RAM Advanse™

Version 7.0 May 2005

RAM International 2744 Loker Avenue West Bldg B, Ste 100 Carlsbad, CA 92008 Telephone: (760) 431-3610 Toll Free: (800) 726-7789 Fax: (760) 431-5214

TRADEMARKS
Microsoft, Windows, Excel and Word are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. The furnishing of the present program or documents does not give you any license to these trademarks and patents, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights implied.

DISCLAIMER
Both United States copyright law and international treaty provisions protect this software and related documentation. Any unauthorized copying or reproduction is strictly prohibited and subject to civil and criminal penalties. Please refer to the License Agreement for authorization to make a backup copy of the software. You may not sell this software or documentation or give copies of them away to anyone else. Except as expressly warranted in the License Agreement, RAM International disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the software, the accompanying written materials, and any accompanying hardware. All results should be verified to the user’s satisfaction. The contents of these written materials may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors and may be revised without prior notice.

Copyright 1990-2005, RAM International, L.L.C. All Rights Reserved.

RAM AdvanseTM, RAM ConnectionTM, RAM Connection StandaloneTM, RAM Structural SystemTM, RAM ManagerTM, RAM ModelerTM, RAM Steel® and RAM Frame® are trademarks of RAM International, L.L.C.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TRADEMARKS......................................................................................................................3 DISCLAIMER.........................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................17
How to learn RAM Advanse?.......................................................................................................................17 User Interaction Principle ............................................................................................................................17 Design in RAM Advanse ..............................................................................................................................17 Voice commands ..........................................................................................................................................18 Do you need assistance?.............................................................................................................................18 How to report bugs?.....................................................................................................................................18 New features..................................................................................................................................................19 Interface: .................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Analysis: .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Design: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Others:........................................................................................................................................................................ 20 RAM Connection:...................................................................................................................................................... 20

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................23
Main Window .................................................................................................................................................23 Data explorer .................................................................................................................................................24 Units ...............................................................................................................................................................26 Entering nodes, members and shells .........................................................................................................27 How to create nodes? ................................................................................................................................................. 28 End nodes of physical members ............................................................................................................................ 29 Nodes generation tools.......................................................................................................................................... 29 Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet............................................................................................... 29 How to create members?............................................................................................................................................ 30 Selecting the nodes ................................................................................................................................................ 30 Connecting the members ....................................................................................................................................... 32 Templates .............................................................................................................................................................. 32 How to create shells? ................................................................................................................................................. 32 Assigning properties to nodes, members and shells ...............................................................................33 Selecting the elements................................................................................................................................................ 34 Entering the required information in the worksheet................................................................................................... 34 Grouping members and shells ....................................................................................................................35 Load cases and combinations ....................................................................................................................37 Automatic generation of load combinations .............................................................................................................. 37 Entering loads for a load case.....................................................................................................................37 Display of data and results ..........................................................................................................................38 Zoom and rotation ........................................................................................................................................40 Panning..........................................................................................................................................................41 Selecting and hiding elements ....................................................................................................................41 Other basic operations.................................................................................................................................41 Undo Command ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 Erasing elements ........................................................................................................................................................ 41 Erasing the contents of a worksheet........................................................................................................................... 41 Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes ................................................................................................. 42 Segment Elements...................................................................................................................................................... 42 Customizing the interface............................................................................................................................42 General Configuration..................................................................................................................................45

CHAPTER 2: LOCAL AND GLOBAL AXES.......................................................................47

Coordinate systems ..................................................................................................................................... 47 Global coordinate system............................................................................................................................ 47 Local coordinate system ............................................................................................................................. 47 Principal coordinate system........................................................................................................................ 48 Element rotation ........................................................................................................................................... 48 180 and 90 degrees rotation........................................................................................................................................48 Rotating members at an angle.....................................................................................................................................50 Making a local axis parallel to a global axis...............................................................................................................50 Orientating a local axis toward a specific node ..........................................................................................................51 Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes .................................................................................52 Principal axes................................................................................................................................................ 53 Laterally restrained for torsion ................................................................................................................... 54

CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL MEMBERS, STRUCTURE DEBUGGING AND COMMANDS FOR ROTATING THE STRUCTURE .................................................................................. 55
Physical members ........................................................................................................................................ 55 Model Data Check......................................................................................................................................... 63 Rotating the Structure.................................................................................................................................. 64

CHAPTER 4: END RELEASES AND TENSION-ONLY MEMBERS .................................. 67
Pin (hinges) at both ends of members ....................................................................................................... 67 Pin one end of a member............................................................................................................................. 68 Fixing ends of elements............................................................................................................................... 69 Tension only members ................................................................................................................................ 70 Pre-tension .................................................................................................................................................... 71

CHAPTER 5: CARDINAL POINTS, RIGID ZONE OFFSETS, RIGID FLOOR AND PRESSURE ON FRAME MEMBERS.................................................................................. 73
Cardinal Points ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Rigid zone offsets......................................................................................................................................... 74 Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor)............................................................................................. 78 Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points...................................... 80 Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges........................................................................................... 82 Rigid floor...................................................................................................................................................... 82 Entering Rigid floor....................................................................................................................................................83 Pressure on frame members ....................................................................................................................... 84

CHAPTER 6: CREATING SECTIONS AND MATERIALS.................................................. 87
Creating new sections ................................................................................................................................. 87 Section names .............................................................................................................................................. 88 Section Collections ...................................................................................................................................... 89 Parameters for the design of steel members ............................................................................................ 90 Laterally restrained for torsion: ..................................................................................................................................90 Qmod2' exact:.............................................................................................................................................................91 Tapered Members ......................................................................................................................................... 92 Creating Materials......................................................................................................................................... 94 Importing and exporting sections and materials ...................................................................................... 95

CHAPTER 7: USING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ............................................................. 99
Templates ...................................................................................................................................................... 99 Example 1: Creating a Truss ....................................................................................................................... 99 Example 2: Creating an entire structure .................................................................................................. 103 Completing data.......................................................................................................................................... 108

CHAPTER 8: OTHER ADVANCED SUBJECTS .............................................................. 111
Generation of load combinations ............................................................................................................. 111

Elastic supports ..........................................................................................................................................112 Prescribed displacements .........................................................................................................................113 Self - weight.................................................................................................................................................114 Thermal loads..............................................................................................................................................115 Node generation..........................................................................................................................................115 Copy nodes............................................................................................................................................................... 117 Linear generation of nodes....................................................................................................................................... 118 Quadratic generation of nodes ................................................................................................................................. 118 Circular generation of nodes .................................................................................................................................... 119

CHAPTER 9: ANALYSIS...................................................................................................121
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................121 Frame Element ............................................................................................................................................122 Shell Element ..............................................................................................................................................124 Rigid Diaphragm Constraints ....................................................................................................................125 P-Delta Analysis..........................................................................................................................................125 What is P-Delta effect? ............................................................................................................................................ 125 Small p-delta effect .................................................................................................................................................. 125 Large P-Delta effect ................................................................................................................................................. 126 P-Delta calculation methods .................................................................................................................................... 126 Iterative P-Delta Effects........................................................................................................................................... 126 P-Delta effect in load combinations ......................................................................................................................... 127 Dynamic analysis, and P-Delta ................................................................................................................................ 127 Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span .......................................................... 128 Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis...............................................................................................128 Eigen Value Analysis..................................................................................................................................130 References...................................................................................................................................................131

CHAPTER 10: DYNAMIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS ...............................................................133
Modal Analysis............................................................................................................................................133 Determination of the Dynamic Forces......................................................................................................134 Methods of Modal Superposition............................................................................................................................. 134 CQC Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 SRSS Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 ABS Method......................................................................................................................................................... 134 Seismic results with sign...................................................................................................................................... 134 Entering Mass .............................................................................................................................................135 Seismic Loads.............................................................................................................................................136 Seismic analysis .........................................................................................................................................138 Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration ........................................................138 Load combinations .....................................................................................................................................139 Construction details ...................................................................................................................................139 Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse ............................................................................................................139 Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings....................................................................................................140 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) .....................................................................................................142

CHAPTER 11: STEEL AND WOOD STRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION AND CODE CHECK ...........................................................................................................................................145
Optimization and code check ....................................................................................................................147 Optimization ............................................................................................................................................................ 147 Verification or Code Check ..................................................................................................................................... 147 Optimization basis ......................................................................................................................................148 How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section ..................................................................................148 Optimization process .................................................................................................................................149 Verification process ...................................................................................................................................150 Structure deflections and deformations ..................................................................................................150

Optimization with other criteria................................................................................................................. 151 Appropriate section not found .................................................................................................................. 152 Non-steel or wood members ..................................................................................................................... 152 AISC and AISI sections .............................................................................................................................. 152 Optimization with default collection of sections..................................................................................... 152

CHAPTER 12: PRINTING GRAPHICS AND REPORTS .................................................. 153
Model Data................................................................................................................................................... 153 Loads Data .................................................................................................................................................. 153 Analysis Results ......................................................................................................................................... 153 Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 154 Steel Design ................................................................................................................................................ 154 Reinforced Concrete Design ..................................................................................................................... 155 Connections Design ................................................................................................................................... 156 Wood Design............................................................................................................................................... 156 List of Materials .......................................................................................................................................... 157 Parts List ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 List of Joints ............................................................................................................................................... 157 Diagrams ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 Report .......................................................................................................................................................................157 Display on the screen................................................................................................................................................159 Export diagrams to DXF files...................................................................................................................................160 Reports ........................................................................................................................................................ 161 General commands for print report...........................................................................................................................161 Customizing the heading of a report.........................................................................................................................163 Reports of the detailing modules ..............................................................................................................................164 Printing Graphics........................................................................................................................................ 164 Text Box....................................................................................................................................................... 166

CHAPTER 13: IMPORTING AND EXPORTING DATA .................................................... 169
Importing ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 DXF files ...................................................................................................................................................... 169 What are DXF files? .................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting as DXF files................................................................................................................................ 169 Importing a DXF file.................................................................................................................................... 170 Creating a DXF file...................................................................................................................................... 170 Reading DXF files ....................................................................................................................................... 171 RAM Structural System Files .................................................................................................................... 172 SDNF Files................................................................................................................................................... 172 What are SDNF files? ................................................................................................................................. 172 Sending data to a SDNF file....................................................................................................................... 172 Sending data to RAM BasePlate ............................................................................................................... 174

CHAPTER 14: SHELLS .................................................................................................... 175
Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 175 The Shell Element....................................................................................................................................... 175 Applications for the model ........................................................................................................................ 177 Generating shells........................................................................................................................................ 179 Description .................................................................................................................................................. 181 Entering Shell Thickness........................................................................................................................... 181 Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing)..................................................................................... 182 Assigning Materials.................................................................................................................................... 183 Pressure on the Plates............................................................................................................................... 183 Segmentation (meshing) of Plates............................................................................................................ 184 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells .......................................................... 187 Printing the results ..................................................................................................................................... 187

Shell stresses..............................................................................................................................................188 Internal forces in nodes .............................................................................................................................189 Corner Forces .............................................................................................................................................190 Face forces ..................................................................................................................................................190 Reinforced concrete design for plates .....................................................................................................191 Graphic environment..................................................................................................................................191 Frame members (default) ......................................................................................................................................... 192 Stresses..................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Internal forces in nodes ............................................................................................................................................ 192 Reinforcement in RC plates ..................................................................................................................................... 193 Smooth ..................................................................................................................................................................... 195 Envel and Max ......................................................................................................................................................... 195 Stresses on both sides of the shell ............................................................................................................................ 196

CHAPTER 15: CREATING NEW TYPES OF SECTIONS WITH MACROS......................197
Common parameters:.................................................................................................................................199 Default Units............................................................................................................................................................ 200 Section type.............................................................................................................................................................. 200 Shape........................................................................................................................................................................ 200 Design code.............................................................................................................................................................. 201 Design formulation .................................................................................................................................................. 201 Cbmax........................................................................................................................................................... 202 Connection ............................................................................................................................................................... 202 Category........................................................................................................................................................ 203 Commentary............................................................................................................................................................. 203 Section variables ........................................................................................................................................204 Prop AskUser ..............................................................................................................................................205 Prop Section Shape ....................................................................................................................................206 Node......................................................................................................................................................................... 206 SetLine...EndLine .................................................................................................................................................... 207 Segment ................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Rigid(ity).................................................................................................................................................................. 208 SetSolid.................................................................................................................................................................... 210 Bars and Bar............................................................................................................................................................. 211 Join........................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Closed ...................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Line .......................................................................................................................................................................... 213 Prop Tapered properties ............................................................................................................................213 Prop PropertiesCalc ...................................................................................................................................213

CHAPTER 16: CREATING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ..................................................215
The TEXT.tpl file..........................................................................................................................................216 The TPL file..................................................................................................................................................216 DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................ 216 VARIABLES ........................................................................................................................................................... 216 SELECT................................................................................................................................................................... 217 LINE ........................................................................................................................................................................ 218 DIAGONAL ............................................................................................................................................................ 219 TEMPLATE............................................................................................................................................................. 222 Example 1: Creating a template ................................................................................................................223 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing.................................................................................................................. 224 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing ................................................................................................ 224 3) Create the TPL file............................................................................................................................................... 225 Example 2: Creating a template ................................................................................................................227 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing........................................................................................................................... 228 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing ............................................................................................................ 228

3) Create the TPL file ...............................................................................................................................................229 Using the Example 2 template................................................................................................................... 232

CHAPTER 17: BUILDING STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 235
Generating deck or wall areas................................................................................................................... 235 Generating Wind Load ............................................................................................................................... 238 Rigid floor diaphragm ..............................................................................................................................................238 Generating wind loads ............................................................................................................................... 239 Generating masses for each floor ............................................................................................................ 241

CHAPTER 18: DESIGN AND DETAILING MODULES..................................................... 245
Design.......................................................................................................................................................... 245 Design and Detailing Modules .................................................................................................................. 245 Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 246 Invoking the Modules ................................................................................................................................. 246 Dependent detailing modules ...................................................................................................................................246 Independent detailing modules .................................................................................................................................248 Organization of the Modules ..................................................................................................................... 249 Navigation and Data Entry......................................................................................................................... 250 Zoom ........................................................................................................................................................................250 Font Size...................................................................................................................................................................251 DXF files ..................................................................................................................................................................251 Print graphics............................................................................................................................................................251 Panning .....................................................................................................................................................................251 Data Entry.................................................................................................................................................................252 Results and verifications ........................................................................................................................... 254

CHAPTER 19: GENERAL DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES ...................................... 255
Loads ........................................................................................................................................................... 255 Sections....................................................................................................................................................... 256 Selection of the design code..................................................................................................................... 256 Coordinate system used in design ........................................................................................................... 257 Design Parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 258 Braced Against Sidesway Flag ................................................................................................................. 258 Effective Length (K) Factors...................................................................................................................... 259 Axial unbraced length of the member (L) ................................................................................................ 260 Lbpos, Lbneg lengths............................................................................................................ 260 Cm Coefficients...................................................................................................................... 261 Cb Coefficients....................................................................................................................... 261 Lepos, Leneg lengths ...................................................................................................................... 262 m Coefficients................................................................................................................................... 262 mLT Coefficients .............................................................................................................................. 262 Torsion......................................................................................................................................................... 263 Design and optimization ............................................................................................................................ 263 Steel Connections ...................................................................................................................................... 264 Output of results......................................................................................................................................... 264 Screen output ............................................................................................................................................................265 Reports......................................................................................................................................................................266

CHAPTER 20: DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ....... 269
Determination of a member with an AISC section .................................................................................. 269 CODE=HOTROLLED .............................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINEOPEN ..................................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINECLOSED .............................................................................................................................................270

SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 270 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 270 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................271 ASD technical notes ...................................................................................................................................272 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 272 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 274 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 274 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 274 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 275 Combined stresses.................................................................................................................................................... 275 LRFD technical notes .................................................................................................................................275 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 275 Members in tension.................................................................................................................................................. 277 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 277 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 278 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................278 AISC-ASD Flowcharts ................................................................................................................................280 AISC-LRFD Flowcharts ..............................................................................................................................298

CHAPTER 21: DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS (AISI-96) ....................311
Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member ......................................................................311 CODE=COLDFORMED ......................................................................................................................................... 311 TYPE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 311 2nd order analysis........................................................................................................................................312 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................312 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 312 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Flexural members..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Compression members............................................................................................................................................. 314 Combined axial load and bending............................................................................................................................ 315 Tubular members ..................................................................................................................................................... 315 AISI 96 Flowcharts ......................................................................................................................................316

CHAPTER 22: DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS (BS 5950) ..............................................331
Determination of a member with a BS section ........................................................................................331 CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED ........................................................................................ 331 TYPE=LINEOPEN.................................................................................................................................................. 331 TYPE=LINECLOSED............................................................................................................................................. 331 SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 331 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 332 Load Combinations ....................................................................................................................................332 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................333 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................333 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 333 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 334 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 334 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 335 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 337 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................337 BS 5950 Flowcharts....................................................................................................................................339

CHAPTER 23: ACI REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN ................................................349
Loads ...........................................................................................................................................................349 Bar size series.............................................................................................................................................349

CHAPTER 24: REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM DESIGN............................................351
Identifying Concrete Beams ......................................................................................................................351

Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 352 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................352 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................353 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 353 General .....................................................................................................................................................................354 Limitations................................................................................................................................................................354 Flexural Design ........................................................................................................................................................354 Shear Design.............................................................................................................................................................355 Torsion Design .........................................................................................................................................................356 Detailing Requirements ............................................................................................................................................357 Reports and Screen Output....................................................................................................................... 358 Summary Report of Beam Design ............................................................................................................................358 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................362 Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module ................................................................................................ 363 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................363 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................369 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................371 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................373 Report of reinforced concrete beams....................................................................................................... 375 ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts ....................................................................................................... 378

CHAPTER 25: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS. 391
Identifying the columns for design........................................................................................................... 391 Column Design Parameters....................................................................................................................... 392 Braced Against Sidesway Flag .................................................................................................................................392 Effective Length (K) Factor......................................................................................................................................393 Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor........................................................................................................................393 Unbraced Member Length (L)..................................................................................................................................394 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 394 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................395 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................395 ACI Technical Notes ................................................................................................................................... 395 Design of longitudinal reinforcement .......................................................................................................................396 Slenderness effects ...................................................................................................................................................396 Bending design .........................................................................................................................................................398 Shear design..............................................................................................................................................................398 Special provisions for seismic design.......................................................................................................................399 Output .......................................................................................................................................................... 399 Report Output ...........................................................................................................................................................399 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................400 Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module............................................................................................. 402 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................402 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................414 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................419 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................419 Report of reinforced concrete columns ................................................................................................... 420 ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts.................................................................................................... 423

CHAPTER 26: FOOTING DESIGN AND DETAILING ...................................................... 441
Design Steps ............................................................................................................................................... 441 Soil-footing-structure modeling................................................................................................................................441 Adopted dimensions .................................................................................................................................................441 Verifications .............................................................................................................................................................441 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 441 Loads ........................................................................................................................................................................442 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................442 Overall stability against sliding, overturning and soil bearing capacity ...................................................................442

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 447 Design Screen .......... 541 ..........................................................Theory ................................................... 495 Columns and other compression members....................................................................522 Database Organization ........................................................................ 526 Databases for sections...... 518 Design Criteria ...... 477 Member Section .......................................................... 492 Wood Detailing Module .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 536 Groups4............................................................................................................................................ 460 Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................492 ASD technical notes ........... 495 Beams and other flexural members................................................. 533 Group2: Result display options.........500 CHAPTER 28: STEEL CONNECTIONS................................................................................................................. 531 Connection Toolbar ...... 537 Connection Worksheet....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 535 Group3: Design and Assignment settings ............................................................................................................................................................... 464 Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts.................................................................................. 456 Configuration Screen .................................504 Grouped Connections........................................................................................................................................... 504 Individual Connections .........................................................................477 Determination of the wood member data........ 477 Wood materials ...................................................503 How to Use RAM Connection? ............................................................................................................................................................................................477 Loads..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................532 Group1: Selection options (connections and joints)................................... 457 Report of reinforced concrete footings....................................519 The Connection Template Database..................................................................................... 522 Defining Connection Templates .......503 What is a Connection? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 459 Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction .....................................................................................467 CHAPTER 27: WOOD DESIGN (NDS-ASD) ..............................................5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons .................................................................................................444 Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 496 Wood design macro for adjustment factors ...............................................................497 References.......447 Data Screen ....................................................................................................................................................... 453 Detailing Screen...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... bolts and welds................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 444 Foundation Spring Modeling Tools .......................................................................................................... 486 Design post processing inside RAM Advanse ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 504 Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) ............................................... 479 Species ................................494 Tension members ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 540 Assign selected connection template to model ........................... 480 Design Parameters ............................................................................................................... materials..............................................................................490 Reports .......................... 514 HSS Section Supports .............. 491 Deflection control ....... 490 Screen output ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 504 Designing Connections ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 537 Customizing the connection toolbar........................................................................................................................................................503 How to find technical information about a specific connection?.................................... 496 Combined stresses...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Design .................................................... 495 Members subject to torsion .......................................................................................................................................................540 Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet...460 Column Located at Center of Footing............................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................561 Reinforced Concrete Design .............................................577 4) Optimization............................................................................................ 577 Design steps .................................................................................................................... 552 CHAPTER 29: RETAINING WALLS.................................................................................578 Design Codes..................................................................................................561 Design of components of the wall ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................560 Load Combinations..............................................578 Limitations.........................................................................................561 Unreinforced Concrete Design ......................................................................................564 Design Screen.........................................580 ..............................555 General .................................. 576 CHAPTER 30: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS...........................................................................................................................577 Technical Notes ........557 Loads ...........................579 Load combinations.555 Technical notes.567 Detailing Screen ..................................................................................................547 DXF files ....................................................................................................573 Reports and Screen Output ......................................... 555 Design steps ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 555 1) Data introduction............................................................................................557 Stem axial loads ......................................................................................................................................................................................569 Configuration Screen...............................................................................................................547 3: Help area...............................................................................................................................................................Replace (all) the current selected connection (s)...547 Panning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................545 Font Size......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 577 1) Entering Data............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 578 General ..................................555 2) Verification and Detailing .............................................................................................557 Earth pressures ...............................................................................................................................................................................................557 Design Codes..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................578 Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 551 References ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................543 Deleting model connections............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Data Screen..........................................................................................................................557 Seismic Load .................................543 Connection Pad ................................................................................................................................................................................................579 Pattern loading ...........................................547 Print graphics............................................................544 2: Drawing area ..................................................580 Design parameters ..............................................................................................................................................548 Connections Reports ............556 Limitations..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................... 543 1: Properties area ...................................................................................................555 3) Optimization...........................................577 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................571 View as RAM Advanse Model.................................577 3) Verifications ........................................................................................................................................................543 Assign connection description .....................573 References ......................................................................................................563 Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module ......................................................................................... 555 Terminology ................547 LEO Code (macros).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................562 Reinforced Masonry Design ...................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 590 Reports and Screen Output..................................... 581 Design ...................................................................................................... 622 WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements .................................................................................................................... 618 Operations with Float variables................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................ 629 Properties as parameters by reference.........................Cracked Section Factors ................................................................ 624 GROUP statements .............................................................................................. 621 FOR 2(i=0................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 617 Short form................................................................................................... 629 Assigning expressions as parameters by reference................................................ 582 Design Screen ........ 581 Passing data of the main program ............................................................ 580 Unbraced length Lb......................................................................................................................................... 598 Connection Design........................................................................ 605 Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse) .................................. ............................. 580 Bending coefficient Cb ............................................................................................621 IF THEN statements.................... 632 Additional commands for LEO Editor.............. ................................................................................................................................................................................. 624 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) ................................................ 585 Detailing Screen........... 598 End Plate.. ... ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................610 LEO Commands ... 602 Bolted connection design example: .................................................................... 588 Optimization screen .......................................................................................................................................... 618 By assigning an initial value............................................................................................ ......632 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................597 Macros for connections ..................................................617 Explicit form............................................................................................ 581 Design/Detailing Module Beam ............................. 621 FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements ............................................................................................................................................................ 624 PROP READ statements (Property)................................... .. +1) statements..........597 Basic example of a macro .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 597 Customizing geometry ...................................................................................................................................................611 Data types and variables...........................................................................................................................................................................581 Entering data for a Continuous Beam .............................. <N ............................................................................................................................................ 590 CHAPTER 31: PROGRAMMING IN LEO..................................................................................................................................................................................... 586 Configuration Screen ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 601 Assigning a status message to the connection.................................................................................................................................................................................. 598 Entering the commands ..........................................................................................................................................................................................619 Structured statements............................. 602 Welded connection design example.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 627 Parameters by reference............................................................................. 581 Detailing Requirements.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 621 IF THEN ELSE statements .......................................................................................................................................606 Macros to define section types ................................................ 582 Data Screen ............................................................................................................... 622 WHILE statements..........................................................

.

general-purpose structural engineering software package. Experienced users may want to see the new features that are briefly explained in the next section. This program provides unequaled flexibility for the design and analysis of different types of 2D or 3D structures containing linear members and shell elements. the engineer can then apply any command that will only affect those elements. BS. a revolutionary tool that allows the fast design of steel connections inside or outside RAM Advanse. Specifically. NDS and ACI codes respectively. a powerful and flexible 3D. reinforced concrete columns. retaining walls and continuous beams. reinforced concrete or wood structures. The program includes special modules for designing isolated footings. After each verification cycle. The types of analysis available are: First order (Linear Analysis). The engineer defines initial properties (i. The most important benefit of this procedure is that the user will have a complete control of the structure design and the certainty that it suits to his/her requirements 17 .e. is the "trial and error" procedure. User Interaction Principle RAM Advanse has adopted a constant philosophy in the way all of its commands (actions) are applied to members in a model. How to learn RAM Advanse? We strongly suggest that new users start reading Chapter 1 of the manual and then continue with the RAM Advanse Examples Manual to learn and practice the basic commands of the program. All the provided tools for entering or generating data. Second order (P-Delta Analysis) and Dynamic (Seismic Analysis). the user has to select the desired elements (nodes. In addition. the user is free to change or confirm the properties with or without several tools developed for this purpose. members or shells) of the structure and once they are selected. together with the display and printing options adhere to this ‘select and apply’ principle.Introduction Introduction Welcome to RAM Advanse. This ‘select and apply’ rule is a unique and fundamental feature of the program that facilitates rapid model creation and output customization. wood (sawn lumber and glulam) and reinforced concrete elements using the AISC. AISI. sections and materials) and the program verifies the members obtaining a strength ratio that reflects the status of each element. For further details please see the indicated chapters. Design in RAM Advanse Another philosophy that RAM Advanse has adopted for the design of steel. Additionally RAM Advanse can work with RAM Connection. RAM Advanse is also capable of designing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel structures.

can dramatically improve the speed at which models are created. 18 . Do you need assistance? RAM Advanse has several tools that can help you during the execution of the program.com. that a side effect is not detected during the quality assurance.Introduction Voice commands This high-tech feature. analysis and design of a typical structure. all the involved changes are always thoroughly tested. please let us know. In principle. Additionally. press F1 (or click on the help button in the worksheet area) to access context sensitive help. however. You can call the Assistant (pressing F4 to activate it). Although. Select the option: Help/Create bug report. It will guide you step-by-step through the modeling. members or elements should be selected using traditional methods (mouse or spreadsheet). combined with the mouse. for a feature that is not covered. or at any time you need assistance on any particular feature you are working on. How to report bugs? We are continuously improving the program to increase your productivity. and then commands can be verbally issued. If you find something that is not working as you expect during the check of your work. it is possible. Use the bug report option to compile all the information and send it to advansesupport@ramint.

