INTRODUCTION

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the information home appliances, such as TVs, air conditioners, sound and stereo systems, wireless phones, and so forth, the remote controllers dazzling our eyes still have not reached a unified model or style. In view of this fact, we propose an environment controller combining the Bluetooth technology. Along with Bluetooth transmission via radio wave, we can break through those space barriers existing in our housing structure comprising multiple separating objects. The system design is as follows: microcontroller and Bluetooth module. Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is composed of hardware, software, and interoperability requirements. Bluetooth is “A specification for short-range radio links between mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras, and other portable devices.” It has been adopted not only by all major players in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industry, but also in such diverse areas as the automotive industry, health care, automation, and toy industries Bluetooth communication pattern comes with excellent feature of

robust(strong) digital communication. This can enable variable bit rate for desired purposes like voice or data. We are opting for data transmission in the order of 9600 bps which exchange ASCII values.

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1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C51
1.1 Introduction of microcontroller:

Fig: 1.1 Basic block diagram of Microcontroller

1.2 Basic microcontroller Block Diagram:
There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus

1.3 Read Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus

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1.4 Write Cycle:
1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address

1.5 Basic difference between microprocessor and Microcontroller:
A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system

1.6 Memory:
We can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM. RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways: ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common.

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1.7 Micro controller 89C51:
The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it.

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1.8 8051 Micro Controller Architecture:

Fig: 1.2 Architecture of Microcontroller 8051

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Other SFRs allow the user to set the serial baud rate. 6 . the program counter is implemented to point to the next instruction. and configure the 8051s interrupt system. PC is always incremented by one. The accumulator can be the source or destination register for logical operations. four SFRs permit access to the 8051s 32 input/output lines. a total of 64K bytes of code. and so on. The SFR is part of Internal Memory. parity computation. When the 8051 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is executed. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM. program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.8. control and access timers. multiplication and division.9 Special Function Register (SFR) Memory: Special Function Registers (SFRs) are areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8051 processor. subtraction. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases. 1.1 Accumulator: The Accumulator.1. The accumulator has several exclusive functions such as rotate. is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. the microcontroller has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. The Program Counter is special in that there is no way to directly modify its value. It can hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value and is the most versatile register.2 Program Counter: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. sign acceptor etc. testing for 0. as its name suggests. Accumulator holds a source of operand and stores the result of the arithmetic operations such as addition. 1. For example.8. The Microcontroller can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH. Another SFR allows a program to read or write to the 8051s serial port.

All other addresses in the SFR range (80h through FFh) are considered invalid. 1. SFRs are accessed as if they were normal Internal RAM. The 8051 has four I/O ports of 8 bits. 1. 7 .3 Memory Diagrams of Special Function Registers Although the address range of 80h through FFh offer 128 possible addresses. The only difference is that Internal RAM is from address 00h through 7Fh whereas SFR registers exist in the address range of 80h through FFh Each SFR has an address (80h through FFh) and a name. Whether a given I/O line is high or low and the value read from the line are controlled by the SFRs in green. there are only 21 SFRs in a standard 8051.The program may inspect and/or change the operating mode of the 8051 by manipulating the values of the 8051's Special Function Registers.11 SFR Types: As mentioned in the chart itself.10 The Diagram of the SFR: Fig: 1. Writing to or reading from these registers may produce undefined values or behavior. for a total of 32 I/O lines. the SFRs that have a blue background are SFRs related to the I/O ports.

" These SFRs can be thought of as auxiliary SFRs in the sense that they don't directly configure the 8051 but obviously the 8051 cannot operate without them. Bit-Addressable): 8 . Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. such as PUSH. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. 1. TCON controls the timers. Address 90h. bit 7 is pin P1.0.7. Address 80h. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. RET. if SP holds the value 07h.0. with green backgrounds. For example. bit 7 is pin P0. bit 0 of port 1 is pin P1. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller. the program may read or write to the serial port using the SBUF register. 1.7.12. That is to say. If you push a value onto the stack.12 SFR Descriptions: P0 (Port 0. Address 81h): This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. This SFR indicates where the next value to be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. once the serial port has been configured using SCON. SCON controls the serial port. 1. POP. RETI. are "other SFRs. The remaining SFRs.6 P1 (Port 1. a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h. For example. LCALL. SP (Stack Pointer.The SFRs with yellow background are SFRs which in some way control the operation or the configuration of some aspect of the 8051.12. This SFR is modified by all instructions which modify the stack. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 0. For example.7 SCON (Serial Control. Addresses 98h. For example. the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level.

6 Format of Serial Port Control Register (SCON) REN set or cleared by software to enable or disable reception. It must be cleared by software. RB 8 not widely used. It must be cleared by software.bit data.13 IE (Interrupt Enable. variable baud rate Table 1. variable baud rate 9. TI RI transmits interrupt flag. Set by hardware halfway through the stop bit time in mode 1. 1 start bit. 1 start bit. mode 1. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in received interrupts flag. whether the serial port is activated to receive data. fixed baud rate 9.2: Operating modes of SCON 1. and also contains flags that are set when a byte is successfully sent or received. Bit addressable.bit data.The Serial Control SFR is used to configure the behavior of the 8051's onboard serial port. 8H Fig: 1. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial mode 0 Synchronous mode 8-bit data. Addresses A8h): 9 . 1 stop bit. 1 stop bit. 1 start bit. 1 stop bit. TB 8 not widely used. This SFR controls the baud rate of the serial port.

