An Abstract of Study of Parameters in the Development of Sustainable Transportation System: A Case Study of Mumbai, India By Bhairavi S. Dhakras

Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Civil Engineering

The University of Toledo August 2004

Urban transportation forms one of the most important components of urban development. With the growing business, trade and urbanization all over the world, there is a growth in demand for transportation. Transportation problems mainly arise due to this growing demand and the inadequacy of the supply of transport facilities. This imbalance between capacity or supply of transport facilities and the increasing demand from people causes an unsustainable condition. Traffic congestion, trave l delays and dissatisfaction amongst the travelers are all the results of this imbalance. These are accompanied by environmental problems like air and noise pollution with high vehicular emissions and excessive fuel consumption. Concept of sustainability thus arises from the

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need of having a transportation system which would efficiently cater to the needs and travel demands of citizens, without causing any adverse effect on the environment. In this study, literature regarding transportation planning and urban designing is reviewed for various developed and developing countries. Most populous city in the world, developing city in Asia and the financial capital of India, the City of Mumbai, is selected as the study area. Views of the citizens of Mumbai and information about their regular traveling pattern are collected through a web survey. Transportation scenario and problems in this city are closely observed and studied which lead to interesting findings and facts. These include congestion index, loss i working hours, vehicular emissions, average speed, n distance, travel time, expenses and commuter satisfaction. A statistical analysis is carried out to measure the commuter satisfaction and different aspects of the transportation system affecting the performance of the system as a whole. It is deduced that congestion, rush, delay, parking, pedestrian facilities and road quality are major factors from people’s point of view, which significantly affect their satisfaction or acceptability of the performance of Mumbai Transportation System. Environmental problems are also studied for the City of Mumbai, and recommendations made to alleviate them. It is finally inferred that there is an urgent need for comprehensive transportation planning, dispersing population, curbing private vehicle use and effectively facilitating the public transportation in the City of Mumbai.

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Dedicated to My parents. India Thank you for being with me. brother and sister in law in Mumbai. always! iv .

v . this analysis would not have been possible. my brother and my sister in law in India. Mostaghel for being on my defense committee. I appreciate Dr. Candace Ayars for her immense help with the statistical analysis. Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority. I am thankful to my parents. who by their responses and comments have made this research possible. Srilakshmi and Rachana for their co-operation and understanding throughout their stay with me. Mumbai Municipal Corporation. I am thankful to Save Bombay Committee. Amit’s suggestions and guidance. I thank the citizens of Mumbai. Jiwan Gupta for his guidance. Regional Transport Office of Mumbai. Kisan Mehta. Sustainable Transportation Yahoo Group and all the other web sites and books. who has been my greatest inspiration in making Mumbai a sustainable city. I express my gratitude towards Mr. who have been a constant source of support and inspiration throughout my stay in the United States. I appreciate Anirban’s help with technical details and comments. Rachana and Anirban. who helped me design the online questionnaire. suggestions and co-operation. president of Save Bombay Committee. which provided me with a great deal of information. Vijay Sidhaye for Mumbai maps and Tanvi. Mr. Heydinger and Dr.Acknowledgements I take this opportunity to thank Dr. Without her effort and help. I am grateful to Dr. Priya for sharing pictures of Mumbai. Seeman Corey. I am especially thankful to Mr.

Table of Content Page Abstract Dedication Acknowledgements Table of Content List of Figures.2.2 Introduction Background Sustainability 1.2.2.2.1 1.1 2.2 Definition Measures (Indicators) of Sustainability 1 1 3 6 9 11 11 13 14 22 1. Maps and Photos List of Tables ii iv v vi ix xii Chapter 1: 1.1 1.3 Chapter 2: 2.1 2.2 Land Use Planning Non-Motorized Transportation vi .2 Research Objectives Literature Review Urbanization and Unsustainable Transportation Demand Management – Means to Sustainability 2.

Page 2.2.3 2.8 Planning and Management Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic Environmental Pollution Spreading Localities Indiscipline and inefficient control of traffic Land Use Planning – Concentration of Employment Centers vii .6 4. a Mumbai suburb 55 55 57 57 60 62 66 70 70 71 72 34 34 35 40 42 48 51 4.4 3.5 4.1 4.2 3.5 3.4 4. India Information of the City – History and Development Geography and Population Employment Transportation Traffic in Mumbai Environmental Crisis Taking a closer look at Transportation Problems Focus on Andheri.2 Overview of the area Transportation Infrastructure 4.4 Chapter 3: 3.1 3.7 4.6 Chapter 4: Role of Policy Implementers – Government 29 Towards Sustainable Transportation – Meaning and Indicators 31 Study Area – City of Mumbai.1 4.3 4.2.2 Streets Sidewalks 4.3 3.

2.2 References Appendix Conclusion and Recommendations Conclusion Recommendations viii .1 7.1 Dispersion of Population and Employment – Satellite Towns 6.4 6.2.1.5 Facilitation of Public Transportation Parking Pedestrian Convenience Curbing personalized vehicles on roads 107 108 110 110 111 113 113 115 116 122 Chapter 7: 7.2 Environmental Aspect Results and Inference Interpretation and Inference Suggestions for Mitigation 6.1 Data Collection and Analysis Data Collection 5.1 5.2.1 5.Page Chapter 5: 5.1 6.2 Commuter Satisfaction Statistical Analysis 5.3 Chapter 6: 6.2 6.3 6.2 5.2.2.2.2 Online Survey Survey Design and Observations 74 74 74 76 83 83 85 99 106 106 107 Analysis 5.1.2.

3 Figure 3.1 Sustainability Curves Graph of increase in population in Mumbai from years 1911 to 1991 with estimated population in the year 2003 Figure 3.List of Figures Page Figure 1.1 Figure 5. Mahim and Andheri in Year 2002-03 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.4 Motor vehicles (all types) from 1980 to 2003 in Mumbai Increase in private motor ownership (two-wheelers and cars) Average Air Pollution Levels at Traffic Junctions of suburbs of Wadala.6 Figure 5.10 Figure 5.8 Figure 5.4 Graph showing AM and PM peak hours of travel Graph showing percentile speeds for AM Road Traffic Graph showing percentile speeds for PM Road Traffic Distribution of scores for Mumbai Transportation System as a whole Figure 5.11 Distribution of responses about Road Quality Distribution of responses about Congestion Distribution of responses about Delay due to Speed Distribution of responses about Frequency of Buses and Trains Distribution of responses about Pedestrian Facilities Distribution of responses about Rush in Public Transport Distribution of responses about Parking 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 89 52 77 80 80 40 49 49 6 ix .3 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.9 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.

20 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.3 Map 3.1 Map 3. two stroke with respect to speed 103 List of Maps Map 3.2 Map 3. four stroke with respect to speed 102 Figure 5.4 Map of Mumbai Mumbai with significant areas City of Mumbai with roadways and important locations City of Mumbai showing Western Railway and 36 38 44 x .18 Figure 5.19 Distribution of scores for Infrastructure Distribution of scores for Cost Graph of Linear Regression Emission levels (gm/km) for buses and trucks with respect to speed 100 101 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.12 Distribution of responses about Availability of alternate modes 90 90 93 Figure 5.22 Emission levels (gm/km) for two wheelers.17 Figure 5.21 Emission levels (gm/km) for cars with respect to speed Emission levels (gm/km) for two wheelers.Figure 5.15 Distribution of responses about Cost of Travel Distribution of scores for Crowding Distribution of scores for Availability of Transportation Modes 93 94 94 98 Figure 5.

5 Photo 4.13 Photo 4.14 Photo 4.2 Photo 4.10 Photo 4.3 Photo 4.16 Photo 4.12 Photo 4.1 Photo 4.9 Photo 4.1 Focus Area in Mumbai – The suburb of Andheri 46 56 List of Photos Photo 3. Mumbai Jay walking due to lack of pedestrian signals and road Markings Photo 4.11 Photo 4.1 Photo 4.8 Photo 4.17 Hawkers on the pedestrian sidewalks Sidewalks occupied by hawkers in Mumbai Over-saturated flows at traffic signals Traffic Jam during peak hour Rush for the buses during peak hours Rush at a railway station to board train Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic in Mumbai Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic in Mumbai Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic in Mumbai Cattle on Mumbai streets Vehicle-Pedestrian Conflict outside Railway Station Slums around railway tracks Over-crowding of typical Mumbai Railway Station 60 61 61 63 64 65 66 67 68 68 69 69 71 73 47 58 58 59 xi .15 Photo 4.6 Photo 4.4 Over-crowding of typical Mumbai Railway Prolonged road constructions and maintenance Prolonged road constructions and maintenance Fenced and Narrow Medians on street in Andheri.Central Railway Map 4.7 Photo 4.

1 Table 5.3 Table 3.6 Commuter Satisfaction Index calculation Coefficients from Factor Analysis (Rotated Component Matrix) Table 5.1 Table 3. and average AM and PM speeds for each mode of travel.2 Table 3.4 Table 3.7 Table 5.6 Push Factors affecting Migration to Mumbai Pull Factors affecting Migration to Mumbai Number of vehicles in 2003 in Mumbai Air Quality Monitoring at Traffic Junction (2002-03) Ambient Air Quality Levels at fixed monitoring sites Emission Load of Mumbai City in tons/day for year 2002-03 from Transportation Table 5.2 Percentage of respondents based on their profession Percentage of Trips in mornings and evenings to and from suburbs and city Table 5.5 Table 3. distance.4 Percentage rating for the acceptability of Mumbai Transportation System and the parameters Table 5. Table 5.8 Summary of basic statistics for the four factors Model Summary xii 92 95 95 82 84 79 77 53 76 41 42 48 52 53 .List of Tables Page Table 3.3 Percentage by number of trips.5 Table 5.

14 Correlations Coefficients from regression analysis Correla tions and Significance Model Summary Coefficients and significance values for linear regression Percentage decrease in fuel consumption and emission of pollutants 96 96 97 97 98 104 Table 5.15 Emission values in gm/km for the actual speed and ideal speed of vehicles in Mumbai 104 xiii .12 Table 5.Table 5.13 Table 5.11 Table 5.10 Table 5.9 Table 5.

Thus urban transport forms one of the most important components of urban development. 38 per cent of population (around 1. In 2003. With the growth of cities. this figure is estimated to rise to 60 per cent [3].Chapter 1 Introduction 1. demand for transportation grows with the growing business and trade all over the world.1 Background Transportation is essential for the movement of people and goods. Most of the population and economic growth in the world is occurring in developing countries [2]. The evolution of industrial development calls for an expansion of transportation systems to cater to the increasing demand. the proportion of urban residents will have increased by 50 per cent with the urban population reaching over 2 1 . This has resulted in more people and more goods making more trips in urban areas. often over longer distances [2]. Deb [1] states that the productive efficiency of urban areas is maintained when mobility requirements in the cities are fully met.2 billion persons) of Asia lived in cities. By the year 2025. The occurrence of rapid urbanization in the world has created the migration of people from rural areas to metropolitan cities. Approximately 45 per cent of world population lived in urban areas in 1995. A good network of roads and an efficient transport system make a substantial contribution to the working efficiency of a city. By 2020.

Travelers spend money on their travel directly (traveling expenses) or indirectly (local taxes). in many of the developing countries owning a car is a symbol of prestige. With this. Nonmotorized transportation modes (which mostly include pedestrians and cyclists) have become the most vulnerable in the present vehicular dominant transportation system. They are deprived of safe movement on roads. goods and vehicles. the inventory of vehicles has been rising at a faster rate in terms of percentage as compared to the population. Traffic congestion.billion [4]. due to growing traffic. These are accompanied by environmental problems like air and noise pollution. pedestrians being the victims most of the times. Besides. Rapid urbanization is accompanied by an alarming rate of increase in the number of vehicles. travel delays and dissatisfaction amongst the travelers are all the results of this imbalance. In fact. but are unable to get desired satisfaction. By some estimate at least 153 cities in Asia will have population exceeding 1 million persons [4]. there is higher demand for the use of transportation facilities. However transport infrastructure development and provision of public transport facilities have severely lagged behind as compared to the demand. Transportation problems mainly arise due to the imbalance between capacity or supply of transport facilities and the demand from the people. Road networks in cities are clogged by the explosion of personalized vehicle and have resulted in acute traffic congestion. steeply increasing number of accidents and levels of pollution. There is a high growth of autoownership in cities for better accessibility. Process of urbanization with an improper controlled planning has resulted in disproportional spatial distribution of population and economic activities necessitating large-scale intra-city movement of people. This causes increase in the number of accidents. There is a gap between increasing traffic 2 .

Makandia & Barbier (1989) [5] define sustainability as: “Sustainable development involves devising a social and economic system. 3 .” Sustainability is a condition when there is maximum fulfillment of needs with least resource consumption. that the health of the nation improves.e. 1. economic. This gap is increasing leading to unsustainable condition. optimum cost and without causing negative impact on environment and society. i. at most favorable costs and with least amount of congestion and environmental impacts such as air and noise pollution.” Pearce. environmental and physical factors. subways etc). roads. Sustainable transportation can be defined as the most efficient and convenient movement of people and vehicles with least amount of energy (in terms of fuel and efforts). suppressing economical development. that real incomes rise. which prevents the smooth flow of traffic and healthy environmental conditions. which ensures that these goals are sustained.2 1. traffic control devices. that educational standards increase.and existing infrastructure (in terms of bridges. Concept of sustainability thus arises from the need of a transportation system which would efficiently cater to the needs and travel demands of citizens. satisfying the present needs as well as not compromising on the ability of the future condition. that the general quality of life is advanced.1 Sustainability Definition The World Bank provides the following definition of sustainability: “Sustainability is defined as the condition in which there is a balance and stability between the social.2.

land use. which in turn would reduce air pollution as well as the increasing congestion. and transportation options demanding least cost and effort of people can be considered as various aspects of a sustainable transportation system. Good land use planning requiring minimum need to travel.free urban planning. transportation can become sustainable only when it holistically considers social. 4-6) defines sustainable transportation as made of three components: 4 . Although it includes all these techniques. and equity. environmental issues. transportation modes causing minimum amount of air pollution. When people understand the impacts of transportation. Sustainable transportation system aims at designing of congestion. services and delivery systems with minimum accessibility problems. widening roads and having rapid transit systems. A report by the World Bank (1996. Improvement in transportation is often misinterpreted as only building bridges. they can in turn make choices that reduce the need for resources and thus minimize the adverse impacts. and the progress towards it is incremental. resource consumption. transportation network friendly for all classes of people. economical and environmental aspects.Sustainable transportation is a long-term goal to achieve. which would help achieve the continuous economic development without having a detrimental effect on environmental and human resources. It aims at the efficiency of transit of goods. with bicycle and pedestrian friend ly design of the areas. Thus sustainable transportation concerns with the impacts of transportation developments on economic efficiency. Sustainability can be achieved with the change in behavioral aspects of people. It focuses on moving people and not only the vehicles. It includes the application of systems. policies and technologies.

including those costs that indicate the quality of the trip for the traveler. patterns and their management. which emphasizes adequate access to transportation services by all segments of society. which includes the issues of adequacy of transportation infrastructure funding. which includes issues of how transportation investments and mode options influence the reduction in consumption of energy. It focuses on accessib ility. It implies changes in the way we think to identify and evaluate the solutions to transportation problems. • The social component. Sustainability is also said to be a measure of transport impact on all aspects of the natural and human environment. Sustainability can be graphically defined as shown in Figure 1. Sustainability cannot be achieved only by changing the vehicular designs. • The environmental and ecological component. A principal human cost is the time spent in transport. pollution etc. This cost is the largest single cost after the systems capital and operating costs [6]. which can be improved by having better means of communication and land use management that will reduce the need to travel. 5 . organization and scale.• The economic and financial component.1. All costs are accounted for.

