INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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8. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. multiplication and division. as its name suggests. testing for 0. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. sign acceptor etc. parity computation. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. For example. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. PC is always incremented by one. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. a total of 64K bytes of code. control and access timers. 6 .1. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. and so on.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate.8. 1. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. subtraction. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. 1. The SFR is part of Internal Memory.

3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. 7 . SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. for a total of 32 I/O lines.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. 1. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. 1. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name.

RETI. LCALL.0. if SP holds the value 07h. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 1. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. For example.6 P1 (Port 1. with green backgrounds. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. RET. 1. Addresses 98h.0.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. are "other SFRs. For example." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. bit 7 is pin P0.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Address 90h. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Bit-Addressable): 8 . a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. For example.7 SCON (Serial Control. For example. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. If you push a value onto the stack.7. SCON controls the serial port. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. such as PUSH.12. 1. TCON controls the timers. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. POP. The remaining SFRs. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0.12. That is to say. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. Address 80h. bit 7 is pin P1. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. SP (Stack Pointer.

1 start bit. TB 8 not widely used. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. It must be cleared by software. 1 stop bit.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. variable baud rate 9. TI RI transmits interrupt flag.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. 1 start bit. 1 start bit. variable baud rate Table 1. mode 1. RB 8 not widely used. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 stop bit. It must be cleared by software. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. 1 stop bit. fixed baud rate 9.bit data. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. 8H Fig: 1. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data.bit data. Bit addressable.

7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. 3. whenever any device needs its service. 4. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer).13. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. Fig: 1. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. 2. If EA = 1. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. If EA = 0. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. 1.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. Thus. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). now interrupt is acknowledged. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. 10 . In the interrupt method. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. Reset. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. reserved for future use. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts.

Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. Address B0h. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3.7.0. 1. 1. enables or disables external interrupt 1. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.14 P3 (Port 3. enables or disables external interrupt 0. bit 7 is pin P3. 11 . Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. For example.

Fig: 1. In another words.1) have special functions associated with Timer. pins 1 and 2 (P1.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. 12 . Also. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.0 and P1. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.

input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.From a hardware standpoint. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. this pin is usually connected to the push-button. 13 .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.signal for reading from external RAM memory. If using other port to a same end. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. Pin 11: TXD . Pin 10:RXD . Beside its role as universal I/O port.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . However.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). In order to use one of these functions. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. avoid using Port 0. the pin in question has to be designated as input. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function.e. they all share highly similar structure. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. i. However.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.

28: Port 2 if external memory is not present.e. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. 14 . memory is smaller than 64kB). addresses A8 – A15. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. When external memory is used. i. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). it can be used as universal I/O port. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. this is the location of the higher address byte. Otherwise. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). If external ROM is used for storing the program. Of the external memory. In this way. similar to Port 0. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF.e. signal on ALE is off. If external memory is present. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). In that case. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. Instead of a quartz crystal. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+.

Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used.Therefore. Conversely. pin acts as "open drain". otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. to get positive logic (5V) at output. to get one (5V) on the output. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. first the internal. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Therefore. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage.When designated as output. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. 15 . Unlike other ports. and then the external (if present). Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V).

it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. if external memory is used. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. similar to port0. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Having the “pull up” resistor.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. the pin in question has to be designed as input.1. 16 . In order to use one of these functions. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port.

For this reason. a synchronous and asynchronous. Furthermore. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. 17 . For these reasons. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. The8051 chips has built-in UART. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. and 8-bit data path is expensive. for example. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. but the programs can be tedious and long. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. Used. which is 2. In some cases. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. This can work only if the cable is not too long. Serial data communication uses two methods.2. such as printers.

2.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. In the asynchronous method. 2. such as ASCII characters. the data. a protocol. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. each character is placed in between start and stop bits.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. the baud rates as bps are the same. 2. This is the called framing. If each signal change represents more than one bit. 18 .2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. how many bits constitute the character.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. The parity bit is odd or even. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. on how the data is packed. and when the data begins and ends. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. is even. In data framing for asynchronous communications. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. bits per second may be greater than baud rate.

printer. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. 2.2. and terminal.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. Examples are: computer. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. an interfacing standard called RS232.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.

Request to Send.3. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers.Data Terminal Ready. In RS 232. Asynchronous communication. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized.Clear to send.Carrier Detect. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. RXD---. 20 .Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2.Data Set Ready.8. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. DSR--. 2. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. from DTE CTS---. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. MAX 232. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. voltage converters such as Max 232are used.

the next question is: how it is created. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. 3. The "asm ". Check your assembler for the convention. 1. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. 21 . 4.3. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. depending on which assembler you are using. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. 2. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. For many assemblers. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler.

org 0H mov A. Select File. up end 3. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.prj 22 . New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. Select Project. #0ffH route: mov P1. Start the µVision Program 2. #250 R2. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. The following is an example of a toggle program.3. same R3.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. #200 R2. After the program has started: Select File. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1.asm) means assembly language 4. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. Save program with filename: xxxxx.

e. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. I/O Ports from the program menu. 3. load object file from the program menu.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Port 2 and Port 3 6. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Select Run. To set a breakpoint. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. 8. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. Hex Click OK 4. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Click on stop when you are finished. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. 6. Toggle. 7.5. 7. Port 1. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. 23 . double click on the line.g. Select File. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. you can also select this directly.dll from the drop down list box. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. 5. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. Select Project. Select Port 0. 2. Select your assembly file.

VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. 24 .1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers. must refresh the LED.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LED. In contrast. characters and graphics. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. the CPU.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. 4.2 VCC. to keep the data displaying. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.4. 4. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins.

allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.To display letters and numbers. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. When data is supplied to data pins.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . Cursor at home.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. if RS=1 the data register is selected. R/W=0 when writing. the LCD is ready to receive new information. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. WhenD7=0. 4. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. When D7 =1. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. the instruction command code register is selected. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. Fig: 4.4.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. 4. Is RS= 0. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. etc. 4. a-z. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. R/W=1 when reading. D0-D7.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information.

cursor blinking Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor on Display on.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor off Display off. cursor off Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.

27 . The Bluetooth specification is an open. Version 1. install.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999.5. plug into. No longer do people need to connect. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost.  Toshiba Corp. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. polluters of this shared spectrum. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. headsets and portable computers. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. enable or configure anything to anything else.  IBM Corp. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp. Scientific and Medical applications. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.4 GHz globally available license free band.

and a Bluetooth clock. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. establishes the link with slave. which Slave has to follow. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. 28 . when devices are allowed to transmit. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. When Slaves connect to a Master. 20m and 100m. It is the Master which initiates the transaction.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth.

It uses microwave frequency of about 2. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.5. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.  29 .4GHz. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. 5. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. A slave can be in two modes. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . Every Bluetooth device has its unique address.

Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). 30 . User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. which is a technique. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions.5. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption.

2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.5.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.3. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device. 5. 31 . Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series. 5.3.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board.3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.

2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board. If necessary.Fig: 5.3. Fig: 5.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device. Fig: 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.

When hardware flow control is not being used. Fig: 6. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. When using hardware flow control. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. This can mean a loss of data may occur. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly.6. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. 33 .1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. Parani-ESD works as follows. it can cause a transmission delay. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. For large data transmissions. As the transmission data becomes large.

6.2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.

Authentication. Check the connection status with host equipment. OK. Data Encryption.Status.Operation mode. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. DeviceName. Mode. Operation status. AT+BTINFO?. and Hardware Flow Control. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 .7. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. Device name. If not.Encryp.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. Auth.

When connection is made and released. OK / DISCONNECT.0. OK/ ERROR. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. If it fails to make a connection. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected.3. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. Release the current connection 36 . When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’.

This is given in the line diagram. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development.8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. 8. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. 37 . This approach directly influences the development productivity.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.

5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. 38 .4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. 8.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. linker and loader. 8. 8.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. 8. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. All debugger. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. Assembler is the combination of debugger. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. 8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.

) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.) switch contact and the common switch contact. as shown in figure 2b. If a current is passed through the coil.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.9.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . Fig: 9.C. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. Fig: 9.O. RELAYS 9.

3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type). it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. Fig: 9.9.

TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#84H .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#80H .6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.#99H .1 SW2 EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#0C3H .#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .10.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

@R0 CJNE A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.@R0 CJNE A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#50H MOV TH1.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#42H MOV A.#94H .#'O'.#0D4H .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#'K'.#20H MOV SCON.#0C0H .TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .

#42H MOV A.#40H MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#12 MOV R0.

#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.D2_ON JNB SW4.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_OFF JNB SW3.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#'3' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D1_ON JNB SW2.#'1' MOV SBUF.#'2' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#'4' MOV SBUF.TX RX: MOV A.

AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.B SUBB A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.@A+DPTR MOV B.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.HERE DJNZ R2.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.

0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".S.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".I.0DH.0H END 47 .0 DB "BT OK".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0DH.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".T".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".R.EXIT: MOV A.T.0DH.0H COLL: DB "S.

1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#99H .#80H .1 SW2 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.4 LED1 EQU P2.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#84H .0 LED2 EQU P2.#0C3H .

#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#'O'.@R0 CJNE A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#94H .#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'K'.#20H MOV SCON.#50H MOV TH1.#40H MOV TMOD.#-3 MOV IE.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#42H MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#42H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#12 MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H 50 .@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.

#'1'.#'4'.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'3'.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.

#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .TX MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.RX JBC TI.SBUF MOV @R0.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#50 MOV R5.HERE2 RET 53 .HERE DJNZ R2.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#100 DJNZ R5.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.LCD_INIT: MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.

0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.@A+DPTR MOV B.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0DH.0DH.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.B SUBB A.0 DB "BT OK".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H 54 .".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".

0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".R.I.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".T".S.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H END 55 .WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".T.0H COLL: DB "S.

All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. interference.11. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. even though it possesses its drawbacks. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. If this can be done. 56 . and also correct most of the connection setup issues. They are currently on version 1. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. and connection setup issues. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. CONCLUSION In conclusion.1. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products.

• Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman. Websites • • • www. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.12.com www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.org www.philips.wikipedia.com 57 .Ayala.projects.