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PARSLEY (PETROSELINIUM CRISPUM) BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM) SAGE (SALVIA OFFICINALIS) CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA) DILL (ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS

) THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS) JUNIPER (JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS) TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) CINNAMON (CINNAMONUM ZEYLANICUM) NUTMEG (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS) MARJORAM (ORIGANUM MAJORANA) ARTICHOKE (CYNARA SCOLYMUS)

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Parsley (Petroselinium crispum)
Plant family: Apiaceae (parsley family). Description: Parsley is considered to be the world’s most popular herb. The name comes from a Greek word meaning “rock celery”. It is a biennial plant that returns year after year once it is well established. It has a tap root and powerful stalks, triangular, jagged, curly leaves, umbels with small, creamy-white flowers and aromatic seeds. There are three cultivated varieties: Var. latifolium (broad-leaved) and var. crispum (curlyleaved) are grown for their leaves, and var. tuberosum is grown for its root. Parsley grows naturally in Southern Europe from Spain to Macedonia, and in Northern Africa. It’s also planted in gardens all over the world. Medicinal Action: It contains a lot of anti-oxidant and cardio-protective nutrients in addition to volatile oils and flavonoids. Parsley is also a very good source of three things that are important for disease-prevention: vitamin C, beta-carotene, and folic acid. Uses: As a medicinal plant, it has traditionally been used as an antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, and stomachic. It has also been used as a remedy for asthma, conjunctivitis, dropsy, fever, and jaundice. The essential oil of parsley seed has been reported to stimulate hepatic regeneration A leaf infusion is good for hair, skin and eyes. Leaves, root and seeds are diuretic, renovate free radicals and reduce the emission of histamine. They ease rheumatism, promote the digestion and strengthen the uterus musculature after childbirth. Leaf bandages soothe sprains and cuts. Harvest: The two-year-old roots are used, as well as the leaves, and the seeds produce oil called Apiol. The leaves are harvested before the plant blossoms, the root and seeds after. Cultivation: Parsley requires ordinary, good soil that is well-worked, but moist soil and a partiallyshaded position is best. You can add a little soot to the soil. For a continuous supply, three sowings are necessary (providing you live where the weather permits it): One early in February, one in April or early in May, and one in July or early August. Plant them in a sheltered position, with a southern exposure. Any seed sown in February take several weeks to germinate, often as long as a whole month. The main sowing is often done in April; it grows faster then and provides material for cutting throughout the summer. A mid-August sowing will bring good plants for placing in cold frames for winter use. The seeds should be very slightly covered, not more than 1/2 inch deep and thinly distributed; if in drills, these should be 1 foot apart. It is not necessary to sow the seed where the plants are to be grown, when the seedlings are large enough, they can be pricked out into rows. You can for example start them indoors.

When the seedlings are about an inch high it’s important to thin them out a bit, to about 8 inches between the plants. A well-grown plant will cover almost a square foot. Water liberally in dry weather, a sheltered position is best because the plants are liable to get burnt in very hot and dry weather. Keep the weeds away and frequent dressings are an advantage. If the growth becomes coarse, cut off all the leaves and water well. This will bring a new growth of fine leaves, and may always be done when the plants have grown to a good size, as it encourages a stocky growth. Soon after the old or last year's plants begin to grow again in the spring, they try to blossom, but if you remove the flower stems immediately, and then dress and water the plants top, they will remain productive for some time. Renew the beds every two years, as the plants die down at the end of the second season. When sowing Parsley to stand the winter, a plain-leaved variety will often be easier than the curled or mossy sorts, because the curly leaves retain both snow and rain, and therefore don’t do well with frost. Plain-leaved Parsley is much hardier, and will survive even a severe winter. Where you want curled Parsley and there is no sufficiently sheltered spot for it, you can often save it by placing a frame-light over the bed during severe weather, or place them in cold frames. You must be careful with all Parsley plants grown in frames, to pick off all dead leaves when noticed. The soil should be stirred with a pointed stick between the plants now and then, to prevent it from becoming sour. At every opportunity (favorable weather), you should let a good deal of air in. Remove the light altogether on sunny days. Companions: Angelica, Artichoke, Asparagus, Basil, Lovage, Potato, Rhubarb, Roses, Tomatoes Antagonists (Don’t plant close to): Lavender Plants May Be Good Companions Because: a. They like the same soil and weather conditions b. One helps the other by loosening the soil for its roots c. One gives welcome shade and protection to its companion d. One attracts an insect that is beneficial to the other e. One deters a pest that habitually attacks the other – for instance sage, rosemary, thyme repel the cabbage butterfly; onions and leeks repel the carrot fly. f. One may leave a residue in the soil that benefits its companion. Recipes: Tonic I 1 tsp of dried Parsley 1 tsp of Fennel seeds 1 tsp of Roman Chamomile 6 dl (~20.3 fl oz) of water

Boil the water in a rust free kettle, place the herbs in a bowl and pour the water over them. Cover with a lid and leave for 10-20 minutes, strain. Lasts for 1-2 days in the refrigerator. Rinse the cleansed skin with the herbal water, or use a piece of cotton. Let it dry. Refreshing steam bath 1 tsp of dried Parsley 1 tsp of dried Rosemary 1 tsp of dried Mint 1 tsp of dried Marigold leaves 1 tsp of dried Roman Chamomile 1½ l (~50.7 fl oz) of boiling water Parsley wine 450 g (~0.99 lbs) of parsley 4 l (~1.06 gallons) of boiling water 28 g (~0.99 oz.) of scraped and chopped ginger 1.5 kg (~3.3 lbs) of sugar 2 lemons/oranges (juice and thin peel) 15 g (~0.53 oz.) of fresh yeast 1 slice of toast Put the parsley in a big container and pour the boiling water over it. Cover and let it sit for 24 hours. Strain the liquid into a pot, add ginger and fruit peel and let it boil for 25 minutes. Put sugar and fruit juice in a big container, pour the liquid over it and let the sugar dissolve. Let the fluid cool and spread the yeast over the slice of toast. Let the toast float on the surface. Cover and let it sit for 5 days (not too hot or dry). Strain and bottle. Put the caps on loosely. If there’s no sign of the yeast ‘working’ after a few days you can tighten the caps. The wine doesn’t taste parsley at all; I’ve tried it myself Origin/History: The plant comes from Southern Europe (probably east of the Mediterranean) and became popular further north in the middle ages, when it was commonly present in monasteries and Imperial gardens. In Greek mythology, parsley is said to have sprung from the Greek hero, Crchemorous. Winners at the ancient games were crowned with parsley. Parsley was used as both flavoring and garnish in Roman and Greek times. It is used as a symbol of spring and rebirth in the Hebrew celebration of Passover. Parsley was used when Hippocrates was alive as a medicine believed to help rheumatism, relieve kidney pains, and improve general health. Nowadays, two different varieties are grown: Root parsley (var. tuberosum) has a tender, edible root which is used as aromatic vegetable, and leaf parsley is cultivated for its leaves, which are used as garnish in many European countries

Miscellaneous: 1883 - "Parsley is an uncanny herb..."it goes to the devil nine times and very often forgets to come back again." Parsley seed is long germinating coz "Goes to hell and back 'fore sprouts." 1983 - “It is surprising parsley still exists, because according to an old-wives' tale only the wicked can grow it.” 1873 – "It is the belief of the peasantry in this part of the country (S.Hants), that it is very unlucky to give parsley.” 1954 – "A Swansea woman will not give a (parsley) root away as doing so brings bad luck. “ 1960 – "Some years ago she saw a woman from the village hovering over the parsley bed and carefully removing first one plant and then another....’I was utterly amazed,’ says my correspondent, ‘for I knew...that she was the soul of honesty...I would have given her all she wanted’...And that, it seems was just the difficulty, because parsley plants must not be given.” (Yorkshire, England) 1849 – "It is reckoned very unlucky to transplant parsley. “ 1912 – “I never did transplant parsley. That's the worst thing you can go for to do. You sow some on a bed and let it grow there, and that's all right, but if you dig it up and goes for to transplant it, someone in the family's sure to die.” 1955 – “Parsley should not be transplanted; it means a death in the family.” 1890 – “If a stranger plants parsley in a garden, great trouble will befall the owner.” 1883 - "Where parsley grows in the garden, the missus is the master." 1905 – “Where the mistress is the master, the parsley grows the faster.” 1969 – “It is still a widely held.....belief that parsley...flourishes best either when sown by the housewife rather than by her husband, or in gardens of homes where she is ‘master’.” 1933 – “If a young woman sows parsley-seed she will have a child.” 1936 – “The planting of parsley in Surrey is frequently considered to mean an addition to the family.” 1951 – “When a woman wants a baby, she should go out and plant some parsley.” 1707 – “Aristotle's Last Legacy - Take Parsley, bruise it, and press out the juice and put it (being so dipp'd) into the Mouth of the Womb, and it will presently cause the Child to come away.” 1938 – “Parsley is believed to prevent a pregnancy, and is sometimes eaten as a salad by young married women who do not desire to have a family.” 1982 – “If you want to bring on your period put a sprig of parsley inside your vagina for 12 hours - your period should start 24 hours later.” Apparently, in the 1600's and 1700's in England, children were told that little girls came from the parsley bed. There seemed to be some dispute as to where little boys came from though, some say the gooseberry bush, others the nettle bush. Published in 1937 in Sussex County Magazine: "Unless I plants our parsley bed I'll have wi' you no truck,' Ses I to him, 'for she,' I said 'Can give or take our luck. You, lad, may dig and hoe and weed the taters in their rows, But women-folk sow parsley seed, As all in Sussex knows. For parsley has a power, lad, That's old as histories, 'Twas guv her as a dower, lad,"

By Dowland pharisees' (fairies). Sources: http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/...rsle09.html#cul http://www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at/~katzer/eng...l?Petr_cri.html http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/med-aro...ts/PARSLEY.html http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Atrium/592...istoryherbs.htm http://www.allotments.btinternet.co.uk/complants.htm http://www.allotments.btinternet.co.uk/complants.htm http://www.itv.com/page.asp?partid=729 http://www.globalpsychics.com/lp/Superstit...arsley_list.htm http://home.no.net/heksebok/

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)
Plant family: Synonyms: Common Basil, Sweet Basil, St. Josephwort, St. Joseph's Wort, Tulsi, Tulasi, Krishnamul, Kala Tulasi, Witches' Herb, Alabahaca, American Dittany Warning! Do not use on sensitive skin. Avoid during pregnancy! Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established although amounts commonly used with the preparation of food are generally regarded as safe. The concern lies with high doses in women susceptible to miscarriage. It helps regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve cramps. This shows that it's a uterine stimulant and therefore might cause contractions. Another reason for avoiding it during pregnancy is that it affects coagulation. Description Aromatic, 20-50 cm (~0.7-1.6 ft) high annual plant with bright green, egg-shaped, embossed leaves and small white flowers. Three important relatives with similar properties are Ocimum canum (hairy basil), O. gratissimum (basil), and O. sanctum (holy basil). Though it originates on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Middle East, common basil now grows in gardens all over the world. Medicinal action Basil contains a strong-scented volatile oil composed primarily of terpenoids, particularly eugenol, thymol, and estragole. Basil also has what are known as chemotypes, minor variations among plants that contain significantly different mixes of constituents. The exact components of basil oil vary widely, being affected not only by these chemotypes but also by factors such as the time of day of harvest.4 This may account for some of the variability in scientific research and reports of medicinal efficacy of basil from culture to culture. Preliminary studies on holy basil and hairy basil have shown that the leaf and seed may help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar levels.5 6 7 While the action-mechanism of the leaf is not understood, the seed may work by providing

dietary fiber, which helps prevent rapid blood sugar elevations after meals. In addition, the seed has been found to relieve constipation by acting as a bulk-forming laxative in one uncontrolled human study.8 A similar study showed the seeds useful in elderly people who experienced constipation after undergoing major surgery.9 The volatile oil of basil has shown antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity in test tube studies.10 It is also believed to act as a carminative, relieving intestinal gas, and as a mild diuretic, though these actions have yet to be definitively proven.11 Uses Against gas, antiseptic, as a spice, urethral problems, increases lactation, coughing. Basil wine can be used as an aphrodisiac (stimulates the adrenal cortex). The leaves are used against bug bites, against mosquitoes, against worms and annelids, sooths acne. Magically it’s used for love, exorcism, wealth, sympathy, and protection. It dispels confusion, fears & weakness, and drives off hostile spirits. It’s associated with Candlemas. Carry it to move forward in a positive manner despite perilous danger. Strewn on floors to provide protection from evil. Sprinkle an infusion of basil outside of the building where you hope to be employed for luck in a job interview (be careful not to be seen!) or in your business to attract money and success. Wear or carry to aid in attracting money and prosperity. The leaves, fresh or dry, may be used to improve the flavour of tomato dishes, cucumbers, green salads, eggs, ricotta cheese mixes and shrimp. It is a popular culinary flavouring, typical of Mediterranean cuisines. Oil of basil is used in perfumery, soaps, cosmetics and liqueurs. Cultivation The seeds should be planted early in spring in rich, moist soil in rows 90cm apart at the rate of 12 to 15 for every 30 cm and covered with soil. Germination requires 5 to 7 days, and thinning the plants is not necessary. Growth is rapid, and no special care other than the usual cultivation practices are required. Flowering shoots are pinched out to extend useful life of plants. Harvest When the plants begin to flower they should be cut 15 to 20 cm above the ground to provide herbs for drying. Several cuttings may be made during the season. The green tender leaves may be used fresh at any time. The herb can be tied in small bundles and hung in a well-ventilated dark room or spread thinly on a screen to dry. After thorough drying, the leaves and flowering tops may be stripped from the stems and packed in closed containers. Recipes Urethral problems 2 tsp of Basil 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of water Make an infusion and drink 1 cup 2 times a day

Coughing 2 tsp of Basil 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of water Make an infusion and drink 1 cup 2 times a day. Wash for cuts and wounds 2 tsp of Basil 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of water Make an infusion and wash the wound carefully. Miscellaneous The ancient Greeks called Basil the "herb of kings". In Persia and Malaysia Basil is planted on graves, and in Egypt women scatter the flowers on the resting-places of those belonging to them. These observances are entirely at variance with the idea prevailing among the ancient Greeks that it represented hate and misfortune. They painted poverty as a ragged woman with a Basil at her side, and thought the plant would not grow unless railing and abuse were poured forth at the time of sowing. The Romans, in like manner, believed that the more it was abused, the better it would prosper. The physicians of old were quite unable to agree as to its medicinal value, some declaring that it was a poison, and others a precious simple. Culpepper tells us: 'Galen and Dioscorides hold it is not fitting to be taken inwardly and Chrysippusrails at it. Pliny and the Arabians defend it. Something is the matter, this herb and rue will not grow together, no, nor near one another, and we know rue is as great an enemy to poison as any that grows.' But it was said to cause sympathy between human beings and a tradition in Moldavia still exists that a youth will love any maiden from whose hand he accepts a sprig of this plant. In Crete it symbolizes 'love washed with tears,' and in some parts of Italy it is a love-token. Boccaccio's story of Isabella and the Pot of Basil, immortalized by Keats, keeps the plant in our memory, though it is now rarely cultivated in this country. It was formerly grown in English herb gardens. Tusser includes it among the Strewing herbs and Drayton places it first in his poem Polyolbion. 'With Basil then I will begin Whose scent is wondrous pleasing.' In Tudor days, little pots of Basil were often given as graceful compliments by farmers' wives to visitors. Parkinson says: 'The ordinary Basill is in a manner wholly spent to make sweete or washing waters among other sweet herbs, yet sometimes it is put into nosegays. The Physicall properties are to procure a cheerfull and merry hearte whereunto the seeds is chiefly used in powder.' Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com