2. The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts.7 Format of Interrupt Enable (IE) Special Function Register EA disable all interrupts. 1. ---ET2 ES Not implemented. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers.13. 4. enables or disables the serial port interrupt. The program associated with the interrupt is called the interrupt service routine (ISR). Serial Communications has a single interrupt (receive and transfer). The advantageous of interrupts is that the microcontroller can serve many devices based on the priority assigned to it. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable a lap bit. the microcontroller interrupts whatever it is doing and serves the device. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit.A single microcontroller can serve several devices. now interrupt is acknowledged.1 Six interrupts in the 89C51: 1. If EA = 0. Fig: 1. Upon receiving an interrupt signal. 10 . whenever any device needs its service. reserved for future use. enables or disables timer 2 overflow or capturer interrupt. Reset. 3. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts. In the interrupt method. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external hardware interrupts. Thus. the device notifies the microcontroller by sending it an interrupt signal. where as the highest bit is used to enable or disable ALL interrupts. If EA = 1.

7. enables or disables external interrupt 1. enables or disables external interrupt 0. For example. enables or disables timer 0 overflow interrupt. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on the microcontroller. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to a low level. Bit-Addressable): This is input/output port 3. All derivative microcontrollers of the 8051 must support these basic SFRs in order to maintain compatibility with the underlying MSCS51 standard. 1. Address B0h.0. bit 7 is pin P3. 1.15 Other SFRs: The chart above is a summary of all the SFRs that exist in a standard 8051. bit 0 of port 3 is pin P3. 11 .ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 enables or disables timer 1 overflow interrupt.14 P3 (Port 3.

12 . Bringing this pin back to logical state zero starts the program anew as if the power had just been turned on. pins 1 and 2 (P1.Fig: 1. Also.8 Pin Diagram of Phillips 89C51 Microcontroller Pin 1–8: (Port 1): Each of these pins can be used as either input or output according to your needs. Pin 9: Reset Signal High logical state on this input halts the MCU and clears all the registers. In another words.1) have special functions associated with Timer.0 and P1. positive voltage impulse on this pin resets the MCU.

input for interrupt 0 Pin 13: INT1 . you need to consider which task should be assigned to which port. If using other port to a same end. each pin of Port 3 has an alternate function. each of these pins can be used as universal input or output. However. Pin 10:RXD .clock input of counter 1 Pin 16: WR . bear in mind that built-in resistors have relatively high values. However. they all share highly similar structure. as its pins cannot produce high logical level without an additional resistor connected to +5V.Depending on the device's purpose and environs. The image shows one simple circuit for safe reset upon starting the controller. Pin 10-17: Port 3 as with Port 1. this pin is usually connected to the push-button.From a hardware standpoint. each pin of Port 3 has an alternative function. It is utilized in situations when power fails to reach its optimal voltage.signal for reading from external RAM memory. the pin in question has to be designated as input. reset-upon-start circuit or a brown out reset circuit (covered in the previous chapter). As can be seen from the individual descriptions of the ports.input for interrupt 1 Pin 14: T0 . avoid using Port 0.e.clock input of counter 0 Pin 15: T1 . the appropriate bit of register P3 needs to be set. Pin 11: TXD .signal for writing to external (add-on) RAM memory Pin 17: RD . In order to use one of these functions. producing the currents limited to few hundreds of amperes as pin output.serial input for asynchronous communication or serial output for synchronous communication. Port 3 is similar to Port 0.serial output for asynchronous communication or clock output for synchronous communication Pin 12: INT0 . 13 . Beside its role as universal I/O port. i. For example: if utilizing port as output with high level (5V).

signal on ALE is off.28: Port 2 if external memory is not present. Of the external memory. and uses it as part of the address for memory chip. this is the location of the higher address byte. the rest of the unused bits are not available as input/output. Pin 20: GND: Ground Pin 21. data from port can be multiplexed and the port simultaneously used for transferring both addresses and data. memorizes the state of port P0 upon receiving a signal from ALE pin. If external ROM is used for storing the program. miniature ceramic resonators can be used for dictating the pace. In this way. In that case. pins of Port 2 act as universal input/output. If external memory is present. During the second part of the mechanical MCU cycle. When external memory is used. Instead of a quartz crystal. this port contains the higher address byte (addresses A8–A15). MCU sends the lower byte of the address register (addresses A0 – A7) to port P0 and activates the output ALE. Pin 29: PSEN: MCU activates this bit (brings to low state) upon each reading of byte (instruction) from program memory.e. manufacturers recommend using somewhat higher capacitances (about 47 puffs). similar to Port 0. It is important to note that in cases when not all the 8 bits are used for addressing the memory (i. PSEN is directly connected to its control pins. Capacitances within the oscillator mechanism (see the image) are not critical and are normally about 30pF. addresses A8 – A15.e. it can be used as universal I/O port. and port P0 is used as Data Bus. i. New Mucus works at frequencies from 0Hz to 50MHz+. 14 .Pin 18-19: X2 and X1: Input and output of internal oscillator. Quartz crystal controlling the frequency commonly connects to these pins. External register (74HCT373 or 74HCT375 circuits are common). Otherwise. memory is smaller than 64kB). by adding only one cheap integrated circuit.

