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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. and so on.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor.8. sign acceptor etc. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. parity computation. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. control and access timers. The SFR is part of Internal Memory.1. 1. testing for 0. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. as its name suggests. PC is always incremented by one.8.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. a total of 64K bytes of code. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. subtraction. 1. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. 6 . When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. For example. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. multiplication and division.
All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. 1.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. 7 . there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. for a total of 32 I/O lines. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. 1.
Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. For example. 1. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0.7. For example. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.0. LCALL. TCON controls the timers. SP (Stack Pointer. For example. The remaining SFRs. Address 80h." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. such as PUSH. RETI. 1. once the serial port has been configured using SCON.7. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. SCON controls the serial port.12. RET. 1. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. Address 90h. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h.12. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1.0.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. POP. Addresses 98h.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. if SP holds the value 07h. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Bit-Addressable): 8 .7 SCON (Serial Control. That is to say. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. bit 7 is pin P0. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. with green backgrounds. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM.6 P1 (Port 1. bit 7 is pin P1. If you push a value onto the stack. For example. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. are "other SFRs.
fixed baud rate 9. 1 stop bit.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. RB 8 not widely used. 1 start bit. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. TB 8 not widely used. 1 stop bit. variable baud rate Table 1. Addresses A8h): 9 . Bit addressable. whether the serial port is activated to receive data.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. 1 start bit. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. variable baud rate 9. mode 1. 1 stop bit.13 IE (Interrupt Enable.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception.bit data. 1 start bit. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. It must be cleared by software. It must be cleared by software. 8H Fig: 1. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received.bit data.
1. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. Fig: 1. If EA = 1. Thus. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. 4. 2. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. In the interrupt method.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. whenever any device needs its service. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR).7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. reserved for future use. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. 10 . 3. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts.13. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. now interrupt is acknowledged. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. If EA = 0. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. Reset.
15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Address B0h.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. For example. enables or disables external interrupt 1. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3.14 P3 (Port 3. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. bit 7 is pin P3.0. 11 . enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. 1. 1. enables or disables external interrupt 0.
0 and P1. Also. 12 .Fig: 1. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. In another words. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.1) have special functions associated with Timer. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.
as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.signal for reading from external RAM memory. avoid using Port 0. If using other port to a same end. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. 13 . However. Pin 10:RXD . you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. they all share highly similar structure. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 .input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 .From a hardware standpoint. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . Port 3 is similar to Port 0. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. Pin 11: TXD . Beside its role as universal I/O port. this pin is usually connected to the push-button. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . i. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). In order to use one of these functions. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values.e. the pin in question has to be designated as input.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . However.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 .
signal on ALE is off. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. If external memory is present. Of the external memory. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. When external memory is used. In this way. memory is smaller than 64kB). i. addresses A8 – A15. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15).Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. Instead of a quartz crystal. 14 . Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. this is the location of the higher address byte. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. In that case.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). Otherwise. similar to Port 0. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. it can be used as universal I/O port. If external ROM is used for storing the program. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin.e. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data.e. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.
external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. first the internal. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. to get positive logic (5V) at output.Therefore. 15 .When designated as output. to get one (5V) on the output. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. pin acts as "open drain". This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Unlike other ports. Conversely.Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. Therefore. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. and then the external (if present). bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories.
each pin of port3 has an alternate function. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. the pin in question has to be designed as input. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. Having the “pull up” resistor.1. 16 .13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. if external memory is used. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. In order to use one of these functions. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. similar to port0. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15).
1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). and 8-bit data path is expensive. Serial data communication uses two methods. but the programs can be tedious and long. a synchronous and asynchronous. which is 2. 17 . The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. In some cases. Furthermore. for example. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. For these reasons. Used. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. The8051 chips has built-in UART. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. For this reason. This can work only if the cable is not too long. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals.2. such as printers. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions.
2. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. 18 . As far as the conductor wire is concerned. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second).The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. the data. how many bits constitute the character. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. and when the data begins and ends. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. bits per second may be greater than baud rate.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. the baud rates as bps are the same. 2. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. a protocol. 2. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. This is the called framing. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. In the asynchronous method.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. is even. In data framing for asynchronous communications. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. on how the data is packed. The parity bit is odd or even. If each signal change represents more than one bit. such as ASCII characters.
Examples are: computer. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. 2.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . and terminal. an interfacing standard called RS232.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). printer.2.
2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD.Data Terminal Ready. Asynchronous communication. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. In RS 232. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. DSR--. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.Carrier Detect. RXD---.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2.Request to Send.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. MAX 232. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers.8. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. from DTE CTS---. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire.Data Set Ready.Clear to send. 2. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. 20 .3. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.
A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. 2. 21 . BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. For many assemblers.3. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. 3. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Check your assembler for the convention. The "asm ". the next question is: how it is created. 1. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". Assemblers require a third step calling linking. 4. depending on which assembler you are using. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ".
asm) means assembly language 4. Select Project.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.3. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. After the program has started: Select File. Save program with filename: xxxxx. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. Start the µVision Program 2. The following is an example of a toggle program.prj 22 . Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. #0ffH route: mov P1. #200 R2. same R3. up end 3. Select File. #250 R2. org 0H mov A. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1.
