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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
parity computation. sign acceptor etc. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. multiplication and division. a total of 64K bytes of code. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. subtraction.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. as its name suggests. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. 1. 6 . The SFR is part of Internal Memory. 1. testing for 0. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases.1. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. For example.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. control and access timers. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register.8. and so on. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction.8. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. PC is always incremented by one. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value.
The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. for a total of 32 I/O lines. 1. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses. 1. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. 7 .10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports.
For example.7 SCON (Serial Control.7.0.6 P1 (Port 1. POP. RETI. For example. Bit-Addressable): 8 . This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. For example. such as PUSH.0." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. Address 80h.12. RET. bit 7 is pin P1. bit 7 is pin P0. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. Addresses 98h. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. Address 90h.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. LCALL. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. SP (Stack Pointer. TCON controls the timers.12. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. The remaining SFRs.7. with green backgrounds. SCON controls the serial port. If you push a value onto the stack. That is to say. 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. For example. if SP holds the value 07h. 1. are "other SFRs. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller.
It must be cleared by software.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. variable baud rate 9.bit data. TI RI transmits interrupt flag.bit data. It must be cleared by software. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 start bit. 1 start bit. 8H Fig: 1. variable baud rate Table 1. RB 8 not widely used. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. 1 stop bit. 1 stop bit. 1 start bit. fixed baud rate 9. 1 stop bit. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. TB 8 not widely used. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. mode 1.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Bit addressable.13 IE (Interrupt Enable.
each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. Thus. Fig: 1. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. 2. If EA = 1. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. 1. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. 3. reserved for future use. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. enables or disables the serial port interrupt.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. 10 . In the interrupt method. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer).13.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. 4. whenever any device needs its service. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. Reset. If EA = 0. now interrupt is acknowledged. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR).
0. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. enables or disables external interrupt 1. bit 7 is pin P3. Address B0h. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. enables or disables external interrupt 0. 11 . Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. For example.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. 1.7. 1.14 P3 (Port 3.
1) have special functions associated with Timer. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.Fig: 1.0 and P1. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. 12 . In another words. Also. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs.
signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. Beside its role as universal I/O port. 13 . you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). However.From a hardware standpoint.e.signal for reading from external RAM memory.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). this pin is usually connected to the push-button. they all share highly similar structure.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. If using other port to a same end. Pin 11: TXD . Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. However. In order to use one of these functions. Pin 10:RXD .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. i. avoid using Port 0. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . the pin in question has to be designated as input.
If external ROM is used for storing the program.e. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF.e. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. Otherwise. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. similar to Port 0. addresses A8 – A15. In this way. i. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). and port P0 is used as Data Bus. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. Instead of a quartz crystal. memory is smaller than 64kB). signal on ALE is off. this is the location of the higher address byte. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. When external memory is used. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). If external memory is present. it can be used as universal I/O port. In that case. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. 14 . and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. Of the external memory.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin.
pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. and then the external (if present). to get positive logic (5V) at output. first the internal. Therefore. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output.When designated as output. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). to get one (5V) on the output. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. 15 . Conversely. pin acts as "open drain". Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V.Therefore. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Unlike other ports. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V).Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory.
Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. if external memory is used. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. the pin in question has to be designed as input. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. 16 . Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. similar to port0. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role.1. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. In order to use one of these functions. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Having the “pull up” resistor.
These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). Used. 17 . This can work only if the cable is not too long. for example. Furthermore.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. For this reason. For these reasons. and 8-bit data path is expensive. In some cases. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. which is 2. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. but the programs can be tedious and long. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. Serial data communication uses two methods. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. The8051 chips has built-in UART. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. such as printers. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. a synchronous and asynchronous.2.
2. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. the baud rates as bps are the same. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. 2. is even. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. how many bits constitute the character. 18 . In the asynchronous method.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. In data framing for asynchronous communications. such as ASCII characters. This is the called framing. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). 2. the data. and when the data begins and ends. The parity bit is odd or even. a protocol. on how the data is packed. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. If each signal change represents more than one bit. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. each character is placed in between start and stop bits.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions.
which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. 2. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. Examples are: computer. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE).2. and terminal. an interfacing standard called RS232. printer.
Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. 2.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. MAX 232.8. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.Data Terminal Ready.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. 20 . In RS 232.Carrier Detect. from DTE CTS---. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. Asynchronous communication.Clear to send. RXD---. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark.Data Set Ready. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. DSR--.Request to Send.3. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.
Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. depending on which assembler you are using.3. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. 21 . 2. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. The "asm ". This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. 3. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". For many assemblers. the next question is: how it is created. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. 1. Check your assembler for the convention. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. 4.
New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx.asm) means assembly language 4. Select Project. #250 R2. After the program has started: Select File.prj 22 . up end 3. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. Select File. The following is an example of a toggle program.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. #200 R2.3. org 0H mov A. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. Save program with filename: xxxxx. Start the µVision Program 2. #0ffH route: mov P1.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. same R3.