it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7).Pin 31: EA Bringing this pin to the logical state zero (mass) designates the ports P2 and P3 for transferring addresses regardless of the presence of the internal memory. pin acts as "open drain". pin of Port 0 acts as high impedance offering the infinite input resistance with no "inner" voltage. Unlike other ports. Port 0 has two-fold role if external memory is used. Setting a port bit makes the pin act as high impedance. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. This means that even if there is a program loaded in the MCU it will not be executed. 15 . Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to Port 2. Pin 40: VCC: Power +5V. otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Conversely. to get one (5V) on the output.Therefore. This seemingly insignificant change has the following consequences: When designated as input. Therefore. Clearing a port bit grounds the appropriate pin on the case (0V). and then the external (if present). to get positive logic (5V) at output. bringing the pin to the high logical state causes the controller to use both memories.When designated as output. but the one from the external ROM will be used instead. external "pull up" resistor needs to be added for connecting the pin to the positive pole. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. first the internal. Port 0 lacks the "pull up" resistor (resistor with +5V on one end).

Port 0: Port 0 has two-fold role. each pin of port3 has an alternate function. the pin in question has to be designed as input. similar to port0. Port 2: When external memory is used this port contains the higher addresses byte (addresses A8-A15). Otherwise it can be used as universal I/O port. This provides the user with 32 I/O lines for connecting MCU to the environs. port1 is fully compatible with TTL circuits. Another feature of this port comes to play when it has been designated as output. 16 . otherwise all bits of the port are either input or output. Port 3: Beside its role as universal I/O port.13 Input – Output (I/O) Ports: Every MCU from 8051 families has 4 I/O ports of 8 bits each. if external memory is used. it contains the lower address byte (addresses A0-A7). devoid of dual function characteristics for port 0.1. In order to use one of these functions. Having the “pull up” resistor. Port 1: This is “true” I/O port.

Transmitter can wait arbitrarily long between transmissions. The8051 chips has built-in UART. Used. In some cases. a synchronous and asynchronous. since long cables diminish and ever distort signals. it provides data in byte-sized chunks. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time while the synchronous transfers a single byte at a time. This can work only if the cable is not too long. which is 2. for example. and 8-bit data path is expensive. Serial data communication uses two methods. For these reasons. For this reason. the information is simply grabbed from the 8-bit data bus and presented to the 8-bit data bus of the printer. there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. It is mean possible to write software to use either of these methods. serial communication is used for transferring data between two systems located at distances of hundreds of feet to millions of miles apart.2. These chips are commonly referred to as UART (universal asynchronous discussed receiver-transmitter) and USART (universal synchronous -asynchronous receiver-transmitter). Furthermore. when transmitter such as a keyboard may not always have data ready to send Asynchronous may also mean no explicit information about where data bits begin and end. The fact that in serial communication a single data line is used instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication makes it not only much cheaper but also makes it possible for two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. 17 . such as printers. but the programs can be tedious and long. SERIAL COMMUNICATION When a microprocessor communicates with the outside world.1 Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data framing: Transmitter and receiver do not explicitly coordinate each data transmission.

it is difficult to make sense of the data unless the sender and receiver agree on a set of rules.The data coming in at the receiving end of the data line in a serial data transfer is all 0's and 1's.4 Data transfer rate: The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated in bps (bits per second). and when the data begins and ends. how many bits constitute the character. 2. If the transmitter and receiver are using different speeds. If each signal change represents more than one bit. is even.2 Start and stop bits: A synchronous serial data communication is widely used for character orientation transmissions. stop bit will not be received at the expected time problem is called framing error. on how the data is packed. Baud rate is defined as the number of signal changes per second. such as ASCII characters. This is the called framing. This means that for each character we have a single parity bit in addition to start and stop bits. Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. The parity bit is odd or even. the baud rates as bps are the same. each character is placed in between start and stop bits. bits per second may be greater than baud rate. 2. In case of an odd parity bit the number of data bits of a book of including the parity bit.3 Parity bit: In some systems in order to maintain data integrity. a protocol. 2. In the asynchronous method. the parity bit of the character byte is included in the data frame. are packed in between a start bit and a stop bits. As far as the conductor wire is concerned. the data. 18 . The start bit is always a 0 and the stop bit is 1. The start bit is always one-bit but the stop bit can be one or two bits. In data framing for asynchronous communications.

RS 232 is the standard defined for the connection of "Data Terminal Equipment" (DTE) to "Data Communications Equipment" (DCE). DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is a device.5 RS232 standards: Two allow compatibility among the data communication equipment made by various manufacturers.6 Interface for DTE/DCE Connection: Fig: 2.2. and terminal. an interfacing standard called RS232. which provides an interface between a DTE and a communications link. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) is a generic term for an item which forms part of the "information processing" portions of a system. printer.1 Interfacing between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE) 19 . was set by the electronics industries association (EIA) in 1960. 2. Examples are: computer.

indicates to the DTE that the modem is present and turned on CD-.7 RS 232 Wiring and Connectors: Fig: 2. from DCE together with RTS DTE---. In RS 232. This is standard for transfer of characters across copper wire.Carrier Detect. Max 232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. 2. MAX 232. from DTE CTS---.Data Set Ready. Serial bits are encoded and transmitted one at a time. indicates to the modem that a DTE is Connected and enabled. Asynchronous characters can be sent at any time and bits are not individually synchronized. Asynchronous communication.3. indicates that this modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem.All Signals Are “Ground Referenced” to in Pin 7 TXD.8.Data Terminal Ready.Request to Send. 20 .Transmit and Receive Signal RTS---. The RS 232 is not compatible with micro controllers. so a line driver converts the RS 232's signals to TTL voltage levels. while a 0 bit is + 3 to + 25V which is called Space. RXD---. DSR--. a 1 is represented by -3 to -25V which is called Mark. voltage converters such as Max 232are used. To connect any RS 232 to a µc system.2 Pins of RS232 Serial Port RS-232 Defines Serial.Clear to send.

