted India to follow a pro -US foreign policy. When and where was Afro – Asian Conference held? The Afro – Asian Conference was held in 1955 in the Indonesian city of Bandung. When and where the first summit of NAM was held? The First summit of the NAM was held in Cairo from 5th to 12th June 1961. Who was the co- founder of NAM from India? Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the co-founder of NAM from India. What is NAM? NAM stands for Non Aligned Movement based on the presumption that existence of power bloc is not conducive to the world peace. When did China annex Tibet? China annexed Tibet in the year 1950. Which treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub khan in 1960? The India-Pakistan Indus waters Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub khan in 1960. 2 marks What are the five principles of 'Panchsheel'? Panchsheel is the five principles for peaceful coexistence which were enunciated by the Prime Minister of India in 1954 as the basis for international cooperation. They are: • Mutual respect for each other's Territorial integrity and sovereignty. • Non aggression • Non interference in each other's internal affairs. • Equality and mutual benefits. • Peaceful co-existence.
Write a note on Cold war? Cold war is a state of apparent peace between two powerful countries or blocs, but they show malice against each other through press, and radio. The term was first used by Bernard M. Maruch while addressing the South Carolina Legislative Body, on April 16, 1947. It is often used to describe the relationship that had existed between the Soviet Union and the western powers since 1947. The break up and weakening of the USSR resulted in virtual end of cold war and has resulted in a unipolar world dominated by the USA. Mention one cause which strained friendly relations of India with China? China annexed Tibet in 1950 and this removed a historical buffer between two countries. Initially the Government of India did not oppose this openly but when India had information about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama sought and obtained asylum in India in 1969. Why did Nehru regard the foreign relations as an essential indicator of dependence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading. Nehru regarded the conduct of foreign relation as an essential indicator of independence because of the following: • He accepted the policy of non-alignment. The main cause to accept the policy of non alignment was regional density of India and defence of sovereignty and economic development. • India did not want to make friendship with one group and to make the adversary of the other group. The events held in Hungary and Vietnam have more significance in this context. Why was there a considerable unease in Indo-US relations during the 1950s? After independence, India decided not to join either the US bloc or USSR bloc. India chose the path of non alignment. While India was trying to convince the other developing countries about the policy of nonalignment, Pakistan joined the US-led military alliances. The US was not happy about India's independent initiatives and the policy of non alignment, Therefore there was a considerable unease in Indo –US relations during the 1950s. The US also resented India's growing partnership with the Soviet Union. Which two areas within Indian Territory have been claimed by China from time to time? China has claimed two areas within the Indian Territory from time to time: • Aksai-chin area in the ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. • Much of the state of Arunachal Pradesh, what was then called NEFA (North Eastern Frontier Agency) Why did china allege that the Government of India was allowing anti-China activities? China annexed Tibet in 1950. The Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama accompanied the Chinese Premier during his official visit to India in 1956 and informed Nehru about the worsening situation in Tibet. After that Dalai Lama sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959.
