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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
8. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. multiplication and division.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. a total of 64K bytes of code. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. and so on. 6 . It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register.1. as its name suggests. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. subtraction. sign acceptor etc. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. PC is always incremented by one. testing for 0. 1. For example. 1.8. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. parity computation.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. control and access timers. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases.
1. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. 7 . 1. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. for a total of 32 I/O lines.
a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. 1. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. 1. Addresses 98h. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. Bit-Addressable): 8 . RETI. TCON controls the timers. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. The remaining SFRs. SP (Stack Pointer.7 SCON (Serial Control. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Address 80h. such as PUSH. with green backgrounds.12. SCON controls the serial port. bit 7 is pin P1. 1. That is to say. POP. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. If you push a value onto the stack. if SP holds the value 07h. For example. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. For example. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. bit 7 is pin P0. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. RET. are "other SFRs." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. LCALL.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051.12. For example.7. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1.0.0. For example.6 P1 (Port 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Address 90h.7.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.
SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. 8H Fig: 1.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. 1 start bit.bit data. Bit addressable. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. 1 start bit. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. Addresses A8h): 9 .6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. variable baud rate 9. fixed baud rate 9. It must be cleared by software.bit data. 1 stop bit. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. 1 stop bit. RB 8 not widely used. 1 stop bit.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. TB 8 not widely used. mode 1.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. It must be cleared by software. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. 1 start bit. variable baud rate Table 1.
if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. If EA = 1. Reset. In the interrupt method. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). If EA = 0. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). 10 .1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. reserved for future use. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. 1. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. 4. Upon receiving an interrupt signal.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. Thus. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. 3. Fig: 1. 2. now interrupt is acknowledged.13. whenever any device needs its service. enables or disables the serial port interrupt.
ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.0. 1. 1. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. enables or disables external interrupt 0. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Address B0h. For example. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. enables or disables external interrupt 1.7. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3.14 P3 (Port 3. bit 7 is pin P3. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 11 .15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051.
0 and P1. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. pins 1 and 2 (P1. 12 .8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs.1) have special functions associated with Timer. Also. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.Fig: 1. In another words.
the pin in question has to be designated as input. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 .e. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). i. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . this pin is usually connected to the push-button.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. avoid using Port 0. Pin 11: TXD . However. However. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . Beside its role as universal I/O port.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . Pin 10:RXD . 13 . each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. In order to use one of these functions. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.From a hardware standpoint. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output.signal for reading from external RAM memory. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter).clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. they all share highly similar structure. If using other port to a same end.
similar to Port 0. If external memory is present. it can be used as universal I/O port. In that case. Of the external memory.e. When external memory is used. 14 . Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). signal on ALE is off. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE.e. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. memory is smaller than 64kB). In this way. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. Instead of a quartz crystal. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. this is the location of the higher address byte. addresses A8 – A15. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. If external ROM is used for storing the program. Otherwise. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. i.
Conversely. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). to get positive logic (5V) at output. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V.Therefore. Therefore.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. to get one (5V) on the output. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. first the internal. Unlike other ports. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. pin acts as "open drain". Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end).When designated as output. and then the external (if present). This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. 15 .
if external memory is used. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. Having the “pull up” resistor.1. 16 . In order to use one of these functions. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. similar to port0. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. the pin in question has to be designed as input. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs.
since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. but the programs can be tedious and long. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. For these reasons. Furthermore. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. such as printers. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods.2. for example. Used.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. a synchronous and asynchronous. For this reason. and 8-bit data path is expensive. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). it provides data in byte-sized chunks. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. which is 2. Serial data communication uses two methods. 17 . when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. The8051 chips has built-in UART. In some cases. This can work only if the cable is not too long. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions.
In data framing for asynchronous communications. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. and when the data begins and ends.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. If each signal change represents more than one bit. how many bits constitute the character.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). the baud rates as bps are the same. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. the data. on how the data is packed. a protocol. 2. 2. 18 . This is the called framing. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. In the asynchronous method. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. The parity bit is odd or even. 2. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. such as ASCII characters. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. is even.
2. 2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. and terminal. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. an interfacing standard called RS232.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. Examples are: computer. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. printer.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE).
Clear to send.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. voltage converters such as Max 232are used.8. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.Request to Send. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time.Data Terminal Ready.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. In RS 232.3. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. Asynchronous communication. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. 2. DSR--. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. RXD---.Carrier Detect.Data Set Ready. 20 . Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. from DTE CTS---.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. MAX 232.
extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. depending on which assembler you are using. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. The "asm ". The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. 4. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. the next question is: how it is created. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". 1. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. 3. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. 21 . The assembler converts the instructions into machine code.3. 2. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). Check your assembler for the convention. For many assemblers. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. Assemblers require a third step calling linking.
New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. org 0H mov A.prj 22 . same R3. Select Project. Save program with filename: xxxxx. up end 3. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. #250 R2.asm) means assembly language 4. After the program has started: Select File.3. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. #200 R2. Start the µVision Program 2.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. #0ffH route: mov P1. Select File. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. The following is an example of a toggle program.
