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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
8. as its name suggests. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. 6 . PC is always incremented by one. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM.8. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. 1. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. multiplication and division. 1. and so on. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. control and access timers. For example.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. a total of 64K bytes of code.1. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. testing for 0. sign acceptor etc. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. parity computation. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. subtraction.
the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. 1. for a total of 32 I/O lines. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. 7 .The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. 1.
and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. Address 80h. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register.6 P1 (Port 1.7. bit 7 is pin P1. If you push a value onto the stack. such as PUSH.7 SCON (Serial Control. 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. For example.7. Addresses 98h. TCON controls the timers. For example.12. are "other SFRs. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. SP (Stack Pointer. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.0. LCALL. if SP holds the value 07h. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. 1.0. with green backgrounds.12. For example." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. RET. POP. 1. RETI. SCON controls the serial port. bit 7 is pin P0. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. Address 90h. Bit-Addressable): 8 . The remaining SFRs.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. That is to say. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. For example.
1 start bit. variable baud rate 9.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. It must be cleared by software. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. mode 1. 1 start bit. RB 8 not widely used.bit data. 8H Fig: 1. Bit addressable. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 stop bit. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. 1 start bit. fixed baud rate 9. TI RI transmits interrupt flag.bit data. It must be cleared by software.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. TB 8 not widely used. variable baud rate Table 1.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. 1 stop bit. 1 stop bit.
10 .13. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. If EA = 1. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. If EA = 0. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. 2. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. ---ET2 ES Not implemented.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. Fig: 1. whenever any device needs its service. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. 1. 4. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. Thus. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. 3. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). reserved for future use. Reset. In the interrupt method.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. now interrupt is acknowledged. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts.
enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. 1. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. 11 . bit 7 is pin P3.0. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. enables or disables external interrupt 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. enables or disables external interrupt 0.14 P3 (Port 3. For example.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. Address B0h. 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.7.
8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. In another words. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.Fig: 1. pins 1 and 2 (P1. 12 . Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. Also.1) have special functions associated with Timer. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.0 and P1.
they all share highly similar structure. However. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.From a hardware standpoint.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 .Depending on the device's purpose and environs. this pin is usually connected to the push-button. 13 . Beside its role as universal I/O port.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. Pin 10:RXD . For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). Port 3 is similar to Port 0.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD .input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . i. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). avoid using Port 0. the pin in question has to be designated as input. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.signal for reading from external RAM memory. In order to use one of these functions. Pin 11: TXD .serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 .serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.e. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. However. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. If using other port to a same end.
this is the location of the higher address byte. addresses A8 – A15. In this way. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. Otherwise. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. Of the external memory. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). When external memory is used. If external memory is present. memory is smaller than 64kB). New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. similar to Port 0. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. In that case. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. signal on ALE is off. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory.e. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). i. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. 14 . Instead of a quartz crystal. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. If external ROM is used for storing the program.e. it can be used as universal I/O port.
bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. Conversely. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). to get one (5V) on the output.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. and then the external (if present). pin acts as "open drain". Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. first the internal.When designated as output. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. 15 . to get positive logic (5V) at output. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. Unlike other ports. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7).Therefore. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). Therefore. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output.
Having the “pull up” resistor. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. similar to port0. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7).1. 16 . This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. the pin in question has to be designed as input. if external memory is used. In order to use one of these functions.
there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. and 8-bit data path is expensive. For this reason. Furthermore. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. Serial data communication uses two methods. Used. For these reasons.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. which is 2. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. but the programs can be tedious and long. In some cases. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. 17 . since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. for example. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. a synchronous and asynchronous. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter).2. This can work only if the cable is not too long. such as printers. The8051 chips has built-in UART.
In data framing for asynchronous communications. 18 . If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. the baud rates as bps are the same. and when the data begins and ends. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. on how the data is packed. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. the data. The parity bit is odd or even. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. 2. In the asynchronous method. is even. 2. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. This is the called framing. how many bits constitute the character. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. such as ASCII characters. a protocol. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. If each signal change represents more than one bit.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. 2.
2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. Examples are: computer. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). an interfacing standard called RS232. and terminal. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960.2. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . printer.
from DTE CTS---. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. Asynchronous communication.3. RXD---.Data Terminal Ready. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.Clear to send. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. voltage converters such as Max 232are used.Data Set Ready.Request to Send. In RS 232. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. 20 . indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.8. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. 2. MAX 232.Carrier Detect. DSR--. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.
8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. the next question is: how it is created. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. For many assemblers. 2. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). The "asm ".3. 21 . the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. depending on which assembler you are using. 3. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". Check your assembler for the convention. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. 4. 1. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step.
prj 22 . #250 R2. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.asm) means assembly language 4. Start the µVision Program 2. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. #0ffH route: mov P1. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. same R3. Save program with filename: xxxxx. org 0H mov A. up end 3. Select File. The following is an example of a toggle program. After the program has started: Select File. #200 R2.3. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. Select Project.
