INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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multiplication and division. PC is always incremented by one. 6 . The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. parity computation.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. 1. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value.8. sign acceptor etc.1. as its name suggests. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. testing for 0. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. subtraction. For example. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. and so on.8. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. a total of 64K bytes of code. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. control and access timers. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. 1.

Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. for a total of 32 I/O lines. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. 1. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. 7 . 1.

7. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 1. bit 7 is pin P1. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. LCALL. For example. 1. For example. Bit-Addressable): 8 ." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. The remaining SFRs.7 SCON (Serial Control. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM.12. If you push a value onto the stack. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. TCON controls the timers. such as PUSH. Address 80h. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. 1.12. RET. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. That is to say.7. POP. For example. SCON controls the serial port.0. bit 7 is pin P0. Address 90h. if SP holds the value 07h. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. are "other SFRs. For example. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.6 P1 (Port 1. SP (Stack Pointer. Addresses 98h. with green backgrounds.0. RETI. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0.

TB 8 not widely used. 1 start bit. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. 1 start bit.bit data. mode 1. It must be cleared by software. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. 1 start bit. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. fixed baud rate 9. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. It must be cleared by software. variable baud rate Table 1. 1 stop bit.bit data. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. 1 stop bit. variable baud rate 9.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. RB 8 not widely used.2: Operating modes of SCON 1.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. 1 stop bit. Addresses A8h): 9 . Bit addressable. 8H Fig: 1. whether the serial port is activated to receive data.

Upon receiving an interrupt signal. If EA = 0. 4. 10 . enables or disables the serial port interrupt. If EA = 1. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. Thus. 2. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. Fig: 1. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. whenever any device needs its service. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. reserved for future use. now interrupt is acknowledged. 3. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). In the interrupt method.A single microcontroller can serve several devices.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. Reset. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. 1.13. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit.

7. enables or disables external interrupt 0. 11 . enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. For example. Address B0h. 1. enables or disables external interrupt 1.0. bit 7 is pin P3.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. 1.14 P3 (Port 3.

12 .0 and P1. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.Fig: 1. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. In another words. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Also.1) have special functions associated with Timer.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs.

producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. Beside its role as universal I/O port. In order to use one of these functions.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). avoid using Port 0. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . However.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 .signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . Port 3 is similar to Port 0. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . the pin in question has to be designated as input. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. However. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.From a hardware standpoint. they all share highly similar structure. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. Pin 10:RXD .serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.signal for reading from external RAM memory. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. 13 . The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. Pin 11: TXD . If using other port to a same end. i. this pin is usually connected to the push-button.e.

pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. If external ROM is used for storing the program. signal on ALE is off. In that case. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. this is the location of the higher address byte. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. If external memory is present. Otherwise. addresses A8 – A15. memory is smaller than 64kB). Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. similar to Port 0. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins.e. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. In this way. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. When external memory is used. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. Of the external memory. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. it can be used as universal I/O port. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15).28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. Instead of a quartz crystal. i.e. 14 .

15 . but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. Therefore. Unlike other ports. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Conversely. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. and then the external (if present). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. to get one (5V) on the output. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output.Therefore.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). first the internal. pin acts as "open drain". Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance.When designated as output. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. to get positive logic (5V) at output.

port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Having the “pull up” resistor. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. the pin in question has to be designed as input. similar to port0. if external memory is used. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port.1. In order to use one of these functions. 16 . This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each.

Serial data communication uses two methods. This can work only if the cable is not too long. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. In some cases. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. such as printers. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end.2. which is 2. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. For this reason. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. For these reasons. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. Used.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. 17 . Furthermore. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). but the programs can be tedious and long. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. a synchronous and asynchronous. for example. The8051 chips has built-in UART. and 8-bit data path is expensive. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer.

This is the called framing. If each signal change represents more than one bit.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. and when the data begins and ends. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. is even. 18 . The parity bit is odd or even. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. how many bits constitute the character. 2. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. a protocol. on how the data is packed.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. 2. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. In data framing for asynchronous communications. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. 2. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). such as ASCII characters. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. the baud rates as bps are the same.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. In the asynchronous method. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. the data. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1.

DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. and terminal. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. an interfacing standard called RS232. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . 2.2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. Examples are: computer. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. printer.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.

voltage converters such as Max 232are used. 20 . so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. from DTE CTS---.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.Data Terminal Ready. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem.Data Set Ready.Carrier Detect. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled.3. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. 2. Asynchronous communication.8. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. RXD---. DSR--.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. In RS 232.Clear to send.Request to Send. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. MAX 232. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.

depending on which assembler you are using. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. 3. 4. The "asm ". Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. 21 . A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). Check your assembler for the convention. 1.3. 2. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". the next question is: how it is created. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. For many assemblers. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM.

org 0H mov A. The following is an example of a toggle program. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. Select File. #0ffH route: mov P1.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. Start the µVision Program 2.asm) means assembly language 4. After the program has started: Select File. same R3.prj 22 . New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.3. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. #250 R2. up end 3.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. #200 R2. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. Save program with filename: xxxxx. Select Project.

Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. I/O Ports from the program menu. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. 6. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. 7. Select Port 0. Select Run. 3. Click on stop when you are finished. Port 1. Toggle. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. 5. e.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. you can also select this directly. To set a breakpoint. Select your assembly file. 23 . Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. 8. load object file from the program menu. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Hex Click OK 4.dll from the drop down list box. 7. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. Select File.5. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3.g. double click on the line. Select Project. Port 2 and Port 3 6. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. 2.

there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics.4. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. This is in contrast to LED.2 VCC.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. the CPU. 4. 4. to keep the data displaying. 24 . characters and graphics.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. In contrast. must refresh the LED.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.

4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it.4. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. When D7 =1. Is RS= 0. the LCD is ready to receive new information. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. R/W=0 when writing. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. a-z. 4.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. D0-D7. etc. 4. WhenD7=0. the instruction command code register is selected. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. Fig: 4.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . 4. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. When data is supplied to data pins. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.To display letters and numbers. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. Cursor at home. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. R/W=1 when reading. if RS=1 the data register is selected.

cursor off Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor on Display on.

Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets.  IBM Corp. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999.5. Scientific and Medical applications.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. headsets and portable computers.4 GHz globally available license free band. No longer do people need to connect. polluters of this shared spectrum. plug into.  Toshiba Corp. The Bluetooth specification is an open. install. enable or configure anything to anything else. Version 1. 27 . Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost.

20m and 100m. When Slaves connect to a Master. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. 28 . The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. which Slave has to follow. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. and a Bluetooth clock. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. establishes the link with slave. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. when devices are allowed to transmit.

Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. 5. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. A slave can be in two modes. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    .1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices.5.  29 . which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices.4GHz. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address.

Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking.5. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. In addition to the basic AT commands.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. 30 . The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. which is a technique.

1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device. 31 . Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.3.3.3.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.5. 5. 5.

3.3. Fig: 5. Fig: 5. If necessary.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.Fig: 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.

When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended.6. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. When hardware flow control is not being used. When using hardware flow control. Fig: 6. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. the possibility of data loss becomes greater.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. it can cause a transmission delay. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. As the transmission data becomes large. 33 . the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. For large data transmissions. Parani-ESD works as follows.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. This can mean a loss of data may occur.

2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.

Status. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Mode. AT+BTINFO?. Operation status. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. and Hardware Flow Control. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . If not.Operation mode. DeviceName. Device name. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.Encryp.7.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. Check the connection status with host equipment. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. Auth. Authentication. Data Encryption. OK.

OK / DISCONNECT.0. When connection is made and released. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. If it fails to make a connection. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. OK/ ERROR. Release the current connection 36 .3. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN.

The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. 37 . This approach directly influences the development productivity. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.8. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. This is given in the line diagram. 8. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller.

The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. 8. 8. 8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. liker and loader are the part of assembler software.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. 38 . In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. 8. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. Assembler is the combination of debugger. All debugger.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. linker and loader. 8.

2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . Fig: 9. If a current is passed through the coil. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. as shown in figure 2b.9.C. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. RELAYS 9. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.) switch contact and the common switch contact.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.O.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. Fig: 9.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.

it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.9. Fig: 9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.

#0C3H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.10.#80H .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.2 SW3 EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#99H .4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 . CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.#84H .

#42H MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#'K'.#94H .TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#'O'.#50H MOV TH1.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#0D4H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#40H MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#42H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#42H MOV A.MOV A.

D1_ON JNB SW2.D2_ON JNB SW4.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'1' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'3' MOV SBUF.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.

#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.#'4' MOV SBUF.TX RX: MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.SBUF MOV @R0.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .

#4 HERE2: MOV R2.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .B SUBB A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.@A+DPTR MOV B.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.HERE DJNZ R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.

0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 DB "BT OK".EXIT: MOV A.0DH.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".R.S.0DH.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H COLL: DB "S.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".I.T.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H END 47 .0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0DH.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".T".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.

TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .3 SW4 EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#99H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 SW2 EQU P1.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.4 LED1 EQU P2.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#80H .#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .#84H .PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.

#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#94H .#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#20H MOV SCON.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV TMOD.#0D4H .@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#'K'.#42H MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#'O'.@R0 CJNE A.

#42H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#12 MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#40H MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#42H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H 50 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.

NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'4'.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#'2'.#'1'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'3'.

#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.SBUF MOV @R0.TX MOV A.RX JBC TI.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.

AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.HERE1 DJNZ R1.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.HERE DJNZ R2.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#100 DJNZ R5.HERE2 RET 53 .#50 MOV R5.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.

0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".@A+DPTR MOV B.0DH.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.B SUBB A.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0DH./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".".0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0DH.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H 54 .0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0 DB "BT OK".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.

T".T.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".R.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H END 55 .0H COLL: DB "S.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".S.I.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".

it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. CONCLUSION In conclusion. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. interference. even though it possesses its drawbacks. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. and connection setup issues. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. They are currently on version 1. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. If this can be done. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies.11. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. 56 .1.

com 57 .Ayala. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.projects.wikipedia. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.org www. Websites • • • www. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.12.philips.com www.

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