Some Appropriate Measures Sustainability Needs Technology Resources Environment Ecological System Time Figure 1. but no definitive set of measures has been arrived at as acceptable by everyone. the resources are unable to satisfy the needs and the unsustainable condition arises.1 shows the increasing needs and the depleting resources.2 Measures (indicators) of Sustainability Various researchers are conducting research to define measures of sustainable development. 1.2. There are three basic functions of indicators . Thus an imbalance is created as the supply gets diminished as compared to demands.simplification. Indicators of sustainability can be the units of measuring progress towards sustainable development. 6 .1 Sustainability Curves Source: Sustainable Transportation: Conceptualization and Performance Measures. After a certain point of time. Texas Transportation Institute Socio-economic needs of the people increase with the growth in technology. Figure 1.

and communication. Indicators generally simplify in order to make complex phenomena quantifiable so that information can be communicated. environmental damages. and accident costs. For some travelers. They like to be informed about the state of the environment and the economy and how and why they are changing [5]. having more travel choices. Reduction in pollution levels. Other measurable benefit indicators include: reductions in health impacts.motorized modes [6]. real changes in the cost of transport and freight traffic. A clear additional benefit is how equitably people across a region share in the primary benefit of congestion relief. 7 . Other secondary benefits could be identified and measured that are of interest to stakeholder groups.motorized modes. as travelers shift to transit. ride share and non. measures for the study could include the following: • • Congestion index. The University of Reading [5] gives the indicators for sustainable transportation in terms of car use and total passenger travel. While there is no simple or single means of achieving efficient transportation. A primary performance measure can be devised which indicates how regional travel time delay is affected by the recommended strategy. It could be applied to local transport problems or to important social purposes.quantification. The general public is concerned about sustainable development and the environment. Performance should be measured in ways that meet both governmental standards and public needs and wishes. short journeys. is a benefit. Money that is freed up with a costeffective regional solution would also constitute a benefit. especially safe non.

Although the problems appear to be universally the same. For achieving the sustainability. Policy makers should realize that solutions designed for cities of developed countries cannot be directly applied to the urban areas of developing countries. impact of each development and improvement has to be studied in deep and its benefits have to be calculated. condition. minimizing negative environmental impacts. Addressing problems in isolation would not be very effective because of the 8 . thus avoiding consumption of excessive amounts of land and other sources. Developing countries face a challenge in finding innovative solutions. These countries should also acknowledge the interrelationships that exist between different urban trends and impacts. Percentage of excess of capacity over the demand. need. B/C > 1 is a sustainable condition. their solutions differ. resource availability and climate [7]. 1993).May. efficient and reliable transport services for the citizens. Sustainability is attained when there is social comfort and equity with least consumption of resources. Urban areas in developing countries require new approaches to address their transportation problems. It is important for developing nations to develop a transportation system with limited resources. Transportation planners often tend to apply methods developed in developed countries to problems in developing countries with little concern for differences in causes. Transportation planners face major challenges in exploring affordable.• Per capita energy consumption (Alberta Round Table on the Environment and the Economy -. • • • Reduction in travel times or the traveling costs. These solutions may demand enormous costs. They can and should learn from the experiences of developed countries. Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C) of travel.

In contrast to this. even for cities within the same country. from the immediate and short term to the gradual and long term. studying their causes. The city consists of industries. For instance. big and small employment centers and slums in a small area of 438 sq. Mumbai. measuring them and suggesting feasible measures for sustainability. developed countries face a problem of urban sprawl. Such countries encourage mixed land use pattern consisting of residences. Still the city faces a large number of transportation and environmental problems. shopping malls. It means that the causes of these problems are not exactly similar to the ones in the developed countries. is a very congested city. 9 . factories. Various parameters related to transportation system are studied which affect the sustainability from social. Interrelated problems require integrated strategies implemented over time. offices. with a very high population density. all of them being very severe and serious. Although the measures of sustainability have not been exactly defined. which essentially means the dispersion of population in low densities. sustainability of transportation in Mumbai can be measured by knowing the definition of sustainable transportation. km. mixed land use pattern and a good network of public transportation. the City of Mumbai has a mixed land use pattern. Developing countries need to make approaches city specific. schools etc. schools. work places.complex nature of the urban transportation system.3 Research Objectives The main objective of this study lies in identifying transportation problems in the City of Mumbai. 1. and demand innovative and different solutions. environmental and economical point of view. residential complexes. This r duces the commuting distance and thus the car e dependency.

• • Study of population. • Suggesting mitigation measures for achieving sustainability. • Literature study to define the sustainable transportation system for the City of Mumbai. and defining the indicators of sustainability. • Focusing on environmental aspect and recommending strategies to curb environmental damages. • Measuring social satisfaction and acceptability towards the current system. 10 . Defining a study area within the City of Mumbai for in depth study of sustainable transportation. employment and transportation system. the following tasks are envisioned to study the sustainable transportation system in Mumbai.With limited sources in obtaining data. by considering various parameters and the historical development.

As discussed earlier. At least 153 cities in Asia will have population exceeding 1 million persons [4]. In 2003. Population and economic growth in the world i occurring mainly in s developing countries [4]. most countries in the world are experiencing rapid urban growth. transportation. electricity etc. By 2020. in 1995. Growth in population with the improvement in economy has caused growth in vehicle ownership. the growth rate of motor vehicles in deve loping countries has been rising in past few years and is also expected to rise in the future.1 Urbanization and Unsustainable Transportation With rapid industrialization. There has been a population movement from rural to urban areas since twentieth century. 38 per cent of population of Asia lived in cities (around 1. Although personal automobile ownership rates are lower in developing countries as compared to the developed countries. this figure is estimated to rise to 60 per cent [3]. but by the year 2025. In particular.Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.2 billion persons). the proportion of urban residents will increase by 50 per cent with the urban population reaching 2 billion [4]. This is apparently due to lack of comprehensive planning and weak 11 . Rapid urbanization has caused tremendous demand for supporting infrastructure such as water. a gap between the demand and supply of transportation facilities is increasing due to ineffective transportation management or due to incompetence of the existing system. approximately 45 per cent of world population lived in urban areas.

building bridges and widening roads became the common solutions to transportation problems. With increasing traffic and demand for travel. thus benefiting the high income group of society. the transport sector’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions will be twice than that in 2000. Urban 12 . Developments of new and improvement in existing facilities are seen. Each year. and another 500. most of them being pedestrians. longer travel times and air pollution. Sustainable transportation includes smooth movement of vehicles. improvement of transportation network prioritized the movement of vehicles. The health and environmental implications of the rapidly growing and poorly regulated motorization are highly problematic. travel delays. more than 750. Until now.000 people are killed by motor vehicles. Transportation problems as discussed earlier are arising since the capacity or supply is unable to satisfy the travel demand. As more and more people will be dependent on private automobiles. environmental problems like air and noise pollution are various causes of unsustainable transportation. Transportation consumes more than 20 percent of the world's total energy and produces much of the world's air pollution [8]. goods and people. it is estimated that by 2025. creating an unsustainable condition. but transportation often remains a problem with increased travel demand. Travelers experience discomfort in traveling due to traffic jams.000 die prematurely due to transport-related air pollution in developing countries [9]. Billions of dollars are spent on highways and ring roads (beltways) in the developing countries while too little is spent on new public transit fleets which could effectively reduce pollution and congestion [9]. Traffic congestion. It demands conve nience of people and stability in the environment at optimum cost and effort. dissatisfaction amongst the travelers.institutional support.

parking management strategies and effective land use planning. facilitation of non. it is impractical and expensive to increase capacity to uphold the continuously growing demand. TDM can provide multiple benefits. including reduced congestion. Comprehensive planning and management considers a wider range of potential solutions to transportation problems. Management strategies are affordable and real-time solutions. consumer cost savings. Transportation solutions include much more than providing only infrastructural facilities. One approach is to increase capacity in terms of infrastructure. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) is often the most cost effective solution to transportation problems [10]. road and parking facility.motorized transport. pollution reduction and more efficient land use. Developing a sustainable transportation system is a challenge for transportation engineers and planners.growth and spread of transport networks often mismatched the supply and demand. 13 . 2.2 Demand Management – Means to sustainability There are two basic approaches to solve transportation problems. Increasing capacity to a certain extent is wise and reasonable. and the other is to manage demand. Conventional approaches which consist in providing new infrastructure along traditional lines to solve these problems no longer appear relevant. in line with sustainable development. When all impacts are considered. calls for a review of urban transport infrastructure in terms of new investment and innovation. However. Meeting future transport and travel needs. cost savings. projecting unsustainable trends. crash cost savings. It includes use of alternative modes.

2. Thus proper land use planning to suit the conditions and environment may need to be considered to solve the transportation problems. Development of improper urban form has been one of the root causes of many transportation problems throughout the world [3]. 14 . This dispersion reduces access to public transportation and makes the cost of building and maintaining new public transportation systems prohibitive. China and Thailand occur because of high densities of concentrated population. Australia and European countries occur due to scattered low density population and hence create automobile dependency. mainly because of high capital costs and its urban form. Transportation problems in developed countries like United States. This can cause people to choose unusual modes of travel with longer travel times. In contrast. For example. land use and environment are inter-related in an urban development. with more people moving from the city centers to their urban periphery. good land use planning for a city may lose its significance due to inadequate transportation facilities and vice versa. Non.motorized modes of transportation in the urban areas of developing countries also get affected and influenced by the city structure. They can remain viable options only if there is a suitably high population density and a mixed land use development pattern [3].1 (1) Land Use Planning Concept and Importance A city's form greatly influences and is influenced by travel patterns. A change in one causes an impact on the others. An increase in public transit systems seldom accompanies the growth in population. Transport. it causes an adverse effect on the environment. Rapid. the problems in developing countries like India.2. In turn. unplanned and uncoordinated growth of cities has dispersed their populations.

It is one of the major causes contributing to broader environmental problems through the 15 . shops. Traffic situations arising from improper land use planning thus have restricting effect on movement of people. schools etc. The travel pattern of people for various activities. It creates inconvenience for people to travel long distances and durations through congested traffic.Transport influences not only the land use. This attributes in the form of value increase. most important being the home to work link. (ii) Infrastructure improvement provides benefits not only to users. Transportation problems tend to arise from inappropriate spatial distribution of homes. tenants and developers of land properties in the vicinity. Hayashi [12] discusses land use planning as an important aspect of urban development. but also who uses it [11]. which results in an inefficient and incomplete use of land and resources. (2) (i) Effects of improper Land Use Planning Urban sprawl It can be defined as an unplanned and unconstrained growth of urban development. factories. that is the way the land is used. offices. He further states that land use planning system is fundamental to improve the environment for reasons such as: (i) It is extremely essential in controlling urban sprawl to keep the infrastructure development cost at an acceptably low level. but also to owners. is crucial in a transport planning. particularly during periods of rapid suburbanization.

limited transit service and under-pricing of automobile travel (such as abundant free parking. Urban sprawl involves developments of low residential densities over a large land space. It causes poor pedestrian and cycling conditions. they are not very expensive to drive. automobile oriented land use. Automobile dependency consists of high levels of per capita automobile travel. Internal costs (costs borne by the 16 . and reduced transport alternatives [13]. Americans use their automobiles more than citizens of other developed countries. more likely due to lack of co-ordination between land-use and transportation policies in the United States [15]. (ii) Automobile Dependency Dispersed land use patterns require a high level of mobility for a given level of access. Australian cities. and walking was the dominant mode of personal transport. For example. (iii) Increase in external costs Although automobiles are expensive to own.interactive mechanism of urbanization and motorizatio n. Use of automobile has internal and external costs [13]. In countries with large land areas and widely distributed populations. Residential density and travel characteristics in the suburbs of both Australian and North American urban areas have led to auto dependency in these countries [14]. resulting in growth in auto-ownership. unpriced roads and low fuel taxes). car-dependent city at low residential densities by world standards. transit services prove to be unviable. But there has been a steady progression from a compact “walking city” to a sprawling. were relatively compact in the past. This mobility is easily achieved from self-owned automobiles.

and accident costs (suffering and grief) are believed to be more than the internal costs. large tracts of land remain undeveloped between and behind the main roads. Since much potentially valuable land is either not used or used only for small-scale farming. External costs (costs borne by the society) in the form of environmental impacts (air pollution. that is a high density development along the main transportation routes. Urban sprawl is a serious issue in developed countries like United States. Thus the social cost (summation of internal cost and external cost) is always high.vehicle owner) include price paid for the vehicle. cycling and transit. in Bangkok. land use planning holds particular importance. congestion (delay caused to others). There is a different type of land use planning problem existing in Mumbai. For instance. poorly suited for walking. Thus. This development is the result of improper planning with inefficient use of land. whether a city is developed or developing. the urban growth is in the form of conurbations. Conurbation development creates congestion problem on main arterial roads. maintenance. The growth and development of such city is unsustainable and depicts a lack of co-ordination amongst stakeholders. noise). In Mumbai. this type of development is highly uneconomical for transportation as it simultaneously causes obstruction of the main roads and produces deplorable living conditions for the people who live and work along the roads [11]. An inappropriate land use planning can lead to automobile-oriented city. densely populated or sparsely populated. 17 . taxes and fuel costs. India as compared to the urban sprawl problems of developed nations. Poland reports widespread uncontrolled and unmanageable out of town development as one of the major forces driving urban areas away from sustainable development [16].

Sweden. land use control has been an effective planning tool for protection against rapid urban sprawl and environmental degradation in the suburbs. legal land use planning through the designation of ‘restricted urbanization area’ has reduced the speed of urban sprawl. increasing commuting distances and thereby longer travel times. Such unplanned growth will move jobs farther form homes.(3) Implementation of Land Use Planning and Control As discussed earlier. Land use planning techniques are thus required for co-ordination between travel and transport facilities. In the United Kingdom.use areas combine homes and businesses. Specific examples of this type of development include pedestrian zones. a concept associated with ‘growth management’ is used as an anti urban-sprawling technique. to work. residents simply walk or bicycle. This rate and pattern of growth which is totally or substantially unplanned is expected to continue. Smart Growth. It has been implemented through several legislative measures such as the Restriction of Ribbon Development Act of 1935. In Japan. most of the population growth is occurring in the metropolitan cities and suburbs. The last 18 . It also intends to create resource efficient and livable communities. rather than drive. Sustainable planning and zoning measures relating to transportation include the development of high-density. One of the best examples of efficiency and sustainability gains that come from coordinated transportation and land use planning is that of Stockholm. which include roadways converted to pedestrian and bicycle use [18]. It aims at establishing land use strategies to increase population and housing densities and make transit more feasible [17]. Mixed. rather than segregating commercial and residential districts. mixed land use areas. Specific examples of ‘pedestrianization’ are discussed further.

policy makers around the world are promoting measures like fuel taxing. road pricing and tolls. which will discourage the use of private vehicles. New residential areas are located adjacent to town centers. Countries like France. This in turn has produced directional. Such balanced directional splits stand in marked contrast to the United States where. because of lack of coordination in infrastructure and development. During peak hours. 19 . while the finer grain of the road network allows pedestrians and bicyclists to choose quieter. 55 per cent of commuters are typically traveling in one direction on trains and 45 per cent are heading in the other direction. The proximity to town makes trips shorter. Denmark and Sweden have held sprawl in check by heavily taxing electricity and petroleum consumption at a rate three to four times higher than in United States [19]. Increasingly. trains and buses are often filled in the morning inbound but back.flow balances. Stockholm planners have created jobs.income suburbs. Residential developments almost always include other uses such as cultural centers.haul three-quarters empty [19].housing balance along rail-served axial corridors. connected by a fine mesh of local streets. less heavily traveled streets over busier. shopping and service establishments that can easily be reached by foot or bike. more dangerous roads [20]. New suburban developments in The Netherlands and Germany are designed to provide safe and convenient pedestrian and bicycling access.half century of strategic regional planning has given rise to a regional settlement and commutation pattern that has substantially lowered car dependency in middle.