8. Toggle.g.5. Select Run. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Hex Click OK 4. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. Port 2 and Port 3 6. Select Port 0. double click on the line. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. 23 . Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. 7. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. 5. Port 1. 2. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. 3. Select your assembly file. I/O Ports from the program menu. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. load object file from the program menu.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Select Project.dll from the drop down list box. you can also select this directly. To set a breakpoint. 6. e. 7. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. Select File. Click on stop when you are finished.
VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. This is in contrast to LED. must refresh the LED. 4. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD.4. the CPU. 24 . which are limited to numbers and a few characters. characters and graphics.2 VCC. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. to keep the data displaying. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. 4. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. In contrast.
4. 4. WhenD7=0.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. Fig: 4.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. the LCD is ready to receive new information. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. 4. 4.To display letters and numbers. R/W=0 when writing. When data is supplied to data pins. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. When D7 =1. the instruction command code register is selected. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. R/W=1 when reading. etc.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. Is RS= 0. D0-D7.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. a-z. Cursor at home. if RS=1 the data register is selected. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.
cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor on Display on. cursor blinking Display on. cursor off Display on.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 .CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.
This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. Toshiba Corp. Version 1. enable or configure anything to anything else.4 GHz globally available license free band. Scientific and Medical applications. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp. polluters of this shared spectrum. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets.5. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. 27 . BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. IBM Corp. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. headsets and portable computers. install. No longer do people need to connect. The Bluetooth specification is an open. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. plug into.
Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. 28 . Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. 20m and 100m. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. when devices are allowed to transmit.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. and a Bluetooth clock. establishes the link with slave. which Slave has to follow. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. When Slaves connect to a Master.
But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point . The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.4GHz. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. 5. A slave can be in two modes. 29 .5. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device.
Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. which is a technique. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum).3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. 30 . Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. In addition to the basic AT commands.5.
3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.3. 5.5.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board. 31 .3. 5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board.3.
Fig: 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.3.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.Fig: 5. Fig: 5. If necessary.
When using hardware flow control. Parani-ESD works as follows. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. This can mean a loss of data may occur. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. Fig: 6.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. As the transmission data becomes large. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. When hardware flow control is not being used.6. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. For large data transmissions. 33 .1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. it can cause a transmission delay.
6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.
If not.Status. Data Encryption.Operation mode. AT+BTINFO?. OK. Device name.Encryp. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Authentication. DeviceName. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. Check the connection status with host equipment. Auth.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. Operation status.7. Mode. and Hardware Flow Control.
The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. When connection is made and released. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. OK/ ERROR. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected.0. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. Release the current connection 36 . To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device.3. OK / DISCONNECT. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. If it fails to make a connection.
37 . 8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. This approach directly influences the development productivity. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. This is given in the line diagram. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools.8.
5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. 8. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. liker and loader are the part of assembler software.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. 8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. 8. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. All debugger. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. 38 . Assembler is the combination of debugger. 8. linker and loader. 8.
O. Fig: 9. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.C.) switch contact and the common switch contact. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N. If a current is passed through the coil. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. Fig: 9.9. as shown in figure 2b.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. RELAYS 9.
Fig: 9. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.9.
#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.10.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#99H .#80H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#84H . CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#0C3H .3 SW4 EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.1 SW2 EQU P1.
@R0 CJNE A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#94H .#'K'.#40H MOV TMOD.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'O'.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.@R0 CJNE A.#20H MOV SCON.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#50H MOV TH1.#0C0H .#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0D4H .
#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#12 MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#42H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.
#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.#'2' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'3' MOV SBUF.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .D1_OFF JNB SW3.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.D1_ON JNB SW2.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.
A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.TX RX: MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#'4' MOV SBUF.RX JBC TI.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.
A ACALL DELAY MOV A.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.@A+DPTR MOV B.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.B SUBB A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE DJNZ R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .#4 HERE2: MOV R2.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.
0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".EXIT: MOV A.T".0DH.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".S.0 DB "BT OK".T.R.0DH.0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0DH.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H END 47 .0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".I.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H COLL: DB "S.
6 LCD_EN EQU P1.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#84H .4 LED1 EQU P2.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.0 LED2 EQU P2.#80H .5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .1 SW2 EQU P1.#99H .#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.2 SW3 EQU P1.
TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.#40H MOV TMOD.#'O'.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.@R0 CJNE A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#-3 MOV IE.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV DPTR.#94H .#0C0H .#0D4H .BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#'K'.
BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#40H MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#42H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#'3'.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'2'.#'1'.#'4'.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
SBUF MOV @R0.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .TX MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.
#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#50 MOV R5.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.HERE DJNZ R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#100 DJNZ R5.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE2 RET 53 .LCD_INIT: MOV A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.
@A+DPTR MOV B.0 DB "BT OK".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H 54 .0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.B SUBB A.0DH.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0DH.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF"./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.
0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".T".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".I.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H COLL: DB "S.0H END 55 .T.S.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".R.
They are currently on version 1. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. and connection setup issues. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. even though it possesses its drawbacks. If this can be done. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world.1.11. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. 56 . significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. interference. CONCLUSION In conclusion. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market.
BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.projects.org www.12. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.Ayala.philips. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.wikipedia.com 57 . Websites • • • www.com www.
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