Click on Save in your Project dialog box. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. 7. 2. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. you can also select this directly.dll from the drop down list box. load object file from the program menu. e. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051.5. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. To set a breakpoint. so that you can see the how output varies on ports.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. 6. Port 2 and Port 3 6. I/O Ports from the program menu. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. Click on stop when you are finished. 5. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. 3. double click on the line. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. Select Project. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. Select your assembly file. Toggle. Select Run. Select File. 23 . 7. Hex Click OK 4.g. 8. Select Port 0. Port 1.
4.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.2 VCC.4. the CPU. to keep the data displaying. characters and graphics. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. 4. 24 . This is in contrast to LED. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. In contrast. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. must refresh the LED. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast.
Is RS= 0. When D7 =1. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . 4. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. WhenD7=0. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. R/W=0 when writing. the LCD is ready to receive new information. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide.4. R/W=1 when reading. Fig: 4.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. When data is supplied to data pins. etc. if RS=1 the data register is selected. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. D0-D7. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. Cursor at home. the instruction command code register is selected. 4. a-z. 4.To display letters and numbers. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins.
CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor blinking Display on. cursor off Display on.
No longer do people need to connect. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth.4 GHz globally available license free band. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. polluters of this shared spectrum. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp. IBM Corp. enable or configure anything to anything else. Toshiba Corp. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. Scientific and Medical applications. 27 . Version 1. The Bluetooth specification is an open. install. plug into. headsets and portable computers. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999.5.
which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. establishes the link with slave. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). When Slaves connect to a Master. 20m and 100m. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. and a Bluetooth clock. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. when devices are allowed to transmit. 28 . Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. which Slave has to follow. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).
A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. 29 .1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point .5. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. 5. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.4GHz. A slave can be in two modes. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode.
Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions.5.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. 30 . which is a technique. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables.
Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board. 31 . 5. 5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.220.127.116.11 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.
5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device. If necessary. Fig: 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board. Fig: 5.3.Fig: 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.3.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.
This can mean a loss of data may occur. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. When using hardware flow control. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. Parani-ESD works as follows.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. For large data transmissions. it can cause a transmission delay.6. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. Fig: 6. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. As the transmission data becomes large. 33 . When hardware flow control is not being used.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly.
2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.6.
Check the connection status with host equipment. Mode.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. Data Encryption. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. AT+BTINFO?.Operation mode. OK. DeviceName. Authentication.7. Device name. Auth. If not.Encryp.Status. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Operation status. and Hardware Flow Control.
Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. Release the current connection 36 .0. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. OK / DISCONNECT. If it fails to make a connection.3. When connection is made and released. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. OK/ ERROR. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command.
This is given in the line diagram. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. 37 . The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development.8.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. 8. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. This approach directly influences the development productivity.
8. 38 .5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. 8. 8. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. 8.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. 8.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. All debugger. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. linker and loader. Assembler is the combination of debugger. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.
Fig: 9. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.C.) switch contact and the common switch contact.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. Fig: 9.O.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. as shown in figure 2b.9. RELAYS 9. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. If a current is passed through the coil.
3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 . Fig: 9.9.
10.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.#99H .2 SW3 EQU P1.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#80H .#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H .#84H .4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.
#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#50H MOV TH1.#-3 MOV IE.#40H MOV TMOD.#20H MOV SCON.@R0 CJNE A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#0D4H .#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#'O'.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H .#'K'.#94H .#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#42H MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#42H MOV A.#40H MOV A.#40H MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'3' MOV SBUF.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#'2' MOV SBUF.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .D1_ON JNB SW2.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.
#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.RX JBC TI.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .D2_OFF: MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TX RX: MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.
HERE DJNZ R2.@A+DPTR MOV B.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.B SUBB A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.
0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0DH.EXIT: MOV A.I.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".T.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0 DB "BT OK".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".T".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0DH.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".R.0H END 47 .0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0DH.S.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H COLL: DB "S.
#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.2 SW3 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#99H .7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#80H .#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#0C3H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.4 LED1 EQU P2.#84H .1 SW2 EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.3 SW4 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.
BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H .@R0 CJNE A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0D4H .#42H MOV A.MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#'O'.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#94H .#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#'K'.#40H MOV TMOD.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#-3 MOV IE.
@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#12 MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#42H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'2'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'1'.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'4'.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#'3'.
#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TX MOV A.RX JBC TI.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .SBUF MOV @R0.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.
#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE2 RET 53 .#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#100 DJNZ R5.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#50 MOV R5.HERE DJNZ R2.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.
A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0DH.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF"./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0DH.@A+DPTR MOV B.B SUBB A.0DH.0H 54 .0 DB "BT OK".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.
T.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".R.0H END 55 .0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H COLL: DB "S.T".S.I.
even though it possesses its drawbacks. If this can be done.11. 56 . significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. They are currently on version 1. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth.1. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. and connection setup issues. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. CONCLUSION In conclusion. interference. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome.
• 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.projects.12.com 57 .org www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.philips. Websites • • • www. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.Ayala.com www. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.wikipedia.
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