Industrial firms and warehousing facilities are classified as "C". and must be located on the outskirts of "A" districts. This plan takes into account current mode splits (such as 40 per cent of trips by bicycle. transit-dependent activities are classified as "A". residences. sectoral land use plans are developed by the ministries responsible in close collaboration with the Federal Office of Spatial Development with sectoral plans. German cities have begun to put an emphasis on mixed development. for example covering railways and public transport. preserving areas where housing. 30 per cent by public transit and 30 percent by automobile). Heidelberg and Freiburg have been pioneers in introducing low-noise vehicles in noise protection districts. retail. distribution. developing other activities in single use areas such as housing. 20 . employment. employment and social services exist in close proximity. the concept of short distances is gaining around in many cities. and entertainment facilities. services and leisure facilities [16]. At a federal level.In Germany. Holland has implemented a strict development control mechanism called ABC system that is based on transportation need. or business services are categorized as "B" activities. In Switzerland. In Finland. which requires that they be of specific density and located within walking distance of public transit service. This category includes offices. and must be located near to major highways and motorways. In this system. Wholesale. transport system plans have been drawn up for most urban areas taking full account of land use development plans [16]. land use and transport planning are integrated effectively at the regional level in the Cantonal (county) master plans. based on the National ABC guidelines. The way this system works is that the local communities produce a zoning plan. with specific arterial road connections.

as well as an "efficiency model" (developed by the Department of Transportation) which measures how the plan will improve transportation connections from a current base of 100 per cent. intended development zones. When a business wants to build a facility within the community. Berlin itself is an artificial construct. it is offered a selection of sites within its category. to be implemented by the several towns. since it has been passed into la w. Once it is agreed upon. Each of these smaller areas is presented with a regional plan. based on the community's needs. While they have significant flexibility in this effort. except that there is flexibility in the application of the system. Germany. Berlin. created out of seven conurbations that occupied the northern part of the State of Brandenburg. a Class “C” firm could select a site outside of its normal choices (often a green field site) if it is willing to provide the community with some additional service or facility that it needs [21]. The towns then set zoning and development parameters on specific parcels and neighborhoods within their boundaries. each town has a performance measure that may not be exceeded. This regional plan is negotiated between the seven towns that make up the Berlin metropolitan area. and growth boundaries. This would be considered very deterministic. Thus. each town must contribute to meeting the goals of the regional plan through neighborhood level implementation [21]. 21 . So. the regional plan is passed into law. for example. including current and planned transportation infrastructure. which lays out planned densities. has adopted a regional approach to transportation and land use.

Moreover. walking and cycling trips are often undercounted because they include many short. Walking and cycling are inexpensive and hence tend to be ignored. It may be difficult to determine the number of non. costing much less than auto or public transit. A pedestrian friendly city is more humane. Some travel surveys exclude non. and trips by children. One study finds that the actual number of non-motorized trips is six times greater than what conventional surveys indicate. All journeys. Conventional transportation evaluation practices usually seem to prioritize automobile-oriented planning to non.2. both in direct user costs and public infrastructural costs [20]. they are quite economical. These non.motorized transportation (NMT). even if it takes place on a roadway [22].2 (1) Non-Motorized Transportation Importance Walking and cycling are sustainable means of transport.motorized trips altogether and when included.2. yet the walking component is often not counted. In many ways. Automatic traffic counters do not record non. all of which tend to be overlooked.motorized travel modes cause virtually no noise or air pollution.motorized travel and manual counts usually focus on arterial streets.motorized links that are often ignored in traffic counts. non-work and recreational trips. whether short or long involve walking. This suggests that 20 to 30 per cent of 22 . This is because the benefits of NMT are difficult to quantify.” or “walk-transitwalk” trips. The only energy they require is provided directly by the traveler.motorized trips in an area because they are often under-recorded in travel surveys and traffic counts. walking and cycling are ideal ways to get around cities. ignoring side streets and paths that may be popular walking and cycling routes. Most trips involve non. Trips classified as “auto” or “transit” are usually “walk-auto-walk.

motorists. rigorous traffic education of both motorists and non.motorized. Some of the measures are described below. and improvements towards it are being done or proposed for the future. One study found that walking is three times more common in a community with pedestrian friendly streets than in otherwise comparable communities that are less conducive to foot travel [22]. distances suitable for bicycling. Researches and studies have proved the importance of non. Some countries have undertaken a wide range of measures to improve safety including better facilities for walking and bicycling. restrictions on motor vehicle use in cities.S. That is.S survey indicates that 17 per cent of adults would sometimes bicycle commute if secure storage and changing facilities were available. and 20 per cent would bicycle commute if they could ride on safe bike lanes.motorists. 18 per cent would bicycle commute if employers offer financial incentives. and drive less than comparable households in other areas. Significance of walking and cycling has been realized. and strict enforcement of traffic regulations protecting pedestrians and bicyclists [20]. people would walk and bicycle more if they had suitable conditions. urban design sensitive to the needs of non. urban trips are less than five miles. 23 . This survey indicates that non.motorized travel could increase significantly with appropriate support and encouragement. Residents in neighborhoods with suitable street environments tend to walk and bicycle more.motorized transportation and its planning. ride transit more. yet a much smaller portion of transport funds are spent on facilities and safety programs for non-motorized modes [23]. two-thirds of U. There is considerable latent demand for non-motorized travel. For example. traffic calming of residential neighborhoods. A U.all trips are non.

However. The city has combined these zones with a highly 24 . and other businesses. Oulu. There were heated discussions when Copenhagen started the pedestrianization. Denmark has recognized the social value of pedestrian streets [24]. In Naples. Pedestrianized zones are currently found in Munich in Germany. even in temperatures of -30° C. Curitiba.(i) Pedestrianization – Facilitation for walking and bicycling Over the last few decades. which is proving to be very successful. Copenhagen. Pedestrianized commercial areas generate up to 25 per cent more revenues than spaces developed to encourage automobile use. Brazil. they tend to buy and spend money on small items that may generate lot more profit in terms of per square foot of shop area. it became a great success almost immediately. Italian cities have been leading a way to create pedestrian cultural environments. This financial success is attributable to easy access by foot and public transportation [18]. Pedestrianization continued over a period of 30 years and the downtown parking policy aimed to remove 2-3 per cent of the parking spaces every year. Boston in Massachusetts and Denver and Boulder in Colorado. When people walk through shopping display. places like Piassa del Plebiscito are rediscovering their former splendor after the removal of private cars. With the improvement of the public transport system and the enlargement of the bicycle network. one such zone features restaurants. more and more space has been taken away from the traffic and given to people. Located close to mass transit and residences. presents one of the best illustrations of pedestrian zone development. European countries have implemented a range of policies to make walking and cycling safer. Venice remains the archetype of a car-free city [24]. Finland is extending its pedestrian zone.

thus permitting easy access to pedestrians and bicyclists. as in the United States. Dutch and German cities usually provide safe and attractive pedestrian and bicyclist crossings. many of these investments have focused on increased safety. The most obvious symbol of this 25 . German and Dutch cities have invested heavily to expand and improve facilities specifically for bicycling.efficient bus system and carries more passengers as compared to Rio subway system although Curitiba city is one sixth of Rio. Erlangen and other cities. Walking and cycling have been more developed in northern cities than in southern cities. The integration of mass transit with pedestrian zones in this city of 1. such as Desaau. new suburban commercial developments have sidewalks and bicycle paths to serve non.motorists. Cities such as Basle can be traversed and enjoyed by bicycle. restaurants and music stands. Venezuela.5 million people has created more disposable income for residents due to decreased transportation costs and new markets for locally produced goods [18]. they are built next to or behind buildings. In The Netherlands and Germany. the use of bicycle is falling. Amsterdam has the most elaborate bicycle network. A pilot program in Delft. Munster. or river must be traversed. instead. while cities of Zurich and La Rochelle lend bicycles free to citizens and visitors [24]. railroad. In Copenhagen. Another excellent example of pedestrian mall is Caracus. Parking lots almost never surround buildings. while in cities of the former German Democratic Republic. up to 35 per cent of all transport needs are satisfied by bicycle. complementing the road and canal routes. The pedestrian walk is 400 to 600 feet wide and 2 miles long with small shops. When an obstacle such as a highway. a city in The Netherlands indicates that up to 55 per cent of all urban trips may be done by bicycle. although the southern climate is more suitable for such activities.

which it estimates to account for 12 per cent of all trips and averages 300 km per head of population per year. Pricing proves to be a major disincentive for car-ownership. Unlike the fragmented cycling facilities. Finland also aims at improving the pedestrian environment and non-hindrance is one of the principles for transport planning [16].ministerial program for environmentally friendly urban development.investment is the already massive and ever expanding network of bike lanes and bike paths.911 km in 1976 to 31. In The Netherlands. The German bikeway network almost tripled in length: from 12. and people avoid living at places accessible 26 . Other regulations include toll collection and congestion pricing. the bike paths and lanes in The Netherlands and Germany form a truly integrated. state and local measures. Dutch and German bikeway systems serve practical destinations for everyday travel. It foresees significant potential to increase these figures. Germany provides statistics on cycling. and not just recreational attractions. noting that the figure is nearer 27 per cent of all trips in The Netherlands and as much as 40 per cent in some country’s towns and cities. strengthening the role of cycling as an important urban transport is considered an important task. A national cycling promotion plan is under preparation to coordinate federal. (ii) Restraint on automobile-use In Europe. coordinated network covering both rural and urban areas. large fuel taxes have reduced use of automobile [18] and encouraged NMT. the network of bike paths and lanes more than doubled in length in less than 20 years: from 9. which provide completely separate rights of way for cyclists.282 km in 1978 to 18. Under Norway’s inter.948 km in 1996.236 km [20].

because one goal of using the PTAL is to at least maintain the competitive balance between auto use and public transit use. Hence drivers of more efficient cars pay less for insurance [18]. The borough Council calculates an accessibility index called public transport accessibility level (PTAL) for all locations within a specific area. the London boroughs are using their own experiences. United States and Ontario. The focus of this method is that it provides a basis for dialogue before a development is planned out. creating a system that pays for itself. a method was developed for controlling the addition of parking (and thus car use) through new or in. adds an insurance surcharge to each gallon of gas purchased my motorists. Pay-at-the-pump insurance. Discussions are under way to develop measures for retail and other motor-vehicle oriented functions. Just as the local road infrastructure can only accommodate very gradual i creases in automobile traffic. proposed in both California.only by cars. This can apply equally to residential and to office space. In London's borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. The higher the accessibility level. Currently these range from high accessibility (level 6) to low accessibility (level 1). encourage the purchase of fuel-efficient vehicles by providing rebates for their buyers. Feebates. Canada. Other proposed incentives include “feebates” and pay-at-the-pump auto insurance. the lower the permitted parking spaces per unit of occupancy. another California proposal. Congestion pricing sche mes essentially employ tolls based on time-of-day use and thereby serve to reduce peak time traffic. They are being supported by London Transport. the public transit system cannot accommodate n 27 .fill developments. based on existing and planned public transit services. Rather than depending on national averages for ratios of parking to residential or office space.

(iii) Public Awareness and Education Children are often the victims in accidents involving pedestrians. every child has 28 . redirecting car traffic away from the center of the city and enhancing public transport services. Hence. In Europe. The Tokyo metropolitan government has long practiced a regulatory policy of requiring proof of a rented or owned off-road parking space for the purchase of private cars. Portugal. Approximately by the age of 10. Cordon charges are introduced for cars entering the urban centers [16]. traffic education for children should be given importance. has developed integrated local traffic and land use plans. Parking policies are one of the most important and widely used instruments employed in restraint of car use and thus promoting a more sustainable urban environment. There are Children’s Traffic Clubs in Scotland. Charging and policies to reduce the number of public parking spaces in central urban districts and private parking lots in new buildings have been employed for a number of years. In the latest stage. Switzerland has developed the parking policy to the greatest degree.sharp peaks and troughs in patronage which might be caused by severe fluctuations in traffic congestion due to sharp increases in auto use [21]. negotiations are underway with large property owners to begin charging for and reducing the number of existing residential parking spaces in some urban locations [16]. In The Netherlands and Germany every school provides comprehensive programs to educate children to walk and bicycle safely. Some European countries have already started spreading awareness. The city of Evora. including of parking charges in the center.

received extensive instruction on safe walking and bicycling practices. They are taught not just the traffic regulations but how to walk and bicycle defensively, to anticipate dangerous situations, and to react appropriately. Throughout Germany, schoolchildren in the third and fourth grades are required to take bicycling courses, often taught by special traffic police, with a concluding exam. Children are tested by real police officers in special traffic parks with simulated streets, intersections, traffic signals, and possible dangers. Children take the traffic courses seriously and compete with each other for the best grade. Even bike safety inspections are a special event [20]. Driver training for motorists in The Netherlands and Germany is much more extensive, thorough and expensive than in the United States. Dutch and German drivers are required to take a minimum number of hours of driving instruction with private firms, usually costing at least $1,500 [20].

2.3

Role of Policy Implementers – Government A single authority for public transport and private car parking could internalize

more equitably the environmental costs of private motoring and improve public transport. In Evora, one of the World Heritage cities, the new traffic plan includes the creation of large car parks outside the city walls, a high quality public transport system with mini and micro-buses, well adapted to the existing narrow medieval streets, and the creation of pedestrian and bicycle paths. In Orvieto, Italy, the alternative mobility system has been created out of the need to improve urban life and revitalize the old railway that serves the tourists [16].

29

Singapore has been seen as a developmental state because economic development planning has been followed up with provision of industrial and business infrastructure and their effective maintenance and management without all of which, the economy would not exist. It has shown tremendous success in environmental and vehicle management. Singapore’s experience with environmental management has shown that if urban growth and industrialization do have a major environmental impact, the most negative aspects of such impact can be managed if there is an environmental policy in place for proper planning and effective implementation of both plans and policy [25]. From the mid 1970s, Singapore has tackled its transportation problems with combination of planning, engineering, fiscal and administrative measures [26]. The components of the strategy are: (1) integrated land use and transportation planning (2) the construction of a modest and efficient road network (3) good traffic management (4) public transport as the dominant mode of travel (5) road pricing to curtail excessive demand for travel Land is too scarce in Singapore to allow provision of large buffers between incompatible deve lopments such as industrial and residential areas. In spite of this limitation, Singapore has managed, through coordinated efforts between town planners and environmental engineers, to maintain a high quality environment even as it continues its rapid industrialization and urban growth [27]. In Singapore, as in any urbanized city, motor vehicle emission is a significant source of air pollution. The vehicular population has been steadily increasing over the

30

past decade as a consequence of rapid urbanization and economic growth. The vehicle population would have been probably higher had the Government not discouraged the ownership of vehicles through various measures. Singapore’s strategy for reducing pollution from motor vehicles is two-sided: improving engines and fuel quality to reduce emissions and using traffic management measures to control the growth of vehicle population and fuel consumption. Ministry of Environment works closely with the Registry of Vehicles to implement the two-pronged strategy. Between 1981 and 1987, the lead content in leaded petrol was gradually reduced from 0.8 to 0.15 gram/liter. The use of unleaded petrol was promoted in February 1990 through a differential tax system which made unleaded petrol 10 cents cheaper than leaded petrol at the pump. All petroldriven vehicles registered for use in Singapore after July 1, 1991 are able to use unleaded petrol. About 57 per cent of all petrol sold in Singapore at the end of 1993 was unleaded petrol. The sulfur content in automobile diesel was reduced from 1 per cent by weight in 1976 to the current limit of 0.5 per cent by weight to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from diesel vehicles. The sulfur limit has further reduced to 0.3 per cent by weight from July 1, 1996 onwards to reduce particulate (soot) emissions as lower sulfur diesel produces less particulate emissions. Since October 1992, motorcycles and scooters have been required to comply with the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emission standard before they can be registered for use in Singapore [27].