That’s why china alleged that the government of India was allowing anti-China activities. What is the “Initiative of Five”? The founding fathers of the Non-aligned movement were, apart from Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia and Tito of Yugoslavia, were Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five.' 4 marks Write a short note on the Chinese Revolution of 1949? The 1949 Chinese Revolution was a transformative, epochal event, not only for the Chinese but for the rest of humanity, as well. On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China. It was a time of revolution, upheaval and bloodshed. The events of that period, and the first decades of communist rule which followed, forged the identity of modern China. The announcement ended the costly full-scale civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), which broke out immediately following World War II and had been preceded by on and off conflict between the two sides since the 1920’s. The creation of the PRC also completed the long process of governmental upheaval in China begun by the Chinese Revolution of 1911. The “fall” of mainland China to communism in 1949 led the United States to suspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades. Who is Dalai Lama? Dalai Lama is a spiritual teacher of Tibetan Buddhism. His real name is Tenzin Gyatso and is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. He was born in the year 1935 and he is known as "the Dalai Lama", by the western media. He is one of the most influential spiritual leaders of Tibetan Buddhism, and is also Tibet's Head of State and politically influenced. Tenzin Gyatso met the then Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru and requested him to pressurise China to declare Tibet as an autonomous government. At that time India was not having smooth relationship with China. Since Nehru did not want to increase tensions between China and India, he asked the Dalai Lama to work on the Seventeen Point Agreement Tibet had with China. Eventually in 1959, Dalai Lama fled Tibet and set up the government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamsala in India and this place is known as Little Lhasa. Describe Nehru's role with reference to Asian affairs? Nehru envisaged a major role for India in the world affairs, especially in Asian affairs. His era was marked by the establishment of contacts between India and other newly independent states in Asia and Africa. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Nehru had been an ardent advocate of Asian unity. Under his leadership, India convened the Asian relations conference in March 1947. India made earnest effort for the early realisation of freedom of Indonesia from the Dutch colonial regime by convening an international conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle. The Afro -Asian conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955 marked the zenith of India's engagement with the newly independent Asian and African nations. 6 marks Tibet is one of the major issues that historically caused tension between India and China- Explain. The plateau of the central Asian region called Tibet is one of the major issues that historically caused tension between India and China. From time to time in history, China had claimed administrative control over Tibet. And from time to
time, Tibet was independent too. In 1950, China took over control of Tibet. Large sections of the Tibetan population opposed this takeover. India tried to persuade China to recognise Tibet’s claims for independence. When the Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and China in 1954, through one of its clauses about respecting each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, India conceded China’s claim over Tibet. The Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama accompanied the Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai during the official Chinese visit to India in 1956. He informed Nehru about the worsening situation in Tibet. But China had already assured India that Tibet will be given greater autonomy than enjoyed by any other region of China. In 1958, there was armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation. This was suppressed by the Chinese forces. Sensing that the situation had become worse, in 1959, the Dalai Lama crossed over into the Indian border and sought asylum which was granted. The Chinese government strongly protested against this. Over the last half century, a large number of Tibetans have also sought refuge in India and many other countries of the world. In India, particularly in Delhi, there are large settlements of Tibetan refugees. Dharmashala in Himachal Pradesh is perhaps the largest refuge settlement of Tibetans in India. The Dalai Lama has also made Dharmashala his home in India. In the 1950s and 1960s many political leaders and parties in India including the Socialist Party and the Jan Sangh supported the cause of Tibet’s independence. China has created the Tibet autonomous region, which is an integral part of China. Tibetans oppose the Chinese claim that Tibet is part of Chinese territory. They also oppose the policy of bringing into Tibet more and more Chinese settlers. Tibetans dispute China’s claim that autonomy is granted to the region. They think that China wants to undermine the traditional religion and culture of Tibet. Write a note on Bangladesh war of 1971. Beginning in 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest internal crisis. The country’s first general election produced a split verdict –Zulfiksar Ali Bhutto’s party emerged a winner in West Pakistan, while the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujib-ur Rahman swept through East Pakistan. The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against years of being treated as second class citizens by the rulers based in West Pakistan. The Pakistani rulers were not willing to accept the democratic verdict. Nor were they ready to accept the Awami League’s demand for a federation. Instead, in early 1971, the Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on the people of East Pakistan. In response to this, the people started a struggle to liberate ‘Bangladesh’ from Pakistan. Throughout 1971, India had to bear the burden of about 80 lakh refugees who fled East Pakistan and took shelter in the neighbouring areas in India. India extended moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh. Pakistan accused India of a conspiracy to break it up. Support for Pakistan came from the US and China. The US-China rapprochement that began in the late 1960s resulted in a realignment of forces in Asia. Henry Kissinger, the adviser to the US President Richard Nixon, made a secret visit to China via Pakistan in July 1971. In order to counter the US-Pakistan-China axis, India signed a 20-year Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the Soviet Union in August 1971. This treaty assured India of Soviet support if the country faced any attack. After months of diplomatic tension and military build-up, a full-scale war between India and Pakistan broke out in December 1971. Pakistani aircrafts attacked Punjab and Rajasthan, while the army moved on the Jammu and Kashmir front. India retaliated with an attack involving the air force, navy and the army on both the Western and the Eastern front. Welcomed and supported by the local population, the Indian army made rapid progress in East Pakistan. Within ten days the Indian army had surrounded Dhaka from three sides and the Pakistani army
