INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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testing for 0.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. subtraction. multiplication and division. PC is always incremented by one. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate.1. as its name suggests.8. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. a total of 64K bytes of code.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. For example. parity computation. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. control and access timers. 1. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. 1.8. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. sign acceptor etc. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. 6 . and so on.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. The SFR is part of Internal Memory.

for a total of 32 I/O lines. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. 1. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. 1.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. 7 . Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior.

if SP holds the value 07h.7. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. 1.6 P1 (Port 1.7. For example. LCALL. RETI. 1. If you push a value onto the stack. POP. are "other SFRs. SCON controls the serial port. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. with green backgrounds. such as PUSH. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.7 SCON (Serial Control. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. TCON controls the timers.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. once the serial port has been configured using SCON." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. For example.0. Address 90h. bit 7 is pin P0.0. For example. SP (Stack Pointer.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. RET.12. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. The remaining SFRs. That is to say. bit 7 is pin P1.12. 1. Addresses 98h. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. For example. Bit-Addressable): 8 . Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Address 80h.

6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. Bit addressable. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. It must be cleared by software. variable baud rate Table 1. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. 8H Fig: 1. 1 start bit. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. 1 stop bit. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. It must be cleared by software. TB 8 not widely used.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port.bit data. 1 start bit. fixed baud rate 9.bit data. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. RB 8 not widely used. 1 stop bit. 1 stop bit. variable baud rate 9. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 start bit. mode 1.2: Operating modes of SCON 1.

whenever any device needs its service. 3. reserved for future use.13. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). Upon receiving an interrupt signal. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. 10 .1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. Fig: 1. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. Reset. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. now interrupt is acknowledged. If EA = 0. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. 2. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. In the interrupt method. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. 1. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. Thus. If EA = 1. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. 4.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts.

Address B0h. 1.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051.0.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. enables or disables external interrupt 1. 11 . Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. bit 7 is pin P3. enables or disables external interrupt 0. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.7. 1. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3.14 P3 (Port 3. For example. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3.

Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. pins 1 and 2 (P1. 12 . Also.Fig: 1.0 and P1. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.1) have special functions associated with Timer.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU. In another words.

avoid using Port 0. Pin 11: TXD . Beside its role as universal I/O port.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . Port 3 is similar to Port 0.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. If using other port to a same end. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter).From a hardware standpoint. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function.signal for reading from external RAM memory. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR .serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. 13 . as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller.e. Pin 10:RXD . they all share highly similar structure. However.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. this pin is usually connected to the push-button.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . However. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. In order to use one of these functions. i. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. the pin in question has to be designated as input.

MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. signal on ALE is off. it can be used as universal I/O port. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). Of the external memory. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. 14 . Otherwise. Instead of a quartz crystal. In this way.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. addresses A8 – A15. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. i. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. When external memory is used. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. In that case. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. memory is smaller than 64kB). and port P0 is used as Data Bus. If external ROM is used for storing the program. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs).e. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. similar to Port 0.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. If external memory is present. this is the location of the higher address byte.e.

otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Conversely. Therefore. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. 15 . Unlike other ports. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). pin acts as "open drain". This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed.Therefore. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. to get one (5V) on the output. and then the external (if present). Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V).When designated as output. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. to get positive logic (5V) at output. first the internal. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end).

Having the “pull up” resistor.1. In order to use one of these functions. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). the pin in question has to be designed as input. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. similar to port0. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. if external memory is used. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). 16 . Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each.

such as printers. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. 17 . but the programs can be tedious and long. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals.2. For this reason. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. a synchronous and asynchronous. The8051 chips has built-in UART. In some cases. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. which is 2. For these reasons. This can work only if the cable is not too long. and 8-bit data path is expensive. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. Furthermore. Used. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. Serial data communication uses two methods. for example.

the baud rates as bps are the same. 2. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. 2.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). a protocol. 18 . The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. is even. and when the data begins and ends. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. on how the data is packed. the data. This is the called framing. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. If each signal change represents more than one bit.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. As far as the conductor wire is concerned.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. how many bits constitute the character. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. 2. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. such as ASCII characters. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. In the asynchronous method. In data framing for asynchronous communications. The parity bit is odd or even. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1.

an interfacing standard called RS232. and terminal. Examples are: computer.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . printer. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. 2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.2. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.

while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.Data Set Ready. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. In RS 232. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers.Carrier Detect.3. MAX 232. from DTE CTS---. Asynchronous communication. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. RXD---.8. 2. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. 20 .Clear to send. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.Request to Send. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.Data Terminal Ready. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. DSR--. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled.

The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). 21 . The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". For many assemblers. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. 3. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. 1. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. the next question is: how it is created. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. depending on which assembler you are using. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. The "asm ". the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. Check your assembler for the convention.3. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. 2. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". 4. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program.