2.4

Towards Sustainable Transportation – Meaning and Indicators As discussed in the first chapter, there are various definitions given for the

sustainability. Similarly, no definite measures or indicators are defined for measuring the

31

and with equity within and between generations. congestion. some comprehensive sustainability criteria are to be evaluated that reflect all 32 . social. offers choice of transport mode.sustainability. reuses and recycles its components. and supports a vibrant economy. safety. and (b) use of non-renewable resources below the rates of development of renewable substitutes” [28]. and economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation activity”. in order to find out whether or not the transportation system is sustainable. However. a sustainable transportation system is “one in which fuel consumption. According to the Transport Canada “the goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that environmental. operates efficiently. and minimizes the use of land and the production of noise [28]. limits consumption of renewable resources to the sustainable yield level. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines environmentally sustainable transportation as “transportation that does not endanger public health or ecosystems and that meets needs for access consistent with (a) use of renewable resources that are below their rates of regeneration. vehicle emissions. and social and economic access are of such levels that they can be sustained into the indefinite future without causing great or irreparable harm to future generations of people throughout the world” [28]. According to Richardson. minimizes consumption of non-renewable resources. (iii) limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them. Canadian Centre for Sustainable Transportation defines sustainable transportation system as: A sustainable transportation system is one that (i) allows the basic access needs of individuals and societies to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health. (ii) is affordable.

i. actual time traveling on a street minus the ideal time under free flow cond itions.three components of sustainable development . Each indicator can be evaluated independently and then the effect of all indicators in combination can be studied. Developed countries have started moving towards sustainability with various policies and reforms. but different people have different views over the term.e. Simon Li [28] views congestion index as the condition when demand approaches or exceeds the capacity (supply) of a facility. Although sustainability has three different aspects – environmental. 33 . reduction in the pollutio n levels. reduction in travel time and costs and per capita energy consumption can be used to evaluate sustainability. Again. Few measures like congestion index. economical and social – results from feasible solutions will contribute to all three features. There is no single solution to address the interrelated transportation problems. solid and an integrated approach. Dahlgren [28] defines congestion index as person-delay on any street. These problems require a bold.the economy. benefit-cost ratio. society and environment [28]. Thus improvement in any one indicator will cause an enhancement to the environment as whole. there is no particular definition for congestion index either.

Mumbai is the busiest city in India due to large employment centers. Mumbai. is the largest metropolis in India [29]. It is the main destination for international flights to and from India. where it was immediately given in a charter to the East India Trading Company. factories. it is the biggest port in India and undergoes most foreign trade in the country. 34 . a busy. factories and mills for a living. It is a commercial hub. which has recently been renamed to its ancient Marathi name of Mumbai. to the most economically vibrant city on the Indian subcontinent [29]. banks. offices. Life in Mumbai is fast. similar to New York in the United States.City of Mumbai.Chapter 3 Study Area . The City of Mumbai is also known as the financial capital of India. Also.1 Information of the City – History and Development Bombay. Mumbai fell into British possession in the mid 17th century. Mumbai is considered as the soul of enterprise. Bombay (Mumbai) prospered from a group of seven swampy islands for fishing. crowded and a commercial city has a great economic significance. India 3. where a large population commutes from suburbs to downtown offices. In the hands of this company and later under British administration. film industry and stock exchange.

Map 3. The population is concentrated primarily on a single island.1 shows the map of Mumbai and Navi Mumbai. It is also an important industrial city [29]. Mumbai is surrounded by Arabian Sea on three sides – east. The film industry produces the second most number of motion pictures in the world every year. Mumbai is a cosmopolitan city. Mumbai is a tourist attraction too. The width of City of Mumbai ranges from 4. Mumbai is the centre of India's high-technology industries. Bollywood. Prince of Wales Museum and the Hanging Gardens. lies on the north-east side of the City of Mumbai. west and south. the city has grown northwards.Mumbai is the financial and trade centre of India. with Gateway of India monument. separated from the rest of India by the shallow Bay of Thane.2 Geography and Population Mumbai lies at the south of the continent of Asia. and also an important cultural centre. The city along with the suburbs forms the Greater Mumbai (referred as Mumbai hereafter). 3. Mumbai has a humid tropical temperature. The Central Business District (CBD) lies at the southernmost tip.75 km in the north and 1. In the outskirts of the city there are many ancient caves like Elephanta caves and the Kanheri caves [29]. Geographically. Its average low temperature is 19ºC and an average high 35 . Its growth is restricted in east-west direction. next to Hollywood. Nearly 13 million people live in the city ranging from wealthy industrialists living in skyscrapers to the poorest people who live in the city's slums [30]. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). a city smaller than Mumbai. Along with the eastern and the western suburbs.3 km at the south. Bombay houses India's film industry.

1 Source: Map of Mumbai http://www.com/newpanvel2001/map.temperature of 29ºC in winter. Map 3.geocities. The average low temperature is 27ºC and the high is 33ºC in summer [31].html 36 .

most region in the southern side of Mumbai constitute tourist spots like Marine Drive. The northern side mainly constitutes middle class residential area and small commercial complexes. a middle class residential area is also a part of this region. Malabar Hill and Walkeshwar. The eastern suburbs on north side are residential areas of middle to low income groups. 37 . a complex popular for software companies is in this area. This area has large truck traffic.2 shows Mumbai by categorizing areas according to their significance. chemical and fertilizer units and atomic energy establishment [32].Map 3. Areas to east and north of Wadala are occupied by oil refineries. The Central region in the southern side is mostly the commercial area mixed with industries. The northern part of this region is industrial and commercial area that has rubber and plastic industries and small factories manufacturing spare parts of automobiles etc. Girgaum. Congested commercial areas like Kalbadevi and Bhuleshwar are in this area. The eastern coast is mainly occupied by port activities. The western. There is industrial development in this region. Seepz.

CBD Harbor Area Tourist spots Map 3.inc) No specific area Res. factories Residential (mid. Area (high inc) Forest Mumbai with significant areas 38 .2 Industries.

1. the city is the most populous city in the world. Urbanization of Mumbai is m ainly due to employment opportunities in the city. the island city is densely developed with residential densities varying from 129 to 3717 persons per hectare (1 hectare = 0. The population is estimated to reach more than 25 million by 2011 [35]. the city is continuing to grow further. km). the reason being high birth rate as well as migration of people from other parts of the nation to Mumbai in search of jobs.With a small area of 438 sq.265 persons per sq. km). The graph of increase in population from 1921 to 1991 is as shown in Figure 3. with a population of 12. With a very high population density (28.38 million [33]. km. With the urbanization.01 sq. population of Mumbai has risen by more than 3 times from 1951 to 1991 (population in 1951 being 2.96 million and 9.9 million in 1991 [34]). The city provides opportunities for employment and education that have caused a severe growth of this city. It can be seen from the figure that there has been a continuously increasing population from 1911 to 2001. According to Save Bombay Committee report. 39 .

23 5.mile radius of Flora Fountain around the Fort area. (Population) Years Figure 3.97 0.00 8. For example. There are offices of financial services.49 2. migrants may be 'pushed' out of a rural region because of unemployment as 40 .16 1.15 9.3 Employment There are various types of formal and informal employment sectors.97 4. Mumbai is known for its film industry.Population figures of Mumbai from 1901 to 2001 in million Population in million 20 15 10 5 0 19 01 19 11 19 21 19 31 19 41 19 51 19 61 197 1 198 1 199 1 200 1 201 1 13. creating enormous congestion [36].18 1. publishing. It attracts people from all parts of India and has become the most populous city in India. media. There are 144 jobs for every 100 residents in the Fort area. software. According to a study on Global Change in University of Michigan. the migration of population to Mumbai is due to ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors [37].78 0.98 1. Forty per cent of the formal sector jobs in Mumbai are concentrated within a two.1 Graph of increase in population in Mumbai from years 1911 to 1991 with estimated population in the year 2003 Source: Population statistics from Tata Institute of Fundamental Research web site 3. share market etc.90 Population Expon. printing. Bollywood and is the financial capital of India. Mumbai is considered as a city of job opportunities.

Most likely.2 8.2. They could be also 'pulled' out of rural villages by the lure of friends or family in a particular city as shown in Table 3.1.shown in Table 3.2 8 100 The Social Sphere. The understanding of these factors working together helps in examining and explaining the driving forces of urban migration. It is evident form the Table that almost 70 percent of people who come to Mumbai is due to poverty and hunting for jobs.1 Push Factors Push Factors affecting Migration to Mumbai Percent migration 39 30.6 4.9 8.7 1. Table 3. a study carried out in University of Michigan Hunting for Job Poverty Someone in the house exercising persuasion Someone in village interested in migration Student Others Differences with others Not Available Total Source: 41 . people migrate because of a combination of the two.6 6.

The tram system was also removed for widening the roads for traffic [38].2 11.Table 3. As London developed a system.5 10. cleaner and could be easily modernized. However.3 100 Pull Factors Some friends or relatives already there Secured some job Better opportunities (school. a study carried out in University of Michigan Mumbai accounts for 20 per cent of India's total employment in industry and 11 per cent of India's employment in total. Mumbai received it approximately five years later.2 Pull Factors affecting Migration to Mumbai Percent migration 34. It handles 30 per cent of India's exports and imports and is the subcontinent's largest port.5 7.3 23. It was pretty much developed in conjunction with London. Tram service in Mumbai began in 1870.4 Transportation The city's transportation system was modeled after the London transportation system with the exception of the Underground Metro.5 10. 3. It remained until the 1950s whe n people felt that the trams were becoming obsolete even though their passenger carrying capacity was 50 per cent greater than buses [31].7 2. job etc) Due to transferred post Others Liking for the place Not Available Total Source: The Social Sphere. there is still an extremely high rate of unemployment due to the fact that there are severely fewer jobs than there are workers [31]. Trams were more energy efficient. The government did a study and ruled that buses 42 .

the Western Express Highway.would be more effective. The tram system closed down in 1964 and the trolley buses were stopped in 1974. the Eastern Express Highway and the Central corridor as shown in Map 3. Although termed as “expressways”. the operational quality decreases considerably [35]. When these roads pass through the older parts of Mumbai – the island city. Road network in Mumbai is predominantly radial along the peninsula and comprises three main corridors. the roads are essentially arterial roads in terms of western standards. but it ran on electricity. The trolley bus was much like a bus.3. was quiet and was able to follow routes that the large diesel buses could not run on [31]. 43 .

Map 3.3 City of Mumbai with roadways and important locations Source: www.com 44 .mumbainet.

where people change trains while traveling from both railways. The suburban services run by electric multiple units (EMU) consists of 184 rakes (train sets) of 9-car and 12-car composition.Western Railway and Central Railway form the backbone of public transportatio n in Mumbai. the fast corridors on Central Railway as well as Western Railway are shared for long distance (Main line) and Freight trains [40]. The Railway system in Mumbai is one of the most complex. One line goes northwest to join Western Railway at Bandra and goes up to Andheri (11 km) and the other goes eastward to terminate at Panvel (39 km) via New-Mumbai. Two corridors (one local and other through) on Western Railway run northwards from Churchgate terminus parallel to the west coast up to Virar (60 km). densely loaded and intensively utilized systems in the world [40] with a spread over 302 km. The 5th corridor on Central Railway runs as the Harbor line starting from CST to Raoli Junction (11 km) from where the line splits.1 million passengers per day. On any given day there are 2067 train services carrying 6.4. At present. from where it bifurcates into Kalyan-Kasara (67 km) in the north-east and Kalyan-Karjat-Khapoli (61 km) in southeast. They divide Mumbai into three north-south corridors as shown in Map 3. 45 . Dadar forms a common railway station for the Western Railway and the Central Railway. Two corridors (one local and other through) on Central Railway run from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) to Kalyan (54 km).

mumbainet.com 46 .4 Source: City of Mumbai showing Western Railway and Central Railway www.Map 3.

Photo 3. This has resulted in super dense crush load of 14-16 standing passengers per sq.1 Source: Over-crowding of typical Mumbai Railway Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation web site 47 . as against the rated carrying capacity of 1. 4. Overcrowding of trains is a common scene everyday.5 million journeys per day by the local buses run by Bombay Electric Supply and Transportation (BEST) [41]. Because of the overcrowding on the mass transit system.700.1 million passengers per day by trains [40] and 4. many people are switching to scooters or mopeds [31]. m of floor space.Public transport (railways and buses) carries 88 per cent of the trips in the city with 6.1.700 passengers travel per 9-car train during peak hours. A photograph of typical suburban train is as shown in Photo 3.

108 341.108 and cars to 341. Accident rate in Mumbai is also high.809 98.904 vehicles) and from 1995 (667. scooters.306 and 303.3.3 Number of vehicles in 2003 in Mumbai Number 527. 48 .383 vehicles) to 2003 (1.562 vehicles).470 road accidents in Mumbai [39]. The private vehicle ownership in Mumbai is also rising. Roads carry pedestrians.812 Type of Vehicles Two Wheelers Cars Taxis Auto Rickshaws Buses Source: Motor Transport Statistics of Maharashtra – 2002-03 The rise in the number of vehicles due to urbanization is as shown in Figure 3. cars. in the year 2000 the number was 407.3. there were 379. bicycles. Although the accident rate is seen to be decreasing.3.774 [39].774 54.132 vehicles) to 1990 (609. It is estimated that 95 per cent of the accidents involve pedestrians. Vehicle population in Mumbai as in 2003 can be categorized as shown in Table 3. buses and trucks. There is a steep rise in the vehicle population from 1980 (286.527 11.123. taxis.441 two-wheelers in Mumbai and 284. While in 1999. auto-rickshaws. 108 respectively and in 2003 the number of two-wheelers rose to 527.2 and Figure 3. Table 3.5 Traffic in Mumbai Mumbai traffic consists of motorized and non motorized vehicles competing on the same road surface. year 2002 reported 25.964 cars.

Increase in vehicle population 1200000 1000000 Motor vehicles 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 1975 286132 441084 609904 667383 1123562 969680 Increase in vehicle population 1980 1985 1990 Year 1995 2000 20032005 Figure 3.2 Source: Motor vehicles (all types) from 1980 to 2003 in Mumbai Motor Transport Statistics of Maharashtra – 2002-03 Increase in Two Wheelers and Cars from 1999 to 2003 600000 Number of Vehicles 500000 379441 407306 527108 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 1998 284964 303108 341774 Two Wheelers Cars 1999 2000 2001 Year 2002 2003 2004 Figure 3.3 Source: Increase in private motor ownership (two -wheelers and cars) Motor Transport Statistics of Maharashtra – 2002-03 49 .

