1 Chapter 1 - Introduction Background This project examined the City of Guelph and the potential integration of existing and

future neighbourhood groups into the City’s emergency management program. Neighbourhood groups and associations exist to improve the quality of life in their communities (Logan & Rabrenovic, 1990) and this is key in the mission statement of the neighbourhood groups in Guelph (City of Guelph). These are people who are already engaged in their community, and have a commitment to assist others. With that desire to help and be involved in place comes the ability to influence the decisions and actions of those in command (Pearce, 2002) through influence and contact. This project seeks to find ways to utilize this engaged group of citizens in enhancing the City of Guelph’s emergency management program in ways that will be accepted and supported by neighbourhood groups and municipal decision makers. Without an aligning of goals between the population and emergency management decision makers, there is a potential for assistance to be offered but not accepted. Purpose of the Research This research was conducted to determine knowledge of emergency management within the existing neighbourhood groups established in the City of Guelph. This requires an assessment of current emergency management knowledge within the executive and other members of neighbourhood groups, and a measure of the satisfaction of past emergency management communication between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups. This research made an assumption that both neighbourhood groups, and the emergency operations control group and senior managers of the City of Guelph would see benefit in working together to improve the community, and that there is a willingness

2 to be involved by neighbourhood groups and the City of Guelph in that communication process. This project sought to answer the following question about the neighbourhood groups and their interaction with the City of Guelph during an emergency: What role do neighborhood groups play in preparing residents to understand their roles and responsibilities for self-preservation and recovery in the City of Guelph prior to, during, and after an emergency? More specifically, this research examined the following: 1. Does the City of Guelph communicate with our neighborhood groups to ensure that residents understand their roles? 2. Is communication effective between the City of Guelph and neighborhood groups? 3. How does the City of Guelph ensure an understanding of local emergency plans and methods exists within our neighborhood groups? 4. How does the City of Guelph include the need to self organize a response at a neighborhood level within the municipal plans? 5. Do repeated warnings prior to an event de-sensitize neighborhood groups to danger, thereby reducing the seriousness of their required response?

Definitions During this paper, the following definitions will assist the reader in understanding the terms and functions referred to. Communications – The process of disseminating useable information to other persons who receive and understand the message (Merriamwebster.com)

3 Community Emergency Management Coordinator (CEMC) – A qualified emergency manager responsible for administration of an emergency plan. An emergency management practitioner. (Guelph.ca) Emergency Management – The managerial function charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disaster (International Association of Emegency Managers) Emergency Management Ontario – A provincial agency that is tasked with emergency management coordination functions for municipalities and provincial agencies. Known by its acronym EMO. Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) – A place of operations equipped with communications systems that facilitate command and control over resources during a time of crisis or potential crisis. Emergency Operations Control Group (EOCG) – A group of individuals who are senior staff for the City of Guelph, and are designated by by-law to issue instructions and give direction in a time of emergency.(Guelph.ca) Exercise – Fan out list – An opportunity to test local emergency preparations and plans. A list maintained by an organization with contact information to allow the quick dissemination of information through the organization. (thefreedictionary.com) Mitigation The process of taking action to prevent or reduce emergency or disaster situation effects.- to make less severe or painful (merriam-webster.com)

municipally . the establishment of a new normal for that affected area.000 persons (Statistics Canada.com) The frame of reference . Fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (Guelph.the City of Guelph The City of Guelph is a mid-size city located in Southern of approximately 135. Guelph has its own municipal Police. Guelph is a city.ca). 1990). formally or informally.com) Public Alert Messaging (PAM) – A geographical information system based emergency notification system capable of voice messaging all businesses and residences within the City of Guelph during an emergency. A state of adequate preparedness (merriam- webster. (Cindy Richardson. 2009). (merriam-webster. Neighbourhood Group Executive – Members of a neighbourhood group who have organizational or leadership functioning within the group. plus City staff advisors.4 Neighbourhood Group – A civic organization oriented toward maintaining or improving the quality of life in a geographically delimited residential area (Logan & Rabrenovic.ca) Prevention/Preparedness -The process of planning and preparations for a potential disaster. 2009) Neighbourhood Coalition Support Group (NCSG) – A support committee comprised of delegates from each of the 12 existing neighbourhood groups of the City of Guelph. (City of Guelph) Recovery The rebuilding of an area affected by a disaster or emergency. (Guelph.

located in the downtown area of Guelph.S. 80°20'W (www. The Eramosa River flows into the City from the northeast. the municipality must train members and exercise its Emergency Management Plan at least once per year. In addition. Guelph is located at 43°35'N. The GRCA has built and maintains flood control structures located on the Speed River at the Guelph Lake (dam). Guelph is subject to Federal law and regulation.mapsofworld. The Speed River is a major contributory of the Grand River watershed. This requires that the municipality have in place a Community Emergency Management Coordinator. Guelph maintains an emergency management plan that is authorized by bylaw City of Guelph By-Law(2009) #18713 (City of Guelph) that prescribes the required emergency management plan in accordance with the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act of Ontario. and an Emergency Management Plan. and municipal by-laws. The Eramosa River is a tributary of the Speed River. but located geographically within Wellington County (Municipal Affairs and Housing). The Speed River flows into Guelph from the north. and operates weirs in Royal City Park in the downtown area of Guelph. 1990 (EMCPA). and consists of rolling terrain. provincial law and regulation. and Emergency Operations Center. and the Grand River Conservation Authority (GRCA) manages both the Speed and Eramosa rivers. and is bisected by two rivers. with its headwaters in the northern area of Wellington County. At present. with its headwaters located in the Luther marsh. the training and exercise includes staff members and some volunteer agencies within the City.O. R. . at the northwestern area of Wellington County. joining with the Speed at the confluence of the two rivers.com).5 distinct from.

The population of Guelph is affected daily by both influx and outflow for employment. and Conestoga College.6 The major employers in Guelph are government. Cindy Richardson. . Their source of funding continues to be the City of Guelph. Each of these neighborhood groups has its own governance style. there are 12 neighborhood groups that have formed and are active within the City (personal communication. The community itself has encouraged the growth and development of neighborhood groups to enhance the quality of life in the city (City of Guelph). this is due to the proximity of this residential area to provincial highway 401. These groups are formed by neighborhood. a main east/west transportation corridor in southern Ontario. Cindy Richardson. At present. Guelph is home to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. and light and heavy manufacturing (City of Guelph). by utilizing natural and geographic boundaries to describe the areas serviced. 2009). Guelph is a local hub for agriculture in the southwest area of Ontario. 2009) and were tasked with community building activities. a high percentage of the population is involved in commuting outside the community for employment. whose function is to coordinate and offer support for each of the individual neighborhood groups. In the geographic south east of Guelph. and at present. university. the tasks and activities of these groups are under study by the City. These groups were initially formed 10 years ago (personal communication. Each of the neighborhood groups is invited to participate in the Neighborhood Coalition Support Group (NCSG). the University of Guelph (a major agriculture school) including the Ontario Veterinary College. In part. and membership duties.

Ontario . Each of the individual neighborhood groups operates autonomously at the neighborhood level to support the needs of children youth and families within the neighborhood (City of Guelph). The councilors sit as a council of the whole and as separate committees responsible for service areas. and has staff assigned to develop and assist neighborhood groups. All neighbourhood groups are invited to contribute delegates to the Neighbourhood Support Coalition. The Fire Chief is designated as the Director of Emergency Services. governs Guelph. Guelph supports community involvement. and they are encouraged and coordinated through the Neighborhood Support Coalition. others do not (personal communication.7 The neighbourhood groups are funded by the City. 2009). There are two councilors elected from each of the 6 wards within the City. City council encourages public participation in the governance of the city. and has established and published guiding principles for public involvement (City of Guelph). Some groups have cityfunded coordinators in paid staff positions. Guelph has an emergency management structure at a municipal level. Neighbourhood group organizations primarily consist of volunteers. and they have executive functions that are not consistent across the 12 groups. A municipal council. Cindy Richardson. and actively encourages neighborhoods to engage themselves to create a strong and vibrant community. These neighbourhood groups are encouraged to define neighborhood areas through the use of geographic features such as rivers and green space boundaries. A map of the geographic distribution of the neighbourhood groups is attached at Appendix A. consisting of an elected mayor and 12 councilors who are elected by a ward system. and as such is the senior staff member directly responsible for emergency management within the City. and are responsible for enhancing the quality of life within the borders of their neighbourhood area.

Each of the duty officers has a background that will assist the EOCG in an emergency. either of these facilities could be used to host the EOCG. Police Chief. other community agencies or community members can be invited into the EOC during an emergency. No staff is assigned directly to emergency management on a full time basis. There is also a backup EOC within the municipality.8 requires that each community have a designated Emergency Management Coordinator.g. Guelph has a consultant under contract as the Community Emergency Management Coordinator (CEMC). and maintains two alternate CEMC’s who are full time employees assigned to other full time duties but who can assume the CEMC role if needed. In addition to these members. There are primary members and alternate members for each of the areas represented. and four outlying fire stations housing personnel and . and recommends that alternates also be named. an Emergency Operations Control Group (EOCG) and regular training and exercising of the emergency plan (City of Guelph). Chief Administrative Official. The Guelph EOC is a fully equipped primary facility located within a secure building that is part of the municipal holdings. The emergency bylaw (City of Guelph ByLaw(2009) #18713) stipulates that Guelph will comply with the Regulations issued under the EMCPA for communities. and Director of Public Works) and politicians who become the emergency decision makers for the municipality in a time of emergency. Accordingly. Guelph has a municipal fire service that consists of a fire headquarters/station located in the downtown area. Fire Chief. an Emergency Operations Centre (EOC). Mayor. requiring an Emergency Management Coordinator (CEMC). The EOCG is comprised of senior staff of various City departments (e. In an emergency. There are currently three duty officers assigned to the EOCG during an emergency.

This service consists of primary care paramedics and advanced care paramedics. known as a “bottom up approach” (Wachtendorf. The EMS has ambulances and a supervisor/administrative unit (City of Guelph). The fire service has one dispatch center located at the headquarters with full time communicators. Any emergency or disaster will have impacts on the persons who inhabit that area. the province. and then the federal government. This PSAP responsibility ensures that the police communications section is staffed appropriately at all times to answer 911 calls for assistance.9 equipment. Guelph has a municipal EMS that provides paramedic services to Guelph and Wellington County. Guelph Police Service is governed by a Police Services Board. This allows seamless technical interoperability of Police. and provides services to the municipality. and firefighters and officers who are deployed among the headquarters and stations. The Police Service has full time officers and communicators. and after that assistance will be available through the municipality. Guelph has a digital trunked emergency communication system that is interoperable between Police. This trunked communication system is also compatible with the Ontario Government Network of mobile communications. 2001). Fire and EMS. Fire and EMS functions with provincial counterparts if required. and the local organizations and businesses that serve a community will be front and center during . and is responsible for providing Public Service Answering Point (PSAP) services for the City. Benefit for the municipality and community in collaborating on emergency management The Ontario and Canadian emergency management models are centered on the basis that the individual is responsible for their own wellbeing for the first 72 hours.

What is not clear is what the level of acceptance of this involvement will be. These can be professional organizations and businesses. and secondly the . and an important part of the fabric of a community (Waugh & Streib. Engaging and utilizing dedicated community minded persons involved with neighbourhood groups who are willing to assist others in a time of emergency is a natural extension of the established practice. There are two elements to consider in community involvement: that of the neighbourhood groups themselves being able and committed to involvement in community emergencies by offering advice and communication abilities to the municipality. Guelph already utilizes several community volunteer and professional agencies as part of its emergency planning such as St. but also local service agencies providing services to a community. This ability to help itself is an important part of any recovery effort in assisting a community to heal after an emergency. They form part of the capacity of the community to provide for itself. and post event as part of the recovery effort (Rodriguez et al. or primarily volunteers. both before the event as part of a mitigation strategy. 2007). The neighbourhood groups will also benefit from formalizing a relationship with City emergency managers that provides them with information. pre-organized community minded volunteers. allows community members to help themselves. and assists in the fulfillment of their organizational goals. The municipality will benefit from having a formalized interaction during an emergency with established neighbourhood groups through the additional capacity neighbourhood groups have to communicate information. 2006).. and the proximity of resources to the affected areas in the community. John Ambulance and the Humane Society. These organizations include not only local emergency management officials.10 those times.