23 . Select Port 0. I/O Ports from the program menu. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. e.dll from the drop down list box. Port 1. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Hex Click OK 4. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. Select File. 3. 7. Toggle. double click on the line. 5. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. 6. Select Run.g. Port 2 and Port 3 6. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. you can also select this directly. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Select Project. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. load object file from the program menu. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. 7. 8. 2. Select your assembly file. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. To set a breakpoint. Click on stop when you are finished. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File.5.
24 . must refresh the LED. This is in contrast to LED. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. 4. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. to keep the data displaying. In contrast. the CPU.2 VCC. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. characters and graphics. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. 4. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.4.
and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. R/W=0 when writing.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. 4. Is RS= 0. R/W=1 when reading. the LCD is ready to receive new information. etc. 4. When data is supplied to data pins. a-z. if RS=1 the data register is selected. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. Fig: 4. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z.4. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. WhenD7=0. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. D0-D7. 4. Cursor at home. When D7 =1.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 .To display letters and numbers. the instruction command code register is selected. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin.
cursor off Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor blinking Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor off Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor on Display on.
No longer do people need to connect. install. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. 27 . Version 1. polluters of this shared spectrum. The Bluetooth specification is an open. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. plug into. IBM Corp. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. Toshiba Corp. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. Scientific and Medical applications.5. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp. enable or configure anything to anything else. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. headsets and portable computers.4 GHz globally available license free band.
Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. which Slave has to follow. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. 20m and 100m. when devices are allowed to transmit. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. When Slaves connect to a Master. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. establishes the link with slave. and a Bluetooth clock. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. 28 . Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. It is the Master which initiates the transaction.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing.
5. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. 5. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point .4GHz. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. 29 . But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. A slave can be in two modes. It uses microwave frequency of about 2.
User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. which is a technique. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum).3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications.5. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. 30 . Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking.
1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 126.96.36.199 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. 31 . 5.3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.5. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.
2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 . If necessary.3. Fig: 5.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.Fig: 5. Fig: 5.3.
In order to prevent this buffer overflow. When hardware flow control is not being used. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. This can mean a loss of data may occur. When using hardware flow control. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. it can cause a transmission delay.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. As the transmission data becomes large. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. For large data transmissions. Parani-ESD works as follows. Fig: 6.6. 33 . the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data.
2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .6.
Encryp.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. Operation status. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . Check the connection status with host equipment. Data Encryption. AT+BTINFO?. OK. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally.Status. DeviceName. Auth. Mode. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. Device name. and Hardware Flow Control.7. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. Authentication. If not.Operation mode.
0. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. OK/ ERROR. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. If it fails to make a connection. Release the current connection 36 . When connection is made and released. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’.3. OK / DISCONNECT.
This approach directly influences the development productivity. 8. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. 37 .1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development.8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. This is given in the line diagram. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.
First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. 38 . linker and loader. 8. 8. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. liker and loader are the part of assembler software.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. 8. All debugger.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. 8. 8.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. Assembler is the combination of debugger.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker.
the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.O. RELAYS 9. Fig: 9.) switch contact and the common switch contact. If a current is passed through the coil.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. Fig: 9.9. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 .C. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. as shown in figure 2b.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.
it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. Fig: 9.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).
6 LCD_EN EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 . TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.10.#99H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 SW2 EQU P1.#0C3H . CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#80H .#84H .7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.
#40H MOV TMOD.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#94H .#42H MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'O'.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#'K'.#20H MOV SCON.#0D4H .TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#50H MOV TH1.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#0C0H .
#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#40H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#42H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#42H MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#12 MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.
#'3' MOV SBUF.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.D2_ON JNB SW4.D1_ON JNB SW2.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_OFF JNB SW3.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'2' MOV SBUF.MOV DPTR.
A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.SBUF MOV @R0.TX RX: MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.
#250 HERE1: MOV R3.B SUBB A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.HERE DJNZ R2.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.@A+DPTR MOV B.HERE1 DJNZ R1.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.
0DH.0DH.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H END 47 .0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".I.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0 DB "BT OK".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.T.T".R.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".EXIT: MOV A.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H COLL: DB "S.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0DH.S.
1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#84H .#80H .1 SW2 EQU P1.#99H .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#0C3H .3 SW4 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.4 LED1 EQU P2.2 SW3 EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.0 LED2 EQU P2.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.
#0D4H .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#'K'.@R0 CJNE A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#50H MOV TH1.#-3 MOV IE.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#'O'.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#94H .MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#20H MOV SCON.
#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#12 MOV R0.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.
ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'3'.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'2'.#'4'.#'1'.
TX MOV A.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.SBUF MOV @R0.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .
#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.LCD_INIT: MOV A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.HERE2 RET 53 .#50 MOV R5.#100 DJNZ R5.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.HERE DJNZ R2.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.
0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0DH.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".".B SUBB A.0DH.0DH.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".@A+DPTR MOV B.0 DB "BT OK"./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0H 54 .
R.T".0H COLL: DB "S.I.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".S.0H END 55 .WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".T.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".
Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. even though it possesses its drawbacks. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. They are currently on version 1. 56 . If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. and connection setup issues. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. CONCLUSION In conclusion. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products.11. interference.1. If this can be done. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies.
Ayala. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.projects. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.org www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. Websites • • • www.com 57 .wikipedia. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.12.com www.philips.
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