INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

1

1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

2

1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

3

1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

4

1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

5

parity computation. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. and so on. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. control and access timers. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases.1. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. 1. testing for 0. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. subtraction. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. as its name suggests. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate.8. 6 . sign acceptor etc. a total of 64K bytes of code.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. multiplication and division. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate.8. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. PC is always incremented by one. 1. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. For example.

The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. 7 . Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. for a total of 32 I/O lines.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses. 1. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. 1. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid.

Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. TCON controls the timers. The remaining SFRs. For example. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. RET.0.0. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1.12. That is to say.6 P1 (Port 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. For example. 1. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM.7 SCON (Serial Control. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. RETI.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. bit 7 is pin P0. SP (Stack Pointer.7. bit 7 is pin P1. Addresses 98h. For example. 1. such as PUSH. Bit-Addressable): 8 . bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. POP. Address 90h." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. LCALL. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. 1. Address 80h. with green backgrounds.12.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. if SP holds the value 07h. are "other SFRs. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. For example. If you push a value onto the stack.7. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. SCON controls the serial port.

bit data. 1 stop bit. 1 start bit. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. 1 stop bit.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. It must be cleared by software.bit data. 8H Fig: 1. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. TB 8 not widely used. Addresses A8h): 9 . variable baud rate Table 1. 1 stop bit. 1 start bit. It must be cleared by software. 1 start bit. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. fixed baud rate 9.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. RB 8 not widely used. Bit addressable.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. variable baud rate 9. mode 1.

Fig: 1. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. 3. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. reserved for future use. Reset. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. whenever any device needs its service.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). In the interrupt method. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. now interrupt is acknowledged.13. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. 4. 10 . The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. 2. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). Upon receiving an interrupt signal. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. If EA = 0. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. 1.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. Thus. If EA = 1.

Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. 1. 1. For example. 11 .ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.14 P3 (Port 3. enables or disables external interrupt 1.7. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. bit 7 is pin P3. enables or disables external interrupt 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.0. Address B0h.

In another words. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU. 12 .0 and P1. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.1) have special functions associated with Timer.Fig: 1. pins 1 and 2 (P1.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. Also.

However.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. avoid using Port 0. 13 .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . the pin in question has to be designated as input. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). they all share highly similar structure. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. Beside its role as universal I/O port. this pin is usually connected to the push-button.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 .From a hardware standpoint. Pin 11: TXD . In order to use one of these functions. i. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. If using other port to a same end.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.e. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. However. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. Pin 10:RXD .signal for reading from external RAM memory.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller.

addresses A8 – A15. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. Instead of a quartz crystal. 14 . Of the external memory. similar to Port 0. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. memory is smaller than 64kB). PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF.e. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. signal on ALE is off. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. If external ROM is used for storing the program. In that case. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. i. If external memory is present. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. In this way.e. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. Otherwise. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. When external memory is used. it can be used as universal I/O port. this is the location of the higher address byte. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit.

Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. 15 .When designated as output. first the internal. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. to get one (5V) on the output. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end).Therefore. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. and then the external (if present). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Therefore. Conversely. pin acts as "open drain". This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. to get positive logic (5V) at output. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. Unlike other ports.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory.

Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port.1. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. similar to port0. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. In order to use one of these functions. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. if external memory is used. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. the pin in question has to be designed as input. Having the “pull up” resistor. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. 16 . otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output.

and 8-bit data path is expensive. 17 . Furthermore. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. For this reason.2. a synchronous and asynchronous. but the programs can be tedious and long. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). Serial data communication uses two methods. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. In some cases. which is 2. for example. The8051 chips has built-in UART. For these reasons. Used. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. This can work only if the cable is not too long. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. such as printers. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart.

The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. In data framing for asynchronous communications. the baud rates as bps are the same. The parity bit is odd or even. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. This is the called framing.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. the data. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. a protocol. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. is even.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. 2. 18 . the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. such as ASCII characters. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. If each signal change represents more than one bit. how many bits constitute the character. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. and when the data begins and ends. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. on how the data is packed. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. In the asynchronous method.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. 2. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. 2.

1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . and terminal. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. Examples are: computer.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. an interfacing standard called RS232.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.2. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. 2. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. printer.

Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.8. Asynchronous communication.Clear to send. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. MAX 232. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark.Request to Send.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. 20 . DSR--. In RS 232. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers.Data Terminal Ready.Data Set Ready.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. 2. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.Carrier Detect. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. RXD---.3. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. from DTE CTS---.

8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. 2. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. 3. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. 4. For many assemblers. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. 21 . First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". depending on which assembler you are using. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". The "asm ". the next question is: how it is created.3. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. 1. Check your assembler for the convention. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step.

Select Project. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. up end 3. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. #250 R2. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.3. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. Select File.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. The following is an example of a toggle program.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. Start the µVision Program 2. org 0H mov A. Save program with filename: xxxxx.prj 22 . same R3. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx.asm) means assembly language 4. #0ffH route: mov P1. #200 R2. After the program has started: Select File.