. is a failure to do due diligence (EMO Guidelines. and neighborhood groups within Guelph. 2007. To be effective.11 level of assistance and involvement by the community that the municipality will be willing to accept and at what direct cost to the municipal budget. Failing to do due diligence will result in legal action being taken. being indicative of a failure in leadership by emergency management professionals. Research Needs The need for research in community engagement for emergency management is immense. and ethically it will be very difficult to accept. p. This requires effective communications as part of the emergency prevention and mitigation processes. which retains responsibility for emergency planning. must meet their needs. and must provide accurate and reliable information as well as sufficient lead time to allow them to take appropriate action. which have the goal of improving the quality of life in the community. ii).” (Rodriguez et al. however. 2007). p. 477). The purpose of this research study is to investigate the effectiveness of communication between the City of Guelph. Our population trusts in the municipality to . injury or death. We mitigate against hazards occurring. they must be understood. failure to communicate with the potentially affected population thereby affording the opportunity to further reduce losses of property. 2008. For example. Residents and businesses of the community must be adequately informed and engaged in the emergency management process in order to assist themselves in a time of emergency (Rodriguez et al. communication must engage stakeholders and inspire them to participate as full partners in the emergency management process.. “In order for weather forecasts and warnings to be useful to individuals and communities.

12 ensure that due diligence is done, and that before and during a time of disaster, the municipality will be able to provide the required planning and resources to ensure the safety and security of the populace. The failure to prepare and adequately communicate with an area affected by a disaster, prior to the disaster occurring, will be a source of litigation after a disaster. Morally and ethically, we as disaster management professionals must ensure that the expectations of the public are met or exceeded. Assumptions As part of this research I have made an assumption that both neighbourhood groups and the municipality will see the benefit in the community being involved in emergency management. I have also made the assumption that executive members of neighbourhood groups will be prepared to answer a survey; that they will see involvement in emergency management as part of their mandate to improve the quality of life in their neighbourhood; that they will be interested in participating in this research project; and that they will answer questions honestly reflecting their own knowledge about their neighbourhood groups. I have assumed that executive members of neighbourhood groups have a good working knowledge of their membership, and that they have the desire, ability and willingness to provide resources, material or human, to assist others in their community in an emergency. I have assumed that members of neighbourhood groups are not suffering from volunteer burn out. I have also made some assumptions about the municipality: that the municipality itself will be prepared to engage the neighbourhood groups and have them participate as emergency management partners to help serve the community. I have assumed that the municipality would welcome a pool of organized volunteers when assistance was required, putting the community need ahead of any financial, contractual, or human

13 resource use issues during an emergency. I have assumed that the municipality would be prepared to share resources without expectation of reimbursement for them with the understanding that the resources will benefit the community, not specific individuals or businesses. I have assumed that the municipality desires the best possible emergency management program for the community, and that it will welcome community input and involvement in this area.

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Chapter 2 – Literature review A review of the literature reveals that considerable research has been done in the area of crisis communications (Basolo et al., 2009; Brandon, 2002; Comfort & Haase, 2006; Eisenmann et al., 2007; Gow, 2007; Kapucu, 2008; Kapucu 2008A; Paton, 2003; Seeger, 2006; Spence et al, 2007) and based on this literature review, how well we communicate with the public to ensure preparedness has not been a major area of study. The majority of the published research available deals with communication in the actual time of crisis, rather than communication to enhance pro-active response in the community. As a result, the literature review for this study was conducted with a focus on the following literature review themes: (1) the need for a definition of a crisis, (2) international guidelines, (3) the North American experience documented in literature thus far, and (4) community groups and their importance in improving quality of life in the community. Literature on each of these themes is presented in turn.

Crisis defined Spence et al. (2007), define crisis as “a specific, unexpected, and non-routine event or series of events that create high levels of uncertainty and threaten or are perceived to threaten high priority goals”(p. 540). Spence et al crafted a list of crises that includes chemical or nuclear disasters, major plane crashes, space exploration catastrophes, terrorist attacks, and public health threats. They believe a crisis to be an event that requires extraordinary efforts and quick responses to counteract these events and avoid disruption of everyday life. Emergency management prepares for, responds to, and assists in the recovery from a crisis event. Perry (2007) links crisis and disaster, noting that we must decide if they are a social phenomenon, a natural or technological process.

September 28. Agencies providing assistance to an affected populace must have regard to the needs of that populace. 2009). International Guidelines The Humanitarian Accountability Partnership (HAP) is an international association that is “the humanitarian sector's first international self-regulatory body” (HAP. this . and note that disaster researchers have paid little attention to conflicts between people and the breakdown of economic and technological systems in disaster planning. communication and prevention strategy. If proper communication exists. This can be extrapolated in the area of mitigation/preparedness to include that the needs of the people served must be taken into account prior to any emergency occurring. The noted literature shows a wide definition of what can be considered a crisis or disaster within the realm of emergency management. not the donor’s ability to provide finances and material. Scott Graham of the American Red Cross noted that it is always a challenge to help donors find the right way. This standard was created to ensure that agencies providing humanitarian need were doing so in a consistent manner. Additional HAP standards include reducing the risk of further disaster by ensuring that assistance rendered does not further jeopardize the safety and wellbeing of the population. 42). Burby (1998) notes that disasters include the disruption of economic systems.15 Boin and T’Hart (2007) state “The terms “crisis” and “disaster” are often used synonymously”(p. The engagement of the community is mandated to ensure a proper two-way flow of communication exists prior to any actual emergency. This is a governing body of humanitarian relief agencies who undertake to support populations affected by disaster in a time of need. What they want to donate is not always appropriate (personal communication. and that assistance is reflective of the need of the people served. 2009). requiring a broad spectrum of planning.

” (United Nations) North American experiences Naim Kapucu (2008) supports the view that agencies must be responsive to the needs of their communities and engage them in communicating effectively to achieve success in emergency planning and preparedness. disaster reduction was determined to be a national and local priority. and will facilitate community engagement in response and recovery efforts to a greater degree. Kapucu contrasts communication approaches taken during hurricane Katrina by the State of Louisiana and the hurricane preparedness efforts undertaken in the State of Florida during the 2004 hurricane season. the strategic management of volunteer resrouces. The same is true of municipalities in regard to disaster planning. During Katrina. He maintains the State of Florida took a pro-active approach to communication. participating in community events and workshops to ensure high levels of preparedness existed prior to the actual hurricane season. the promotion of networking. they must be responsive to the needs of the communities they serve. The United Nations through its international strategy for disaster reduction (UN/ISDR) also reflects this requirement of community engagement.16 will assist the community preparedness and mitigation efforts prior to the emergency. we know what the . It is the expectation of the world’s major relief agencies that organizations providing relief will be responsive to the needs of the communities they serve. the attribution of roles and responsibilities and the delegation and provision of the necessary resources. In the Hyogo framework. Specifically noted was the need for community participation: “Promote community participation in disaster risk reduction through the adoption of specific policies.

Thus. maintaining and participating in community groups.238). or lack of relationships within a community can cause required resources to be funneled either to or . 2006. HarrisonWard. The Florida experience is exemplified as a model to follow. the level of preparation was not high. 2007. Neighbourhood groups or associations are defined as: a civic organization oriented toward maintaining or improving the quality of life in a geographically delimited residential area (Logan & Rabrenovic. p. in risk and crisis management. leading the reader to believe that the action still responds to the crisis. This he describes as pre-event planning. 2003). engaging the community as a prevention strategy. I agree with Seeger’s approach in that investing time and effort in creating effective dialogue will enhance community safety and self-help. the public can serve as a resource. thereby reducing risks to the population (Betts. rather than a burden. They believe that citizen participation is a fundamental element of community resiliency and creates a sense of belonging required to keep a community together. “Ideally. In the Seeger (2006) article. However. yet with little pre-education done. In Murphy (2007) we find an acknowledgement that relationships. he does acknowledge the value of partnerships with the public. Community and Neighbourhood Groups Norris et al. I agree with Kapucu’s view that emergency managers must actively engage the community in order to provide effective communication to the community prior to the actual emergency event. 1990). (2008) assert that the community must have citizen engagement. which can occur through a process of establishing. the author acknowledges the importance of being proactive in the crisis communication process.17 communication efforts were to warn people of the impending approach of the hurricane. crisis communication best practices would emphasize a dialogic approach” (Seeger.

Disaster preparedness contributes to resilience. 1993). This quality of life can be in both tangible and intangible ways. Neighborhood groups and communities are dedicated to improving the quality of life for those in the community (Kretzman & McKnight. neighbourhood associations have as their smallest unit 10 to 20 neighbouring families.18 away from an affected area. and suggest that emergency managers should be prepared to engage them. and through neighbourhood association communication. thereby increasing quality of life. This study concluded (p 57) that generally diffusion of warning through a neighborhood association was not effective. by officials by way of patrol car. In Kretzman and McKnight (1993) we find the concept of capacity focused approach to community building. and five to 10 units make up an association. and others receiving disproportionately more assistance that they should. Murphy also describes. In Ohbu. how emergent social groups offering ad-hoc assistance within the community demonstrate a desire to help not only one self. An asset in that community can be as simple as a neighborhood association that is empowered to make the quality of life in that community better for the residents. by media. Japan that was transmitted by several means. using a Canadian example. but also those in similar circumstances. This utilizes the capacity found within the community to assist in the community’s own development. Neighbourhood group involvement Ikeda (1982) examined public compliance with an evacuation order in Obhu. In Gumpert and Drucker (2008) they note that a standard of living is distinct from a quality of life. What it also concluded was that when neighborhood association was the medium (personal) the message was . This unequal distribution of social capital leaves some areas of a society potentially disadvantaged. McEntire (2002) acknowledges that emergent groups are important during an emergency response after disaster.

They suggest that the ideal outcome would be the creation and maintenance of citizen advisory committees to provide general guidance on emergency plans. understandable information on the nature of hazards faced. They note that traditional educational efforts to communication hazards and plans reach large numbers of persons at a moderate cost.19 more likely to be effective. where it was under 40% for other means. and note that they will turn inwards to their ethnic communities and support systems for information. 2009). and through direct contact in the community including schools. When warning was received through the neighbourhood association. neighborhoods and community organizations. but have the disadvantage of using primarily one way communication. They suggest that through citizen involvement in planning. individuals will seek to confirm information prior to taking action (Petal. Cottrell (2006) particularly notes that this is the case where . Lindell and Perry (1992) also acknowledge the needs of persons who are linguistically challenged. This is consistent with other research that shows in a time of crisis. Lindell and Perry (1992) indicate that the desired engagement can occur in many ways from simply having those involved in emergency management talking about their work and plans to those they interact with. and gaining that compliance through community contacts will be beneficial. to creating an information line for the public. the level of voluntary compliance will be increased. the evacuation rate was over 50%. This confirming information will be sought out from a source that the individuals affected believe is credible. and exchange of information in a two-way communication flow. They note that voluntary compliance is more successful than enforced for emergency directives. Lindell and Perry (1992) incorporate community involvement in emergency preparedness and response.

This includes establishing the level of acceptance within neighbourhood groups for involvement in the emergency management . Paton suggests that integration of the community is required in emergency management. Paton (2003) notes the positive effect of collaboration within a community regardless of the type of initially shared problem. Cottrell concludes that resilience can be enhanced through the encouragement of coping strategies including effective support networks. community boards or action groups. They benefit both in the participatory process and the results of CBDRM and community development. neighborhood watch. I believe that this would be a goal to achieve.20 there is a difference in the informational requirements of individuals depending upon gender. representatives of community groups (e. involving the community in the process rather than imposing decisions on it. to involve the community through neighbourhood groups at the base level in decisions. including tapping into existing community organizations. Given the higher propensity of females to reach out to others within their community for information. “To facilitate this integration. 314) He reiterates there is a need for emergency planning to empower the community. Victoria notes that in community based disaster risk management (CBDRM) the community members are the main actors. religious and ethnic groups) could be invited to review hazard scenarios with regard to the potential challenges.”(p. and that steps must be taken toward gradual involvement. I believe that this will not occur all at once. opportunities and threats they could pose for each group. providing information through these trusted community sources would fill an information void with accurate. timely guidance.g. Victoria (2009) recognizes that community-based disaster management that builds on and strengthens community capacity reduces vulnerability and disaster risk.