Moreover. This 50 . The traffic congestion has drastically reduced the average speed of the vehicles. there is a high rise in the number of motorized vehicles. people have started shifting to private modes. The road length. emergency vehicles are unable to move smoothly. has increased from 800 km in 1951 to about 1. the average speed of vehicles is as low as 6 to 8 km/h [35]. With this growth. With the CBD situated at the southernmost tip of Mumbai. Total number of vehicles in Mumbai in 2002-03 was 1. As a result. but is insufficient.810 km cement concrete roads). The increase in population has resulted in suburbanization and created an enormous pressure of people working in the CBD of the city.6 million by 2010.25 million vehicles [35]. Transport capacity increased by 225 percent from 1951 to 1991. however. Due to a very high vehicular density of about 735 vehicles per km [43]. The city is continuing to grow in terms of traffic but the transportation system is unable to keep the pace.The physical area of the city has increased over the years. there is an increase in vehicular traffic in suburbs.165. 110 vehicles are added to Mumbai everyday [43]. Increase in population and motor vehicles makes it evident that the transport scenario of city of Mumbai is precarious. Over the last two decades. the number of private vehicles in Mumbai has increased four times while taxi population has increased by six times. The vehicular count is expected to go to 1. With the growth in population. One of the driving forces in road transport is the increase in the car and truck fleets. commuter traffic to this area is high during mornings. Due to incapability of the public transport.782.800 km in 2001 [42] (1583 km asphalt roads and 278. though the existing road infrastructure can handle only 0. in terms of suburbs towards the north. A substantial part of this increase in road length is because of new areas added to the city.

Air pollution levels in three important suburbs of Mumbai as in 2002-03 are as given in Table 3. the industries have been blamed for the pollution. It has also been estimated that the air quality of such metropolitan cities in India will deteriorate by a factor of 3 in the next 10 – 15 years [45]. estimates that air pollution in Mumbai causes approximately 2. NOx emissions are very high from diesel and CO emissions are enormous from petrol.6 Environmental Crisis Traditionally.fact shows urgency in need of development of the infrastructure and the change in the existing transportation policies. These levels are measured at traffic junctions in these suburbs with the Mumbai Municipal Corporation mobile van. respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) and 2 mg/m3 for carbon monoxide (CO) for residential and other areas. Air quality is very poor in traffic congested areas of the suburb of Andheri.4. 51 . Urban Air Quality Management Strategy (URBAIR) Greater Mumbai Report. but it has been discovered that 86 per cent of pollution is contributed by Mumbai traffic [44]. with an annual standard of 60 µg/m3 for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). Ambient Air Quality average annual levels at fixed monitoring stations at few suburban sites in Mumbai are as shown in Table 3.5. The values are measured for an average of 24 hours (8 hrs maximum). nitrogen oxides (NOx ). 3.4 and Figure 3. with health damages costing over Rs 18 billion (approximately $500 million) a year.6 shows the load of pollutants from transportation in tons/day for the year 2002-03. Andheri and Maravli report bad ambient air quality with very high emissions of SPM and NO2 . Table 3.800 premature deaths. the reasons being explained in Chapter 4. In addition to illnesses and lost work hours.

4 Site Annual Std Avg. 24 hrs Max.5 2.Table 3.) Avg Max 1. 8 hrs Wadala Mahim Andheri Source: Air Quality Monitoring at Traffic Junction (2002-03) SO2 60 µg/m3 Avg 12 15 39 Max 32 50 144 NOx 60 µg/m3 Avg 163 209 254 Max 551 678 635 RSP 60 µg/m3 Avg 198 231 332 Max 402 602 700 CO 2 mg/m3 (1 hr std.4 Mumbai Municipal Corporation Annual Report 2002-03 Air Pollution Levels at Traffic Junctions in suburbs of Wadala.1 6. Mahim and Andheri Year 2002-03 350 300 254 332 250 3 231 209 163 Standard = 60 ug/m 3 198 ug/m 200 150 100 50 0 SO2 39 12 15 Wadala Mahim Andheri NOx Air Pollutants RSP Figure 3. Mahim and Andheri in Year 2002-03 Source: Air pollution statistics from Mumbai Municipal Corporation Annual Report 2002-03 52 .4 Average Air Pollution Levels at Traffic Junctions of suburbs of Wadala.3 3 6 6.

17 32.81 NOx 97.84 414.97 0.71 356.9 CO 52.64 Diesel Petrol Total Source: 16.01 72.17 0.97 49.5 Ambient Air Quality Levels at fixed monitoring sites (Annual Average for 2002 to 2003) Station Worli Khar Andheri Bhandup Borivali Maravali Source: SO2 36 22 26 29 14 40 NO2 43 82 55 45 24 96 NH3 44 57 45 37 42 264 SPM 184 276 240 216 172 463 Lead 0.97 Other 19.97 HC 19.1 751.15 0.76 437.13 0.95 0.25 Mumbai Municipal Corporation Annual Report 2002-03 Table 3. increasing private vehicle ownership and ineffective 53 .06 0.58 23.59 2.6 Emission Load of Mumbai City in tons/day for year 2002-03 from Transportation SO2 PM 17.32 131.Table 3. shortcomings of public transport system – insufficient public transport capacity and improper maintenance management.79 49.95 Mumbai Municipal Corporation Annual Report 2002-03 The City of Mumbai faces problems of improper matching of demand and supply.96 53.19 0.04 Total 224.

The city is in urgent need of having an efficient and sound transportation system.demand management and land use planning. 54 . Transportation planners face a challenge of solving these problems and making Mumbai a better place to live in for millions of its inhabitants. which will alleviate the urban transportation problems and make the city “sustainable”.

a western suburb of Mumbai is selected as the study area for in depth learning of problems through information and photos and proposing some measures to alleviate them.Chapter 4 Taking a Closer Look at Transportation Problems Focus on Andheri. Larsen and Toubro – one of India’s largest engineering and construction conglomerate. the suburb faces traffic problems with a very high rate of industrial activity. This area houses Seepz . In addition to this. the area also comprises of residential complexes. congestion and over crowding are focused upon in the study of this area.1 Overview of the Area Andheri. but it is a small step towards sustainable transportation system. MIDC – an industrial estate. the problems in and around this area are common to almost all places in suburbs. Being one of the largest industrial suburbs in Mumbai as well as in India. The eastern part of this suburb (approximate area 8 km x 5 km) is chosen in order to look at the typical urban problems with a closer perspective. Though this area forms a small part of Mumbai. The proposal to curb the problem is by no means the solution. Problems related to pollution. 55 . population and traffic density. a Mumbai Suburb 4. Andheri is one of the busiest suburbs of Mumbai due to a mixed land use pattern.an IT center. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus – the International Airport and a variety of small scale factories and software companies.

1 shows the study area of Andheri. the suburb faces a number of transportation and environmental problems. Due to a wide land use pattern.1 Source: Focus Area in Mumbai – The suburb of Andheri Original Map taken from Eicher City Map.hotels. Mumbai The population density of this area was 29. km in 1991 [46]. vegetable and fish markets and small and large corporate. improper travel demand management and lack of traffic control and 56 . an international airport and a complex land use pattern. It has a busy railway station. slums. The area is a prototype of the Mumbai Transportation System.359 persons per sq. Inefficient transportation and land use planning. With such a high density and an improper land use planning. restaurants. there are a large number of morning and evening trips generated within the suburbs. offices. Map 4. bus depots. Map 4. film industry.

and excavation works for water and telephone lines often deteriorate them further. Vehiclepedestrian conflict. pedestrians. air pollution. cattle and hawkers. lasting for extended durations of time. Streets have a heterogeneous mix of traffic comprising of motorized and non motorized vehicles. It is difficult and often impossible for pedestrians to walk over them. Andheri-Kurla Road is 50 to 60 feet wide (there are no lanes in Mumbai except for highways).1 Transportation Infrastructure Streets In general roads are narrow and insufficient to the growing demand of pedestrians and vehicular traffic. 57 . health disorders and many other serious issues have been the results of improper transportation system. 4.2 4. An East-West arterial street known as Andheri-Kurla Road feeds traffic to the two North-South direction transport systems. Roads are poorly maintained.infrastructure are some of the root causes of the transportation problems. high accident rate. These two are the main transport systems in NorthSouth direction connecting to the other parts of Mumbai.2. Bottlenecks and traffic jams are common in this area. Photo 4.1 and Photo 4. has to cater to the traffic coming from the busy Andheri Railway Station and connecting various collector roads. Western Express Highway and Western Railway run almost parallel in the western part of the study area.2 show pictures of typical road construction and maintenance in Mumbai.

2 Prolonged road constructions and maintenance (Photo taken on a main arterial street in the Suburb of Andheri) 58 .Photo 4.1 Prolonged road constructions and maintenance (Photo taken on a main arterial street in the Suburb of Andheri) Photo 4.

3). pedestrian crossings and pedestrian phase in traffic signals. Passengers getting down at bus-stops often need to cross the roads. waiting for the traffic to clear. A typical picture is shown in Photo 4.3 Fenced and Narrow Medians on street in Andheri. the only major arterial has a high volume of bus traffic. Bus stops are provided at regular intervals causing addition to more pedestrian traffic. they have to stand in the fastest lane on roads. 59 . As a result pedestrians haphazardly cross the roads and walk at places that are unsafe to walk. and alternate arrangements for crossing are not provided.Photo 4. Due to lack of wide medians.4. Andheri-Kurla Road. The area of Andheri has a good frequency of buses (although not sufficient to cater to an excessive demand). Mumbai Roads get worse even more during monsoon. Medians are narrow and fenced (as shown in Photo 4.

Widening of roads as suggested and implemented by various authorities. then sidewalks are occupied by hawkers (Photo 4.Photo 4. While there are few sidewalks in the Island city of Mumbai.2.2 Sidewalks Most of the sections of roads and flyovers are not provided with sidewalks for pedestrians. Jay walking is frequent and common due to inability to walk comfortably and safely along the sides.6).5 and Photo 4. 60 . thus causing confusion to the drivers. Pedestrian crossings are not provided or maintained at critical places. the suburban roads hardly have any sidewalks. further increases the pavement for growing traffic and discourages the concept of having sidewalks for pedestrians. And if any. Either the sidewalks are narrowed or they are completely removed.4 Jay walking due to lack of pedestrian signals and road markings 4.

stuartriley.6 Sidewalks occupied by hawkers in Mumbai Picture taken on a street in Andheri.Photo 4.5 Source: Hawkers on the pedestrian sidewalks http://www. Mumbai 61 .net/Diary/2003_01_05.html Photo 4.

4. plans suggest widening of roads and building of bridges. Concepts of transportation engineering are not taken into consideration at all. and facilities and designs fail to cater to the demand for even next 5 years. and efforts are being taken to give them more space. More vehicles are encouraged to come on the roads. not realizing their importance. Decisions and planning solely depend on perception of authorities and are not based on real time data. Environmental degradation takes place as a result of cutting down trees and encouraging more vehicles on roads. In order to cope up with the growing traffic. no matter how dangerous it is. Walking has often been considered as an insignificant factor of transportation system. Authorities due to numerous reasons do not follow warrants or guidelines 62 . trees are cut and roads are widened to a certain extent. impact studies are not even carried out.3 Planning and Demand Management Planners tend to undervalue the importance of walking. either on the edges of pavement or on narrow paths that develop naturally along road shoulders. This can sustain more traffic for a short period of time. Thus long term planning is neglected. There is no comprehensive and thorough planning. Hence decisions taken by various authorities are often uncoordinated and unsuccessful. whether long or short. involves walking. As a result. new communities are built without sidewalks. Any trip. Although feasibility studies are done to check the practicality of building the structures. Though roads are widened and bridges are built to accommodate the vehicles. sidewalks are removed. It is assumed that it is possible to walk along most roads. This is mainly because of the fact that there is no single authority to handle the transportation of the city. the transportation crisis seems to continue. Roads thus have more driving area than the walking area. As a result.

8). Peak hour studies are not made to study the flow characteristics of vehicles during the maximum congestion periods.net/Diary/2003_01_05.7 Source: Over-saturated flows at traffic signals http://www. Hence the flow is over-saturated at road intersections creating crawling movement during peak times (Photo 4.7 and Photo 4.stuartriley.to approve new or existing development.html 63 . Photo 4. Traffic signals cycles are not synchronized considering the demand.

Though people perceive that the system seems to be good enough (since people are accessible to almost all places in Mumbai by bus or train). low travel speeds. Overcrowding occurs during the rush hours (Photo 4. Train frequency is high during the peak hours and travelers usually prefer to get down at Andheri because of the local bus network system. by any yardstick it is insufficient to carry 64 .Photo 4.8 Traffic Jam during peak hour Problems encountered in the study area also include over-crowding of buses (Photo 4.9) and roads. Travel time for instance. air pollution and dissatisfaction amongst the travelers. distance between them being about 10 km. very long travel times. is one hour from Andheri railway station to Powai. bottlenecks and congestion. Average speed of travel is around 10 km/hr during peak hours by road and often reduces more due to gridlock conditions.10). In addition to this maintenance work on roads creates congestion for several days or weeks.

There seems to be a lack of coordination between the infrastructure and management. As a result. Vehicles parked on road side cause hindrance to the moving traffic.php3 65 .com/monroe/122598b.the increasing demand.9 Source: Rush for the buses during peak hours http://www. Thus investing funds into the roads and bridges and not curbing or managing the travel demand does not help much to relieve the traffic congestion.mastgeneralstore. Photo 4. Movement of vehicles is given priority but adequate parking is often not provided considering the demand of vehicles. people prefer to travel by their own vehicles on the roads which further worsen the situation.

Photo 4.10 Source:

Rush at a railway station to board train Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation web site

4.4

Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic With a mixed land use pattern, Andheri traffic consists of motorized and non

motorized vehicles. Roads carry pedestrians, bicycles, scooters, auto-rickshaws, taxis, cars, buses, bullock carts and trucks (Photo 4.11, 4.12 and 4.13) Thus there is no distinction of roads for vehicles and pedestrians. Cattle from the sheds are often let loose by their owners, which find their way to roads (Photo 4.14). This holds up the traffic jams even more. Pedestrians walking on roads further reduce the vehicular speeds. In order to stop at bus stops at regular intervals, buses suddenly change their lanes making it inconvenient and unsafe for pedestrians and cyclists on the road, who walk on the leftmost sides. At certain times of days (during lunch hours), cycles constitute around 30 per cent of traffic in suburbs [47]. During such peak hours, buses and cycles are seen

66

moving with roughly the same speed. Low income groups in Mumbai prefer to walk or use bicycles. As a result there is a very high pedestrian activity at any place and time. Vehicle-pedestrian conflicts are more hindering near Andheri railway station. Vegetable markets are situated around this area, for people returning from workplaces to shop during evenings. Thus this place gets crowded with pedestrians, vendors, customers and vehicles. Photo 4.15 shows the situation outside railway stations.

Photo 4.11 Source:

Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic in Mumbai http://www.sunshine-stories.de/stories2003/mumbai.htm

67

Photo 4.12

Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic in Mumbai

Photo 4.13 Source:

Heterogeneous Mix of Traffic in Mumbai http://www.sunshine-stories.de/stories2003/mumbai.htm

68

Photo 4.14

Cattle on Mumbai streets

Photo 4.15 Source:

Vehicle-Pedestrian Conflict outside Railway Station http://www.sunshine-stories.de/stories2003/mumbai.htm

69

4.5

Environmental Pollution Andheri has maximum air pollution levels in the metropolitan Mumbai. While the

average levels of NOx , SO 2 and RSP are 254, 39, 332 µg/ m3 (Safe Standards are 60 µg/
3 m3 ) at the traffic junctions, the average level of CO is 3 mg/m3 (standard is 2 mg/ m )

[43]. Table 3.4 and Table 3.5 in Chapter 3 show the air pollution levels of the suburb of Andheri. Noise pollution is also high, especially due to honking of the vehicles. Honking is a common practice to give indication. Prevailing noise level in Mumbai is 67-86 dBA at traffic congested areas (standard levels are 75 dBA for day and 70 dBA for night according to Central Pollution Control Board [43]. Noise levels are particularly high during mornings and evenings due to traffic and extra recreation trips during the evenings.