BASIC FORM OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM Now that the basic form of an assembly language program has been given. The assembler converts the instructions into machine code. the file names follow the usual DOS conventions. First we use an editor to type in a program similar to program. which comes with all Microsoft operating systems. the next question is: how it is created. The "asm ". 21 . Many excellent editors or word processors are available that can be used to create and/or edit the program. For many assemblers. Check your assembler for the convention.3. Notice that the editor must be able to produce an ASCII file. The "ASM "source file containing the program code is created in step 1 is fed to an 8051 assembler. The extension for the object file is "OBJ "by the extension for the list file is "1ST ". assembled and made ready to run? The steps to create an executable assembly language program are outlined as follows. extension for the source file is used by an assembler in the next step. but the source file has the extension "ASM "or "SRC ". The assembler will produce an object file and a list file. 1. This program comes with all 8051 assemblers. 2. Recent Windowsbased assemblers combine steps 2 through 4 into one step. 8051 trainers that have a monitor program use this ABS file. The link program takes one or more objects files and produces an absolute object file with the extension "ABS". A widely used editor is the MS-DOS EDIT program (or notepad in Windows). Next the "ABS "file is fed into a program called "OH "(Object to Hex Converter) which creates a file with extension "HEX "that these ready to burn into ROM. depending on which assembler you are using. 3. 4. Assemblers require a third step calling linking.

org 0H mov A.prj 22 . up end 3. A acall delay1msec cpl a mov P2. New… from the program menu Type your assembly file.3. After the program has started: Select File. #250 R2. New Project… from the program menu Give some project name: xxxx. Start the µVision Program 2. Select File. Save program with filename: xxxxx. The following is an example of a toggle program. Select Project. a acall delay1msec sjmp route delay1msec: mov up: mov same: djnz djnz ret R3.asm) means assembly language 4. #0ffH route: mov P1. same R3.asm The File type is mentioned at last (. Save… from the program menu The first time you save the program a dialog box will popup and allow you to name your file and file type. #200 R2.1 Evaluation of keil Software: 1.

You should now see the source code of the file typed in earlier Select Peripherals. 5. 6. you can also select this directly. Make: Build Project from the program menu This creates the HEX file you need for the 8051 3. Click on Save in your Project dialog box. Toggle. 7. To set a breakpoint.g. load object file from the program menu. Change the file type to HEX Select your hex file. e. I/O Ports from the program menu. load CPU driver from the program menu The debug program will start a new session Choose the 8051. Select File.dll from the drop down list box. Click on the Add button A dialog-box appears. 8. Click on stop when you are finished. Select Project. Select Run. Port 1. so that you can see the how output varies on ports. Click on go to see the real time update of the I/O ports. allowing you to add files to the project Change the file type to Assembly. 3. double click on the line. Select your assembly file. 7. Hex Click OK 4. 23 .5. dScope debugger… from the program menu Select File. Select Port 0.2 Using the Keil dScope Debugger 1. Click on the Add button then close the Add dialog box. Port 2 and Port 3 6. 2. You can also single step through you program or set break points at locations that you want the debugger to stop at.

2 VCC. 4. The function of each pin is given shows the positions for various LCD.  Ease of programming for characters and graphics. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY [LCD] As in recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED this is due to the following reasons: Fig: 4. In contrast. characters and graphics. VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast. there by the easy relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD.  Incorporation refreshing controller into the LCD. 24 . 4.1 LCD pin descriptions: LCD has 14 pins. VSS and VEE: While VCC and VSS provide + 5 V and ground respectively. This is in contrast to LED. the CPU.4. to keep the data displaying. must refresh the LED.1 Showing LCD Four Line Display  The declining prices of LCD  The ability to display numbers.

3 RS (Register Select): There are two very important registers inside LCD. allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD. the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. Fig: 4. and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. We also use RS= 0to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD ready to receive.5 E (Enable): The LCD to latch information presented to its data pins uses the enable pin. Is RS= 0. as follows: if R/w=1 and RS = 0.To display letters and numbers. D0-D7. R/W=0 when writing. a high to low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins.4 R/W (Read/Write): R/W input allows the user to write information into the LCD or read information from it. a-z. the instruction command code register is selected. When data is supplied to data pins. we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide. if RS=1 the data register is selected. R/W=1 when reading. are used to send information to the LCD or read the contest of the LCD internal registers. 4. allowing the user to send a command such as clear display.4. Cursor at home. 4.6 D0-D7: The 8-bit data pins. the LCD is ready to receive new information. etc. WhenD7=0. When D7 =1. 4.2 Showing a 20x4 Liquid Crystal Display 25 . The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. The busy flag isD7 and can be read when R/W=1 and RS= 0.