Images of http://www.lindbloms.se/Lindbloms/37000/388165.html http://www.awl.ch/heilpflanzen/ocimum_basilicum/

Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Plant family: Labiatae/Lamiaceae Synonyms: Broadleaf Sage, Common Sage, Dalmatian Sage, Garden Sage, Kitchen Sage Warning! Avoid if epileptic and during pregnancy. Description An aromatic, evergreen bush with leathery, gray-green leaves on slightly woody stems up to 2 feet high. The stems don't always support the plant; it can get floppy. It produces attractive spikes of blue-purple (only occasionally white) flowers. The sage varieties used as spice stem from the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. Sage has been grown in Central Europe since the Middle Ages. It’s now cultivated worldwide especially in Albania, Yugoslavia, Greece, Italy, Turkey, France, Chine and the USA Genus Salvia is not restricted to the Old World; several sage species from Central America are characterized by a sweet, fruity fragrance very unsimilar to Mediterranean sage, e.g. Pineapple sage (Salvia rutilans), peach sage (Salvia greggii), fruit sage (Salvia dorisiana) and more. Some of these become increasingly popular for herb infusions, others are grown as ornamentals for their large flowers. Also native to Central America is a hallucinogenic species, Salvia divinorum (sacred sage, sage of the seers), which is of old cultivated by Central American Indians and was used in religios ceremonies before the advent of the Spaniards. The psychoactive constituents were identified as diterpenoid lactones. (salvinorin A, divinorin C and others) specific for this species. S. divinorum is the only hallucinogenic species in the whole Lamiaceae family. Native Range of S. officinalis is the Mediterranean region and northern Africa. Medicinal action The active components of Sage are: Volatile oil, containing a- and b-thujone as the major components, with cineole, borneol, camphor, 2-methyl-3-methylene-5-heptene, Diterpene bitters; picrosalvin (= carnosol), carnosolic acid, Flavonoids; salvigenin, genkwanin, 6-methoxygendwanin, hispidulin, luteolin, Phenolic acids; rosmarinic, caffeic, labiatic, Salviatannin, a condensed catechin. Uses The whole herb is antihydrotic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, galactofuge, stimulant, tonic and vasodilator. Sage is also used internally in the treatment of excessive lactation, night sweats, excessive salivation, profuse perspiration, anxiety, depression, female sterility and menopausal problems. Externally, it is used to treat insect bites, skin, throat, mouth and gum infections and

vaginal discharge. The leaf tea works as an antiseptic strengthening agent for the nerves and the blood, helps for irregular menstruation and menopause symptoms. Can replace tobacco if you’re coughing, have bronchitis or asthma. Laboratory studies indicate that sage may boost insulin's action. It’s widely used as an incense to protect and purify. It’s also used for smudge sticks. Magical properties include; longevity, purification, wisdom, wishes, clairvoyance, consecration, divination, healing, immortality, inspiration, longevity, love, lust, peace, prosperity, protection, psychic, to keep secrets, spirituality, weddings, wisdom. It’s also used as a culinary spice: Use in sauces and stuffing for fatty meats such as goose, duck, pork and sausage. In Italy, the fresh leaves are lightly fried with liver, and rolled up with ham and veal in saltimbocca. In Germany and Belgium, the leaves are added to eel and other oily fish dishes. In Middle Eastern countries the leaves are used liberally in salads. Cultivation You can start it from seed fairly easily. Sow the seed indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the last spring frost. You can also divide or take cuttings from existing plants. Plant sage in well-drained soil and full sun. Space plants 18 to 24 inches apart. Cut back old stems in spring to encourage strong new growth to emerge. Divide every couple of years to rejuvenate plants. Harvest The leaves are harvested before the plant blossoms Recipes Sage oil and a Sage decoction have a soothing, antiseptic effect as a mouth wash. A mixture of Lemon, Myrrh and Sage oil makes a good gurgle mixture. Sage tea is a soporific agent. Sun oil 2 dl (~6.8 fl oz) of Sesame seed oil ½ dl (~1.7 fl oz) of Nettle ½ dl (~1.7 fl oz) of Lavender ½ dl (~1.7 fl oz) of Sage ½ dl (~1.7 fl oz) of High Mallow Place the herbs in a bottle and pour the oil over. Let it sit in a warm place for 7-14 days. Strain through gauze, squeeze to get the most out of it. Face mask against big pores Yarrow, Horsetail and Sage helps against big pores. For a face mask you boil 3 dl (~10.1 fl oz) of water and pour it over 2 tbsp of dried herbs. Let it sit 15 minutes and strain. The infusion can be combined with milk, honey, Lemon or apple cider vinegar.

Sage and Rosemary hair rinse 1 tbsp of Sage 2 tbsp of Rosemary 1 tbsp of Tea leaves 1 l (~33.8 fl oz) of boiling water Mix Sage, Rosemary and Tea leaves in a bowl and pour the water over them. Leave it for 3 hours, strain and use in the last rinse. Makes gray hair darker. Skin stimulating bath Marjoram Comfrey Rosemary Sage Lemon Balm Thyme Dandelion Bath for sunburnt skin Lavender High Mallow Nettle Sage Bath for softer skin Roman Chamomile Marigold Birch High Mallow Elder Wild Pansy Lady’s Mantle Red Clover Comfrey Rose Sage Bath for oily skin Witch Hazel Lavender Colt’s Foot Strawberry Mint Horsetail Red Clover Comfrey Sage Yarrow

Bath that contracts the pores 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Yarrow 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Sage 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Marigold Bath oil that makes the skin fresh, elastic and smooth 7½ dl of water 2 tsp of dried Mint 2 tsp of Rosemary 2 tsp of Sage 1 tbsp of Lavender flowers 1 tbsp of Witch Hazel 1 tbsp of Almond oil The juice from half a Lemon. Boil the water and add the herbs. Remove the kettle from the heat, put a lid on and let it sit for 12 hours. Strain through gauze and throw away the herbs. Mix the water with Witch Hazel and Almond oil. Store in tight jars. Use 2½ dl (~8.5 fl oz) per bath and add the Lemon juice directly in the bath water. Rondolet Rondolet was one of the most popular eau de colognes in the 17th century. ½ l (~16.9 fl oz) of vodka 25 drops of Lavender oil 10 drops of Clove oil 10 drops of Bergamot oil 2 drops of Vanilla oil 2 drops of Rose oil 4 drops of Sage oil Pour the vodka into a dark glass bottle. Add the oils with a pipette and shake well. Leave it for one week before you use it. Cleansing Incense I 2 part perforated St. John’s wort 1 part comfrey 1 part juniper berries ½ part sage Cleansing Incense II 1 part juniper berries 1 part sage ½ part elder ½ part tansy Beltane oil 1 part Sage oil 1 part Penny Royal oil Mix well and keep in a bottle.

Great Rite Powder Blue talc. Sandalwood (Wishes); sage (wishes); rose (love); orange peel (love); jasmine (love). Burn or scatter in room where lovers are to meet, to please the good spirits and to increase sexual awareness. Wonderful for lovers and the Great Rite ceremony. Best day to make: Friday in the hour of Venus. Herb Powder Green talc. Basil (sympathy); oregano (protection); sage (longevity);thyme (healing); lemon (longevity). Brings good luck in gambling and will increase the memory of anyone who burns it. Also commonly used as a health powder. Use in poppets or hollow out a small portion of a potato, pour in the powder, place a slip of paper with he sick person's name, close the potato back up, and bury in the yard, saying: As this potato rots, the disease will leave. Best day to make: if used for banishing, Saturday in the hour of Saturn. If made for healing, Sunday in the hour of the sun. Legal Assistance Powder Black talc. Hi-John (protection); Lo-John (protection); clove (protection);sage (protection and wisdom);rosemary (protection); pipe tobacco (purification). Very powerful in spellworking to burn in a censer along with a black candle and salt. Sprinkle in your shoes before a court appearance. Use only to win court cases and to overcome legal entanglements. Best day to make: Tuesday in the hour of Mars. Miscellaneous The sage varieties used as herbs stem from the Mediterranean and Asia Minor and Sage has been grown in Central Europe since the Middle Ages. The name Salvia derives from the Latin 'salveo', which means to heal. Indeed this herb is highly regarded for its healing qualities. An ancient proverb states, 'Why should a man die who has sage in his garden?' The ancient Greeks used it to treat consumption, ulcers and snake bites. Romans considered sage to be a sacred herb and concocted a whole elaborate ceremony just to pick it. A sage gatherer would have to use a special knife (not made of iron as it reacts with the sage), have to have clean clothes and clean feet and a sacrifice of food would have to be made before he could begin. They would use it for toothpaste and they thought it was be good for the brain, senses and err oh memory. The Chinese also were quite partial to this herb and 17th century Dutch merchants found that they would trade one chest of sage leaves for three of their tea. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm

http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com http://www.rolv.no Images of Sage http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db50/FOTO_...icinalis_HC.jpg http://www.altavista.com/image/results?q=s...s=all&miwxh=all

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
Plant family: Cruciferae/ Brassicaceae Warning! Cabbage, and all brassicas, should be avoided by those who have an overactive thyroid gland. Cabbage contains goitrogens, these are naturally-occurring substances in certain foods that can interfere with the function of the thyroid gland because they interfere with the body's absorption of iodine. Cooking may help to inactivate the goitrogenic compounds found in food. However, it is not clear from the research exactly what percent of goitrogenic compounds get inactivated by cooking, or exactly how much risk is involved with the consumption of cabbage by individuals with pre-existing and untreated thyroid problems. So it's best to take it easy Description Common cultivated Cabbage. Annual or perennial plant with woody base, a rosette of large, tight, lacinate leaves, flowering stalks with narrow leaves and yellow flowers. Range: Australia; Chile; China; Dominican Republic; France; Germany; Haiti; India; Mexico; Spain; Us. Medicinal action Key components are: vitamins and minerals (especially A, B, C, E, calcium, sulfur, silica, magnesium, iodine, iron, and phosphorus), chlorophyll, mustard oils. Key actions are: anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antirheumatic, heals tissues by encouraging cells to proliferate, a liver decongestant, protects the stomach from gastric hydrochloric acid. Extensive modern research largely confirms its ancient use in folk medicine, and it has been shown to stimulate the immune system and the production of antibodies. Its sulfur compounds are largely responsible for its antiseptic, antibiotic, and disinfectant actions, particularly in the respiratory system. An amino acid, methionine, found only in raw cabbage, is responsible for promoting the healing effects. As an old remedy for hangovers and used to dry out alcoholics, cabbage is showing through modern research that a substance called glutamine can help both peptic ulcers and alcoholism. Its tumor-inhibiting constiuents are the bioflavonoids, indoles, genistein, and monoterpenes.

Uses Poultices have long been used to treat wounds, burns and scalds, boils and carbuncles, bruises and sprains, ulcers, blisters, cold sores, shingles, and bites and stings. Its antiinflammatory action can benefit swollen and painful joints and help relieve the pain of neuralgia, sciatica, toothache, headaches, migraines, and lumbago. Traditionally, it was applied over the abdomen and left overnight to treat peptic ulcers and bowel problems. Applied during the day to the lower abdomen, it was thought useful in soothing cystitis and renal colic and the relief of fluid retention. Poultices, along with cabbage tea or juice, were taken to relieve the pain and soreness of a harsh cough; and, if the poultices were applied to the throat, they helped soothe tonsillitis and laryngitis. To make a poultice, cut out the midrib of a leaf and iron it. Place while still hot onto the area to be treated, being careful not to have it too hot or to leave it on too long as it can cause blisters. Fresh leaves steeped in olive oil can be applied to chapped skin, chilblains, varicose veins, abscesses, and boils. Fresh juices can be used as a diuretic and antiseptic for the urinary tract and to ease fluid retention and to reduce or prevent kidney stones, arthritis, and gout. Gargles made from cabbage juice are used for sore throats. Lotions with the juice can relieve burns, bites, cold sores, acne, impetigo; and, if squeezed into the ear, they can help heal earaches (this must be done by a professional). Eyewash made from cabbage juice and warm water is excellent for sore, tired eyes. Fresh leaves can be placed directly onto wounds or even into a bra for mastitis or engorged breasts. To use, cut out the midrib, and beat the leaf gently to soften it and release its medicinal properties, then place on an affected area. Decoctions are used for digestive problems, including colitis. Syrup made from a decoction can be used for coughs, asthma, and bronchitis. Because of its iron and chlorophyll content, it has long been used to treat anemia. It is taken to treat anxiety, depression, insomnia, exhaustion. Breastfeeding mothers use it to stimulate milk production. In soups and teas, cabbage has long been used during colds, flu, sinusitis, and sore throats. Cabbage has long been used to heal ulcers as it contains mucilage that coats the lining of the digestive tract, protecting it from irritants and excessive acid. It is recommended that two or three glasses of freshly extracted juice be taken between meals to relieve peptic ulcers, gastritis, heartburn, and ulcerative colitis. It is used to stimulate the digestion and to relieve constipation. A traditional Russian cure for chronic constipation is one-half glass of salted cabbage juice taken before each meal. However, it can be just as effective without the salt. As a tonic, cabbage has long been used to treat cirrhosis of the liver, as well as lethargy, irritability, and headaches, all symptoms associated with a sluggish liver. Cabbage may help reduce blood sugar, so may be of benefit to diabetics. Like other brassicas, cabbage also has the ability to help lower the risk of cancer, especially of the colon, and growth of polyps, which often are a prelude to cancer. When eaten raw, cabbage has been shown to help protect against the effects of

radiation. Cabbage also appears to enhance the body’s ability to metabolize estrogen, helping to reduce susceptibility to breast, uterine, and ovarian cancers, if eaten regularly. Externally, cabbage leaves have a soothing antiseptic and healing effect and the ability to draw out toxins from the skin. This is put to good use if you have an allergic rash or an infected wound. Cabbage poultices are also excellent for sore throats and hot, swollen joints. Lightly crush the leaves, blanch in boiling water, and wrap around the area. Leave on for two to four hours and renew, as necessary. Care is needed not to blister the skin. Cultivation An easily grown plant, it succeeds in full sun in any reasonable soil, though it prefers a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. It does well in heavy clay soils. It is often found wild by the coast and tolerates considerable maritime exposure. Seed - sow on-site in April. Seedlings transplant very well and so, if you sow the seed too thickly, it is a simple matter to move some of the plants to give them more space. Cuttings root very easily at almost any time in the growing season. Use shoots about 8cm long of the current year's growth and place them in individual pots in the cuttings frame. Range: Australia; Chile; China; Dominican Republic; France; Germany; Haiti; India; Mexico; Spain; Us. Harvest Cabbage can be harvested anytime after the heads form. For highest yield, cut the cabbage heads when they are solid (firm to hand pressure) but before they crack or split. When heads are mature, a sudden heavy rain may cause heads to crack or split wide open. The exposed internal tissue soon becomes unusable. Harvest and salvage split heads as soon as possible after they are discovered. In addition to harvesting the mature heads of the cabbage planted in the spring, you can harvest a later crop of small heads (cabbage sprouts). These sprouts develop on the stumps of the cut stems. Cut as close to the lower surface of the head as possible, leaving the loose outer leaves intact. Buds that grow in the axils of these leaves (the angle between the base of the leaf and the stem above it) later form sprouts. The sprouts develop to 2 to 4 inches in diameter and should be picked when firm. Continue control of cabbage worms and other pests. If this control cannot be maintained, remove and destroy or compost the stumps, because they serve as a breeding ground for diseases and insect pests. Recipes/Tips Smoother Skin with Cabbage Cabbage is rich in minerals and vitamins. Next time you’re boiling cabbage, don’t throw away the left over water. Wash your face with it and you will feel your skin growing smoother.

