INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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1. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. 6 .8. control and access timers. as its name suggests.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. 1. multiplication and division. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port.8. PC is always incremented by one. and so on. 1. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. For example. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. parity computation. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. sign acceptor etc. a total of 64K bytes of code. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. testing for 0. subtraction.

for a total of 32 I/O lines. 7 . Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. 1. 1.

such as PUSH. Bit-Addressable): 8 .6 P1 (Port 1. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. bit 7 is pin P0. if SP holds the value 07h. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. TCON controls the timers. POP. For example. RET. with green backgrounds. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. bit 7 is pin P1. are "other SFRs. 1. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.7. 1. SCON controls the serial port.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. Address 80h. SP (Stack Pointer. For example.12. LCALL. RETI. If you push a value onto the stack. The remaining SFRs.7.7 SCON (Serial Control.12. That is to say. For example. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. For example." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. 1. once the serial port has been configured using SCON.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Address 90h. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. Addresses 98h.0.0.

It must be cleared by software. 8H Fig: 1. 1 start bit. variable baud rate Table 1. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. RB 8 not widely used. Addresses A8h): 9 . fixed baud rate 9. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. 1 start bit. variable baud rate 9. 1 stop bit.bit data. TB 8 not widely used. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. 1 start bit.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. mode 1. It must be cleared by software. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Bit addressable. 1 stop bit. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1.2: Operating modes of SCON 1.bit data.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. 1 stop bit.

now interrupt is acknowledged. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. 4. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). enables or disables the serial port interrupt. In the interrupt method. Reset. If EA = 0. If EA = 1. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. 3. reserved for future use. whenever any device needs its service. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. 2. Fig: 1. Thus. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts.13. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR).A single microcontroller can serve several devices. 1. 10 . if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts.

enables or disables external interrupt 1. 11 . All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard.0. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. bit 7 is pin P3. Address B0h. 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. enables or disables external interrupt 0. For example. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.14 P3 (Port 3.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. 1.7.

In another words. Also. pins 1 and 2 (P1.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.Fig: 1. 12 .0 and P1.1) have special functions associated with Timer. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.

It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage.From a hardware standpoint. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. avoid using Port 0. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V. this pin is usually connected to the push-button. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . However.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . 13 . Port 3 is similar to Port 0.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . Beside its role as universal I/O port.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. However. the pin in question has to be designated as input.e. they all share highly similar structure. i.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.signal for reading from external RAM memory. In order to use one of these functions. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. Pin 11: TXD . If using other port to a same end. Pin 10:RXD .signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 .

If external memory is present. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. When external memory is used. addresses A8 – A15. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. i. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. In this way. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. this is the location of the higher address byte. If external ROM is used for storing the program. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. similar to Port 0. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. In that case. memory is smaller than 64kB). it can be used as universal I/O port. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. and port P0 is used as Data Bus.e. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. Otherwise. signal on ALE is off. 14 . Of the external memory. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. Instead of a quartz crystal.e. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15).

Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Conversely.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). 15 . otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). but the one from the external ROM will be used instead.Therefore. Therefore. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). to get positive logic (5V) at output. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. to get one (5V) on the output. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. pin acts as "open drain". external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. first the internal. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. Unlike other ports. and then the external (if present).When designated as output. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output.

Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. similar to port0. In order to use one of these functions. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. if external memory is used.1. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. 16 .13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. Having the “pull up” resistor. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. the pin in question has to be designed as input. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7).

This can work only if the cable is not too long. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). for example. Used. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. Furthermore. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. such as printers. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. 17 . In some cases. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. a synchronous and asynchronous. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. The8051 chips has built-in UART. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. but the programs can be tedious and long. and 8-bit data path is expensive. which is 2. For this reason. Serial data communication uses two methods. For these reasons.2.

The parity bit is odd or even. 2. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. In data framing for asynchronous communications.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. the data.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). If each signal change represents more than one bit. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. on how the data is packed. and when the data begins and ends. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. 2. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. This is the called framing. how many bits constitute the character. the baud rates as bps are the same. 2. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. 18 .3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. such as ASCII characters. In the asynchronous method. a protocol. is even. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds.

which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. and terminal. printer.2.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. Examples are: computer. 2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). an interfacing standard called RS232.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.

20 .Data Terminal Ready.3. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.8.Clear to send. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem.Request to Send. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. 2. MAX 232. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. DSR--. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. Asynchronous communication. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. RXD---.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire.Data Set Ready. In RS 232.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD.Carrier Detect.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. from DTE CTS---.

The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. the next question is: how it is created. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. 2. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". depending on which assembler you are using. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. For many assemblers.3. Check your assembler for the convention. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. The "asm ". 1. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. 4. 21 . Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. 3.

org 0H mov A. After the program has started: Select File. #200 R2. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. Select Project.prj 22 . New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. same R3. #250 R2. Start the µVision Program 2. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. up end 3.asm) means assembly language 4.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. Save program with filename: xxxxx.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1.3. #0ffH route: mov P1. Select File. The following is an example of a toggle program.