(Pearce.133). and less so at in the preparedness and recovery phases. This surge of individuals may be required to augment first responder and established capacities. mitigation. and recovery effort within the community. Waugh and Streib (2006) recognize that emergency management has changed from its initial civil defence roots and has become flexible in how the organizations operate within a framework. that is required to address the emergency faced. Waugh and Strieb note that “volunteers provide essential surge capacity and links to community resources” (p. which assumes individual families must be prepared to exist without assistance for the first 72 hours. This view is consistent with that of emergency management in Canada. I believe that this must include organized neighbourhood groups. 132). The adaptability of the emergency management system has become key to a successful outcome. Stallings and Quarantelli (1985) acknowledge that at present emergent groups exist within emergencies in the response phase primarily. neighbourhood groups can be considered emergent groups. public . 2002). not only with the neighbourhood groups themselves. professional or non-professional.21 process. 94). Waugh and Streib understand that “emergency management capacity is built from the ground up. and prior to any emergency occurring. Emergency mangers must plan to engage these neighbourhood groups. The emergency manager must be able to work effectively with any coalition of organizations. Neighbourhood and community programs have to stand on their own because assistance may not arrive for hours or days” (p. as they are at the ground level in any prevention. but also with the emergency management practitioners and officials. They define emergent groups as “private citizens who work together in pursuit of collective goals relevant to actual or potential disasters but whose organization has not yet become institutionalized” (p. By this definition.

crisis or disaster there are expectations about how agencies are . rather than trying to establish relationships with new stakeholders during an emergency situation. and activating networks of public communication. are believed to build and maintain the social capital upon which the vitality of the governance system and sustainable development are dependent. British Columbia as an example of neighbourhood level engagement in emergency management through disaster equipment inventories. embodying norms of trust. rather than dealing with isolated individuals or independent groups of individuals ad hoc during an emergency. Pre-planning with these neighbourhood groups prior to an emergency allows emergency managers to deal with organized groups with an established legitimate relationship. I have concluded that during the phases of an emergency. Collaboration is key to the emergency effort (Waugh & Strieb. reciprocity. and inclusion. Pearce cites Coquitlam. 23) Literature review synopsis As a result of the review of the noted literature. and through knowledge of individuals in the neighbourhood who have special needs during an emergency. Pearce (2002) recognizes that public participation in disaster management is gradually becoming accepted and is key for successful prevention initiatives. 2006) and through early engagement. This includes the inclusion of the public through development of neighbourhood emergency programs. tolerance. that coordination is likely to be more effective by working with known entities that are already invested in the process. stockpiling of supplies. Dorcey and McDaniels (1999) as contained in Pearce (2002) state: “Participation in voluntary associations.”(p.22 officials and emergency managers may want to facilitate this engagement.

Communication is key to preparedness and mitigation efforts in a community. such as neighbourhood groups. compliance with directives is highly desired to save property and life. This includes the notion of ensuring that the needs of those who are affected are taken into account. This responsiveness to the needs of those served is internationally recognized and applied by major humanitarian groups. During an emergency. Community groups exist in our communities to enhance the way of life in their communities. and the collaboration with the community during mitigation/preparedness and recovery is highly desired.23 to conduct themselves. and proactive efforts are worthwhile. Neighbourhood groups are community groups. Warnings received through trusted sources. and they consist of persons already predisposed to enhancing the quality of life in their neighbourhood area. One must consider warning fatigue with repeated warnings being given to a community. Knowing the makeup and requirements of the population served is key to providing the appropriate assistance. agencies or governments. The participation of the community through information sharing is desirable in all phases of an emergency. This is particularly important when a community is likely to turn inward for information. and they can be a resource within them. and the effect that this will have on the receivers of the warnings. . Engagement of the community is always desirable in emergency planning. when credibility of the source is an issue. Compliance is best gained in a voluntary manner. The effectiveness of the engagement affects the preparedness and response efforts. may be more effective than those otherwise transmitted. and that the actions taken are reflective of that need as opposed to actions taken strictly on the abilities of the donors. and this is likely to be higher when the source of the request is trusted.

The identification and engagement of these groups prior to an emergency will increase the collaborative success during an emergency. and the community itself can be used to provide the resources needed for this “surge” effort.24 Emergency management has changed from a top down model. where the individuals are the first line of defence. Emergencies will require resources greater than can be readily kept on hand. There is a desire to be involved in the improvement of communities by the residents of those communities. and the emergency management system must be a flexible one that can adapt to changing circumstances. to a bottom driven model. and during an emergency these individuals and groups will emerge. . This responsibility must be communicated clearly.

combined with the knowledge I have acquired through the course of studies in Disaster and Emergency Management at Royal Roads University. This was required to determine not only the desire and capacity of the community to be involved in emergency management. general members. This survey was developed to obtain information about the neighbourhood groups themselves. One of the goals of this research project was to ensure that the responding members of neighbourhood groups pondered the situation that they live in. the willingness of the neighbourhood groups to be involved in the emergency management process as a stakeholder and partner of the . Introduction The data collection tool that was used for this research was an online survey designed to be accessible initially by executive members of the neighbourhood groups only. but the level of acceptance EOCG members and alternates have for the involvement of the community in emergency management.25 Chapter 3 – Research conduct and ethics Research conduct and ethics The source of the survey The themes and information identified in the review of literature. These questions were adapted to be presented to neighbourhood group executive members. and my practical experience as a CEMC have guided the development of the survey questions that were prepared as part of this research. the knowledge level of emergencies and emergency management of the executive members of the neighbourhood groups. and that this reflective process would result in them learning more about their situation and how they interact with emergency management in the community. and to the EOCG members of the City of Guelph.

Based on the local communication strategy. and where they were most likely to get their information from in a time of emergency. and then how the survey was adapted for use with EOCG members and alternates. These choices were based on literature and my experience as an emergency management coordinator. I anticipated that television and radio would be very high . group events. Regardless of the knowledge level of the respondents. access to timely and accurate information is critical. which was designed to get a baseline of emergency management knowledge. and local examples of communication during an emergency. the survey was designed to reinforce an understanding of what those responsibilities are. so respondents were asked about awareness of information. In this chapter. and knowledge of the City of Guelph’s commitment to the use of local media for the dissemination of information. Design The design of the survey was directed so that the initial questions would allow an assessment of the understanding of the level of comprehension of the respondents with respect to their responsibilities during an emergency. public warnings. I describe how the survey was developed for use with neighbourhood groups. Except for the general emergency section. neighbourhood group preparedness. Thirteen choices were put forward for consideration. and the level of satisfaction with the current communication processes between the City of Guelph and the neighbourhood groups. Individual section During an emergency.26 City of Guelph. each of the sections was designed to obtain responses to the research question and subquestions. The initial survey was separated into several identifiable sections: individual. and encourage learning during this survey from the respondents themselves.

Gow (2007) also acknowledges the emphasis that the federal strategies place on radio and television communication in an emergency. and what their events consist of. the numbers of participants. This centered initially on traditional information dissemination (television/radio/print). 2007). Providing information in a format that can not be easily accessed or utilized during an emergency is futile. television. Devices such as radio. how often the neighbourhood groups meet. In the next series of questions. and then diverged to website based information maintained by the neighbourhood groups. Understanding the level of preparedness of the respondents is important to provide official communication in a format that is accessible for the target audience during an emergency. the use of the information. and ability to utilize the information was inquired about. and a secured section with information only available to those registered members with access to a password protected section of the website was made. A determination of access to information hosted by the neighbourhood group was made. whether there is general information available to anyone with an internet connection.27 in the ranking. Next. to make use of the communication potential within the neighbourhood . Neighbourhood Group Preparedness Section The thrust of this research project is to understand the preparedness level of the neighbourhood groups themselves. cellular/cordless phones and computers/modems for Internet access can be hampered by electrical interruption. and may lead to vital instructions not being received or understood (Rodriguez et al. and the consideration of this as a point of failure for the respondent during an emergency is important. the existence of membership information and updates to that information. The first few questions were designed to understand how the neighbourhood groups themselves are organized.

28 group, inquiry was made about how prepared the respondents would be to share information that may identify them as a person in need of assistance during an emergency (example: mobility issues, health issues). To respond to this need, inquiry was made about items that may be available in the neighbourhood to assist during that emergency, and the desirability of mutual support for neighbourhood members. As not all persons and families have Internet access, and this may be a method of distributing information, the availability of a neighbourhood internet access point was inquired about. Preparedness of individuals and their ability to act in an emergency is influenced by the sense of how prepared the individual thinks that they are (Sorensen & Sorensen, 2007) so respondents were then asked to rate how prepared they were to cope with an emergency situation, how important emergency preparedness was to them personally, and the importance of information availability during a crisis. During a crisis official communication is issued from the City of Guelph EOCG (City of Guelph emergency plan, 2010). How prepared the respondents believe they are to obtain information during an emergency then becomes important information, as does how well the City of Guelph communicates with the neighbourhood groups on a regular basis, and how well the neighbourhood group communicates with its members as a whole under normal circumstances. To determine the preparedness of the neighbourhood groups to assist themselves and others a series of questions were aimed at understanding how well prepared the respondents believed they were to cope themselves, including with their physical and informational needs, and how well prepared they were to assist or not assist others during an emergency. Events Information Section

29 In this short section, questions were posed to determine if thus far in the survey the respondents had learned anything about their roles and responsibilities in an emergency, and they were provided with an example of an emergency that affected the entire eastern seaboard of North America on the14th of August, 2003. Questions about what information was shared officially during that large scale event, and whether or not it was sufficient for the respondents’ needs, and appropriate or not appropriate given the circumstances were posed to gain insight on how the City of Guelph has communicated in the past during a large scale emergency. Public Warnings In this section, I posed questions to determine how the respondents would react to preparatory warnings and instructions given for an impending emergency. This was asked in the context of a frequently distributed warning about the level of power consumption during the peak summer months. I was interested in whether or not the respondents followed the warnings/requests because the past practice of respondents will be a good predictor of the future behavior of these persons under similar circumstances (Wilson, 2009). I then posed a similar question to determine if their behavior changes in response to increased numbers of requests to take the same action. Pineridge Tornado In this section I described briefly a tornado that touched down in the City of Guelph in 2000. During that emergency, several directions were issued by the EOCG for residents to comply with. These were for the most part adhered to, but the satisfaction with the communication was the subject of these questions. The type of communication if any, any warnings received, and the number of sources those warning were received from were inquired about. I also explored whether the repeated broadcast of warning

30 information affects the way the respondents either took or did not take action. Respondents were questioned about their receipt of repeated warnings of impending severe weather where no damage results, and how it may influence their perceptions the validity of future warnings they receive. Communication Options In this section, respondents were asked about their preferences in the receipt of official information from the City of Guelph. The City of Guelph has access to a Geographical Interface System for the automated electronic dissemination of official information during an emergency. At present, this utilizes data from a utility provider, and the next series of questions explored the preferences for the respondents to sign up for the receipt of emergency information. Whether this service was provided free or through a service subscription basis was the follow up inquiry. The last section of the survey was detached electronically from the previous survey responses, as it asked which neighbourhood group the respondents belonged to. Thus, respondents remained anonymous. Ethics This survey was conducted in accordance with the rules for ethical conduct as set out and approved by the Ethical Review Board of Royal Roads University. Respondents to this survey could abandon the survey at any time without penalty. Challenges The survey was released to the executive members of the 12 neighbourhood groups for the City of Guelph. The Neighbourhood Support Coalition is a group comprised of representation from all 12 neighbourhood groups within the City of Guelph. I met with the Neighbourhood Support Coalition prior to the approval of this research by

I believed that information already received from core executive members would be enhanced by any information received from general members. The City of Guelph has conducted Hazard Assessment and Risk Identification (HIRA) activities. and obtained the Coalition’s support to have four surveys completed by each of the neighbourhood groups as part of this research. Once aware of this. but also the approval and acceptance of the senior managers of the City of Guelph. The survey was adapted and questions that pertained only to executive members were removed from the survey. and . The initial inquiry was to determine the awareness of the senior managers of the neighbourhood groups that exist within the City of Guelph. many of whom are core members of the EOCG. Upon the release of this survey.31 Royal Roads University. any involvement requires not only the acceptance of the neighbourhood groups involved in the community. After a short time. This was done to address the potential for executive member volunteer fatigue. EOCG members and alternates survey Although this research was designed to assess the capacities that exist among neighbourhood groups to be involved in the emergency management processes of the City of Guelph. it became apparent that an approximate 50% response rate was experienced and the vast majority of these were partially filled out. I adapted the survey questions and provided a new survey link and paper survey to the neighbourhood groups for release to their general membership. Next was a direct inquiry to determine whether or not the senior managers would consider the use of the neighbourhood groups during a time of emergency as a part of the overall City of Guelph emergency plan. and how they could be best incorporated into that plan. the links to the electronic survey and a “paper” version of the survey were provided to the neighbourhood groups for data collection.

I believe that neighbourhood groups could provide secondary means of communication during an emergency. Lastly. This would have to be accepted by senior managers and EOCG members as it would have an ongoing budgetary impact. and the EOCG and senior managers are responsible for the dissemination of information.32 has produced information about the hazards and risks within the City. and they were queried about their support for the release of this kind of information. During an emergency. so support must exist from this group for the inclusion of neighbourhood groups as part of a distribution list for information updates in an emergency. questions were asked to determine if there would be support for neighbourhood groups being provided with stockpiles of supplies such as water and first aid supplies for distribution during an emergency. but would have the affect of relieving first responders of routine triage duties in an emergency assuming it could be combined with . The ability to release this information. Consequently questions were asked to determine whether the senior managers and EOCG members would consider the use of neighbourhood groups in this manner. Questions were crafted to determine if senior managers and EOCG members would consider the sharing and delivery of City supplies such as fuel that could be used by neighbourhood group volunteers during an emergency. Likewise. providing specific risk information to neighbourhood population directly affected by these risks and hazards for inclusion in their individual neighbourhood group web information would require the support of the EOCG and senior managers. neighbourhood groups are formed by a committed group of volunteers dedicated to improving the quality of life in their community. these individuals may have the ability to provide a core group of volunteers who could work under the supervision of City employees.