This includes elapsed times and warnings. New tool for the generation of intermediate nodes at certain distances from the start or end nodes.0.Introduction Select the desired options to create the compressed file and send it to our technical support. Enhanced spreadsheets with improved capacity to cut or paste information to the clipboard and many new features. Interface: The user interface has been improved in many aspects. Option to display merged loads for load combinations avoiding superposition. New features This section describes the features added in version 7. The most important are: • • • • • • New progress windows for analysis and design with an additional window that displays a log after the processes are completed. New button ( ) to access units configuration dialog without going to the menu. New colors and improved ranges for the display of forces and stresses. 19 . Improved graphics quality. More detailed explanations of these features will be found in the corresponding chapters of the manual or in the Help context.

Now the program calculates bending moments and shear forces acting in plates with out-of–plane loads. • • • • Others: • • • • • New Concise AISI member design report. Now the footing-detailing module suggests the dimensions of the footing to be analyzed. This will be reflected even more in big models or complex structures. A sparse solver is employed and utilizes a sky-line column storage algorithm. New design and detailing module for continuous beams that includes wood. • • • Design: • • New retaining wall design module that includes cantilever and restrained walls. Former versions had a maximum limit of 15 modes. An internal bandwidth optimization is carried out before starting the analysis. The connections consider single braces. Improved quality and speed of printing graphs and tables. Improved data entering for members’ optimization process. Data exportation to RAM BasePlate enabled for HSS columns. Calculation of the P-Delta effects using a geometric stiffness matrix. The order of the selected columns is smartly reordered (from bottom to top) before running the detailing concrete design module. and any combination of braces and beams (only one brace per 20 . Consideration of shear forces for static loads in reinforced concrete seismic design. Through shear or transverse shear in plates. being more realistic (since it is directly derived from kinematics of motion) and also more robust in comparison with the method adopted in previous versions (the fictitious lateral load method). tees. concrete and steel beams according to the codes covered in the main program. Automatic load patterns (skip loading) is available in the module. W-shapes or HSS shapes. RAM Connection: Bracing connections that include bracing members as single angles. Shell reports have been modified to include through shear and the new analysis features. The number of mode frequencies is restricted now only by the number of masses. tees or channels. masonry.Introduction Analysis: The analysis has been dramatically improved with the implementation of a completely new analysis engine. The following improvements have been obtained: • Improved analysis time. The time required for the analysis has been reduced to a fraction in the order of 20 to 50% of the time required in previous versions. double angles. where the reduction in time will be close to the smaller percentage. channels. double braces (k-braces). concrete. Spread footings design per ACI-318. reinforced or un-reinforced walls according to ACI 318-99 and ACI 530-02.

• • 2D Graphics with DXF output for all existing connections and several options to draw (dimensions. 21 .) and export drawings. Calculation of welds for stiffeners and other minor enhancements. labels.Introduction quadrant is allowed). The connectors between members and gusset may be angles. views. simple plates or welds. etc.

.

manipulated and viewed. The general use of these areas is described later in this chapter. In short the areas are: A: Applications menu bar: Where you can find the main commands of the program to input. Customizing the interface After learning the basic operations. Main Window RAM Advanse has a main window in which all the model geometric. Group members and shells 4. Enter loads 6. output or process the model. The basic operations of the program required to create a structural model are: 1. materials. D: Data Panel Worksheet/Spreadsheet area – Area where member properties and geometric data are input for the selected members. view data or results. Create load cases and load combinations 5. draw. The main window is displayed below with all of the individual work areas identified. B: Toolbars – Commands to help you rapidly select. Note that the location and visibility of the toolbars are configurable (see the last sections of this chapter). Assign properties to elements such as sections.Chapter 1: General Overview Chapter 1: General Overview The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the basic commands required to model a structure in RAM Advanse. and to familiarize the user with the programs interface. 3. members and shells 2. and design elements of your model. 23 . etc. Create nodes. Other basic operations 8. E: Display area – Area where model and any other selected display options are shown. Display various member properties 7. C: Data Explorer – Area to allow engineer to quickly navigate to desired input spreadsheet and to review what data has been input. section and load data is input. we recommend you practice the basic operations by modeling one of the structures in the Examples Manual.

Remark.Initially the Data Explorer is disabled (hidden)..Chapter 1: General Overview RAM Advanse Main window. you can simply click over the required item in the Explorer and it will open the corresponding worksheet. Data explorer The Explorer shows you all the available data worksheets where you can enter the data for the model. Or you can use the option available in the Applications Menu Bar or Main Menu: 24 . To navigate from one worksheet to another. To activate (or deactivate) it you have to press the following button in the Panels Toolbar as shown in the figure (if this toolbar is visible).

Use one of these options to enable the worksheet.Chapter 1: General Overview The data Explorer is always used with the Worksheet. if your structure does not have shells. In this way the user can easily verify what data have been entered and what data is still required. It is only necessary to enter data required to completely model the specific structure. 25 . If the items in the list are checked . then the corresponding shell item can be ignored. Therefore you have to activate the worksheet as well. The user can skip from one worksheet to another in almost any order. it means that those items contain data. It is also not necessary to follow a specific order in data entry. The user is not required to enter data for all of the items. For example.

Units It is always recommended to define the current unit system before entering any data.Chapter 1: General Overview If you want to hide your Explorer then you can still get to any worksheet on the Data panel by pressing one of the Tab elements (1). To define the units press the button or go to the Applications Menu Bar select the units option: Select the option: Configuration/Units 26 . as it is illustrated in the figure above. and then the button related to the desired property (2).

In this chapter we will explain the manual entry of nodes. For example. Entering nodes. the specific units within the selected system for different groups of variables (2) or select custom predefined settings for the former options (3). 27 . and shell elements with their corresponding properties. Refer to the relevant chapters of this manual for a description of the other methods available to create a model. members and shells. you can import a model from a DXF file. linear members. the user can select the desired units system (1) (English. you can import it from RAM Structural System or you can generate it manually. SI or Metric). There are several methods available to generate these elements. you can create it using templates.Chapter 1: General Overview In the dialog box. members and shells A single structural model consists mainly of nodes.

Chapter 1: General Overview How to create nodes? Go to the Nodes/Coordinates worksheet. Use the space bar or tab button to move between cells on the same row and Enter to go to the next row of cells. the nodes are displayed graphically. For example. You can click in the Nodes/Coordinates item of the Explorer or if it is hidden you can use the Tabs (Nodes) and the corresponding buttons (Coordinates) of the Data Panel. Note that while you are entering the coordinates. if you are working with inches for lengths in the English units system. You can even combine different units. you can enter 10'-6" and the program will interpret this value as 10. Then you can enter "10ft" and the program will automatically perform the conversion to the default units (in this case [in]). Some examples of acceptable data entry are given next: 10ft 10’ 28 . but you want to enter a coordinate in feet. Enter the node coordinate data in the worksheet.5 ft. When entering coordinates you can include the units of the coordinates. For example.

Press the button to undo the entered data. which has useful information on: 1) The data to be introduced in the worksheets and 2) The use of the tool buttons to generate the data. See the description of all shortcuts and mouse operations in the help menu for more hints. The user can create the coordinates in another application like Excel and then paste the data into RAM Advanse. In any worksheet of the Data Panel you can press F1 to display the Help context. 29 . Press F1 to obtain more information related to the use and application of these tools.Chapter 1: General Overview 10ft-6in 10’-6” 10ft-6” 10ft-16cm 10m 10m-50cm This feature can be applied in any worksheet of the Data Panel. Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet This is a powerful option for the generation of node coordinates. Press ESC if you want to cancel the entry. The generation of intermediate nodes or the nodes at the intersections of members will be described later. Press F2 if you want to edit the cell contents. Nodes generation tools At the bottom of the Coordinates worksheet you can find several buttons for the automatic generation of nodes. End nodes of physical members It is only necessary to enter the nodes at the ends of physical members.

This paste option can be applied to any worksheet of the Data Panel. For more information on how to use this command. Select the nodes that will be connected by the members. you can generate the nodes coordinates in Excel. For example. press F1 and then go to General commands of the worksheet. How to create members? Go to Members/Connectivity worksheet (Nodes and Description) to generate members. Connect the members pressing the button or . It is also possible to copy the contents of a RAM Advanse worksheet and paste it into another application. its initial and final nodes have to be selected. Selecting the nodes To generate any member. 2.Chapter 1: General Overview The illustrated button pastes the information of the Clipboard to the active worksheet of the Data Panel. 30 . The creation of members is simple and it is performed in two steps: 1. the user can generate the springs for a mat-slab in Excel and then import them with this command. For example. copy them to the Clipboard and then paste them to the Nodes worksheet using the indicated button.

both nodes have to be enclosed in the rectangle. You can select multiple members by enclosing the members in a rectangle created by click and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. If you press the Ctrl key instead of the Shift key while you are selecting members. pressing the Shift key enables the selection of the elements within the area without affecting the selection state of the elements outside the area. Using this technique only the elements fully enclosed by the area are selected. in the case of members. the previously selected elements are deselected. member or shell). invoke the Assistant (press F4) and go to General actions of frequent use or see the list of Mouse Operations. That is. Pressing the Shift key. When you click on an element (node. the user can select (or deselect) several members without affecting the previously selected elements. 31 .Chapter 1: General Overview To select multiple nodes. In this case. click the cursor on the first node and then holding down the shift key select each of the remaining nodes. all the elements partially covered by the area (with at least one node in rectangle) will be selected. the four nodes have to be enclosed. For more information on the selection features. and in the case of shells.

It is also possible to generate the information in Excel (for example) and use the copy-paste command to bring the data into Advanse.Chapter 1: General Overview Connecting the members Press the button indicated in the previous figure to connect the members between the selected nodes. This button will connect the nodes in a continuous manner. 32 ..Note that it is also possible to manually enter (directly in the worksheet) the information (initial and final node numbers) for each member. You can press F1 to have more information related to the rest of the tool buttons of this worksheet. This feature is explained in detail later in the manual but should be kept in mind when creating typical structural components such as trusses. You can define physical members by selecting only the start and final nodes of the member: The member will be automatically segmented for the analysis. How to create shells? Go to Shells/Connectivity (Nodes) worksheet for the generation of shells. Press the button to connect the nodes alternately with members. Templates Available structural templates allow for the rapid generation of members and nodes for specific types of structures. Important! Note that the selection order of the nodes is very important as it defines the local axes of the members. Select the nodes that will be connected by shells or physical shells (with overall dimensions). Remark. See Chapter 3 for further details. You can create shells in the same way as members with the following two steps: 1.

These properties include restraints. thickness. members and shells have been entered. sections. The steps to assign properties to elements are: 1. Then. the user has to assign properties to them. Please note the required selection order of the nodes. etc. Create shells by pressing the button . Important! The shell elements are finite elements that need to be segmented to increment the precision in the analysis. Press F1 to obtain more information related to the tool buttons of this worksheet. Note that you can create several shell elements if you select more than 4 nodes. You can define the mesh size by typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet. materials. The nodes have to be selected in the order shown in the figure. as it is illustrated in the previous figure. press the indicated button to generate them.Chapter 1: General Overview 2. Go to the required worksheet 2. Enter the required information in the corresponding worksheet. 33 . Select the desired elements to be assigned with the properties 3. members and shells Once the nodes. Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes: Assigning properties to nodes.

For example. select the support nodes to assign the restraints. or it can be pasted from the Clipboard. Information can be entered manually in the worksheet. Note that in the worksheet only the information of the selected members are displayed. 34 . To copy a value to all the selected members put the cursor in the cell with the desired value and press the button indicated in the figure above. to assign the restraints to the support nodes you can proceed as follows: 1. It can also be defined by using the tool buttons.Chapter 1: General Overview Selecting the elements Select the elements to be assigned with a property. You can select any element by entering its number in the first column of the worksheet and pressing ENTER (as it is show in the previous figure). Go to the Nodes/Restraints worksheet. For example. Entering the required information in the worksheet In the worksheet enter the required information.

which is found in the Members/Connectivity and Shells/Thickness worksheets. Once the members or shells have a description. To group several members or shells you have to assign them the same Description. Select the support nodes 3.Chapter 1: General Overview 2. 35 . it is of vital importance to group the elements to facilitate easier selection (and design). so that elements can be selected in groups instead of individually. Therefore. Grouping members and shells As you may have noticed. Button to select all elements with the same description. The members and shells can be grouped using the Description property. the rapid and easy selection of elements is very important in the program. It only erases the properties or information of the current worksheet. All the current data in a worksheet may be cleared using the button . Press one of the following buttons indicated in the figure. This tool button does not erase the related elements. you can select the whole group (all members with the same description) by using the tool button shown in the figure above.

To simultaneously select several groups select one instance (member or shell) of each group using the Shift key and then press the button . to copy a description to all the selected members. You can use the button . This command copies the description of the last selected element to the rest of the selected elements. You can automatically generate default descriptions with the buttons for shells. . The program will select all members with the same Description(s) of the previously selected members. to select all the roof beams of the model shown in the figure above.Chapter 1: General Overview For example. select one instance of the members and then press the button . for members and 36 .

Create new load cases or combinations.Chapter 1: General Overview Load cases and combinations Loads tab of the main menu. 5. you can create a new one. 6. Clear load cases or combinations. This figure shows the option in the Application Menu bar used to create. RAM Advanse manages the dynamic load cases exactly in the same way as the static load cases. Note that the limit of the number of load conditions in RAM Advanse is 200. In the event that no generator file matches your needs. For more details press F1 in the dialog box. You can use the Loads toolbar to select the current load case or combination for the entry or editing of loads Loads toolbar Automatic generation of load combinations You can automatically generate load combinations in RAM Advanse. This option allows you to: 4. Entering loads for a load case First. Execute the Loads/Generate load combinations command on the main menu and select one of the combinations file provided by the program. delete. Edit the load case or combinations. 37 . select the desired load case before proceeding to enter loads. edit and select load conditions (RAM Advanse refers to both load cases and load combinations as load conditions).

for example. This is controlled through the Display options window or the set of available tool bars that may be shown on the screen. 38 . invoke the command Loads/Copy forces from another load case from the main menu. which will be associated with the loads to be entered.Chapter 1: General Overview Select the current load case. This command is very useful. To do this. This procedure can also be used for 3D structures with similar load cases. to create alternate loads in different spans of continuous beams. You can also copy the loads from one load case to the current load case. members or shells as explained for other properties. Then you can erase the loads over alternate spans in the two load cases. Display of data and results RAM Advanse follows the forces sign convention shown below: RAM Advanse can show almost all data and results in a graphical way. Continue with the entry of the loads on nodes. You only have to create one load condition with the loads over all the spans and then copy the loads to the other load cases.

A tooltip for the button will be displayed if you hover with the cursor over the desired button. It has several tabs with the different display toolbars Available display toolbars. The following button the screen unselects all the display option buttons. Press the button with the desired option to display it or unselect it to hide the option. You can find it at the top right of 39 .Chapter 1: General Overview Enable the Display options window (1) or the different toolbars to display data and results (2) Display options window.

Display of translations and rotations 2. change perspective. Zoom and rotation The following toolbars are used to zoom. in the Units toolbar to view the units with all of the displayed values. These buttons are applicable with the following display options (see Model properties and Analysis toolbars): 1. Display of masses Press the button . rotate and edit the view of the model. press the button to display the reactions and then press the "2" button. For example.Chapter 1: General Overview Or you can use the available option in the main menu Note that you can also use the shortcut Ctrl + U to unselect all the display options This group of buttons allows the user to select the degree of freedom to be displayed for certain selected parameters. Mouse wheel is equivalent to or or or or . . if you want to display the Reactions parallel to the global Y-axis. Ctrl + mouse wheel is equivalent to Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + 0 (or mouse wheel click) is equivalent to 40 . Visualization and Cursor toolbars to define the view of the model. If you want to display the moments around the global Z axis you have to press the "6" button. font size. Display of reactions 3. . If you have a mouse wheel you can use it to rotate and zoom in or out the model.

members and/or shells.Chapter 1: General Overview Notice that you can modify the rotation increment for each rotation command in the Configuration/General/View rotation increment option of the main menu. and press the button . Selecting and hiding elements The selection of elements and nodes are performed with the following toolbar: Selection toolbar To hide parts of your model you can perform the following steps: 1. If you press the button again. (Unselect the other elements) 2. Press the button . Erasing elements If you want to delete nodes. you can undo it by pressing the button in the Worksheet. Panning Click the right button at the point on the structure that you want centered on the screen. 41 . To view the whole model press the same button again. Select what you want to view. Clicking with the right button of your mouse will move the center of the screen to that point. go to the corresponding worksheet. Other basic operations Undo Command If you have accidentally performed an action. the previous command will be undone and so on. you have to first select them and then press the button Erasing the contents of a worksheet To erase data related to a group of elements select the desired elements.

of the main menu. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect members to the remainder nodes. press in the Model toolbar or use the option Tools/Data Generation/Delete duplicated elements. etc) is maintained even if there are some elements that have been deleted. If you had a printout before erasing these elements.. Customizing the interface The different tools available in RA are now grouped into different toolbars: • • • • • • • • • 42 Model properties: used to display data in the graphics window. the member is segmented and the node is incorporated. zoom out. This tool solves this problem by eliminating those elements. This will eliminate all the unnecessary elements that can even affect the results of the analysis. This command acts over all the elements in the entire structure. irrespective of which elements are currently selected. It is recommended that this command be issued before performing an analysis. Rendering: to display the model in 3D with data and/or results. load areas. members.e. .Chapter 1: General Overview Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes When you automatically generate data with the various tools available in the program.f: toolbar to select the desired degree of freedom. you can select them and apply the tool of the worksheet. Note also that for consistent output and reference. element numbering (nodes. and define the perspective and font size of the graphics. Segment Elements This tool is used when a node is located in the same physical space as a member. masses. See Chapter 3 for further details. Selection: toolbar to assist in the selection of elements. Design properties: toolbar to display parameters required for design. 2. Analysis: toolbar to display deflections. The purposes of this tool is: 1. It is used in combination with other display buttons that require this information (i. it is possible to generate members and nodes that are duplicated or disconnected. However if you want to reorder the numbers of your elements.. save or debug the model. Code Check: toolbar to display the results and status of the elements after the design. Visualization: toolbar to zoom in.o. you will be able to compare similar elements of the new model to the ones of the initial model. shells. deformed shapes and force diagrams after the analysis. Eliminate members with zero length and "floating" nodes (nodes not connected to elements) To execute the command. Model: toolbar to open. To eliminate duplicated members (members with exactly the same connectivity) 3. displacement values or reactions). d.

Chapter 1: General Overview • • • • • Cursor: toolbar to define the rotation of the model in the view. 43 . Panels: toolbar to define if the different panels will be visible (Data Explorer. Data Panel. analysis and code check toolbars. Units: toolbar to select the current units and define if they will be shown in the graphics display. rendering. Note that the Display options toolbar can contain the model properties. Views: toolbar to select different predefined views. Alternatively you can use the mouse wheel. Loads: toolbar to select the current load condition. You can configure the location and visibility of your toolbars according to your needs: 1. Connection toolbar. RAM Voice) Different available toolbars in RA. design properties. Enable the desired toolbars.

These options follow standard Windows procedures. 3) Once all your toolbars are in the desired locations and conditions. Define the desired position of your toolbars. save your desktop using the following option 44 . Note that you can also define the number of rows or columns of your toolbar picking the bottom or lateral edges of the toolbar with the mouse. You can drag them with the left button of the mouse to the desired location.Chapter 1: General Overview Option to enable/desable the toolbars (Checked toolbars are visible) 2.

Notice that it will be available for future use (2).Chapter 1: General Overview Save your current desktop (1). A shortcut will be assigned. General Configuration Several general characteristics of the program may be configured using the following option in the main menu: Configuration/General option 45 .

Chapter 1: General Overview General Configuration dialog window A dialog window will be displayed where you can define the several characteristics of the program: • • • • • • • View rotation increment for graphics Graphics fonts (styles. alignment and fonts) Graphic scales for deflections and force diagrams Quality for printing graphics Quality for rendering Default folders for models and databases Nomenclature according to the country (US or UK) You will find more information in the Help context. size. 46 .

Results: the analysis results are related to local. Global axes are represented by X. Local coordinate system Each frame member and shell of a structure has its own local coordinate system that is referred to as its local axes (represented by number 1. It is recommended that the structure be elevated in the Y axis. etc. and Z. Also. RAM Advanse orientates the frame members as follows: .Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Coordinate systems Three coordinate systems are used during the analysis of a structure. nodal forces and moments. axes. 47 By default. bending moments. axial forces. These loads can also be related to the global system. J = initial node K = final node In frame members the data that is associated with the local axes coordinate system are: • • • • • Section orientation Rigid offsets and releases Some applied loads on the element (concentrated forces. springs. distributed forces. Some data and results are presented in this coordinate system. This is because certain program commands (rigid floor. Origin of local coordinate system is located at the J node (initial node). In RAM Advanse. 2. • • • Global coordinate system Local coordinate system Principal axis coordinates system Global coordinate system The global coordinate system is a user-selected system. The structure geometry is entered in this coordinate system. and principal. local axes are useful for defining the orientation of the element in space. Y. nodal restraints. and 3). these include local loads. and moments). rotate structure) are based on this assumption. Some of the data entered in the Global coordinate system are nodal coordinates.

and section modulus are related to the principal axis. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. • • • Principal coordinate system Section properties such as moment of inertia. local and principal axes of the element coincide. This greatly facilitates the data entry. However. such as with Z and L profiles. In most cases. RAM Advanse allows the engineer to place the local axes in a different orientation to the principal axes. In the case of members that are vertical with axis 1 in the Y direction. axis 3 will be parallel to Z-axis. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated. Notice that this axis is automatically defined when the element is created and cannot be changed. axis 3 will be perpendicular to the plane formed by axis 1 and its projection over plane X – Z. The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. for certain shapes the local axis is different from the principal axes. Axis 1 (longitudinal axis) will be ALWAYS located at the section’s center of gravity independent of the sections cardinal point (see chapter on cardinal points). For inclined members. Axis 3 is parallel to X-Z plane for horizontal members. 48 . Element rotation There are several ways to rotate members to an angle other than the default orientation these include: 180 and 90 degrees rotation If you need to rotate a member 90 or 180 degrees. Axis 2 is defined by the right hand rule with the thumb finger pointing toward 1-axis.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes • Local 1-axis (axis of the element) lies along the vector created between the J and K nodes.

as you need. 49 . Elements have been rotated.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Go to Members/Local axes. Press button (180 degrees) or (90 degrees).

you may want to set a local axis parallel to the global X-. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Enter the angle to be rotated (in degrees) and press Elements have been rotated. Y.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Rotating members at an angle When you need to rotate one (or more) frame members to a known angle. other than 90 and 180 degrees. To do this. 50 . Making a local axis parallel to a global axis Occasionally.or Z-axes. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the local axis (2 or 3) that you want to set parallel to a global axis.

Note. the other local axes are also rotated accordingly. To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis X. so as not to deselect the elements (notice that only one node should be selected). Note. Remember to press Shift. If several nodes are selected press De-Select nodes command and then select the desired node. To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Z.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Then press one of these buttons: To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Y. Select the node to which the local axis should orient (point).Only one node should be selected. 51 . Orientating a local axis toward a specific node To orient a member’s local axis in the direction of a specific node proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated.When you set the orientation of a local axis.

Then press The elements are now rotated with their local axis (axis 3 in this case) orientated to a node.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Select the local axis (2 or 3) that should point to the node. 52 . Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes To orient an element’s local axis parallel to a vector determined by two nodes proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the two nodes that define the vector.

This characteristic of the software allows the engineer to more easily set the orientation of certain elements. Then press The selected local axis (axis 3 in this case) is orientated parallel to the vector.Only two nodes should be selected. RAM Advanse allows you to set your members local axes system different to the principal axes.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes . If several nodes are selected. press menu-item De-Select nodes and then select the two desired nodes. we have: Local axes Principal axes 53 . For instance. Select the local axis (2 or 3) that will be parallel to the vector. to use an L section. Principal axes As mentioned before.

For the code check the forces in the principal axes are normally used.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. Laterally restrained for torsion When the dimensions of a section are entered (ConfigurationDatabases/Sections/Edit or Configuration/Databases/Sections/New). This flag is only applicable in steel members. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. There are other design provisions in the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. In the next section you will find the way to change this. the user can define a flag to consider the section laterally restrained for torsion: Flag used to define the local axes or geometric axes to be used in the design of steel members instead of the principal axes. When the option is enabled. See the chapters devoted to Steel Design for further details 54 . which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) for bending. This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes.

Now. For programs reporting analysis and design results for each node-to-node element. RAM Advanse allows the user to specify what constitutes a physical member. Physical members Physical members are single continuous members such as girders that support multiple members framing in along their length. with results accordingly. This step will help to avoid unexpected or uncontrolled behavior in member segmentation during the actual analysis. 2-3. the engineer had to fragment the elements of an actual structure for the analysis in any finite element program. if not required by the engineer. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Chapter 3: Physical Members. If the engineer has decided to use physical members in the model.. the user need to define one member between nodes 1 and 5. how to segment elements (members and shells) and how to rotate a structure. As could be seen. In the past. The following example illustrates the process of defining a physical member. It describes how to delete duplicate elements and un-connected nodes. 3-4 and 4-5 due to the geometry of the problem.). The decision to not consider physical members is indicated at analysis time by deselecting the Automatically segment physical members and shells option in the Finite element model tab of the analysis window (Menu Process/Analyze structure. Consider a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure This chapter explains how to work with physical members. physical members allow the creation of a structure model "as constructed". Example of a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5 55 . The user only needs to define the nodes at the ends of a physical member and does not need to break the member at intermediate nodes along the length. regardless of the number of segments created along its span. Instead of defining four members between nodes 1-2. physical members do not have to be used in the model.Chapter 3: Physical Members. which is hinged at the ends. However. explained farther down.. this segmentation greatly increased the number and complexity of reports. it is recommended to view the finite element model by selecting the command View/Finite element model (FEM)( ). and it provides result reports accordingly.

Chapter 3: Physical Members. The option Automatically segment physical members and shells is enabled by default.e. You can disable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Calculation/Analyze structure…). to successfully analyze any model in which physical members are modeled (i. the user may view the actual Finite Elements (with the physical member segmented) in the model. The segmentation of shells can be done with the option Proportional segmentation of shells. You can enable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Process/Analyze structure…). Note. the segmentation is independent of the local axis of the shell. The generated segmentation will be “proportional” to the shape of the shell as shown on the figure below: Note. If the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled. the model does not represent the actual finite elements in the model but rather the physical elements in the model) this option should be selected. the segmentation will be done following the direction of the local axis as shown in the next figure (this is the default option): 56 . Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Before analyzing the model.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure In this case. The user must be aware that the Proportional segmentation of shells option can generate. consider the structure in the next figure: The segmentation of the shells starts at node A. which is part of the structure data. in some cases. excessive and unnecessary segmentation. The segmentation will generate new nodes (B and C) which will force more segmentations as shown in the figure below: 57 .Chapter 3: Physical Members. For example. the segmentation is dependent of the local axis of the shell.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure On the other hand.Chapter 3: Physical Members. members and shells). 58 . the segmentation of the same structure will be done as shown below (the program will not consider the segmentation of the shell with the dotted line): The segmentation can be done to members and/or shells (the normal procedure is to segment both. if the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled.