cursor on Display on. cursor off Display off. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Table: 4. cursor blinking Display on.CODE 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left) Increment cursor (shift cursor to right) Shift Display right Shift display left Display off.1 Showing Code to execute particular Instruction 26 . cursor off Display on.

enable or configure anything to anything else. Version 1. install. Scientific and Medical applications. plug into. low power short-range radio technology originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets. No longer do people need to connect. This study concluded with radio link as a better option than the optical communication like infrared because of its line of sight limitation. global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level.  IBM Corp. BLUETOOTH PROFILE Bluetooth is low cost. The Bluetooth specification is an open. 27 . This band is reserved for general purpose usage of Industrial. It is not possible to get universal acceptance for a new technology developed by a single company particularly for blue tooth. Thus Bluetooth has to be very robust because many users.5.  Nokia Mobile Phones Bluetooth devices operate at 2. headsets and portable computers. Then they formed Bluetooth Special Interest Group(SIG) to define and promote Bluetooth specification with five key promoters:  Ericsson Mobile Communications  Intel Corp. polluters of this shared spectrum.4 GHz globally available license free band.0 of the Bluetooth came into existence in 1994 when Ericsson Mobile Communication began its study for alternatives to replace the cable and this technology hit the market in 1999. Because numerous corporations are designing and producing vast range of telecom gadgets.  Toshiba Corp.

and a Bluetooth clock. when devices are allowed to transmit. The base band part of the Bluetooth specification describes an algorithm. When Slaves connect to a Master. which can calculate frequency hop sequence from a Bluetooth device address and a Bluetooth clock. 28 . all are synchronized to the Master’s frequency hop sequence. establishes the link with slave. Technical robustness is not possible if the Bluetooth devices operate on the constant frequency.The operating band is divided into 1MHz spaced channels signaling data at 1 mega signals per second for the sake of obtaining maximum available bandwidth. Bluetooth is mainly designed for low power radio frequency link available in the range of 10m. 20m and 100m. Bluetooth devices can operate in two modes for data transfer using Bluetooth devices one has to act as Master and other as Slave. Because all Slaves use the Master’s clock and address. Bluetooth specification allows three different powers they are referred as three classes of Bluetooth devices. The number of time slots among multiple devices is called Time Division Multiplexing. Generally Bluetooth devices hop for every packet or every 2 packet or every 5 packets. It is the Master which initiates the transaction. Its modulation scheme is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). After sending a packet both devices has to jump another radio channel effectively which is called Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). Most importantly Master decides the Frequency Hoping Spectrum. Every Bluetooth device has a unique Bluetooth device address. Bluetooth devices has to jump to another frequency continuously within the available bandwidth. The Master controls how the total available bandwidth is divided among the Slaves by deciding when and how often to communicate with each Slave. which Slave has to follow. The Master controlling the frequency hop sequence. Each Bluetooth timeslot lasts for 625 micro seconds. One Master can have maximum seven slaves thus it has to decide seven different Frequency Hoping Spectrums. They then use this to calculate the frequency hop sequence. they are told the Bluetooth device address and clock of the Master.

Mobile cellular phone to notebook PC Mobile cellular phone to headset Communication between laptop to palm top. Every Bluetooth device has its unique address. Inquiry scan mode is waiting for a packet of Inquiry from other Bluetooth device and Page scan mode is waiting for the packet of connection from other Bluetooth device. The Bluetooth implemented in this application is belonging to Class 1 giving 100 meters radius.  29 . Inquiry scan or Page scan mode. 5. But in real time applications we need to adopt satellite communication to have link with Bluetooth which will be again in microwave band. Bluetooth device can play a role as a master or slave.4GHz. which is composed of twelve hexadecimal digits which is used frequently while establishing the link among the Bluetooth devices.Bluetooth technology uses FHSS as a way to deal with undesired interference.2 Applications: The kind of range one can get using Bluetooth again depends on the number of physical objects available in the surrounding area which always absorb the microwave frequency there by reducing the distance of propagation. A Bluetooth connection can always be made from pair of master and slave devices. It uses microwave frequency of about 2. A slave can be in two modes.5. called BD (Bluetooth Device) address. Bluetooth enables us to work with verity of telephone devices such as Mobile cellular phone to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) through access point    . Master tries to connect itself to other devices and slave is waiting to be connected from other devices.1 Bluetooth Communication: Bluetooth is the international standard of wireless communication.

which is a technique. native to Bluetooth that allows the Parani-ESD minimize radio interference while decreasing the likelihood of over-air hijacking. User friendly ParaniWizard and ParaniWIN are also provided for easy setup on Microsoft Windows.5. Users can easily configure Parani-ESD by using a terminal program such as HyperTerminal and can use Bluetooth wireless communication without modifying user’s existing serial communication program. Parani-ESD has a compact design and can be placed conveniently into devices or equipment. Parani-ESD provides some expanded AT commands for various functions. Parani-ESD can be configured and controlled by typical AT commands. Parani-ESD also supports authentication and Bluetooth data encryption. In addition to the basic AT commands. Its detachable antenna optimizes the quality and distance for wireless communications. 30 .3 BLUETOOTH MODULE Parani-ESD is a module device for wireless serial communication using Bluetooth technology that is international a standard for short range wireless communications. The Parani-ESD delivers better quality of communication than a standard RS232 cables. Parani-ESD supports FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum). Parani-ESD can communicate withother Bluetooth devices that support the Serial Port Profile. Parani-ESD lineup has several models with different communication ranges from 30m (Parani-ESD200/210) up to 100m (Parani-ESD100/110) for use with various applications.