I had 9 neighbourhood group executive members and 18 EOCG members respond. and forwarded on to me. This was done with both the executive member’s survey from the Neighbourhood Groups and the Senior Managers survey sent to EOCG members. I collated the data collected electronically through the survey system by exporting the results into an Excel document. Data Collection Data for this research was collected by the utilization of commercial survey software. The data collection took place starting in early January 2010. and senior staff members of the City of Guelph. for a total of 27 responses. and was completed by the 9th of March 2010 when the final survey information was received from neighbourhood group executive members. Upon receiving the data. and were entered into the electronic survey software system. In total. The paper versions of the neighbourhood group survey were collected by the Community and Program Development Manager for the City of Guelph without identifying the source of the data. The data received in paper format was then merged with the electronically collected data. In addition.33 the organizational and training abilities of an established community service group such as St John’s Ambulance. “paper” copies of the surveys were also produced and these were provided to neighbourhood groups for distribution to their executive and general members. In total. Both surveys were compiled in this raw format. . and the survey responses were grouped to provide answers to the research questions. and I produced raw data results for each of the questions. two separate surveys were crafted around the research question and sub-questions.

Initially I needed to establish what the general knowledge about emergencies among the executive members of neighbourhood groups was. I will interpret how this data offers opportunity for the City of Guelph and for the Neighbourhood Groups to contribute to a safer. Fifty five percent of respondents reported that they were not aware of the 72 hour self sufficiency requirement in emergency planning. and after an emergency?” In order to understand the totality of the question.34 Chapter 4 – Data analysis Data Analysis In the following section I group the research questions with the responses received both from the Neighbourhood Groups and from EOCG members. yet 55% of respondents were prepared with stocks of food and water that would meet their household needs for 72 hours. more prepared community in a time of emergency. To do this. the neighbourhood groups must be current and active. The neighbourhood group results – the community responds The research question was “What role do neighborhood groups play in preparing residents to understand their roles and responsibilities for self-preservation and recovery in the City of Guelph prior to. and 88. and how they can best prepare residents to understand their roles and responsibilities during an emergency. during. 44% responded that they were mostly .88% acknowledged knowing the definition of an emergency. it was important to break this overarching question into components to understand what neighbourhood groups exist within the City of Guelph. and have members who are prepared to attend and communicate with the neighbourhood groups. When asked to rate how well prepared they were to deal with a 72 hour crisis. All of the respondents reported knowing that an emergency can occur at virtually any time.

prepared. Sixty six percent of respondents reported that they would be hampered in receiving information that may assist them if electricity was interrupted during an emergency. prepared.66% 33. Respondents reported that their neighbourhood group sizes ranged from an “unknown” number of members through to a 66. or completely prepared. Of the nine respondents to the executive member survey.35 prepared. For communication in an emergency. they recruit families and persons as part of the general membership of their neighbourhood group. Would the lack of electricity hamper your ability to obtain information during an emergency? Answer Sample Percentage Yes No Total 6 3 9 Neighbourhood groups in the City of Guelph have a mandate to enhance the quality of life. all reported that they had community members in their neighbourhood groups.33% . or completely prepared. most felt that they would be able to provide for their household needs. That is their mission in the community and to fulfill that mission. The information received indicates that the respondents acknowledge emergencies can occur. 77% reported they would like to be mostly prepared. we very often depend upon devices that require electricity to receive information. Most did however report that the lack of electrical service would hamper their abilities to receive information in an emergency. but that they were not familiar with their own individual responsibilities during an emergency. as can be seen in Table 1. When asked to rate how well they would like to be prepared for a 72 hour crisis. Even though this familiarity was not present. Table 1 Some devices that we commonly use in the household require electricity to function (television/radio/cordless phones).

and one provided no other information. and 11 % listed guest speakers. four indicated their executive members met separately from the general meeting. and one responded as “not applicable”. but few offer opportunities to convey . This was the same breakdown when the question was asked about the frequency of executive member meetings. The average number of persons attending a neighbourhood group meeting was approximately 36 persons.30). Inquiry was made about special events run by the neighbourhood groups. while one reported that their group met “as was required”. Eight of the nine respondents advised that their neighbourhood group met monthly. providing further reach for any information likely to be communicated. Some groups reported being able to distribute information through schools and faith groups in their neighbourhoods. and social events such as “winterfest” or “movie nights” featured prominently with 66% of respondents citing these as events. From the results. and that most of these groups have defined leadership roles within their groups. Of the nine respondents. Four responded “monthly”. four responded “as required”. 22% responded as hosting child/youth centered events. we can see that the City of Guelph has established neighbourhood groups. Most of these groups concentrate their efforts at present on social events in the neighbourhood to enhance the sense of community. Several respondents described a big difference between the number of persons who would attend a neighbourhood group meeting versus a social event or function. This would equate to approximately 100 families that would be affected by each of the neighbourhood groups. The majority (five) responded that they had a neighbourhood group of approximately 100 persons (+.36 neighbourhood group of approximately 3000 members. four indicated they did not. that are able to offer assistance and influence within their neighbourhood.

verbal discussions. We also see that the general membership is more likely to attend a social event than to attend a regular neighbourhood group meeting as is shown in Table 2.22% 0% Several administrative type questions were put to the survey respondents about their neighbourhood groups in an effort to understand the organization of neighbourhood groups. meetings themselves. 22% semi-annually. and 44% “as needed”. various means were used to convey these roles and responsibilities that included: Terms of References that were discussed at meetings. and if improvements to their administrative state would assist in a time of emergency. The respondents were asked about the roles and responsibilities in their neighbourhood groups. Table 2 “What do special events that are run by your neighbourhood group generally consist of?” Answer Education/training/general interest Guest speakers Social events (Winterfest.11% 66. Of those 88% with membership lists. Twenty two percent of respondents indicated that they “do not have a membership list” for individuals in their neighbourhood group.37 information directly to their members. e-mails and other documentation. Sixty six percent of the neighbourhood executive responded that they were . 11% updated them at each meeting. written job descriptions. and 77% reported that there were defined roles and responsibilities for executive members. movie nights) Youth/child centered events Other Count Average 0 1 6 2 0 0% 11. but 88% responded that they did.66% 22. Of those reporting defined roles and responsibilities.

Likewise. Eighty eight percent of respondents advised that “no fan out list” for wide distribution of information existed within their neighbourhood group. Among the neighbourhood group executive members.38 permitted to disseminate information within the group without prior approval from other executive members. yet the 22% who did have “fan out” information reported having e-mail addresses. If there are no roles within the neighbourhood group for helping residents in planning for emergencies through conveying information. and with the City of Guelph both in normal times and during an emergency. as engagement of the members by the executive membership is a required element of utilizing neighbourhood groups to assist in the creation of more effective community communications. 88% responded that there are no roles and responsibilities among the executive members of their neighbourhood group for emergency planning. . 88% reported that having access to accurate information and instructions in a time of emergency as “very important” or “essential”. This will allow us to have a foundation to build on. work e-mail addresses. we must understand what level of communication exists within the neighbourhood group now. and phone contact information. Seventy seven percent of respondents reported that emergency preparedness was either “very important” or “essential” to them personally. home addresses. and 88% reported either “very important” or “essential” to their family.Understanding our roles Does the City of Guelph communicate with our neighborhood groups to ensure that residents understand their roles? Respondents were asked to rate how important emergency preparedness was to them personally to understand their perspective. Question 1. This information is very important to the research sub-questions.

indicating support in attending. A fourth respondent replied that the communication with the City of Guelph was “unknown”. A fifth respondent reported “ongoing communications”. It became apparent that neighbourhood groups are not communicating any type of emergency preparedness information to help the community understand its role during an emergency. The responses to this were varied. and the engagement of other social services within the municipal realm within their neighbourhood group. When asked if they would consider participating in a basic emergency management course that may take up to three days. Seventy seven percent of respondents reported that they had learned something new during the completion of this survey. Eleven percent suggested that they would attend. with regular meetings being called by either the group or the City. making the overall acceptance of this kind of participation at 66% of the respondents. Question 2. Another respondent reported that a “City of Guelph community engagement coordinator attended every other meeting of the neighbourhood group”.Effective communications . A third respondent indicated that the City of Guelph was a “great help”. but would prefer a shorter duration for the course.39 Respondents were asked to describe the nature and frequency of interactions between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups both in general and the executive members. Respondents were asked whether or not they had learned anything about the roles and responsibilities they have as a member of the public during an emergency as a result of completing this survey. with some reporting that they “have an engagement coordinator who sits on their executive board leading to constant contact between entities”. 55% responded positively to this idea.

57% Sample Percentage 0 0 1 2 6 9 0% 0% 11.28% 0% 28.communication is occasionally ok 3 .11% 21.11% 66.”.40 Is communication effective between the City of Guelph and neighborhood groups? As can be seen in Table 3.communication is not good at all 2 .28%. less respondents registered an answer to the question (seven).communication is ok. Table 3 “Rate how well your neighbourhood group communication is with the City of Guelph on a regular basis” Answer 1 . This is reflected in Table 4. and the “very good” response dropped from 66% to only 14. When this question was adapted to: “Rate how well your neighbourhood group communication is with the City of Guelph during a crisis.communication is ok and we get by 4 .66% .communication is not good at all 2 . Nine respondents provided information in response to this question.communication is very good Total Table 4 “Rate how well your neighbourhood group communication is with the City of Guelph during a crisis. we get by Sample Percentage 1 0 2 14.communication is occasionally ok 3 .communication is mostly good 5 . 66% of respondents rated that communication with the City of Guelph is “very good” on a regular basis.” Answer 1 .

Within the neighbourhood group 66% of respondents reported that communications was either “mostly good” or “very good”. respondents were asked to use the same scale to rate their own communications within their neighbourhood and neighbourhood group. the most popular second choice for . but none reported being “completely prepared”. Forty four percent of respondents reported that under normal circumstances communications within their neighbourhood was either “mostly good” or “very good”. Respondents were asked to rate how well prepared they believed they were to provide accurate information to their families during an emergency from the sources known to them. Surprisingly. When this question was adapted to providing the information to their neighbourhood group in an emergency 55% reported being “mostly prepared” or “prepared”. Sixty six percent reported being either “mostly prepared”. Radio was the overwhelming first choice of respondents for receiving official information during an emergency with 77. The most dramatic change is in the communication with the City of Guelph during a crisis. when the satisfaction with communication drops dramatically. “prepared”.85% 14. Respondents were asked to rank from one through 13 which source of information they would be likely to use. or “completely prepared”.28% To look at this in perspective.communication is mostly good 5 .communication is very good Total 3 1 7 42.41 4 . with one being the most likely and 13 being the least likely. Tables 3 and 4 show how the respondents have rated their communication under different circumstances.7% of respondents choosing it as the first place they would turn to for information.

Only 33% of respondents indicated that they were aware of the public information line maintained by the City of Guelph to access official information. From this past emergency. getting 33% of the respondents for their third choice.42 information was neighbours with 33% of respondents naming this their second choice. Turning to a neighbourhood group for information was selected as a third choice.8% responded with either the AM or FM radio stations located in Guelph as the radio station they would seek information from first. Similar results occurred with television. Overwhelmingly the response was that they received “no information at all” officially from the City of Guelph. Television ranked surprisingly low.7% responding with one of the local television stations. Question 3 – Local knowledge How does the City of Guelph ensure an understanding of local emergency plans and methods exists within our neighborhood groups? Respondents were asked about their . Some respondents were “not part of neighbourhood groups at the time”. They were asked to share their experiences with types of communication. but most responded they were “not privy to any communication at the neighbourhood group level”. either CTV from Kitchener or the local cable channel being the station turned to for information. When asked about radio. with one respondent choosing it second. and no other respondent choosing it higher than fourth. 77. CBC Radio (Toronto) was listed by 22% of respondents. and asked whether or not it was appropriate. this shows that previously there has been no information provided directly to neighbourhood groups at that time. Respondents were asked to share their thoughts on information provided by the City of Guelph to neighbourhood groups during the electrical emergency in 2003. with 66.

This is an opportunity for organizations such as neighbourhood groups to make a difference by creating a mutual aid system within their neighbourhood. Eighty five percent of respondents reported that they had a knowledge base of some of the skills and abilities of members of their neighbourhood group that could be used to assist others in a time of emergency. Sixty seven percent reported that they had a pool of items that could be used to assist group members in an emergency. Only 33% of the respondents indicated that their neighbourhood group provides Internet access for neighbourhood group members. As noted earlier. Although the respondents reported more familiarity with the emergency plan as an individual.22% reported that they had met with the CEMC by attending a community presentation put on by the CEMC. 22. 2008).43 knowledge of local emergency management.55% of respondents reported knowing that the emergency plan is available to the public at City Hall. it is unknown what working knowledge the respondents have with the plan. the public library. Three respondents . Eighty nine percent of respondents advised that their neighbourhood group executive members were not familiar with the City of Guelph emergency plan. Question 4 – The need to self organize How do we include the need to self organize a response at a neighborhood level within the municipal plans? The need to respond at an individual level is fundamental to the emergency management plans in most locations. however 55. The respondents were asked about the neighbourhood group providing an Internet access point for those members of the neighbourhood group who have no Internet access of their own. Seventy eight percent responded that they or another member of their neighbourhood group had not met with the City of Guelph’s CEMC. and on the Internet. communities can expect to manage themselves for the first 72 hours before municipal assistance can be expected (EMO.

mobility assistance)” Answer Sample Percentage Yes No Total 3 5 8 37. With the question asked a different way. some reported clothing available.50% Question 5 – Repeated warnings Do repeated warnings prior to an event de-sensitize neighborhood groups to danger. thereby reducing the seriousness of their required response? If we incorporate our neighbourhood groups into the emergency management process to assist with preparation for emergencies. Table 5 “Within your neighbourhood group does your executive have knowledge of persons who may need special assistance during some types of emergencies? (example: require and oxygen supply. and one advised that they are linked to a scout group who have much of the equipment and training that may be required. whether within the respondents neighbourhood group there was a list or knowledge of equipment/preparedness items that could be used to support persons in the neighbourhood. and dissemination about pending emergency situations (an example being contact made to advise of severe weather approaching which is part of the HIRA . 100% responded that there was no list or knowledge of items in this category.50% 62. and 100% also had no mutual support plan in place for sharing of resources within their neighbourhood group. Sixty three percent of respondents reported having no knowledge of persons who may need special assistance during emergencies as is shown in Table 5.44 indicated that their neighbourhood groups had food/water available that could be used to assist the neighbourhood group members.

Of the eight respondents to this question. Another respondent indicated that they would be influenced positively by repeated warnings. when previous . the electrical utility can not provide more detailed information on individual residential use of electricity. All (100%) respondents advised that when the number of requests to reduce grows. but questioned why with the advent of smart metering systems. there have been a frequent warnings issued within the City of Guelph. where public appeals have been made for the reduction of electricity use to ease the strain on the electrical grid. but that they “take steps despite the many warnings to reduce their use”. This question was put to respondents on the basis of requests for assistance in reducing the electrical load during hot summer weather. When asked if the repeated warnings occur. with one of those respondents indicating that “too many warnings can create fear in the community”. six advised that it does influence them to various degrees. This subject was put forward as during the past few summers. A different respondent indicated that they “listen to and heed the warnings put out”. When asked about receiving information about severe weather and if it influences the respondents in making any preparations to respond. One respondent was concerned that over saturation of warnings can be a problem. three understood that there were warnings on television and radio broadcast. they continue to respond and cut back use. three responded with no information at all provided. This respondent did indicate that information prior to an event is critical if we are to prepare for an event and change behavior of people when required. and two indicated that it did not. When the subject of emergency warnings was changed to that of severe weather. a question was asked about the receipt of information about severe weather before the touchdown of a tornado within the community.45 for the City of Guelph) we run the risk of de-sensitizing our community with repeated warnings. three “don’t recall any warnings being issued at all”.

thus no preparatory questions were asked of these senior managers to determine their level of knowledge in this area. 15 responses were received that were useable. as it forms a portion of their professional expertise. In total 16 individuals answered this survey in either electronic or paper format. not in response or recovery activities. with some evaluating information from the Weather Network and the Internet to make their decisions. did the respondents continue to take preventive action.46 warnings had resulted in no damage. Primarily. with one responder opting not to submit their responses for use and those responses are not part of these results. and guidance for funding applications in Ontario require the involvement of the community. Question 1. however municipal decision makers must also be prepared to accept the assistance of the community during an emergency. Past practice. Seventy seven . but in fundraising to facilitate the Ontario cost sharing arrangements.Understanding our roles Does the City of Guelph communicate with our neighborhood groups to ensure that residents understand their roles? Responders were asked whether they would support the idea of neighbourhood group executive/leadership members attending the municipally hosted Basic Emergency Management Course at some point to better prepare them to assist others in their neighbourhood if it were affected by an emergency. This acknowledges that there is capacity within a community to respond. The EOCG responses Members of the EOCG and alternates were asked to respond to questions that spoke to these research questions also. An assumption was made that members of the EOCG were familiar with the Emergency Plan and with Emergency legislation in Ontario.5% responded that they did continue to take action. the question became what level of involvement of the community would EOCG members accept. 87.

47 percent responded positively to this suggestion. An example of a slow onset emergency was given where volunteers may be required to assist emergency personnel. with 26. with 20% indicating that they were outright not in favour of this concept. with 6. Sixty seven percent of respondents supported this idea. would they look on this positively and entertain the use of these items in the neighbourhood. A question was asked about allowing neighbourhood groups to add HIRA information.67% rejecting it outright and 26. and the question was posed about the use of neighbourhood group members as volunteers under the direction of city employees. comments were varied from outright support by enhancing the level of preparation and education in the community – providing more education will give more mitigation opportunities and help establish a new normal in a more condensed time frame. Eighty percent responded positively to this. In another question.67% responding that they didn’t know. Question 2 – Effective communications Is communication effective between the City of Guelph and neighborhood groups? This question looks at how the EOCG views official communications with neighbourhood groups and what level of communication the EOCG members are prepared to support. When asked to provide information about this kind of initiative.66% responding with “don’t know”. respondents were asked if neighbourhood groups established and maintained a list of items that were owned by individuals in their neighbourhood who were prepared to allow their use for the greater good during an emergency. gathered through the HIRA process by the City of Guelph. through to uncertainty with an impact in budgeting and resources being the key factor to acceptance of this initiative. indicating they were unsure if they would utilize them if offered. to be . There were no responses received in the “no” category for this question.

48 included on the web pages of the neighbourhood groups that are directly affected by those risks. with 26. The question was asked if it would be considered an asset to the City if neighbourhood groups could assist with some of these tasks in order to free up first responders for higher priority issues. with 26. and Workplace Safety & Insurance Board coverage for volunteers would not be extended to cover those individuals.67% believed it would not be of assistance. Interestingly. Twenty seven percent didn’t know if this would assist. Without EOCG members’ approval.67% rejecting this idea. and 13.67% responded positively to this idea.33% were in favour.33% responding as “don’t know”. Sixty seven percent of respondents felt that inclusion of neighbourhood group contact information in the public alert messaging system would assist in ensuring information reaches the affected population when required. When asked if Neighbourhood Groups should be considered for inclusion as part of the distribution list for official information updates during an emergency 73. The responses to this question will be indicative of their receptiveness to community involvement in emergency management. Several questions were asked on this point. where that responsibility may fall to first responders. Question 4 – The need to self organize How do we (the City of Guelph) include the need to self organize a response at a neighborhood level within the municipal plans is perhaps the most important question posed to the EOCG members. and 6. the first being receptiveness to neighbourhood group involvement during an extended emergency where affected persons may need communication/fuel/food. EOCG survey responders were . and 20% “didn’t know”. 66. Fifty three percent responded positively that this “would be an asset” to the City. with 20% rejecting it.66% responding that “this may be an asset”. assistance offered by any organization will not be officially sanctioned.

One respondent advised that there are limited first responders within the community. Not all respondents were positive. themes emerged according to the split previously noted. In these responses. strict boundaries on the expectations of these volunteers. another indicated “the more volunteers the better as long as they are provided with adequate direction”. of ensuring that the volunteers are adequately supervised and tasked appropriately. and an acknowledgement that management of large numbers of volunteers requires a prethought out plan to be successful. cleanup of the affected areas. Interestingly among the positive points noted included that “neighbourhood group members may know who or where people are who may need special considerations or help”. and those volunteers through their own awareness of their community would be well placed to help first responders who are not as familiar with that local environment”. and some community security with volunteers watching out as extra eyes and ears for first responders. Another noted that “neighbourhood group members may have a better awareness of local issues and concerns. and that “volunteers could be used to take on some of the less technical functions. Some suggestions for volunteer tasks included support roles at reception centres. There is an underlying need for the coordination of volunteers. or what reservations they had about this assistance. with one respondent noting that assistance would be “dependent on the role assigned and the training required to ensure that they were a help not a hindrance”. help in accommodating displaced persons with food and shelter.49 asked to respond and explain how volunteer help would or would not be of assistance to augment first responders during an emergency. The underlying theme of those responding positively to neighbourhood group involvement is one of caution. another raised concerns over volunteers putting themselves at risk . but safety and privacy is always a concern” for them.

with 26.33% responding negatively to this question.67% being undecided.33% rejected this idea. 13. An example was given of a potential partnership between the City of Guelph and St John Ambulance that may see St John Ambulance provide training and coordination for supplies in small storage bunkers at neighbourhood group facilities. . and this idea received 80% support for the delivery of fuel to a neighbourhood group facility for further distribution. with 33. 77. When directly asked about neighbourhood group involvement in clean up and recovery.67% of those responding were positive with their support. and the implications that follow from those scenarios.50 or creating misinformation. Providing fuel for generators to allow persons to shelter in place as opposed to evacuation during a longer duration emergency was addressed. Concerns were also expressed over insurance coverage and WSIB coverage for volunteers who may be injured assisting first responders. Sixty seven percent of EOCG members responded that they would support the idea of providing neighbourhood groups with assistance in organizing and maintaining a cache of supplies that could be used by volunteers. Again 66. The question was asked if there was support to consider this kind of program despite the budgetary impact.33% were in favour of neighbourhood group volunteer involvement. and 20% responded as “don’t know”.

Similarly under half reported that they were “mostly prepared” through to “completely prepared” to deal with a 72 hour crisis. yet over 75% reported that they would like to be “mostly prepared” through “completely prepared”. This shows that there is a strong desire and willingness among the neighbourhood group members to be prepared to deal with a 72 hour crisis. yet they were not aware of the 72 hour self sufficiency requirements being counted on for emergency planning. internet. yet they do not have sufficient information or training to fulfill that desire. The survey results showed was that over half of the neighbourhood group executive members responding have stocks of food and water at home to meet the 72 hour self sufficiency. Similarly over 60% of the respondents indicated the lack of electricity would hamper their abilities to get information during a crisis. prior to. during and after an emergency.51 Chapter 5 – Discussion and recommendations Discussion This chapter will discuss implications of the findings and provide recommendations for improving communications between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups. The importance of the electrical supply has been acknowledged by inclusion of the CEO of Guelph Hydro as a member of the EOCG. The initial research question was “what role do neighbourhood groups play in preparing residents to understand their roles and responsibilities for self-preservation and recover in the City of Guelph. . during and after an emergency?” This question was premised on the assumption that the neighbourhood groups in the City of Guelph would want to be involved in emergency management and would see the value of assisting others in their neighbourhoods prior to. The impact that electrical failure would have on the direct dissemination of information by means that require electrical power (radio.

to disseminate information in the neighbourhoods. computer games that can be accessed through neighbourhood group resources (stopdisastersgame. If a program can be crafted. visual learners.org). the impact potential to increase the level of preparedness and selfsufficiency is huge. This engagement must be presented in a way to appeal to audio learners. with the size of neighbourhood groups varying from 100 families to 3000 members. can be utilized to disseminate preparedness information to improve the quality of life in their neighbourhoods through training and other mitigative measures. Neighbourhood group members reported that they have their biggest attendance for events such as “winterfest” or “movie nights”. . engaging residents who want to participate in pleasurable activities as opposed to listening to information in a meeting. The engagement plan should consider the use of activities that prepare others that are not lecture based. and kinesthetic learners. it should be designed with these special events to be the most effective and reach the most persons. Utilizing the principles of adult learning will be key to the success of this initiative by appealing to the learning needs of those in attendance. with the proper support of the City of Guelph. along with colouring books and printed materials to be taken home. This information about the preparedness state and desire to learn about preparedness on the part of neighbourhood group executive members.52 television) could be mitigated through the inclusion of information distribution through neighbourhood group distribution of information. Examples of the kind of activities that can be used to teach about emergency preparedness can include video productions to be used as a trailer at a movie night. after training. When an engagement plan is put in place. and their smallest attendance at “regular meetings”.