Port 2 and Port 3 6. Click on stop when you are finished. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. 2. 6. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. e.5. Hex Click OK 4. double click on the line. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. you can also select this directly.g. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file.dll from the drop down list box. Select Project. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. 5. Port 1. 3. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. 23 . Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. Select Port 0. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. To set a breakpoint. Select Run. 7. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. I/O Ports from the program menu. 8. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. load object file from the program menu. 7. Select File. Toggle.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Select your assembly file. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals.

2 VCC.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers. characters and graphics. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. 4. to keep the data displaying. 4. must refresh the LED. This is in contrast to LED.4. In contrast. 24 . there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. the CPU.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD.

a-z. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. Fig: 4.4. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. etc. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. WhenD7=0.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. 4. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. 4. When D7 =1.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. the LCD is ready to receive new information. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. R/W=0 when writing. When data is supplied to data pins. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. the instruction command code register is selected. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. Is RS= 0. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. R/W=1 when reading.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . Cursor at home.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. if RS=1 the data register is selected. D0-D7. 4. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows.To display letters and numbers.

1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 .CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor on Display on. cursor blinking Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor off Display on.

 Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. headsets and portable computers. Scientific and Medical applications.4 GHz globally available license free band.  IBM Corp. The Bluetooth specification is an open.5.  Toshiba Corp. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. enable or configure anything to anything else. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. install. No longer do people need to connect. plug into. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp. polluters of this shared spectrum. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. 27 . Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. Version 1.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999.

They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. 28 . they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. When Slaves connect to a Master. which Slave has to follow. establishes the link with slave. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). when devices are allowed to transmit. and a Bluetooth clock. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. 20m and 100m. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth.

 29 . Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . A slave can be in two modes. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.5.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. 5.4GHz.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.

Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. 30 . Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). which is a technique. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications.5. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands.

3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.3. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. 5. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.3. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 5.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5. 31 .3.

4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.3. If necessary. Fig: 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.Fig: 5.3.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. Fig: 5.

This can mean a loss of data may occur. When hardware flow control is not being used. it can cause a transmission delay. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended.6. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. For large data transmissions. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. As the transmission data becomes large. When using hardware flow control. 33 . RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. Parani-ESD works as follows. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. Fig: 6.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full.

2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .6.2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.

Device name. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. AT+BTINFO?. and Hardware Flow Control. Auth. Mode. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . Data Encryption. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Operation status. DeviceName.Encryp.Operation mode. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Authentication. Check the connection status with host equipment.Status. OK.7. If not. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address.

the operation status is back to ‘Pending’.0. OK / DISCONNECT. If it fails to make a connection. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. Release the current connection 36 .AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. When connection is made and released. OK/ ERROR. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’.3. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device.

37 .8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. 8. This is given in the line diagram. This approach directly influences the development productivity. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come.

All debugger.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. 8. 8. Assembler is the combination of debugger. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. 8. 8.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. linker and loader. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. 8. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. 38 .2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.

C.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off. as shown in figure 2b.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 .O. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.9. Fig: 9. Fig: 9. If a current is passed through the coil. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.) switch contact and the common switch contact.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. RELAYS 9.

it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.9. Fig: 9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .

1 SW2 EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#99H .2 SW3 EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H .6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#84H .4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .5 LCD_RW EQU P1.10.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.

#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#20H MOV SCON.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'K'.#0D4H .@R0 CJNE A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'O'.#42H MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#50H MOV TH1.@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#94H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.

#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#42H MOV A.#40H MOV A.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#12 MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.

A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'3' MOV SBUF.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV DPTR.

#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TX RX: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.D2_OFF: MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.SBUF MOV @R0.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .

A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.@A+DPTR MOV B.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .HERE DJNZ R2.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.B SUBB A.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.

0 DB "BT OK".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0DH.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.T".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".S.T.0H END 47 .EXIT: MOV A.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0DH.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H COLL: DB "S.0DH.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".I.R.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".

6 LCD_EN EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H .2 SW3 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .0 LED2 EQU P2.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.4 LED1 EQU P2.#99H .#84H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.

#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#94H .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#40H MOV TMOD.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'K'.@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#0C0H .#'O'.#-3 MOV IE.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.@R0 CJNE A.

#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#42H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H 50 .#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.

NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'1'.#'4'.#'3'.#'2'.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.

#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.TX MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.

#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#50 MOV R5.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE2 RET 53 .AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#100 DJNZ R5.HERE DJNZ R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.

0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".@A+DPTR MOV B.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H 54 .#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.".0 DB "BT OK".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".B SUBB A.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0DH./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0DH.

0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".T".WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".S.I.T.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".R.0H COLL: DB "S.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H END 55 .

interference. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. CONCLUSION In conclusion. and connection setup issues. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market.1. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. even though it possesses its drawbacks. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. If this can be done. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. 56 .11. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. They are currently on version 1.

12.org www.projects. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.wikipedia.Ayala. Websites • • • www.philips.com www. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.com 57 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful