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The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of
robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.
1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:
Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller
1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus
1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address
1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.
1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.
1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:
Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051
program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.1. Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. 6 . a total of 64K bytes of code. 1. as its name suggests. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. subtraction. sign acceptor etc. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. and so on. testing for 0.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations.8. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. parity computation. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. multiplication and division. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. For example. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines.8. control and access timers. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. 1. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port. PC is always incremented by one. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value.
The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. for a total of 32 I/O lines.3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. 1. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers. 1.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself. 7 . Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.
12.0. such as PUSH.7 SCON (Serial Control. For example. For example. Addresses 98h. with green backgrounds. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. bit 7 is pin P0. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller." These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them.0. For example. Address 80h. RETI. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register.12. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. SCON controls the serial port. RET. are "other SFRs. If you push a value onto the stack. if SP holds the value 07h. That is to say. LCALL. For example. bit 7 is pin P1. Bit-Addressable): 8 . The remaining SFRs. 1. POP. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. Address 90h. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. 1. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051.6 P1 (Port 1. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. SP (Stack Pointer. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. TCON controls the timers. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.7. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 1.7.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0.
It must be cleared by software. 8H Fig: 1. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. Bit addressable. mode 1. variable baud rate 9. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port. It must be cleared by software. 1 start bit. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 start bit.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. fixed baud rate 9.bit data. variable baud rate Table 1.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. 1 stop bit.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. 1 stop bit.6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. 1 start bit. 1 stop bit. RB 8 not widely used. whether the serial port is activated to receive data.bit data. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. TB 8 not widely used.
Fig: 1. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. If EA = 1. The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. In the interrupt method. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts. 2. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. 1. 3. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). Thus. If EA = 0. now interrupt is acknowledged.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). 4. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. reserved for future use. Reset. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. whenever any device needs its service.13. 10 .
11 . Address B0h.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. enables or disables external interrupt 0. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller.7. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. For example. bit 7 is pin P3. 1.ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt. 1.14 P3 (Port 3. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.0. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. enables or disables external interrupt 1.
Fig: 1. In another words.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. 12 .1) have special functions associated with Timer. Also. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.0 and P1. pins 1 and 2 (P1. Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers.
The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller.input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . In order to use one of these functions. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . this pin is usually connected to the push-button. they all share highly similar structure. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. the pin in question has to be designated as input. However. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function.e. 13 . For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V).signal for reading from external RAM memory. avoid using Port 0. the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values.signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . If using other port to a same end. i.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 .clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR .clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 .From a hardware standpoint. Pin 10:RXD . each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. Beside its role as universal I/O port. However.Depending on the device's purpose and environs.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage. Port 3 is similar to Port 0. Pin 11: TXD . producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output.
Instead of a quartz crystal. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. i. memory is smaller than 64kB). When external memory is used. If external memory is present. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. In this way. Of the external memory. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. this is the location of the higher address byte. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin.Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator.e. Otherwise.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). by adding only one cheap integrated circuit. it can be used as universal I/O port. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). If external ROM is used for storing the program. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. In that case. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins.e. 14 . addresses A8 – A15. signal on ALE is off. similar to Port 0. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i.
it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. to get one (5V) on the output. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. Therefore. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories. Conversely. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end). Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. Unlike other ports. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input.When designated as output. Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2.Therefore. to get positive logic (5V) at output. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. 15 .Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). first the internal. pin acts as "open drain". Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. and then the external (if present).
similar to port0. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output.1. Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). Having the “pull up” resistor. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). In order to use one of these functions. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. if external memory is used. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. 16 .13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. the pin in question has to be designed as input. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output.
The8051 chips has built-in UART. a synchronous and asynchronous. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. For these reasons. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. but the programs can be tedious and long. which is 2. Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. Serial data communication uses two methods. for example. Furthermore. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications.2. For this reason. such as printers. Used. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission. In some cases. 17 . and 8-bit data path is expensive. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart. This can work only if the cable is not too long.
2. This is the called framing. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. If each signal change represents more than one bit. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. and when the data begins and ends. 18 . it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit. the baud rates as bps are the same.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. the data. such as ASCII characters. a protocol. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. is even. In data framing for asynchronous communications. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. 2. The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. As far as the conductor wire is concerned.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. In the asynchronous method. on how the data is packed. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. The parity bit is odd or even. 2. how many bits constitute the character.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's.
RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2. 2. and terminal.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers. DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device. an interfacing standard called RS232.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . printer. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system.2. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. Examples are: computer.
Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. RXD---. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. from DCE together with RTS DTE---.3.Data Terminal Ready.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. 20 . The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. Asynchronous communication. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels.Carrier Detect.Request to Send. from DTE CTS---.8.Data Set Ready. DSR--. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time.Clear to send. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD. indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-. In RS 232. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. MAX 232. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire. 2.
which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. 2. A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). 1. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. 21 . Assemblers require a third step calling linking. Check your assembler for the convention. 4.3. For many assemblers. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. 3. the next question is: how it is created. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. depending on which assembler you are using. The "asm ". Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file.
Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. #0ffH route: mov P1. same R3. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. Start the µVision Program 2. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. #250 R2. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. The following is an example of a toggle program. Select File.asm) means assembly language 4. up end 3.prj 22 . #200 R2.3. Save program with filename: xxxxx.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1. After the program has started: Select File. Select Project. org 0H mov A.
g. 6. you can also select this directly. 23 . 7. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. 8. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at. load object file from the program menu. Hex Click OK 4. Select Project.dll from the drop down list box. Toggle. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. 5. Select your assembly file. Select File. Click on stop when you are finished. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. e. Port 1. To set a breakpoint. 3. Select Port 0.5. Select Run. 2. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. I/O Ports from the program menu. double click on the line. 7. Port 2 and Port 3 6. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly.
characters and graphics.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display The declining prices of LCD The ability to display numbers. This is in contrast to LED. In contrast. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. 4. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. must refresh the LED.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. to keep the data displaying. 24 .4. Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD.2 VCC. the CPU. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. 4.