4.6

Spreading localities The population of Mumbai is growing towards north. Andheri being in the

northern part of Mumbai has a very high population density as mentioned earlier. Fifty five per cent population in Mumbai lives in slums [32]. These people come to Mumbai to earn a living. Andheri also has a lot of slum dwelling, towards its northern part. Unable to accommodate themselves anywhere, this slum population has encroached on roads highways and railway tracks (Photo 4.16). This causes an obstacle to the smooth movement of traffic. The Western Express Highway for instance has 6 lanes, out of which the outermost lane is almost occupied by the slum dwellers. As a result, the vehicular movement is constrained thereby increasing travel times. This situation is

70

due to insufficient illumination. Children come on roads to play. Traffic enforcement is weak and heavy fines are not imposed for breaking the traffic and parking rules.equally dangerous for both the drivers and the slum dwellers. Due to large pockets of congestion and delays throughout the day. Andheri. and then are accidentally hit upon by the vehicles. Driving becomes all the more difficult during nights. Photo 4. Ltd. A large number of pedestrians walk on roads (due to 71 . Web site 4. vehicles are often seen unwilling to stop and wait and yield to the pedestrians. As a result drivers do not respect the traffic laws. being an industrial as well as residential suburb has very high vehicular traffic.7 Indiscipline and inefficient control of traffic Drivers lacking proper driving knowledge are issued permanent licenses.16 Source: Slums around railway tracks Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation Pvt.

Signals are absent at places where the vehicle and pedestrian traffic is heavy. Vehicles are parked on the roadside. Signals are pre-timed. Railway station is always crowded. But unless the traffic is controlled. Almost 40 per cent of total employment is located in Central Business District (CBD). and drivers are disinclined to stop for every pedestrian. This dangerous action at the intersections leads to large number of road accidents. 4.Concentration of employment centers There is a concentration of employment centers and job opportunities in Mumbai. suc h developments will be of no use. and so are the roads outside (Photo 4. Most of the signals do not have appropriate signal cycle lengths. and walk time for pedestrians is often insufficient. Thus vehicle-pedestrian conflict increases even more at the traffic controlled intersections. Plans and implementations are made for the infrastructural developments in Mumbai. This blocks the already slow moving traffic. They are often seen passing through red signals.17). This rate is growing towards the northern suburbs. due to inadequate provision of parking lots.unavailability of sidewalks). 72 . and hence Andheri has become the busiest of all suburbs in Mumbai. and adds more congestion. based on the traffic flow. This leads to an increase in the number of trips and trip lengths from the railway station of Andheri to various employment centers in the study area. The city lacks an efficient traffic control and discipline.8 Land Use Planning . There are no provisions made for the disabled people. especially the blind.

Mumbai needs to find ways to reduce existing as well as future travel demand. There are vehicle-pedestrian conflicts as a lot of people walk from the stations / bus-stops to the offices. there is a mixed traffic in such areas. and often a loss of working hours occurs for employees in Andheri. instead of continuing to expand road networks to meet the growing demand. 73 . people usually park their vehicles on the roads. There is a need to begin programs that will curtail car use and promote an integrated. Transferring the real cost of driving to car users instead of continuing to subsidize car ownership is an important concept to consider.17 Source: Over-crowding of typical Mumbai Railway Station Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation web site Again.Photo 4. environmentally sustainable urban transportation system with a clearly defined place for non motorized vehicles. and no place for parking. Due to lack of space just around the offices. In addition. Roads are not very wide. and parking becomes more problematic. Vehiclepedestrian conflict forms a critical issue at public places.

an online survey was conducted. Literature related to the City of Mumbai gives a clear picture of transportation structure in the city.1 5. However this research study also requires information about the traveling pattern of commuters. economically and environmentally friendly.1 Data Collection Online Survey A sustainable transportation system is socially. a transportation system often gets designed in an incomplete manner. reduction in traveling expenses. as well as their expectations from an ideal system. Being unable to quantify the social benefits. Benefits in the form of reduced pollution levels. A 74 . The study also needs information about commuters’ views about the existing transportation.Chapter 5 Data Collection and Analysis 5.1. their usual travel times. In order to know the current transportation condition in Mumbai and to study the effects and probable improvements in detail. The economical and environmental benefits are fairly easy to quantify. General views and expectations of commuters who form the important part of any transportation system are left out while planning and designing. modes they use and prefer and the expenses on travel per day. determine the success of sustainable transportation in a quantitative manner. decrease in fuel consumption etc. level of congestion.

However. Hence.questionnaire seeking information about regular commuters in Mumbai was uploaded on www. illiterate and poor people did not get an opportunity to participate in the survey. sustainability demands equity and satisfaction of the people. Walking and public transport are more often the means of transportation for the poor people.mails. Thus 76 responses were received which gave an idea about the commuter satisfaction index. However. Target sample was decided as 200 or more. Econo mical background affects the travel pattern.utoledo. time and expenses remain almost the same when commuters choose a particular mode of transport. although a small section of population of Mumbai accessing internet formed the sample space. the overall analysis is not biased. The online survey was conducted for a period of three months from October 2003 to December 2003 and again in the month of May 2004.edu/bdhakras/Questionnaire.com and http://eng.html. Thus. keeping all the other questions same as before. 75 . Hence. irrespective of their economical background. The online survey was able to collect views and opinions of people who access internet. with a changed format in order to get relevant responses. Total responses received were 218 after discarding few irrelevant and incomplete responses. the questionnaire was again uploaded in 2004. the distance. Although the questionnaire uploaded in the year 2003 proved to serve the purpose of getting commuting information. modal choice and travel behavior of the commuters. This point has been taken into consideration while arriving at the results.surveymonkey. This questionnaire was passed on to the citizens of Mumbai through the medium of e. it failed to get relevant information about the people’s acceptability level for parameters affecting the performance of transportation system.

This information is used to determine the flow and direction of traffic during morning and evening rush hours. Table 5.6 2. Table 5. Table 5. receptionists) Medical (doctors.3 Technical (engineers. psychologists.4 28 4. At the same time the responses aimed to provide sufficient information and details about the transportation system.8 6. architects. consultants. The profession of people was asked to see what section of Mumbai population responded to the survey.2 shows the percentage of trip distribution in morning and evening hours from the city to the suburbs and vice versa.1 Percentage of respondents based on their profession Profession Percentage 38. bankers) Others Origin and Destination were asked to get information about trip generation and the trip lengths.2 Survey Design and Observations The questionnaire was short and simple for the common people to understand. 76 .1.2 13. paramedical professionals) Business and Commerce (share brokers.1 shows the percentage of respondents based on their occupation. businessmen. software) Students Teaching (teachers and professors) Public Relation (counselors.5.7 6.

7 1.7 1. Morning peak hours are 7 am to 11 am and evening peak hours are 5 pm to 10 pm. A concentrated peak travel occurs during 8 am to 9 am in the morning hours and 5 pm to 7 pm during evening hours.4 28 59. Morning and Evening Peak Hours 40 35 30 25 Percent of Trips 20 15 10 5 0 -5 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 AM AM AM AM AM 0 0 0 PM PM PM PM PM PM P M PM PM 0 0 AM AM P M P M PM Percent trips at each hour Time Figure 5.4 59.9 Responses also provided information about the usual morning and evening travel times.M) 10.9 Per cent trips (P.2 Percentage of Trips in morning and evening hours to and from suburbs and city Origin to Destination Suburbs to City City to Suburbs Suburbs to Suburbs City to City Per cent trips (A.1.1 Graph showing AM and PM peak hours of travel 77 .Table 5.M) 28 10. Morning and evening peak hours were then calculated from the g raph shown in Figure 5.

3 shows the travel time and speed for each mode. On the basis of the measured distances and travel time. Table 5.5 km / hr during evening hours. taken together (Figure 5. approximate speeds were calculated. Buses which carry around 4.3).Type of modes used by the commuters and time spent in each mode were also asked through the survey to analyze the vehicular speeds on roads and the average travel time. The distances were directly measured from a map of Mumbai. A graph of percentile speed is plotted for all vehicles on the road.2 and Figure 5. Maximum numbers of trips take place by railways. Travel by railway turns out to be faster and economical than any other mode. Hence there is more demand f r trains in Mumbai. The average speed in the evening is found to be less than that in the morning. This may be accounted by the extra recreation trips during evening hours. It is found that 63 per cent of vehicles travel below 15 km / hr and more than 90 per cent of vehicles travel below 25 km / hr in the morning hours. 78 . Real distances between the origin and the destination were not available. Most economical short journeys on road are given by walking and long journeys are given by buses. During the evening hours. This not only increases the overall travel time and the emissions. o Buses also form an important part of the transportation system of Mumbai.5 km / hr during morning hours and 15. but also encourages people to adopt private transportation for faster travel. 72 per cent of vehicles travel below 15 km / hr and more than 91 per cent vehicles travel below approximately 25 km / hr. followed by the buses. It is interesting to note that vehicles with lesser occupancy give more average speed than the vehicles with higher occupancy. 55 per cent by number of trips take place by bus.5 million journeys per day travel at an average speed of 17. Thus it is seen that public transport is more popular among the citizens of Mumbai.

2 0. this questionnaire does not consider the poor people.6 21.2 4 1.5 6.5 3.9 19.7 AM Average Speed in 30. or they are v much ery accessible to transportation modes at their origin and destination. considerable walk means walking distance of at least 100 meter on the road.8 PM Average Speed in km/hr 29. Average travel time per trip during morning hours is 62 minutes and that in the evening hours is 68 minutes. distance.8 per cent seems to be an underestimated value. for whom walking is the only affordable means to travel.5 17. 79 .5 9. Modes Percentage by number of trips 59.8 (considerable walk) Percentage by distance 61.9 15. Table 5. 57. Average distance of travel for one way trip is approximately 23 km and 50 per cent of trip lengths are below 18 km.7 2.8 km/hr for two-wheelers during mornings.5 12 17.8 11.6 57.1 Train Bus Auto rickshaw Taxi Cars 2-Wheelers Walk Here. The reason might be that commuters consider it to be quite not worth to mention in their responses.7 23.4 16.5 15.7 55 18.3 Percentage by number of trips.The average speeds of vehicles on roads are ranging from 9.5 km/hr for buses during evenings to maximum of 21.6 19. Vehicles in the peak hours are seen at crawling speeds.4 6. Moreover. as discussed earlier. and average AM and PM speeds for each mode of travel.

3 Graph showing percentile speeds for PM Road Traffic.Graph of Percentile Speed (AM) 120 100 Percentage of vehicles 90 % 80 63 60 96 84 70 57 98 99 100 100 % Percentile Speed Curve 40 20 24 2 5 0 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Speed in km/hr Figure 5. 80 .2 Graph showing percentile speeds for AM Road Traffic Graph of Percentile Speed (PM) 120 Percentage of vehicles 100 91 96 99 99 100 80 60 40 20 72 66 89 79 Percentile Speed 34 0 0 6 5 10 15 Speed (km/hr) 20 25 30 35 40 45 Figure 5.

Thus a commuter on an average experiences approximately 111 hours of loss in working hours per year. 14 per cent prefer cars. a question seeking information about the overall performance of Mumbai Transportation System was asked. It is evident from the crush load of the trains and buses and crawling speed of vehicles on streets. the ideal travel time is considered as the best tool to find out the level of congestion. This ratio is defined as the congestion index for this study. Since there are no posted speed limits in Mumbai. In the end.01 / km. This indicates that the system is highly congested. This value of congestion index is not very reliable.64 / km and for private transport (cars and two-wheelers) is Rs. The average value of congestion index from 218 responses is 2. 0. Expenses per kilometer of travel are found out from the responses. as it only depends on the perception of the individual. Eleven parameters were mentioned and respondents were asked to rate the satisfaction level. 4 percent opt for two-wheelers and 2 per cent prefer intermediate transport (auto rickshaws and taxis).1. Expenses for public transport (trains and buses) including a combination with intermediate means of transport is Rs. 80 per cent of commuters prefer public transport (58 per cent prefer trains and 22 per cent prefer buses). Value greater than 1 denotes that the area is congested. This gave an idea about the social dissatisfaction with respect to the travel time. A five point Likert-Scale ranking 81 . But the concept can be used in the future.Respondents also came up with the ideal travel time they would be satisfied with. 2. to get a realistic idea about congestion. Average delay per trip is fo und to be 9 minutes in the morning hours and 12 minutes in the evening hours. The ratio of actual travel time to ideal travel time was found out.

21 18.32 18.53 21.32 6.4 Percentage rating for the acceptability of Mumbai Transportation System and the parameters Totally Fairly Average Unacceptable Unacceptable (%) (%) (%) Fairly Acceptable (%) 31.11 11.84 1.58 7.58 3.11 23.63 11.42 3.63 34.16 25.32 11.58 9.26 13.89 26.95 15.26 15.53 35.47 35. Statistical Analysis Tests were then carried out to study how the parameters affect the overall satisfaction level of the commuters.26 31.89 23.84 3. Percentage rating for each parameter is given in Table 5.53 2.16 38.32 57.79 30.89 38.16 30.42 2.05 Totally Acceptable (%) 5.58 15.16 32.05 21.95 26.63 0.16 31.58 21.26 38.32 0.95 14.84 Mumbai Transportation System Pollution Road Quality Congestion Delay due to Speed of vehicles Frequency of buses and trains Pedestrian facilities Rush in public transport Parking Availability of other modes Comparison with transportation of other cities in India Cost of Travel 1.84 27.16 26.21 35.68 42.4.32 1.26 1.00 1.32 31.05 82 .32 30.79 5.00 13. Table 5.11 11.from Totally Unacceptable (rating 1) to Totally Acceptable (rating 5) was used to indicate the level of satisfaction based on the parameters.79 42.00 1.68 13.32 42.

They are fairly dissatisfied with the road quality. An attempt is made to measure the effect of parameters on the performance of the transportation system of City of Mumbai. The importance level for each 83 . cost of travel and various alternate modes available as compared to other cities in India.1 Analysis Commuter Satisfaction Sustainable transportation demands maximum convenience of commuters with minimum cost and least adverse effect on the environment and resources. As described earlier. This might be due to the fact that there are various other parameters that influence people’s perception which are not accounted in this study.It can be seen from the table that commuters are highly dissatisfied with the pollution. 5. Commuter satisfaction and convenience are the measures for determining sustainability from social aspect.2 5. In order to measure the degree of satisfaction among commuters during their regular travel. Although most of the parameters are towards unacceptable levels. Mumbai Transportation System proves to be fairly acceptable.2. delay due to low speeds and parking. Rating of 1 denotes minimum satisfaction (total unacceptability) and 5 denotes maximum satisfaction (total acceptability). The average rating for each parameter is calculated from the responses. It is important to understand the quality dimensions to assess the sustainability level of a transportation system. concept of Commuter Satisfaction Index (CSI) is used. Respondents seemed to have average satisfaction levels with respect to pedestrian facilities and the cost of the travel. People prefer Mumbai Transportation System. rush in public transport and congestion.

In terms of percentage the index is 50. it is essential to find out the causes for the 84 .38 1.49 It is seen from Table 5. as shown in Table 5.parameter is 5.58 2.17 0.091 0.32 2. In all there are 11 parameters. The product of average rating and weight gives the actual satisfaction level.091 Commuter Satisfaction Index 0. The importance of satisfaction level of each parameter is considered maximum for sustainability.091 0.091 0.31 0.21 0.091 0.58 3.52 Pollution Road Quality Congestion Delay due to Speed of vehicles Frequency of buses and trains Pedestrian facilities Rush in public transport Parking Availability of other modes Comparison with transportation of other cities in India Cost of Travel Total 1.5 Commuter Satisfaction Index calculation Average Score Importance score 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 60 Weighting factor 0.22 0.84 2.26 0.08 3. The weight of each parameter is calculated as given in Table 5.33 0.19 0.4 per cent.5.4 above. since sustainability requires maximum satisfaction with respect to all parameters. Commuter Satisfaction Index is calculated as 2.91 3. Thus the weight of each parameter is same.38 1.52.22 0. Although the overall satisfaction seems to be 50 per cent. Table 5.87 2.4 per cent.091 0. considering the effect of all eleven parameters.42 2.30 2.091 0.5 that overall CSI is 2.52 or 50.17 0.091 0.091 0.091 0.091 0.14 0.