3.3. Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board. Connect Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series to a serial device.3.3 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board: Connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board as shown below.1 Pannel Layout: Fig: 5.2 Connecting the Hardware: This section describes how to connect the Parani-ESD Series to the Jig Board and the Jig Board to the serial device for initial testing. 5. 5.5. Connect a power source to Jig Board for the Parani-ESD Series.1 The Panel Layout of Jig Board. 31 .

3.5 Connecting a Device to Jig Board: Connect the serial data cable between the Jig Board and the serial device.3. If necessary.2 Connecting Parani-ESD to Jig Board 5. Fig: 5. supply power to the serial device attached to the Jig Board. Fig: 5.Fig: 5.4 Connecting Power to Jig Board: Connect the power jack to the power connector of the Jig Board for the ParaniESD Series using the DC power adapter or USB power cable that is included in the package.4 Connecting a Device to Jig Board 32 .3 Connecting Power to Jig Board 5.

SERIAL PORTS The applicable settings for serial ports are as follows. the possibility of data loss becomes greater. the use of hardware flow control is highly recommended.6.1 Table Showing Settings required for use of Serial Ports 6. For large data transmissions. Parani-ESD works as follows. This data is saved temporarily in the internal buffer of ParaniESD and sent repeatedly until the transmission is completed packet by packet. it can cause a transmission delay. When hardware flow control is not being used. In order to prevent this buffer overflow. RTS will be reenabled again to begin receiving data from the host when the buffer has created more room for more data. This can mean a loss of data may occur. When the radio transmission condition is not good enough to send data promptly. 33 . Parani-ESD disables RTS so that it stops receiving any further data from the host when the buffer becomes full.1 Hardware Flow Control: Parani-ESD plugged into its host system transmits data from host to the other side Bluetooth device. If the host sends more data when the buffer is full. As the transmission data becomes large. buffer overflow will make Parani-ESD malfunction consequently. Fig: 6. the Parani-ESD clears the buffer to secure room for the next data when the buffer becomes full. When using hardware flow control.

3 Table Showing Description of each Pin in Parani-ESD200/210 34 .2 Pin Assignment: Fig: 6.6.2 Assignment of Parani-ESD100/110 Fig: 6.

the ESD will not respond or ‘ERROR’message will appear or an abnormal sequence of strings will appear. and Hardware Flow Control. FlowControl OK Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth settings are displayed including BD address.Operation mode. If not.Encryp. AT+BTINFO?. Auth. Operation status. DeviceName.Status. Device name. Authentication. Check the connection status with host equipment. Data Encryption.↵: SD Response: 112233445566. OK. Mode. BLUETOOTH COMMANDS AT↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description: Check if the connection to host equipment is operating normally. Display Bluetooth settings Mode Status Auth Encrypt = = = = MODE0/MODE1/MODE2/MODE3 STANDBY/PENDING/CONNECT 0/1 (Authentication is not activated when 0) 0/1 (Encryption is not activated when 0) HWFC/NoFC FlowControl = 35 .7. The serial parameters of Parani-ESD must be same as those of host equipment.

OK / DISCONNECT.AT+BTSCAN ↵: SD Response: Purpose: devices Description: This allows the inquiry and connection from the other Bluetooth devices. the operation status is back to ‘Pending’. When connection is made with other Bluetooth device. When connection is made and released. Release the current connection 36 .0. Connect to the last connected Bluetooth device ATH ↵ : SD Response: Purpose: Description: The current Bluetooth connection will be disconnected. SD response will display an ‘ERROR’. If it fails to make a connection. This has the same effect as AT+BTSCAN. The operation status will be in ‘Pending’ after this command. It takes about 30 seconds to detect an abnormal disconnection such as power off and moving out of service range.3. To convert the operation status to ‘Standby’ AT+BTCANCEL must be used. OK Wait for inquiry and connection from other Bluetooth ATD <bt address>↵ : SD Response: Purpose : Description : Parani-ESD saves the BD address of the Bluetooth device most recently connected to. OK/ ERROR. SD response will be ‘CONNECT’ with its BD address.

8.1 Cross compiler: This tool is required to build the if user adopts high level language for his application development. IDE GVI application Cross compiler Assembler Simulator Debugger Linker Loader Fig: 8. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS In any embedded systems application development life cycle one has to adopt one of the finest hierarchical approach. Cross compiler converts source code into the instructions of the target controller. In this application Keil micro vision 2 IDE has been used. Because of one is dealing with both hardware and software and vast comprehensibility the development process is very complex. This is given in the line diagram. 37 .1 Classification of Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Integrated Development Environment is the first necessity. 8. The IDE is user friendly software in which one can write the program and see its out come. The IDE will be equipped with many other tools. This approach directly influences the development productivity. The developers job becomes easy when necessary soft wares to carry out many phases of development.