Face mask for oily skin and enlarged pores Cabbage, cranberry or red currant Clean the skin first. Soak a piece of cheesecloth in mashed fruit/vegetable or juice and leave it on your face for 10-15 minutes (cut out holes for eyes in the cheesecloth to avoid eye irritation caused by fruit acids). The mask can also be made with egg yolks, powdered oatmeal, or sour cream. For oily skin you mix fruits/vegetables with egg whites. If your mask has a thick consistency, you may not need cheesecloth. Cabbage juice This drink is good for your tummy and also general diet and nutrition. Make carrot juice from 3 medium carrots. Combine ¼ head of cabbage (slice it to fit your home juicer) and 1 stalk of celery (save the pulp for coleslaw). Juice 5 pitted cherries. This fruit and vegetable juicing yields 1/14 cups of soothing juice. Miscellaneous The plant has been cultivated for at least 4,000 years. It has been called: “poor man’s medicine chest” and “doctor of the poor”. Cabbages were used by sailors to prevent scurvy. It was also an ancient remedy for Tuberculosis. Cabbage has an ancient reputation for purifying the blood, a practice seen today as decoctions and fresh cabbage juice are taken as a good cleanser and detoxifier. It was used by the Romans as an antidote to alcohol. They believed it counteracted intoxication and prevented, or reduced, a hangover. This concept has some validity since cabbage aids in the breakdown of toxins in the liver. In a Greek ritual, cabbage was given to expectant mothers shortly before birth in order to establish good breast-milk production, a practice that still is carried out by women today. Cabbage leaves have been used as a poultice to treat infected wounds or a long time. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images of I suspect you know what regular cabbage looks like. Anyway, there are so many variations that one or two pictures wouldn’t be enough to represent this plant-family.

Dill (Anethum graveolens)
Plant family: Apiaceae Synonyms: Aneto, Aneton, Dill Weed, Dill Seed, Dilly, Garden Dill Description Dill is an annual herb of parsley family, 45-75 cm in height, with finely feathered blue-green fern-like leaves and hollow stems. It produces small open umbels of creamy-yellow flowers in summer followed by dark brown seeds. The fruit, or seed, is broadly oval in shape, about 0.14 inch (3.5 mm) long, with three longitudinal dorsal ridges and two wing-like lateral ridges.

Dill is native to Mediterranean countries and southeastern Europe, but is now widely cultivated in Europe, India, and North America. Medicinal action The essential oils from leaves (0.35%) and fruits (2-4%) differ slightly in composition: In the fruit oil, the main components are carvone (40-60%) and limonene (40%), but other monoterpenes appear only in traces (phellandrene, carveol, terpinene and dihydrocarvone). In the leaf oil, the aroma is determined by carvone (30 40%), limonene (30-40%), phellandrene (10- 20%) and other monoterpenes; dill ether (a monoterpene ether) is characteristic of dill leaf oil. Uses Medicinal: The whole seeds and the seed oil have carminative properties and have been used in treating flatulent colic. Often taken as 'dill water' to relieve digestive problems and flatulence. Gripe water made of Dill is often given to babies and children for colic or other digestive disorders. The oil being too powerful should not be used on babies. It is used widely to cure insomnia and hiccups. Occasionally dill is used to perfume cosmetics. A medicinal oil is distilled from leaves, stems and seeds. A seed decoction makes the nails stronger. Dill eases the mind, calms headaches and helps with excess sweating due to nervous tension. It can stimulate milk flow in nursing mothers. Magical: Money, protection, luck and lust. It’s used in love & protection charms. It’s effective at keeping away dark forces and useful for house blessing. Dill keeps the mind cognizant of the line between superstition and the realities of magic. Place seeds in muslin and hang in the shower to attract women. Use dill seeds in money spells. The scent of dill is said to stimulate lust. Add grains of dill seed to a bath before going on a date to make yourself irresistible. Culinary: Dill is used as a condiment and flavoring and as a pickling spice. It is used to season foods, particularly in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. The entire plant is aromatic, and the small stems and immature umbels are used for flavoring soups, salads, sauces, fish, sandwich fillings, and particularly pickles. The leaves freshly chopped may be used alone or in dill butter for broiled or fried meats and fish, in sandwiches, in fish sauces, and in creamed or fricasseed chicken. The major commercial use of dill is in the form of dill weed oil, used in the pickle industry. Dill has a warm, slightly sharp flavor somewhat reminiscent of caraway. Dill weed loses its flavor in cooking so add towards the end. Dill weed is very mild, particularly when dried, so use generously. The seeds are tiny, flat and oval. Add 2 tablespoons of dill seeds to a cup and a half of white vinegar in a jar. Cover. Let stand 3 weeks. Strain and use in salad dressings and sauces. A related species (A. sowa) is grown in India; its fruits are larger but less fragrant. Therefore, when dill is asked for by an Indian recipe, it is advisable to reduce the amount of dill by about 30 to 50%, unless the book was explicitly written for Westerners.

Cultivation Dill is native to Mediterranean countries and southeastern Europe, but is now widely cultivated in Europe, India, and North America. The seeds should be planted in rows at the rate of 15 to 20 to the foot either late in fall or early in spring and thinned to 3 or 4 plants per foot. If dill is planted along the north side of the garden, the shading of smaller plants will be avoided. Germination takes place in 10 days to 2 weeks if seeds are sown in spring; fall-sown seeds do not germinate until early in spring. In good soil the plants will grow 3 to 4 feet in height, and only light cultivation is necessary to control weeds. Harvest Both the dried fruits (misnamed “dill seeds”) and the fresh or dried aerial parts are used. Fresh dill is much more aromatic than the dried one. The fruiting umbels are ready to harvest for seasoning when the fruit is fully developed but not yet brown. Recipes Crisis Bath Put 4 tbsp of dill in a sachet and let it soak for 10 minutes in the bath water. Le Diable Sen Va This incense can be used to drive negative energy out of the house. ¼ tsp of dill 1 tsp of rosemary 1 tsp of vanilla 1 tsp of basil leaves ½ tsp of saltpeter 2 drops of resin 1 drop of exorcism oil House cleansing incense (burn once a month plus before moving in) 3 parts frankincense 2 parts dragon blood 1 part myrrh 1 part sandal wood 1 part betony 1/2 part dill seeds A few drops of pelargonium oil Easy Street Powder Green and gold talc. Allspice (protection); cinquefoil (money); clove (money); dill (money); ginger (money); Cut-up pieces of a dollar bill. Rub on hands, sprinkle around business and home, and place in purse or wallet to draw monetary abundance. Best day to make: Thursday in the hour of Jupiter.

Water of Life Fill a bottle or something similar with cold water. Then add: Dill for wisdom; Anise for good dreams; Chervil for friendship; Caraway against infidelity; Sage against plague; Rosemary for improved memory; some roses that help against everything; Parsley for love; Wormwood against sea-sickness and Angelica against magic. Let this steep for a while and drink. It tastes like life itself! A little sweet and a little bitter… Make an enemy move Cayenne pepper, white pepper, 1 pinch sulfur, 1 pinch dill. Mix and burn. Concentrate on the goal while it burns. Witch bottle for house protection Place in an important spot in the home Things you need: 1 glass jar with a cork or a lid 1/2 - 1 cup of salt (depending on the size of the jar) 3 cloves of garlic 9 bay leaves 7 tbsp. of dried Basil 4 tbsp. of Dill seeds 1 tbsp. of Sage 1 tbsp. of Anise 1 tbsp. of Black Pepper 1 tbsp. of Fennel 1 bowl In the morning ideally on a bright sunny day assemble the items. Place in the bowl and say: "Salt that protects, protect my home and all within." Add the cloves of garlic: "Garlic that protects, protect my home and all within." Crumble the Bay leaves and place in the bowl: "Bay that protects, protect my home and all within." Add the basil and say: "Basil that protects, protect my home and all within." Add the dill and say: "Dill that protects, protect my home and all within." Add the sage and say: "Sage that protects, protect my home and all within." Add the anise and say: "Anise that protects, protect my home and all within." Add the fennel and say: "Fennel that protects, protect my home and all within." Mix together the salt and the herbs with your hands, throughout the movement of your hands and fingers lend energy to the potent protective items, visualize your home safe and as a shining secure place. Pour the mixture in the jar and cap tightly. Place it in your home with these words: "Salt and herbs, nine times nine Guard now this home of mine"

‘Love Apple’ Cocktail This cocktail is meant to arouse desire. Stir together in a saucepan 2 cups of tomato juice, 1 bay leaf, 1 teaspoon of basil, and a dash each of dill and Worcestershire sauce. Simmer the mixture for three minutes, then chill it in the refrigerator. Strain the beverage before serving. Dill is powerful enough to bring on proposals of marriage, so if you’re not interested in marriage, you add some celery salt! Amulet for the door Hang a sprig of fresh dill over the door, tied with a blue cord (or red if you prefer), to stop those wanting to hurt you from getting inside. Birch Moon (Druid Tea) Matters of beginnings and children; purification. 3 parts ginger 1 part lemongrass pinch of dill splash of lemon juice Miscellaneous The name graveolens means 'strong smelling' and comes from the latin words gravis (heavy) and olere (smell). The name dill is probably related to Old Norse dilla “calm”, “soothe”; it has been suggested that dill was used to relieve stomach pain in babies (due to its anti-flatulent power) and thereby “soothed” them. Another theory sees German dolde “umbel” as the source of the name. Dill is found, with almost no variation (Dutch dille), in all Germanic languages and has been loaned to some non-Germanic languages, mainly in Northern Europe: Finnish tilli, Estonian till, Latvian dilles and Irish Gaelic dile. In 1812 Charlemagne, Emperor of France, ordered the extensive cultivation of Dill. Dill seeds are very small and very light. It takes more than 10,000 dill seeds to make an ounce. One tablespoon of dill seed contains more calcium than a cup of milk. The essential oil obtained from the fruits and leaves of the dill plant, is used not only for pickles, but also in chewing gums and candy. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images of http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/shoyaku/phot.../030806dill.jpg http://www.heilpflanzen-suchmaschine.de/di...raveolens-1.jpg http://www.heilpflanzen-suchmaschine.de/di...raveolens-2.jpg

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Plant family: Lamiaceae Synonyms: Garden Thyme, Common Thyme, Mother of Thyme Note! Large doses may cause intestinal problems. If you experience diarrhea or bloating, cut back on the amount you're using or discontinue use altogether. Some say that Thyme oil, taken internally is poisonous in amounts of a teaspoon, as it is very strong, and that it may be too strong for many people externally as well, so caution is advised. Description Thyme is a semi-woody subshrub with aromatic, linear to oval, slightly tomentose (fuzzy), gray-green leaves that are about a half inch long. Like most mints, the stem is square in cross section and the leaves are arranged in pairs opposite each other. Thyme grows in a bushy, many-branched, spreading mound 6-12 in (15-30 cm) high and up to twice as wide. In summer, thyme produces tiny lilac to purple flowers arranged in dense, compact heads. Thyme is native to the western Mediterranean region and southern Italy. It is cultivated all over the world and has naturalized in some areas including the northeastern US. Wild Thyme or Breckland Thyme (Thymus serpyllum) is used interchangeably with Thyme and the two may crossbread if planted next to each other. Main constituents Known primary constituents of Thyme include essential oil (borneol, carvacrol, cymol, linalool, thymol), bitter principle, tannin, flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin), saponins, and triterpenic acids. The main essential oil, thymol, is active against salmonella and staphylococcus bacteria. A solution of it is used in such over-the-counter products as Listerine mouthwash and Vicks VapoRub because of its well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. Thymol apparently also has a therapeutic effect on the lungs. Ingesting or inhaling the oil helps to loosen phlegm and relax the muscles in the respiratory tract. Its actions are; carminative, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, relaxing expectorant, astringent and anthelmintic. Uses Medical It promotes the digestion of fat food. It’s used externally to lessen depression, colds, muscle pain and respiratory problems. Thyme is a powerful antiseptic. It is used in cases of anemia, bronchial ailments, and intestinal problems. It is used as an antiseptic against tooth decay, and destroys fungal infections as in athlete's foot and skin parasites such as crabs and lice. It is good for colic, flatulence, sore throats, and colds, as well as a digestive aid and a hangover remedy. Infusions of thyme are said to be good for headaches, and has been shown to be beneficial for coughs related to colds and flu as well as whooping cough, as the active constituents are known to loosen and

expel mucous. Thyme infusion is also soothing and healing for skin irritations, muscle spasms, and fungal infections. This plant contains a constituent that is helpful for preventing blood clots. An ointment made with thyme is said to be good for warts. Also used in tea form as a fever breaker. It’s also a great insect repellent. Use both the leaves and flowers. This tea works best for headaches when taken cold. Magical Magical attributes: Sleep, psychic energy, courage, healing, purification incense, magickal cleansing baths, a renewing of one's personal energy, warding off of negative energy. Thyme is burnt to cleanse spiritual rooms and spaces, as well as to bring good health and courage to the home. Thyme placed in a sleeping pillow repels nightmares. Burn Thyme when asking advice of loved ones who have passed on. Take a magical cleansing bath in the spring of thyme and marjoram ( used in tea form or whole herbs). A place where wild thyme grows will be a particularly powerful energy center on earth. When attending a funeral, wear a sprig of thyme to repel the negativity of the mourners. Culinary Thyme has a strong piquant or lemony flavor. For fresh use, the flavor is best just before flowering. Thyme is used to season fish, poultry, soups and vegetables. Thyme, parsley and bay leaf are the standard ingredients in the French chef's boquet garni, which is a bunch of small sprigs of fresh herbs tied together and simmered in various dishes. Thyme is one of the flavorings in the liqueur, Benedictine. Use in herb butters and cottage cheese. Cosmetic It’s used in remedies against impure skin, soap and mouth water. Oil of thyme can be diluted and used externally as a deodorant. Other The fragrant dried leaves are often used in potpourris. The dried flowers of thyme, like lavender, have been used to preserve linen from insects. The leaves and flowering tops are an ingredient in sachets. Cultivation Thyme does best in neutral to alkaline soils, so add lime if yours is acidic. Thyme grown for the kitchen usually is replaced every few years as it gets woody and scraggly. It thrives in full sun, and will tolerate partial shade. It requires regular watering. Thyme can be grown from seed, but if you want to be sure to get a plant with a fragrance you like, you need to propagate vegetatively from a known plant. Thyme is easy to root from cuttings taken from non-woody, fast-growing shoots. Another method is to separate out sections of rooted stems and replant. Thyme does very well in a pot, where it is allowed to cascade over the sides. It's a natural for rock gardens and belongs in every herb garden. Use low-growing thyme as an edging around flower beds and walkways. Bees love the blossoms.