The number of days of training is referenced from the Basic Emergency Management (BEM) training course that I assist with.53 The respondents to this survey reported being affiliated with neighbourhood groups that spanned the city geographically. neighbourhood groups are not helping their community members to understand their roles and responsibilities in a time of emergency. where significant support was in place for engaging the community in a BEM course. there was significant support for attending a basic emergency management training session that may take up to three days. The majority of the groups have contact information recorded that will allow the dissemination of information in various forms. with curriculum provided by Emergency Management Ontario. There was more support for a shorter duration course. run cooperatively by the City of Guelph and County of Wellington. and that they are engaged with professional members of the City of Guelph who participate actively in their neighbourhood groups and activities. 77% responded that they learned something about their roles and responsibilities. We must determine if we communicate information that leads our population to understand their roles and responsibilities during a time of emergency. In addressing the research sub-questions. the established level of organization and information distribution will add value to the engagement of neighbourhood groups in the emergency management process. At present. The findings from the EOCG members were similar. There was some indecision. and most importantly. . and the current BEM course has been shortened to 2 days as of 1 April 2010. Respondents did express support for attending a BEM style course. During this research. A common thread in the responses of the executive members is that there are defined roles and responsibilities. and using this to assist themselves and others in their neighbourhoods.

less than 15 % rated this communication as “very good”. including the using of privately owned assets for the greater good of the community in an emergency. Communication between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups was examined to determine the satisfaction level of the neighbourhood groups in receiving information from the City of Guelph. print media.54 however this suggestion was not viewed negatively by any of the respondents. or the inclusion of neighbourhood group contact information in publicly distributed materials. In this research. In this area. EOCG members also expressed support for community volunteers being involved in providing assistance. EOCG members only expressed concerns about neighbourhood group executive members attending a BEM course because of budgetary impacts. This suggests that despite the City of Guelph communication strategies employing radio. and a desire of the EOCG members for the community to be involved in this aspect. the EOCG and the community are in agreement with a direction for future engagement. Although they are not currently doing it. there is a desire from the neighbourhood groups to be involved in communicating roles and responsibilities during an emergency. The solution for this could be as simple as including neighbourhood group executive members on the official information distribution list in the same manner city council members are kept informed of events they are not direct participants in. and the Public Alert Messaging (PAM) system. This will form the basis of a recommendation for action. Two thirds of the neighbhourhood group respondents reported that they had very good communications with the City on a normal basis. telephone hotlines and internet presence. this communication to neighbourhood groups during a crisis is less than satisfactory. television. During a crisis. The fact that neighbourhood group members do not believe they receive .

for warnings received from the media. and shows a significant number of women are likely to seek confirmation from a trusted source prior to taking action in a crisis. the first choice method to receive information was determined to be radio. this has potential to reduce the number of individuals who may not take action due to a lack of information.” In the City of Guelph we have the ability to disseminate detailed information quickly with the PAM system. Confirmation increases with longer lead-time to impacts. This may reduce the need for the unusual step of police or fire responders going door to door. The Canadian government. through the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC ) in 2007. This community need must be addressed in the City of Guelph to ensure inclusion. with television ranked fourth. and with the engagement of neighbourhood groups in this informational process. Other research has been done that breaks this down by gender.55 sufficient information during a crisis is significant. Enarson’s (1999) study of the Red River floods in 1998 identified the need of women and families for community support and information in a crisis. or using loudspeakers. given that members of the community are likely to turn to trusted sources for confirmation of information in a crisis. . In the survey information. and for alerts received by siren. Confirmation levels decrease with the specificity of information in the first warning received and when the initial warning is heard from police and fire personnel going door to door or using loudspeakers. Respondents to the survey noted that little information had been conveyed during past emergencies that would satisfy the informational need without confirmation. Sorensen & Sorensen (2007) noted “One frequent response to a warning is to confirm the original message received.

with 20% rejecting this idea. and the internet as third most likely. Communicating risk information specific to neighbourhoods is an area EOCG members must take some guidance from literature. the percentage of EOCG members responding dropped slightly to 66%. One third of the respondents to this survey would turn to family/neighbours/community members for information very early into the crisis. . Our EOCG members should take notice of this. he sets out as his fourth myth of risk – “that decisions on risk should be taken by experts rather than laymen” (pg 11). with over 70% in favour of including neighbourhood groups on official information distribution lists. 2007). Helping the average citizen to understand the risk factors they face will help motivate them during an emergency to take the appropriate steps to assist themselves (Rodriguez et al. EOCG members show more reluctance to provide specific risk information to the community than to have the community involved in the dissemination of general information. yet this is where the Canadian government is putting its efforts (Gow. yet we currently have only the traditional media (radio/TV) and internet available as official conduits of information. This CANALERT program also has an internet alerting component. The EOCG members were surveyed in relation to communicating directly with neighbourhood groups. It is incumbent on emergency managers then to ensure that this informational need is met as described by the community. and allow those who face risk to understand what risks they face.56 has made alerting through television a focus of its CANALERT program to ensure emergency notifications to citizens. The respondents to this survey ranked television as their fourth most likely source of information. and 13% with no set opinion. When asked about providing specific risk information from the HIRA process to neighbourhood groups. 2007). In Hansson (2005).

57 In the area of community engagement. . Although the plan is available through various means. The model for emergency preparedness shows that individuals must look after themselves for the first 72 hours. preferring to concentrate on social events rather than emergency management focused events. The need to respond to emergencies and disasters beginning at the lowest level has been the subject of research. The lack of current engagement between emergency management and neighbourhood groups is an opportunity identified that can now be remedied. 2006). Kapucu (2008) identified this as an issue in Florida when looking at risks for hurricanes. Building the capacity in our neighbourhood groups prior to an emergency will open communications channels and assist neighbourhood residents. and the outcome of that research shows that communities are able to establish a new normal quicker when community members are involved (Waugh & Strieb. Two thirds of the respondents indicated that their neighbourhood groups had a pool of items that could be used to help in a time of emergency. yet when asked in a different manner. Almost 90% reported that their neighbourhood group executive were not aware of the emergency management plan for the City. and the same issue exists in this context. neighbourhood group members were asked about their interaction with the City of Guelph emergency management. Emergency managers must actively engage the community to ensure a consistent preparedness message is received and acted upon. neighbourhood groups have not made this a priority. and this is consistent with the emergency management model. Almost 70% reported that they had not met with the Emergency Management Coordinator to discuss emergency management issues in their neighbourhood. however 55% reported that they as individuals were aware of the plan. The respondents showed that there is a desire to be involved in assisting themselves and others in their neighbourhoods.

58 no one had a list of preparedness items available. Overall over 75% of the EOCG responses were in favour of having involvement of neighbourhood groups in clean up and recovery. In this case. and giving the guidance to make it occur. Overall. This is an opportunity to support change. The EOCG members responded positively to neighbourhood groups being involved as they are more likely to know those in their immediate vicinity and their needs. and of providing supplies for them in support of this mission. Emergency communication in the past has been poor between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups. neighbourhood group members reported that they act on information received and that it does cause them to make changes to their behavior. This study is an opportunity to bridge that gap by bringing together the ability and desire. and showed in their responses their willingness to provide supervision for volunteers. or a plan to share those items when needed. This is a critical building point. and bring the community into the emergency management process effectively. Eighty seven percent of respondents indicated that they take some action to reduce their personal risk exposure. There is some preference at the EOCG level to have neighbourhood groups involved in traditional social welfare aspects (reception centres) and worries were voiced that they may be a hindrance or cause excessive Workplace Safety and Insurance Board issues. but there is no plan or ability to execute a plan to assist when needed. and to provide resources for them to work with – including fuel and supplies. the desire to help is present. and an area where collaboration can occur. The EOCG is supportive of the involvement of the neighbourhood groups. and 66% were in favour of having involvement in other areas such as maintaining first aid supplies in a cache for their neighbourhood. The EOCG members responded with willingness to have the community involved in emergency management. This is significant as .

I am making the following recommendations for the future integration of neighbourhood groups into the emergency management program for Guelph. and may require the involvement of community services staffers. Having received information from both neighbourhood groups and the EOCG. The benefit for the community will be an increased awareness of the roles and responsibilities of individuals during an emergency.59 information is being acted upon when it is received. Emergency management should combine the community outreach/education with the successful social events hosted by neighbourhood groups by partnering with those groups. This recommendation addresses how to integrate neighbourhood groups with emergency management for the purpose of educating members about their roles and responsibilities during a time of emergency. with confidence that the information will be acted upon. This will require more than brochures being available. This will engage neighbourhood groups in assisting their members to understand their roles in emergency management. and how to incorporate those 12 neighbourhood groups into the emergency management program for the future. Neighbourhood groups are comfortable with hosting community events. and an awareness of the roles and capacity within the neighbourhood group. Recommendation one: Combine community outreach and education in emergency management with neighbourhood group social activities. and having reviewed literature on the subject. and find that they have their best attendance at these social events. Recommendations This research has been about neighbourhood groups participation in emergency management in Guelph currently. . This is an opportunity for the greater flow of information to occur.

This recommendation addresses the communication between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups. they may be better equipped to assist themselves and their group members during an emergency. By educating those members. The City of Guelph EOCG should amend their informational distribution lists to include neighbourhood groups along with the traditional media to receive information prior to. and after an emergency situation. This will also assist with recommendation one.60 Recommendation two: Add neighbourhood groups to the distribution list for official information during emergencies. Recommendation three: Familiarize neighbourhood group leadership with emergency management by offering them basic emergency management training. This research showed that most of the respondents had not met with emergency management officials. This could be accomplished by hosting a basic emergency management course – either official EMO or a tailored course specifically for Guelph – for neighbourhood group executive members. and having executive members better equipped to assist with emergency management education during social events already being hosted by neighbourhood groups. and that their executive members were not familiar with the City of Guelph plans. by enhancing the knowledge level in the neighbourhood group. This is particularly important for community members seeking to confirm information from a trusted source. This will address the information deficit that has been experienced by neighbourhood groups during past emergency events. during. This may be as simple as providing emergency management video information to combine with movie nights as . This recommendation addresses how we familiarize neighbourhood groups with the emergency plans that exist for the City of Guelph. This will allow the neighbourhood groups to utilize their own information dissemination structures to enhance communication.

Recommendation four: Acknowledge community capacity Finding a level of involvement that is acceptable to the EOCG members. with a similar caveat to that provide by the EOCG members. Recommendation five: Create and maintain supplies for emergency in the community Both neighbourhood group members responding and EOCG members have shown support for the idea of establishing a cache of supplies with participating neighbourhood groups. and the neighbourhoods in particular. involving the community to help itself before the emergency. acknowledging that there are . We must also address the concept of assisting during that emergency and in the subsequent return to normal. and potentially alleviate some of the first responder challenges faced during an emergency through the sheer number of persons who may require first aid. while satisfying residents’ need to participate must be the primary objective. and inquired about this community organizations willingness to be involved in a community project. The response was favourable for involvement. This is an opportunity to establish a new program that will directly assist the community. and be as complicated as displays and activities at events such as “winterfest”. our challenge is to find productive ways to facilitate the involvement our residents need. I was in contact with the local director of St John Ambulance. that are then maintained and used in a time of emergency by those neighbourhood groups to help those in the neighbourhood. Recommendation six: Neighbourhood group first aid training As part of the lead up to the survey. in a manner that helps the community as a whole.61 the pre-feature entertainment. Neighbourhood groups are able and willing to be involved. The previous recommendations address part of this need for involvement from a proactive perspective.

provide an enhanced level of assistance from the City of Guelph in an emergency.62 budget and staffing implications. Continue to share warnings at the earliest opportunities when a situation is developing that may present itself as an emergency. again linking through the corporate web page. St John Ambulance already plays a part in the City of Guelph emergency plans. and this would assist in raising the profile of St John Ambulance in the community. St John Ambulance could provide coordination and training for the maintenance and use of these supplies. Steps such as these may cause residents to be more conscious of . With the advent of smart metering in the community. Recommendation seven: Enhance and provide repeated warnings Respondents providing information for this research have shown that the current information distribution from the City of Guelph and other official agencies such as Environment Canada is effective in having those respondents prepare for an impending emergency. potentially relieving first responder fatigue in an emergency. I recommend that the City of Guelph and St John Ambulance pursue an agreement that would see the City of Guelph provide first aid supplies and storage facilities for neigbourhood groups. The benefit of providing early warning information through multiple means allows for a consistency of message. and use this to educate residents about the usage of electricity. but it does not include any weather or severe weather information. Currently. with neighbourhood breakdowns through the neighbourhood group web pages. Consider adding a link to Environment Canada for current weather information including any weather warnings. and allow meaningful contribution by neighbourhood groups for the welfare of their residents. the City of Guelph distributes information on its corporate website. consider engaging Guelph Hydro at the earliest stage to provide usage information that shows when the peak usage occurs on a daily basis.

many of who are active in community life. This community has well established neighbourhood groups that enjoy funding. This research is applicable in Guelph. when investigating how best to involve neighbourhood groups in the emergency management process. resulting in a heavier than expected reliance on quantitative data. however the responses to these open ended questions were minimal. and in some cases. Guelph has a major university with faculty and students being located within the municipality. and increase their desire for knowledge within their neighbourhoods. Emergent groups. during and after emergency will be a reality (McEntire.63 their own environment. This research has focused on inclusion of neighbourhood groups in creating additional channels of communication. Ontario. and there is an understanding that emergency managers can not work in isolation. 2007). seeking their thoughts on many ideas and points. Limitations This research has been limited by being done. Future Research Integration of community groups into emergency management is an ideal. The research was done in an effort to identify what steps can be taken to enhance community safety through the inclusion of neighbourhood participation in the emergency management process. The respondents were given opportunities to provide answers to open ended questions. support workers provided through municipal agencies. and may not be representative of most urban communities of this size. Few neighbourhood group respondents took the time to elaborate on their thoughts or positions. and there is a . with a small number of respondents. and communicating with the City about the capacities in the community. understanding roles and responsibilities in the community. in one city.