I/O Ports from the program menu. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Select Port 0. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. Select File. Hex Click OK 4. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. Toggle. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. load object file from the program menu.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Port 2 and Port 3 6. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. double click on the line. 3. 23 .g. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. 5. Port 1. Select your assembly file. 7. e.5. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. 6. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. 8. you can also select this directly. Select Project. To set a breakpoint. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. 2. Click on stop when you are finished. Click on Save in your Project dialog box.dll from the drop down list box. Select Run. 7.

must refresh the LED.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. the CPU. This is in contrast to LED. to keep the data displaying.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.2 VCC.4. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics. 24 . In contrast. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. characters and graphics. 4. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. 4.

Fig: 4. the LCD is ready to receive new information.4. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. Is RS= 0. D0-D7. Cursor at home. 4.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. R/W=1 when reading.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. R/W=0 when writing. When D7 =1. the instruction command code register is selected. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1.To display letters and numbers. 4. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. 4. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. etc. WhenD7=0.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. a-z.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . When data is supplied to data pins. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. if RS=1 the data register is selected. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.

CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor blinking Display on. cursor off Display on. cursor off Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor on Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4.

plug into. The Bluetooth specification is an open. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. Version 1. enable or configure anything to anything else. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. polluters of this shared spectrum. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth.  IBM Corp. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.  Toshiba Corp. 27 . No longer do people need to connect.4 GHz globally available license free band. headsets and portable computers. Scientific and Medical applications.5. install. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation.

establishes the link with slave. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. 20m and 100m. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. which Slave has to follow. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. and a Bluetooth clock. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. 28 . It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. when devices are allowed to transmit. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. When Slaves connect to a Master. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave.

Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices.4GHz.  29 . 5. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. A slave can be in two modes.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.5. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode.

Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications. which is a technique. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. In addition to the basic AT commands. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. 30 . Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows.5. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions.

3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5. 5. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series. 5.3.5.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. 31 . Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board.3.

3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.3.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 . Fig: 5.Fig: 5.3. Fig: 5.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device. If necessary. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.

When using hardware flow control. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. Parani-ESD works as follows. the possibility of data loss becomes greater.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. 33 .6. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. For large data transmissions. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. Fig: 6. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. When hardware flow control is not being used. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. This can mean a loss of data may occur. it can cause a transmission delay. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. As the transmission data becomes large.

3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.

AT+BTINFO?. and Hardware Flow Control.Status. Mode. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. OK. DeviceName. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Operation status. Device name. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address.7. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally.Encryp. Authentication. Check the connection status with host equipment. Data Encryption. If not. Auth.Operation mode.

OK / DISCONNECT.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to.0. Release the current connection 36 . SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. When connection is made and released. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. If it fails to make a connection. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. OK/ ERROR.3.

8. 37 . This approach directly influences the development productivity. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. This is given in the line diagram. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. 8. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development.

3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. 8. 8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. linker and loader.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. 8.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. Assembler is the combination of debugger.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. All debugger. 8. 38 . In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. 8.

Fig: 9. as shown in figure 2b. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 .C.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N. Fig: 9. If a current is passed through the coil.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9.) switch contact and the common switch contact.O.9. RELAYS 9.

3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).9. Fig: 9. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .

5 LCD_RW EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.10.#80H .2 SW3 EQU P1.#84H . CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#99H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.

#40H MOV TMOD.#20H MOV SCON.#0C0H .TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#'K'.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#94H .TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#-3 MOV IE.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#42H MOV A.#'O'.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.

#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#42H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#12 MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#40H MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.

#'1' MOV SBUF.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.D1_OFF JNB SW3.D2_ON JNB SW4.MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'3' MOV SBUF.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

TX RX: MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.#'4' MOV SBUF.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.

A ACALL DELAY MOV A.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.HERE DJNZ R2.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.@A+DPTR MOV B.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.B SUBB A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.

0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0DH.I.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.R.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".T".T.0DH.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0DH.S.0H END 47 .0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".EXIT: MOV A.0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H COLL: DB "S.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0 DB "BT OK".

2 SW3 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#84H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.0 LED2 EQU P2.4 LED1 EQU P2.#80H .7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.#99H .PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#0C3H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.1 SW2 EQU P1.

#0C0H .#'K'.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#0D4H .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#50H MOV TH1.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.#94H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'O'.@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.

MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#42H MOV A.

#'2'.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'4'.#'1'.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'3'.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.

#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TX MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.RX JBC TI.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .SBUF MOV @R0.

A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.LCD_INIT: MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE DJNZ R2.#100 DJNZ R5.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE2 RET 53 .#50 MOV R5.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.

A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0DH.".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT"./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0 DB "BT OK".0DH.@A+DPTR MOV B.0DH.B SUBB A.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H 54 .0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.

WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".R.S.T.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H END 55 .0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".I.0H COLL: DB "S.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".T".

The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. even though it possesses its drawbacks. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth.1. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. interference. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. and connection setup issues. 56 . Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better.11. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. If this can be done. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. CONCLUSION In conclusion. They are currently on version 1. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth.

Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.com 57 . • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.projects.com www. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.12.philips.Ayala. Websites • • • www.org www.wikipedia.

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