INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations.8. 1. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. sign acceptor etc. 1. parity computation. PC is always incremented by one. as its name suggests.1. testing for 0. multiplication and division. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. control and access timers. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate.8. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. 6 . subtraction. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. The SFR is part of Internal Memory.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. and so on. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. a total of 64K bytes of code. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. For example. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed.

The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. for a total of 32 I/O lines. 1.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. 7 . SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. 1. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior.

LCALL. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. bit 7 is pin P0.0. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.6 P1 (Port 1. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. such as PUSH. RET.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. The remaining SFRs. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. For example. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. TCON controls the timers. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. RETI. bit 7 is pin P1. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. SP (Stack Pointer. 1.7. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM.0. with green backgrounds. if SP holds the value 07h. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.7 SCON (Serial Control. are "other SFRs. 1. That is to say.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. Bit-Addressable): 8 . For example. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. POP. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. Address 90h." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. For example. Address 80h.7. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller.12. If you push a value onto the stack. For example.12. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. 1. Addresses 98h. SCON controls the serial port.

bit data.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. 1 stop bit. 1 start bit. mode 1. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. 1 stop bit. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data.bit data. 1 start bit. fixed baud rate 9. It must be cleared by software. Bit addressable. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. 1 stop bit. It must be cleared by software. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. RB 8 not widely used. variable baud rate 9.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. Addresses A8h): 9 . whether the serial port is activated to receive data. 8H Fig: 1. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. 1 start bit. variable baud rate Table 1. TB 8 not widely used.2: Operating modes of SCON 1.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port.

whenever any device needs its service. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer).13.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. Fig: 1. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. 1.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. Reset. 2. 10 . If EA = 1. reserved for future use. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. 3. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. If EA = 0. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. now interrupt is acknowledged. Thus. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. In the interrupt method. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). 4.

bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. enables or disables external interrupt 0. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. For example. 11 . 1. 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. bit 7 is pin P3.14 P3 (Port 3. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. Address B0h.0. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3.7. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. enables or disables external interrupt 1.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051.

8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.Fig: 1.0 and P1. Also. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. pins 1 and 2 (P1. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU. 12 .1) have special functions associated with Timer. In another words.

clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 .Depending on the device's purpose and environs.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . avoid using Port 0. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. However.e. Beside its role as universal I/O port.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . Pin 10:RXD .input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 .serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . the pin in question has to be designated as input. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. Port 3 is similar to Port 0.signal for reading from external RAM memory. they all share highly similar structure. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. However. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. i. In order to use one of these functions. Pin 11: TXD . each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. 13 .input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. If using other port to a same end.From a hardware standpoint. this pin is usually connected to the push-button. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V).

and port P0 is used as Data Bus. this is the location of the higher address byte. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). it can be used as universal I/O port. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. In that case.e. 14 . memory is smaller than 64kB). New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. If external ROM is used for storing the program. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. Instead of a quartz crystal. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. In this way. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. Otherwise. addresses A8 – A15. i. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common).Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). signal on ALE is off. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory.e. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. When external memory is used. Of the external memory. similar to Port 0. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. If external memory is present. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle.

Conversely. to get one (5V) on the output. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. and then the external (if present). Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Therefore. to get positive logic (5V) at output. Unlike other ports. pin acts as "open drain". Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole.Therefore. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage.When designated as output. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. first the internal. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. 15 . This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed.

the pin in question has to be designed as input. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. In order to use one of these functions. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. if external memory is used. similar to port0. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. 16 . each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Having the “pull up” resistor. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7).1. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits.

Furthermore. a synchronous and asynchronous. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end.2. for example. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. but the programs can be tedious and long. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. In some cases. Serial data communication uses two methods. For these reasons. such as printers. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. which is 2. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). it provides data in byte-sized chunks. The8051 chips has built-in UART. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. Used. This can work only if the cable is not too long. and 8-bit data path is expensive. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. For this reason. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. 17 .

In data framing for asynchronous communications. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. 18 . This is the called framing. bits per second may be greater than baud rate.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. and when the data begins and ends. In the asynchronous method. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. 2. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. is even. such as ASCII characters. on how the data is packed. the data.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. If each signal change represents more than one bit. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. the baud rates as bps are the same. a protocol. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. As far as the conductor wire is concerned.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second).3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. 2. how many bits constitute the character. 2. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. The parity bit is odd or even.

2. an interfacing standard called RS232. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. 2. printer. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . and terminal. Examples are: computer.

This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. from DTE CTS---. DSR--. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.Request to Send.Carrier Detect. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.8. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. MAX 232. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. 2. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.Data Set Ready.3. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. 20 .Data Terminal Ready. Asynchronous communication.Clear to send. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. In RS 232. RXD---. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time.

Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. 1. 2. The "asm ". which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. depending on which assembler you are using. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. 3. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. the next question is: how it is created. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". 4. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. For many assemblers. Check your assembler for the convention.3. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. 21 .

Select Project.3. org 0H mov A. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. After the program has started: Select File. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. Select File. #0ffH route: mov P1.prj 22 . New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx.asm) means assembly language 4. same R3. #250 R2.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. #200 R2. up end 3. Save program with filename: xxxxx.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. Start the µVision Program 2. The following is an example of a toggle program.