The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1.3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. WhenD7=0.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.To display letters and numbers. Is RS= 0. a-z.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. D0-D7. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display. 4. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. etc. When data is supplied to data pins. Fig: 4. When D7 =1. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. if RS=1 the data register is selected.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. the LCD is ready to receive new information. the instruction command code register is selected. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0. R/W=0 when writing.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. Cursor at home. 4. 4.4. R/W=1 when reading.
cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Display on.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor off Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4.
low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. polluters of this shared spectrum. This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets. enable or configure anything to anything else. The Bluetooth specification is an open.5. Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. Scientific and Medical applications.4 GHz globally available license free band. IBM Corp. 27 . global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters: Ericsson Mobile Communications Intel Corp. Version 1. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. install. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. headsets and portable computers. plug into. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. Toshiba Corp. No longer do people need to connect.
Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. 20m and 100m. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. When Slaves connect to a Master. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. 28 . After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. and a Bluetooth clock. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. which Slave has to follow. when devices are allowed to transmit. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. establishes the link with slave. all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. It is the Master which initiates the transaction.
A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. A slave can be in two modes. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.4GHz. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave. Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices. Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point .2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. 5.5. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. 29 . Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.
30 . In addition to the basic AT commands. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. which is a technique.5. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows. Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands.3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications.
3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.3. 5. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.5. 31 . 5.3.3.
4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.3.Fig: 5.3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5. Fig: 5. Fig: 5.3.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. If necessary.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 . supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board.
the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended. When hardware flow control is not being used. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. For large data transmissions. Parani-ESD works as follows. Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. it can cause a transmission delay. SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. 33 . This can mean a loss of data may occur. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. When using hardware flow control. As the transmission data becomes large. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data.6.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. Fig: 6.
3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.
Mode. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally.Status. Check the connection status with host equipment. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 .↵: SD Response: 112233445566.Operation mode. Data Encryption. Authentication. the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. Device name. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.7. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address. If not. OK. Operation status. DeviceName. AT+BTINFO?.Encryp. Auth. and Hardware Flow Control.
The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. If it fails to make a connection. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. OK/ ERROR.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. Release the current connection 36 . OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to.3. OK / DISCONNECT. When connection is made and released. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address.0. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected.
Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex.1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8.8. 37 . 8. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. This is given in the line diagram. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. This approach directly influences the development productivity.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development.
linker and loader. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself.2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. All debugger. 8.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. 8.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code. 8. 8. Assembler is the combination of debugger. liker and loader are the part of assembler software. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java. 38 . 8. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker.
as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.C.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. If a current is passed through the coil. as shown in figure 2b.O.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them. Fig: 9. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N. RELAYS 9. Fig: 9.) switch contact and the common switch contact.9.
9. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button.3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3. Fig: 9. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .
TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#84H .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.6 LCD_EN EQU P1. CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#99H .1 SW2 EQU P1.3 SW4 EQU P1.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.10.#0C3H .#80H .7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.2 SW3 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#0C0H .#'O'.#40H MOV TMOD.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#42H MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#50H MOV TH1.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#94H .@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#'K'.#-3 MOV IE.#0D4H .#20H MOV SCON.@R0 CJNE A.
#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#42H MOV A.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#12 MOV R0.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#40H MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'1' MOV SBUF.#'3' MOV SBUF.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'2' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D1_ON JNB SW2.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.MOV DPTR.
A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.RX JBC TI.A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.TX RX: MOV A.SBUF MOV @R0.#'4' MOV SBUF.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.D2_OFF: MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.
A ACALL DELAY MOV A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.HERE1 DJNZ R1.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.@A+DPTR MOV B.HERE DJNZ R2.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.B SUBB A.
0DH.0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".R.T".0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".S.I.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0H COLL: DB "S.0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.0DH.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H END 47 .0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".T.EXIT: MOV A.0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0 DB "BT OK".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".
3 SW4 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.#84H .7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#99H .4 LED1 EQU P2.#80H .TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C3H .1 SW2 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.0 LED2 EQU P2.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.2 SW3 EQU P1.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.
TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H MOV TMOD.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#'K'.#50H MOV TH1.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#'O'.#0D4H .#94H .MOV DPTR.#-3 MOV IE.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#0C0H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.#42H MOV A.
#40H MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#42H MOV A.MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#42H MOV A.#0C0H 50 .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.
#'3'.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'2'.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#'1'.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#'4'.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.
RX JBC TI.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TX MOV A.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.
AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#50 MOV R5.#100 DJNZ R5.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.HERE2 RET 53 .#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.HERE DJNZ R2.
@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H 54 .0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0 DB "BT OK".B SUBB A.0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.@A+DPTR MOV B./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.0DH.0DH.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".
0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".S.I.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".T.0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H COLL: DB "S.0H END 55 .R.T".
based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. even though it possesses its drawbacks. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. If this can be done. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies.11. 56 . significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better. and connection setup issues. and also correct most of the connection setup issues.1. CONCLUSION In conclusion. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. They are currently on version 1. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. interference.
Programming & Applications by Kenneth J. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.philips.12.com www.Ayala.org www. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture.wikipedia. Websites • • • www.projects.com 57 . • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.