Harvest Leaves can be harvested for fresh use throughout the summer, but the flavor is best just before flowering. To dry, cut the stems just as the flowers start to open and hang in small bunches. Harvest sparingly the first year. Dry in the shade in a well ventilated place. Recipes Cough tea To make a tea, use two teaspoons of dried herb per cup of boiling water and steep for ten minutes. Add Sage to the tea if you have a nagging cough. Gurgle water, mouth rinse 2½ tsp of Thyme 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of boiling water Make an infusion which is allowed to sit for 15 minutes, strain. Mucolytic 1 tsp of Thyme 3 dl (~10.1 fl oz) of boiling water Make an infusion. Cover and leave for 20 minutes, strain. Drink 3-4 times a day. Appetite stimulating 1 tsp of Thyme 3 dl (~10.1 fl oz) of boiling water Make an infusion. Cover and leave for 20 minutes, strain. Drink 3-4 times a day 30 minutes before meals. Tea against gas 1 tsp of Thyme 3 dl (~10.1 fl oz) of boiling water Make an infusion. Cover and leave for 20 minutes, strain. Drink 3-4 times a day 30 minutes before meals. Antiseptic compress for cuts and wounds 1 tsp of Thyme 3 dl (~10.1 fl oz) of boiling water Make an infusion. Cover and leave for 20 minutes, strain. Wet the compress and place it on the wound. Compress for cuts and wounds 2½ tsp of Thyme 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of boiling water that is allowed to sit for 15 minutes, strain. Chapped cuticles Rub some Tea Tree or Thyme oil on them. Skin Tonic 1 tsp of Mint 1 tsp of Thyme 1 tsp of Fennel seeds

6 dl (~20.3 fl oz) of water Boil the water in a rust free kettle, place the herbs in a bowl and pour the water over them. Cover with a lid and leave for 10-20 minutes, strain. Lasts for 1-2 days in the refrigerator. Rinse the cleansed skin with the herbal water, or use a piece of cotton. Let it dry. Perfect to use if you have problems with blackheads or acne. Super steam bath for oily skin A handful of Lavender a handful of Yarrow a handful of Thyme Marie Antoinette’s bath 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Thyme 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Marjoram 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of sea salt Place the ingredients in a bag made out of gauze, and put the bag in the bath water. Soothing bath Hops Roman Chamomile Heather Linden Meadowsweet Hawthorne Thyme Skin stimulating bath Marjoram Comfrey Rosemary Sage Lemon Balm Thyme Dandelion Bath against stress 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) Meadowsweet flowers 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) Thyme 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) Hawthorne The Sandman’s evening bath 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Hop cones 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Thyme 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Heather flowers Aphrodisiac – Passion Drink 1 pinch of rosemary 2 pinches of thyme 2 tsp of black tea

1 pinch of coriander 3 fresh mint leaves (or ½ tsp dried) 5 fresh rose bud petals (or 1 tsp dried) 1 tsp of dried lemon peel 3 pinches of nutmeg 3 pinches of orange peel Put all the ingredients in a teapot. Boil about 3 cups of water and pour it into the pot. Sweeten with honey if you prefer. Protection poppet Dogwood twigs and shavings Black thread An acorn Black cotton thread & stuffing Eucalyptus, sage, thyme, oak leaves & an acorn, parsley fern, birch bark, nail clippings. Hair, blood cedarwood or another protective oil Dragon's Blood ink Perform the actual ritual on the Full Moon. Construct the ‘skeleton’ out of dogwood twigs, lashing the twigs together with black thread, using an acorn for the head. Choose the number of herbs, for example 9. Begin consecrating and grinding these items, meditating on the purpose all the while three nights before the full moon. Mix in nail clippings, hair and some blood (not necessary). On a piece of birch bark draw the rune of ‘Ohl’ with Dragon's Blood ink roll it up and tie it to the ‘torso' of the poppet with black thread. Fashion clothes out of your own clothing and apply some of your own hair to the poppet. On the night of the full moon cast your circle and sew the clothes onto the little guy and stuff him. After your done stuffing it, anoint it with cedarwood or another protective oil and placing your poppet on the pentacle on the altar. Meditate in the purpose and then dedicate it to the south. incantation : ‘Magic doll, my little friend. Away from me all harm you send. Protect me now through day and night, as I bless you with this rite. All empowered these herbs within. See me safe through thick and thin. Protect me now oh little one. Keep me safe and harm to none. Blessed by the powers of three. As I will, So Mote it Be!’ Take the poppet and pass it through the flame to the south, the water to the west, the salt to the North, and the smoke (sandalwood) to the East. After that put it into a white muslin pouch with a black and white agate, some rose petals and a rosemary sprig. On the pouch again draw the rune of Ohl with Dragon's Blood ink. Carry this pouch with you and recharge or change the herbs every so often.

Hangover I’ve never had one myself, but I know many are tormented by them. Take two tsp of Thyme for one cup of water, boil for 10 minutes and drink the day after. The best advice though is probably to eat properly before and after drinking, and to drink a lot of water before going to bed. Stuffed nose 2 tbsp is steeped in ½ l (~0.4 gallons) of boiling water for 10-15 minutes, and then you breathe in the steam for 2 minutes, pause then continue for as long as you can. Fire incense 4 parts frankincense 3 parts cinnamon 1 part dried orange peel 1/4 part thyme Other fire related herbs and plants include allspice, basil, laurel, black pepper, cloves, caraway, dill, garlic, ginger, nutmeg, union and thistle. Faerie Enchantment Oil 10 drops rose 5 drops thyme 1 drop evening primrose oil Beneficial Dream Incense or Powder Blue or purple talc. Bergamot (overall success); lemon (purification); frankincense (spirituality); orris (divination); thyme (psychic dreams). Burn to make all dreams come true, especially those helpful to the dreamer. Also helps in clairvoyance. Rub powder on the forehead and sprinkle under the bed for ultimate effectiveness. Best day to make: Monday in the hour of the moon or Sunday int he hour of the sun. Herb Powder Green talc. Basil (sympathy); oregano (protection); sage (longevity);thyme (healing); lemon (longevity). Brings good luck in gambling and will increase the memory of anyone who burns it. Also commonly used as a health powder. Use in poppets or hollow out a small portion of a potato, pour in the powder, place a slip of paper witht he sick person's name, close the potato back up, and bury in the yard, saying: As this potato rots, the disease will leave. Best day to make: if used for banishing, Saturday in the hour of Saturn. If made for healing, Sunday in the hour of the sun. Cauldron Spirit Many Witches pour a bit of ordinary surgical spirit [rubbing alcohol] into their castiron cauldrons and light it by carefully dropping in a lit match. This is often done as part of a healing ritual, invocations to the elemental spirit of Fire, Scrying divinations,

Sabbat fire festivals, and various working rituals. The sight of the cauldron blazing with flames can be very magical and mesmerizing, and when the alcohol has been steeped in aromatic herbs, a sweet, but gently, incense like fragrance is produced. To make an herbal ‘Cauldron Spirit’, put into a glass bottle a small bunch of any of all of the following: fresh lavender flowers and leaves, fresh mint leaves, fresh rosemary flowers and leaves, or fresh thyme flowers and leaves. Fill the bottle to the top with the alcohol; cap it tightly, and then give it a good shake. Keep it in a cool dry place for thirteen days, shaking it twice daily (every sunrise and every moonrise). Strain through a double thickness of muslin into a clear bottle, cap tightly, and store away from heat or flame. Cauldron spirit will keep indefinitely. Isis Healing Brew 1 part Rosemary 1 part Sage 1 part Thyme 1 part Cinnamon Half fill a blue glass bottle with fresh water. Add the ground, empowered herbs to it and let this sit in the Sun all day. If by sunset the water has been colored by the herbs, it is ready for use. If not, store in the refrigerator overnight and steep in the Sun the following day. Strain. Anoint the body or add to bath water while visualizing yourself as being in perfect health. Purification Brew Collect any nine sacred plants, such as vervain, rue, rosemary, oak, pine, acacia, rose, carnation, thyme, basil, jasmine and so on. Place in a nonmetallic pot or bowl. Add rain water (or fresh water) and let the herbs soak, covered and away from light, for three days. Strain. Use for asperging the house, others, or yourself for purification. Psychic Simmering Pot If you wish to link your conscious mind with your psychic awareness, if you wish to use tarot cards or rune stones or other tools to glimpse possible future events, create this blend and simmer to stimulate your psychic mind. 3 tbsp of galangal 1 tbsp of star anise (or 2 whole) 1 tbsp of lemon grass 1 tbsp of thyme 1 tbsp of rose petals A pinch of mace A pinch ofreal saffron Mix and charge the herbs in a small bowl. Visualize your psychic awareness as being under your control. Smell the fragrance rising from the herbs. Inhale the energies. Relax, chant the following words, and foretell. ‘Starlight swirls before my eyes Twilight furls its wisdom wise Moonlight curls within the skies The time has come to prophesize’ (Genuine saffron is quite expensive. However just a pinch is necessary here and it may be omitted.)

Miscellaneous It is believed that its common name came from the Greek word "thumus", which means "courage", or from the Greek word "thymos" meaning "to perfume". It has been identified in writings over 3000 years old. Culpepper wrote that it is useful to help the new mother expel the afterbirth, and that an ointment made of the leaves is useful for treating warts, as well as easing the discomfort of gout, and killing worms internally. In medieval times, thyme was believed to bring courage to the bearer, so women often made gifts for their knights and warriors that included thyme leaves, or embroidered thyme leaves onto scarves to be worn in battle. Shakespeare refers to the herb being used in the beds of fairies. It was one of the chief ingredients in ritual altar fires, particularly by the Greeks, to purify sacrifices to the gods. Thyme was also used in funeral rites, being used as incense as well as to place on the coffin, where it was believed that the departed lived in the flowers. It was believed to assure the passage into the next life. The Egyptians would use this herb in enbalming, whilst the greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks the Romans as they used it to purify their rooms. The general rule of using herbs in cooking is - when in doubt use thyme. The Persians once nibbled fresh thyme as an appetizer. Sources See: http://heksebua.com/boka/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/lamia/thym...mu/thymvul1.jpg http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/lamia/thym...mu/thymvul2.jpg

Juniper (Juniperus communis)
Plant family: Cupressaceae Synonyms: Fairy circle, Hackmatack, Horse savin, Gorst, Aiten, Dwarf juniper, Mountain common juniper, Old field common juniper, Prostrate juniper, Gin Berry, Gin Plant Warning! Pregnant women, women who are breastfeeding and people with kidney disorders are

advised not to use Juniper. Repeated use can cause kidney damage as well as convulsions, and some report personality changes. Description Evergreen tree or bush with needle like leaves grouped three by three, and berry like cones which change color to blue-black in their second or third year. As the berries take two to three years to ripen, there will be green and bluish berries on the stems. Juniper has a thin, brown, fibrous bark which exfoliates in thin strips. Twigs are yellowish or green when young, turn brown and harden with age. The leaves are simple, stiff and arranged in whorls of three with pungent odour. The oldest Juniper found in Sweden, was 840 years old. It was found in Sarek national park. It’s the oldest tree ever found in Sweden. The Juniper can get up to 50 ft high and reach a circumference of 5 ft at chest height. This species grows on dry, open, rocky, wooded hillsides, sand terraces, maritime escarpments, and on exposed slopes and plateaus. It is found on dunes or dune heath in coastal areas, on isolated mountains, and may spread into fields and pastures. Establishment is more likely in open spaces between older shrubs and may be favored by grazing. Juniperus communis L. grows in hilly to alpine regions up to an altitude of more than 3000 m. Common juniper is intolerant of shade, found in open environments; colonizing plants reach maximum abundance on harsh, stressed environments in which competition is lacking. It grows on poor sites, tolerates full sun and wind and is pH adaptable. Generally common juniper is killed or seriously damaged by fire; the relatively long germination period and poor germination rates contribute to slow postfire reestablishment. Common juniper is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. It is circumboreal across Europe, North Africa, North America, northern and western Asia and Japan. Main constituents Volatile oil (0.2 to 3.4%), proanthocyanidines, flavonoids, lignan desoxypodophyllotoxin and its isomer desoxypicropodophyllotoxin, diterpene acids, sesquiterpenes, sugars, resin, vitamin C. Uses Medical Juniper's primary medicinal use is as a diuretic. However, the herb accomplishes this through irritation of the kidneys. If this is the action you seek, be advised that there are more effective herbal diuretics without the irritations of Juniper. However, this increase in water flow through the kidneys can be a useful remedy for: cystitis, urethritis, kidney stones or inflammation, flatulence and to stimulate the appetite. Topically, Juniper provides even greater relief for rheumatism, arthritis, bruises, ulcers, and wounds. Use as a poultice by mashing the berries themselves, or simmer them in olive oil and use the oil as a rub for the aching area. This is especially beneficial for sciatica, neuralgia, and rheumatism. Adding a handful of the needles to a hot bath can be a welcome relief for aching muscles. Steam inhalations from simmering Juniper berries are good for colds, coughs and excessive phlegm.

Magical Protection against accidents, harm and theft, psychic protection and cleansing. Should be in all baths for increased psychic awareness. It is said that if a few fruits are placed under the rug, no unpleasantness will enter your home connected to property or possessions. The berries are used to attract lovers once dried and worn as a charm. Juniper hung at the door protects against evil forces and persons, and it is burned in exorcism rites. A sprig of the plant protects its wearer against accidents and attacks by wild animals. It also guards against ghosts and sickness. Juniper is added to love mixtures, and the berries are carried to increase male potency When carried or burned, juniper helps the psychic powers and breaks hexes and curses, and drives off snakes. The Essential oil is useful in protection, purification and healing blends. Transforms negative emotions into positive. Purifies the aura and the subtle body. The berries, having a relatively high oil content, tend to burn with a good deal of smoke and any incense containing them is likely to produce a good fug if that is what appeals to you. Culinary The berries are used as a spice. They can be added successfully (in moderation) to salads, are especially tasty with wild game dishes, and in stews and sauces, and with cabbage. As a spice, the berries combine well with parsley, fennel, bay, and garlic. Another way to enjoy the flavor, is to put a few branches on the grill to give meets a subtle smoky flavor. The branches are also used to smoke fish and meat. The berries are also used to make a Swedish drink. They produce the distinctive bitter flavouring in gin, which in turn takes its name from genevrier, the French name for Juniper. Cosmetic Juniper oil is used by the perfume industry, where it is prized as a "masculine" scent much used in aftershave. A few drops of the oil may be used cosmetically mixed with distilled or spring water to produce skin care products which, used as a wash or cleanser, are useful for oily skins which are prone to infection. Due to Juniper's antiseptic and astringent properties, it can also be used to treat acne and blemishes. Other The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. The wood is fine grained, durable, and reddish with white sapwood but currently it has no commercial value. It could be used for different purposes: fuel (especially for pellet-stoves), firewood, fenceposts, cement and particle boards, wall board, cordwood housing, parquet, paper, chemical derivatives, activated carbon and small wood items. Juniper wood has an outstanding ability of resisting decay and insects even when exposed to the soil. This resinous wood yields much more tar than drier ones. Therefore, juniper wood should make an excellent wood preservative. Juniper is highly valued as an ornamental shrub. It provides good ground cover even on stony or sandy sites. In rehabilitation of disturbed sites, common juniper has low value for short-term projects but moderate to high value for long-term projects..

