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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value.8. 6 . parity computation. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. multiplication and division. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate.8. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. PC is always incremented by one. sign acceptor etc. and configure the 8051s interrupt system.1. 1.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. a total of 64K bytes of code. 1. as its name suggests. and so on. subtraction. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. control and access timers. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. For example. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. testing for 0.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed.
1. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. 7 .11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. 1. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. for a total of 32 I/O lines. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid.
If you push a value onto the stack. Address 90h. RETI. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. The remaining SFRs. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. if SP holds the value 07h. bit 7 is pin P1.0. are "other SFRs. Address 80h. That is to say. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. LCALL. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. bit 7 is pin P0. For example. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. RET. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. 1. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. with green backgrounds.7.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. POP.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. 1. SCON controls the serial port. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1.12. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h.0. Addresses 98h. 1.12.7 SCON (Serial Control. For example. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. TCON controls the timers. For example.7.6 P1 (Port 1. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. For example. Bit-Addressable): 8 . such as PUSH. SP (Stack Pointer.
It must be cleared by software.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. variable baud rate Table 1. It must be cleared by software. RB 8 not widely used. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. 1 start bit. Bit addressable. 1 start bit. 1 stop bit. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag.bit data. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. TB 8 not widely used. mode 1. 8H Fig: 1. Addresses A8h): 9 . SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. variable baud rate 9. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. 1 stop bit. fixed baud rate 9. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. 1 start bit.2: Operating modes of SCON 1.bit data. 1 stop bit.
enables or disables the serial port interrupt. If EA = 0. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. 3. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. Fig: 1. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). whenever any device needs its service. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. Thus. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. 1.13. 2. Reset. now interrupt is acknowledged. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR).1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. 4. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. 10 . each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. In the interrupt method. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. If EA = 1. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. reserved for future use. ---ET2 ES Not implemented.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts.
bit 7 is pin P3. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 11 . Address B0h.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. enables or disables external interrupt 0. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. enables or disables external interrupt 1. For example.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. 1.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.14 P3 (Port 3. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard.0. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. 1. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt.
1) have special functions associated with Timer. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs.0 and P1. In another words. 12 .Fig: 1. Also.
serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. 13 . In order to use one of these functions. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. they all share highly similar structure.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . this pin is usually connected to the push-button. Pin 11: TXD .signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . Port 3 is similar to Port 0.signal for reading from external RAM memory. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. the pin in question has to be designated as input. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. avoid using Port 0. If using other port to a same end. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.e. However. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports.From a hardware standpoint.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . Pin 10:RXD . as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. Beside its role as universal I/O port. However. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. i.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values.
Otherwise. signal on ALE is off.e. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). If external memory is present.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). this is the location of the higher address byte. When external memory is used. it can be used as universal I/O port. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. In this way. i. addresses A8 – A15. memory is smaller than 64kB). External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). If external ROM is used for storing the program.e. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. Of the external memory. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. In that case. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. similar to Port 0. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. 14 . by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. Instead of a quartz crystal. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin.
When designated as output. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. Therefore. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. 15 . Conversely. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7).Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage.Therefore. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). first the internal. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Unlike other ports. to get positive logic (5V) at output. and then the external (if present). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. pin acts as "open drain". Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. to get one (5V) on the output.
16 . if external memory is used. similar to port0. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs.1. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. the pin in question has to be designed as input. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15).13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. In order to use one of these functions. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Having the “pull up” resistor.
2. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. such as printers.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. In some cases. 17 . serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. The8051 chips has built-in UART. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). For these reasons. and 8-bit data path is expensive. which is 2. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. but the programs can be tedious and long. Serial data communication uses two methods. for example. Used. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. This can work only if the cable is not too long. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. a synchronous and asynchronous. Furthermore. For this reason. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals.
This is the called framing. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. 2. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. 2. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. In data framing for asynchronous communications. how many bits constitute the character. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. 18 . is even. If each signal change represents more than one bit. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. 2.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. the baud rates as bps are the same. such as ASCII characters. on how the data is packed. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. The parity bit is odd or even. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. and when the data begins and ends. a protocol. the data. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. In the asynchronous method. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits.
2. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. an interfacing standard called RS232. and terminal. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. printer.2. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 .6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. Examples are: computer.
The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. 20 . In RS 232.Data Terminal Ready. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem.Request to Send. from DTE CTS---. MAX 232.8. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels.Data Set Ready. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. Asynchronous communication.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. DSR--. 2. voltage converters such as Max 232are used.3.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.Clear to send. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.Carrier Detect. RXD---.
The "asm ". Check your assembler for the convention. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. depending on which assembler you are using. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. 2. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". For many assemblers. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. 3. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. 1. the next question is: how it is created. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program.3. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. 21 . The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. 4. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM.
#250 R2.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1.3. The following is an example of a toggle program.asm) means assembly language 4. After the program has started: Select File. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. up end 3. Start the µVision Program 2. Select File. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. org 0H mov A. Save program with filename: xxxxx. Select Project. #200 R2.prj 22 . New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. same R3. #0ffH route: mov P1.
Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Select Run. Select Port 0. Toggle. 2. load object file from the program menu. Select your assembly file. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1.dll from the drop down list box. e. Select File. 8. double click on the line. 3. 7. 23 . Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. Select Project. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. you can also select this directly. Hex Click OK 4. 6. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. Click on stop when you are finished. To set a breakpoint. 7. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. Port 2 and Port 3 6. 5.5. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Port 1. I/O Ports from the program menu.g. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. so that you can see the how output varies on ports.
In contrast. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. 4. to keep the data displaying. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins.4. 4.2 VCC. the CPU. characters and graphics. 24 . Ease of programming for characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LED. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. which are limited to numbers and a few characters.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. must refresh the LED.
4.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. the instruction command code register is selected.4. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. a-z.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. Cursor at home. Fig: 4. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. R/W=0 when writing. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. etc. 4. 4. When data is supplied to data pins. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. R/W=1 when reading. if RS=1 the data register is selected.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. WhenD7=0. When D7 =1. the LCD is ready to receive new information. Is RS= 0. D0-D7. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide.To display letters and numbers.
cursor off Display on. cursor on Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor blinking Display on.
Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. enable or configure anything to anything else. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. No longer do people need to connect. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. install. 27 . Scientific and Medical applications. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp.4 GHz globally available license free band. Version 1. polluters of this shared spectrum. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. The Bluetooth specification is an open. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. IBM Corp. Toshiba Corp. headsets and portable computers.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. plug into. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.5.
Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. when devices are allowed to transmit. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. establishes the link with slave. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. and a Bluetooth clock. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. 20m and 100m. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. 28 . which Slave has to follow. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). When Slaves connect to a Master. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums.
The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.4GHz. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. A slave can be in two modes. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point . But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode.5.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. 5. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. 29 . Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices.
3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. 30 . Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. which is a technique. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program.5.
5. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.5.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.3.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. 5.3.3. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5. 31 .
Fig: 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3.3. Fig: 5. If necessary.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.Fig: 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.
This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. For large data transmissions. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. Fig: 6. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. When hardware flow control is not being used.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. When using hardware flow control. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. Parani-ESD works as follows. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly.6. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. As the transmission data becomes large. it can cause a transmission delay. This can mean a loss of data may occur. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. 33 . buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently.
6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.
If not. and Hardware Flow Control. Authentication.Operation mode. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . Mode. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Operation status. Device name. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.Encryp. Auth. Check the connection status with host equipment.7. AT+BTINFO?.Status. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. DeviceName. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Data Encryption.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. OK.
SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN.3. Release the current connection 36 . To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to.0. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. OK / DISCONNECT. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. When connection is made and released. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. If it fails to make a connection. OK/ ERROR.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices.
The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. 37 . This approach directly influences the development productivity. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. 8. This is given in the line diagram.
It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. All debugger. 8.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. 8. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. 8. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. Assembler is the combination of debugger. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. linker and loader. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. 8. 8. 38 .6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller.
If a current is passed through the coil. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.O. as shown in figure 2b.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . Fig: 9.C.) switch contact and the common switch contact. RELAYS 9.9.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. Fig: 9.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.
it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3. Fig: 9.9.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 . The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).
#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.3 SW4 EQU P1.#0C3H .4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.10.#99H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.#84H .5 LCD_RW EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H .
MOV A.#42H MOV A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#94H .BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#50H MOV TH1.#'O'.#'K'.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.#0D4H .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#0C0H .TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.
#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#12 MOV R0.#42H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#40H MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.MOV A.#40H MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#'3' MOV SBUF.#'1' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.#'2' MOV SBUF.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.SBUF MOV @R0.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.TX RX: MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.
HERE DJNZ R2.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.B SUBB A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.@A+DPTR MOV B.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.
0 DB "BT OK".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H COLL: DB "S.T.T".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0DH.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H END 47 .R.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0DH.0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".I.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".EXIT: MOV A.0DH.S.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".
7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#0C3H .#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#80H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.0 LED2 EQU P2.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#84H .PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.4 LED1 EQU P2.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.2 SW3 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.#99H .
#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#94H .@R0 CJNE A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.#'K'.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.MOV DPTR.#'O'.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#42H MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#-3 MOV IE.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.
#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#42H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#12 MOV R0.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.
NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'3'.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'1'.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#'4'.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2'.
DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TX MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.RX JBC TI.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.
#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE DJNZ R2.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE2 RET 53 .#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#100 DJNZ R5.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#50 MOV R5.
0DH.#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".B SUBB A./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.".0DH.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 DB "BT OK".0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.@A+DPTR MOV B.0H 54 .0DH.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.
T".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H COLL: DB "S.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".I.S.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H END 55 .0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".T.R.
With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. even though it possesses its drawbacks. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market.11. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. 56 . If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. They are currently on version 1. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market.1. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. CONCLUSION In conclusion. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. and connection setup issues. If this can be done. interference.
• Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.Ayala.com 57 .12.org www.philips. Websites • • • www. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.projects.com www.wikipedia. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.
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