59 . If you select both options. there will be continuity in the model. in some cases (for example a shell enclosed with beams). Both cases are shown in the following figures: Deformed shape of the model when only “segmentation of shells” is done.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Note that there is no continuity between the shell and the member in the lower part of the model. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure If you select the option Segment shells and not the option Segment members. there will be no continuity between the shell and members because the nodes generated by the segmentation of the shell will not be joined to the members.

This tolerance is the maximum distance between a member and a node to consider the node as segmenting the member in the Finite Element model. it is recommended to apply smaller values for the tolerance. you can also press the “Finite element model” button program will show the split members and shells. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Deformed shape of the model when segmentation is done to shells and members. Note the continuity between the shell and the member at the lower part of the model. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. and the Note however. Once the model has been analyzed. and in the dialog box select the The user can also view the actual finite element model by pressing the following button in the Model toolbar: If the structure was not yet analyzed. the display of results and its design. the program will ask for a tolerance to build the FEM model (note that the tolerance option is also available at the Analysis window): Tolerance to be considered in the FEM Model. . press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. To do this. select the shell. select the shell. To do this. press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. 60 . it is recommended to apply smaller values for this parameter. the related member will be segmented internally by the program considering that node. if the node is closer than the tolerance to a member.Chapter 3: Physical Members. and in the dialog box select the Note: The nodes generated with the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature are not generated with floor number or restrictions of contiguous nodes. That is. . Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message. that the original unsegmented element will be treated as a single element for the reports. Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Example of a continuous beam treated as a single physical element. Adopted Finite Element Model for the previous example. Normally. However. The physical shell element allows you to define only the four extreme corners of a “physical” shell while controlling the required degree of meshing. This method is recommended whenever a uniform mesh is desired: 61 . 2) Define nodes at the sides to indicate the desired mesh. This mesh is shown when is pressed The second way to define the mesh consists of typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet. There are two ways to determine the mesh. this is performed when a denser mesh is required near singularities such as point loads or edges: 1) Define the overall dimensions.Chapter 3: Physical Members. The first method consists of applying nodes at the sides of the shells where you want the shell to be divided. In the case of shells and plates. the FEM rules and hypothesis require that there be a finer mesh in order to achieve reliable results. the user may desire to obtain results for the overall wall or slab dimension.

2) Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes. 3) Press the button and the Finite Element Model will be shown Warning! The user must always check the number of subdivisions adopted by the program. RAM Advanse automatically maintains the physical members defined in the RSS.Chapter 3: Physical Members. If elements don’t have enough subdivisions the results may be inacurate and even invalid. it is advisable to check the generated finite element model (FEM). See chapter 14 for further details and suggestions. Warning! If the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature is used. 62 . Note: When importing RAM Structural System models. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure 1) Define the overall dimensions and determine the local axes of the elements.

The function of this command is: 3. Eliminate duplicated frame members (elements are considered as duplicated when they connect to the same two nodes as another element). 4. 6. When a node is located along a frame member axis. Eliminate nodes that do not have any elements connected to them. and before analyzing your structure. this command divides the frame member and then reconnects the two elements to the node. It is best that you execute this command after generating copies of your structure. use the node that remains. When two nodes are superimposed. Press to join parts of your structure and eliminate duplicate nodes and elements. Press to segment elements (members and shells). Eliminate elements with zero length.Chapter 3: Physical Members. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect the frame members to the node that remains. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Model Data Check The Model toolbar has two commands available to assist you in cleaning up the structure to avoid analytical errors. 5. to eliminate one of the two and reconnect the elements to Eliminate duplicated frame members. 63 . Frame members are considered as duplicated when they are connected to the same nodes as other elements.

This double division is due to the fact that the original entered numbers to indicate the shell segments on local axes are kept.Chapter 3: Physical Members. members and shells) and take note of the coordinates of the pivotal point for rotation. but the physical rotation of the nodal coordinates about some of the global axis. In the case of physical shells. to divide the frame member and connect the divided Note: The difference between the button and the button is that. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure When a node is on a frame member. while with the second button. 64 . It is suggested to verify the FEM model by pressing the button in all cases. they will permanently be segmented into smaller physical members. Rotating the Structure This command allows you to rotate a portion or all of the structure. Notice that we are not referring to view rotation. To rotate the structure. the physical elements will be segmented (original physical elements will be altered). use elements to the node. the resulting segmented shells will be divided once more for analysis if the shell division has been specified entering the number of segments on both local axes. follow these steps: Select the elements to be rotated (nodes. Caution: If you use this command on previously defined physical members. with the first one you can “view” the Finite Element Model (FEM) keeping the original physical elements of the model unaltered.

Enter the pivotal point of rotation. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Execute the Rotate command. 65 .Chapter 3: Physical Members. the angle of the rotation and choose the axis about which the structure is to rotate.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure After the rotation is completed.Chapter 3: Physical Members. verify the supports and orientation of the elements. Be sure to check nodal coordinates once the rotation is complete 66 . Nodes are rotated about the selected axis and do not remain in the same vertical or horizontal plane.

Note: RAM Advanse’s default joint is a rigid connection of the element with the end nodes. Warning! The user should note that if excessive members in a model are hinged. a single bolted connection will not carry bending moments and as such the joint should be released for that degree of freedom. In this case you should pin both ends of the member. Releases. To do this. for instance. for instance. proceed as follows: Select members to be pinned 67 . represent the hinges of elements. Pin (hinges) at both ends of members It is quite common that an element has bolted joints at both ends. some nodes might become unstable.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members End releases are needed to accurately model the joints between elements. Release the degree of freedom to accurately model the joint. A release should be used to represent the actual condition of the joint.

68 . Pin one end of a member Occasionally you will need to pin only one end of members. Remember to press Shift to select the nodes without deselecting the elements.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Go to Members/Hinges and press The elements are released and shown in the screen. Select the end to be released. This can be done as follows: Select the element(s) to be released.

However. (clear the contents of 69 . to release bending moment Fixing ends of elements By default. Remember that you can also erase all release information by pressing a spreadsheet). press the buttons that are complementary in action to the buttons described above: Fix both ends of selected members. if you need to fix some elements that were previously released. Fix the bending moment about axis 2 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Press to release bending moment about axis 3 or press button about axis 2. Fix the bending moment about axis 3 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members. all frame members have rigid joints.

The method RAM Advanse uses to analyze these members involves a nonlinear analysis. Warning! The tension only element flag is ignored in a dynamic analysis. It is no longer possible to superimpose individual load case results even in a first order analysis. . All selected tension only members are shown when the display option 70 Hinges is pressed. including the combinations. Press to define the tension only members. To define the tension members proceed as follows: Select the elements to be defined as tension only members.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Tension only members All members defined as tension only will be capable of resisting only tension forces. which is an iterative procedure for each load condition and therefore all load conditions are analyzed.

Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Pre-tension In several cases cables and tensors are subjected to a pre-tension force. To consider a pre-tension in the elements proceed as follows: Select the desired elements. If the display option be displayed. It is generally applied to members defined as tension only elements. Loads (show values) is selected. all the members with pre-tension forces will 71 . Go to Members/Loads on members/Pre-tension of cables and tensors and enter the value of the pretension. This option allows you to consider the influence of the initial tension in the deformation and distribution of forces in the structure.

.

Rigid Zone Offsets. The available cardinal points are described in the following figure: Cardinal points defined along the perimeter (1.9). Rigid Floor and Pressure on frame Members This chapter explains several advanced concepts. 73 . the center (5) or the center-of-gravity of the section (0) The default position is zero. which are aligned in relation to a center or a perimeter cross section axis.3. Cardinal Points Cardinal points are used to define the members’ cross section axis location. Common applications are to model eccentric members or tapered members.2.4.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.6.7. Rigid Zone Offsets. This feature is normally used to align members in the desired position. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.8. select the desired members Select the members. To enter cardinal points.

and (c) tapered members with position 2 and with axis rigid end (see next section). or axial forces. to account for panel zone deformation.2) and select the desired position (3) for your members. they will just transmit the forces from one point to another along the length of the rigid offset. These rigid segments will not undergo deformation under bending moments. and several other reasons. eccentric columns. 74 . shear forces. Rigid offsets are typically used to model large joints. Rigid zone offsets Rigid offsets are infinitely rigid segments at the ends of frame members. The following example can illustrate graphically the function of the cardinal points with respect to a tapered member: Examples of different position of the cardinal points (a) tapered members with default position (0). Rigid Zone Offsets.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. (b) tapered with position 2 (see the location of the member in relation to the nodes). Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Cardinal Point Worksheet (1.

L = member length Note that the loads and forces in the member will be provided always along the clear length considering the axis rigid ends. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members RAM Advanse offers two ways of considering rigid end zones. Go to members/Cardinal point worksheet and use the tool to create axis rigid ends: 75 . 3. In the first method. the end offsets are considered when the sections’ dimensions overlap. the first one takes into account axes rigid ends in conjunction with cardinal points and the second one is considering rigid end offsets in the three directions of the global axes (with the member cardinal point in the default position). The distributed or concentrated loads on the member will be considered only for this length. Select the desired members.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. The clear length of the member will be the distance between nodes less the rigid ends. Define the members and assign their sections. To enter members with rigid axis ends. The values of the axis rigid end J and axis rigid end K are used to define the overlap distances. 2. proceed as follows: 1. It is strongly suggested to adopt only one method for each structure depending on the particular characteristics of the structure. Rigid Zone Offsets. Leff=clear length of the member. Axes rigid ends.

Rigid Zone Offsets. The offsets are defined in the global directions.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. To model a rigid end zone with the second method proceed as follows: Select sections that intersect each other Select the member and the node where the rigid offset is required. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Axis rigid ends defined with the tool of the cardinal point worksheet The second method for defining rigid end offsets allows considering the offsets in any direction independently of the longitudinal axis of the member. The user has many tools to define the desired offsets. 76 . See the help context for the details of the tools.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Press to create rigid offset. Rigid zone offset has been created. proceed as follows: Select the overall column 77 . Rigid Zone Offsets. Considering the second method. Warning: The tool only works for segmented columns (not physical columns) Notice that you can enter column eccentricities (offset columns) with any of the described methods.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.

Rigid Zone Offsets. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Rigid offsets and press one of the following buttons: or Column offset has been created Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor) The cardinal points or the rigid end offsets (second method) can be used to align beams at floor level (drop the floor).Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Proceed as follows: Select beam to align with floor level (drop) 78 .

Or go to Rigid end offsets worksheet and press the following button Selected beams will be aligned with the floor level Warning! The use of cardinal points or rigid end offsets to align beams to floor level may alter the distribution of bending moments.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 79 . see next section for further details. Rigid Zone Offsets. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members If you are using cardinal points. select its worksheet and use position 2 for the selected members.

80 . in general. Rigid Zone Offsets. the model will be changed . a uniformly distributed load and the end supports pinned. It is important to notice that the rigid zone offsets or cardinal points change the model.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points It is important to mention that both methods can be used to define the member longitudinal axis at the desired location. This influences the results to be obtained. If rigid offsets are included to align the beam at the floor level. The bending moment diagram will have the known shape: Beam with two segmented pinned at both ends without rigid offsets or cardinal points. The method to be adopted will depend on the facility to define the required data for the specific model to deal with. The cardinal points allow. while the rigid zone offsets may be suited for any particular condition. Press the button to display the rigid ends for the cardinal points in green and the rigid zone offsets in red. to define the axis location for common locations as at the top or bottom of the section in an easier and automatic way (internally the program adopts the required rigid offsets). Lets take for example a beam with two segments.

Model without rigid offsets with continuous bending moment diagram. Note that the distribution of the bending moments have changed and that an axial load is generated due to the eccentricity at the supports.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 81 . The rigid offsets modify also the distribution of the bending moments in more complex models. originating discontinuities at the locations of the concentrated loads from the beams framing into them (see the following figure). Rigid Zone Offsets. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Beam with two segments with rigid offsets or cardinal points.

In the case shown below.e. and the rigid diaphragm assumption is of no assistance to resist this torsion. it is suggested not to use rigid offsets and pinned beam where two beams intersect. In many cases this stiffness is not sufficient to adequately resist the applied load.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges The user must be very careful when using rigid offsets and hinges simultaneously. This constrains all nodes of a floor to translate (in X and Z-axes). The simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges in the case of joints between a beam supported on a girder can influence the way the supporting girder resists the applied loads. They can however be used simultaneously in beam-column joints. Part of the moments are taken by the rigid offsets. 82 . Rigid Zone Offsets. Cross section showing girder (in profile) supporting a beam (shown with single line) with a specified rigid end offset. the supporting girders experiences a torsion due to the beam’s reaction at the specified offset. In some cases their use will not be appropriate and the user may use them only for displaying the 3D view of the structure in a more realistic way and not for the analysis. the supporting beam will need to resist the rigid zone moment through its torsional stiffness. One problem is the possible creation of instabilities around hinged supports. infinitely rigid link between all nodes in the horizontal plane. Therefore. i. Rigid floor When a building is being analyzed the engineer can choose to model the structure with a Rigid floor Diaphragm or Rigid Floor. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Model with rigid offsets with discontinuities in the bending moment diagram. A Rigid floor diaphragm simulates the in-plane rigidity produced by the slab. Instability due to simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges around hinged supports. It depends on the engineers judgment whether to adopt rigid offsets for the different members of a model. When rigid offsets and hinges are used in nodes between beams and girders. and rotate (around Y) together.

follow these steps: Select the nodes of a floor (all the selected nodes should have the same Y coordinate). This node is taken coincident with the mass node (only one node may have masses in the floor). 83 . Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members With a rigid floor all nodes of a floor translate as a whole in the in-plane directions All the nodes of a floor rotate around Y constrained to a single point The engineer should decide if the rigid floor assumption is appropriate for their structure. Important! In order to use rigid floor diaphragm. Rigid Zone Offsets. the first node of the floor will be considered the master node. but it is not adequate for very small structures. which is reasonable for any building of normal size. When a rigid floor is activated the vertical deformation of the beams (out of plane rigidity) isn't affected. which will be the rotation point for the rest of the nodes of the floor. it is necessary that the building height be orientated along the Y-axis. Entering Rigid floor To enter a Rigid floor diaphragm. If no masses are defined in the nodes of a floor.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. It is important to notice that the program accepts a tolerance for the difference between the y-coordinates of the nodes of each floor up to 0. If so this rigid floor diaphragm can result in a faster analysis. Each diaphragm or rigid floor may have just one master node.4in or 1cm.

to clear the contents of the current spreadsheet and so erase Pressure on frame members In open structures (towers. and calculates an equivalent distributed force. Rigid Zone Offsets. Important: A Rigid Floor diaphragm can only be used when all the nodes of a floor have the same Y coordinate. Remember that you can press the rigid floor. During the analysis. Go to Members/Loads on members and press button Pressures. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Nodes/Floor and press button Rigid floor diaphragm has been entered Repeat the same steps to enter the Rigid Floor number of the other floors. bridges.) the wind force can be entered as a pressure on the frame members. RAM Advanse finds the projected area (depending on the dimensions of the section) perpendicular to the pressure force.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 84 . etc.

Pres X: Pressure of the wind in the X direction. Pres Y: Pressure of the wind in the Y direction. Rigid Zone Offsets. 85 . PresZ columns. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members The pressures on the frame members are entered in the Pres. Pres Z: Pressure of the wind in the Z direction. PresY.X.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.

.

follow these steps: Execute Configuration/Databases/Sections..Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials RAM Advanse comes with a complete section database. Those sections (profiles) and materials that are not available in the database can be added as described in this chapter. Press button New.. 87 . Creating new sections To create a new section. command.

wood sections (NDS) are shown in brown and yellow. Enter the units system (1). Note that the AISC steel sections are shown in black or yellow. Type of section (should or not contain space characters) 88 . Section names Names of the sections should consist of three parts: 1. the data to define the section geometry (3) and then press OK.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Choose the shape of the profile to be created. the section name (2). These sections become part of the program database and can be used in all subsequent models. BS sections are shown in blue and AISI sections start with the string “aisi”. (See below to for more details concerning valid section names).

dots and special characters. which is the designation of the section (with or without spaces). NDS.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials 2. Examples of valid profile names are: W 15x25 TUBE 15x10 TUBE 15_25 Non valid profile names are: W15x25 (separation space character is missing) At least the name must have one separation space character Section Collections A section collection is defined as a group of members that will be considered in the optimization. RAM Advanse will create a new one. and they can be designed by different codes (i.191. “2x25x15”. space characters. Note that the engineer can use different types of sections in the same collection (W.191’. In case the PIPE group does not exist. BS. Type of sections is for instance.e. and "TUBE". The Type of Sections should not have space characters.the Type of Section groups the profile. where ‘PIPE’ is the section type (without space characters) followed by a single space ‘ ‘ and ‘1-1_4x0. Designation or description (should or not space characters) A valid name is for example ‘PIPE 1-1_4x0. “15x22x1. Designations can contain the division ("/") character. AISI and AISC) You can create a new section collection executing the command Configuration/Databases/Sections/Section collections for optimization and executing the following steps: 89 .5”. "T2L". That is to say that a profile named “PIPE 11_4x0. So if the user want that the section belongs one specific type section.. "W".e. it must has the same name exactly. hyphens. Designation is a description of the dimensions of this profile i.191” will be stored in the PIPE group.. The sections in a collection should be ordered according to the order in which they should be considered in the optimization. A space character 3. Important. C etc).

Select the desired sections to be included in the collection with the mouse. RAM Advanse will create a text file with this name where it will save a list with the sections’ names. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. The Collection window is divided in different areas. Sort the section in the list according to their weight or to other criteria. The second window displays a list of sections in the currently selected collection. sections are not added if they already exist in the collection. Press the button to add the selected sections. The file is located in the “Sets” folder (in the main RAM Advanse folder).Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Steps to create a new section collection for optimization. The name of the collection must be a valid and unique filename. which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. For example an angle beam loaded parallel to one leg. or ctrl+left mouse button to select discrete sections). 2. Select one of the groups that contain the desired sections. (Drag a continuous list. 6. 4. The collection files can be edited using Notepad or any text editor. That is. 5. Press the button to create a new collection. you can only have one instance of a section in a collection. Then enter a name for the collection in the dialog window. This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. The first window displays a list of the available collections. Repeat steps 2 to 4 as desired. In this case simple bending occurs without any torsional 90 . will deflect and bend about that leg only if the angle is restrained laterally along the length. 1. Parameters for the design of steel members Laterally restrained for torsion: When the option is enabled. Note that when sections are added to a collection they are not duplicated. 3.

The user can choose 91 . or an approximate value for Qmod2’ used by most of the codes. Code.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials rotation or lateral deflection and the geometric axis section properties should be used in the evaluation of the stresses: The geometric axes 2 and 3 should be used instead of the principal axes 2' and 3' for angle beams restrained laterally for torsion. There are other design provisions on the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. Qmod2' exact: This option is only valid for “I” and “C” shapes designed with the between the exact value based on the following definition: Maximum shear stress = V(shear force) * Qmod. Which implies an integral that considers the static moment about the neutral axis and the moment of inertia. equal to the web depth multiplied by its thickness (d*tw). See the chapter devoted to Steel Design in this manual for further details.

If d0=0 and dL=0. the design is restricted to hot rolled steel members with a section that possesses at least one axis of symmetry perpendicular to the plane of bending. 92 . the program considers that the depth at the J end is equal to the specified depth of the adopted section (d0=d).Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Tapered Members RAM Advanse offers the possibility to consider tapered members with a linear variation of the depth. If d0>0 and dL>0 it is assumed that the section varies linearly from d0 at the J end to dL at the K end. d0 is the depth at the J end of a web-tapered member (see next figure) while dL is the depth at the K end of the member. Although the program can deal in the analysis with any type of section with variable depth. The width of the section and its flange thickness are considered to be constant along the member. the user has to assign a section to the member following the usual steps illustrated in the figure after selecting the desired members: Then the initial and final depth of the member has to be provided. For this case.

which increases the time needed for the solution. The stiffness matrix of the whole member is then assembled considering each sub-element with an equivalent prismatic section corresponding to the mean depth of the sub-element. which reduces the time required for the solution and gives a more precise definition of the section properties. you can use rigid end offsets to align tapered members The analysis of tapered members is performed with an internal subdivision of the member into 6 elements with a stepped variation of the section properties. 93 . (See Chapter 15). In this way the section will be aligned at the top of the section. Alternatively. All the section properties of each sub-element can be calculated in a similar way as for prismatic members. Or they can be calculated using the special subroutine Prop TaperedProperties as part of the section macro.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Note that a one side tapered member can be achieved by using the section cross section axis point or the member rigid end offsets as it is illustrated in the following figures: Use the cross section axis point to align the section in position number 2.

For more details about the design of tapered steel members see the chapters on Design of hot rolled steel members (AISC or BS Codes). To create a new tapered section invokes the Configuration/Databases/Sections command and create a new section using the I_tapered section type.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Members with variable depth are subdivided in 6 sub-elements with an equivalent prismatic section. 94 . Note that a special built up section type is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up tapered members. follow these steps: Execute command Configuration/Databases/Materials. Creating Materials To create your own material. Note that no web depth is entered as it is assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in this worksheet.

You can select any unit system for entering the data. Importing and exporting sections and materials This feature allows the user to import and export sections and materials to the clipboard. To export the data. Enter data of the material and then press OK. You can also define each value with its corresponding units.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Select the desired folder and press button . select the group of materials to be exported: 95 . For further details see the help context.

area.com) to download the latest files that include many tabulated sections. Note that when the property Read Only is enabled. These entered values will override the calculated ones if the Read Only property is set to true. inertia.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials And then press the export button . enter the new values in their corresponding fields and then proceed to copy the information to the clipboard. This feature is particularly useful with steel sections where tabulated values can be slightly different from those calculated by the program. The exported data may then be pasted into any text editor or spreadsheet application such as Notepad or Excel: To import data of materials or sections. it preserves the imported properties and avoids overwriting them with the properties calculated by the program.e. Notice that calculated section properties (i. Missing section properties will be calculated.ramint. it is recommended to first export an instance of the type of material or section to be imported to define the labels of the different fields. with a corresponding effect on code check equations. Copy the data to the clipboard. etc) may be entered together with geometric properties. Input the data in a spreadsheet. The steps to import data are as follows: • • • 96 Define the required fields. . Please see the Excel files with several available groups of sections and their properties that are included in the Tables directory or visit our web site (www.

tab) and it will be automatically imported. For more information about RSS Master Steel Tables see the RAM Manager Manual 97 . From Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System. using the button. using the Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System (RSS) contains all section properties of sections available in RSS. button. To import the data. • • From text files. there are two options to import sections. select the desired table (file with extension .Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials • Press the button in RAM Advanse to paste the information into the database. Additionally.

.

should be entered manually. 2. we suggest you first read the RAM Advanse Examples Manual. If not. Additional information such as supports. Enter the nodes that the Template requires. This Template requires the nodes shown below: Template Truss1 requires 4 referential nodes and the number of segments. 99 . such as number of segments. etc. To execute a Template three steps are required: 1.ramint. Example 1: Creating a Truss For instance. RAM Advanse already contains several partial Templates. please visit our RAM Advanse community web page www. proceed as follows: Enter the nodes illustrated in the following figure. Templates When a Template is executed. To enter the truss. One of the most unique and important characteristics of these templates is that you can create your own. Select them in certain specific order. it automatically generates nodes.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Templates are a unique concept introduced by RAM Advanse to allow engineers to create models of structures in a fraction of the time normally required.com to download other free Templates created by RAM International and other users. frame members and descriptions. 3. materials. See the chapter on Creating Structure Templates to get information on how to create your own Templates. This chapter explains how to use Templates to quickly generate portions of your structures. etc. and incorporate them into the RAM Advanse program. They help in the generation of segments or parts of the structure. sections. In order to use Templates you should already be comfortable using RAM Advanse. Execute the Template and enter the information that it asks for. using the Truss1 Template you can enter a triangular truss.

Notice that they can be entered in any order. Select nodes as required by the Template Then execute the desired Template in one of the two following ways: 1. Go to Members/Connectivity (Nodes and description worksheet and press button 2.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Go to Nodes/Coordinates and enter the nodes illustrated Enter the illustrated nodes. Then select the nodes in the order required by the Template. Go to Tools/Data generation/Templates 100 .

Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates To execute the desired Template. go to Members/Nodes and Description or Tools/Data Generation. enter 3 in the number of segments. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. Next enter the data required by the Template. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. 101 . In this case.

Descriptions typically created by Templates are g1. In this case. "g2".Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the number of segments. follow these steps: Select description to be changed.When using the Templates it is very important the order in which nodes are selected. g3. Therefore. you should change them to more meaningful descriptions. first select one element of the group and press 102 . etc. g2. Note . Templates generally create meaningless descriptions such as "g1". enter 3 The truss has been created. To change them to meaningful descriptions. "h1". To do this. etc.

In this case.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Then go to Members/Nodes and Description and press In the same way as explained before. select Metric System 4. Proceed as follows: 3.Remember that you should type the "diag1" description and then press the button. Select the preferred units system. The structure shown below will be entered using Templates. change the other descriptions. Note. Example 2: Creating an entire structure In the following example you will see how powerful Templates are. This structure will be entered using Templates. Enter the reference nodes 103 . Change the generated descriptions to other more meaningful descriptions.

To generate the principal truss. Execute Template roofTruss1 and enter the number of segments (enter 4 in this case) 104 . the roofTruss1 template will be used. Select the nodes as indicated. 2. Enter the columns and assign them COL1 description. Select the nodes as requested by the Template.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the reference nodes before calling up the Templates (meters) Enter the columns as illustrated. 1. The template roofTruss1 will be used to generate the principal truss. Remember to assign them a COL1 description.

105 . The principal truss has been created.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute RoofTruss1 template Enter the number of segments (4). Note. Assign descriptions as shown in the figure below: Assign descriptions as shown. you'll get the "Select 6 nodes in the illustrated order" message.In the event you did not select the correct number of nodes.

Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Copy the frame 3 times. 5 meters in Z direction Now. Copy the whole structure 3 times. Template Truss1 is used to generate the longitudinal trusses. Select the nodes shown next: Select nodes in the illustrated order 106 . longitudinal trusses will be generated using theTruss1 template. each 5 meters in the Z direction.

As you can see. 107 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute Truss1 template Enter number of segments. a longitudinal truss has been created Assign descriptions as shown Repeat previous steps to generate the other two trusses shown below. Enter 12 segments in this case.

loads. Then enter the roof beams. At this point. To complete the information. select the illustrated nodes Then press button Completing data As you can see. sections. materials. To enter the roof beams. all the geometry of the structure was entered very quickly. etc. 108 . the structure is ready to be completed with other information such as supports.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Repeat the steps explained before to enter the other two trusses. please proceed as explained in the RAM Advanse Assistant (F4).

first select one member of the group description and press . to enter sections. Go to sections spreadsheet.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates For instance. 109 . This will expedite structural modeling. follow these next steps: Select a group of elements. choose the section that you need and press Sections have been assigned As you can see at this point it is very important to assign meaningful descriptions. To do this.

.