Cultivation If you are growing Juniper for the berries, you'll need both male and female varieties or the female won't set fruit. The female of the species has smallish, green flowers, while the male forms yellow blooms in early spring. Ideal germination conditions are moist, compact soil with sufficient oxygen diffusion., and a sunny location. Cuttings are the easiest form of propagation. The age of the bushes has been shown to affect the reproductive capacity as the viabilty of seed reduces from 80% in young stands to 5% in older populations. Attempts at hand seeding under greenhouse conditions (for ornamental plant production) has been largely unsuccessful. Juniper is very slow to establish and develop. It may take 20 years for a bush to reach 1 m tall Harvest Harvest the berries in the fall. You only want to pick and use the darker, blue-purple ones. Spread them on a screen to dry until they turn a dull blackish color. While most use the dried berry, be aware that the oil in the fresh berries is significantly more potent than that of the dried, potentially too potent for use. Recipes Swelling, gout, inflammation without wound Extract from Birch leaves, Mayweed, Juniper berries. Rub it on as an embrocation. This stings, so put a piece of cloth between it and the skin. Tincture for colds 100 g (~3.5 oz) of crushed Juniper berries 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of 70 % alcohol Leave for 2 weeks, stir now and then. Strain and filter. Rub it in. Diuretic tea 1 topped tsp of dried and crushed Juniper berries 2½ dl (~8.5 fl oz) of water Pour the boiling water over the berried and let it sit for 10 minutes, strain. Drink 1-2 cups a day. Diuretic syrup 100 g (~3.5 oz) Juniper berries (whole) 1 tbsp of cut Ginger 500 g (~17.6 oz) of sugar 1 l (~33.8 fl oz) of water Boil the herbs in the water for about 1 hour, strain and push the berries through a strainer. This makes about ½ l (~16.9 fl oz) of juice. Boil juice and sugar for 10 minutes from when it starts to boil. Fill into a bottle while it’s still hot. Take 1 tsp after meals 2 times a day. Stir first. Tincture for rheumatism 100 g (~3.5 oz) of crushed Juniper berries 5 dl (~16.9 fl oz) of 70 % alcohol

Leave for 2 weeks, stir form time to time. Strain and filter. Rub it in. Against dandruff and oily hair 4 tbsp of Almond oil 3 drops of Juniper oil 3 drops of Cedar Tree oil Mix well and distribute in you hair after washing it. Leave it in for an hour or until the hair is dry. If you add the shampoo to dry hair afterwards, it’s easier to get the oil out. Wash and rinse your hair. Cleansing Incense 2 part perforated St. John’s wort 1 part comfrey 1 part juniper berries ½ part sage Cleansing Incense II 1 part juniper berries 1 part sage ½ part elder ½ part tansy Fall Sabbat Incense 3 parts Frankincense 2 parts Myrrh 1 part Rosemary 1 part Cedar 1 part Juniper Burn during fall and winter Sabbat rituals. Double Fast Luck Incense/Powder/Floorwash Green talc (do not put talc in floor wash). Patchouli (money); rose (luck); juniper berries (anti-theft). A ground-up dollar bill. Sprinkle at your business, on the doorway into your home, around any home business furniture, or in your wallet, purse or pocket to increase luck and success. Load into candles or put in conjuring bags for money magick. Best day to make: Thursday in the hour of Jupiter. Midwinter Mulsa Take 2 quarts of your favorite white wine. Add about 15 g (~0.53 oz) of each of these: Crushed Juniper berries, Intermediate Wintergreen, Elder flowers. Let it sit for 6 hours. Strain and chill before serving. Garnish with a pine twig or serve hot with a cinnamon stick. Yule sachet with twelve herbs Herb sachets, or amulets, consist of herbs and other materials that are bound in cloth.

Some sachets keep specific energies or illnesses away, other attract specific situations or powers to you. As they’re easy to make, and have a nice fragrance, these bags are a distinct and aromatic gift for the holidays. Items needed: 7 parts Juniper 4 parts Cinnamon 4 parts Allspice 4 parts Ginger 4 parts Caraway 2 parts Nutmeg 2 parts Rosemary 2 parts Lemon peel 2 parts Orange peel 1 part Cloves 1 part Laurel 2 pinches Orris root Tie in green or red cloth and give away for Yule. Anti-theft sachet Mix caraway, rosemary, juniper berries, and elder leaves or mistletoe, and place into a white square of cloth. Tie with white yarn and hang prominently. I'd assume either at the place you think thieves are most likely to enter-this being an anti-theft sachet-or at every entrance and doorway. This will require more cloth and more herbs, but most of the above are fairly inexpensive. Against break-in Place Junipers by the door and put a Juniper berry inside the keyhole. Enbärsdricka (Swedish Juniper berry drink – the real thing) Boil 1 liter (~2.1 pints) of juniper berries in 10 liters (~2.64 gallons) of water for about an hour. Strain and add 3 dl (~10.1 fl oz) of brown sugar or syrup. When it’s almost lukewarm, add 1 pack of yeast (50 g/~1.76 oz) and maybe 1 dl (~3.38 fl oz) of hops. Let it ferment in a covered bucket for two to three days. Bottle and put the corks on loosely. Store in a cool place. Enbärsdricka (Swedish Juniper berry drink - non-alcoholic version) 3/4 dl (~2.54 fl oz) of dried Juniper berries 1 l (~2.1 pints) of water Lemon Crush the dried berries and pour the water over them. Let it be for 10 minutes and then strain the berries off through a fine siv (or a coffee filter) so that all the particles are gone. Put it in the fridge and let it get rally cold. Serve with thin Lemon slices and ice.

Miscellaneous The largest body of folklore concerning juniper comes from Iceland where it was traditionally believed that juniper and rowan could not grow together because each creates so much heat that one or other of the trees would burn up. For the same reason it was considered not a good idea to bring sprigs of both woods into the house together unless you particularly wanted your house to burn down. Another Icelandic belief has it that if you are building a boat, you must either use both juniper and rowan wood or use neither of them in the boat, otherwise it will sink. It’s said to be one of the earliest incenses used by Mediterranean Witches. They say its berries were used with thyme in Druid and grove incenses for visions. In Wales it was said that anyone who cut down a juniper tree would be dead within a year, while in Newfoundland it was believed that wolves and bears are repelled by juniper wood and for this reason people who kept stock would ensure that juniper wood was used in building enclosures or stockades in which livestock would be kept. Also in Newfoundland it is believed that you will always find water under a juniper tree, though this seems to contradict the natural history of juniper which, as mentioned above, generally grows best on limestone or chalk soils which are usually welldrained. Juniper planted beside the front door was supposed to keep out witches; the only way for a witch to get past the plant and enter the house was by correctly counting its needles. During the 1918 Spanish Flu epidemic, which is believed to have killed some 20,000,000 people worldwide, a number of hospitals experimented with spraying vapourised essential oils into the atmosphere of flu wards in an attempt to prevent airborne infection spreading. Juniper was one of the oils which was found to be particularly effective - the others being lavender and thyme, which have both come back into use more recently as antiseptics and disinfectants. According to Robert Tisserand, juniper twigs and rosemary leaves used to be burned in French hospital wards to purify the air as well as being widely used in Yugoslavian folk medicine for treating virtually everything. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/barr/cupressa...p/junicom11.jpg http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/barr/cupressa...ip/junicom7.jpg http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/barr/cupressa...ip/junicom3.jpg http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/barr/cupressa...ip/junicom2.jpg

Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
Plant family: Zingiberaceae Synonyms: Indian Saffron, Yellow Ginger Warning! Turmeric and curcumin are considered safe when taken at the recommended doses. However, extended or excessive use of curcumin may produce stomach upset and, in extreme cases, ulcers. Turmeric should not be taken by those who have been diagnosed with gallstones or obstruction of the bile passages without explicit direction from a qualified practitioner. While pregnant women needn't avoid foods containing turmeric, its use as a medicinal herb is not recommended during pregnancy because the effects are not fully known. If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use turmeric or curcumin in medicinal forms without first talking to your healthcare provider: Blood-Thinning Medications, Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Reserpine. Description A perennial plant with roots or tubers oblong, palmate, and deep orange inside; rootleaves about 2 feet long, lanceolate, long, petioled, tapering at each end, smooth, of a uniform green; petioles sheathing spike, erect, central, oblong, green; flowers dull yellow, three or five together surrounded by bracteolae.The root, when dry is in curved cylindrical or oblong tubers 2 or 3 inches in length, and an inch in diameter, pointed or tapering at one end, yellowish externally, with transverse, parallel rings internally deep orange or reddish brown, marked with shining points, dense, solid, short, granular fracture, forming a lemon yellow powder. It has a peculiar fragrant odour and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste, like ginger, exciting warmth in the mouth and colouring the saliva yellow. It yields its properties to water or alcohol. Its natural habitat is Southern Asia. It is cultivated primarily in Bengal, China, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Java. Peru. Australia and the West Indies. Main constituents An acrid, volatile oil, brown colouring matter, gum, starch, chloride of calcium, woody fibre and a yellowish colouring matter named curcumin; this is obtained by digesting tumeric in boiling alcohol, filtering and evaporating the solution to dryness, the residue being digested in ether, filtered and evaporated. Curcumin, as well as other substances in this herb, have antioxidant properties, which some claim may be as strong as vitamins C and E. The essential oil of turmeric and the colour component are very light-sensitive and deteriorate quickly when exposed to light. Thus it is essential to store the powder in dark jars. Once it has become pale the active constituents are rendered useless. Always pay attention to the packaging date when purchasing turmeric, as it seldom lasts more than 3 months. Turmeric is insoluble in water and ether, but soluble in alcohol. For medicinal purposes a tincture can be prepared.

Uses Medical Turmeric is a mild digestive, being aromatic, a stimulant and a carminative. An ointment base on the spice is used as an antiseptic in Malaysia. Curcumin has been shown to be active against Staphlococcus aureus (pus-producing infections). Turmeric is an excellent liver herb as its signature indicates: It is used for jaundice and to stimulate gallbladder activity. It is thus helpful as a digestive aid for breaking down and digesting fatty foods. The juice extracted from the rhizome can be used as an internal antiseptic and antidote to blood poisoning. In traditional folk medicine, the dried root is ground and rubbed on the skin to treat skin diseases; mixed with coconut oil, it speeds the healing of wounds and minimizes scarring. The herb has also been shown to inhibit blood-clotting and relieve inflammatory conditions. Added to warm milk it regulates the menstrual cycle and reduces menstrual cramps. Some traditional healers use it for the treatment of cough, or cooked with milk, to treat asthma. Applied externally in combination with Neem leaves it is considered effective against ringworm and scabies. Traditionally it has also been employed as a treatment for eczema, leprosy and purulent inflammation of the eyes. Magical A piece of the wild rhizome ingested or worn is said to strengthen one's constitution when magic words are chanted to invoke its protective essence. Turmeric has long been used in Hawaiian magic for purification; salt water and turmeric are mixed together and then sprinkled in the area to be purified, sometimes with a ti leaf. Turmeric is also sometimes scattered on the floor or about the magic circle for protection, to bring blessings, success, and used when traversing long and arduous Spiritual or Life journeys. Culinary Turmeric is used extensively in the East and Middle East as a condiment and culinary dye. In India it is used to tint many sweet dishes. Apart from its wide use in Moroccan cuisine to spice meat, particularly lamb, and vegetables, its principal place is in curries and curry powders. It is used in many fish curries, possibly because it successfully masks fishy odours. When used in curry powders, it is usually one of the main ingredients, providing the associated yellow colour. It is also used as an adulterant of mustard and a substitute for it and forms one of the ingredients of many cattle condiments. Turmeric is in fact one of the cheapest spices. Although as a dye it is used similarly to saffron, the culinary uses of the two spices should not be confused and should never replace saffron in food dishes. Its use dates back nearly 4000 years, to the Vedic culture in India where it was used as a culinary spice and had some religious significance. Cosmetic Turmeric water is an Asian cosmetic applied to impart a golden glow to the complexion. It’s used in skin creams and lotions, and has an anti bacterial and an anti microbial effect. Other It is still used in rituals of the Hindu religion, and as a dye for holy robes, being natural, unsynthesized and cheap. Tincture of Turmeric is used as a colouring agent,

but the odour is fugitive. It dyes a rich yellow. Blended with pomegranate skin, it produces a rich reddish brown color; with acacia leaves, a lovely shade of green; and with lime, a pretty orangish red. Turmeric paper is prepared by soaking unglazed white paper in the tincture and then drying. Used as a test for alkaloids and boric acid. Cultivation Turmeric thrives in the tropics and sub tropics where it requires a hot, moist climate and a fairly light soil. It is propagated through division of the rhizome. Harvest Harvest 7 - 9 months after planting (when the lower leaves turn yellow). The traditional method of curing is to boil or steam the fresh rhizome in lime or sodium carbonated water. This cleans the root, stops all germination, gelatinizes the starch and removes the earthy scent. After boiling, the rhizomes are dried in the sun and subsequently ground to powder. Modern preparation techniques use 20g sodium bisulphite and 20g hydrochloric acid per 45kg of rhizomes, which are boiled in a kind of steam boiler. The result is a cleaner yellow tinted rhizome, which commercially is more attractive. For commercial purposes the roots are then dried artificially, rather than sun-dried, which improves their quality and reduces the risk of fungal growth or other contaminants. Turmeric is always used in ground form. The powder will maintain its colouring properties indefinitely though the flavour will diminish over time so buy in moderation. Store in airtight containers, out of sunlight. Recipes Yellow Rice 8 oz (225g) rice, washed 1 3/4 cups (425 ml) water 2 tsp. turmeric 2 tsp. salt 1 1/4 (285 ml) cups coconut milk, hot Put the rice and water in a saucepan and bring to a boil, cover and simmer for about 7 minutes, until the water is absorbed. Add turmeric and salt to the coconut milk and stir into the rice. Simmer gently until the milk is absorbed. Fluff with fork. Piccalilli A traditional mixed vegetable pickle, formerly known as Indian pickle. 1 lb (455g) pickling (tiny) onions 1 cucumber 1 cauliflower 8 oz (225g) green tomatoes 8 oz (225g) beans 4 oz (115g) salt 2 oz (55g) flour, plain 4 oz (115g) granulated sugar 2 oz (55g) mustard powder