liker and loader are the part of assembler software. Once the code is free from bugs it will be passed to liker. 8. In Keil we have A51 assembler to build our assembly language code. 38 .2 Assembler: This tool takes instructions and converts into operation code of the target controller. 8. 8. This process is quite lengthy and carried out phase by phase. It creates an absolute sequential code which is to be executed. 8.4 Linker: Linking operations like attaching starting address of a subroutine to the main program will be done by liker. 8. First it has to be tested in our IDE itself. Assembler is the combination of debugger.5 Loader: It simply takes liked file and converts into hex code which can be downloaded into the micro controller. The tool provided by an IDE which shows an exact replica of micro controllers perception is nothing but our simulator.3 Debugger: As its name itself indicates it is for fixing the bugs that is all syntax errors from the code.6 Simulator: Once the code is ready then it is always not a good idea to dump into micro controller. All debugger.The output of the cross compiler given to an assembler. linker and loader. Since it is the programmers choice to go to high level languages Keil offers C51 as the cross compiler it compiles only Embedded C code not other like Embedded C++ and Embedded Java.

9. Fig: 9.) switch contact and the common switch contact. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N. RELAYS 9. as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1.1 Introduction: One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.2 Showing Mechanical Operation of Relay 39 . as shown in figure 2b.2 How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off. A relay consists of a coil which may be energised by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts which may be connected to the high-voltage circuit. Fig: 9.1 Relay Providing Isolation between two circuits 9.C.O. the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N. If a current is passed through the coil.

The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).3 The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3.9. it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. Fig: 9.3 Showing The Latching Relay Circuit 40 .

5 LCD_RW EQU P1.1 SW2 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA 41 .#80H .2 SW3 EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A. TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H .3 SW4 EQU P1.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.10.6 LCD_EN EQU P1.4 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#99H . CODE PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH TRANSMITTER LCD_RS EQU P1.#84H .

BT_NOTINIT MOV A.#-3 MOV IE.#40H MOV TMOD.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 42 .#'O'.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#'K'.@R0 CJNE A.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#50H MOV TH1.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#20H MOV SCON.#42H MOV A.TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#94H .#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H .#0D4H .#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.

#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#12 MOV R0.#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#ATBTSCAN CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD 43 .#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#40H MOV A.MOV A.#40H MOV A.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#42H MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.

MOV DPTR.D1_OFF JNB SW3.#'2' MOV SBUF.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'3' MOV SBUF.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: ACALL SWITCHES SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT:MOV A.#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ SWITCHES: JNB SW1.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#'1' MOV SBUF.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D2_OFF RET /*----------------------------------------*/ D1_ON: MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.D2_ON JNB SW4.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP 44 D1_OFF: D2_ON: .D1_ON JNB SW2.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.

A INC R0 RETI TX: RETI /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ LCD_INIT: MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.A ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.D2_OFF: MOV A.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#'4' MOV SBUF.TX RX: MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET 45 .RX JBC TI.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA SJMP MAIN_LOOP /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: JBC RI.SBUF MOV @R0.

HERE2 RET /*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.#100 AGAIN3: DJNZ R5.@A+DPTR MOV B.#250 HERE1: MOV R3.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#50 AGAIN1: MOV R5.B SUBB A.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: DELAY: MOV R4.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.HERE DJNZ R2.#0DH JZ EXIT 46 .A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.

0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".I.0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".0H END 47 .0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".0DH.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK".EXIT: MOV A.0 ATBTSCAN: DB "AT+BTSCAN".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".R.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".0DH.0H WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0DH.0H COLL: DB "S.0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".S.T".0 DB "BT OK".T.

4 LED1 EQU P2.TO DISPLAY PROJ DEV BY ACALL LCD_CMD 48 .6 LCD_EN EQU P1.#COLL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.TO DISPLAY WELCOME TO ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#PLACE ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE PLACE ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.1 SW2 EQU P1.1 ORG 00H LJMP MAIN ORG 0023H LJMP S_INT MAIN: ORG 100H CLR LED1 CLR LED2 MOV P2.PROGRAM FOR BLUETOOTH RECIEVER LCD_RS EQU P1.#00H CALL LCD_INIT MOV A.#0C3H .0 LED2 EQU P2.2 SW3 EQU P1.#99H .#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#84H .#80H .#WEL ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.3 SW4 EQU P1.TO DISPLAY COLLEGE NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.5 LCD_RW EQU P1.7 LCD_DATA EQU P0 SW1 EQU P1.

#40H MOV TMOD.#50H MOV TH1.TO DISPLAY JUNAID NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CJNE A.#ATCMD ACALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.BT_NOTINIT MOV A.TO DISPLAY ANAD NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.BT_NOTINIT INC R0 MOV A.MOV DPTR.#90H SETB TR1 BACK: MOV A.#'K'.#42H MOV A.#PDV ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#0C0H .TO DISPLAY MUSHTAQ NAME ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#20H MOV SCON.#'O'.#85H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#BTOK CALL DISPLAY_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC CALL DELAY_1SEC 49 .#0D4H .#NAME2 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#NAME1 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.@R0 CJNE A.#-3 MOV IE.#0C4H CALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#NAME3 ACALL DISPLAY_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#94H .