The risk perceived by a member of the community may be very different than those perceived by first responders or community planners. This paper has looked at the City of Guelph and its neighbourhood groups. and ensuring that information is easily obtained from pre-identified sources when an emergency does occur. The emergency management model is a bottom up approach. internet. and at what level. The effectiveness of repeated warnings on a community should also be studied further to determine if there is a threshold at which the community becomes desensitized to warnings. having neighbourhood groups involved in community planning and risk assessments would give greater guidance and acceptance for emergency planning. This must change by including the community in education campaigns to prevent emergencies from occurring. Ideally.. and may provide guidance for authorities on how. Similar neighbourhood groups exist within communities throughout Ontario. to have community involvement in emergency management is one that must be addressed with the needs and capacities of each community being considered. and Canada. disregarding them. This should be combined with research to determine if desensitization to warnings are affected by the medium that the warning is presented in. Is there a difference in actions taken if repeated warnings are received by radio/television. yet practitioners tend to endorse community involvement after an emergency only – through relief centers or fundraising. print media. This should be an area of future study.64 desire to help. how. and taking no actions to protect itself against disaster. personal . to determine how to incorporate the community into the Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment process that is now being determined by practitioners from government and industry. The question of when. what and where public education efforts may best be applied.

65 contact. Determining how to be the most effective in that preparation will be key to preserving life. and ensuring an effective and orderly evacuation occurs when needed is a huge challenge for any municipality. We must do our due diligence to ensure that our communities are prepared to react appropriately during an emergency. As we begin to make more information available. rather than media. the effectiveness of the warning and whether or not the warning is acted upon will become crucial. does the delivery mode of the message positively or negatively affect the behavioral change? The area of desensitization to the risks when repeated warnings are given is an area of future research needs that must be investigated. . and reducing damage in the future. or through family/community means? Does the delivery method affect the outcome positively or negatively? If repeated warnings are delivered by personal means. The area of evacuation is always of concern. determining how to apply these results to policy and procedures to be followed. Incorporating the information from this research into a framework for evacuation within the City of Guelph is an area where practitioners must carry on this work.

2007). Planning in advance will reduce the element of uncertainty when the actual need for involvement arises. respondents both from the neighbourhood groups and from the EOCG have expressed a desire to work together. will assist in neighbourhood development through the education of residents in their roles and responsibilities in an emergency. with a goal of moving toward mutual engagement with the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups that will be beneficial to both. and this is an opportunity at this stage to pre-determine what those roles will be for neighbourhood groups. the City of Guelph provides funding and guidance for neighbourhood groups. by continuing to bring the . In this research. specifically in emergency management issues. those individuals who are most affected will be front and centre as part of the recovery efforts (Rodriguez et al. This is consistent with the bottom up approach identified by Wachtendorf (2001). If this can be done. and must be built upon to ensure future success. During a time of emergency. This increased engagement between the City of Guelph and neighbourhood groups will benefit both the City of Guelph and the residents of the neighbourhoods. with the expectation that through their mandates they will enhance the sense of community in their areas of responsibility. The engagement of neighbourhood group executive members both with the City of Guelph and their own members. At present. on the subject of emergency management. This project sought to understand the relationship between the neighbourhood groups and the City of Guelph.Conclusions This project set out to examine the City of Guelph and the potential integration of existing and future neighbourhood groups into the emergency management program.66 Chapter 6 .

. but creating partnerships of this kind will pay dividends in the future when disaster strikes. If this has the added benefit of the neighbourhoods being integrated and engaged in helping themselves and their community. In a time of fiscal restraint. then this is an appropriate use of resources in this City. and providing information in a manner that is family and neighbour friendly. this is the right thing to do for the greater good of the community. and a desire on behalf of the EOCG to have that involvement. and provide them with the tools to enable a mutually beneficial response within the community. The largest challenge will be to find the financial and political will to engage neighbourhood groups and community organizations such as St John Ambulance. and enhance the safety of those residents by communicating information that will better prepare residents to assist themselves during an emergency. Evolving from desires to reality will challenge the creativity of emergency management professionals and municipal politicians alike. I have presented five recommendations that will assist the City of Guelph in moving forward. This research has shown that there is a demonstrated desire on the part of the neighbourhood groups to be involved in enhancing the life of their community. creating new programs to be funded are not popular.67 community together. deferring some of the burden of response away from first responders during a crisis. It is the right thing to do.

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72 Appendix A .

aware that the Federal and Ontario Emergency Management Models both require individuals in the community to be self sufficient for a 72 hour period in an emergency prior to expecting assistance from the municipality in the form of shelter and nutrition? Place an X in the appropriate section.73 Appendix B Dave Elloway Emergency Management Survey Question Group: General Emergency Section Did you know that an emergency can occur at virtually any time? Place an X in the appropriate section. as an individual. Answer Yes No X . Answer Yes No X Were you. Answer Yes No X Did you know that an emergency is defined as a set of circumstances that requires extraordinary responses above and beyond the normal level of responses to events or conditions? Place an X in the appropriate section.

as an individual.74 Are you as an individual able and prepared to meet the needs of your household for 72 hours during an emergency by having your own stock of food and water that will last during this 3 day period? Answer Yes No X Do you. Answer Yes (please specify below) No (please specify below) X Answer Free Form Text . know how to obtain official information during an emergency from the City of Guelph? Place an X in the appropriate section.

from most likely (1) to least likely (13): Radio Television Neighbours Friends Family A public Internet My Police Fire Ambulance A City Other information neighbourhood dispatch dispatch dispatch council line group member Rank: 1 Rank: 2 Rank: 3 Rank: 4 Rank: 5 Rank: 6 Rank: 7 Rank: 8 Rank: 9 Rank: 10 Rank: 11 Rank: 12 Rank: 13 If other. please specify: If you are likely to obtain your information from RADIO.75 In the event of an emergency in the City of Guelph. which of the following sources would you be likely to use to obtain information (please rank in the order you would obtain information . which radio station would you be most likely to listen to during an emergency? (list station and where it is located if known) .

Answer Yes (please specify below) No (please specify below) Total Are you. including the number of persons within the registrant’s household. Would the lack of electricity hamper your ability to obtain information during an emergency? Place an X in the appropriate section. to determine the number of individuals who are directly affected by information from the neighbourhood group.76 If you are likely to obtain your information from TELEVISION. as an individual. aware that the City of Guelph maintains a Public Information Line to access official information during an emergency? Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer Yes No X X Question Group: Executive Membership Section How many residents receive information from your group. which TV source would you be most likely to watch during an emergency? (list station and where it is located if known) Some devices that we commonly use in the household require electricity to function (television/radio/cordless phones). or are registered as a recipient of your services or a program/event participant in your neighbourhood group? (This may be determined through registration information.) .

77 Attendance at functions: What would be the average number of people who turn out at a neighbourhood group meeting (a meeting of the whole neighbourhood group as opposed to the executive members)? How often does your neighbourhood group meet? (choose one) Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer Yes No X . Answer Daily Weekly Bi-weekly Monthly Bi-monthly Bi-annual Annual As required X Does your executive membership/leaderships committee have meetings that are separate from the general meetings? Place an X in the appropriate section.

movie nights) Youth/child centered events Other If the previous answer was "other" please specify here. Answer Education/training/general interest Guest speakers Social events (Winterfest.78 How often does your neighbourhood group executive meet? Place an X in the appropriate section. or attach/provide a copy of the policy regarding roles and responsibilities below: X . Answer Daily Weekly Bi-weekly Monthly Bi-Monthly As required X What do special events that are run by your neighbourhood group generally consist of? Place an X in the appropriate section. X Are there defined roles and responsibilities for executive members of your neighbourhood group? Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer Yes No Explain/identify the roles.

No. how often is it updated? Place an X in the appropriate section. or written procedures/policy distributed to membership. Answer At each meeting with those present. X Answer Free Form Text If there is a general membership list in existence for your neighbourhood. Answer Yes. Monthly Semi-annually Annually Does not exits At the end of each program session X .79 How are these roles and responsibilities conveyed to the members and understood by the members? Example: discussions at meetings. please explain below. please explain below. Are there currently roles and responsibilities among the executive for emergency planning in the neighbourhood? Place an X in the appropriate section.

Answer Yes No X Answer Free Form Text Have you or another executive member of your neighbourhood group met with the City of Guelph's Emergency Management Coordinator on behalf of your group? Place an X in the appropriate section. are you able to disseminate information within your neighbourhood group or does this require approval or consensus of your executive? Place an X in the appropriate section.please briefly describe the nature of the contact/meeting in the space below. Answer Yes . Answer Yes No X As an executive member. No X Answer Free Form Text .80 As needed Total Does the executive membership retain contact information (example .telephone fan out or e-mail fan out lists) for the general membership of your group that is readily accessible? Place an X in the appropriate section.

how often is it updated? (A fan out list is potentially different from a list of members. do you have alternate numbers/email addresses for contact of your membership in the event that they can not be reached at their primary contacts? (Yes/No and explain) Does your group have a neighbourhood website for posting events and disseminating information? Place an X in the appropriate section. is it interactive for members to log in and access information or is everything contained in a publicly accessible space? . These would be people prepared to receive and make phone calls on behalf of the group to communicate information).81 If your neighbourhood group has a fan out list. Answer Yes No X If your neighbourhood group has a website. If your neighbourhood group has a fan out list.

do you have a pool of items that could be used to assist group members in a time of emergency? Place an X in the appropriate section.please explain No .please explain X Answer Free Form Text Within your neighbourhood group.please explain what you have available. spiritual advice/guidance). Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer Yes . Answer Yes . No (optional for information below) X Answer Free Form Text . is there a knowledge base about the skills and abilities possessed by general and executive members of the neighbourhood group that could be used to assist others in a time of emergency? (example: persons with mental health skills.82 Within your neighbourhood group executive. counselling skills.

etc)? Place an X in the appropriate section.comments welcome below X Answer Free Form Text Does your executive have any kind of mutual support plan within the group to support your members? (example: neighbours who will check on elderly. Answer Yes . . Answer Yes . X Answer Free Form Text Within your neighbourhood group does your executive have knowledge of persons who may need special assistance during some types of emergencies? (example: require and oxygen supply. is there a list or knowledge of equipment/preparedness items that could be used during an emergency to support persons in your neighbourhood (Example: generators. sharing of resources . gas powered chain saws.your comments are welcome below.generators/fuel and freezers during an electrical outage).83 Within your neighbourhood group. mobility assistance).your comments are welcome below. Place an X in the appropriate section. Place an X in the appropriate section. No .comments welcome below No.

your comments are welcome X Answer Free Form Text How well prepared is your neighbourhood group to assist those in your neighbourhood who may have special needs in a time of an emergency? (example: a member who may require uninterrupted access to electricity due to health/breathing requirements?) . please describe briefly what has been done in this area.comments welcome below No .comments welcome below X Answer Free Form Text Has the executive membership of your neighbourhood group done any preparatory work for emergency preparedness? If yes. Place an X in the appropriate section.please comment below No . Answer Yes .84 Answer Yes .