1 oz (30g) ground turmeric 5 cups (1140 ml) malt vinegar Cut vegetables into small pieces (leave onions whole) and place in a glass or earthenware bowl. Sprinkle with salt, leave for 24 hours and drain. Mix together the flour, sugar, mustard and turmeric and place in a saucepan. Blend to a paste with a little vinegar and gradually add the rest of the vinegar. Bring slowly to a boil, stirring until thick. Add the vegetables and simmer for 3 minutes. Pack into hot jars, seal and store. Acne Mix mint juice with turmeric powder and apply on affected area. Leave for 15-30 minutes and wash off with lukewarm water. Face mask Take gram flour (besan) and mix it with milk cream with a pinch of turmeric, make it into a paste. Apply this on face and wait till it dries. Scrub it off rubbing in circulation movements and then wash. Ink Use a big jar with a sealable lid. Add 1 bottle of cheap red wine (The quality doesn’t matter for ink making). This leaves a wine smell, which you can cover up with Rose water or another floral water if you wish. But it also adds a red colour. Some people use Vodka instead of wine, so that they don’t make a reddish ink (If they want to make green or something) and it doesn’t leave a red wine smell. Add about ¼ cup of coffee grounds and about ¼ of tea leaves in to help add colour. These will give a brown colour and also add to the smell. Add about 5 crushed cinnamon sticks, about ¼ cup of cloves, about 1 tablespoon of turmeric (For a yellow colour), about a teaspoon of frankincense granules, about a teaspoon of dragon’s blood powder, about 1/8 cup of cracked black pepper and any other herbs you feel like adding. Then leave this for about a week, stirring occasionally. Strain it into smaller jars and add different food colours to each jar. As much as you think it needs to make a good ink. Keep it in the fridge, to help preserve it. Miscellaneous The name derives from the Latin terra merita “meritorious earth” referring to the colour of ground turmeric which resembles a mineral pigment. In many languages turmeric is simply named as “yellow root”. Turmeric, with its brilliant yellow color, has been used as a dye, medicine, and flavoring since 600 BC. In 1280, Marco Polo described Turmeric as "a vegetable with the properties of saffron, yet it is not really saffron." Indonesians used Turmeric to dye their bodies as part of their wedding ritual. Some have said that curcumin, found in the spice turmeric, interferes with melanoma cells. Tests in laboratory dishes show that curcumin made melanoma skin cancer cells more likely to self-destruct in a process known as apoptosis. The same team has found that curcumin helped stop the spread of breast cancer tumor cells to the lungs of mice. Back in ancient times, women in India did not use soap but instead used a turmeric

germicidal cream treatment composed of gramflour or wheat husk mixed with milk. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images http://www.mytho-fleurs.com/images/jardins...uma_longa_2.JPG http://perso.wanadoo.fr/aromatiques.tropic...rcumaracine.jpg

Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum)
Plant family: Lauraceae Synonyms: Cinnamon bark, Ceylon cinnamon Warning! Because cinnamon oil stimulates contractions, it should be avoided during pregnancy. The oil is irritating to the skin. Dilute well, before applying. Cinnamon essential oil should not be ingested, due to its potential toxicity. Large doses of cinnamon could theoretically increase the effect of some drugs used to treat diabetes mellitus, such as streptozocin. Avoid combining cinnamon in large doses with conventional antidiabetic medication. Consult your endocrinologist Description Cinnamon is an evergreen tree which is small and bushy. he bark of the tree is thick, smooth and light or dark brownish in color. The inner bark is obtained from carefully selected shoots. It is then cured and dried. While drying, the bark shrinks and curls into a cylinder or quill. Cinnamon is available in either its whole quill form (cinnamon sticks) or as ground powder. It is, in fact, quite a remarkable tree in that it can reach up to 30 feet in height, whilst actually preferring to grow in sand! Cinnamon is native to India and Sri Lanka. It is now cultivated in many tropical countries including Mexico. While there are approximately one hundred varieties of Cinnamonum verum (the scientific name for cinnamon), Cinnamonum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) and Cinnamomun aromaticum (Chinese cinnamon) are the leading varieties consumed. Ceylon cinnamon is also referred to as “true cinnamon”, while the Chinese variety is known as “cassia”. While both are relatively similar in characteristics and both feature a fragrant, sweet and warm taste, the flavor of the Ceylon variety is more refined and subtle. For medicinal purposestThe outer bark, inner bark, leaves and essential oil are used. Main constituents Volatile oil (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamic acid, weitherhin), mucilage, diterpenes, proanthocyanidins. Uses Medical Cinnamon may help with lice, scabies, tooth and gum care, warts and wasp stings. It’s been known to help increase circulation, aid in digestion, colitis, diarrhea, dyspepsia,

intestinal infection, spasms and cold, flus and infectious diseases. It’s carminative, astringent, stimulant, antiseptic; more powerful as a local than as a general stimulant; is prescribed in powder and infusion but usually combined with other medicines. Other uses include: Abdominal pain, chest pain, common cold, diarrhea, fungal infections, gynecological disorders, high blood pressure, kidney problems, acne, bad breath, pain, spasmodic afflictions, asthma, paralysis, excessive menstruation, uterus disorders and rheumatism. Remember to talk to your physician first if you have a serious condition like kidney problems, heart disease, high blood pressure etc! Cinnamon can be used for natural birth-control (not recommended because there’s no guarantee). It has the remarkable effect of checking the early release of ova after child-birth. A piece of cinnamon taken every night for a month after child-birth delays menstruation for more than 15 to 20 months thus preventing early conception. Magical Its properties include: spirituality, success, healing, power, psychic powers, lust, protection an love. Cinnamon, when burned as incense, raises high spiritual vibrations, aids in healing, draws money, stimulates psychic powers and produces protective vibrations. Cinnamon is also used in making sachets and infusions for these purposes. Culinary Cinnamon is very important in cooking, and it's easy to keep fresh. It is one of the most important spices in the world. Consumption in the U.S. alone is up 6.5 pounds compared to a decade ago. This is mostly due to the increasing interest in ethnic foods, and the increased interest in replacing flavor usually obtained from fats with the flavor of spices and herbs. As international cooking is becoming more popular, people are starting to find new uses for cinnamon. For instance, cinnamon is an excellent spice used with meat and poultry in Indian and Moroccan dishes. Cinnamon is also commonly found with various Greek dishes. A dash of cinnamon in spaghetti sauce, beef stew, and chili, or with grains and lentils is very appetizing. Cinnamon is also used often to flavor rice dishes and fish, chicken, or ham. A cinnamon stick can be added to hot chocolate to give it an added cinnamon flavor. There are a number of uses for cinnamon in the kitchen, and cooking with it makes food a whole lot tastier. Many cookies that Americans are familiar with have cinnamon as a main ingredient in them or sprinkled on top of them. Cinnamon rolls are a great example of a dessert pastry that has cinnamon as the main ingredient. Dried cinnamon leaves and inner bark are used for flavoring cakes and sweets and in curry powder. Cinnamon bark oil is used for flavoring confectionery and liqueurs. Cosmetic It’s used as an antiseptic, as a fragrance in perfumes, in deodorants and as a warming agent.

Other Cinnamon leaf oil is used in the synthesis of vanillin. Selection Cinnamon is available in either stick or powder form. While the sticks can be stored for longer, the ground powder has a stronger flavor. If possible, smell the cinnamon to make sure that it has a sweet smell, a characteristic reflecting that it is fresh. Oftentimes, both Ceylon cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon (cassia) are labeled as cinnamon. If you want to find the sweeter, more refined tasting Ceylon variety, you may need to shop in either a local spice store or ethnic market since this variety is generally less available. Just like with other dried spices, try to select organically grown cinnamon since this will give you more assurance that it has not been irradiated (among other potential adverse effects, irradiating cinnamon may lead to a significant decrease in its vitamin C and carotenoid content.) Storage Cinnamon should be kept in a tightly sealed glass container in a cool, dark and dry place. Ground cinnamon will keep for about six months, while cinnamon sticks will stay fresh for about one year stored this way. Alternatively, you can extend their shelf life by storing them in the refrigerator. To check to see if it is still fresh, smell the cinnamon. If it does not smell sweet, it is no longer fresh and should be discarded Recipes Royal Incense Marigold Orange peel Rose Lavender Sweet Woodruff Pine needles Some cloves Cinnamon Coriander Incense for love rituals This is a mix which is composed to attract, keep and strengthen love. You can also use this as incense in the home to keep the atmosphere and joy. 1 part rose petals ½ tsp of cinnamon ½ tsp of anise seeds ½ tsp of frankincense/rosemary ½ tsp of salpeter 2 drops of resin 1 drop of seductive oil Dragon’s Breath 1/3 cup of sassafras 1 tbsp of pulverized cedar wood (or small chips)

1 tbsp of dragon’s blood (can be exchanged with myrrh or cedar resin) 1/2 tbsp of rosemary, dried and crushed 2 tbsp of cinnamon 1/2 tbsp of nutmeg 1/2 tbsp of chili powder Dragon’s Love Mix 1/3 of a cup of cinnamon with vanilla extract until you have a sticky paste. Roll it into a ball, place it on waxed paper and let it dry for 1 week. After this week is over, fold the waxed paper over the ball, and crush it with a hammer. Crush it to fine powder in a mortar. Mix it with dragon’s blood resin (replace with another resin, if you don’t have dragon blood), add more vanilla extract and mix it into a paste again. Roll it into a ball, put it on waxed paper, dry it for a week, crush it again, grind it into a powder and burn it. Fire Incense 4 parts frankincense 3 parts cinnamon 1 part dried orange peel 1/4 part thyme Other fire related herbs and plants include allspice, basil, laurel, black pepper, cloves, caraway, dill, garlic, ginger, nutmeg, union and thistle. Pagan Power Incense (for ritual energy) 1 tbsp cinnamon 1 tbsp anise seed 1 tsp nutmeg 1 tsp ginger 1 tsp dry lemon peel 1 tsp lemon extract 1 tsp peppermint extract Dry petals of 3 white roses Kitchen Witch’s Incense (House blessing) 2 tbsp of dried lemon peel 1 tbsp of rosemary 1 tbsp of almond extract 1 tsp of cinnamon 1 pinch of garlic peel 1 tsp of anise 1 tsp of allspice 1 tsp of coconut extract 1 pinch of salt Business Incense (attracts customers) 2 part benzoin 1 part cinnamon 1 part basil

Circle Incense 4 parts Frankincense 2 parts Myrrh 2 parts Benzoin 1 part Sandalwood 1/2 part Cinnamon 1/2 part Rose petals 1/4 part Vervain 1/4 part Rosemary 1/4 part Bay Burn in the circle for all types of rituals and spells. Frankincense, myrrh and benzoin should definitely constitute the bulk of the mixture. Altar Incense 3 parts Frankincense 2 parts Myrrh 1 part Cinnamon Burn as a general incense on the altar to purify it and to promote ritual consciousness during rituals. Spring Sabbat Incense 3 parts Frankincense 2 parts Sandalwood 1 part Benzoin 1 part Cinnamon a few drops Patchouli oil Burn during spring and summer Sabbat rituals. Horned God Oil 2 parts Frankincense 2 parts Cinnamon 1 part Bay 1 part Rosemary 1 part Musk Wear to honor the Horned God during rituals. Banishing Incense or Powder Black talc. Bay leaves (protection and strenght); cinnamon (power); red wine ( strength); rose petals (protection); myrrh (protection); mint (protection); salt (protection). Allow mixture to fully dry before using. Sprinkle to eliminate all bad spirit forces. Should be burned in a thurible at your shrine or altar during magickal applications or during circle. Also used for Uncrossing. Best day to make: Saturday in the hour of Saturn.

(Uncrossing: When a situation is adverse, then the circumstances are considered "crossed." Remember, however, that what got crossed over a period of time isn't going to get uncrossed right away. Early American witches used to say, "You didn't get sick in a day, so you're not going to get well in a day." Use magickal applications that build or link together when working with severely crossed energies. Commanding/Controlling/Compelling Powder Brown talc. Allspice (healing); orris (protection and divination); patchouli (lust); cinnamon (power); sandalwood (wishes); clove (exorcism). Use when working with rune wights, elementals, or earth spirits. Good for sprinkling in the path of stalkers, abusers, or general evil. Load into black candles to keep attackers at bay. Best day to make: Tuesday in the hour of Mars. Concentration Powder Silver talc. Mastic (psychic powers and manifestation); cinnamon (power); myrrh (spirituality). Annoint forehead with small amount to aid in solving a problem. Clears the mind, inspires sudden insights into a problem. Sprinkle on divination tool or load into your meditation candle. Best day to make: Monday in the hour of the moon. Eliminate Money Stress Powder Purple talc. Vanilla (mental powers); peppermint (purification); cinnamon (spirituality); patchouli (money). Rub on the body to attract love and gambling luck. Make a floorwash to sprinkle about the house to remove bad influences hindering success. Best day to make: Thursday in the hour of the sun, Mars or Jupiter. Friendship Powder Red talc. Footprint in dirt; pathcouli leaves (fertility); cinnamon (love and success). Increases magnetisim. Pulls others to you and facilitates friendships to develop. Sprinkle around home, business, or in your locker at school. Best day to make: Friday in the hour of Venus. Jungle Powder Red and gold talc. Cinnamon (success); Hi-John (protection); white sandalwood ( protection). Used to avert curses. Use sparingly. Load in candles to banish stalkers and avert negativity. Not for novices. Best day to make: Tuesday in the hour of Mars. Magnetism Powder Blue talc. Sixteen parts wood base, 8 parts frankincense (protection);4 parts sandlawood (wishes); 2 parts myrrh (healing); 4 parts cinnamon (power and success); 2 parts orris root. Hightly magnetic blend used to draw good spirits. Attracts love, power, luck, love and

money. Use before an important contract signing, interview, when buying a car, et cetera. Excellent for loading into success spell candles. Best day to make: Sunday in the hour of the Sun. Meditation Powder Purple talc. Lavender (peace); cinnamon (spirituality). Aids in developing concentration and creaticity. Always use when preparing to meditate. Burn in thurible int he room before you meditate. Sprinkle in your meditation chair. Best day to make: Monday in the hour of the Moon or Venus Money/Success Powder Silver talc. Patchouli (money and fertility); cinnamon (success); vervain (money). A good loading powder said to magnetize the candle. Added to an oil, use mixture to bless candles before a ceremony. Added to holy water and alcohol, use the mixture to wipe down an altar room. Sprinkle in your wallet. Best day to make: Thursday in the hour of Jupiter. Sacred Ashes Silver talc. White parchment paper; cinnamon; sandalwood; African Violet (all for spirituality). Burn the white parchment paper in a bowl. Crush the ashes. Add the herbs. Mix well. Store in an airtight container. Use to anoint before a funereal, at Samhain, or on Ash Wednesday. Best day to make: Sunday in the hour of the Moon. Sweet Spirit Powder Purple talc. Cinnamon; tonka bean; patchouli; vanilla; lavender; gardenia; vetivert. Designed to attract all good spirits to its user and assits in bringing forth psychic power. Use both on body (by adding a small amount of oil) and on altar. Add to incense to burn, as is, in a thurible to cleanse a room. Mix with holy water or oil to annoint candles. Place in a sachet and put among your ritual clothing. Best day to make: Sunday in the hour of the Moon, Monday in the hour of the Moon, or Wednesday in the hour of the Moon. Mulled Wine (12 glasses) Ingredients ½ - 1 bottle of unseasoned liquor 1 bottle of wine (red or white) 5 peeled cardamom kernels 5 whole cloves 1 piece of cinnamon stick 1 Seville orange peel 1 piece of ginger (whole) 2-3 dl (~6.76 - ~10.14 fl oz) of sugar When serving