#40H MOV A.#DAIL CALL TRANSMIT_DATA CALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#40H MOV A.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#42H MOV A.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#0C0H 50 .@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.BTADDR_LOOP ACALL DELAY_1SEC ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R0.MOV A.#42H MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV R0.#01H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MOV A.#ATBT CALL TRANSMIT_DATA ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV R7.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C3H ACALL LCD_CMD BTADDR_LOOP: MOV A.#12 MOV R0.@R0 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 DJNZ R7.#83H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.@R0 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC R0 MOV A.

#BTNOTOK ACALL DISPLAY_DATA LJMP BACK /*---------------------------------------*/ CHECK: CJNE A.#'4'.#'1'.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA MAIN_LOOP: MOV R0.#'2'.NEXT2 SETB LED2 CALL DEVICE2ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.NEXT3 CLR LED2 CALL DEVICE2OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP RET NEXT: NEXT1: NEXT2: NEXT3: /*----------------------------------------*/ DEVICE1ON: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT1 CLR LED1 CALL DEVICE1OFF SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#0C4H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.NEXT SETB LED1 CALL DEVICE1ON SJMP MAIN_LOOP CJNE A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#40H ACALL CHECK SJMP MAIN_LOOP BT_NOTINIT: MOV A.#D1ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET 51 .#'3'.

DEVICE1OFF: ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.@A+DPTR JZ EXIT1 CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP BACK1 EXIT1: RET /*------------------------------------------*/ 52 .#D1OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.#0C0H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.TX MOV A.#80H ACALL LCD_CMD MOV DPTR.SBUF MOV @R0.#D2ON ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET ACALL DELAY_1SEC MOV A.A INC R0 RETI RETI TX: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*LCD DISPLAY*/ DISPLAY_LCD: BACK1: CLR A MOVC A.RX JBC TI.#D2OFF ACALL DISPLAY_DATA RET DEVICE2ON: DEVICE2OFF: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*SERIAL INTERRUPT*/ S_INT: RX: JBC RI.

#250 HERE1: MOV R3.#100 DJNZ R5.A CLR LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET LCD_DATAOUT: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#06H CALL LCD_CMD RET LCD_CMD: CALL DELAY MOV LCD_DATA.#0CH CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#30H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#01H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.#38H CALL LCD_CMD MOV A.AGAIN3 DJNZ R4.HERE1 DJNZ R1.#250 HERE: DJNZ R3.A SETB LCD_RS CLR LCD_RW SETB LCD_EN NOP CLR LCD_EN RET DELAY: AGAIN1: AGAIN3: MOV R4.#50 MOV R5.HERE DJNZ R2.LCD_INIT: MOV A.#4 HERE2: MOV R2.AGAIN1 RET /*--------------------------------*/ /*DELAY OF 1 SECOND*/ DELAY_1SEC: MOV R1.HERE2 RET 53 .

0 ATBT: DB "AT+BTINFO?".0 D1ON: DB "DEVICE1 ON ".0DH.0 DAIL: DB "ATD00019505FF5D.A JZ EXIT MOV SBUF.B CALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP TRANSMIT_DATA RET EXIT: /*----------------------------------------*/ /*DISPLAY OF DATA*/ DISPLAY_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.0DH.0 BTNOTOK: DB "BT NOT OK"./*---------------------------------------*/ /*TO TRANSMIT DATA*/ TRANSMIT_DATA: CLR A MOVC A.A ACALL DELAY MOV A.#0DH JZ EXIT MOV A.0H D2ON: DB "DEVICE2 ON ".".@A+DPTR JZ EXIT2 ACALL LCD_DATAOUT INC DPTR JMP DISPLAY_DATA RET EXIT2: /*-----------------------------------------*/ /*DATA*/ ATCMD: BTOK: DB "AT".B SUBB A.0 DB "BT OK".0H D1OFF: DB "DEVICE1 OFF".0H D2OFF: DB "DEVICE2 OFF".0H 54 .0DH.@A+DPTR MOV B.

0H NAME2:DB "JUNAID".0H NAME1:DB "MUSHTAQ".R.T".0H PLACE:DB "NALGONDA".S.WEL: DB "WELCOME TO".0H PDV: DB "PROJ DEV BY:".0H NAME3: DB "ANAND".0H END 55 .T.I.0H COLL: DB "S.

If this can be done. 56 . and also correct most of the connection setup issues. there will certainly be a future for Bluetooth. Future Scope Bluetooth is also itself getting better.1. CONCLUSION In conclusion. They are currently on version 1. it will be a extremely difficult obstacle for any emerging technology to overcome. it will grab a large share of the wireless device market. interference. If the technology itself continues to go unchallenged in the market. based on the evidence from this research that the Bluetooth technology is definitely a technology with valuable uses in today’s world. With the backing of all the companies that have put money into researching and developing Bluetooth products. All the while they are keeping it backward compatible with the current version. Also there is a group called Radio2 that is working on the problems Bluetooth has with bandwidth. and connection setup issues.11. even though it possesses its drawbacks. The Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) is always working on a new version of specifications. significantly decrease the interference with other technologies. Bluetooth will be able to compete well with the performance of new emerging technologies. If the Radio2 group can significantly increase the bandwidth.

Websites • • • www. • Bluetooth – Connect without cables by Jennifer Bray and Charles F Sturman.com 57 .com www.12.projects. • 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems using assembly & C by Muhammad Ali Mazidi.philips.org www.Ayala. BIBLIOGRAPHY References • The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. Programming & Applications by Kenneth J.wikipedia.

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