Answer Yes No X Does your neighbourhood group provide an internet access point for members and the community who do not have home internet access? Place an X in the appropriate section. and on the internet at Guelph. Answer Yes No X Are you personally aware that the City of Guelph Emergency Plan is available to the public at City Hall. Answer Yes No X . at the Public Library. Are your executive group members familiar with the City of Guelph Emergency Plan? Place an X in the appropriate section.ca? Place an X in the appropriate section.85 Briefly describe the nature and frequency of interaction between the City of Guelph and your neighbourhood group executive and the neighbourhood group in general.

essential X Rate how important having access to accurate information and instructions in a time of emergency is to you personally.very important 5 .very important 5 .not important at all 2 .86 Rate how important emergency preparedness is TO YOU PERSONALLY. Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer X .somewhat important 3 . Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer 1 .essential X Rate how important emergency preparedness is TO YOUR FAMILY.not important at all 2 .somewhat important 3 .important 4 . Answer 1 .very important 5 .essential X Rate how prepared you are personally at present to deal with a 72 hour crisis.not important at all 2 . Place an X in the appropriate section.somewhat important 3 .important 4 . Answer 1. Place an X in the appropriate section.important 4 .

prepared 4 .somewhat prepared 3 . Place an X in the appropriate section.not prepared at all 2 . Answer 1 . Answer 1 .communication is not good at all 2 .mostly prepared 5 . Place an X in the appropriate section.completely prepared Rate how prepared you would like to be to deal with a 72 hour crisis. Place an X in the appropriate section.87 1 .I should get by.not prepared at all 2 .communication is occasionally ok 3 .I am very confident of obtaining information X Rate how well your neighbourhood group communication is with the City of Guelph. but I don't feel great about it 4 .completely prepared X Rate how well you personally are to obtain information during a crisis.I am fairly confident I will get needed information 5 .somewhat prepared 3 .I may get some information 3 . Answer 1 .completely unprepared 2 .prepared 4 .mostly prepared 5 .communication is ok and we get by X .

communication is very good X Rate how well your communication is within your neighbourhood as a whole under normal circumstances.communication is mostly good 5 .communication is mostly good 5 .88 4 . Answer 1 . Answer 1 .communication is occasionally ok 3 .communication is not good at all 2 . Answer 1 . Place an X in the appropriate section. Place an X in the appropriate section.communication is occasionally ok 3 .communication is mostly good 5 .communication is ok.communication is occasionally ok 3 .communication is very good X .communication is ok and we get by 4 . Place an X in the appropriate section. we get by 4 .communication is very good Rate how well your neighbourhood group communication is with the City of Guelph during a crisis.communication is ok and we get by 4 .communication is very good X Rate how well your communication is within your executive of your neighbourhood group under normal circumstances.communication is mostly good 5 .communication is not good at all 2 .communication is not good at all 2 .

prepared 5 . Place an X in the appropriate section.completely prepared X Rate how well prepared you feel you are to provide accurate information to your family during a time of emergency being able to provide information from sources known to you.mostly prepared 4.89 Rate how well prepared you personally are to assist others prior to a time of emergency. Answer 1 .somewhat prepared 3 . Answer 1 .mostly prepared 4 .prepared 5 . Place an X in the appropriate section. Answer 1 .not prepared 2 .somewhat prepared 3 .completely prepared X Rate how well prepared you personally are to assist others during a time of emergency.not prepared 2 .somewhat prepared 3 .not prepared at all 2 . Place an X in the appropriate section.mostly prepared 4 . Place an X in the appropriate section.completely prepared X Rate how well prepared you are to assist others during an extended emergency period that may last for several weeks (example: an extended power outage due to an ice storm). Answer X .prepared 5 .

Answer 1 . Place an X in the appropriate section.completely prepared X Rate how well prepared you are to assist other neighbourhood members during a time of emergency.completely prepared Rate how well prepared you are to provide accurate information to your neighbourhood group prior to a time of emergency.somewhat prepared 3 .mostly prepared 4 .somewhat prepared X Question Group: Events Information Section Would you be prepared to participate in a future focus group that will look at ways to engage Neighbourhood Groups in emergency management? Answer Yes X .completely prepared 2 .somewhat prepared 3 .prepared 5 .not prepared at all 2 .not prepared at all 2 . Answer 1 .not well prepared at all 3 . Place an X in the appropriate section.mostly prepared 4 .mostly prepared 4 .prepared 5 .90 1 .prepared 5 .

Answer Yes No Yes . did you learn anything about the roles and responsibilities you have as a member of the public during a time of emergency? Place an X in the appropriate section Answer Yes. This kind of training is usually conducted on weekdays. if what you did have was not appropriate. would have been appropriate? .but shorter in duration X Question Group: Electrical Emergency issues Please share what communication occurred. what information was received and whether or not this information was sufficient for the needs of your neighbourhood group. Place an X in the appropriate section. I didn't learn anything new X Answer Free Form Text Would you personally be interested in participating in a basic emergency course that could then be used to educate members of your neighbourhood group? This course may take up to three days of classroom training.91 No In completing this survey. and would be at no direct cost to you. I learned some new information No. What kind of communication did you have with the City of Guelph? What kind of communication.

Answer Sample Percentage Yes No Answer Free Form Text Question Group: Pineridge Tornado . when information is published about the electrical supply being pushed to the limit. does that influence any preparatory actions you may take? As an example. as the number of requests to reduce consumption grows. and asking for your assistance in reducing consumption. In the previous example.92 Question Group: Public Warnings If you were to received information on a frequent basis that dealt with an impending emergency. do you take the steps to reduce your consumption? Please explain. do you personally continue to take action? Please explain why or why not.

Answer Yes .please explain below No . what information was recieved. do you personally continue to take action to prevent damage and injury? Place an X in the appropriate choice. when information is broadcast about the probability of severe weather approaching. Please share what communication occurred. do you personally take any action to prevent damage or injury? An example of this is severe thunderstorm warnings and tornado warnings issued by Environment Canada.please explain below X . and whether or not the information was sufficient for the needs of your neighborhood group. did you recieved any kind of warning about this emergency? What was the source of your warning? How many different sources did you recieve information from during this emergency? If you were to receive information on a frequent basis that dealt with an impending emergency. as the number of warnings about severe weather increase in number. With the Pineridge Tornado. where no damage has occurred. briefly describe how the communication of information was between the City of Guelph and your neighbourhood group. In the previous example. does that influence you in any preparatory actions you may take? As an example.93 With the Pineridge Tornado in mind.

e-mail. where information would be sent by electronic text. Answer Yes No Don't know XX . would you personally be prepared to sign up for this service and to ensure that your contact information was kept current? Place an X in the appropriate choice/ Answer X Yes No Answer Free Form Text If this service described in the previous question was provided free of charge.94 Answer Free Form Text Question Group: Communication options If the City of Guelph were to offer you an opportunity to sign up for an electronic notification system. and to ensure that your contact information was kept current? Place an X in the appropriate choice. or voicemail to you if the area you live in was being affected by an emergency. would you personally be prepared to sign up for this service.

would you personally be prepared to sign up for this service. and to ensure that your contact information was kept current? Place an X in the appropriate choice Answer Yes No Don't know X XX Answer Free Form Text Question Group: Detached section Place an X in the appropriate answer section. I belong to the following neighbourhood group: Answer Brant Avenue Neighbourhood Group Clairfields Neighbourhood Group Exhibition Park Neighbourhood Group Grange Hill East Neighbourhood Group Hanlon Creek Neighbourhood Group X .95 Answer Free Form Text If this service described above had a subscription charge if you had to pay for it.

U. and e-mail if possible. Place an X in the appropriate choice. This information will not be connected to your survey answers. Answer Submit Don't submit (abandon) Total X . telephone information.96 Kortright Hills Neighbourhood Group O. Three Bridges Neighbourhood Group Onward Willow Better Beginnings Neighbourhood Group Parkwood Gardens Neighbourhood Group Two Rivers Neighbourhood Group Waverly Neighbourhood Group West Willow Woods Neighbourhood Group Total Contact information if you as an individual are prepared to participate in a focus group. I am satisfied that I have completed this survey and wish to submit my answers as part of this study.R. Please include your name.

The questions in this survey are asked with the assumption that you are senior managers for the City of Guelph. contributing to building healthy. This survey will ask questions of senior managers at the City of Guelph to determine the desire to have the community involved in Emergency Management through the potential participation of Neighbourhood Groups. Are you aware of the Neighbourhood Groups that exist within the City of Guelph? Yes No 2. Currently. please outline below how you feel that Neighbourhood Groups could best be included with a role in emergency management within the City of Guelph. but there is no role for these groups to assist during a time of emergency when a community most needs assistance.97 Appendix C Neighbourhood Group involvement in Emergency Management – City of Guelph This survey is to assist in research being conducted by David Elloway. If yes to question # 2. would you . If Neighbourhood Groups were to add emergency management information within their individual neighbourhood pages on their website. Neighbourhood Groups are mandated to improve the quality of life within the City of Guelph. These volunteer groups are committed to improving the quality of life in their neighbourhoods (source Guelph. vibrant communities in the City of Guelph. This research is designed to determine the desire of the community through Neighbourhood Groups to be involved in Emergency Management as a supplement to current City of Guelph activities. 4. 1. Would you consider the use of these neighbourhood groups as part of the overall City of Guelph emergency plan? Yes No Don’t know 3.ca). neighbourhood groups are engaged in community building. Currently. and that you have responsibilities that involve emergency management for the community. and at what level the senior managers see the participation of neighbourhood groups. a graduate student at Royal Roads University. Efforts at present include neighbourhood activities that build community.

food delivery. affected persons often seek out additional and/or other sources of information for confirmation of information or direction. they could assist in information dissemination. This may be either through direct contact at the Neighbourhood Group level. If this kind of information were to be distributed to Neighbourhood Groups. fuel delivery. or by providing membership contact information through the office of the CEMC for inclusion on the City of Guelph Public Alert Messaging system as a data subset. would that be considered an asset to the City of Guelph emergency plan? Yes No Don’t know 9. Some of these members will require additional assistance such as regular personal communication. such as an ice storm.98 support the inclusion of Hazard Identification and Risk Information being relayed directly to the affected neighbourhood’s population in this manner? Yes 5. would you consider the use of Neighbourhood Group members under the direction of City employees to augment efforts? Yes No Don’t know 8. Would this assist the City of Guelph in ensuring information reaches the intended population? Yes No Don’t Know 7. This may be through fundraising. No Don’t know During official communication from the City of Guelph. During an emergency. Assuming that these individuals would be registered to assist through Neighbourhood Groups. and supervised by City . or more directly through the assistance of volunteer (registered) work parties that can work under the direction of existing City personnel to increase the initial stages of recovery. many members of the community will be affected. In an extended emergency. In a recovery phase after an emergency situation. thereby freeing up first responders for crisis work. During a slow onset emergency. If Neighbourhood Groups were able to assist in some of these tasks. There is a potential for Neighbourhood Groups to participate in this phase on a formal basis. where volunteers may be required to assist emergency personnel. research shows that a community assists to heal and establish a new normal more rapidly if it participates in the recovery effort. All these functions will currently fall to first responders. would you consider including Neighbourhood Groups on the distribution list for informational updates? Yes No Don’t Know 6. or would require contact to ensure their well being.

as an example by making fuel available for generators that would allow persons to shelter in place as opposed to being evacuated during a longer duration emergency such as an ice storm. Would you consider providing Neighbourhood Groups with assistance in organizing and maintaining a cache of supplies that could be used by volunteers during an emergency? Yes No Don’t know 11. such as St John’s Ambulance who may be able to administer this (after establishing an agreement to do so). If this could be linked to another community organization. In other communities (Saanich. or providing fuel for chain saws to facilitate brush removal if many trees were down in a neighbourhood by delivering fuel to a central point at a Neighbourhood Group facility? Yes No Don’t know 14. BC as an example).99 personnel. would you consider a program such as this to be put in place within the Neighbourhood Groups despite this being an increased budgetary cost? Yes No Don’t know 12. Would you support this neighbourhood assistance. Neighbourhood Groups have been supplied with emergency stockpiles of first aid supplies and storage facilities (similar to a concrete sports equipment lockers currently in use) and the Neighbourhood Groups can rely upon these stockpiles to assist during a time of emergency. would you be willing to consider the participation of these volunteers in any clean up and recovery process? Yes No Don’t know 10. If Neighbourhood Groups established and maintained a list of emergency preparedness items that were owed by individuals in their neighbourhood who were prepared to utilize these for the greater good during a time of emergency. Would you be prepared to support the attendance of member(s) of the executive leadership of Neighbourhood Groups in the future at a version of a Basic Emergency Management course that would better prepare these individuals to assist their neighbourhood if it were affected by an emergency? Yes No Don’t know . would you entertain the use of these items to assist others in the neighbourhood? Yes No Don’t know 13.

Answer Which Neighbourhood Groups are you aware of within the City of Guelph? X Brant Avenue Neighbourhood Group Clairfields Neighbourhood Group Exhibition Park Neighbourhood Group Grange Hill East Neighbourhood Group Hanlon Creek Neighbourhood Group Kortright Hills Neighbourhood Group O.100 15. Three Bridges Neighbourhood Group Onward Willow Better Beginnings Neighbourhood Group Parkwood Gardens Neighbourhood Group Two Rivers Neighbourhood Group Waverly Neighbourhood Group West Willow Woods Neighbourhood Group Total .U.R.

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