1-2 dl (~3.38 - ~6.76 fl oz) of blanched almonds 2-3 dl (~6.76 - ~10.14 fl oz) of raisins Mix all the ingredients in a pot or a glögg-pan. If you do this in good time the spices are able to give a strong and rich taste. Heat it slowly, don’t let it boil. Serve it hot in glasses with handles or with a napkin around them. Each and everyone adds almonds and raisins to their own taste, because of this you should have spoons in the table as well. Yule sachet with twelve herbs Herb sachets, or amulets, consist of herbs and other materials that are bound in cloth. Some sachets keep specific energies or illnesses away, other attract specific situations or powers to you. As they’re easy to make, and have a nice fragrance, these bags are a distinct and aromatic gift for the holidays. Items needed: 7 parts Juniper 4 parts Cinnamon 4 parts Allspice 4 parts Ginger 4 parts Caraway 2 parts Nutmeg 2 parts Rosemary 2 parts Lemon peel 2 parts Orange peel 1 part Cloves 1 part Laurel 2 pinches Orris root Tie in green or red cloth and give away for Yule. Dove’s blood ink 1 part Dragon's Blood Resin; 2 drops cinnamon; 2 drops laurel; 10 parts alcohol; 1 part gum arabic; 2 drops rose oil. Write with this ink to bring wishes. Help in times of financial difficulties With clove or cinnamon oil, trace a money symbol or rune on the largest denomination of bill that you have. Put this in your wallet and resist spending it for as long as you can. Every time you look at the bill, visualize the rune to reinforce its power. Bring adventure into your life Sprinkle the soles of your shoes with some cinnamon and place some almonds in your pocket before setting out for the day. Money Bottle What you need: 5 old pennies

5 dimes 5 quarters (or, five each of three denominations of your country's coin currency, if outside the United States) 5 kernels of dried Corn 5 Sesame seeds 5 Cinnamon sticks 5 Cloves 5 whole Allspice 5 Pecans Place each item into a thin, tall bottle, such as a spice bottle. Cap it tightly. Shake the bottle with your receptive hand (the one you do not write with) for 5 minutes while chanting these or similar words: ‘Herbs and silver, Copper and grain; Work to increase my money gain’ Place the money spell bottle on a table somewhere in your house. Leave your purse, pocketbook, wallet and/or checkbook near the bottle when at home. Allow money to come into your life. It is done. To stop someone who’s being unfaithful By burning this in the evening, your partner will loose all sexual interest in others. Ex: When he/she wanders out at night to meet another partner, he/she looses interest when they go to bed. You’ll need: ½ cup of sandalwood powder ½ cup of lavender 2 cups of cinnamon powder ¼ cup of lilac (crushed) 2 tsp of tobacco 1 cup of power seeds (crushed) ½ cup of Orris root powder 2 tsp of allspice ¼ cup of Vervain ½ tsp of saltpeter Mix it in a wooden bowl and cover it with a piece of cloth when not used. This special love blend has to be mixed really well or the result will be bad. Love Drink 3 cl (~0.34 fl oz) of liquor The thin peel and juice from ½ lemon 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of liquid honey 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of sugar 1 cinnamon stick 5 tbsp of coriander 5 fennel seeds A pinch of dried sage A pinch of dried rosemary A larger pinch of dried basil

A couple of chopped almonds A few lavender flowers A bit of saffron for love and color Let it soak for at least 1 month, taste, strain and let it rest for 6 months. Bring it up on a cold night and pour it carefully into the glass, so that none of the sediment gets in. Offer your partner a glass and enjoy the effect Diarrhea Eat 1 tsp dry cinnamon, it may ease nausea and diarrhea (take it with a glass of water) Miscellaneous Cinnamon is one of the oldest spices known. It was mentioned in the Bible and was used in ancient Egypt not only as a beverage flavoring and medicine, but also as an embalming agent. It was so highly treasured that it was considered more precious than gold. Around this time, cinnamon also received much attention in China, which is reflected in its mention in one of the earliest books on Chinese botanical medicine, dated around 2,700 B.C. Cinnamon’s popularity continued throughout history. It became one of the most relied upon spices in Medieval Europe. Due to its demand, cinnamon became one of the first commodities traded regularly between the Near East and Europe. Ceylon cinnamon is produced in Sri Lanka, India, Madagascar, Brazil and the Caribbean, while cassia is mainly produced in China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Cinnamon oil was used as part of a holy anointing oil by the ancient Hebrews. The leaves of the cinnamon tree were woven into wreaths which were used to decorate ancient Roman temples. The Egyptians used cinnamon oil during the mummification process. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images http://www.crystalmountain-aromatics.com/o...ls/cinnamon.jpg http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/pictures/cinn_13.jpg http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/pictures/cinn_07.jpg

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Plant family: Myristicaceae Warning! Nutmeg is poisonous and hallucinogenic in large doses. Large doses may cause very unpleasant side-effects, which include prolonged extreme nausea and long-term hypersensitivity to nutmeg. The hallucinogenic phenylpropanoids themselves are hepatotoxins and far from harmless for frequent users. It may be a carcinogen. Chronic poisoning by oral administration has caused temporary (up to six months) psychosis.

Toxicity: The dose needed to induce intoxication in adults varies according to the quality and length of storage of the nutmeg. 1 to 3 nutmegs (5 to 15 g) is reported as the toxic dose (Haddad & Winchester, 1983). Death by nutmeg intoxication has been reported by Cushny (Weil, 1964) in an 8-yearold boy after consuming 2 nutmegs. In cats, an oral dose of 24 mg nutmeg oil per kg body weight has been found to be lethal. Description This is a spreading aromatic evergreen tree usually growing to around 5 to 13 metres high, occasionally 20 metres. The bark contains watery pink or red sap. The pointed dark green leaves are arranged alternately along the branches and are borne on leaf stems. Upper leaf surfaces are shiny. Flowers are usually single sexed; occasionally male and female flowers are found on the same tree. Female flowers arise in groups of 1 to 3; males in groups of 1 to 10. The flowers are pale yellow, waxy, fleshy and bellshaped. The male flowers are smaller than female flowers. The fruits are fleshy, drooping, yellow and smooth with a longitudinal ridge. When ripe, the succulent yellow fruit coat splits into 2 valves revealing a purplish-brown, shiny seed (nutmeg) surrounded by a red aril (mace). The seeds (nutmegs) are broadly ovoid (2 to 3 cm long), firm, fleshy, whitish and transversed by red-brown veins. When fresh, the aril (mace) is bright scarlet becoming more horny, brittle and a yellowish-brown colour when dried. The pulp of the nutmeg fruit is tough, almost woody, and very sour. The tree does not flower until around 9 years old, when it fruits; it can continue to do so for a further 75 years. The tree bears 2 to 3 crops a year. The seeds need 3 to 6 weeks to dry before they’re ready for use. Both spices are strongly aromatic, resinous and warm in taste. Mace is generally said to have a finer aroma than nutmeg, but the difference is small. Nutmeg quickly loses its fragrance when ground; therefore, the necessary amount should be grated from a whole nut immediately before use. Naturally, nutmeg is limited to the Banda Islands, a tiny archipelago in Eastern Indonesia (Moluccas). Main producing countries today are Indonesia (East Indian Nutmeg) and Grenada (West Indian Nutmeg); while Indonesian nutmegs are mainly exported to Europe and Asia, Grenada nutmeg mostly finds its way into the USA. Main constituents Nutmeg contains about 10% essential oil, which is mostly composed of terpene hydrocarbons (sabinene and pinenes; furthermore camphene, p-cymene, phellandrene, terpinene, limonene, myrcene, together 60 to 80%), terpene derivatives (linalool, geraniol, terpineol, together 5 to 15%) and phenylpropanoids (myristicin, elemicin, safrol, eugenol and eugenol derivatives, together 15 to 20%). Of the latter group, myristicin (methoxy-safrole, typically 4%) is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of nutmeg.

Oil of mace (up to 12% in the spice) contains the same aroma components, but the total fraction of terpenoids is increased to almost 90% at the cost of the phenylpropanoids (10%). Both nutmeg and mace contain about 2% of lignanes (diarylpropanoids), which are nonvolatile dimers of phenylpropanoid constituents of the essential oil, e.g., dehydrodiisoeugenol. Uses Medical The oil extract of the tree is used as a counter irritant and stimulates blood flow to the area applied. Nutmeg is reported to be an expectorant, vermifuge, aphrodisiac, and as a nervine used by psychiatrists. It is used in tonics and electuaries and is recommended for the treatment of inflammations of the bladder and urinary tract. Mace is used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism. It has a befeficial effect on skin problems, reduces heartburn, muscle spasms, increases appetite, relieves diarrhea. It’s used in Ayurvedic medicine for premature ejaculation and incontinence. Magical Nutmegs have long been carried as good luck charms. Burn for prosperity, luck, psychic awareness, fortune, clairvoyance, divination, justice, and meditation. Burn mace to increase psychic power, or for creative work. Carry to improve the intellect. Culinary In Western cuisine, nutmeg and mace are more popular for cakes, crackers and stewed fruits; nutmeg is sometimes used to flavour cheese (fondue, Béchamel sauce). The combination of spinach with nutmeg is somewhat a classic, especially for Italian stuffed noodles, e.g., ravioli. The greatest lovers of nutmeg in today's Europe, though, are the Dutch. They use it for cabbage, potato and other vegetables, but also for meat, soups, stews and sauces. Cosmetic It is use din perfumes and ointments. Other Nutmeg increases the intoxicating and soporific effect in alcoholic beverages and is said to be an aphrodisiac. Recipes Strength Potion Energy, fire magic, masculine mysteries, lust and resistance. 1 ½ part white Oak bark ½ part Mint ½ part Orange peel A pinch of Nutmeg or Cinnamon Boil and drink.

Spiritual Strength Powder 1 quartz crystal ½ tsp nutmeg powder ½ tsp frankincense incense ½ tsp Orris root powder 1 dash saltpeter 1 tsp sandal wood incense 2 tsp birch bark Use a red cloth bag, fill it with all the ingredients. Tie it up and keep it in your pocket or in your handbag. Pour some out and burn it when you feel the need to. You can also burn a white candle anointed with oils when the powder is being burnt. Aphrodisiac – Passion Drink 1 pinch of rosemary 2 pinches of thyme 2 tsp of black tea 1 pinch of coriander 3 fresh mint leaves (or ½ tsp dried) 5 fresh rose bud petals (or 1 tsp dried) 1 tsp of dried lemon peel 3 pinches of nutmeg 3 pinches of orange peel Put all the ingredients in a teapot. Boil about 3 cups of water and pour it into the pot. Sweeten with honey if you prefer. Aphrodisiac II 3 parts rose petals 1 part cloves 1 part nutmeg 1 part lavender 1 part ginger Boil water and let it steep for at least 5 - 10 minutes. You can mix it with another tea or drink it as it is. Diarrhea 1tsp ground nutmeg flower is washed down with a glass of water, you should get better after a few hours. Prosperity Incense 1 vanilla pod 7 whole cloves 1 tsp of nutmeg 1 tsp of poppy seeds Almond flower

Dragon’s Breath Incense 1/3 cup of sassafras 1 tbsp of pulverized cedar wood (or small chips) 1 tbsp of dragon’s blood (can be exchanged with myrrh or cedar resin) 1/2 tbsp of rosemary, dried and crushed 2 tbsp of cinnamon 1/2 tbsp of nutmeg 1/2 tbsp of chili powder Pagan Power Incense (for ritual energy) 1 tbsp cinnamon 1 tbsp anise seed 1 tsp nutmeg 1 tsp ginger 1 tsp dry lemon peel 1 tsp lemon extract 1 tsp peppermint extract Dry petals of 3 white roses Blended Trust Powder Orange talc. Powdered nutmeg (fidelity); orris (love); rose (love); patchouli (lust); basil (to put in sympathy). A special blend used only to create an atmosphere of trust and understanding. Best day to make: Friday in the hour of Venus Light Mead 1.14 l (1.136 l / 1quart) of water, preferably spring water 1 cup of honey 1 sliced lemon ½ tsp of nutmeg Boil all the ingredients together in a pot that isn’t made of metal. While it boils you scrape off the foam that rises to the surface. When there’s no more foam rising, add the following: A pinch of salt The juice from ½ a lemon Strain and cool. Drink in stead of alcoholic mead during a Simple Feast. Yule sachet with twelve herbs Herb sachets, or amulets, consist of herbs and other materials that are bound in cloth. Some sachets keep specific energies or illnesses away, other attract specific situations or powers to you. As they’re easy to make, and have a nice fragrance, these bags are a distinct and aromatic gift for the holidays. Items needed:

7 parts Juniper 4 parts Cinnamon 4 parts Allspice 4 parts Ginger 4 parts Caraway 2 parts Nutmeg 2 parts Rosemary 2 parts Lemon peel 2 parts Orange peel 1 part Cloves 1 part Laurel 2 pinches Orris root Tie in green or red cloth and give away for Yule. Miscellaneous Some European languages name mace “flower of nutmeg” (German Muskatblüte, Swedish muskotblomma or French fleur de muscade). Although this is botanically incorrect, the mace was supposed to be the flower of the nutmeg tree during the Middle Ages; even Marco Polo propagated this error in the 14.th century. Nutmeg is mixed with tobacco snuff in certain parts of southern India. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images Ripe fruit: http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/pictures/myri_13.jpg Mace: http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/pictures/myri_02.jpg Nutmeg: http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/pictures/myri_01.jpg

Marjoram (Origanum majorana)
Plant family: Labiatae Synonyms: Sweet marjoram, Joy of the Mountains, Wintersweet, Knotted Marjoram, Majorane, Pot Marjoram, Warning! This plant should not be used during pregnancy. Do not take essential oil internally. Care must be taken due to its sedative action - use sparingly! Description Marjoram is a bushy half-hardy perennial sub-shrub that is often grown as an annual. It’s 1-2 ft (0.3-0.6 m) tall with descending, multi-branched stems that spill over to create a mound. Since the stems take root where they touch the soil, the mound gradually increases in diameter. If grown in a hanging basket, the stems form a a cascade of attractive gray-green foliage. Its oval leaves are soft and fuzzy, but you need a hand lens to see the short fine hairs. They’re opposite each other on a square stem which is typical of plants in the mint family. The leaves get up to an 1 inch (2.5

cm) long and have a wonderful, very distinctive, perfumy fragrance when bruised. The flowers are tiny, less than 1/8 in (0.3 cm) long and arranged in burrlike heads 1/2 in (1.3 cm) long. It’s native to North Africa, Turkey and South Western Asia. It’s been naturalized in the Mediterranean region of southern Europe. Main constituents The essential oil includes terpenes; cis- and trans-sabinese hydrate; flavonoids; linalool; terpineol, carvocrol, linalyl acetate,ocimene, cadinene, geranyl acetate, citral,eugenol Uses Medical The tea promotes the digestion and helps against gas, colds and headaches, calms the nerves and eases menstruation. The essential oil is distilled from the leaves and flower tops, it’s an antioxidant and slows the ageing processes in the skin. It also works on viruses, eases cramps and stimulates the circulation locally. It’s useful on tired muscles and for massaging on abdomen during menstruation. Magical Add to all love charms. Place a bit of the herb inevery room of the house for protection. Change every month. Give to a grieving person to draw happiness into their life. Renew the energy in amulets by putting them in a glass bowl with spring water. Put some marjoram around it and Let it sit in the sun from morning to evening. Culinary It’s used in spaghetti sauce, eggplant parmesan and lasagna: anything with tomatoes. Try sprinkling some on pizza. It's a must for turkey stuffing. Marjoram is an important flavoring in German sausages, and it is used extensively in French, Italian and Portuguese cuisine. Sprinkle over pork, mutton, liver and veal before roasting and add to melted butter to garnish vegetables. Cosmetic It is used in commercial perfumes. Other The fresh perfume of sweet marjoram is delightful in potpourri and scented pillows. The French put it in linen drawers. It makes an effective home insect repellant, is often used in herbal sleep pillows and makes a fragrant bath herb. Cultivation Marjoram does best in a well-drained, slightly limey soil. It prefers full to nearly full sun. In the hottest part of summer, it should be given more shade. It dries out rather quickly so it likes a well-drained soil and frequent watering. Marjoram is frost-tender. Bring it indoors if frost threatens. It can, of course, be grown outdoors as an annual and replanted in the spring. It's easy (but slow) to grow marjoram from seed, but it's better to start it from cuttings so you will know exactly what the plant will smell like. Cuttings root readily any time of the year.