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Generation of load combinations Elastic supports Prescribed displacements Self weight Thermal loads Generation of nodes This chapter deals with several additional features that provide RAM Advanse with several advanced capabilities. The formulae have to be organized in the following order: 3. 5. LL for live loads. -). (These must be valid symbols that are to be associated with the individual load cases). A factor which may be any real number. 111 . Mathematics symbols (+. 6. etc). Steps 1 – 4 are repeated as required. DL for dead loads. 7. 4. The reserved words AND or OR followed always by a space. Generation of load combinations This utility tool allows the engineer to generate combinations to be used in the model. The tool is called from the command Loads/Generate load combinations on the main menu. Note that the rest of the components of the formulae may or may not be separated by spaces. The name of the desired category. In the displayed window the engineer can enter a template file for the adopted local building code from which load combinations can be generated (based on the load case category. Window for the generation of load combinations. Note that you can save or retrieve this file for use in any structure or even in the Continuous Beam or Retaining Wall detailing modules.

Load combinations in the template file will be ignored if they contain a load category that is not currently adopted in the model. Elastic supports Elastic supports are modeled in the RAM Advanse program using springs. while the live loads are always in the same combination due to the AND designation. two live load cases (LL1.4EQ1 1.70LL +AND 1.05DL1 + 1. To enter the springs.4EQ2 Notice that the seismic load cases are not included in the same combination due to the OR designation.05DL1 + 1.7LL1 + 1. Special commentary lines are also allowed if they start with "//" Note that the reserved word AND is used to show that each load combination to be generated has to include ALL the load cases that belong to the specified category. It is important to note that only the names of the categories can be used in the editor.28LL1 + 1. EQ2. When the OK button is pressed. category = LL) and two seismic load cases (EQ1. See the example files (path: main RAM Advanse directory/combos) that come with the program which have the basic load combinations to consider for the different codes.28LL1 + 1.28LL + OR 1. 112 .40EQ If there is one dead load case (DL1.28LL2 + 1.40DL + AND 1.7LL2 1. proceed as follows: Select the nodes. while the reserved word OR is used to generate different load combinations for each load case of the specified category The following example illustrates the procedure //Example combinations +AND 1. the combinations will be generated based on the selected load combination file and the currently available load cases.4DL1 + 1.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects 8. category = DL). One possible method of calculating the spring stiffness is using the soil modulus of subgrade reaction as follows: K spring = Modulus of subgrade reaction* tributary area for the node It is the engineers' responsibility to obtain appropriate spring stiffness.28LL2 + 1.05DL + AND 1. Category = EQ) the following load combinations will be generated: 1. LL2.

See the chapter of Footing Design and Detailing for more details. Prescribed displacements This option is used to apply specified ground displacements (translations and rotations) at joints that are restrained. is available to assist the user in the entry of the appropriate Notice that the tool to model footings values for the rotational and translational springs under a footing of known dimensions.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Nodes/Springs. The different components of the displacements are specified in the global coordinate system (TX. Springs have been entered. Enter the value of the spring in the adequate direction and press . RY. TY. RX. it is possible for a node to have springs in some degree of freedom and restraints in the other degrees of freedom. TZ. Note: A node cannot have a spring if it is restrained in the same degree of freedom. RZ). However. To enter prescribed displacements proceed as follows: 113 . Only the components that have restrained degrees of freedom will be considered as loading the structure.

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Select the restrained node(s) with prescribed displacements . Self . Enter the displacement/rotations in the restrained degrees of freedom. 114 . To activate the self-weight calculation proceed as follows: Select load case that is to include the self-weight loads.weight RAM Advanse can calculate the self-weight of the elements (shells and/or members) in a structure.

Use of templates. Temp 2. For more details see Using Structure Templates. Thermal loads When there are differences of temperature in-between faces of the members. It causes bending about axis 2. Import from DXF files. The user can draw the structure in any drawing software and then import the data in RAM Advanse. and Temp3 column. Note the temperature differential should be in degrees Fahrenheit if the units are in the English System. 3. The RAM Advanse Data Panel has only limited functions to manipulate the data. . transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. This option allows you to define the basic geometry (that is. This option is particularly useful when the geometry is very complicated and the node coordinates are not easily defined. Temp 3 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 3. Therefore. It causes bending about axis 3. Temperature loads are only applicable to linear elements and cannot be applied to shells. otherwise centigrade. Import from Excel and other spreadsheet applications. Temp 2 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 2. Node generation RAM Advanse has several methods of generating nodes.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Gen/Self weight and press . The user enters the nodes required to position the new portion of the structure that will be generated including the nodes. For more details see chapter related to Importing and Exporting Data. Note: To deactivate the self-weight calculation. press Note: Notice that you can also manually enter the self-weight multiplier. 2. This tool is very useful for trusses or structures with typical geometry. It is important for the user to know them in order to optimize the time of the data input: 1. you can enter these loads in the following way: Go to Members and press the Load button and then go to Temperature differences The temperature differences are entered in the Temp1. the nodes and frame members). Temp 1 is the temperature differential that will cause axial expansion (positive values) or shortening (negative values) in the member length. the user can generate the 115 . if the nodes coordinates follow special functions like trigonometric or exponential functions.

Then you have to select the data and press the going to be entered and press the paste button. In RAM Advanse you go to the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates locate the area where the data are The data is pasted in the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates. copy button. The available tools are the following: • 116 Copy nodes. You can see the generated nodes in the Display window: 1. You can create the data in a spreadsheet application: Data generated in a spreadsheet like Excel. . This is performed with the known "copy and paste" operation very common in all applications. if you want to generate nodes following the natural logarithmic function y=ln(x). For example.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects coordinates in applications like Excel which are plenty equipped with those functions and then transfer the data in RAM Advanse. The data is selected and copied to the Clipboard. The use of special tools for the generation of nodes.

Copy nodes To copy nodes. proceed as follows: Select the nodes to be copied. Quadratic generation of nodes. Two new nodes have been created. Press the OK button. 117 . Y and Z direction) that the selected nodes will be copied to. Enter the distance (in X.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects • • • Lineal generation of nodes. Circular generation of nodes. A dialog box appears. Press “Copy Nodes”.

In the dialog box that appears enter the number of nodes to be generated and press OK. select four nodes in the order shown in the illustration. Press “Quadratic generation of nodes” button. Now. we have: Quadratic generation of nodes Go to Nodes. 118 .Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Linear generation of nodes Select two nodes Press Linear Generation of nodes button.

and the total angle that the nodes will cover. The new nodes will be generated in the plane defined by nodes 1-3 and perpendicular to 1-2. The result will be: Circular generation of nodes Select three nodes. Node 2 (second node to be selected) is used to set a vector perpendicular to the circle.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects In the dialog box enter the nodes to be generated along sides 1-2 and 1-3. Node 3 is the starting point of the generation and the node that determinates the radius of the circle. Press In the dialog box enter the number of nodes to be generated. as shown below in the figure. 119 . Node 1 (first node to be selected) is the center of the circle.

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects The result of the above choices is: 120 .

The bandwidth optimization provides a substantial reduction in storage requirements and when it is combined with the direct sparse solvers. nonlinear-inelastic and Eigen analysis of any type of framing systems. The analysis engine is built on a highly optimized matrix library that is particularly tuned for sparse matrix computation and it is armed with a state of the art bandwidth optimization technique based on Graph theory. developed completely by RAM International. Geometric nonlinear effects can be included. RAM Advanse is using a completely new analysis engine. The currently enforced bandwidth optimization method is Reverse Cuthill-McKee Ordering algorithm. RAM Advanse currently supports the following type of analysis: • • • • • • • Static Linear – Elastic Analysis Static Nonlinear – Elastic Analysis Eigen Value Analysis Frame element with 6 degrees of freedom (dof) at its both ends. The problem is more involved if non-elastic materials are considered or if P-Delta effects are taken into account (see more details in the following sections). LLC. a brief description of these analysis capabilities and element types are summarized. there is a vector of loads that generates a vector of displacements. two rotational dofs and one drilling dof) Linear axial and rotational springs In addition the following list contains element types currently available for the users: In the subsequent sections.Chapter 9: Analysis Chapter 9: Analysis Introduction The static analysis of a structure involves the solution of a set of linear equations that can be shown in terms of the following form: P=KD (Eq 1) where P is the matrix of generalized applied loads. which is part of a general-purpose finite element analysis library based on object-oriented programming architecture. the time to decompose large symmetric-profile matrices is greatly reduced. 121 . It has been used mainly for linearelastic. For each load case defined by the user. Beginning with version 7.0. K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and D is the matrix of resulting displacements. Tension-Only frame elements Quadrilateral Shell element with 6 dof at each corner (three translational dofs. The user is referred to associated references given within the text for further information.

. RAM Advanse uses the cross-sectional property fs (form factor for shear) that is defined as As= fs A. Element stiffness matrix is derived as follows: • 122 . The corresponding neutral axis shear strain is γ = Fs / As G. Fs = τna As). Therefore. Several references can be found in literature on how to calculate “equivalent shear area”.e.Chapter 9: Analysis Frame Element Element Degrees of Freedom for Frame Element The frame element is a two-node element and there are 6 DOFs at each node. These additional terms can be found in any structural analysis book (Reference 1). However. the above figure is given showing total number of 12 DOFs. This area is multiplied by the shearing stress (τna) at the neutral axis to obtain the total shear force on the cross section (i. The element has the following features: • • • • Three translational and three rotational DOFs defined at each end. Distribute loads (trapezoidal in general form) can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition. (As) for considering transverse shear deformations. the implemented method is usually satisfactory. Among these are Reference 2 and 3. it is assumed that there is a uniform shear stress on the cross section. Point loads can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition Shear deformations due to bending can be considered in analysis: The current implementation adopts the concept of an “equivalent shear area”. For these cases. For illustrative purposes. For most members of practical length. where A is the member cross section. shear deformations may be included in analysis by augmenting the member stiffness matrix with additional shear terms. it can be significant for members with small span-to-depth ratio. the influence of transverse shear deformations is negligible. Based on this concept.

shear modulus. Iy. respectively. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. E and L are major moment of inertia. (2) is reduced to conventional stiffness matrix for frame members. Temperature effects can be included by considering both axial and bending effects due to relative temperature changes. They are calculated as follows: Eq. elastic modulus and member length. In this case. shear and axial releases can be defined at element ends. In this case. members can be too short or too long. respectively. J. Eq. minor moment of inertia. It should be noted that if αx and αy are zero. G. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized.Chapter 9: Analysis Eq. The engine calculates these deformations at any point accounting for element end displacements 123 • • • . St. Frame elements can be converted to tension-only members. (2) where Ix. Axial pre-tensioning can be defined. therefore. Offsets\eccentricities can be defined at element ends in three separate directions. The terms αx and αy are shear correction terms to account for transverse shear deformations. due to fabrication errors. • • • • Bending. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. Such effects can be used for applying axial pre-stress to members or for considering member axial initial imperfections (for instance. it creates initial strains when placing these members into position) Geometric nonlinear effects are considered (see Iterative P-Delta Effects) in element formulation. Venant torsion constant. Deformation at any point within an element is extracted after the analysis is completed. (3) in which Asx and Asy are “equivalent shear area” for major and minor directions.

geometric nonlinear effects) is not calculated for shell elements. Geometric stiffness matrix (i. 5 and 6 for further assistance.e. the four node quadrilateral shell element can not be degenerated into a three node shell element. Shear deformations are not considered in the calculation of these deformations. Triangular shell elements in which three nodes of the shell are co-linear are not allowed (i. two rotation and one drilling degrees of freedom (see next Figure). Surface loads can be applied to the shell either in global system or in local system of the shell. Only constant surface loads are allowed. Refer to References 4. The element is capable of generating both in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness.e. Shell Element A four-node shell element is developed and it consists of six degrees of freedom at each of the four nodes: three translation. The drilling degree of freedom facilitates fixity of members that frame into the wall.Chapter 9: Analysis and loads applied. Positive Definition of Shell Local Forces at Nodes 124 . Loads (point loads on nodes) can be applied in global system or in the local axis of the shell. Degrees of Freedom of Shell Element (local definition) The general characteristics of the shell element are summarized as follows: • • • • The element is a quadrilateral element with 6 DOFs at each node.

all members attached to this diaphragm have the same displacements in X and Z if there is no rotation around Y. P-δ effect This effect is also called a member instability effect because it increases the instability of the members of a structure. P-Delta Analysis To analyze most structures it is necessary to take into account the P-Delta effect. What is P-Delta effect? When an element experiences a lateral displacement. The secondary moments created by the lateral displacements are also called P-Delta moments. secondary moments arise as a result of the axial force acting through the lateral displacement of the member. In the current implementation. members attached to these rigid diaphragms are moved together according to defined constraint equations. There are two kinds of P-delta effects: P-δ (small p-delta). a rigid diaphragm is assumed completely in the X-Z plane: translation DOFs in X and Z directions and rotation around Y are used to define diaphragm constraint equations. Therefore. and P-∆ (large P-Delta).Chapter 9: Analysis Shell membrane and bending Forces Rigid Diaphragm Constraints RAM Advanse provides a method to define a rigid diaphragm by enforcing a set of constraint equations. 125 . or simply the P-Delta effect. Otherwise. This effect can be considered either at the analysis stage and/or at the code check stage. It is assumed that the diaphragm is infinitely rigid in its plane and it transmits forces through it without deforming. The simplest method is to allow RAM Advanse to calculate P-Delta during the analysis stage. Hence. member displacements are adjusted due to diaphragm rotation around Y according to the distance between member nodes and diaphragm mass center. Small p-delta effect Secondary P-δ moments are caused by axial force acting through the lateral displacements of the member relative to its central line (See figure below).

The current implementation considers only axial-bending interaction but it does not consider other effects such as torsion-axial force interaction. Beams. and they usually carry low axial loads. even if lateral displacements are small. which may considerably increase the computation time.. where a solution can be obtained in a direct way. These effects can be interpreted as the effect of axial force on element bending (i. RAM Advanse used in previous versions the fictitious lateral load method to calculate the P-delta effect. It should be taken into account by the analysis.Chapter 9: Analysis Large P-Delta effect P-∆ moments are caused by axial force acting through the relative displacements of the ends of the member (figure below). In the current version the adopted method is more robust and it is detailed in the following Section.e. torsionbending interaction etc. If this is the case. P-Delta effect (also called P-Delta with axial-bending interaction) is a second order effect that causes a non-linearly behavior of the structure. one can disregard P-Delta effects. a second-order analysis requires several iterations to obtain the solution. The P-Delta effect generally decreases the structure and member stability. axial-bending interaction) so that they create additional flexural moments and then it leads to additional lateral displacements. The geometric stiffness matrix is calculated in each iteration and analysis is repeated until convergence (equilibrium) is achieved. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects).bending interaction in members (1D element only). one can ignore P- 126 . P-Delta effects can be ignored only when axial forces (tension or compression) are small and lateral displacements minor. Both P-delta moments combined are simply called the P-Delta effect. They are summarized below: • It considers axial. The current implementation has some limitations. P-∆ effect This effect is also called structure instability effect because increases the instability of the structure. P-Delta calculation methods As opposed to first-order analysis. Iterative P-Delta Effects P-Delta effects at element level are accounted for through element geometric stiffness matrix. girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads.

127 . small P-Delta effects is accounted for. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problem if encountered during analysis. Note that it is referred to the figure given in Frame Element section. it is advised to divide frame members into two or three sub-elements. If one also wants to consider small PDelta effects. Therefore.Chapter 9: Analysis Delta effects for these types of members. 4. when a second-order analysis is performed. for load combinations P-Delta will be calculated in the analysis results using the same iterative method as was used with the load cases as described above. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for further explanation. However. This is only possible due to the linear elastic analysis assumption. With this modeling approach. the results for a combination cannot be calculated in the same way. No geometric stiffness matrix is calculated for shell elements. (4) where P. • • The P-Delta affect due to self-weight is always considered as if it were applied with equivalent forces at end nodes. the results for a combination can be found using superposition. L are axial force and member length. respectively. load combinations are prepared before the analysis as opposed to ones created after the analysis in the first-order analysis. Therefore. when they are present in the load combination. Dynamic analysis. P-Delta effect in load combinations When a first-order analysis is performed. and P-Delta Second order analysis cannot consider dynamic loads. That is by simply adding together the results of each basic load case together multiplied by the respective combination factors. The geometric stiffness matrix for a frame element is given in Eq. The above procedure is generally referred to as large P-Delta. the rest of the loads will be calculated with the P-Delta effect and the dynamic load forces will be "added" to the result obtained in the P-Delta analysis. However.

a greater tolerance and may have more difficulties in the convergence. If this is the case. one can disregard P-Delta effects for them. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects). saving the time required for updating the tangent matrix. Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis RAM Advanse is capable of performing a nonlinear analysis. This procedure could be faster than the first one. However. It is usually used with nonlinear elements such as tension-only members or it is called for an analysis to include P-Delta effects. it may require more iteration. 128 . but the iterative displacements are found using the original tangent matrix without updates. In the Modified Newton Raphson Method the load increments are applied using the tangent stiffness matrix too. In both methods the total applied load is divided into a number of load steps. The standard method calculates.bending interaction in members (1D element only). girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. Beams. one can ignore P-Delta effects for these members.Chapter 9: Analysis Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span The current implementation for P-Delta application is in such a way that it considers axial. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problems during analysis. and they usually carry low axial loads. Two methods are available for the nonlinear analysis: The standard or full Newton Raphson method (NR) and the Modified Newton Rhapson method (MNR). at each load step. a tangent stiffness matrix of the structure that is used to iteratively search the equilibrium state. where the original calculated tangent matrix is similar to the final one. it is recommended only for big models with few non linear members. Thus.

Chapter 9: Analysis Comparison of the two methods available for the non-linear analysis. this increases analysis time but it helps convergence with smaller number of load increments. It is always recommended to perform a preliminary linear analysis to check the model and to compare the results with the non-linear analysis. 129 . In this case. The number of iterations can also be set prior to the analysis. The load is applied incrementally and analysis is carried out until all loads are applied. equilibrium is checked in such a way that the difference between element resisting forces and externally applied loads is less than the pre-defined tolerance. one can increase the number of increments. The following is a summary of the features in this type of analysis: • The number of (load) increments is defined before starting the analysis. • • To perform the P-Delta analyses select the Second-Order option when the structure is analyzed. Again. If divergence is observed in analysis solution. the solution is forced to converge within number of iteration per load increment. this number can be increased if any difficulty is found in converging. At the end of each increment. Usually. In this case it is assumed that an equilibrium state is found.

It is assumed in the current implementation that constructed stiffness matrix is always positive definite and constructed mass matrix is a diagonal matrix. The general characteristics of the current implementation are summarized as follows: 130 . 9 and 10) to find the lowest frequencies (i. higher periods). Enter the required parameters for the second order analysis. The program utilizes a sub-space iteration technique (see References 7.. 8. In general for an efficient analysis the following values are recommended (default values): Number of increments = 1 Number of iterations per increment = 10 Convergence tolerance = 1E-5 Eigen Value Analysis The analysis engine is capable of finding Eigen values for a given system.e.Chapter 9: Analysis Choose Perform second order analysis (P-Delta).

R. For most cases. • • • • • References [1] Matrix Structural Analysis. S. It is advised to increase the required number of Eigen values that may accelerate convergence characteristics in subspace.1. (1991).L. static condensation can be applied for Eigen solution.D. R. 5th Edition.. and Harder. In this case. (1988). N. The program internally enforces spectrum slicing (Sturm sequence check) to make sure that found “n” Eigen values are the first “n” Eigen values in the solution queue. This is also called lumped mass approach. pp. 259-265. "The Finite Element Methods: Linear and Static Dynamic Finite Element Analysis".. Inc.. 1955 [3] Formulas for Stress and Strain.. There are rare cases that the program is not able to converge. R. W. E. 30.. 75-84 [5] Ibrahimbegovic. "An Eigensolution Strategy For Large Systems". (1990). Therefore. 1-9 [7] Bathe. “A Robust Quadrilateral membrane Finite Element with Drilling Degrees of Freedom”. "Finite Element Procedures". International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. Vol. This usually reduces the risks for having numerical problems related to DOFs without mass. Vol. Computers & Structures. A. L. 7.Chapter 9: Analysis • • Only diagonal mass matrix is allowed in the current implementation. “A Refined Four-noded Membrane Element with Rotational Degrees of Freedom”. 3rd Edition. If all the masses are not applied to master nodes and hence there are some other masses assigned to other nodes. L. No. Van Nostrand. Computer and Structures.. the program statically condenses out all degrees of freedom without mass. this number is enough to converge in sub-space. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods.. Taylor. 1983 131 .. and Wilson. Thomas J.. McGuire. E.. Vol. K. 2nd Edition. R.L.L. E.. R. Gallagher.. Vol. “A Unified Formulation for Triangular and Quadrilateral Flat Shell Finite Elements with Six Nodal Degrees of Freedom”. any mass should be defined at nodes or at master nodes.. static condensation is not used. If all masses are lumped at master nodes (master nodes generally associated with rigid diaphragms). 2000 [2] Strength of Material.J. 1975 [4] MacNeal. R. 16. and Young. McGraw-Hill. New York. L.. pp. which is larger than the number of requested Eigen values.0E-8 for degrees of freedom where no mass is defined. Timoshenko.C. This guaranties that the solution does not miss any Eigen values so that the lowest “n” Eigen values are always found. W. The program internally sets a number of trial vectors. and Ziemian.H. and Wilson. Roark. The program also applies Gram-Schmidt orthogonality technique to prevent converging to already converged solutions.. A. 1987 [9] Wilson. 1-4. 1996 [8] Hughes. No. 445-457 [6] Ibrahimbegovic. John Wiley & Sons. The program assigns 1. Part 1.J. 28. The algorithm is optimized for sparse computation.. Princeton.R.H.

EM6. Vol. E.. 98. 1972 132 ..Chapter 9: Analysis [10] Bathe.L.J. Wilson. "Large Eigenvalue problems in Dynamic Analysis". Journal of Engineering mechanics Division. No. ASCE. K.

The modal shapes for each Mode. the Modal Analysis which determines the free vibration behavior of the structure. T is the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. In this process the following equation has to be solved: [K . The list of the masses that are acting on the different nodes of the structure. and the determination of the Seismic forces and displacements due to the combination of modes for a given direction of acceleration. This parameter is very useful for the determination of the accuracy of the Modal Analysis The total mass that is the sum of the masses in each degree of freedom that acts over the whole structure. Free vibration is only dependent on the rigidity of the structure and its masses. M is the diagonal mass matrix and Z is the corresponding matrix of eigenvectors. To perform a dynamic analysis it is necessary to first enter the corresponding masses in the respective nodes and a seismic response spectrum. which is an excellent insight to the behavior of the structure. not on the loads.T² M] Z=0 Where K is the stiffness matrix. which represent the ground acceleration in an earthquake in a certain direction. The number of Modes to be calculated will depend on the following factors: • • The number of Modes specified by the user in the Analysis dialog window. Each eigenvalue-eigenvector pair is called a natural vibration mode and they are calculated with a numeric method of iteration (see more details of the modal analysis in the Analysis Chapter). frequencies and the undamped free vibration mode shapes of the structure. The output of the modal analysis given by the program consists of the following: • • • • • • 133 . The dynamic analysis can be subdivided into two parts. periods and maximum accelerations The mass participation percentage that provides a measure of how important the Mode is in the calculation of the response of the structure. The Mode frequencies. The number of mass degrees of freedom of the structure that considers both the translational and rotational masses. The function is displayed in a graphical way. It is given as a digitized response.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis RAM Advanse performs dynamic analysis using the method of modal superposition. Modal Analysis The Modal Analysis consists of the calculation of the period. The seismic response spectrum. The type of Modal Analysis performed by the program is the Eigenvalue Analysis.spectrum curve.

Der Kiureghian and Bayo (1981) and is taken as the default method. forces and stresses calculated from the dynamic analysis. each Mode frequencies and for the modal combination. reactions. SRSS Method It combines the results by taking the square root of the sum of their squares. Determination of the Dynamic Forces Seismic Dynamic Forces are the maximum forces (response) that occur on the structure as a result of a dynamic analysis utilizing a loading response spectrum. Therefore the damping factor must be greater than zero for this method. The sign of the results can impact the combination of dynamic loads with other types of loads that already have an associated sign. Advanse does this by taking the sign from the predominant modes acting on each member to determine the sign of the total seismic response. Seismic results with sign Even though the response can be expected to vary within a positive and negative value range. They are printed for each load combination. the member design will not be accurate if the moment diagram due to seismic loading does not reflect the true moment signs. It is quite conservative and therefore not commonly used. displacements and stresses. the results of the adopted methods are traditionally given as single positive results (this includes the displacements. Therefore. Methods of Modal Superposition Modal superposition is performed in order to compute the maximum displacements.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis • The base reactions that are the total moments and reactions in global coordinates required by the supports to resist the inertia forces originated by the response spectrum loading. RAM Advanse includes a method to assign signs to the displacements. member forces and stresses). In this case the program performs a statistical measure of the likely maximum response of the structure for the given response spectrum. Therefore the damping factor is not considered in this method. ABS Method It combines the results by taking the sum of absolute values. It is very similar to the CQC method. RAM Advanse offers two methods for performing this superposition: CQC Method CQC represents the Complete Quadratic Combination technique developed by Wilson. forces and stresses for each vibration mode. considering a damping factor equal to zero. It considers the statistical coupling between closely spaced Modes caused by modal damping. We can consider the case of a column in a building: 134 . This includes member forces. For example when bending and axial loads are combined.

135 . which are to contain mass. the user must be aware that the signs are only estimated and must be used with caution. follow these steps: Select the nodes. the combination of loads will better reflect the real behavior of the structure. As you can see. the user has to create load combinations in the two opposite directions. To enter mass.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Combination of dynamic loads with and without signs with other type of loads. Entering Mass Modal shapes are automatically calculated when the structure contains a mass on at least one node. with the feature to calculate signs for the dynamic loads. for example in -X and +X direction. Mass can only be entered at the nodes. It is important to mention that when signs are going to be considered. Nevertheless.

Seismic Response spectrum. Now the masses have been introduced. proceed as follows: 136 . You can view the mass graphically by depressing . Damping constant (in percentage).in the Model Properties toolbar. Choose the direction of the mass that you want to view graphically with It is important to note that there are two available tools to automatically generate masses for one or several floors considering members and shells. Refer to the context sensitive help for instructions related to their use. They are located in the lower part of the worksheet. Available tools for automatic mass generation.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Enter in the value of the mass and then press (or press to copy the entire row). To perform the seismic analysis. Seismic Loads The dynamic response spectra analysis requires the following data: Dynamic scale factor = Seismic acceleration/gravity constant.

180 degrees for an earthquake in global -X. E. 137 . Enter the scale factor and direction of the earthquake force.g. In the opposite case the results for the seismic for X and -X or for Z and -Z will be the same).The seismic direction should be 0 degrees for an earthquake in global X. as specified by the code that you are using.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a load case for seismic forces. (This is only valid when the seismic is calculated with sign. sx = Seism in X (positive direction) or ez = Earthquake in Z. -90 degrees for an earthquake in global Z direction and +90 degrees for an earthquake in global -Z direction. Note .

you need to determine the magnitude of the seismic forces. The response spectrum can be button and later recovered with this button Seismic analysis As described previously RAM Advanse performs modal dynamic analyses. Load combinations where seismic load is included. the response spectra curve shows on its vertical axis the maximum acceleration/gravity. All elements are considered as carrying compression as well as tension in dynamic load cases. You can also load a saved response spectrum using the saved with the button. That is. Wind load). Notice that acceleration is normalized with respect to gravity. That is. This means that the seismic dynamic load is represented by a response spectra (it is also possible to represent other dynamic forces with a response spectra). Seismic load is represented by a response spectrum. To perform a seismic design. Construction details Warning! The program does not include the” tension only” option in the dynamic analysis. 138 . you should take into account the following: • Seismic loads.e. Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration Just as with other loads (i. and on it's horizontal axis the period of the structure.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Go to the Gen/Spectrum panel and enter the response spectrum specified by the code you are using for the design. This kind of dynamic analysis is the most convenient for seismic design because most seismic building codes include the response spectra to be used in the design of a building. the response spectra.