Port 2 and Port 3 6. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Select File. Select your assembly file. Port 1. Select Port 0. Select Project. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at.5. To set a breakpoint. e. 23 . 2. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. 8. 3. Select Run. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. 6. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. Hex Click OK 4. I/O Ports from the program menu. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. double click on the line. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. 7. 5. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. 7. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File.g. Toggle. you can also select this directly. load object file from the program menu.dll from the drop down list box. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. Click on stop when you are finished.

which are limited to numbers and a few characters.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. In contrast. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. must refresh the LED. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. to keep the data displaying.4. 24 . 4.2 VCC. 4. This is in contrast to LED. characters and graphics. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. the CPU.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

4. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. R/W=1 when reading. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. When data is supplied to data pins.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . a-z. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. Fig: 4. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. R/W=0 when writing. the LCD is ready to receive new information.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD.4. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. Cursor at home. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. the instruction command code register is selected. When D7 =1.To display letters and numbers. Is RS= 0. D0-D7. 4. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. if RS=1 the data register is selected.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. WhenD7=0. etc. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. 4.

cursor off Display off. cursor on Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor blinking Display on.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor off Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.

low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets.4 GHz globally available license free band.5. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp. 27 . It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. No longer do people need to connect. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. The Bluetooth specification is an open.  Toshiba Corp.  IBM Corp. plug into. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. install. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. Scientific and Medical applications. Version 1. polluters of this shared spectrum. enable or configure anything to anything else. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. headsets and portable computers.

all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). and a Bluetooth clock. which Slave has to follow. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. 28 . Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. When Slaves connect to a Master. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. 20m and 100m. establishes the link with slave. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. when devices are allowed to transmit.

called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. 5. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.  29 . Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. A slave can be in two modes. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.4GHz.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices.5. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top.

which is a technique. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment.5. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. 30 . Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands.

3.3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series. 5.3.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 5. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.5. 31 .2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.

3.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .Fig: 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package. If necessary.3. Fig: 5. Fig: 5.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.

For large data transmissions. 33 . SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. When using hardware flow control. As the transmission data becomes large. Fig: 6.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. In order to prevent this buffer overflow.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6.6. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. Parani-ESD works as follows. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. When hardware flow control is not being used. This can mean a loss of data may occur. it can cause a transmission delay. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet.

6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.

the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear.Operation mode. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . Auth. Check the connection status with host equipment. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address.7. Mode. and Hardware Flow Control. Authentication.Status. OK.Encryp.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Operation status. DeviceName. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. If not. Device name. AT+BTINFO?. Data Encryption.

SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. Release the current connection 36 . To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. OK/ ERROR. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected.3. OK / DISCONNECT.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. When connection is made and released. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device.0. If it fails to make a connection.

Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. 8.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used.8. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. This is given in the line diagram. This approach directly influences the development productivity. 37 .1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8.

8. 8. linker and loader. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. All debugger. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. 38 .5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. 8. Assembler is the combination of debugger.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. 8. 8.

RELAYS 9. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.9. Fig: 9.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. as shown in figure 2b.O. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. If a current is passed through the coil.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.C.) switch contact and the common switch contact. Fig: 9.

9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type). it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. Fig: 9.3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .

TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#99H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.10. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#84H .4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H .6 LCD_EN EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 SW2 EQU P1.#0C3H .3 SW4 EQU P1.

BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#20H MOV SCON.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#40H MOV TMOD.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#'O'.@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#'K'.#-3 MOV IE.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#42H MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#94H .#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.

#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#12 MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#42H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.

D2_ON JNB SW4.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.D1_ON JNB SW2.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'1' MOV SBUF.#'3' MOV SBUF.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.TX RX: MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.RX JBC TI.D2_OFF: MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .HERE1 DJNZ R1.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.B SUBB A.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.@A+DPTR MOV B.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.HERE DJNZ R2.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.

0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".T.T".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0DH.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0DH.I.0H END 47 .0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 DB "BT OK".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".R.EXIT: MOV A.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0DH.S.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H COLL: DB "S.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".

1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.2 SW3 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#84H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.4 LED1 EQU P2.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.0 LED2 EQU P2.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#80H .PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#99H .#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.3 SW4 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#0C3H .

TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#42H MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#0C0H .#94H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#'K'.@R0 CJNE A.#20H MOV SCON.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#'O'.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .

#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#40H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#40H MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H 50 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#42H MOV A.

#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'2'.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#'1'.#'3'.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'4'.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.

#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TX MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.RX JBC TI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.

#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.LCD_INIT: MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#50 MOV R5.HERE2 RET 53 .#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE DJNZ R2.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#100 DJNZ R5.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.

0 DB "BT OK".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.A ACALL DELAY MOV A./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0DH.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0H 54 .@A+DPTR MOV B.".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0DH.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.B SUBB A.

0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H COLL: DB "S.T.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".T".S.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".I.R.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H END 55 .0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".

it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. 56 . Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. and connection setup issues. They are currently on version 1.11. interference. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. even though it possesses its drawbacks. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. If this can be done. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. CONCLUSION In conclusion. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies.1.

philips.com 57 .projects.org www.com www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.Ayala.12.wikipedia. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi. Websites • • • www.

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