Harvest Begin harvesting the leaves and stem tips when plants are 4 to 5 inches high. The flavor will improve after the flower buds form, just before flowering. To harvest, cut the stem tops down to the first two sets of leaves. New stems and shoots will grow, producing second and sometimes third crops. Dry the leaves in a warm, dry, shaded place, and store them in an airtight container. Recipes Nose ointment 1 tbsp crumbled Marjoram 1 tbsp 96 % alcohol 20 g (~0.7 oz) of soft butter Mix Marjoram and alcohol, and let it sit covered over night. Filter and mix the sediment with the butter. Must be kept in the refrigerator. Use your finger to anoint your nostrils several times a day. Distribute it evenly by pressing your nostrils together. Steam bath with Rose Hips 1 tsp of Marjoram 1 tsp of dried Rose Hips 1 tsp of dried Laurel 1 tsp of Roman Chamomile 1 tsp of Linden tea or Linden flowers 1 thin slice of Lemon 1 thin slice of Orange 1¼ l (~47.3 fl oz) of boiling water Marie Antoinette’s bath 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Thyme 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of Marjoram 1 dl (~3.4 fl oz) of sea salt Place the ingredients in a bag made out of gauze, and put the bag in the bath water. Skin stimulating bath Marjoram Comfrey Rosemary Sage Lemon Balm Thyme Dandelion Dove’s Eye incense Red talcum; petals from a red carnation; frankincense; vanilla; cardamom; marjoram. Burn this incense to bring peace of mind and happiness.

Miscellaneous Marjoram was grown in Egypt over 3000 years ago. The ancient Greeks and Romans crowned newly married couples with this herb as a symbol of happiness. And Marjoram has grown so profusely in Sicily that it remains to this day on the coat of arms of the ancient city of Marjora from which it gets its name. In Crete marjoram was a badge of honor worn by the most distinguished leaders. Also used as a seasoning and a tea and as pain-relieving fomentations on their bodies. Used as a hair and eyebrow pomade. The Greeks believed that if a girl placed marjoram in her bed, Aphrodite would visit her dreams andreveal the identity of her future spouse. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images http://home.online.no/~gjessin/merian-01.gif http://www.aromatherapy-essential-oils.org...am/marjoram.jpg

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Plant family: Asteraceae Synonyms: French artichoke, green artichoke, Globe artichoke, alcachofra, alcachofera Warning! Artichoke is generally regarded as non-toxic. It should be used with caution in cases of biliary obstruction. Dermatitis following contact with the fresh plant and leaves has been reported. Artichoke has been documented in traditional uses to be hypoglycemic; however, no clinical studies have been published to confirm this action. Diabetics and people with hypoglycemia should use this plant product with caution and monitor their blood sugar levels closely in anticipation of these possible effects. It may potentiate the effects of cholesterol-lowering and statin drugs. Avoid if breast-feeding. It may decrease milk production, slows the flow of milk, and make the breast milk turn cheesy. Description The Artichoke is a thistle-like herb. The silvery green plants are 4-5 feet tall and spread outward 5-6 feet. The flower buds arise on the terminal portion of the main stem and on lateral stems. Each unopened flower bud resembles a deep green pine cone, 3-4 inches in diameter, round, but slightly elongated. Several pointed, leathery green bracts fold around a purple-blue flower. The base of each bract is the fleshy edible portion, along with the fleshy centre of the artichoke on which the flower and bracts are borne. Buds that are left on the plant open to 6inch purple-blue flowers. The artichoke is a native of the Mediterranean. It's simply a glorified thistle that belongs to the daisy family. It has a tuberous root, but it is the large flower-buds that form the edible portion of the plant. Those intended for eating will always be the immature flower bud, as the mature and opened flower is pretty much inedible. The whole plant has a peculiar smell and a strong bitter taste.

Main constituents The pleasant bitter taste is attributed mostly to a plant chemical called cynarin found in the green parts of the plant. It occurs in the highest concentration in the leaves of the plant, which is why leaf extracts are most commonly employed in herbal medicine. Other documented "active" chemicals include flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, polyphenols and caffeoylquinic acids. Artichoke's main plant chemicals are caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acids, caryophyllene, chlorogenic acid, cyanidol glucosides, cynaragenin, cynarapicrin, cynaratriol, cynarin, cynarolide, decanal, eugenol, ferulic acid, flavonoids, folacin, glyceric acid, glycolic acid, heteroside-B, inulin, isoamerboin, lauric acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, luteolin glucosides, myristic acid, neochlorogenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, pseudotaraxasterol, scolymoside, silymarin, sitosterol, stearic acid, stigmasterol, and taraxasterol. Artichokes are good sources of Vitamin C, folate, and potassium. Uses Medical It stimulates the secretion of gall and is used together with leaves and root as a laxative. It has a beneficial effect on stiffened arteries, anaemia, and liver damage from alcohol, toxins and hepatitis. Artichoke has been used in traditional medicine for centuries as a specific liver and gallbladder remedy. In Brazilian herbal medicine systems, leaf preparations are used for liver and gallbladder problems, diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, anaemia, diarrhoea (and elimination in general), fevers, ulcers, and gout. In Europe, it is also used for liver and gallbladder disorders; in several countries, standardized herbal drugs are manufactured and sold as prescription drugs for high cholesterol and digestive and liver disorders. Other uses around the world include treatment for dyspepsia and chronic albuminuria. In France, a patent has been filed that describes an artichoke extract for treating liver disease, high cholesterol levels, and kidney insufficiency. In all herbal medicine systems where it is employed, artichoke is used to increase bile production in the liver, increase the flow of bile from the gallbladder, and to increases the contractive power of the bile duct. These bile actions are beneficial in many digestive, gallbladder, and liver disorders. Artichoke is also often used to mobilize fatty stores in the liver and detoxify it, and as a natural aid to lower cholesterol. Extracts from the leaves are thought to help keep the arteries elastic, prevent them from thickening and causing decreased blood flow. Most rheumatism and arthritis problems are linked to liver function. The Artichoke, with its choleretic and cholagogic properties, accelerates the transportation and elimination of bile, and considerably increases diuresis, thus removing excess congestants from tissues and joints. It's therefore recommended for cases of rheumatism and arthritis, in general, given the importance of liver function in the development of these illnesses. Magical It's said to aid in love and spells to increase sexual desire, and eating artichokes apparently helps prevent wet dreams and wards off incubi and succubi.

Culinary The flower petals and fleshy flower bottoms are eaten as a vegetable throughout the world. The French and Germans boil the heads as we do, but the Italians generally eat them raw with salt, oil and pepper.' In Italy the receptacles, dried, are also largely used in soups. Although baking, boiling and steaming are the most popular cooking methods for the basic stand-alone artichoke, it can be used to enhance many dishes. Most people are content to eat cooked artichoke virtually unadorned, perhaps seasoned with some garlic and olive oil with a clarified butter dip. To eat the cooked artichoke, simply pull off each leaf and draw the base of the leaf through your teeth to scrape off the soft portion, discarding the rest of the leaf. As you progress upward from the base, the leaves become more tender, with larger edible portions until you reach the choke (the undeveloped flower). Remove the "hairy" choke, and dive into the hidden treasure known as the heart. Use a stainless steel knife to trim the artichoke and avoid iron or aluminium cooking pots to discourage discoloration. A light spray of lemon juice will prevent darkening of trimmed artichokes awaiting preparation. Pressure-cooking is a quick and easy way to prepare artichokes. Artichokes are fully cooked when a bottom leaf can easily be pulled from the base. Raw hearts should be cooked in acidulated (lemon juice or vinegar) water. Other The leaves and flowers are in used in flower arrangements. According to folklore, the juice of an artichoke, pressed out before it blossoms, will restore the hair on a bald head, but it's unclear if you are supposed to rub it on your head or drink it. Cultivation It's propagated from seed. Either sow outdoors in the fall, sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse in winter or sow indoors before the last frost. Stratify if sowing indoors. Use a deep, moist, rich soil which may be greatly aided by wood-ashes and seaweed. Suckers should be planted when about 9 inches high; put in rather deep in soil and planted firmly and covered with rough mulch. If the weather is dry, they will need watering, and during hot weather water and liquid manure should be given freely to ensure a good supply of large heads. Seedlings that are started well in a suitable bed do better than plants from suckers, especially in a dry season. Vigorous seedlings send down their roots to a great depth. To get large heads, all lateral heads should be removed when they are about the size of a large egg. After the heads are used, the plant should be cut down. The Artichoke is hardy on dry soils in winters of only average severity. But on moist soils - so favourable to fine heads - a severe winter will kill the plantations unless they have some kind of protection. This is usually ensured by cutting down the stems and

large leaves without touching the smaller central leaves, and when severe frost threatens, to partially earth up the rows with soil taken from between, also adding dry, light litter loosely thrown over; the latter is removed in the spring and the earth dug back, and a liberal supply of manure dug in. At the end of five years a plantation is worn out; the best method being to sow a bed annually and allow it to stand for two years. It may be a noxious weed or invasive if left alone. Water regularly but do not overwater. It self-sows freely, so deadhead if you do not want volunteer seedlings next season. This plant is resistant to deer Harvest The immature buds and the leaves just before the plant flowers. The leaves can be used fresh or dried. An artichoke is ready for harvest when it has reached maximum size, but before the bracts open. Cut the top one first, then the secondary ones as they mature. Store at low temperatures (near 32°F) and high humidity (95% RH). Recipes Artichoke herb dip 4 artichoke hearts Juice of 1 lemon 2 Tbsp (30 ml) flax oil 4 cloves garlic, minced 1 shallot, minced 1 1/2 tsp (7 ml) Dijon mustard 1/2 cup (125 ml) kefir or plain yogurt 1 Tbsp (15 ml) sunflower oil Fresh herbs (dill, basil, thyme), chopped Tamari soy sauce, to taste Sea salt, to taste Blend all ingredients until smooth and serve with fresh vegetables or bread for dipping. Artichoke-Cream Cheese Spread Ingredients 1 jar marinated artichoke hearts 4 scallions 1/4 cup fresh parsley 6 sprigs of thyme 8 ounces cream cheese (soft-spreading, low fat if possible) 1/2 cup sour cream 2 cloves garlic, pressed salt and pepper to taste squeeze of lemon juice 1/2 cup walnuts, sunflower seeds, or almonds, chopped Instructions Drain the marinade from artichoke hearts. Chop the artichoke hearts finely with scallions, parsley, thyme, and leaves stripped from stems. Set aside. Mix cream cheese

with sour cream, garlic, salt and pepper to taste, and squeeze of lemon juice. Add the chopped artichoke/onion/herb mixture to cream cheese, and add chopped nuts. Blend well. Adjust seasonings to taste. Artichoke Nut Bread Ingredients 3/4 cup milk 1 cup artichoke pulp 1 egg 1/4 cup butter 2-1/2 cups flour 3/4 cups sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon nutmeg 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ginger 1 cup walnuts, chopped Instructions Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Melt the butter and in a small bowl combine milk, artichoke pulp, egg, and butter. In another bowl mix together flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, cinnamon, nutmeg, salt, and ginger. Add walnuts. Add to milk mixture and blend only until dry ingredients are moistened. Pour into 2 4 x 8-inch loaf pans, lightly greased. Bake 55 minutes. Serve warm with butter or chilled, sliced thin, with cream cheese spread.

Miscellaneous The artichoke was used as a food and medicine by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans; in Rome, the artichoke was an important menu item at feasts. It wasn't until the fifteenth century, however, that it made its appearance throughout Europe. According to Elizabethan folklore, the artichoke was created when a beautiful woman angered the gods and was turned into a thistle. Ancient physicians prescribed artichokes to enhance the flailing libidos of men and as a remedy for a variety of physical ailments. Roman scholar and naturalist Pliny noted the artichoke was more esteemed and valuable than any other garden herb at one time in ancient Rome. German poet Goethe was apparently not so enamored of artichokes, as he said in his book Travels Through Italy, "the peasants eat thistles," something he didn't care for at all. On Feb. 20, 1948, a young starlet named Marilyn Monroe stopped in Salinas, Calif., for a diamond-ring promotion. While there, she was crowned Artichoke Queen. While she wasn't the first Artichoke Queen, she was likely the most famous. Around the beginning of the first century, Greek and Roman royalty ruled that commoners may not eat artichokes.

Early Greeks recommended that women desiring to bear a male child should eat large quantities of artichokes. In the 16th century, eating an artichoke was reserved only for men. Women were denied the pleasure because the artichoke was considered an aphrodisiac and was thought to enhance sexual power. Sources See: http://home.no.net/heksebok/kilder.htm http://linnaeus.nrm.se/ http://www.liberherbarum.com Images http://www.all-creatures.org/recipes/images/i-artichoke.jpg http://ispb.univlyon1.fr/cours/botanique/photos_dicoty/dico%20A%20a%20C/Cynara%20scolymus.j pg http://jardin-mundani.com/compositae/catxofa2.jpg