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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. 6 . testing for 0. PC is always incremented by one. a total of 64K bytes of code. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. multiplication and division. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction.1. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. control and access timers. and so on. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. 1. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. sign acceptor etc. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. subtraction. parity computation. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. For example.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM.8. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines.8. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. as its name suggests. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. 1.
for a total of 32 I/O lines. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. 7 .11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. 1. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. 1.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.
12. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. The remaining SFRs. Address 90h. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. For example.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 1. That is to say. 1. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. with green backgrounds. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. bit 7 is pin P0. RETI. RET. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0.0. POP. For example. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. are "other SFRs. such as PUSH." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them.12.7 SCON (Serial Control. For example. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. once the serial port has been configured using SCON.7.6 P1 (Port 1.7. bit 7 is pin P1. LCALL.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051. Address 80h. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. For example. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.0. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. TCON controls the timers. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. SP (Stack Pointer. 1. Bit-Addressable): 8 . If you push a value onto the stack. Addresses 98h. SCON controls the serial port. if SP holds the value 07h.
whether the serial port is activated to receive data. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. mode 1. fixed baud rate 9. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. It must be cleared by software. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 stop bit. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. Bit addressable. 1 start bit. 1 stop bit. RB 8 not widely used. variable baud rate 9. TI RI transmits interrupt flag.13 IE (Interrupt Enable.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. TB 8 not widely used. 1 start bit. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. 1 start bit.bit data. variable baud rate Table 1.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. It must be cleared by software.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port.bit data. 8H Fig: 1. 1 stop bit.
13. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. reserved for future use. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. 2. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. 3. If EA = 0. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). In the interrupt method. Fig: 1. Thus. 4. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. 1. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. 10 . whenever any device needs its service. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. now interrupt is acknowledged. If EA = 1. Reset. enables or disables the serial port interrupt.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. ---ET2 ES Not implemented.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts.
1. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.0. bit 7 is pin P3.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. 11 .14 P3 (Port 3. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. For example. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. enables or disables external interrupt 1.7. Address B0h. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. enables or disables external interrupt 0. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. 1.
positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. 12 .0 and P1. In another words. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Also. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs.1) have special functions associated with Timer.Fig: 1.
the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). the pin in question has to be designated as input.clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . However.signal for reading from external RAM memory. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. If using other port to a same end.From a hardware standpoint.e. Beside its role as universal I/O port. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. avoid using Port 0. 13 . For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V). In order to use one of these functions.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. However. i.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . Pin 10:RXD .signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . they all share highly similar structure. this pin is usually connected to the push-button. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output. Pin 11: TXD .
Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). this is the location of the higher address byte. In that case. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common).Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip.e. Otherwise.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. addresses A8 – A15. In this way. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). similar to Port 0. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. signal on ALE is off. Instead of a quartz crystal. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. memory is smaller than 64kB). It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+.e. 14 . it can be used as universal I/O port. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. If external memory is present. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. If external ROM is used for storing the program. When external memory is used. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. Of the external memory. i.
Unlike other ports. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. and then the external (if present).Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. pin acts as "open drain". Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used.When designated as output.Therefore. to get one (5V) on the output. pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Therefore. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. 15 . external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). first the internal. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Conversely. to get positive logic (5V) at output.
port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. In order to use one of these functions. if external memory is used. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Having the “pull up” resistor. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. 16 . otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. similar to port0.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs.1. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. the pin in question has to be designed as input.
such as printers. but the programs can be tedious and long. Serial data communication uses two methods. In some cases.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. For this reason. 17 . since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. For these reasons. and 8-bit data path is expensive. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. a synchronous and asynchronous. for example. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). which is 2. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications.2. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. Furthermore. The8051 chips has built-in UART. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. Used. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. This can work only if the cable is not too long.
In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. 2. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). such as ASCII characters. it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. and when the data begins and ends. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. 18 .The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. If each signal change represents more than one bit. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. is even. the baud rates as bps are the same. the data. how many bits constitute the character. The parity bit is odd or even. 2.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. 2. In data framing for asynchronous communications. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. a protocol. This is the called framing. In the asynchronous method. on how the data is packed.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity.
5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers.2. an interfacing standard called RS232.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. 2. printer. Examples are: computer. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. and terminal.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.
indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled.Clear to send. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. RXD---. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. 2. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers.Request to Send. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark.Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. MAX 232.Carrier Detect. Asynchronous communication. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.Data Terminal Ready. 20 . DSR--. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.8.3.Data Set Ready. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. from DTE CTS---. In RS 232.
8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program.3. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. 2. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. 4. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. Check your assembler for the convention. For many assemblers. The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. The "asm ". the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". 1. 3. Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. Assemblers require a third step calling linking. depending on which assembler you are using. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. the next question is: how it is created. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). 21 . This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file.
3.asm) means assembly language 4. #250 R2.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. After the program has started: Select File. Save program with filename: xxxxx. Select Project. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file. Start the µVision Program 2. same R3. Select File. The following is an example of a toggle program.prj 22 . a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. #200 R2. up end 3. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. #0ffH route: mov P1. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. org 0H mov A.