6. load object file from the program menu. 5. double click on the line. 8. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. 23 . 3. I/O Ports from the program menu. Port 1. Click on stop when you are finished. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. To set a breakpoint. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. Select Run. Hex Click OK 4. you can also select this directly.5. Select Port 0. 7. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Select Project. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. e. Port 2 and Port 3 6.g.dll from the drop down list box. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Select File. 2. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Select your assembly file. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Toggle. 7. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3.
to keep the data displaying.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. the CPU. This is in contrast to LED.2 VCC. must refresh the LED. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively.4. In contrast. 4. characters and graphics. 24 . 4. which are limited to numbers and a few characters.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.
When data is supplied to data pins.To display letters and numbers. R/W=0 when writing. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. if RS=1 the data register is selected. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. etc. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. Cursor at home. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. the instruction command code register is selected. D0-D7. Fig: 4. Is RS= 0.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. WhenD7=0. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive.4. the LCD is ready to receive new information. a-z. 4.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. When D7 =1. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. R/W=1 when reading.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . 4. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. 4.
CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Display on. cursor off Display on. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4.
27 .4 GHz globally available license free band. install. No longer do people need to connect. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. plug into. Version 1. headsets and portable computers. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. Toshiba Corp. polluters of this shared spectrum. IBM Corp. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. The Bluetooth specification is an open. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. Scientific and Medical applications. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth.5. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. enable or configure anything to anything else.
The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. 20m and 100m. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. when devices are allowed to transmit. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. establishes the link with slave. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). and a Bluetooth clock. 28 . Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. When Slaves connect to a Master. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. which Slave has to follow. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence.
4GHz. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. 29 . Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point . A slave can be in two modes.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation.5. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. 5. It uses microwave frequency of about 2.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.
30 . Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications.5.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. which is a technique. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. In addition to the basic AT commands.
3.3. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board. 31 . Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. 5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 5.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.5.3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.
4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.3. If necessary.3. Fig: 5. Fig: 5.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .Fig: 5.
the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. When using hardware flow control. For large data transmissions. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data.6. This can mean a loss of data may occur. When hardware flow control is not being used. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. it can cause a transmission delay. 33 . As the transmission data becomes large. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. Parani-ESD works as follows. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. Fig: 6. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently.
6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.
If not. Auth.7. Device name. and Hardware Flow Control. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment. Operation status. OK. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address.Encryp. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Check the connection status with host equipment. AT+BTINFO?.↵: SD Response: 112233445566.Status. Data Encryption. Authentication. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . DeviceName. Mode.Operation mode.
AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. If it fails to make a connection. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. OK / DISCONNECT. Release the current connection 36 .0. When connection is made and released. OK/ ERROR. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address.3. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’.
1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. 8. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. This is given in the line diagram. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development.8. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. 37 . This approach directly influences the development productivity.
First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. linker and loader.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. 8. 8.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. All debugger. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. 38 .5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. 8. Assembler is the combination of debugger. 8.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. 8.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase.
Fig: 9.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.) switch contact and the common switch contact. If a current is passed through the coil.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.O. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.C. as shown in figure 2b. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. RELAYS 9.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 .1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. Fig: 9. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.9.
The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type). Fig: 9.9. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.
#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#0C3H .2 SW3 EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 SW2 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.10. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#84H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#80H . TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#99H .4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.
@R0 CJNE A.#-3 MOV IE.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#0C0H .#50H MOV TH1.#'K'.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#0D4H .MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'O'.#42H MOV A.#94H .#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#42H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#40H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#42H MOV A.
#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D2_ON JNB SW4.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.#'3' MOV SBUF.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .MOV DPTR.#'1' MOV SBUF.
@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.SBUF MOV @R0.TX RX: MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'4' MOV SBUF.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.D2_OFF: MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .
A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.@A+DPTR MOV B.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.B SUBB A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.HERE DJNZ R2.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.
0DH.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".I.0DH.R.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.T.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".T".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".EXIT: MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".S.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0 DB "BT OK".0H COLL: DB "S.0DH.0H END 47 .
1 SW2 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1.4 LED1 EQU P2.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#80H .3 SW4 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#0C3H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#84H .0 LED2 EQU P2.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#99H .
#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#-3 MOV IE.#40H MOV TMOD.@R0 CJNE A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#94H .MOV DPTR.#0C0H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#20H MOV SCON.#50H MOV TH1.#'O'.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#'K'.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.
#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#40H MOV A.#42H MOV A.MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#40H MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#12 MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#42H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#'4'.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'3'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#'2'.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'1'.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .RX JBC TI.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TX MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE DJNZ R2.#50 MOV R5.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.HERE2 RET 53 .#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#100 DJNZ R5.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.
0DH.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF"."./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.@A+DPTR MOV B.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0DH.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0DH.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".B SUBB A.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0H 54 .0 DB "BT OK".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".
0H COLL: DB "S.T".S.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".R.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".T.0H END 55 .0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".I.
and connection setup issues. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. They are currently on version 1. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies.1.11. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. 56 . If this can be done. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. even though it possesses its drawbacks. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. interference. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. CONCLUSION In conclusion.
• 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.com www.org www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.12.com 57 .wikipedia.Ayala. Websites • • • www.philips.projects.
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