85 . It is observed that seven out of nine independent variables are normally distributed.remaining 50 per cent dissatisfaction. Thus the remaining nine parameters are considered. namely rush in public transport and congestion are skewed. Two parameters namely ‘pollution’ and ‘comparison with transportation systems of other cities’ are not considered. 5. These two parameters give an overall idea of people’s views.13 show the graphical distributions. in order to see if parametric tests could be applied.2 Statistical Analysis The acceptability of the performance of the transportation system in Mumbai depends mostly on people’s views. while two.4 to 5. Figures 5. A detailed statistical analysis is carried out in order to see how the parameters considered as independent variables affect the acceptability of the performance of Mumbai Transportation System. Commuter Satisfaction Index of only 50 per cent shows that the system is unsustainable as far as the social aspect is considered. The dependent variable (Mumbai Transportation System) is also normally distributed. These nine parameters are checked for normal distribution.2. based on people’s perception affect the acceptability of overall performance of Mumbai Transportation System. This research studies how the parameters discussed earlier. but they do not necessarily affect the overall performance of the transportation system.

00 4.00 2.00 6. = 0. = 1.1053 Std.3816 Std.00 6.00 3.5 Distribution of responses about Road Quality 86 .00 Mean = 3.94628 N = 76 Mumbai_as_whole Figure 5.00 4.4 Distribution of scores for Mumbai Transportation System as whole Road_Quality 30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 Mean = 2.00 5.Mumbai_as_whole 40 30 Frequency 20 10 0 0.00 Road_Quality Figure 5. Dev.00 5.00 0 0. Dev.00 2.00 3.00 1.05789 N = 76 1.

6 Distribution of responses about Congestion Delay_due_to_Speed 40 30 Frequency 20 10 0 0.00 Mean = 1.00 2.00 1. Dev.00 5.85788 N = 76 Delay_due_to_Speed Figure 5.89521 N = 76 Congestion Figure 5.00 1.00 4.8421 Std.Congestion 40 30 Frequency 20 10 0 0.7 Distribution of responses about Delay due to Speed 87 .00 Mean = 2.00 4.00 2.00 3.2237 Std.00 3. = 0. = 0.00 5. Dev.

00 0 0. Dev.00 2.3816 Std. = 1.8 Distribution of responses about Frequency of Buses and Trains Pedestrian_facilities 30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 Mean = 2.Frequency_buses_trains 30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 Mean = 3.00 4.4211 Std.00 5.00 3.00 Frequency_buses_trains Figure 5.00 4.00 Pedestrian_facilities Figure 5. = 1.00 2. Dev.00 6.9 Distribution of responses about Pedestrian Facilities 88 .00 0 0.06161 N = 76 1.00 3.0828 N = 76 1.00 6.00 5.

00 5.00 3. Dev.00 Mean = 1. = 0.00 6.10 Distribution of responses about Rush in Public Transport Parking 30 Frequency 20 10 0 0.00 Rush_public_transport Figure 5.5789 Std.00 3.00 Parking Figure 5.00 Mean = 2. = 0.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 2.Rush_public_transport 50 40 Frequency 30 20 10 0 0. Dev.95247 N = 76 1.11 Distribution of responses about Parking 89 .82078 N = 76 1.00 4.00 2.3026 Std.

00 2.13 Distribution of responses about Cost of Travel 90 .00 3.00 0 0. Dev.00 2.00 Availability_other_modes Figure 5.19083 N = 76 1.12 Distribution of responses about Availability of alternate modes Cost_of_Travel 30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 Mean = 3.00 5.13717 N = 76 1.9079 Std.00 4.Availability_other_modes 30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 Mean = 2.00 0 0. Dev. = 1.00 5.00 Cost_of_Travel Figure 5. = 1.00 4.00 3.4868 Std.00 6.00 6.

Since most independent variables along with the dependent variable are normally distributed.0. This method is generally used to reduce a large number of overlapping variables to a much smaller set of factors. SPSS 12. Methods used are Extraction Method with Principal Component Analysis and Rotation Method (Varimax with Kaiser Normalization). Highest factor loadings of the independent variables are shown in bold. Thus congestion. Road quality and pedestrian facilities are factored as infrastructure (factor 3) and cost of the travel is grouped under cost (factor 4). parametric tests are carried out. Thus nine independent variables are grouped into four factors. A data reduction technique called as Factor Analysis is used to group these variables into fewer numbers of groups.6 shows the factor loadings. rush in public transport. Frequency of buses and trains and availability of alternate modes are categorized as availability of transportation modes (factor 2). Only those cases are considered in this analysis where the acceptability level of Mumbai Transportation is average (rating 3). Table 5. These factor loadings indicate the correlation of the independent variables to each of the factors formed. delay due to speed and parking are clubbed into one group (factor 1) called as crowding. There are 76 responses in all with nine independent variables and one dependent variable. Loadings from rotated component matrix are studied for the factoring of the variables. 91 . a statistical analysis tool is used to carry out the statistical analysis.

489 0. The results are as tabulated in Tables 5.236 0.079 3 0.151 0.010 0.7 to 5.367 -0.054 0. Three out of four appear to be normally distributed (Figure 5.Table 5.097 These four factors namely crowding.786 -0.944 0.130 0. Hence linear regression is used to see which parameters affect the overall performance of the transportation system based on people’s views.057 0.668 0.14 to 5. 92 .17). availability of modes.899 Road Quality Congestion Delay due to Speed Frequency of buses.023 -0.177 0.041 0. trains Pedestrian facilities Rush in public transport Parking Availability of alternate modes Cost of Travel -0.072 0.270 -0.021 0.367 0.213 -0.152 0.647 0.057 0.358 0.901 0.204 -0.866 0.6 Loadings from Factor Analysis (Rotated Component Matrix) Component 1 2 -0.790 -0.137 -0.761 0.112 0.10.211 0.137 4 0.128 0. infrastructure and cost are again checked for distribution.

00000 2.00000 2.0045488 Std. = 1.01199717 N = 76 4.00000 REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1 Figure 5.00000 1.00000 -1.00000 Mean = -0.00000 -1.00000 Mean = 0. Dev.00000 REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1 Figure 5.00000 1.94640804 N = 76 3. Dev.00000 0.15 Distribution of scores for Availability of Transportation Modes 93 . = 0.14 Distribution of scores for Crowding Availability of Transportation Modes 20 15 Frequency 10 5 0 -2.00000 3.3200328 Std.Crowding 20 15 Frequency 10 5 0 -2.00000 0.

00000 0.00000 2.Infrastructure 12 10 8 Frequency 6 4 2 Mean = -0.00000 REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1 Figure 5.2349266 Std.16 Distribution of scores for Infrastructure Cost of the Travel 20 15 Frequency 10 5 0 -2.91251744 N = 76 3.00000 REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1 Figure 5.17 Distribution of scores for Cost 94 .00000 2.00000 -1.00000 -2.00000 0 -4.00000 1. Dev. Dev.00000 Mean = 0. = 0.95380853 N = 76 4.0197289 Std. = 0.00000 0.

95380853 0. The 95 .8 Model Summary 0.1).097 0.91251744 N 76 76 76 76 76 Mumbai_as_whole Crowding Availability of transportation modes Infrastructure Cost Table 5.118.3200328 -0. Table 5.8.0197289 Std.2349266 0. Table 5.94628 1.92412 1.7 Summary of basic statistics for the four factors Mean 3. which is more than 0.8. Deviation 0. Table 5.7 shows the mean and standard deviation for the factor scores for each factor.0045488 0. The significance is 0.94640804 0.1.1053 -0.9 shows the significance and correlations of these independent variables with each other as well as with the dependent variable. Availability of transportation modes is negatively correlated where as Infrastructure is positively correlated with the dependent variable.Summary of statistics for linear regression is as shown in Table 5. it is seen that the model is not a significant model. From Table 5.118 0.7 and Table 5. Crowding is low moderately correlated and is statistically significant with the dependent variable.01199717 0.917 R square Adjusted R Square Significance of the model Std error of the estimate F The results for this analysis are tested at 90 per cent 1-tailed significance level.046 0. whereas Availability of transportation modes and Infrastructure are significant with Crowding. Thus for a parameter or the model to be significant the significance should be lesser than 10 per cent (0.

rush and parking) and infrastructure (road quality and pedestrian facilities) would affect the performance of the transportation system as a whole.071 0.447 (Constant) Crowding Availability of transportation modes Infrastructure Cost Conceptually thinking.071 -0.072 0.029 0.9 Correlations Pearson Mumbai Correlation Transportation as whole Crowding Availability of transportation modes Infrastructure Cost Mumbai as whole Crowding Availability of transportation modes Infrastructure Cost 1 0.324 0.029 0.019 0.461 0.049 0.337 - Sig.961 0.28 1 -0. Table 5. delay.procedure of linear regression is again continued to get the best fit model with the most significant parameters affecting the acceptability.012 -0.28 0.011 0.007 0.348 0.337 0.053 0.27 0.169 0.019 0. (1tailed) Table 5.169 1 -0.324 0.239 -0. 0 0.10 Coefficients from regression analysis Sig.348 0.012 0. infrastructure and the interaction between them as the 96 .053 0.072 0.27 0. Hence regression analysis is again carried out considering crowding.007 0. it is evident that crowding (congestion.219 1 -0.461 0.045 0.049 1 0.354 0.239 -0.219 0.044 0.045 0.351 0.044 -0.354 0.

11 Correlations and Significance Pearson Correlation Mumbai_as_whole Crowding Infrastructure Interaction Variable Sig.118 0. 0. Table 5.327 1 . Table 5. Table 5. (1-tailed) Mumbai_as_whole Crowding Infrastructure Interaction Variable Mumbai_ Interaction as_whole Crowding Infrastructure Variable 1 0.222 -0.027 0.007 0.002 .019 . 0. Table 5.239 -0.239 1 -0.28 1 0.085 0.122 0.155 0.327 -0.118 -0.independent variables.9051 97 .12 Model Summary R square Adjusted R Square Significance of the model Std error of the estimate 0.12 shows the model summary.002 0.045 -0.348 0.024 0.045 0.348 0.222 0.11 correlations and significance of independent variables with dependent variable and each other.027 0.007 . 0. Interaction between crowding and infrastructure is the product of their individual factor scores.28 0. Results of Regression Analysis are tabulated in the following tables.019 0.155 0.

13 shows their individual significance levels.0 0.11.13 Coefficients and significance values for linear regression Constant Crowding Infrastructure 0 0.064 Interaction Variable Dependent Variable: Mumbai_as_whole 1.2 0.6 0.Table 5. it is seen that crowding and interaction variable are significant with the dependent variable.0 Observed Cum Prob Figure 5. They also have a correlation with the dependent variable at a moderately low level.8 1. Crowding and Interaction variable are statistically significant (values less than 0.18 Graph of Linear Regression From Table 5. 98 .4 0. it is inferred from this statistical analysis that Crowding and Infrastructure significantly affect the performance of Mumbai Transportation System from people’s perspective.443 0.8 Expected Cum Prob 0.2 0. Thus.018 0. Table 5.6 0.1).0 0.4 0.0 0.

72 per cent of vehicles run below 15 km / hr and more than 91 per cent vehicles run below approximately 25 km / hr. Speeds further decrease during evenings. four wheelers running on gasoline (cars) and two wheelers with respect to speed [48]. Pollution levels in Mumbai 99 .3. 5. rush. Asthma and many other respiratory problems have become very common with the citizens of Mumbai. emissions in gm/km are high.19. During the evenings.Figure 5. 5. Bronchitis. if these vehicles continue to move on for long distances.20. As discussed earlier. these vehicles also cause very high emissions of pollutants.18 shows the graph for linear regression.3 Environmental Aspect Pollution level in Mumbai is very high as discussed in Chapter 3. 5. As seen in Table 5. Thus for reducing the dissatisfaction amongst the commuters. hydro carbon have started deteriorating the health of people. with an improvement in pedestrian facilities and road quality. particulate matter. NOx . it is found that 63 per cent of vehicles travel below 15 km / hr and more than 90 per cent of vehicles travel below 25 km / hr in the morning hours. traffic congestion and due to very low speeds of vehicles. delay and parking problems. soot. Figures 5. vehicles on roads have low speeds. Environmental pollution is increasing with high growth in vehicular population. there should be reduction in congestion. the emissions increase further. Speeds of vehicles are seen ranging anything between 5 to 8 km/hr during the AM and PM peak hours. Apart from causing delay. Moreover.21 and 5. Emissions of CO.22 show the emission levels of different pollutants in gm/km for heavy vehicles running on diesel (buses and trucks). The graphs show that at for the speeds of vehicles in Mumbai.

have already reached alarming values as discussed in Chapter 3.6 4.9 301.19 Source: Emission levels (gm/km) for buses and trucks with respect to speed India – Anthropogenic Emissions from Energy Activities in India: Generation and Source [48] 100 .8 157 158.1 FC CO2 NO Emission (gm/km) with respect to speed Buses / Trucks 7 Emission (gm/km) 6 5 4 3 3.1 504.9 2 1 0 0 10 2.6 3. and the condition will worsen if the inventory of personal vehicles still continues.2 421.9 4 6.1 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) Figure 5.3 351. Emission (gm/km)with respect to speed Buses / Trucks 800 Emission (gm/km) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) 252.2 2 2.8 3.6 188.2 4.1 2.1 415.5 2.7 499.9 667.4 443.9 2.1 419.7 226.3 167.4 3 2.1 275.6 4.6 159.9 194.1 CO SO2 PM 2.8 3.

67 29.75 CO NO 1.Emission (gm/km) with respect to speed Four Wheelers (Gasoline) 350 287 300 Emission (gm/km) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) 100 80 73.66 0.5 144.3 68 66 70 232 212.47 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) Figure 5.20 Source: Emission levels (gm/km) for cars with respect to speed India – Anthropogenic Emissions from Energy Activities in India: Generation and Source [48] 101 .2 4.05 0.8 137 FC CO2 Emission (gm/km) with respect to speed Four Wheelers (Gasoline) 60 Emission (gm/km) 50 39 52 40 30 20 10 0 0 5.5 10.67 165.33 4.95 16 11.

Four Stroke 3.8 0.2 1 1.4 35.5 Emission (gm/km) 3 2.2 7 7.8 13.4 0.2 Figure 5.1 1.5 1 0.3 3. four stroke with respect to speed Source: India – Anthropogenic Emissions from Energy Activities in India: Generation and Source [48] 102 .8 24.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) 2.5 22 10.55 CO 3.5 2 1.4 1.6 NO 1.21 Emission levels (gm/km) for two wheelers.Emission (gm/km) with respect to speed Two-Wheelers.2 20.9 0. Four Stroke 40 Emission (gm/km) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) 12 8.6 FC CO2 36.3 28.9 Emission (gm/km) with respect to speed Two-Wheelers.04 1.

