INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. testing for 0. and so on. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. 1.1.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. For example. sign acceptor etc. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. a total of 64K bytes of code.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. subtraction. and configure the 8051s interrupt system.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. PC is always incremented by one. parity computation. control and access timers. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition.8. as its name suggests. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. multiplication and division. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases.8. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. 6 . 1. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM.

7 . SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. 1. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. 1. for a total of 32 I/O lines. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits.

are "other SFRs. SP (Stack Pointer. Addresses 98h.0. RETI. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. if SP holds the value 07h. If you push a value onto the stack. 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. The remaining SFRs. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM.0. Bit-Addressable): 8 . LCALL.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0.6 P1 (Port 1.12. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. Address 80h. For example. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. Address 90h. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. POP.7 SCON (Serial Control. That is to say. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. bit 7 is pin P0. For example. 1.7. RET. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. such as PUSH.12. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. For example. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. with green backgrounds. bit 7 is pin P1. TCON controls the timers. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1.7. SCON controls the serial port. For example.

mode 1. 1 start bit.bit data. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. TB 8 not widely used.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. It must be cleared by software. TI RI transmits interrupt flag.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. It must be cleared by software. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. 1 start bit. variable baud rate Table 1. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. 8H Fig: 1.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. variable baud rate 9. 1 stop bit. RB 8 not widely used. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. 1 stop bit.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. 1 stop bit.bit data. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 start bit. fixed baud rate 9. Bit addressable.

2. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). 3. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. whenever any device needs its service. now interrupt is acknowledged. Thus. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. reserved for future use. If EA = 0. Reset. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. If EA = 1. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. Fig: 1. 4. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt.13. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. 10 . where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. 1. In the interrupt method.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts.

Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. enables or disables external interrupt 0. enables or disables external interrupt 1. Address B0h. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. bit 7 is pin P3.14 P3 (Port 3.7.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. For example. 11 .15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. 1.0. 1. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3.

Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.Fig: 1.0 and P1. 12 .1) have special functions associated with Timer.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers. In another words. Also.

e. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). this pin is usually connected to the push-button. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. However. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.signal for reading from external RAM memory. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. Port 3 is similar to Port 0.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.From a hardware standpoint. Pin 10:RXD . However.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . avoid using Port 0.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. they all share highly similar structure. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . In order to use one of these functions.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . If using other port to a same end.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . i. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. Beside its role as universal I/O port. 13 . Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. the pin in question has to be designated as input. Pin 11: TXD . producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V).

Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. addresses A8 – A15. In that case. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). i.e. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. signal on ALE is off. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. similar to Port 0. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. memory is smaller than 64kB). 14 . Otherwise. If external memory is present. In this way. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). Of the external memory. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. Instead of a quartz crystal. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. it can be used as universal I/O port. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. When external memory is used. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present.e. this is the location of the higher address byte. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. If external ROM is used for storing the program.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator.

Unlike other ports.When designated as output. and then the external (if present). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used.Therefore. 15 . Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. to get one (5V) on the output. Conversely. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. pin acts as "open drain". it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. Therefore. to get positive logic (5V) at output. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. first the internal.

Having the “pull up” resistor. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. similar to port0. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. the pin in question has to be designed as input. if external memory is used. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. In order to use one of these functions. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. 16 . it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0.1.

such as printers. Serial data communication uses two methods. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. For these reasons. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. which is 2. In some cases. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. This can work only if the cable is not too long. For this reason. for example. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. it provides data in byte-sized chunks.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). 17 . Furthermore. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. Used. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. but the programs can be tedious and long.2. and 8-bit data path is expensive. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. a synchronous and asynchronous. The8051 chips has built-in UART.

how many bits constitute the character. such as ASCII characters. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. the data. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. In the asynchronous method. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). This is the called framing. 2. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. and when the data begins and ends. 2. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. bits per second may be greater than baud rate.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. is even. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. 2.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. 18 . are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. In data framing for asynchronous communications. the baud rates as bps are the same. If each signal change represents more than one bit.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. The parity bit is odd or even. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. a protocol. on how the data is packed.

an interfacing standard called RS232.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.2. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. Examples are: computer. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE).6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. and terminal. printer.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. 2.

a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark.Request to Send.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2.3. DSR--.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. MAX 232. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.Data Terminal Ready.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.8. from DTE CTS---. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. Asynchronous communication. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. In RS 232. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. 20 .Clear to send.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.Data Set Ready. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.Carrier Detect. RXD---. 2.

The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS".3. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. 3. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". The "asm ". the next question is: how it is created. For many assemblers. 4. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. Check your assembler for the convention. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). 21 . 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. 1. 2. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. depending on which assembler you are using. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program.

prj 22 . Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. After the program has started: Select File. org 0H mov A.asm) means assembly language 4. Save program with filename: xxxxx.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. Select File. up end 3. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. Start the µVision Program 2.3. The following is an example of a toggle program. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. #200 R2. #0ffH route: mov P1. same R3. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. #250 R2. Select Project.