of about 90,000 had to surrender. With Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire. Name the important members of the NAM. Important members of NAM include Yugoslavia, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan, Cuba, Colombia, Venezuela, South Africa, Iran, Malaysia, Afghanistan, and, for a time, the People's Republic of China. Brazil has never been a formal member of the movement, but shares many of the aims of NAM and frequently sends observers to the Non-Aligned Movement's summits. While the organisation was intended to be as close an alliance as NATO or the Warsaw Pact, it has little cohesion and many of its members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the great powers. For example, Cuba was closely aligned with the former Soviet Union during the Cold War era. India was effectively aligned with the Soviet Union against China for many years. Additionally, some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq). The movement fractured from its own internal contradictions when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979. Write a note on India’s nuclear policy during the Nehru Era? Nehru’s period was of voluntary nuclear abstinence. Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India. A significant component of his industrialisation plans was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. However, the nuclear arsenal kept rising. Nehru was not only deeply committed to the complete elimination of all nuclear weapons, but also opposed to their manufacture and possession by any state, including India. He was opposed to nuclear weapons on moral, political and strategic grounds, calling their possession a “crime against humanity”. He integrated this opposition into India’s foreign policy, giving it an activist edge. He was the first world leader to call for an end to all nuclear testing following U.S. bomb tests in the Pacific in 1954. However, India’s civilian nuclear energy programme under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) also had a dual-use capacity; major figures such as Homi Bhabha were not unaware of this. Bhabha himself was not as categorically opposed to a possible future Bomb as was Nehru. What was the Kargil conflict? What was the world opinion on the kargil conflict? The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan in May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control, which serves as the de facto border between the two nations. Directly after the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents; however, documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces. The Indian Army, supported by the Indian Air Force, attacked the Pakistani positions and, with international diplomatic support, eventually forced Pakistani withdrawal across the Line of Control (LoC). Pakistan was criticised by other countries for allowing its paramilitary forces and insurgents to cross the Line of Control. Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif flew to meet U.S. president Bill Clinton on July 4 to obtain support from the United States. Clinton rebuked Sharif, however, and asked him to use his contacts to rein in the militants and withdraw Pakistani soldiers from Indian Territory. The
other G8nations, too, supported India and condemned the Pakistani violation of the LoC at the Cologne summit. The European Union was also opposed to the violation of the LoC. China, a long-time ally of Pakistan, did not intervene in Pakistan's favour, insisting on a pullout of forces to the LoC and settling border issues peacefully. Other organisations like the ASEAN Regional Forum too supported India's stand on the inviolability of the LOC. Faced with growing international pressure, Sharif managed to pull back the remaining soldiers from Indian Territory. The joint statement issued by Clinton and Sharif conveyed the need to respect the Line of Control and resume bilateral talks as the best forum to resolve all disputes. Write an essay on Non Aligned Movement? The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organisation of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It was founded in 1950s; as of 2007, it has 118 members. The purpose of the organisation as stated in the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, Zionism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics". They represent nearly two-thirds of the Nation’s members and comprise 55% of the world population. The term "Non-Alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations, which were first put forth by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were: 1. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty. 2. Mutual non-aggression. 3. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. 4. Equality and mutual benefit. 5. Peaceful co-existence A significant milestone in the development of the Non-aligned movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno. The attending nations declared their desire not to become involved in the Cold War and adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Nehru's five principles. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Tito, led to the first official Non-Aligned Movement Summit, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade. The Non-Aligned Movement has struggled to find relevance since the end of the Cold War. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its successor states of Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership though some have observer status. In 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Discuss India’s changing relations with China. • On 1 April 1950, diplomatic relations were established; India had got discourteous shock from Chinese side when their army occupied Tibet in 1950. • India and China cordially resolved the Tibet matter by a Treaty on 29 April 1954.