139 . Nodal mass is entered in Kip. 5.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Response spectra: acceleration/Gravity versus period of the structure. It is important to note that the combinations that include both types of load cases will be analyzed in two parts. RAM Advanse offers an analysis option to automatically assign a sign to the calculated response based on the fundamental mode of response. The summation of bending moments and other forces is not zero at the nodes when the option seismic results with signs is not used. 3. you should create the load combinations required by the code you are using. Load combinations Once you have created a seismic load case in X. RAM Advanse will divide the mass load by gravity. The RAM Advanse Reinforced Concrete Design modules handle many of these details included in Chapter 21 of the ACI -318 Code. This factor scales the response spectra. considering all the non-dynamic cases where the second order effects will be included. Enter 1 (one) if the response spectra need not be scaled. Kg. Ton. ABS or the SRSS method. Note that RAM Advanse allows the simultaneous analysis of load cases with second order effects and dynamic load cases (these are calculated with a first order analysis). Construction details It is important that you understand the behavior of structures subject to seismic loads and the design details that are required to provide a structure with the required ductility. 4. This is because of step 3. Refer to your local concrete and building code for the pertinent detailing information. Modal superposition is done using the CQC. Results from a dynamic response spectra analysis are always positive since they represent the maximum values of the structure vibration. and a second one that will add all the dynamic cases calculated with a first order analysis. The first one. Lb. Notice that RAM Advanse allows you to enter a Scale Factor. or in Z. in order to obtain the respective units for the analysis. Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse RAM Advanse performs modal analysis as follows: 2.

Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis As opposed to wind load (left). Often a building contains a slab which increases the horizontal rigidity of a floor (perpendicular stiffness of the slab is taken as zero). Note. select all the nodes of a floor and then assign them a floor number. The other nodes should not have mass. Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings Dynamic analysis of buildings has some special considerations to be taken into account. This rigidity is represented by rigid floor diaphragm.In a floor. 140 . To do this. only the mass center node should have a mass. RAM Advanse offers an option to obtain the seismic results with signs. Reactions are always positive when the option seismic results with signs are not used. To model this rigid diaphragm proceed as follows: • • • Create a node at the mass center of each floor Assign TX and TZ translational masses and RY rotational mass. These are the masses of the entire floor. However. All nodes in a floor (including the node with the masses) should be connected with a rigid floor diaphragm. bending moments are always positive in a typical dynamic load case (right).

Assign TX.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a node (master node) in the mass center of each floor. Select all the nodes in a floor Go to Nodes/Floor and press button to assign a floor number to the selected nodes. 141 . and RY floor masses to the master node. TZ.

. Select desired modal shape Press 142 to see vibration. Note. That is to say. follow next steps: Press to activate modal shapes.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Assign all floor numbers.Notice that each floor should has a unique number in the structure. Analysis Then proceed to the analysis as usual: Perform analysis as usual Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) To see the modal shapes of the building. . this number should not occur on any other floor.

Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis To see vibration modes with 3D sections depress (or press ) in the Rendering toolbar. You can also press to see a static view of the structure with the deformed modal shape or you can to see the normalized displacements of the selected mode 143 . and to see stress and vibration. To view 3D vibration. . press button and in the Code Check toolbar To view stress created by vibration modes also depress Press buttons press .

.

Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code check After the analysis and design of a steel or wood structure has been checked graphically.To optimize a structure. 2) Sections that fail the code check will be changed to a section that passes the code check. 145 . RAM Advanse will not optimize a structure if a group (or description) of members has different sections assigned within that group. The order of the sections in this list will determine the priority of each section to be considered for replacing the current section. Structure optimization has two purposes: 1) Oversized sections will be changed to another section (normally with lower weight) from a predefined group of sections that can adequately carry the imposed loads. first select all the members that should be included in the optimization. The criterion to be adopted will be defined with the list of sections to be considered (section collection). you can proceed to structure optimization. members with the same description (same group) should have the same initial section. Important. To optimize. Execute Optimize structure. There are many optimization criteria that can be applied to these processes.

In the optimization of wood members. and press OK. Optionally. Warning. Choose the section collection to consider in the optimization.When sections are changed all analysis results will be lost. determine the maximum allowable deflection for each description together with the load combinations to be considered for the deflection check.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Steps for the optimization of a structure. 1. . When optimization is finished. 4. Check all approved changes and press OK. the user has to check that the assigned material is adequate for all sections of the collection and the type of loads of the members. Check all groups of members (descriptions) that you want to optimize. 3. Note. 146 . Therefore. See the Wood Design Chapter for more information. Assign the collection(s) to the desired groups of members. In this case. select Optimize. Then select the operation to be performed: Optimize or Code check. 6. you should analyze and design the structure again. 5. 2. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. . RAM Advanse will change the current sections to those suggested. Then check the load conditions that members should resist.

Structure design is iterative. Verification or Code Check Verification or Code Check will suggest section changes for only those elements that fail the code check. Notice that the program tells you the reason for the changes (strength or deflection). So you must perform the analysis-design cycle more than one time. Do not check changes that you don't want to perform. Optimization and code check Optimization Optimization performs two actions: 1) Adopts the first section of the selected section collection (list of sections) that fulfills the strength and deflection requirements. until you are satisfied with the sections used in the structure. In this case. Important. 147 . it should be re-analyzed. After optimization. After the structure has been optimized. You should study the structure results and optimize the structure again. and 2) Replaces elements that fail the code check by others that pass it. Oversized elements are not modified.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Check all changes that you agree with. Normally this results in the reduction of the weight of oversized members to a lower weight section. analyze the structure again. choose P-Delta analysis. Then press OK for RAM Advanse to make the suggested changes. .

Important . the sections in the collection have to be sorted by weight. C. width or any other criteria). For example the test1 collection shown below is acceptable. . after optimization. That is. L. Elements with BEAM1 description will have a common section that may differ from COL1. cold-form steel and wood) can also co-exist.Remember that the Type of a section is defined by its name.Optimization and Verification assign the same section to all the elements of a group of members (or description). RAM Advanse will assign the same section to all elements with the same description. I. all elements with description COL1 will have the same section. furthermore. "Tube 15" has "Tube" type 148 . etc) can exist in a single section collection.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization basis The purpose of structure optimization is to find the optimum section that complies with your set of criteria (weight. The program will pick the first section in the list that resists the applied loads within the deflection limits. a "W 10x20" section has "W" type. Note. Note that the sequence in which sections are considered is based on the order of the sections in the collection. That is. A search is done only among those sections. A section is assigned to each group of members. RAM Advanse will choose the section to replace from the section collection. depth. If an optimization based on the weight of the members is desired. a collection with sections that belong to different material types (steel. Sizes in a set can be sorted by weight by clicking on after the collection is defined..e. How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section The program chooses a section to replace the original only if it exists in the section collection. Different types of sections (i.

Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization process For each group (description) of elements. Once RAM Advanse gets the first section that meets these criteria it is selected for a possible change. RAM Advanse checks sections in the selected collection and selects those that pass the code check (strength and deflection) for all the selected load conditions and for all the selected elements that belong to the same group. 149 .

Define the allowable deflections. then it is left without modification. The following procedure can be used to optimize your structure and at the same time limit deflections to allowable values. If the current section passes the code check. However. If the current section does not pass the code check. Note that you can enter absolute values (a) or values in function of the members length (b). checks are first made to see if the current section passes the code check. Enable the deflection check 2. Select the load conditions to be considered. Steps to include deflection check in the optimization. 150 .Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Verification process The Verification process is similar to the Optimization process. 3. 1. Structure deflections and deformations Optimization and verification processes may additionally check structure deflections or deformations (lateral deflections are considered with the same limit). then RAM Advanse proceeds to the optimization explained above. (You may need to use service load conditions to perform this check).

It is the engineers' responsibility to ascertain if this is appropriate for the given structure. Optimization with other criteria There may be other factors to be considered in the optimization that are not included in the deflection or strength check. You can review the slopes graphically to see if they are within the given limits.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Notes: • • • Some load conditions should only be used for deflection verification and others should only be used for code check. This deflection check is very important and it may be performed as part of the design process. One possible way to include them is limiting the value for the stress ratio to a value different than one. Notice that you should work with physical members for deflection check because deflections are always calculated relative to the members end points. 151 .

To correct this.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Appropriate section not found In the event that you get the message "No section was found to resist imposed load” in the replace sections list. add stronger sections to the section collection. Optimization with default collection of sections If the user does not define a collection of section. AISC and AISI sections When both AISC and AISI elements are present in a structure. the optimization will consider the complete set of sections of the original adopted section. The optimization process will look for the lightest section that comply with the defined strength and deflections requirements. RAM Advanse will ignore them during the optimization or verification processes. 152 . Non-steel or wood members If the structure has frame members with sections that are not made of steel or wood. or change the geometry or loads of the model. RAM Advanse can change one kind for the other. it means that no section in the section collection passes the code check for the imposed load conditions or specified lengths.

seismic loads. The third group has lists of the structure’s members or connections with their section type and quantities. Like all the other reports. Analysis Results Before printing the reports.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports For many of the output you are required to first analyze and design the structure. self-weight multipliers for load conditions. Loads Data This option allows printing all the information relative to node forces. etc. The last group allows the user to print the forces and deflections. This window allows the engineer to choose which information will be printed. and connection design. This window also allows you to choose the load conditions to be included in the output. including the points of inflection and envelopes. only the information of the graphically selected members will be printed. Groups of options in the Reports menu. distributed forces on members. a window is displayed. RAM Advanse offers you a variety of printing options. The second group allows you to print all the information related to steel. geometric data for the design. Note: Before printing data or results. These quantities are given in length. A description of the options in each group of the Reports menu is given next: Model Data This option allows you to print all the structure geometric information like coordinates of the nodes. weight or number of members. etc. first select the elements that you want to be included in the printout. reinforced concrete. 153 . wood. The Reports menu is divided into four groups. and then choose the type of output you want to see. The first one provides the ability to print all the data and results of the analyzed structure. data of members.

All the data and results that can be obtained are shown in the graphic below. Window of Analysis Results Use the two options at the top right edge of each group of reports ( all reports of the group. Steel Design Before printing the report. This report also includes a graphic of the seismic response spectrum. Note that for some print options additional information is required in the form of additional parameters like the number of stations along the member. For more details about the information given in each type of report. ) to select or deselect Dynamic Analysis The dynamic response results are displayed in this report. press the key to obtain the printed report. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Once all the information to be printed is set. group by conditions. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design. a window is displayed. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. 154 . The user must choose at least one static or dynamic load condition. etc. It also gives the calculated accelerations for each vibration mode together with the percentage of mass participation. or whether to group by elements.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing steel design reports. Reinforced Concrete Design Before printing the report. a window is displayed. 155 . This window allows you to choose the code to be used. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. the type of stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design.

use the respective detailing module. The user can also have a detailed report for each connection in the detailing module for connections. family or description. spacing of stirrups. Window displayed prior to printing connection design reports. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. see the Reports section in the Connections chapter. In this window the user can choose the code.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to the printing of reinforced concrete design reports. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. For more details about the information given in each type of report. The report gives information relative to the design of beams and columns like forces acting on members. the connections grouped by tag. considering all the selected connections. Each detailing module has a more detailed report where the user can introduce more information for a complete design. type. 156 . etc. Connections Design Before printing the report. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the Design of Wood Members. Wood Design Before printing the report. a window is displayed. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. maximum. a window is displayed. the stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design. This window allows you to choose the scope of the report. Each option is a summary of the former one. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. For a more detailed design of reinforced concrete columns and beams. minimum and calculated reinforcement. For more details about the information given in each type of report.

translations and rotations for each selected member and load condition. this window allows you 157 . List of Joints This option prints the list of connections assigned to the joints. flexural and torsional forces as well as their respective envelopes. and c) Export as Dxf : To export as DXF file. shear. Before printing the report window is displayed where the user can choose the diagrams to be printed. This list may be very useful for the detailing and to know if there are still joints without connections. These quantities can be expressed in length or weight. Parts List This command prints the list of parts for the currently selected members. Also. List of Materials This option allows you to obtain a list of the selected materials with their respective quantities. Diagrams This menu option has a sub-menu with three choices: Three choices to print/display the forces diagrams: a) Reports : to print a report. Report The diagrams display axial. Note that the envelopes will consider only the selected load conditions.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing wood design reports. b) Show on screen : to show the diagrams on a graphical window. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design.

which is very useful for reinforced concrete members. It is advisable to save the structure before executing this command and not to process more than approximately one hundred diagrams each time. It is advisable to perform a small print test to determine if the chosen number is adequate for the current paper size and printer. Screen displayed before the diagram report. Once the type of diagrams and the load conditions are chosen. 158 . the user will be able to see on the screen a preview of the report and continue with the printing. Warning! The large number of figures that can be generated when multiple members and load conditions are chosen in big structures may produce problems of memory and resources on the computer.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports to select the option to show the points where the values of the diagrams are zero. they will be smaller. You can choose the number of diagrams per printing line. which varies between 1 and 6. Note that where more diagrams are included in a line. The default value is 2. which is recommended for reports in a letter size with portrait orientation. That is to choose the particular members you want diagrams displayed for. All the diagrams are referenced to the member local axes.

Note that there is a track bar at the bottom of the window which allows you to chose any point along the member and get the numerical value of the diagram at that point. axial forces. The available member force options include the bending moments. Display on the screen This option displays the member force diagrams for the member that was selected first on the screen. shear.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report of diagrams. It is important to note that the envelopes that are displayed with this option are calculated only from all the selected load combinations. together with translation and rotation diagrams. 159 . The user can select the number of displayed diagrams per line. torsional moments. In the upper part of the displayed window the user will find two menus to chose the type of diagram and the load condition to display in the diagrams.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Option to display the diagrams on the screen. The screen is very similar to the ones of the detailing modules. Option to export diagrams as a DXF file. Note the track bar at the bottom of the window (at the left) which allows you to display the numerical values of the diagram at any point along the member. The type of diagrams is chosen from the menus at the top of the window. 160 . Export diagrams to DXF files This option displays a screen very similar to that of the detailing modules and includes an option to export the drawing as a DXF file.

Press to set all the print configuration parameters. a screen similar to the one shown below will be displayed: Report screen The characteristics and components of the report screen are explained next.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports The reports have icons and information that are very useful. In this case the standard dialog window for printing will appear 161 . The window that appears is the standard Windows printer setup dialog. Press CLOSE to close the report window. For more details refer to your Windows manual or to your printer’s manual. Standard window to setup the printer. Each time the user prints a report. Press to print the current report. General commands for print report A description of all the buttons in the top bar of the screen report is given next.

Press to copy a selected block (Ctrl+C) to the Clipboard to read it from another program like Excel. The program exports only the text without Press the font styles or graphics (without format). 162 . This is a very useful button because it Press includes the styles. and bring them back (using the Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V keys to copy and paste the selected blocks) to the RAM Advanse worksheets. modify them in Microsoft Excel. etc. to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. Press to select the complete report. tabulations and graphics (with format). From Microsoft Word the user can make any modification desired to the report. Exported report to Microsoft Excel. The program exports only the text without the font styles or graphics (without format). This button is very useful because the user can export the selected blocks of the report. WordPad. Press to export the selected block to Microsoft Excel.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Standard dialog window for printing.

txt). which is automatically obtained. Press to save the complete report as a text file (*. It is advisable to make a back up of the original file (Reportitle.bmp file in the BMPS folder. This allows the user to export the file in a simple text format (TXT).txt) in a safe location before proceeding with any changes. Note that when this option is activated you will see the titles that will be repeated on the screen. This logo is found in the logo. the chosen units system. even graphics are exported. This will allow you to revert to the original file whenever necessary. replace the logo. This folder is located in the root directory\BMPS folder. Editing the Reportitle.bmp file with your company logo. Other information given in the report is the path of the file. This requires that the user must have this software properly installed on their computer. Use this option to repeat the title block on the top of each page. Later the user can read the report from WordPad or NotePad.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report exported to Microsoft Word. Note that the export is done with the original formatting intact. The program will automatically insert the logo in the predetermined location on the report page. and the date and time of the printed report. Note that the drawing file is in a bitmap format and it can be edited in any drawing program. depending on the speed of the processor and the number of pages of the report. RAM Advanse automatically runs the respective software (Word or Excel). 163 . Warning! The user must be aware that the transfer of a report to Microsoft Word or Excel might take some time. Warning! When exporting a report.txt file that is located in the root directory of RAM Advanse (C:\RAMadvanseEng) can modify this and other data to show in the report title. To change the logo. Customizing the heading of a report The logo of RAM International is located at the top left of the report.

the printout will be in gray tones. The user can change the print quality in the program configuration option. If you want to print in gray tones. the printout will be in the original colors. 164 . Printing Graphics The program has an option to print exactly what is seen on the screen.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports of the detailing modules For more information about general commands. use the option to improve the quality of printings for black and white printers. If you have a black and white printer. Option to print the current graphic on the screen. If you have a color printer. refer to General commands for print report For a complete description about detailing module reports. refer to the chapters of each module as required.

Notice that you can save the graph to a file.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Go to Configuration/General/Print. to change the print quality. 165 . In this case you should use the following option: Option to save the current graphic in BMP or JPG format. Better qualities will require more resources of the system. The normal quality will give a standard print.

you may experience small differences in the tones between your printed graph and the graph displayed in the screen. Once you succeed in printing the graphic. Remarks: If you experience printing problems (the computer freezes or the printing is too slow). If the user wants to include a comment on the graphic. Text Box This option found in the File tab of the main menu. Install the last available driver for your graphics card and printer considering your current operating system. This information can be a title. etc. Reduce the printing quality in your printer (see your printer manual). press the “Add text box” command that is explained next. allows the user to enter any information that will be printed on the graphic output. you can increment the quality. Text Box. If you have a color printer. 166 . Additionally you can set the scale and the size (in bitmaps) of the graph.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports A dialog window will appear were you should define the type of file BMP (Windows Bit Map) or JPG (JPEG graphic). a comment. This text box will be located below the graphic screen of RAM Advanse and will be printed along with the graphic. take into account the following suggestions: • • • • Reduce the printing quality in RAM Advanse. a description.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Note that graphs include always the description of stresses and their type when they are drawn. 167 .

.

the nodes and frame members). RAM Structural System .2x file and later.2x file and later. Exporting • • • • DXF: exporting to drawing software (Autocad. Note that the dxf file is created from all the members of the model.Full Model: To import all members from a RAM Structural System version 7. DXF files DXF files allow you to interchange only the basic geometry (that is. To export as a DXF file. select the command File/Export/DXF Model. including loads. 169 . SDNF: Exporting to steel detailing neutral file for detailing software. etc. RAM Advanse Neutral: exporting data to an ASCII text file. This is very useful for transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse.). not just the currently visible or selected members on the RAM Advanse display. The following options are available: Importing • • • • DXF Importing from drawing software (MicroStation. enter the name of the file and press OK. RAM BasePlate: Exporting data of the selected column for the base plate design in RAM BasePlate It is also possible to import or export information to the databases. Autocad. and others which create DXF files) RAM Advanse Neutral: Special tex t file containing the complete structure data.Lateral Model: To import only lateral members from a RAM Structural System version 7. These files have extension "DXF". for more details see Chapter 6. What are DXF files? DXF files (Drawing Exchange Files) are ASCII files (plain text) that contain almost all the information necessary to produce a drawing. MicroStation. Importing and exporting sections and materials. Exporting as DXF files RAM Advanse can export the geometry (frame member lines) of a model to a DXF file. RAM Structural System . Note: If you have RAM SS version 8.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data This chapter describes how to import and export information from and to other programs.0 or later you will be able to import models only for your current version of RAM SS.

170 . 2. loads. shells. Creating a DXF file You have to perform the following steps: 1. rigid offset. springs. use command File/Export/ DXFModel… Note. Using your CAD software. which are the most time consuming data to enter. etc.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. but change everything to layer 0 (zero) before exporting. draw the frame members of the structure using any available command but explode everything into LINES before exporting. This includes: • • Nodal coordinates Frame members All other data (restraints. Draw lines to represent the frame members. Draw using as many layers as you want.RAM Advanse only exports the basic geometry to DXF files. Importing a DXF file RAM Advanse will import the basic geometry of a structure that was created in some other drawing software and exported in a DXF format file.) are ignored. hinges. This option is very useful since it allows you to easily create nodes and frame members.

if RAM Advanse locates a line as illustrated in the picture below-left. If there are polylines. circles and polygons. . Select the command File/Import from/DXF. Save the drawing as DXF file. Other layer will not be considered during the drawing importation. Execute command File/Import from/DXF to read the DXF file Important! RAM Advanse will automatically insert nodes at straight-line intersection points.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data 3. Shells cannot be imported. those must be exploded to lines. it will automatically insert a node and will create an additional element as illustrated by the right picture. Reading DXF files Make sure RAM Advanse is set to the correct units (the same length units of your drawing) before you import the DXF file. For instance. For good results: 1. Then select the desired file and press OK. (a) Line as drawn (b) Nodes and elements as created by RAM Advanse RAM Advanse will automatically create joints when it is necessary. All the geometry must be in layer 0. Note.It is only possible to import frame members. The graphic must be draw in simple lines. 2. 171 .

execute command File/Export/SDNF. wherever a beam frames into another beam. the supporting beam will be broken in two and a node inserted. the desire units. Many detailing programs (e. This is a standard format conceived to facilitate data interchange among analysis/design and detailing software. enter the name of the file. To import a RAM Structural System model. Xsteel) can read or create SDNF files.g.ram file). The gravity loads can only be imported once the structure’s tributary loads have been calculated (by entering any of the design modules in the RAM Structural System). but not available in the RAM Advanse database. Lateral Only – This option will import only lateral members from the RAM SS model. member properties (shapes. Member fixity and tributary gravity loads will also be imported. All gravity beam and brace members will be imported with pin conditions at their ends.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data RAM Structural System Files RAM Advanse has the ability to import a RAM Structural System model (. Note that any member shapes used in the RAM Structural System. Columns however will be imported as fixed top but not bottom. will need to be manually added to RAM Advanse. Sending data to a SDNF file To export data to a SDNF file. fixity etc) and gravity loads can be imported. The structural geometry. Note that in RAM Advanse the intersection of any two members results in a node being created. For example. the member types by description (optional) and press OK. invoke the command File/Import from/RAM SS. This file can be read by steel detailing software that supports the SDNF format. SDNF Files RAM Advanse can export the structural data as a SDNF file. What are SDNF files? SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) are ASCII (plain text) files that allow you to send the structural member data to steel detailing software. Full Model –This option will import all lateral and gravity members. 172 . Note that RAM Advanse has a maximum of 10 uniform loads and 10 concentrated loads per member per load case.

Now you can read the file with any detailing software that supports the SDNF file. the units and the member types. The "Piecemark field" contains the RA member description The "Revision level field" is reported always as "0" Length units: in the specified units 173 . select File/Export/SDNF A dialog window will appear. if the member nodes are completely horizontal or vertical. By default. You have to define the file name. as a brace. You may change this in the dialog window. otherwise. Some characteristics of the exported SDNF File: Member description first line: "Member number" "Cardinal point" field” "0 " "0 " “Type field” “Piecemark field” “Revision level The cardinal point number is according to the standards. The "Type field" can only be COLUMN.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. the member will be reported as a beam or column. BEAM or BRACE.

Notice that only the load cases are considered. Notice also that if you have already exported data from a specific column. Within RAM BasePlate you have a Load Combination Generator that will generate the combinations according to the selected code. 174 . You have to define the loads to be considered. the Code for the load combinations. A dialog window will appear. See RAM BasePlate documentation for further details. RAM Base Plate will be executed and you will be able to proceed with the base plate design. To design a base plate. pipe or wide flange and may be of any size contained in the database. the program will “remember” the template file that you have selected and you do not have to define it again. select the desired column and execute the command File/Export/RAM BasePlate. Immediatelly. The column can be a tube. the axis where the loads are applied (RAM BasePlate currently does not analyze biaxial bending) and the template file with the initial anchor geometry. It is important to remark that RAM BasePlate works only with a single moment in the strong or in the weak axis. Dialog window to export data for RAM BasePlate. The user has to select which moment will be considered: M33 if the strong axis option is selected or M22 if the weak axis option is selected.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Sending data to RAM BasePlate RAM Advanse has the ability to export the required data for the design of base plates. Press OK and the column shape together with the load cases will be exported.

175 . Adopted element of 4 nodes. In order to model with shells you should have a solid understanding of the finite element theory because it is very easy to make mistakes in the structural modeling or in misinterpreting the results. The calculation method uses the force matrix and the general element adopted is rectangular with four nodes. isotropic and homogeneous Strength developed by a combination of bending and membrane actions. M33 or M22 with the corresponding transverse shear forces. Bending and torsion moments originated by out-of-plane loads. you will learn certain necessary concepts. and you will learn how to view the results numerically or graphically.Chapter 14: Shells Chapter 14: Shells Introduction In this chapter you will see how to enter shell elements. Two types of loads can act over the shells: Bending and torsion moments originated by loads acting out of the plane of the shell: M11. The Shell Element The following assumptions are made regarding the shell element used in RAM Advanse: • • • Rectangular plates Elastic material. It is also possible to have loads acting in the plane of the shells (membrane loads) that can be normal loads F11 and F33 and shear loads F13.

the magnitude of which can be evaluated based on the differences in the forces for each common point of the shells.Chapter 14: Shells Membrane actions acting over the shell. The numerical procedure always produces some amount of error. If both types of loads are considered. The forces in the element are evaluated in the Gauss points using the local coordinate system and the values obtained are extrapolated to the nodes at the corners in global coordinate system. Forces in the nodes calculated for each element. The adopted elements are formulated based on a numeric integration of 8 points located in both faces of the shell. we will have 6 degrees of freedom. They are called the Gauss points: Gauss points of the element. 176 .

This limitation is due to the definition of the local axes. Applications for the model There are many applications for the adopted element. This feature is intended only to completely cover a non-rectangular area with the shells. The behavior as a membrane is used when loads acting in the same plane of the shells originate the stresses in the shells. It is also possible to model a triangular element. with three nodes lying on one line. N2. N3 or N1. The correct order of the nodes for the triangular element is shown in the next figure. This is just a special case of the rectangular element. which is only suggested for transition zones. The calculation and distribution of stresses in this element is not as accurate as a traditional four-node element. These forces are parallel to the smallest dimension of the shell: Membrane behavior with forces acting in the plane of the shell. 177 . The program will generate an error if the following three nodes of the shell are collinear: N1. N2.Chapter 14: Shells Approximated error of the forces calculated in the nodes. Triangular element suggested only for transition zones. It is recommended to avoid these elements. N4.

Chapter 14: Shells These types of loads occur frequently in shear walls with vertical and lateral forces: Example of a shear wall with a membrane effect. Bending occurs when loads act perpendicular to the plate’s plane. It is also possible to have shells in three dimensions with a curvilinear axis. 178 . Loads that originate bending in shells. Bending stresses frequently occur in floor slabs and mats: Example of slabs modeled with plates.