Port 2 and Port 3 6. Hex Click OK 4. Select your assembly file. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. 3. Click on stop when you are finished. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. e.g. load object file from the program menu. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box.5. Select Run. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. 8. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. Toggle. you can also select this directly. Select Project. 7. double click on the line. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. 2. 7. I/O Ports from the program menu. To set a breakpoint. 6.dll from the drop down list box. Select Port 0. Port 1. Select File. 5.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. 23 . load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051.

1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. This is in contrast to LED. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. characters and graphics. 4.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. In contrast.2 VCC. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers. must refresh the LED. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. 4. to keep the data displaying. the CPU.4.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. 24 . there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD.

if RS=1 the data register is selected.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. 4. R/W=0 when writing.4. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. a-z. etc. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. D0-D7. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. When data is supplied to data pins. Is RS= 0. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. When D7 =1.To display letters and numbers. Fig: 4. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. R/W=1 when reading. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. Cursor at home. the instruction command code register is selected. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. WhenD7=0. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. 4.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. the LCD is ready to receive new information. 4.

cursor off Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor blinking Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor on Display on.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 .

Version 1. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. enable or configure anything to anything else.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2.4 GHz globally available license free band. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. No longer do people need to connect. headsets and portable computers. install. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. Scientific and Medical applications. plug into. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. The Bluetooth specification is an open. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. 27 . low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp.  IBM Corp.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. polluters of this shared spectrum. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation.  Toshiba Corp.5.

They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. When Slaves connect to a Master. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. when devices are allowed to transmit. establishes the link with slave. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. 28 . It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). and a Bluetooth clock. which Slave has to follow. 20m and 100m. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave.

A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device.  29 . which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.5. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.4GHz.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. A slave can be in two modes. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. 5. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band.

In addition to the basic AT commands. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. 30 . which is a technique. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum).5.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions.

5. 31 .3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.3. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device. 5. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.3.3.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 5.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.

3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5. Fig: 5.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .Fig: 5.3.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package. Fig: 5. If necessary.3.

Parani-ESD works as follows. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. As the transmission data becomes large. This can mean a loss of data may occur. Fig: 6. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. When using hardware flow control. When hardware flow control is not being used. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. it can cause a transmission delay. 33 . For large data transmissions.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended.6.

6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .

7.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear.Operation mode. Authentication. AT+BTINFO?. Check the connection status with host equipment. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Mode.Encryp. If not. DeviceName. Data Encryption. Operation status. Device name. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. OK. Auth.Status. and Hardware Flow Control.

When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. If it fails to make a connection. Release the current connection 36 . When connection is made and released. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to.0. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. OK/ ERROR.3. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. OK / DISCONNECT.

Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. This is given in the line diagram. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development.8. 8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. This approach directly influences the development productivity.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. 37 . Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools.

8. linker and loader. Assembler is the combination of debugger. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. 8.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. 38 . 8. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. All debugger. 8. 8.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.

RELAYS 9.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N. Fig: 9.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.C. Fig: 9. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. If a current is passed through the coil.O.9.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. as shown in figure 2b. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.) switch contact and the common switch contact.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.

9.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 . it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type). Fig: 9.3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.

#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#99H .10.#0C3H .#84H .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.3 SW4 EQU P1.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.

BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#'K'.@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.#0C0H .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.@R0 CJNE A.#0D4H .#50H MOV TH1.#40H MOV TMOD.#'O'.MOV A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#94H .

#42H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#12 MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.

#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'3' MOV SBUF.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.#'2' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.D2_ON JNB SW4.

#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#'4' MOV SBUF.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .TX RX: MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.

B SUBB A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.HERE DJNZ R2.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.@A+DPTR MOV B.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.

T".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H COLL: DB "S.0 DB "BT OK".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".R.T.0H END 47 .B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0DH.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".I.EXIT: MOV A.0DH.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".S.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".

PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#80H .6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#0C3H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.4 LED1 EQU P2.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#84H .2 SW3 EQU P1.#99H .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .1 SW2 EQU P1.

TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#-3 MOV IE.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#'K'.#0C0H .#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#0D4H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'O'.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#20H MOV SCON.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#42H MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.#50H MOV TH1.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#94H .#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#42H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#12 MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.

#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'3'.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#'1'.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'2'.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'4'.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TX MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.

LCD_INIT: MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE1 DJNZ R1.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE2 RET 53 .#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#100 DJNZ R5.#50 MOV R5.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE DJNZ R2.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.

B SUBB A.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".".0H 54 .0 DB "BT OK".A ACALL DELAY MOV A./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0DH.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".@A+DPTR MOV B.0DH.0DH.

0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".I.S.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".T.T".0H COLL: DB "S.R.0H END 55 .0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".

interference. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. and connection setup issues. CONCLUSION In conclusion. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. 56 . They are currently on version 1. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. even though it possesses its drawbacks. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth.11. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies.1. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. If this can be done. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome.

com 57 .com www.projects. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.org www. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J. Websites • • • www. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.Ayala.12.philips.wikipedia.