• Panchsheel was formulated by Pt. Nehru and Chou-en-Lai in 1954, after this trade agreement was signed. • Two countries took part in Bandung Conference of Afro-Asian nations in 1955. • Again differences arose over Tibet and China made an attack on India on 20 October 1962 and captured 6400 square kilometer of Indian Territory. • The relations of two countries became cordial since 1975. In February 1979, External Affairs Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited China; then again diplomatic relations was restored. • In May 1980, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met the Chinese Premier Hu Kuofeng at Belgrade. • The late Prime Minister Mr. Rajeev Gandhi was the first ever-Indian Premier who visited China in 1980 since the visit of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. • In 1992 President R. Venkatraman visited China, then Prime Minister P.V. Narsimha Rao in and 1993 Vice President K.R. Narayana in 1994. • The Chinese Prime Minister Lipeng visited India in 1991 and the Chinese President Jiang Zemin was the first Head of State of China who visited India in November 1996 since its independence. • The Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Chinese President Jiang Zemin had started the new era of relations; both nations signed a pact on Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) in the military field along the frontiers and to demarcate the LAC (line of actual control). • An especial stress was given on Panchsheel. In June 2003, the Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee made a historic trip to China and started a new era of relations. China had agreed to be acquainted with merger of Sikkim with India and further stopped illustrating the state as independent country in its maps. • It was also agreed to start border trade through Nathula Pass in Sikkim. During Kargil War of 1999 China had supported India for the first time. Now Indo- Chinese relations reached a new phase, which is significant for mutual benefits of India and China and peace of the Asia. Discuss India’s role in the NAM. India is one of the founding member of NAM. The first Non- Aligned Summit Conference at Belgrade in 1961 was sponsored by India, Egypt and Yugoslavia. The roots of NAM are traced back to the Asian Relation Conference of 28 countries held in New Delhi in March 1947 at the proposal of Indian Premier Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. This Conference had lay down the foundation stone of the NAM. After this the Conference of Afro-Asian Nation took place in Bandung (Indonesia) on the idea of Nehru, Tito, Nasser and Nkrumah in April 1955. The Bandung Conference was followed by a tripartite meeting between Nehru, Tito and Nasser held at Brioni in July 1956, here all three leaders declared that their belief that the policy of Non-Alignment would lessen the international tension and would help the development of perpetual relations between nations. India was a member of G-77 consisted of mostly under developed NAM countries. In 1990 at Belgrade, the NAM decided to create G-15 as a crossing point with G-7. India is a member of G-15 and playing a vital role. India had organized 7th Conference of NAM at New Delhi in 1983. After this Conference as chairperson of NAM, India putted forward a proposal to disarmament of nuclear weapons and to conclude an international conviction on banning the use of nuclear weapons. India also organized a six Nations Disarmament Group to impress upon the nuclear powers to stop the arms race. India has opposed the discriminatory nature of nuclear
powers esp. in regard of CTBT and NPT. Africa Fund was created on the idea of Prime Minister Rajeev Gandhi at the NAM Summit at Harare in September 1986. India had contributed Rs. 500 million by January 1987. Hence, India continued to be forefront member of NAM in all its activities and decision making as an active player and now as a rising economy. Write a brief note on India’s changing relations with Pakistan. • The matter of Kashmir continues to be the main source of tension between India and Pakistan. • Pakistan claims the territory of Jammu and Kashmir on the basis of two-nation theory, which crumples long before in 1971 with the creation of Bangladesh. Pakistan provoked it to declare a war against India in 1965, with the solitary aim of conquering whole Jammu and Kashmir. • But Pakistan got defeated and with the instance of Russia both countries signed the Tashkent Declaration in 1966 and consented to settle their dispute with diplomatic ways. • With the interference of world leaders both countries signed Shimla Agreement in July 1972. • According to it both countries agreed to sort out their problems through diplomatic talks. • There were various steps taken by the India and Pakistan government to stabilize the relation between two