Determination of the reinforcement needed in reinforced concrete slabs. 179 . The generation of shells is best explained with an example: Above is a row of four plates to be generated.Chapter 14: Shells Shells with curvilinear axis. Select the nodes in the order shown above. Generating shells The generation of shells is similar to the generation of frame members: that is. and then press a button to create the elements. first you need to select the nodes to which shells will be connected to. first select the bottom row of nodes. RAM Advanse offers the ability to calculate the required reinforcement for flexure (positive and negative relative to shell local axis orientation) for shells positioned in the X-Z plane. and then select the top row of nodes in the same direction. This option allows the user to verify the floor slabs and mat reinforcing requirements. That is.

It is only necessary to define big physical units. Take the time to check the local axis orientation of the shells.Chapter 14: Shells Next go to Shells/Nodes panel and press . Node selection should be done in the following order: in order to undo the generation of First select the bottom row of nodes in the order indicated. If the plates have not been generated as you expected press plates and start over. Note – Be advised that the order of selection of nodes is very important to correctly generate the plates and to establish their local coordinates. 180 . the rest of the elements may be generated automatically by controlling the degree of segmentation (meshing). The plates will be generated. Next select the top row of nodes in the order indicated. Output such as top and bottom reinforcing steel is all presented relative to the shells local axis orientation. Please notice that the top and bottom rows of nodes should be selected in the same direction.

To do this.Chapter 14: Shells Irregular plate divided into smaller rectangular plates. Description As with beams. the shells should be assigned a description immediately after you create them. First. follow these steps: 181 . select one of the groups of plates and then press Next. select the plates to be assigned a description. The process for assigning the description is similar to that of beams and is explained below. go to Shells/Description and press the button or write in the description and then press Entering Shell Thickness To enter the thickness of the plates.

type in the value of the thickness of the plates and press the button Note . 182 . by entering the segmentation (meshing) values in the worksheet as was explained in Chapter 3.Chapter 14: Shells First. Then. press the following buttons of the Display options window. Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing) There are two ways to indicate the segmentation (meshing): One. you can use the quadratic generation ( ) or the tool to segment the shells ( but these options has not to be used with physical members. by extra nodes at the sides of the basic elements already defined and two. Alternatively. select the plates. Physical members. or ). The number of segments that will have each basic unit can be defined in the worksheet.To graphically view the description and thickness of the plates.

follow these steps: Select the Shells Tab Next. follow these steps: First choose the corresponding load condition.To avoid viewing the material names graphically. go to Shells/Materials.Chapter 14: Shells Assigning Materials To assign materials. Choose the material with the mouse and press the button The materials have now been assigned. 183 . lift up (deactivate) the buttons in the Model properties toolbar. Note . and In the case of a reinforced concrete slab you will have to enter the mechanical cover too. Pressure on the Plates To enter pressure on the plates.

In the case of very coarse meshes. enter a pressure with the opposite sign. then type in the value of the pressure and press Note . We strongly recommend you to read the available literature on this subject before you use shell elements in your structure.Chapter 14: Shells Select the plates. When subdividing a mesh. Segmentation (meshing) of Plates To obtain an acceptable precision in the analysis of shells. For example: first generate the shells that are illustrated in the graph (entering shells). it is necessary to mesh the shell into a reasonable number of sub-plates. same shape finite elements should be employed. Engineering knowledge and judgement plays a very important role in the structure idealization. and also enter their thickness (entering thickness) and then select them. 184 . A positive value coincides with the positive direction of the local axis 2.If the pressure you see in the graph is opposite to what you want. Go to Shells/Load on shells. subdividing is necessary in order to reduce errors and increase precision. Model idealization and mesh subdividing is one of the most important steps in finite element modeling.

The results obtained by tables are: 185 . The slab is fixed in the four borders and it is a reinforced concrete slab. This example will be used in several sections of this chapter and will be referred to as Shell1. The differences between the forces in the nodes calculated in contiguous shells are good parameters to determine the precision obtained with the subdivision of the plates. enter the number of segments of each plate. to subdivide.Chapter 14: Shells Select plates to be subdivided. The dimensions of the slab are: 30 ft x 15 ft and a uniform pressure is acting from top to bottom. Large differences in the results will indicate that a larger number of plates are needed to accurately model the structural behavior. the case of a rectangular slab is presented. Then. As an example. It is important to mention that this precision diminishes at the borders. and there are tables with the solutions for the stresses and deflections following classic methods. Characteristics of the adopted example. Another possibility for determining the precision obtained is to study the convergence of the results. It is a very simple example. performing two calculations with two different subdivisions.

041*p*l² Secondary moments: on support Mzz = -0.058*p*l².78 1. at midspan Mxx = -0.06 -2.67 1.084*p*l².82 4x8 -3. in this case = 15 ft E = Deformation Modulus t = thickness of the shell p = applied uniform pressure µ = Poisson Coefficient Three different numbers of subdivisions are adopted: 2x4. 4x8 and 8x16: Different subdivisions adopted for Shell1.88 2.85 -2.35 8x16 -3.49 2.010*p*l² Maximum deflection: ω = 0.88 -2.030*p*l4/(E*t3) Where l = the least span. at midspan Mzz = 0.49 . The results (*) obtained are: Description M11 on supports (Kip) M11 at midspan (Kip) M33 on supports (Kip) 186 Tables -3.Chapter 14: Shells Main moments: on support Mxx = -0.61 2x4 -2.90 -1.

Dialog window used for Print – Analysis Results options. Printing the results This section describes the reports provided for the RAM Advanse Shell element.00472 0 12 4. The report options available are shown in the shell frame of the dialog shown in the next figure.55 0. considering the properties introduced in the materials section and the mechanical cover. In the calculation the torsional moments and the membrane stresses are not considered.46 0.Chapter 14: Shells (Kip) M33 at midspan (Kip) Maximum deflection (ft) Maximum error (%) 0. RAM Advanse includes the option to determine the reinforcement area needed for flexure in reinforced concrete shells or slabs. 187 .0047 0.00468 0 0.45 0.00183 61 0. These reports are provided by selecting menu Reports – Analysis Results. The method adopted is the Strength Design Method suggested by the ACI 318-99.45 0. The calculation is performed by unit length of the shell using the moments obtained in the elastic analysis.6 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells Within the options for printing results (see next section).

τ13: Transverse shear stress. Note that both the top and bottom face are relative to the shell local axes. Ang σ: The angle of the main axes in relation to the local axes.σx*σy + 3*τ²)1/2 where: σe = von Mises uniaxial equivalent stress σx. Figure that shows the stresses in the local axes with the positive directions. σ22: Transverse direct stress (it is always assumed equal to zero). It is calculated with the following expression: σe = (σ²x + σ²y .Chapter 14: Shells Shell stresses In this report the shell stresses acting on each shell node are shown. The different stresses at each node are: σ11. σ33: In-plane normal stresses in the Axes 1 and 3 directions. τ12. 188 . One located at the top face or +t/2 of the shell middle fiber and the other at the bottom face or-t/2 of the shell middle fiber. τ13: The shear force along the edge. The in-plane and out-of-plane forces determine the value of the stresses on both faces of a shell. σy = biaxial stresses referred to any coordinate system τ = Shear stress related to the former biaxial stresses All the calculated stresses consider bending and membrane forces. Von Mises: The uniaxial equivalent stress proposed by von Mises (used for the design of steel plates). The shell stresses are defined as the forces per unit area of the plate that act within the element to resist the applied loads. each node has two points where the stresses are calculated. τ max: Maximum transverse shear stress (average for both faces) Ang: τ: The angle of the maximum shear stress in relation to local axes. σ min: Total minimum stress. The main or principal stresses are: σ max: Total maximum stress in the plane formed by the plate. Thus.

V12. Ang M: The angle of the main moments in relation to the local axes. Vmax: Maximum shear force (average) Ang V: The angle of the maximum shear force in relation to local axes. M11. M min: Minimum bending moment. The adopted sign convention is according to local axes. These forces are: F11. M33: Bending moments around Axis 1 and Axis 3. The main forces are: Fmax: Maximum axial force. M13: Twisting moment. F13: Membrane shear force. 189 . Ang F: The angle of the main forces in relation to the local axes.Chapter 14: Shells Example of a Shell Stresses Report Internal forces in nodes They are defined as the resultant forces and moments considering the stresses along the thickness of the shell per unit length. F33: Normal membrane forces. M max: Maximum bending moment. Fmin: Minimum axial force. V23: Transverse shear forces.

Sign convention for corner forces according to global axes. This option displays the maximum local forces acting for the chosen load combinations. the precision of the number of plates applied to a specific problem is in direct relation to the equilibrium of these forces. It is very useful for design purposes.Chapter 14: Shells Adopted sign convention for internal forces in nodes. Face forces This option shows the forces acting on each lateral face of the shells: Face forces with the adopted sign convention. It is very useful in the design step. mainly in the design of shear walls. This option is useful to verify the magnitude of each force that must be in equilibrium with the force of the contiguous shell. The option to get the envelope of corner forces is also included. The adopted sign convention is: 190 . because it allows having the loads act on different sections of the wall. As it was stated before. The convention adopted to display such forces is given in the following figure and it is related to the glocal axes. Corner Forces The local corner forces are the internal forces that are acting on each node of the plate.

the parameter name and range are displayed. clear and concise manner. RAM Advanse allows printing the envelope of the face forces considering the selected load conditions. Bending moments. Optionally a rotated coordinate system can be adopted This option is very useful when the direction of reinforcement does not coincide with the local axes. This option provides the range of values of the face forces. positive if the bottommost fiber is in tension and negative otherwise. F.Chapter 14: Shells • • • • Shear forces. M22. considering the unitary bending moments obtained in the analysis. Reinforced concrete design for plates This option provides the required reinforcement area per unit length. Axial force. according to local axis 2. V and S according to the former figure. Graphic environment RAM Advanse offers the tools to display stresses and other results in a highly graphical manner. M. Selecting the desired elements and then pressing the following buttons activates this option: (Rendering toolbar) + (Analysis toolbar) When you activate this option an additional window appears where the units. Warping moment. A graphic can show many results at the same time in an easy. In a similar way as for the envelope of corner forces. The reference axes are by default the local axes. The list of parameters is: 191 . There is also a submenu where you can find the list of parameters that can be displayed and several options to display the graphs. positive for tension and negative for compression.

the transverse shear stresses in planes 1-2 and 2-3 respectively. The selected shells are shown in white with this option. the principal bending moments. • • • • • Stress contours for a membrane stresses example. . -σ max. the normal forces and in-plane shear force related to the local axes. -τ12 and τ23. ) referring to the local axes. Fmax and Fmin. the principal normal forces. σ min. Important! The stresses that are shown are always in the positive face (according to local axes). σ33 and τ13. Internal forces in nodes The internal forces that can be seen graphically are: • • • • 192 F11. Mmax and Mmin. Stresses The stresses that can be seen graphically are: • -Von Mises stresses. the main or principal transverse shear stress (averaged from both sides) -It is also possible to see the different stresses related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i. the main or principal normal stresses. For more details see the section Principal stresses in the section Printing results. They are the equivalent uniaxial stress proposed by von Mises and used in the design of steel plates. -τ max. the bending and torsion unitary moments related to the local axes. M11. M33 and M13. -σ11. F33 and F13.e. To see both faces enable the option to draw stresses on both sides of shells.Chapter 14: Shells Frame members (default) This option is used to view the stresses in the frame members (see the Examples Manual for more details). the normal and shear stresses in the local axes.

Contours for a bending forces example. the transverse shear forces. the principal shear force (averaged) It is also possible to see the different forces and bending moments related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i. In the former example (Shell1) it is very easy to see the main reinforcement needed at the top and the bottom of the slab.Chapter 14: Shells • • • V12 and V23.e. Vmax. The reinforcement needed in the bottom is concentrated in the midspan and the reinforcement needed in the top is concentrated in the fixed borders. Reinforcement in RC plates The required reinforcement for flexure can be displayed in function of the following parameters: • • Location of the reinforcement (at the top or bottom of the shell) Orientation of the reinforcement referring to the local or any rotated axes. 193 . ) referring to the local axis 1.

Chapter 14: Shells Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. The rotation of the axes is referred to the local axis 1. Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. The required reinforcement can be oriented in relation to the local axes or any rotated coordinate system. . 194 .

When the option Max is activated.Chapter 14: Shells Reinforcement in rotated axes. Envel and Max The options (Envel and Max) provide the envelope graph for the chosen parameter. Example of the effects of the option smooth. Smooth The option uses an algorithm that averages the values obtained in contiguous shells. The load combination used is c1=dl 195 . This action smoothes the contour lines displayed. the positive envelope is displayed and when Max is deactivated the negative envelope is displayed. Note that these options work only with load combinations. In the next figure the positive and the negative envelopes for the moment M11 are presented for the example Shell1.

196 . In this case the user has to activate the shell thickness (in the Rendering toolbar) together with the button to show the stresses (in the Analysis toolbar). An example with von Mises stresses at both sides of the shell. Stresses on both sides of the shell RAM Advanse offers an option to display the stresses and the equivalent uniaxial stresses (von Mises stresses) on both sides of the shells.Chapter 14: Shells Positive and negative envelopes for the bending moment M11 in model Shell1.

The adopted macro language is very simple: It is called LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) and it is used for different applications within RAM Advanse. Create a new 16x16 pixels bitmap drawing. Insert the bitmap created in the former step. This drawing will be used for some reports too. To do this. 4. Note that this file will serve as the Help context for the user when they enter the cross section data. (For more details please refer to the LEO Chapter of this Manual) This chapter shows you how to create new section types (all the files to be created have to be stored in the def folder of the main RA directory): 1. You can also add a remark. Create a htm file with any text editor able to save files in this format. 197 . This drawing should illustrate the new shape. such as the Paint program that comes with Windows. Let’s create a section type that will be called TEST. create the macro for the section type. These are included in the program with macros where their shape and geometrical parameters are defined. Create a 100x100-bitmap drawing that clearly shows the dimensions and variables of the profile.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros RAM Advanse has the ability to allow the user to create their own types of sections. Then. 2. save it as TEST_100x100. 2) Create a new 100x100-pixel bitmap drawing that shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. It is also possible to define how the main section properties will be calculated based on the cross section proportions (such as width.bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def Example of 16x16 bmp For other section types. replace the word TEST with the name of the section that you wish to create. Example of a 100x100 bmp. 3. 1)Create a new 16x16-pixel bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_16x16. use any drawing software that can handle BMP format. thickness).bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def. height. Next.

htm in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def 1. If you want you can add some remarks. It advisable to copy a macro of an existing section type. Execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections from the main menu. Select a type of section similar to the new one and press and the LEO Editor will be opened with the new macro. Save it as Test. Create the macro for the new section type.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros 3) Open a htm editor like Microsoft Word™ supplied with Microsoft Windows and insert the drawing. which is similar to the new one. . Enter the new name for the section type 198 .

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

LEO Editor with a macro for sections. Note that it is divided in three parts. The macros for sections have three parts. The first one is where the common properties or general parameters are defined. The second part defines the section variables or the input data for the section, for example the height, width, etc. Finally, the last part contains the subroutines that define the section. There we find the askUser function that defines the order and characteristics of the input data, the SectionShape function that defines the geometry of the section, and others. The next section of the manual details the characteristics of each part. The macro of each section type is stored in a basic text file with the extension .leo. located in the def folder of the main RA directory. Note that the macros of previous versions (before 6.0) with .def extension have been replaced. Warning- If this file contains errors, RAM Advanse will not necessarily give you an error message, and therefore the properties of the sections could be incorrect. The reason is that as in any programming language, only syntax errors are detected. The user is responsible for verifying that the section properties are correct.

Common parameters:
This part contains commands for the general definition of the section. For example, you have to include the following line: (To set In (inches) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='In' (To set Cm (centimeters) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='Cm' As you see, a command consists in this case in the assignation of a default value to a parameter. Note that if a string is assigned to the parameter, the string is between quotation marks. The most common commands are explained below:
199

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Default Units
Command action: Assigns the default units to a shape (cm, in or mm). When you create a new section the specified unit will show by default. However, you'll be able to change it when creating the section, if desired. Syntax: UNIT=<unit> Allowable values for <Unit>: cm: Centimeters in: Inches mm: Milimeters

Section type
Command action: Instructs RAM Advanse which procedure should be used to calculate section properties. Syntax TYPE=<type> Allowable values for <type> LINEOPEN: shape is an open section composed by elements that are thin in comparison with its overall dimensions. Normally it is applicable to steel shapes such as L, I, W, S, T2L, etc. LINECLOSED: section is also composed of thin elements but they belong to a closed shape such as: square box, pipe, etc. SOLID: shape is solid. This is applicable to square solid bars, round bars, reinforced concrete sections, etc.

Shape
Command action: Describes the shape of the section. If the shape is 'I' or 'C', RA offers two methods for the calculation of Qmod2 (an exact and an approximated method) . For other shapes RA will calculate Qmod2 with the exact method. T sections have to be defined always with shape='T' in order to follow the code specifications for these shapes. Syntax SHAPE=<shape> <Shape> is a string of maximum 5 characters that describes briefly the form of the section. The adopted strings are: 'Built Box', 'C', 'Circle', 'Circular', 'Compound', 'I', 'L', 'Rectangular', 'Spaced', 'T', 'Z'

200

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Design code
Command action: Specifies the design code to be used with this shape. Syntax CODE=<code> Allowable values for <code> HOTROLLED: Section is made from hot rolled steel and will be designed with LRFD or codes, as applicable. COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with -LRFD codes, as applicable. BS_COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with WOOD: Section is made of wood (lumber or glulam) and will be designed with RCONCRETE: Section is made of reinforced concrete and will be designed with as selected. -ASD, -

-ASD or Code

-ASD Code. or EH codes,

OTHER: Any other section or profile that does not belong to the categories explained above, such as aluminum.

Design formulation
Command action: For steel sections, RAM Advanse designs hot rolled or cold formed sections according to the design specification sections of the adopted Code. You should choose which specification RAM Advanse should use for this section. For wood sections, RAM Advanse has to know if it is lumber or glulam. This parameter is not required for AISI-cold formed sections. Note. - It is very important that you understand this instruction and its effects on the design of your new section template. Please see the chapters on Design of Steel Members (AISC or BS) for how the program has implemented the code provisions or the chapter devoted to wood design. Syntax FORMULATION=<formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> are GEN, TUBE, IC, and L for steel sections and LUMBER or GLULAM for wood. Each one of these formulations represents a different approach, as stated by the AISC, BS or NDS codes. These approaches (or formulations) are: IC: Assign this formulation only to I (W, HP, S, UB, UC or Joists) and C shapes. This formulation is exactly as explained in AISC-F (AISC-ASD and AISC LRFD) This formulation applies to rolled or welded I or H cross sections (BS). TUBE: This formulation should be used with Tube and Pipes shapes.
201

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

It is similar to the IC formulation but takes into account the large Warping constant of Tubes, closed shapes and it's high critical flexural-torsional bending moment.(AISC LRFD Specification for Steel Hollow Structural Sections). This formulation is intended for hot finished RHS or cold formed RHS L: This formulation should be used with L and T2L sections. It is explained in AISC-ASD and LRFD Specifications for Single-Angle Members. GEN: This formulation should be used with other shapes that do not belong to previous formulations. This formulation is similar to the IC formulation but does not use the flexural-torsional formulas suggested by the AISC. Instead, it uses more complicated and general formulas for the critical flexural-torsional bending moments (without simplifications), suggested by Galambos. T sections have a formulation=GEN and a shape='T'. The flexural-torsional strength of compound sections are calculated approximately with the method suggested by Galambos with a safety factor = 0.7. Ref: Galambos T. V., Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988. For wood members, the following formulations are available: LUMBER: This formulation should be used with rectangular and rounded sections. Spaced columns are also considered. This formulation is explained in Chapter 4 of the NDS-ASD Code. GLULAM: This formulation should be used only with rectangular sections. It is explained in Chapter 5 of the NDS-ASD Code.

Cbmax
Command action: It adopts maximum limits for Cb (Bending coefficient) This command sets a limit for the maximum value of Cb. The Code specifies to take Cb smaller than 2.3, which is the default value considered by the program. Syntax CBMAX=<value>

Connection
Command action: This command indicates if the connection between flange and web is continuous or intermittent (welded). If the shape is hot rolled then the connection is continuous. If the shape is welded then the connection is intermittent (built-up members). Syntax CONNECTION=<connection> Allowable values for <connection> CONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web is continuous
202

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

NONCONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web isn't continuous

Category
Command Action: It is an additional classification that is used for reinforced concrete members. It helps to determine the type of members suitable for the section (it is only a descriptive property). Syntax: CATEGORY=<Category> Allowable values for <category> are BEAM, COLUMN and WALL

Commentary
Command action: To make any comment you want concerning the shape. The commentary does not have an affect on properties or the design. You would use this, for instance, if the shape has unequal legs, some unique shape, or any other unusual condition that you wish to communicate to the user. This commentary appears when the user creates new sections. Syntax COMMENTARY=<commentary> Allowable values for <commentary> Any pertinent commentary. All the previous commands can be illustrated with an example. Lets define an angle section type with the following data:

Geometrical data of the angle. The following command lines should be included: UNIT='In' TYPE='LineOpen' SHAPE='L' CODE='HOTROLLED' FORMULATION='L' CBMAX=1.5 //It will be calculated with the Single-angle Specifications //Cbmax=1.5 < the default value of 2.5 (Section 5.2.2 AISC-LRFD) //It is a laminated shape
203

//Defines inches as the default unit //it is an open section //The shape is L, it is only a descriptive property of the shape

CONNECTION='Continuous'

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

COMMENTARY='(AISC L with unequal legs)'

Section variables
These commands specify the name, the default value and tags of the variables required for calculating section properties of the new section type. You should create as many variables as needed to define the shape dimensions. Syntax Name of the variable = default value [units] tag <string> Name of the variable. When possible, use a descriptive name with few characters. The first one should always be a letter (shouldn't be a number) following the general rules for variable names in LEO. For example: “a” “bf” “d2” “t” The tag is a text description of the variable. For instance, "Total height", "Width", "Web thickness", "Internal bending radius". Examples for variable definitions are: a = 0.0 [cm] tag 'Section height' bf = 1.0 [in] tag 'Flange thickness' Note that the default value has not to be necessarily zero. The units between brackets defines the units for the variable. In order to follow the different steel design codes for specific shapes, it is required to adopt unique names for certain variables. The shapes with specific variables are: Shapes with IC formulation (I, H or C shapes) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width r: radio (only for BS) k,k1 distances (only for AISC) Shapes with tube formulation Rectangular and/or square tubes: a: height b: width T: thickness
204

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Pipes D: diameter T: thickness Shapes with Gen formulation and shape=’T’ (only for BS) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width Shapes with L formulation a: height b: width (only for unequal legs) T: thickness Other shapes do not have any restrictions. Following the example of the angle section, the required variables are: //section variables a = 0.0[in] tag 'Height' b = 0.0[in] tag 'Width' T = 0.0[in] tag 'Thickness' k = 0.0[in] tag 'Distance k'

Prop AskUser
This subroutine defines the data that will be required. In general two types of command lines are used: Declaration: Html(fileName as string) This shows the help context that will be used when the data is asked. Specify a htm file that has to be located in the Def folder of the main directory of the program. Declaration: Ask(ref data, caption as string) This requests information from the user> Syntax Prop AskUser() html(<FileName.htm>) ask(Variable name, <input line>) ...
205

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

End Prop The variable has to be previously declared. The input line contains the text that will be associated with the requested variable Following with the example of the angle section, the required subroutine is: //user defined values Prop askUser() html('Test') ask(a, 'Height') ask(b, 'Width') //The help context that will be shown in the input data //First, the section height is asked //Then the section width

ask(T, 'Thickness') //and finally the thickness ask(k, 'Distance k') //This factor is only used for connections design End Prop

Prop Section Shape
The geometry of the section and some design properties are defined in this subroutine.

Node
Declaration: Node(id as integer, x as float, y as float) In order to define a new shape you should create nodes and then connect them with lines or elements. Command action: Creates a node that defines an edge of the section. Note. - The word "Node", as defined here, does not have any relation with the Node element of a structure. Syntax NODE (<Node number or identifier>, <X coordinate>, <Y coordinate>) The node is defined by an identifier and its coordinates. This command has to be repeated the required number of times to define all the edges of the desired section. The following lines have to be included for the example of the angle section:

Coordinates of the required nodes //Nodes Node(1, 0, 0)
206

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Node(2, -b+0.5*t, 0) Node(3, -b+0.5*t, a-0.5*t) The nodes that were defined are:

SetLine...EndLine
Declaration: SetLine(thickness as float, radius as simple) EndLine Command action: It allows to define the different elements of a section including the thickness and internal bent radius. Note that after starting this command, a variable number of lines can be adopted to include elements and their properties. The commands that are used within SetLine are: Rigid, Closed and Segment. Notice that at the end a line with the word EndLine indicates that the line definition has finished. Syntax SetLine(<variable for line thickness>, <variable for bent radius>) To define the line thickness, adopt any section variable as for example “t”. The bent radius has normally a value grater than zero for cold formed steel sections. The variable for the bent radius has also to be previously defined. If there is no bent radius, enter the a zero value “0”. Next, you will find the subroutine applied to the angle section example:

//lines SetLine(T, 0) //Other commands like rigid or closed are not included, they will be explained further in this chapter Segment(1, 2) Segment(2, 3) EndLine

Segment
Declaration:
207

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Segment(n1 as integer, n2 as integer) Command Action: It determines a line segment between two nodes (n1 and n2). This command has to be always within a SetLine. The actual values of rigid and closed will be assigned to the new segment Syntax: Segment(<Initial node identifier>, <final node identifier>) Two instruction lines are required for the angle section example:

Segment(1,2)

Segment(2,3) It is important to note that when defining the section, the start of the elements of an AISI closed section must be in a vertex; not in the middle of a length as shown in the next figures.

Correct and incorrect definitions of a tube section (AISI).

Rigid(ity)
Declaration: Rigid(value as integer) Command action: This command allows you to clearly specify what type of elements comprises a steel section profile. RAM Advanse requires this information for hot rolled steel shapes to determine if an element is Compact, Non-compact, or Slender, as AISC classifies them. When the AISC code check is performed, it is necessary to know if an element is stiffened, unstiffened, or an intermediate element such as a T web element.
208

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

The program use this parameter to determine the class of an element (plastic, compact, noncompact or slender). This check is performed in hotrolled or coldformed steel shapes. If this command is ignored, RAM Advanse may consider an element to be stiffened or unstiffened. RAM Advanse will consider an element to be stiffened if each end of the element is connected to another element. Therefore, if only one other element is connected to the end of the element, it will be considered as being unstiffened.

When the RIGID command is omitted, RAM Advanse will consider the elements as illustrated in the figure. In the case of cold-formed steel sections, the program requires to define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Examples of rigid values to be adopted in AISI sections Syntax Rigid(<value>) This command should be inserted into the element creation command, as explained before: Notice that one rigid value may exist for several line segments with the same characteristics. Allowable Values for <rigid > The following rigid values represent the different possible elements of a shape (for more details, see the tables given in the steel design chapters): 1: Outstanding legs of pairs of angles in continuous contact: angles or plates projecting from rolled beams or columns 2: Stems of tees 3: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators 4: Flanges of square and rectangular box and hollow structural sections of uniform thickness, subject to bending or compression
209

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

5: All other uniformly compressed stiffened elements i.e., supported along two edges. (Not applicable for BS) 6: Webs in combined flexural and axial compression 7: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators. Compact limit= 65*sqrt(Fy) 8: Circular hollow sections, in axial compression, in flexure 9: Flanges of I-shaped rolled beams and channels in flexure 10: Unsupported width of cover plates perforated with a succession of access holes. (Not applicable for BS)

SetSolid
Declaration: SetSolid EndSolid Action command: This command defines the perimeter shape of a solid section. Between the reserved words SetSolid and EndSolid three or more Segment commands have to be included. The EndSolid finishes the definition of the solid section. Syntax SetSolid Segment(n1,n2) Segment(n2,n3) ....Segment(n3,n4) ... End Solid Important Notice that you should close the border. This means that if you start with node 1 you should also end with node 1 in a clockwise direction.

