The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate.1 Accumulator:
1. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. as its name suggests. control and access timers. multiplication and division. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. parity computation. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition.
1.8. a total of 64K bytes of code. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory:
Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. For example. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. testing for 0. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator.
. and so on. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. PC is always incremented by one. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. subtraction.1. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. sign acceptor etc.8.2 Program Counter:
The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port.
The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports.
1. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. for a total of 32 I/O lines.
. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.11 SFR Types:
As mentioned in the chart itself. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green.10 The Diagram of the SFR:
Fig: 1.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.
are "other SFRs. POP. For example.12.
1. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. For example.7.12. such as PUSH. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.0. RET. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. SCON controls the serial port.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051.12 SFR Descriptions:
P0 (Port 0. Addresses 98h. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. if SP holds the value 07h.
1. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. bit 7 is pin P0. Bit-Addressable):
. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. TCON controls the timers. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. For example. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. bit 7 is pin P1. For example.7. The remaining SFRs. If you push a value onto the stack.6 P1 (Port 1. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. Address 80h. Bit-Addressable):
This is input/output port 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Address 90h.7 SCON (Serial Control. with green backgrounds. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.0. RETI." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. LCALL.
1. That is to say. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. SP (Stack Pointer.
8H Fig: 1.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. 1 stop bit. It must be cleared by software. 1 start bit. TB 8 not widely used.bit data. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. It must be cleared by software. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. variable baud rate Table 1. mode 1.2: Operating modes of SCON
1. 1 stop bit. 1 start bit.bit data. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. TI RI transmits interrupt flag.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. Addresses A8h):
. 1 stop bit. Bit addressable. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. 1 start bit. fixed baud rate 9. RB 8 not widely used. variable baud rate 9. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag.
The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. 2. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt.
Fig: 1. reserved for future use.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register
disable all interrupts.
Not implemented. 3. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). Upon receiving an interrupt signal.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51:
1. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. Thus. 4.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. If EA = 0. now interrupt is acknowledged. whenever any device needs its service. In the interrupt method.
1.13. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. If EA
1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.14 P3 (Port 3. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. For example. Bit-Addressable):
This is input/output port 3. bit 7 is pin P3. enables or disables external interrupt 0.
. Address B0h.
1.15 Other SFRs:
The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt.0.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0
enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.7. enables or disables external interrupt 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.
Fig: 1. pins 1 and 2 (P1.
Pin 9: Reset Signal
High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.
.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller
Pin 1–8: (Port 1):
Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs.1) have special functions associated with Timer. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on.0 and P1. In another words. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU. Also.
Pin 11: TXD .input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . this pin is usually connected to the push-button. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. Beside its role as universal I/O port. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. avoid using Port 0. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.From a hardware standpoint.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for
Pin 12: INT0 . For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V).e. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values.
Pin 10:RXD . The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. i.
. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set.signal for reading from external RAM memory. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. the pin in question has to be designated as input. However.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . If using other port to a same end. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . they all share highly similar structure.
Port 3 as with Port 1. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter).input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. However. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. In order to use one of these functions.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for
Port 2 if external memory is not present. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. When external memory is used. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. If external memory is present. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. Otherwise. signal on ALE is off. Of the external memory. Instead of a quartz crystal. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. it can be used as universal I/O port. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.
Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21.
Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of
byte (instruction) from program memory. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. In that case.e. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. i. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. In this way. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common).e. memory is smaller than 64kB).Pin 18-19: X2 and X1:
Input and output of internal oscillator. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. similar to Port 0. addresses A8 – A15. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. this is the location of the higher address byte. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. If external ROM is used for storing the program.
When designated as output.Pin 31: EA
Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory.
Port 0 Similar to Port 2. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. first the internal. Therefore. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. and then the external (if present). Conversely. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Unlike other ports.Therefore. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories.
. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. to get one (5V) on the output. to get positive logic (5V) at output.
Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. pin acts as "open drain".
each pin of port3 has an alternate function. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits.
. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports:
Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). In order to use one of these functions. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. the pin in question has to be designed as input. Having the “pull up” resistor. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. similar to port0. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0.1. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. if external memory is used.
Serial data communication uses two methods. The8051 chips has built-in UART. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). This can work only if the cable is not too long.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing:
Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. such as printers. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. In some cases. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. but the programs can be tedious and long. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. a synchronous and asynchronous. and 8-bit data path is expensive.
. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. For these reasons. For this reason. SERIAL COMMUNICATION
When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world.2. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. Furthermore. Used. which is
2. for example.
Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. In data framing for asynchronous communications. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. such as ASCII characters.
2. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. the data. bits per second may be greater than baud rate.3 Parity bit:
In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. If each signal change represents more than one bit. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame.
2.2 Start and stop bits:
A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. how many bits constitute the character. and when the data begins and ends. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. This is the called framing.4 Data transfer rate:
The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). The parity bit is odd or even. a protocol. is even.
2. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. on how the data is packed. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. In the asynchronous method. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. the baud rates as bps are the same. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. each character is placed in between start and stop bits.
.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's.
2.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection:
Fig: 2.5 RS232 standards:
Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). an interfacing standard called RS232. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system.
2. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. and terminal. Examples are: computer.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE)
. printer. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link.
so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.Data Terminal Ready. DSR--.Data Set Ready.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire.3. from DTE CTS---. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. RXD---. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers.
2. Asynchronous communication. In RS 232. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors:
Fig: 2. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.Request to Send.Carrier Detect.Clear to send. voltage converters such as Max 232are used.8. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. MAX 232.
.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem.
The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1
is fed to an 8051 assembler. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. 4. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. The "asm ". 2. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ".
1. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Check your assembler for the convention. depending on which assembler you are using. the next question is: how it is created. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. 3. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code.3. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM
Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. For many assemblers.
New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx.asm) means assembly language 4. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. Select File. After the program has started: Select File. #200 R2. up end
3. The following is an example of a toggle program. Save program with filename: xxxxx. same R3.
org 0H mov A.1 Evaluation of keil Software:
1. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. #0ffH route: mov P1. Select Project.prj
. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2.3. #250 R2. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. Start the µVision Program 2.asm The File type is mentioned at last (.
Port 1.g.dll from the drop down list box. 6. Port 2 and Port 3 6. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. load object file from the program menu. I/O Ports from the program menu.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger
1. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. 2. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Select File. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051
You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. double click on the line. Select your assembly file.
. 3. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. Click on stop when you are finished.5. Select Project. Select Run. Select Port 0. To set a breakpoint. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. 7. 8. load CPU driver from the program menu
The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. 7. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. 5. e. you can also select this directly. so that you can
see the how output varies on ports. Toggle. Hex Click OK 4.
Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears.
1 LCD pin descriptions:
LCD has 14 pins.
4. characters and graphics.
.2 VCC. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. the CPU. must refresh the LED. In contrast. This is in contrast to LED. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. VSS and VEE:
While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD.4.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast.
4. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD]
As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons:
Fig: 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. to keep the data displaying.
Fig: 4. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. the instruction command code register is selected. When data is supplied to data pins. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display
. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. the LCD is ready to receive new information. a-z. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1.To display letters and numbers.3 RS (Register Select):
There are two very important registers inside LCD.
4. if RS=1 the data register is selected. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.
4. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. Cursor at home. R/W=1 when reading. R/W=0 when writing. WhenD7=0. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. D0-D7. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0.5 E (Enable):
The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin.6 D0-D7:
The 8-bit data pins. Is RS= 0. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. When D7 =1.4.4 R/W (Read/Write):
R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it.
cursor on Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix
Table: 4. cursor off Display on. cursor blinking Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38
COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor off Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction
5. headsets and portable computers. install. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. plug into. No longer do people need to connect. IBM Corp.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. Toshiba Corp. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets.4 GHz globally available license free band.
It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. Version 1. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp. polluters of this shared spectrum. BLUETOOTH PROFILE
Bluetooth is low cost. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users.
. The Bluetooth specification is an open. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. enable or configure anything to anything else. Scientific and Medical applications.
The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. establishes the link with slave.
. 20m and 100m. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. and a Bluetooth clock. when devices are allowed to transmit. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. which Slave has to follow. When Slaves connect to a Master.
called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top.
Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. A slave can be in two modes. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.4GHz.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.1 Bluetooth Communication:
Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.2 Applications:
The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation.5.
5. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point . Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band.
The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables.5. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. In addition to the basic AT commands. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows.
. which is a technique. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE
Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications.
Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands.
Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment.
.3.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board:
Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.2 Connecting the Hardware:
This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.
188.8.131.52 Pannel Layout:
Fig: 5. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.
5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.3.
3 Connecting Power to Jig Board
5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board:
Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board
. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.3.3.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board
5. If necessary.
Fig: 5.Fig: 5.
Fig: 5.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board:
Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.
This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet.6.
. In order to prevent this buffer overflow.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports
6. When hardware flow control is not being used. it can cause a transmission delay. Parani-ESD works as follows. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. When using hardware flow control. This can mean a loss of data may occur. As the transmission data becomes large. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended.1 Hardware Flow Control:
Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. the possibility of data loss becomes greater.
Fig: 6. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. For large data transmissions. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. SERIAL PORTS
The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows.
2 Pin Assignment:
Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210
.6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110
Device name. Authentication.↵:
SD Response: 112233445566.Encryp. Check the connection status with host equipment. Auth. Data Encryption. Display Bluetooth settings
Mode Status Auth Encrypt
= = = =
MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC
. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.7. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. DeviceName. and Hardware Flow Control.
AT+BTINFO?. If not.Status. Mode. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS
SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Operation status.Operation mode. OK.
SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. OK / DISCONNECT. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device
ATH ↵ :
SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. When connection is made and released.3. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth
ATD <bt address>↵ :
SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. Release the current connection
. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. OK/ ERROR. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. If it fails to make a connection. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range.0.
The IDE will be equipped with many other tools.
Fig: 8. This approach directly influences the development productivity. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.8.
8. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used.
. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come.1 Cross compiler:
This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. This is given in the line diagram. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach.
This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase.3 Debugger:
As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler.2 Assembler:
This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. linker and loader. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code.
It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed.
Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. All debugger.
8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.
8. Assembler is the combination of debugger.4 Linker:
Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself.
) switch contact and the common switch contact. If a current is passed through the coil.9. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay
Fig: 9.2 How Relays Work
In figure 2a the relay is off. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. as shown in figure 2b.C.O. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.
Fig: 9.1 Introduction:
One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits
3 The Latching Relay Circuit
If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.
Fig: 9.9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit
. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.
6 LCD_EN EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA
PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.10.3 SW4 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .#99H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#84H .7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#0C0H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#94H .@R0 CJNE A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#'O'.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0D4H .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC
.#-3 MOV IE.#50H MOV TH1.#'K'.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.
#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD
.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#42H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#40H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.
#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'3' MOV SBUF.#'2' MOV SBUF.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.D1_ON JNB SW2.#'1' MOV SBUF.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP
.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A INC R0 RETI
TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET
.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TX RX: MOV A.D2_OFF:
MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#'4' MOV SBUF.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.
#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET
DELAY: MOV R4.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.#0DH JZ EXIT
.B SUBB A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.@A+DPTR MOV B.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.HERE DJNZ R2.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.LCD_CMD:
CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.
ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".S.R.T.0
BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0DH.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0DH.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0DH.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET
/*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H COLL: DB "S.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET
/*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".T".I.EXIT:
MOV A.0H END
.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0 DB "BT OK".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".
#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD
.1 SW2 EQU P1.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#0C3H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.2 SW3 EQU P1.#84H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#80H .3 SW4 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.4 LED1 EQU P2.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#99H .#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.
#0C0H .#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#40H MOV TMOD.@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#-3 MOV IE.#'O'.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC
.#'K'.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.MOV DPTR.#94H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#42H MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#0D4H .
@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#0C0H
.MOV A.#42H MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#40H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.
#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET
/*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'3'.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'2'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'4'.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET
.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'1'.
TX MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF:
ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET
/*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/
.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A INC R0 RETI RETI
/*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.SBUF MOV @R0.RX JBC TI.
#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE2 RET
.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.HERE DJNZ R2.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.AGAIN1 RET
/*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#50 MOV R5.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#100 DJNZ R5.HERE1 DJNZ R1.
0DH.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".B SUBB A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET
/*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF"./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 DB "BT OK".0DH.0DH.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET
/*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0
BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0
DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0H
.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.@A+DPTR MOV B.
WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".S.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".T.I.R.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".T".0H COLL: DB "S.0H END
and connection setup issues. They are currently on version 1. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. If this can be done. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products.
Bluetooth is also itself getting better. CONCLUSION
In conclusion. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version.
. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. even though it possesses its drawbacks. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. interference. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications.11.1. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies.
Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.com
• The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by
Muhammad Ali Mazidi.wikipedia.
• • •
www.12. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.org www.com www.projects.Ayala.philips.