countries. • The Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited Lahore on 20 February 1999 by bus. • This visit popularly called as ‘bus diplomacy’ and it was appreciated by the world community. • A fresh starting was made when Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee went to Islamabad in January 2004. • He yet again extended a hand of friendship. Pakistan President General Pervez Musharraf, agreed to leave Kashmir as vital issue in mutual relations and discuss with India on extensive series of subjects like culture, trade, river water sharing. • This is called Composite Dialogue Process which also comprises Jammu and Kashmir. • Pakistan was also agreed to discontinue support to terrorists. In February 2004, both nations began the implementation of the Composite Dialogue Process by holding a meeting of their foreign secretaries in Islamabad. What are the basic objectives of Non-Aligned Movement? Examine its relevance in the Uni-polar World? • Non-alignment means keeping away from aligning with a power bloc. In that meticulous period (Cold War) it meant to stay aloof from power politics of the American blocs versus the Soviet bloc. • Non-alignment was the declaration of the collective strength of developing nations enlightened self-interest and self-esteem. • It was planned to serve the objective of peace, development and cooperation. • Non-alignment has not lost its credibility in the uni-polar world. Non-aligned countries are basically third world countries of Asia and Africa who got their independence after 1940s and their situation is not different from bi-polar world because their needs and problems remain same.
• The role of NAM has increased now. Earlier NAM countries had to develop variety of relations with super-powers and their allies but now there is a shift from that approach of dialogue and cooperation with industrial nations. • The globalization throws new challenges to Non-aligned countries e.g. labour standards, intellectual property rights and challenge to indigenous industries and market. • NAM gives a platform to these countries for consulting and developing common positions and brings together approaches to safeguard their rights and promote their interest. • These developing nations have to fight for their just position in competitive global world and NAM is appropriate forum for them. What do you think about the statement that NAM has become irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your answer. • Non-alignment evolved as a strategy to remain away from the two power blocs involved in the cold war. • It is true that with the disintegration of USSR and the end of Cold War in 1991, non-alignment has lost some of its relevance and effectiveness, both as an international movement as well as the core of India’s foreign policy. • But its basic features clearly show that its core ideas still remain relevant even after the Cold War is over. Non-aligned movement was started by the countries, which share a historical background of being colonies of the imperial powers and can become a powerful force if they come together. • It also means that the poor and undeveloped countries of the world need not become followers of any of the big powers, that they could pursue an independent foreign policy. • It was also based on a resolve to democratize the international system by thinking about an alternative world order to redress existing inequalities. What is the bone of contention between China and India? • The border between British India and China had never been marked clearly. • For reasons of security, Britain maintained a forward claim in the Himalayas, but administrative borders were further south. • The main British claim was the Mc Mohan Line, which had been drawn up during the Simla Conference of 1914.a • However, owing to various disagreements with the British, the Republic of China refused to ratify and recognize any agreements reached at the Conference. • As a result, China did not recognize the validity of the McMahon Line border. After the independence of India and the establishment of the PRC in the late 1940s, the issue of the border was not fully resolved. • Initial reaction to the war in India was mixed with the populace wondering as to how India had lost the war so easily and who was at fault. • Defense Minister Menon resigned, though many in the government blamed Prime Minister Nehru. • India's defeat in 1962 led to an overhaul of Indian Army in terms of doctrine, training, organisation and equipment. • The war ended when the Chinese captured the disputed area and unilaterally declared a ceasefire on November 20th 1962. • At present China controls South Xinjiang, an area claimed by India as Aksai Chin, whereas India controls Arunachal Pradesh an area claimed by China as belonging to South Tibet.
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