25 7.30 26.80 26. Four Stroke 4W-D = Four Wheeler.68 Emission (gm/km) 25.59 1.22 Emission levels (gm/km) for two wheelers. 2W–2S = Two Wheeler.26 13.20 1.15 FC CO2 CO NO HC 14.00 2.10 26.95 2. Two Stroke 3W-2S = Three Wheeler.30 3. Table 5.33 5.16 10.75 1. Gasoline (Cars) 2W-4S = Two Wheeler. Four Stroke 3W-4S= Three Wheeler. Diesel (bus.30 11.80 9.02 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Speed (km/hr) Figure 5.14 shows the percentage of reduction in fuel consumption and emissions with an increase in speed from 15 km / hr to 25 km / hr in each mode of road transportation. Two Stroke 4W-G = Four Wheeler.70 11.84 10.Emission (gm/km) with respect to speed Two-Wheelers.03 1. Thus vehicles moving at optimum speed produce economical as well as environmental gains.20 1.90 18.50 1.60 3.03 11.40 1. Two Stroke 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 36. two stroke with respect to speed Source: India – Anthropogenic Emissions from Energy Activities in India: Generation and Source Characterization [48] It is observed that an increase in speed from 15 km / hr to 25 km / hr causes a considerable reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions [48]. truck) 103 .20 27.30 8.

2 19. This information gives evidence that Mumbai traffic has been adversely affecting the environment and causing very high air pollution.22 0.9 243 27.2 557.75 104 .9 5 24.3 11.24 2.6 197.4 3.18 to 5.9 39 1. Table 5.82 2.15 20.434 5.12 12.2 68.7 30.1 2.84 10.5 times.15 gives the values of actual emissions at the average speeds of vehicles in Mumbai and the emissions that would have occurred at their ideal speeds (values taken from graphs in Figures 5.5 45.Table 5.9 66 84 8.15 Emission values in gm/km for the actual speed and ideal speed of vehicles in Mumbai CO CO2 HC FC PM SO2 Emission Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual Ideal Actual at Speed 4W-D 4W-G 2W2S 2W4S 3W2S 3W4S 3.03 7 8.1 7 5. It shows that emissions exceed the ideal optimum values approximately 1.7 19.4 1.4 1 6.5 23 39.21).2 158.8 25.14 Percentage decrease in fuel consumption and emission of pollutants with increase of vehicles from 15 km/hr to 25 km/hr 2W-2S ideal 2W-4S ideal 3W-2S ideal 3W-4S ideal 4W-G ideal 4W-D ideal Speed 30 to Speed Speed 30 Speed 30 Speed 40 to Speed 40 to 40 km/hr 30km/hr km/hr km/hr 60 km/hr 60 km/hr Fuel Consumption CO CO 2 NO HC SO 2 Soot 17 36 11 9 46 23 22 23 21 20 20 17 18 56 25 25 16 16 16 20 78 79 22 22 Increase by Increase by 41% 46% 16 19 Table 5.95 1.2 144.49 71.5 3.2 419.33 115.

it is observed that 37 per cent of people regularly commuting by personalized vehicles prefer public transport for traveling. This might be due to lower cost of public transport. This is the most simplest and economical measure for a developing city like Mumbai.From the questionnaire responses. there is a possibility that at least 37 per cent of all car and two wheeler trips will be reduced. These observations and results make it clear that public transportation and walking facilities should be improved to such an extent that people are encouraged to use these modes of transportation. This gives an idea about the reduction in pollution and traffic congestion. Fuel consumption will decrease with a reduction in CO2 and NOx emissions in particular. This modal shift will also increase the speed of vehicles on the road. better speed by trains and less effort to drive through the traffic on the roads. Thus if public transportation is enhanced. 105 . At the same time it is imperative to curb private vehicles on the road.

pedestrian conflict and unnecessary fuel consumption. people are not very satisfied with the frequency of buses and trains. Congestion hinders the smooth movement of people as well as the vehicles. delay due to vehicular speed and parking thus adversely affect the environment and the social well being of people. This 106 . vehicle. Crowding. Infrastructure in form of bad road quality and improper pedestrian facilities mainly contribute to people’s dissatisfaction. Free parking further encourages the personalized vehicle use. Rush in the public transportation facilities makes people dissatisfied in the form of inconvenience. an overall analysis of the entire city will definitely reduce the CSI. noise and smell. Although the commuter satisfaction index is found to be 50 per cent in this study. People are seen to be fairly satisfied with the cost of travel. congestion. thereby wasting valuable time of the commuters. Apart from crowding. which includes rush in public transport.1 Interpretation and Conclusions It is inferred from the analysis that crowding forms a significant parameter in determining the sustainability of a transportation system. causes the vehicles to create traffic jams. Although availability of transportation modes is not seen to be a statistically significant variable. Parking at wrong places due to unavailability of proper space. It reduces the speed of travel. people are seen to be dissatisfied with respect to infrastructure.Chapter 6 Results and Conclusions 6. It also results into air pollution.

This can prove to be an efficient measure if planned properly. People come to Mumbai in search of employment and in the hope of getting a shelter. Attempt is made to develop a method of calc ulation of social well being that affects sustainability.is due to the fact that the survey reached to educated people only.2. As discussed in Chapter 4. the slum formations have become very common on the road and highway sides. This has caused a strain on all transportation facilities.1 Suggestions for Mitigation Dispersion of Population and Employment – Satellite Towns Problems arise in Mumbai due to high population and concentration of employment and housing. Thus there is uncontrolled growth of population and slums in a haphazard way. Concentration of employment is more in CBD area of Mumbai. These satellite towns will have job 107 . With migration of more and more people from other places in India. 6. causing a high risk of road accidents. many small scale factories and job opportunities are being created in these areas. As the city is growing northwards. Attempts are being made to shift employment to Bandra-Kurla Complex in the suburban area and in Navi Mumbai. These satellite towns should be connected by an efficient rail and bus network to each other and the city center. settlements have started spreading all over the City of Mumbai in form of large numbers of residential complexes and slums. The concept of satellite towns similar to Singapore can be used to evenly distribute the population and employment.2 6. Hence the mitigation measures take not only the parameters into consideration but also the overall condition of Mumbai Transportation System in general. These people have a better access to various means of transportation than the poor people.

which will avoid their settlements again on roads and highways. it gives a fair idea in terms of proportion.opportunities for the residents. 6. approximately 35 per cent of trips take place in the east-west direction. As discussed in the literature review. Of all the trips (rail and road) surveyed through the questionnaire. transportation planners can study the examples and experiences of demand management and land use planning in developed and developing countries.2. The satellite towns should be made self sufficient with proper pedestrian facilities and public transportation. An efficient development can be achieved only when the areas have a good transportation system for convenient movement of people.2 Facilitation of Public Transportation It is seen from the online survey that 60 per cent of trips are within suburbs. thus avoiding long trips to the city center and to the other parts. Out of all railway trips. 30 per cent of commuters have to transfer the train from Western Railway to 108 . 28 per cent from suburbs to the city. Policy measures and efficient planning is needed to bring the situation in control. These measures do not intend to curb the unplanned growth. 11 per cent from the city to the suburbs while 2 per cent of trips are within the city. building flyovers and widening roads seem to be short term goals. Improvements like increasing the frequency of trains and buses. Although these figures do no necessarily give the exact percentage of trips taking place in the entire Mumbai. and can be an effective measure for Mumbai. Slum population needs to be rehabilitated away from the dangerous traffic and given some incentives like job opportunities. Strategic planning of this kind has totally stopped the urban sprawl in Singapore.

Thus commuters waste their time. This increases their travel distance to almost twice of the direct distance between the origin and destination. energy and resources. Mumbai is experiencing construction of flyovers which is not going to help much. A common belief among people is that they can travel faster with their own modes of transport. This is due to the fact that there is no railway line connecting east to west directly. a proposed satellite town in order to grow trade and business. it is found through online survey that 80 per cent of people still prefer them (58 per cent prefer trains and 22 per cent prefer buses). 2 per cent of people prefer intermediate transport. A rail system and priority to the public buses can help solve some of the congestion in Mumbai. 18 per cent of respondents prefer to have personalized vehicles. A person traveling from eastern suburb to western suburb or vice versa by train has to travel in north-south direction at least once. A railway system running east-west can be then extended to Navi Mumbai. in the form of cars or two-wheelers. the cost per km for public transport modes is three times lesser than the personalized v ehicles). This might be due to the low costs (as discussed earlier. which includes auto rickshaws and taxis. This will also alleviate the problem of excessive concentration of employment and population in Mumbai itself. In fact this causes more traffic and inconvenience to them as well as others.Central Railway or vice versa at Dadar Station. In spite of the rush and inconvenience through railways and buses. This explains the main cause of longer travel time and delays. These statistics 109 . Moreover. Presently there is a bus network. To improve the direct east-west connection public transportation should be improved. this will reduce the strain on already existing Central and Western Railway. but buses often take longer times to travel due to the gridlocks on the roads. since it will attract more cars and two-wheelers.

occupies the narrow roads and results into vehicle pedestrian conflict.2. Fines should be high for illegal parking and free parking should be totally eliminated. easily affordable by the car owners.2. Parking should be made strict in Mumbai. Sustainability demands convenience of people. Multi-storey parking lots can be provided around big offices and large residential complexes. Another improvement that can be suggested is laying new tracks or assigning separate tracks for intercity and goods trains. These trains running during peak hours create disturbance in the regular train schedule. 6. causing inconvenience to people in form of longer waiting times and rush. Special parking zones should be provided for bicycles around railway stations and other public places. This encourages more use of cars and two-wheelers.show the need to make improvements in public transport systems.3 Parking Parking is seen to be another critical problem of Mumbai transportation system. Thus people are forced to park their vehicles on nearby streets. thus causing a dangerous situation for drivers and pedestrians. There are no appropriate spaces provided for parking in residential complexes and offices. irrespective of their 110 . Parking if provided is generally free or at a reasonable rate. where the personalized vehicles are bound to be more. Parking at wrong places creates confusion to the drivers.4 Pedestrian Convenience Another important development that Mumbai requires is improvement in pedestrian facilities. 6.

Most trips involve walking and at least 60 per cent requires considerable amount of walk on roads. without giving enough thought to the pedestrians.5 Curbing personalized vehicles on roads Various suggestions have been given on the idea of curbing personalized vehicles. Special sound systems should be provided at the traffic signals especially for the blind. it is not practically feasible to adopt these options without arranging alternate means of public transportation. It is seen that roads are built or widened considering the convenience of vehicle owners. Imposing stricter rules and policy norms on use of old 111 . Hence bus priority and improvements in railways would be the best solutions to solve the transportation problems. 6. People will avoid their vehicles and shift to public transportation. and hence there is a need to place them in a safer environment. only when the later offers faster means of travel. Sidewalks. while some feel that higher taxes should be incurred on these vehicles and fuel. Public transportation facilities should be enhanced to such an extent that people will prefer these modes more than their cars. pedestrian signals and pedestrian crossings should be provided at all places. While all these measures contribute towards reduced use of cars and two wheelers on the road. Banning cars and two-wheelers on roads will only add to the dissatisfaction of the commuters.2. Railway capacity which gets exceeded by almost 3 times. Accidents mostly involve pedestria ns.age and economical background. Taxes on vehicles and fuel along with parking costs will definitely reduce the vehicle use provided people have better options for traveling. cannot be further strained by allowing no cars on the road. Some people suggest that the cars be banned on roads a few days in a week.

will further help in alleviating transportation problems in Mumbai. 112 .vehicles. on emission standards and fuel quality.

health problems and inconvenience. time.1 Conclusion The mitigation measures suggested in the previous chapters are important steps towards sustainable growth of transportation in Mumbai. pollution. The concept of satellite town as discussed in the previous chapter is an effective tool to reduce the travel distance. With the modal shift towards public transportation. thus avoiding their concentrations in a particular area. These measures can definitely improve the quality of transportation. thereby reducing strain on the present transportation system. pollution. Improvement of speed from 15 km/hr to 25 km/hr will cause significant reduction of pollutant emission as discussed in Chapter 5. Bold steps that should be taken in making Mumbai a sustainable city are as follows: 1. with a reduction in accidents. Land Use Planning – Population and employment should be dispersed. Enhancement of Buses and Railways – East-West connection should be provided in form of public transportation in order to increase the convenience of people traveling in East-West direction. traffic congestion will reduce. Funds which are invested in developing flyovers can be directed towards improving the public 113 .Chapter 7 Conclusion and Recommendation 7. 2. fuel consumption. thereby increasing the speed. effort.

it becomes an urgent need to take some bold steps before the situation goes out of control. Buses should be given priority on roads as compared to the other vehicles. 114 . building flyovers are short term improvements. These planning measures intend to cater to the present demand. Planning measures should not only include providing facilities for transportation. 4. without taking into consideration the high rate of growth in vehic les and population. 3. as discussed earlier. but should include measures which reduce the need to travel. Increasing the frequency of buses and trains. Norms should be made in order to curtail the car use. It is absurd to note that a transportation mode which carries maximum number of people in Mumbai travels with the lowest speed the roads.transportation facilities in form of frequency and infrastructure. Transportation Planning – Long term and a comprehensive planning is required for Mumbai. creating spaces for parking free of cost. traffic congestion and the travel speed. Restriction of personal vehicle use – Taking into consideration the current scenario of existing pollution levels. This can be achieved when the use of vehicles is decreased considerably. and provisions should be made simultaneously have a modal shift to walking and transportation.

environmental and economical benefits taken together. eleven critical parameters were considered. Further research is needed to consider the entire section of Mumbai population. thus giving a broader understanding of achieving sustainability. This study is more focused on the social aspect. Detailed study is required to gauge the social. This will increase the reliability of the results. In order to measure the social satisfaction.2 Recommendations Most results in this study are based on the online survey posted on the web site. Benefit cost study is to be carried out for comprehensive long term planning of the city. For a sustainable transportation system. there should be a balance between the social. 115 . economical and environmental aspect.7. Research should be carried out further with more influencing factors. as it mainly tries to quantify the social satisfaction. There are many more secondary parameters that influence people’s acceptability which the study does not account for.

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What time do you start your journey? In the morning In the evening Hours Hours Minutes.utoledo. a graduate student in the University of Toledo (USA). please answer the following questions. I need your help in developing data about the current transportation scenario in Mumbai. The questionnaire will take only 5 to 10 minutes to answer. Indicate your time (in minutes) and distance (km) spent in each mode In the morning Train Bus 122 .Appendix Online Survey I am Bhairavi Dhakras. Where do you go for your work / school (Destination)? 4. 1. Minutes. If you are a regular traveler in Mumbai. Your Profession 2. doing my masters in Civil Engineering. the usual problems people face and their expectations from a good transportation system. Where do you start your journey for going to work / school (Origin)? 3. Your responses are important and valuable to me. If you have question(s) or suggestion(s) please feel free to email me at bdhakras@eng.edu. I am working on my thesis "Study of parameters in the development of sustainable transportation system in the City of Mumbai". 5. I appreciate your feedback.

What is the average delay (in minutes) you usually experience? In the morning In the evening 123 .Auto rickshaw Taxi Car Two-Wheeler Bicycle Walking In the evening Train Bus Auto rickshaw Taxi Car Two-Wheeler Bicycle Walking 6.

Which mode of transport do you prefer? 10. What is the duration of time you would be satisfied with for your one way journey? 8. Mumbai Transportation as a whole Average Fairly Acceptable Totally Acceptable 124 . Pedestrian facilities 7. How would you overall rate the following? Totally Fairly Unacceptable Unacceptable 1. What are your approximate travel expenses (in Rupees) per day? 9. Cost of Travel 12. Road Quality 3. Rush in public transport 8. Parking 9. Congestion 4. Pollution 2. Frequency of buses and trains 6. Comparison with transportation of other cities in India 11. Availability of alternate modes to 10. Delay due to Speed of vehicles 5.7.