The commands for the definition of the previous figure are: //solids SetSolid Segment(1, 4)
210

<0 or 1 to determine if a bar will be drawn on the initial point>) BAR (<X coordinate of the bar>. <Y coordinate of the bar>) The following is an example of the application of this command for a rectangular reinforced concrete section: The commands to define the reinforcement of the section consider a coordinate system with its center on the bottom left corner of the section. s. y1 as float. <Y coordinate of the initial point>. 1) EndSolid Bars and Bar Declaration: Bars(x1 as float. true) //Draw 3 spaces with 4 bars at the bottom part Bar(b-s. x2 as float. while the command Bar draws only one bar. nroBars as integer. y as float) Command action: The command Bars allows you to specify the number of bars that will be drawn in 3D for reinforced concrete members. Syntax BARS (<X coordinate of the initial point>. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top left corner Join Declaration: Join(thickness as float. setInitial as boolean) Bar(x as float. 3. <Y coordinate of the final point>. n2 as integer) Action command: This command indicates the nodes that are considered joined when a single section is made up of more than one individual profile (like a W and C-section). Both commands are used normally after defining a solid section with SetSolid. <number of spaces between bars in the line between the initial and final points>. b-s. s.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(4. n1 as integer. y2 as float. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top right corner Bar(s. <X coordinate of the final point>. 211 . //Bars Bars(s. 3) Segment(3. 2) Segment(2.

0) . 3.<node of the first group of elements>. Syntax Closed(<0 or 1>) Where 0: Is for open elements 1: Is for closed elements The application of the command can be illustrated with the following box section SetLine(t. 5) //join nodes 3 and 5 with a thickness equal to tf2 Closed Declaration: Closed(value as boolean) Action command: This command allows you to indicate which elements are connected in a closed shape (i. Closed(1) //The following segments will be considered part of a closed section Segment(1. An example for this command can be found in the C&C section where it is used to join nodes 3 and 5 of the two shapes (groups of elements) with a thickness given by the tf2 variable in the following way: Example for the application of the Join command Join(tf2.. a box or a tubular section). It is used with the SetLine command.<node of the second group of elements>) Note that the nodes to be joined must be very close.e.2) 212 .Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Syntax Join(<variable for join thickness>..

rigid=7. See the Chapter for Creating Sections and Materials for further details. 0. Therefore.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(2.0. Note that a special built-up section template is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up steel tapered members.3) Segment(3. Prop PropertiesCalc This is another optional subroutine that allows a section to override calculated properties of the section and perform that calculation based on the equations of the subroutine.<closed>.3) //Draws a line with thckness=t. close as integer.1.2. radius as simple.2) //Draws a line with thckness=t. Therefore. Only the redefined properties have to be specified.7. Note that no web depth is entered as it assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in the worksheet. The template is the TAPERED_I (three plate) section template. n2 as integer) Command action: This is an alternative command to create a segment connecting two nodes with a line including all the characteristics of the line as bent radius and rigidity in a single command. you can see the list of declarations in the LEO Editor. the subroutine has to include the formulae for the calculation of all the different section properties as a function of the depth.1) EndLine Line Declaration Line(thickness as float. The user may use this subroutine to include special formulae or considerations in the section properties calculations.0. open segments between nodes 1 and 2 Line(t. the depth may have a fixed small value because the real depth will be defined during the execution of the program with the variables d0 and dL in the Data Panel/Member/Section. Syntax Line(<thickness>. the following command lines are required: Line(t. 213 . open segments between nodes 2 and 3 Prop Tapered properties Definition: Prop TaperedProperties(Depth as float) End Prop This optional subroutine is specially conceived for tapered members.<initial node>. rigid as integer.4) Segment(4. To see the list of properties that may be edited or modified. <final node>) For the example of the angular section. without bent radius. It overrides the calculation of the section properties with the actual depth. n1 as integer. rigid=7. <bent radius>.0.<rigid>. without bent radius.7.

1875in The calculated Jtor = 4.5 and t = 0.785 in4 Notice that the original value for the former section was Jtor=3. b = 2. the torsional constant (Jtor) of a rectangular tube (Stube section) may be calculated with the following formula: Jtor = 2*t*a²*b²/(a+b) for b/t>10 To adopt this equation. For example. which differ with the adopted one because the program is calculating with a general procedure (for all types of sections) that give approximated values.5x2.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Select the option to view declarations to see the list of available section properties. you can test the calculation adopting section STube 3.912 in4.5x1_4 with a = 3.5 in. Insert the following code: Prop PropertiesCalc adopted for the example Now. 214 . execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections and edit the STube macro.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates RAM Advanse allows you to create your own structure Templates and incorporate them into the program.bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates 3. 2. Create a new 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_20x20. Create a text file that contains the Template definition All the Templates that come with your copy of RAM Advanse have been created as described in this chapter. This chapter will explain how to create your own templates. 215 . The best way to create a new template is to use and modify an existing one.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Proceed as follows: 1. the following steps should be done: 2. Create a new bitmap drawing that represents the Template 3. Create a new text file as explained next and save it as TEST. To create a Template. Create a new150x150 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_150x150. It is advisable to take a look at the available templates located in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Create a new bitmap drawing of 20x20 pixels.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Create a larger bitmap drawing that shows dimensions and variables 4. 4.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Let's suppose that we want to create a new template named TEST. Create a new bitmap drawing of 150x150 pixels and save it as TEST_ 150x150.tpl in the same RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Save the 20x20 drawing with the name TEST_20x20. In the example that follows we will create a template called TEST.

tpl in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Warning. two lines compose one command in this case: DESCRIPTION and the value of the description (Truss triangular type 1). you should include the following lines: DESCRIPTION Truss triangular type 1 As you can see.To create the bitmap drawing.tpl file The *.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Create a new text file as indicated next and save it as TEST.tpl file contains errors. The TPL file The TPL file is a text file with the required commands to define the creation of a structure. This description is seen when the template is invoked. Syntax: DESCRIPTION <description> Allowable values of <description>: A 25-40 characters commentary that indicates the purpose or use of the template. Notice that this command requires 4 lines. VARIABLES Command action: Use this command to declare the variables required by the template to generate the structure. Syntax: 216 . to assign a description to the template (this is not the description of the elements but of the template).TPL file defines how the structure will be created and it has a specific format that allows RAM Advanse to recognize it. The TEXT. Note. use the Paint program from Windows or any other program that supports the BMP format. . Each command can take one or more lines. For instance. RAM Advanse will not give any error message therefore the created structure may have errors.When the *. . Most commands take more than one line. Following is an explanation of the most common commands: DESCRIPTION Command action: Insert a description or commentary about the template.

SELECT Command action: This command indicates how many nodes should be selected to use the template. Syntax: SELECT <number of nodes> Values of <number of nodes>: The number of nodes that the user must select before using the template. the structure generated by RAM Advanse may contain errors.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates VAR <name> <description> <default value> Allowable values of <name>: Name of the variable. This is a very important command to validate the node selection. Example: 2 0 desc1 Note. Example: 1 217 .The variables created using this command will appear in the dialog box that shows up when the template is executed. If this command is left out. Example: "Number of segments" "Height" Allowable values of <default value>: The default value of the variable. . Example: “a” “bf” “d” Allowable values of <description>: A description of the variable. This should have less than 20 characters and should give a clue about the meaning of the variable. This is the value that RAM Advanse will assign in the event that the user omitted entering a value. If possible. don't use more than two characters and the first character should be a letter not a number.

The members of the line are assigned with a description. Values of <number of segments>: The number of segments (or frame members) of the line that is being created. Example: “Col1” "Beam1" "g1 "H1" desc1 Notice that you could assign a variable name instead of a constant value. In that way. the user is able to assign a description when the template is being executed. Example: 218 . not the absolute number of the nodes. The line can be segmented into a number of frame members. Syntax: LINE <description> <number of segments> <n1> <n2> Values for <description>: The description to be assigned to the members that will be created. Notice that this is selection order of the nodes.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 2 3 4 5 LINE Command action: This command creates a line between two nodes selected by the user. they will not be modified. variable or formula. After using the template the user may modify the member's descriptions. Example: any integer value.(See the Joist. 3 ns (ns-2)/2 Values of <n1>: The initial node of the line to be created. If there is already a line of members between the two nodes. Note that you can define also physical members if you consider only the two extreme nodes of a member.tpl template as an example).

and you wish to create a line between the 4th and 2nd nodes. Therefore. Syntax: DIAGONAL <description> <n1> <n2> 219 .e. enter the next command: LINE G1 {frame members description} Ns {variable for number of segments} 1 {line starts at the 1st selected node} 2 {line ends at the 2nd selected node} DIAGONAL Command action: This command creates one or more diagonal members between two lines of members. You should notice that these numbers (n1 and n2) refer to the order of selection of the nodes. If there is any member between the nodes to be generated. as illustrated in the figure above of a triangular truss. for example. Values of <n2> The final node of the line to be created. the 4th selected node} 2 {n2=final node of the line i.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 (first selected node) 2 (second selected node) 3 (third selected node) Up to the number of selected nodes. The diagonal elements can also be sub-divided. it is not replaced.e. n1 and n2 should be: 4 {n1=initial node of the line i. the 2nd selected node} Example: to create a line between the 1st and 2nd selected nodes. if 5 nodes were selected.

<n2>. two lines of elements. and <n4> Normally. 220 . as illustrated in the next figure delimit the diagonal elements.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates <n3> <n4> <number of segments> <initial offset 1-2> <initial offset 3-4> <final offset 1-2> <final offset 3-4> <step> <number of segments in each diagonal member> Values of <description> Any description to be assigned by default to the diagonal member. Description by default of diagonal members. <n3>. Values for <n1>. Two lines (defined by n1-n2 and n3-n4) delimit the diagonal elements. Please notice that the default description can be a variable previously defined. instead of a constant value.

Line 2 is the line determined by n3-n4.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Line 1 is the line determined by n1-n2. where the diagonals should end. Initial offset 1-2 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n1 node. Notice that this value should be zero or negative. 221 . Initial offset 3-4 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n3 node. Final offset 1-2 is the offset related to the n2 node.

Notice that it should be 1 or greater. This is the step between one diagonal element and another. TEMPLATE Command action: Executes a template like a subroutine. Syntax TEMPLATE <template> <number of selected nodes> <n1> <n2> … <nn> <parameters> 222 . Note that this value should be zero or negative. where the diagonals should end.tpl template that is located at the folder RAM Advanse\Templates. Each diagonal can be segmented into various pieces. Enter 1 or zero if you don't wish to segment the diagonal or the number of pieces if you want to segment.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Final offset 3-4 is the offset related to the n4 node. An example of this command can be seen in the RoofTruss1.

Therefore. the command will be as follows: TEMPLATE Trian1. nn> This selects the desired nodes for the template that is being called up. Consequently. the template illustrated below is going to be created: 223 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Values of <template> It is the name of the template to be executed. if you wish to select the 3rd and 4th nodes. The template to be executed should be located in the templates directory (RAM Advanse\templates). You should notice that this is the selection order of the nodes. n2.tpl {the template to be executed} 3 {number of nodes to be selected for Trian1 template } 3 {Select 1st node for Trian1 (this is the 3rd currently selected node) } 2 {Select 2nd node for Trian1 (this is the 2nd currently selected node) } 8 {Select 3rd node for Trian1 (this is the 8th currently selected node) } ns {first parameter required by Trian1: number of segments} Example 1: Creating a template In this example. if you need to call the Trian1 template.. Example: RoofTruss1 (with or without extension) Truss1 Values of <number of selected nodes> This is the number of nodes that should be selected in order to execute the template to be called up. Values of <n1.. which required 3 selected nodes and the number of segments. enter 3 4 Values of <parameters>: These are the parameters (variables values) required by the template to be called in the same order as they are present in the dialog box.

Note that the order is arbitrary but not the number of nodes. To do this you can use the Paint software that comes with Windows. By default. Illustrative 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing. in bmp format. we decide that the user should select 4 nodes in the illustrated order. .The name of this template is example1. We'll allow the user to enter the number of segments and this value will be stored in the NS variable.bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Arbitrarily. 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. we'll use the member descriptions illustrated above Note. Then save the drawing as example1_20x20. 224 . The following are the steps required to create this template: 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format.

Then.tpl is going to be created. in bmp format. the example1. Note. This file defines how the template will work. save the picture as example1_150x150. The file will be as follows: {description or commentary about this template} DESCRIPTION Example 1 DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable to store the number of segments } VAR ns Number of segments 2 {4 nodes should be selected before using this template} SELECT 4 {Generation of the first and last vertical members. . respectively} LINE g3 2 1 3 LINE g3 2 2 4 {Generation of the horizontal members } LINE g1 225 . 3) Create the TPL file Now.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that will need to be provided by the end user.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates NS 1 2 LINE g2 NS 3 4 {Generation of the middle vertical members} DIAGONAL g3 1 2 3 4 ns 1 1 -1 -1 1 2 {Generation of the diagonal members} DIAGONAL g4 1 2 5 6 ns 0 1 -1 0 226 .

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 0 DIAGONAL g4 5 6 3 4 ns 1 0 0 -1 1 0 Example 2: Creating a template In the following example we will create the template that is illustrated below: In this template we want the user to select the nodes as illustrated. 227 . Notice that there are 8 nodes.

bmp in the c:\RAM Advanse\Templates folder.The name of this template is example2. The steps to create this template are as follows 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format. in bmp format. By default. 228 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Two variables are required to store the desired number of segments. 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. The roof beam descriptions will be entered by the user and stored in the descRoof variable. . These values will be stored in the ns1 and ns2 variables. Then save the drawing as example2_20x20. the illustrated descriptions will be assigned by the template. Note. Illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing.

save the picture as example2_150x150. .bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. The file contents are as follows: {description or commentary about the template} DESCRIPTION 3D example truss DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable required to input the number of segment 1} VAR Ns1 Number of segment1 2 {variable required to input the number of segment 2} VAR Ns2 Number of segment2 2 {variable where the description of the roof beams will be stored} VAR Desc1 Description 1 Roof1 {required number of selected nodes to execute this template } 229 . 3) Create the TPL file Create the example2. Next. in bmp format.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that must be provided by the end user. Note.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels.tpl file that defines how the structure is going to be created.

tpl 4 5 6 7 8 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the right side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 1 230 .tpl 4 1 2 3 4 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the rear truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates SELECT 8 {call the Truss2 template to generate the front truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 2 6 4 8 ns2 {call the Truss2 template to generate the left side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.

Notice that it uses description to be entered by you} DIAGONAL Desc1 3 4 7 8 ns1 1 1 -1 -1 1 0 Now save this file as RAM Advanse\Templates\example2. 231 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 5 3 7 ns2 {generation of the roof beams.tpl and run RAM Advanse to execute it.

Go to Tools/Data Generation/Templates Or you can also go to Members/Connectivity and press 232 . simply go to RAM Advanse and execute the templates dialog box.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Using the Example 2 template To execute the template created by the previous example.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates As you can see. any newly created template appears automatically. RAM Advanse will automatically ask for the variables. When the template is executed. 233 .

.

all the enclosed areas will be considered: The tools for the generation of the load areas are located in the worksheet Areas/Nodes that conform the perimeter: 235 . Generating wind loads for each rigid diaphragm floor level. In the case of a free border. The areas have to be fully enclosed by members . the user should model an additional beam in order to fulfill the former requirement: When physical members surround the area. These options are described in more detail below. In all cases the nodes of the members ends are required to be in a plane. following a clockwise or counter clockwise order of selection. The first require the selection of the surrounding beams and the second requires the selection of the nodes that define the deck area. Generating deck or wall areas Deck or wall areas are used to generate the loads transmitted by surface loads.Chapter 17: Building Structures Chapter 17: Building Structures RAM Advanse has several special commands to facilitate data entry for building structures. There are two options to generate load areas. These commands provide the engineer the capability of automatically: • • • Generating deck or wall areas (transmitted surface loads). Generating the mass for a rigid diaphragm from applied surface loads.

Defining deck/wall areas spanning at an angle relative to the X axis / Horizontal plane: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. Select the girders (members or physical members) that surround the deck area. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-Z direction or in the vertical direction for inclined areas. and setting the direction of load distribution as a specific angle (clockwise) of the horizontal Global-X direction or of the horizontal plane for inclined areas. Press any of the following buttons: To create a deck spanning in the X direction. Create deck/wall area at selected nodes (in a plane): The function of this tool is to generate a deck/wall element covering all the selected nodes in a clockwise or counter clockwise order. Defining deck/wall areas spanning in Z / Vertical direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. The tool does not define the direction of the deck/wall. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-X direction or in the horizontal plane for inclined areas. The steps to generate the deck surface are: Select the desired load case. Click the tool button and enter the direction of load distribution. 236 .Chapter 17: Building Structures This worksheet has the following tools: Defining deck/wall areas spanning in X / Horizontal direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. Note that the order of the nodes does not determine the orientation of the loads.

the members that belong to the four deck areas were simultaneously selected. Assign a description to the generated deck areas. Go to Area/Description and deck/wall spanning. If there are members in the middle of the load area (marked in blue). You can use the option Tools/Deck area Selection in the main menu to easily select all the deck/wall areas or the group of deck/wall areas attached to the selected nodes. to generate a load area.Chapter 17: Building Structures To create a deck spanning in the Z direction. The generated deck area will be shown with the specified deck orientation (for load distribution purposes). Press the button and the program will automatically assign a new description. To assign direction for load distribution at an angle relative to global X axis/horizontal plane 237 . Notes: 1. they will be considered in the distribution of loads. In the above example . You can enter also any description manually. To assign direction for load distribution in global Z direction/vertical plane. you will have to specify the deck direction If you have used the tool manually. In this case you have to go to Areas/Description and deck/wall spanning and then the following tools may be used: To assign direction for load distribution in global X direction/horizontal plane XZ. The deck areas are not required to be generated one by one.. To create a deck spanning at an angle relative to the X-axis. 2.

238 . You can select the areas that will have the same load. even if not all areas are selected. ) or perpendicular to the area ( ). The generated loads are displayed in green and the other loads (defined directly by the user) are shown in red: Note: This command is applied over all deck areas. before the analysis. Select all the nodes of a floor. This command is only applicable to rigid diaphragm stories. Rigid floor diaphragm Before generating a story wind load a rigid floor diaphragm should be created. even if it has been or has not been Generating Wind Load Lateral wind loads can be calculated from a pressure applied to the side of a building. This happens because the program automatically executes the tool executed previously. If a deck area is deleted. the generated loads (displayed on green) will still be displayed graphically until the user applies the tool again or until the user analyze the structure.Chapter 17: Building Structures XZ. Notice that there is a tool to graphically see the loads that are generated on the beams. these are the nodes that will be constrained to displace as a rigid diaphragm. The direction of the pressure may act downwards in the negative direction of the vertical axis (Yaxis. then go to deck Areas/Surface load in the worksheet and enter the pressure that is acting on the defined surface. To create rigid diaphragms proceed as follows. The final step is to define the magnitude and direction of the loads that will act on the previously defined deck areas.

Enter wind load cases (for example. lateral wind loads can be automatically calculated from an applied lateral pressure. Generating wind loads For models that contain rigid diaphragms.Chapter 17: Building Structures Press the floor number button Or enter the floor number and press . 239 . WX=Wind in X and WZ=Wind in Z). All the selected nodes (nodes with the same floor number) will now be constrained to move together as in a rigid diaphragm.

Press Calculate Pressures to calculate automatically wind pressure in the X and Z directions. d = Density of Atmosphere (approximately 1. 240 . which should have already been created. 1975) (Ref.21 kg/m3). Press The next dialog that appears requires several pieces of data. Select the desired load case name from the drop down list box.Chapter 17: Building Structures Select all the beams and columns of the floors against which wind will act. The applied wind pressure is multiplied by the exposed area to generate a lateral wind load at each selected floor. Pressure Calculation: If you want the program will calculate the wind pressure on the structure based on the wind speed and a structural shape drag coefficient. Note that the force applied to a story is calculated as the pressure times the floor height (largest column length below a floor) times the projected width of the structure in the required direction (based on the nodes selected in each floor). These include: Wind Pressure in X/Z: Based on the selected floors and columns RAM Advanse can calculate an exposed vertical surface associated with each floor. Houghton Mifflin Where: Cd = Coefficient of Drag (approximately 2. To use this option. V = Wind velocity.0 for a flat surface). Load Case name: The lateral load that is calculated must be associated with a load case. Engineering Fluid Mechanics. enter the appropriate values in the Pressure Calculation frame. Roberson Crowe. The pressure will then be calculated using the following formula: Pressure = Cd*1/2*d*v2 Co.

The program allows the engineer to create this node for each floor. The center of mass is the single point on the floor where the mass from all the elements and shells of a rigid floor can be considered to act without changing the results. The rotation mass is calculated with the following expression: Ry = integral (r²*dm) Where: r: distance from the mass center to the point where dm is acting.Chapter 17: Building Structures Enter the required information and press OK. Notice that in this example wind force parallel to the X-axis is assigned to WX = Wind in X load case. and wind forces parallel to Z axis are assigned to WZ = Wind in Z load case. 241 . then RAM Advanse can automatically calculate the center of mass and the translation / rotation story mass properties. These mass values are typically located at the center of mass of the floor. If loads have been applied to individual nodes on a floor. with the masses calculated in the following way: Translation masses Tx = Tz = dead load case * dead load factor + live load case * live load factor considering all the dead and live load forces on members and floor nodes. Wind story force is applied at this node. The program will automatically create a node at the center of pressure of each floor. Generating masses for each floor To perform a dynamic analysis on a building structure with rigid diaphragms it is necessary to associate translation and rotation masses with the floor. dm: is the mass that is equivalent to the distribution of the linear or surface loads of the elements of the floor.

Chapter 17: Building Structures See the required steps for the generation of masses for each floor in the following paragraphs to know how the data is entered. Select all the beams and columns from desired floors. Before using the command for the generation. Press Enter the required information and press OK. 242 . rigid floor diaphragms should be created. This figure indicates that RAM Advanse should consider all the existing nodal dead load and half the nodal live load when calculating the mass properties for the floor. Refer to the previous section on wind load generation for how to create rigid diaphragms.

or for Mass values in X. . press or about Y-axis respectively and . Z 243 .Chapter 17: Building Structures Nodes have been generated at the mass centers. To view the translation and rotation mass values.

.

The program offers the following possibilities: • • United States: ASD (AISI_AISC) or LRFD (AISI_AISC). The dependent module will allow you to obtain the immediate custom design of the different components that participate in your structure. Independent detailing modules: retaining walls and continuous beams from the same menu. These modules are divided into 2 groups: • • Dependent detailing modules: reinforced concrete beam. The strength ratio determines the condition of each member in relation to its strength (i. Design and Detailing Modules RAM Advanse has design and detailing modules for concrete members. the user can design the model to check the design conditions of each member of the structure. You will find special options for each type of material. connections. select other sections. wood members. To design steel members with the BS Code you can adopt the UK nomenclature with the option located in Configuration/General/Nomenclature.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design After the analysis. footings. This information will be used only in the design procedures. To use these modules the engineer should provide an 245 . For wood members. it is required to define the code that will be used in the design. reinforced concrete column. With the former information the user can decide if it is necessary to perform further changes (i. the program adopts the ASD (NDS) Code. It is important to define some design parameters before proceeding with the design. In this case the duration of each load condition has to be specified.e. For steel members.e. United Kingdom: BS 5950 Code. etc). Warning: The design results will not be available for wood members analyzed with the LRFD Design Code option. This procedure is performed for wood and steel materials while concrete is designed directly in the detailing modules. if it is over or sub dimensioned) and the design status shows the overall condition of each element (OK or No Good). This is evaluated with the strength ratio and design status. retaining walls and continuous beams that will allow you to reduce your working time considerably. wood and connections from the Detailing menu. More details related to the design of each particular material may be found in each specific design chapter Go to Process/Design all of the main menu or pulse F10 to design the model. materials.

Analyze a concrete structure. 246 . Invoking the Modules Dependent detailing modules Select those elements to be designed and detailed before invoking a dependent detailing module. select the beams you want to detail in RAM Advanse and then invoke the beam detailing module as described below. is realized automatically to obtain the results in graphical form or report form. wood members. The independent modules will allow you to easily generate a new model from this application.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. refer to the particular member section in this manual. For example. before invoking the detailing module. retaining walls and continuous beams. wood or steel structure requires the engineer to design and detail all the members in the structure. The design. or make an isolated analysis. For more detailed information on the content and display for each individual design/detailing module. RAM Advanse has provided several Design and Detailing modules to assist the engineer in the design and detailing of: concrete columns and beams. and the results can be displayed graphically or in a report form. It is advisable to consider each span as a physical member because all the tools of the detailer are designed with this consideration. It can be saved with extension "AVW" and be used by RAM Advanse. This section describes how to invoke the design/detailing modules. The basic design is performed automatically after the building is analyzed. To use the module. the user should enter all the necessary data to obtain the new model before making the analysis and going to the design screen. Introduction The design of any reinforced concrete. the same as in the other modules. and complete his or her design and detailing of any member. how the design/detailing modules are organized and how to navigate within the modules. Select the line of beams containing the members to be detailed. Note that the beams must be in a continuous line. in the case of the independent modules. which form a continuous beam for example. In both cases. connections. These modules allow the engineer to take the results of the analysis performed in the main application. to detail a reinforced concrete beam. the engineer can use any of the available modules for more advanced design and detailing to further manipulate his or her design and obtain details for DXF purposes. isolated spread footings. or with extension "RTW" or "RCB" to be used directly by the respective module. Analyze the structure and select the members in RAM Advanse. in the case of the dependent modules.

247 .Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules To select all the beams in a line. When selecting columns in a stack the engineer should start at the lowest column and select the columns sequentially upwards. the engineer can select the lowest column and press the Selection toolbar. in the Selection toolbar. To in select all the columns in a column stack. Columns are selected and the detailer is invoked in a similar manner. starting at the lowest column. Select all the members that belong to the column line to be detailed. and press The column module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Reinforced concrete columns menu item. select an end member and press in the Selection toolbar. Invoke the Detailing/Reinforced concrete beam command as illustrated.

Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Invoke the Columns module For footings. Only one type of footing can be designed at a time. but the forces used to control the design are taken from all the nodes selected before invoking the detailer. Independent detailing modules To use an independent detailing module. Select Detailing/Footings as indicated. The footing module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Footings menu item. you won’t have to select the elements in RAM Advanse since you will be able to generate a new model inside of this module directly. the engineer can select one or more foundation nodes. If more than one node is selected the loads for each node will be transferred into the module. Select all the nodes that are to have a common footing. 248 .