Select Project. 6. e. To set a breakpoint. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. 7. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. 8. 23 . Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Select your assembly file. Hex Click OK 4. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. Port 1. 2. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. 5.g. Click on stop when you are finished.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. double click on the line. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. I/O Ports from the program menu. load object file from the program menu. Select Run. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports.5. Select Port 0. Port 2 and Port 3 6. 3. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. Toggle. Select File. 7. you can also select this directly.dll from the drop down list box.
which are limited to numbers and a few characters. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. 24 . to keep the data displaying. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. In contrast.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. must refresh the LED. This is in contrast to LED.2 VCC. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD.4. 4. the CPU. characters and graphics.
a-z. When data is supplied to data pins. Fig: 4. the LCD is ready to receive new information. Is RS= 0. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. WhenD7=0.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. Cursor at home. 4.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. if RS=1 the data register is selected. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. R/W=0 when writing. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 .4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. etc. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0.4. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. When D7 =1. D0-D7. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. the instruction command code register is selected. 4.To display letters and numbers. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. 4. R/W=1 when reading.
cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor off Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Display on.
Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. headsets and portable computers. No longer do people need to connect. The Bluetooth specification is an open. IBM Corp. enable or configure anything to anything else. plug into. 27 . install. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation.5. Scientific and Medical applications. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. Version 1. Toshiba Corp. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. polluters of this shared spectrum. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999.4 GHz globally available license free band. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp.
Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. establishes the link with slave. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. and a Bluetooth clock. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. when devices are allowed to transmit. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. 20m and 100m. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. 28 . They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. which Slave has to follow. When Slaves connect to a Master.
But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. 29 .5.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. A slave can be in two modes. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices. 5. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices.4GHz. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point .
Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). In addition to the basic AT commands.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program.5. 30 . native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. which is a technique. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications.
5.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.3.5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 5.3. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.3.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5. 31 .
Fig: 5.Fig: 5.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.3. If necessary. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. Fig: 5.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.
When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. Parani-ESD works as follows. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet.6. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. This can mean a loss of data may occur. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. As the transmission data becomes large. When hardware flow control is not being used. it can cause a transmission delay. Fig: 6. the possibility of data loss becomes greater.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. 33 . For large data transmissions. When using hardware flow control.
2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.6.3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.
Check the connection status with host equipment.Status. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. If not. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 . Mode.7. Device name. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Authentication.↵: SD Response: 112233445566.Encryp. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address.Operation mode. Auth. Data Encryption. DeviceName. Operation status. and Hardware Flow Control. OK. AT+BTINFO?. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.
To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected.0. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’.3. OK / DISCONNECT. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. Release the current connection 36 . When connection is made and released. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address. If it fails to make a connection. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. OK/ ERROR.
8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. 37 . The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. This approach directly influences the development productivity.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. This is given in the line diagram. 8. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come.
Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. 8.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. linker and loader. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. 8.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. 8. 8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. 38 .5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. 8.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. Assembler is the combination of debugger. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. All debugger.
C. Fig: 9. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.9. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. If a current is passed through the coil. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact. as shown in figure 2b. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. Fig: 9. RELAYS 9.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 .) switch contact and the common switch contact.O.
3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 . it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type). Fig: 9.9.
TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.10.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#80H . TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.3 SW4 EQU P1.#99H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.#0C3H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .1 SW2 EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#84H .
#-3 MOV IE.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0D4H .#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#'O'.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#20H MOV SCON.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .@R0 CJNE A.MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#'K'.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#0C0H .#94H .#40H MOV TMOD.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.
#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#40H MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#40H MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.D1_ON JNB SW2.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#'1' MOV SBUF.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'3' MOV SBUF.D2_ON JNB SW4.
#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.TX RX: MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.#'4' MOV SBUF.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.RX JBC TI.
#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.B SUBB A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .HERE1 DJNZ R1.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.HERE DJNZ R2.@A+DPTR MOV B.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.
0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H END 47 .0DH.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".T".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H COLL: DB "S.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.R.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0 DB "BT OK".T.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".EXIT: MOV A.0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".I.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0DH.S.0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0DH.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".
PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.4 LED1 EQU P2.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.2 SW3 EQU P1.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.#80H .TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#0C3H .TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#99H .#84H .5 LCD_RW EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'O'.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#'K'.MOV DPTR.#94H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.@R0 CJNE A.#20H MOV SCON.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#0D4H .@R0 CJNE A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#42H MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV TMOD.#-3 MOV IE.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#12 MOV R0.#42H MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C0H 50 .#42H MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.MOV A.#40H MOV A.
#'2'.#'3'.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'1'.#'4'.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.
#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .TX MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.RX JBC TI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
HERE DJNZ R2.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.LCD_INIT: MOV A.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE2 RET 53 .#50 MOV R5.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#100 DJNZ R5.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.
/*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".A ACALL DELAY MOV A.B SUBB A.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".@A+DPTR MOV B.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0DH.0 DB "BT OK".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0DH.0H 54 .B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".
T".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H COLL: DB "S.R.0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".T.S.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H END 55 .I.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".
and connection setup issues. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. interference. They are currently on version 1. 56 . based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. and also correct most of the connection setup issues. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. CONCLUSION In conclusion. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. If this can be done. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products.11. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. even though it possesses its drawbacks. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version.1.
Websites • • • www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.com www. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.com 57 .12.wikipedia.org www.philips.Ayala.projects. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.
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