After the program has started: Select File. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. #250 R2. same R3. up end 3.asm) means assembly language 4. #200 R2. org 0H mov A.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. Save program with filename: xxxxx. Select Project. Start the µVision Program 2. The following is an example of a toggle program. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type.3.prj 22 . #0ffH route: mov P1. Select File.

dll from the drop down list box. Click on Save in your Project dialog box.g. load object file from the program menu. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. 5. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. I/O Ports from the program menu.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. 6. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. 2. Select File. e. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. 7. Toggle. Hex Click OK 4. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. Port 2 and Port 3 6. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. double click on the line. Port 1. 7. 3. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Select Port 0. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. 23 . Click on stop when you are finished. Select Run. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Select Project. you can also select this directly. To set a breakpoint. Select your assembly file. 8.5.

24 .4. to keep the data displaying.2 VCC. 4. must refresh the LED.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers. which are limited to numbers and a few characters.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. In contrast. characters and graphics. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. the CPU.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. This is in contrast to LED. 4. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast.

2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . Fig: 4.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. 4. the LCD is ready to receive new information. D0-D7. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. R/W=0 when writing. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. 4.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive.To display letters and numbers. 4. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. WhenD7=0. the instruction command code register is selected. Cursor at home. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. When D7 =1. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. etc. R/W=1 when reading. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows.4. a-z. When data is supplied to data pins. if RS=1 the data register is selected. Is RS= 0.

CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor off Display on.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor blinking Display on. cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off.

 Toshiba Corp. headsets and portable computers. plug into.5. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets.4 GHz globally available license free band.  IBM Corp. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. The Bluetooth specification is an open.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. 27 . BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. Scientific and Medical applications. enable or configure anything to anything else. polluters of this shared spectrum. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp. No longer do people need to connect. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. Version 1. install. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users.

all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. when devices are allowed to transmit. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. and a Bluetooth clock. establishes the link with slave. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. 20m and 100m. When Slaves connect to a Master. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. which Slave has to follow. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. 28 . Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. It is the Master which initiates the transaction.

A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.5. A slave can be in two modes. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices.4GHz. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. 5. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation.  29 . Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address.

native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. which is a technique. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications.5. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. 30 . Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications.

5. 5. 31 .2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.3. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.3. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.3.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. 5. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.

3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. Fig: 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 . If necessary.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.Fig: 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board. Fig: 5.3.3.

Fig: 6.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. As the transmission data becomes large. This can mean a loss of data may occur. When hardware flow control is not being used. When using hardware flow control. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. 33 . the possibility of data loss becomes greater. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. it can cause a transmission delay. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. Parani-ESD works as follows.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows.6. For large data transmissions. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently.

2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .

Status. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Auth. If not. Authentication.Operation mode. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 .7. Mode. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. and Hardware Flow Control.Encryp.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. Check the connection status with host equipment. Operation status. Device name. OK. Data Encryption. DeviceName. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. AT+BTINFO?.

Release the current connection 36 . When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. OK/ ERROR. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range.3.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices.0. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. OK / DISCONNECT. When connection is made and released. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. If it fails to make a connection.

Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. 8. 37 . SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. This approach directly influences the development productivity. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development.8.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. This is given in the line diagram.

8. 8. linker and loader.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. Assembler is the combination of debugger.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. 8. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. All debugger. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. 38 . 8. 8.

) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. Fig: 9.O.C. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. Fig: 9.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.9. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. as shown in figure 2b. If a current is passed through the coil. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N. RELAYS 9.) switch contact and the common switch contact.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.

3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 . it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. Fig: 9.

5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.10. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#80H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C3H . CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.3 SW4 EQU P1.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#84H .#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#99H .

MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#0C0H .#20H MOV SCON.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#'K'.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .@R0 CJNE A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#94H .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#'O'.#50H MOV TH1.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#-3 MOV IE.#42H MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.

#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#40H MOV A.MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#42H MOV A.

A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV DPTR.#'3' MOV SBUF.

#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.D2_OFF: MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.TX RX: MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.

HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.B SUBB A.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.HERE DJNZ R2.@A+DPTR MOV B.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .

0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0 DB "BT OK".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0DH.R.0H COLL: DB "S.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0DH.EXIT: MOV A.T.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0DH.0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".S.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H END 47 .T".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.I.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".

1 SW2 EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#0C3H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#84H .#99H .TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .4 LED1 EQU P2.#80H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.

TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.#50H MOV TH1.@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H .#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'O'.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#94H .#'K'.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0D4H .#-3 MOV IE.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#40H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#42H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H 50 .

NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'3'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#'2'.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'1'.#'4'.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.TX MOV A.RX JBC TI.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.

#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE2 RET 53 .AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#50 MOV R5.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.HERE DJNZ R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#100 DJNZ R5.

A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0DH.B SUBB A.0H 54 .".@A+DPTR MOV B.0DH.0DH.0 DB "BT OK".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".

S.T".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".I.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".R.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".T.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H COLL: DB "S.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H END 55 .

significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. 56 . and connection setup issues. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. even though it possesses its drawbacks. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. interference. They are currently on version 1.1. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. If this can be done. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. CONCLUSION In conclusion. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world.11. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better.

Websites • • • www. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.Ayala.com 57 .12. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.projects.philips. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.wikipedia.org www.com www.

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