Once you enter the module. column or footing. Organization of the Modules Every detailing module works in the same way.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Select Detailing/Retaining wall as illustrated. The screen has default values when an independent module is invoked. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when a dependent module is invoked. the selected nodes do not contain geometric information so the footing dimensions are not read from the model. This screen has two different formats for entering data depending on the module: • The first screen has a table as illustrated in the figure • The second screen has a path with drop-down options as shown below 249 . In the case of the footings. In this screen geometric. Each module has four screens that can be accessed by pressing the following buttons: Data editing screen. material and load data are entered or modified as required. The material data of this screen is maintained between sequential calling of the module. you will be ready to introduce your model. but it is not necessarily associated with any particular beam. Select Detailing/Continuous Beam as illustrated.

250 . See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. Navigation and Data Entry Each module presents similar navigation and movement characteristics. This screen is used to establish the design and detailing criteria that RAM Advanse uses to determine the appropriate design and details. This screen displays the generated details that can be exported to a CAD program. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. These options may be enabled depending on the detailing module. To change material properties or geometry to achieve a satisfactory design. the user will be able to edit design values through a spreadsheet on the left side. This extra screen is used to print a report with all the data and design results. Zoom out. Zoom To zoom. These results are shown in a tabular form or in a graphical form according to the detailing module. Zoom fence. These diagrams can be simple when a single stress is graphed as moment Mu or merged as moment Mu vs phi*Mn. This data is saved between different module calls and should be used typically to establish office standards for design and detailing of the various member types. The engineer can typically locate information here on the design results. the engineer can print a report .Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design screen. press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. Depending on the detailing module. All options of the different screens are described next. Configuration screen. Additionally. This screen displays design and analysis results as stresses and/or resistance. according to the detailing module. the engineer should switch to the data screen as described previously. Detailing screen.

Click with the right mouse button on the point to be centered on the screen. the engineer can use the wheel to zoom in or out in a similar Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. This option is enabled when the button appears in the bar. DXF files Some modules have the option to export graphics to DXF. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. Hint: If a mouse wheel is available way as in the main RA screen. Activate and inactivate edges movement.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Fit in window. . Print graphics Print current graphic. name the file. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. 251 . use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. and save it. Press .

Press ESC to cancel data editing.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules The screen will redraw with the clicked point at the center of the window. zoom in on the value. Click with the left mouse button on the red text. Data Entry Several screens allow the engineer to modify values. Enter the information and then press Enter or click out of the edit box. All editable values appear in red color. Hint: If there are problems in selecting a value for editing. 252 . Note that in some cases the red texts have the display option through a drop-down as shown below. Click on the value (left-mouse button) to make it editable as shown in the figure below.

Remark: The defined units groups of variables of the main program are not valid in the detailing modules.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Click the mouse on the red text. Some Design and Detailing screens also have editable data (text in red) used to choose display options. By adding the unit to the entered number. The user can enter data in a unit that is different from the currently selected global unit. Units for the entered data can be specified during data entry as illustrated in the figures below. the value will be automatically converted to the current unit system. 253 . Acceptable values and units.

design parameters and results will be printed in a Report. when the member fails in the strength verification and the ratio is >1. See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports.0 Yellow. detailing or report screen). This indicator prevents the user from having to repeatedly go to the Report to see if the member fulfills all the code verifications. Once the data has been input. when the member fulfills the strength verifications but not some other parameter such as deflection or slenderness. 254 . All the modules also have a graphic indicator for the strength verification and deflection called Traffic light. the user is able to immediately see the analysis and design results of the member. Green. when the member fulfills all the code verifications. indicating the design status of the member according to 3 colors: • • • Red. the Traffic light is automatically enabled (when the user goes to design.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Results and verifications In the design and detailing screens. All the input data.

The program does not automatically consider if a load is a wind or seismic load when performing a design. No increase is considered on the allowable stresses in ASD design. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is deflection. This 255 . Manual of Steel Construction – LRFD (3rd Edition . See the result output sections of this chapter for more information. which was popular in the past. AISC-LRFD. The following codes are implemented in the current release of RAM Advanse: • • • • AISC-ASD. The LRFD method will require specification of factored loads for limit states. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.serviceability and ultimate. AISI –ASD-LRFD Cold Formed Steel Manual – (1996 Edition). It is important to verify load types if they belong to a limit state. The BS 5950 Code is a Limit State Design method that requires the use of factored loads similar to the American AISC LRFD method. the AISC Specifications (American Institute of Steel Construction) for hot rolled sections and the AISI Specifications (American Iron and Steel Institute) for cold-formed sections are used while the BS 5950 is adopted for the UK. The program allows the user to choose between two countries: US and UK. The user is required to provide several design parameters before proceeding with the analysis of the model. The user may specify load conditions used for the optimization process and those that will be considered in the output report. Two major categories of limit state are recognized . which has been developed more recently. Manual of Steel Construction – ASD (9th Edition -1989). and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. the user will need to specify service or nominal load conditions. The ASD codes allow wind and earthquake loads to be reduced and allowable stresses to be magnified by a factor of one third (1/3).2001). Loads The user will need to ensure that all loads are applied correctly and that required load combinations have been generated. The Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. British Standard BS 5950-1:2000. Two methods are available for performing steel member design in the US. The design philosophy embodied in the former concept includes the consideration of the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use. Design is then performed automatically and the results are shown graphically or in a text form. The user may not exclude any of the created load conditions. Within the US. For the ASD method.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures This chapter describes the general options available in RAM Advanse for the design of steel members.

The user is responsible to include in the load conditions the notional horizontal forces specified in BS 5950. Section 2. The local 3 axis is also called the x-x axis or strong axis. Note that new sections may be created and added to the list of available sections as described in Chapter “Creating Sections and Materials”. while the local 2 axis is also called the y-y axis or weak axis. the program checks the type of material (hot-rolled or coldformed steel) and associates the appropriate design code. For detailed information on defining new sections see the Chapter “Creating New Types of Section with Macros”. For more information on the design of steel members in accordance with a specific code see the chapters “Design of AISC Hot 256 . Selecting a steel section to the members.2. Illustrative figure of the local axes of a section. Sections Use the procedure illustrated in the following figure to assign steel section sizes to members.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures increase has to be reflected in the load factors of the ASD load combination (see load combination AISC-ASD-LoadCombosStrength.4.4. Selection of the design code When a section is assigned to a member.txt).

However. 257 . respectively. “Design of AISI Cold Formed Steel Members” and “Design of BS Steel members”. AISC or BS codes. Option to determine the reference axis to be used in design for laterally restrained members for torsion along their length. It is important to remark that sections with CODE=HOTROLLED may be designed with either AISC or BS. there are cases where the local axis does not coincide with the principal axis. which at the same time coincides with the principal axis. Note that in section definition (*. For these situations it is important to define which coordinate system will be used. the variable ‘CODE’ assigned with either “HOTROLLED’. Also note that in total asymmetric sections the longitudinal axis does not coincide with the centroid of the section. rigid offsets or the cardinal points have to be specified in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the correct position. for example with L or Z shapes. it is recommended that the naming convention adopted for section specification files reflect the implicitly used code as was done with the default sections in the database. Because of this. RAM Advanse presents a new option. etc. and the member is then designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. As examples of this naming convention. When this option is enabled. aisiAAB.leo) files. It is customary though to only name hot-rolled sections based on their shape and size (W12x…).Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Rolled Steel Members”. For these cases. the program assumes the principal axes are coincident with the local axes. ‘COLDFORMED’ and ‘BS_COLDFORMED’ implicitly results in the use of the AISI. to define a member laterally restrained for torsion. AISI sections (cold-formed) could be named aisiAAA. Coordinate system used in design Normally the coordinate system adopted in design is coincident with the local axis. located in Configuration/databases/Sections of the main menu.

Valid values are 0 and 1. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In total asymmetric sections like the L shape. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse’s context sensitive Help system. but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to running analysis and design. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. To enter required design parameters select the Members/General Design Parameters and the Members/Steel Design Parameters tabs.AISI) or m (BS) coefficients. the Assistant or refer to the Examples Manual. In the same way. Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. 258 . sway (unbraced) or non-sway (braced). The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) and the Cm (AISC. Likewise. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. If the user is going to adopt specific values for former coefficients then it is not necessary to add a value for the variable. See the next section for additional information. effective length factors and unbraced lengths. The tool buttons located below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. Examples of some of the design parameters that may be specified are frame bracing. Braced Against Sidesway Flag The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. Braced3 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 3 axis. the user has to use the axis location tool or to adopt rigid offsets in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the right position. Valid values are 0 and 1.

By default K values are 1. For more details see the Help Context. respectively. In any case. If the user decides to rotate the columns afterwards. multiplied by the true unbraced length of the element gives its effective length. and are entered in the Members tab in the General Design Parameters worksheet. the K factors will have to be recalculated. If the K column contains a 0. the adjoining members and whether it is braced against joint translation in the direction under consideration. 259 .0 (zero) value. The K factor.0. These values are entered in the Members/General Design Parameters spreadsheet. (Kx or Kmajor) and K22 (Ky or Kminor). Press the button and the K coefficients will be calculated automatically.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Effective Length (K) Factors The axial buckling capacity of a member is a function of the member length and the fixity of its ends.0. Refer to the appropriate design code for additional information.2 (BS 5950-1:2000) for the sway buckling mode in the BS Code. the K factor is a function of the end conditions of the member. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for the desired members (mainly vertical members and columns) It is important to verify that columns have been rotated to their correct position before applying the command to automatically calculate the K factors. K Factors K33. Note that members pinned top and bottom are always assigned K=1. RAM Advanse will assume K=1. are used for the 1-2 and 1-3 planes. Note that there are two toolbar buttons available to assist you in calculating the K factors based on the nomogram proposed by Jackson and Moreland as suggested by the AISC code for unbraced structures or the nomogram of Figure E. The effective length is used to determine the member’s capacity to carry axial load.0 for design.

These parameters are used in the calculation of the bending allowable stress Fb (AISC-ASD. Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending AROUND axis 3-3 (also called major axis L or Lux). Lbpos. When this parameter has a zero value. Axial unbraced length of the member (L) The L22 and L33 parameters represent the axial unbraced length of the member in the 3-3 (strong) and 2-2 (weak) axis respectively. AISI-ASD Methods) or in the calculation of the nominal moment. 260 . Press the buttons and to see the K values graphically. Mn (AISC-LRFD. AISI-LRFD Methods). These values represent the unbraced lengths between lateral supports to be considered in design. L22 is the unbraced length AROUND axis 2-2 (also called minor axis L or Luy). the program will take the distance between nodes as the unbraced length. the true unbraced length for axial capacity calculations should be provided for each of the sub-members. Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. the unbraced length between lateral supports may be introduced (L33and L22). Where a single member is divided into multiple sub-members for analysis reasons. The values for L22 and L33 may be entered directly into the spreadsheet. Refer to Chapter F (AISC) or the flow charts at the end of the AISC or AISI chapters for more information.0 is entered. RAM Advanse will use the unbraced length as the distance between member nodes if a value of 0. Lbneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. Similarly. If necessary.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Warning! This tool is not applicable or appropriate for web tapered members.

Cb Coefficients Cb coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis. Cm22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). 261 . an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one. Cm Coefficients Cm coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Chapter H in the AISC or AISI Codes or the flow charts at the end of the chapters devoted to steel design). The ‘Cm’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. 0. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet. Please notice that if models from older RA versions are calculated.0 in the spreadsheet then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. Cm coefficients will then be calculated automatically.e. In this case the user has to define the right values for Lbneg. Likewise. Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) in the spreadsheet or press the button to clear the values in order to let the program calculate them.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures LBpos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and LBneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. based on the elements end moments. Cm coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element. Note that Cm33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx).0 to all selected members. A spreadsheet value of 0. When any Lb is zero (0). the members will have only values for Lbpos.001in). If the Cb value is 0. The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the adopted code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations). If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member. Enter the Lb value when it is different from the length of the frame member.

Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet.3. m Coefficients “m” coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Tables 18 and 26 of the BS or the flow charts at the end of the chapter devoted to BS steel design). Please note that for destablizing loads. Cb coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. Note that m33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis m or mx). Enter the Le value when it is different from the length of the frame member. (Table 13 BS 5950-1:2000) Lepos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and Leneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one. Lepos. The ‘m’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0.e. These parameters are used in the calculation of the moment capacity Mx (BS5950). When any Le is zero (0). Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length member. If the mLT value is 0.0 in the spreadsheet 262 .1cm).0 to all selected members. mLT Coefficients mLT coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Refer to the appropriate steel design code for additional information. the user should consider this effect in the Le values.0 will result in m being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the BS code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations). A spreadsheet value of 0. Leneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. Refer to Section 4. If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member. The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment.0 to all selected members and the coefficients will then be calculated automatically. Likewise.5 or the flow charts at the end of the steel design chapter for more information. m22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis m or my). These coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). Cb must be calculate manually or take a value of one. 0. an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i.

If the LRFD or BS method is selected. The results are shown in the AISC or BS comprehensive report. by the adopted code. To verify if members comply with a given code. for all the members. For more details related to torsion see the following chapters. which verifies if the chosen section fills all the strength requirements. it is suggested that a second order analysis be used in order to take into account their effects in the calculated forces on the members. Optimization may be performed once initial verification results are available. LRFD or BS). the user has to choose the desired design method from the dialog window (ASD . mLT coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. Either of two types of optimizations may be selected. See the LRFD method in the AISC or AISI chapters or the BS Chapter for more details. Selecting ‘Code check’ will cause the program to change a member section assignment only if it fails the applicable code check. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. select the option Process/Design all. Torsion Torsion is not considered in the design of cold-formed sections ( code). Before the design. The user can verify design in accordance with the chosen code.0 to all selected members. torsion is considered without the effect of warping in a simplified form. 263 . Design and optimization The design of members is performed by an iterative procedure. In the case of hot rolled steel members. Selecting the ‘Optimize’ option will result in the program selecting the lightest member section which meets all code requirements. Select the option Process/Optimize structure from the main menu to run optimization. This allows for the optimization of sections too. See the following sections for more details on the output of results. Refer to the BS steel design code for additional information.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. and then replacing all under and over sized members with this selection. if a group of possible sections is selected instead of a single section. based on the elements end moments.

Output of results There are several options available to display analysis and design results to the screen or in report form. A new analysis and design of the structure is required after the change of sections The optimization process is iterative because the change of sections causes a change in the distribution of stresses in the members. optimization results may not converge in a unique section selection.The section collection has been selected (5) and the OK button is then pressed to start the optimization process. Please refer to the chapter devoted to the Steel Structure Optimization and Code Check for more details. RAM Advanse will then change all the selected sections to the new ones. This section describes these options. in some cases. and which causes a new change in sections. Check those section changes that you want and then press the O. and results will alternate between optimizations. button. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. all the descriptions and load combinations have been selected. Because of this. Warning! All the results from the analysis and design are lost when sections are changed. After the optimization is performed. In the example shown. Steel Connections The program has incorporated a new module for the design and verification of steel connections (only available for AISC members). You can control the deflections. too(3).K. The type of optimization has been selected as ‘Optimize’ (4). See the Connections Chapter for more details. 264 .Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Select the group of members (descriptions) (1) that are going to be optimized and also the load conditions to consider(2).

Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Code Check buttons bar. the range of colors is recalculated. select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. The colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition.0 and >1.0. such as the limit slenderness ratio (kl/r>200). To select the members within a given range. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition. This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. The following lists the main options available for display of results to the screen. This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. fail. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. Design Status: There are cases where members have enough strength to resist the applied forces but other conditions given by the code. Stress ratio fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to between 0. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Screen output The user has different options to see the results Code Check toolbar with different options for the presentation of design results. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. 265 . Note that when a different group of members is selected. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options. • Maximum stress ratio: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range.

combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Stress ratio fixed scale All the selected members will be colored with one of the nine available colors when the button of the Code Check tool bar is pressed. such as the slenderness of the member. 266 . In this case. The reports are grouped into three types. which are defined as shown in the legend. The colors represent the nine different ranges of stresses. Members with interaction values greater than one will be colored in red. To select and view only the members within a certain range of stresses select the stresses that you are interested in and then press the button Press the . Design Status In same cases the verifications of stresses are not enough to verify the correctness of a member. should be verified as well. If the user selects one of the two following buttons . Reports are generated by selecting the desired members and then the option Reports – Steel design from the menu. This option is ideal for identifying members that do not comply with the strength requirements. Other aspects. the result will include the name of the governing load condition for each member. Pressing together with shows the selected members with the color range determined from considering the full set of load combinations (not only the current load condition). Reports Different types of reports are available for displaying the results obtained after running a design with a given code. If the button is pressed together with the previous one. only the members with an ‘OK’ status or with a ‘no good’ status will be displayed from the selected group of members respectively. press the and buttons. Thus a specific member will maintain its color independently of the other members selected with it. The option available with the button will show if a member complies with all the requirements of the code. To verify the same results.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. The name of the governing load is pressed. which include options for extensive or concise. taking into account the full load combinations (not just the current load condition). The ranges do not change when different members are selected. The labels represent the results for the current load condition. button to show the interaction values of each member for the current load condition. members with very low stresses and members working very close to their strength capacity. The other colors represent the interaction range value for the current load condition. the interaction values together with the governing load condition will be displayed for each selected member.

The window allows exclusion of any load condition. the results obtained are related only to the critical member for each load condition. Group by description – controlling load case This report organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. A brief description of each type of report is included in the following paragraphs. The results correspond to the controlling member in each group for each load condition. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each 267 . This means that when more than one member falls under the same description. However. Comprehensive AISC member design This report provides full results for each selected member. Group by description – each load case This report also organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. Group by member – each load case This report provides one line of summary information for each member and load condition. Note that in a report there are no indications of the eliminated (non-selected) load conditions. the type of report is selected together along with the load conditions to be considered in the design. The report presents the results for the critical member in the group. only the controlling member in the group (having the critical load) will be considered. it shows all the results for each selected load condition. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In the dialog window. This means that when more than one member has the same description. The report is organized in sections divided by the members of each group.

and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. The last column at the end of the different stations (0.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures load condition.75. and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. Comprehensive BS member design This report provides full results for each selected member designed by the BS. The report includes the results for shear. bending.25. The report includes the results for shear.25. 268 . The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition. The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. The report includes the results for shear.50.75. The last column at the end of the different stations (0. Concise BS member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the BS (approximately one page). Concise AISC member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member (approximately one page).50. Comprehensive AISI member design This report provides full results for each cold-formed steel member designed by the AISI code. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. torsion and the interaction for the controlling load case of each member. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. Concise AISI member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the AISI code (approximately one page). The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition.

while the hot rolled sections have a name that reflects only the shape. Example of an AISC section assignation for a member. include the letters aisi. Normally. adopting the alternative designs of Allowable Stress Design (ASD).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Chapter 20: Design of Hot Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) This module allows the design of hot rolled steel members in accordance to the AISC Codes. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the following American Institute of Steel Construction design codes: • • Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition) Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor design (3rd Edition) Determination of a member with an AISC section The determination of a member with an AISC section is done when assigning a hot rolled section and after selecting the AISC code before executing the design after the analysis. Note that all the AISC standard sections should not start with the letters aisc. 269 . and Load and Resistance Factors Design (LRFD). the name of the cold formed sections which do not conform to the current method.

EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. in addition to their 270 . CODE=HOTROLLED This value for CODE defines that the section is of hot rolled steel and that it will be designed with the AISC Code.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) The ASD or LRFD design methods have to be selected before executing the design. In spite of the possibility of using one general formulation. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable. etc. These assumptions cause differences in the results between the general and particular formulae. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. FORMULATION=<formulation> The AISC Code has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design. The election of the method is done before performing the analysis. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section.leo extension) you can find the following data and/or specific commands used in the AISC design. there are two methods to choose from. I. C and similar shapes. applied to the known W. section E for compression. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C. sections. In the LEO files (files with *. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. this was submitted to a series of simplifications and modifications depending on the particular shape of the section for a more direct application.. Yet. Because of this. as will be shown later. in which calculation details are presented in section F for bending. as described further on. the allowable stress design (ASD) or the load and resistance factor design (LRFD). In this case. which can be adopted. SetSolid. besides the section geometry. based mainly on the shape of the section. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section.

John Wiley & Sons. Both effects should be considered when designing. Refer to Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. these are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. See the flowcharts for each method for more details. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles. 271 . 1988. Equation (3. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect). The user does have the option to give a user defined value to the Cm and Cb parameter. the user can incorporate a magnification factor in his or her load combinations to consider both effects. which is very similar to the IC formulation. flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) and the parameters k and k1 for the connections design. USA. Referring to the parameters Cm and Cb. The proposed equations allow the estimation of the P-Delta (capital letter) as well as the P-delta (small letter) effect. width (b).145) for the elastic critical stress of the ASD method. The code gives an indirect way to consider the second order effect by the magnification of the bending moments obtained from an elastic analysis. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a). thickness (t). TUBE This option is applied only to LINECLOSED sections. USA. the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d). No special parameters are required. flange width (bf). L This formulation is for L shaped sections. Prentice Hall. Theodore V. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. When the IC formulation is adopted. the user can select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel Design Parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a). including circular sections and rectangular tubes. 1968. To do this. so the user must determine how the P-delta effect will be considered. Structural Members and Frames. Theodore V. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos.80) for the calculation of the critical moment of the LRFD method. Galambos. and section B regarding the design requirements for each code.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) respective appendices. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). but includes the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos: Equation (3. This is the methodology implemented to design WT sections in RAM Advanse. In this way. Second order analysis It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). New York. GEN Comprises the general formulation.. These sections are designed according to a special specification for single angle members located in the code Appendix.

Because of this. • • • • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable. The adopted RIGID variable for each element of a section determines the slender limits and whether an element will be considered as stiffened or unstiffened (see the table given further on). and is considered unstiffened if only one end is connected.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements • The moment of inertia about 33 axis (usually called strong axis) must be equal or bigger than the moment of inertia about 22 axis (usually called weak axis). the program displays an error message. Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. The program does not consider hybrid sections (sections which elements have different yield stresses). 272 . The element is considered stiffened if both ends are connected. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. if this is not the case. then the program considers two options: stiffened or unstiffened. If the user does not give a value for the RIGID variable. The width b of an element of the section is considered between centerlines.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 273 .

the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • • Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. a limiting value of 300 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to tension. There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used.05Fa). • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section E2 of the code. • Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design. i. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. The shear stress is given in section F4 of the code. When determining the shear stress for I or C shapes. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section D1 of the code (AISC-ASD-89). Although this limit is only for built-up members. A section is considered to have a compression flange that is solid and approximately rectangular in cross section and that has an area not less than the tension flange (equation F18 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: • • A member is considered to be loaded through the shear center (equation F1-5 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). . See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. For the Cm calculation of each member. a limiting value of 200 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to compression (fa>0. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding. the program is considering this limit for all types of tension members. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. only gross section checks are performed. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length.05*Fa. which is the default value adopted by the program. Due to sign conventions. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. For more details see the flowchart given below.e. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • 274 A member is considered in compression when fa > 0. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified on sections F1 to F3 of the AISC Code. When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. Based on section B7 of the code. Based on section D2 of the code.

The restrictions and assumptions adopted for torsional analysis are the following: • Warping is not considered in members subject to torsion.. See the flowcharts for more details. Charles J..Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered. 275 . Charles J. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered. 1997). Seaburg. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section).1 to 4.9* not considering warping) *Paul A. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section. AISC Inc. not considering warping. Steel Design Guide Series 9. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centerlines of the elements confining the section. For open sections. Steel Design Guide Series 9. “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members”. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending Biaxial shear and torsion (equation 4. Seaburg. 1997 LRFD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness. AISC Inc. The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections.4 of the “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members” Guide (Paul A. Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion are given in sections 4. Carter. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of sections H1 and H2 of the code. Therefore torsion is not considered in the interaction equations. Carter.

the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member.leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters and whether the element will be considered stiffened or unstiffened. The program does not consider the influence of hc (twice the distance from the centroid to the inside face of the compression flange less the corner radius) when calculating the limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact elements (λr).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • There are no special considerations for built up members. Because of this. This applies mainly to sections with different flanges. 276 . (See the table below) • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable. Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending.

The adopted assumptions and restrictions are: • • A member is considered to be in compression when Pu > 0.05*Pn*φ. The program has adopted a slenderness limit Kl/r for members in tension of 300 (Sections B7 and D2 of the code).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Members in tension The calculation of members in tension is given in chapter D of the code (see the flowcharts at the end of the chapter) and the conditions are: • • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members. Columns and other compression members The compression member analysis follows the steps given in chapter E of the code. Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the calculation of the effective section are not considered. 277 . The type of union is not considered in the design and in the estimation of the net area.

• • Tapered members The design of tapered members is restricted to AISC sections. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor Kγ for compression members. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • • There are three categories of sections for local buckling: compact. Due to sign conventions. the program always performs this verification. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. The classification is made considering the critical element of the section. which is the default value adopted by the program. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. M33). Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding. Although the flexural-torsional buckling of many common shapes is not mandatory to be checked because it normally does not control the capacity of the member. For the Cm calculation of each member. The flanges shall be of equal and constant area. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • • The slenderness limit Kl/r for members in compression is 200 (Section B7 of the norm) and is only considered if the axial stress is over 5% of the capacity of the section. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified in section C3 of the code. Transverse stiffeners are not considered for the determination of shear stress for deep girders. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. The compression design follows mainly the criteria given in Appendix E of the code. . the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. The program assumes a compressive residual stress in flange of 10 ksi for rolled shapes and 16. It uses the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. In general. section F1 for bending and section F2 for shear. The shear and flexural design follows the criteria given in Appendix F. which shall be perpendicular to the plane of bending (3-axis. non-compact and slender.5 ksi for welded (built-up) members. The reason is that there may be cases as columns with relatively thin elements and/or short lengths where the flexural-torsional buckling is critical. the design is very similar to the one for prismatic members. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. The additional assumptions adopted for tapered members are: • • 278 The member shall have at least one axis of symmetry (2-axis). When determining the shear stress of I or C shapes.

The shear strength is determined without modifications to the normal procedure for prismatic members. The maximum shear. The bending strength is calculated assuming the full member length (or the user entered length). An adequate effective length factor must be given taking into account the tapered member. • • • • 279 . The user should know that. the code suggests a simplified and conservative method to check only the smallest section for compression and the largest section for bending. considering the section properties of the section at the station. bending and axial loads in each segment are considered with respect to the cross sectional properties of that segment. while the program is obtaining the interaction equations for each station of the tapered member.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • The depth shall vary linearly from d0 (node J) to dL (node K). when designing the member. and the prismatic cross sectional properties of the segment of the member under consideration. This factor is introduced in the design-parameters-tab of the worksheet as a K value. It is not calculated by the program and can be obtained using the charts developed by Lee et al (1972) with some restraint modifiers that are included in the AISC Code.

I33: K: 280 II22p. Fv: fv: Fy: h: Permitted shear stress. Clear distance between flanges. Cc': Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling. I33p: Moment of inertia of a cross section about the principal axis. Bending stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of axial force. modified to account for effective width Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members and dependent upon Cmmin: Cv: D: d: Minimum Cm coefficient (given by the user). Yield stress of steel. Computed shear stress. Fob: Elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Euler stress for a prismatic member divided by factor of security.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-ASD Flowcharts A: Af: b: bf: Bratio: Cb: Cbmax: Gross-sectional area. Computed bending stress. Bending coefficient. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. Flange width of rolled beam. Section depth. Error: Variable that has the error messages of a member design. fa: Fb: fb: Fcr: Fe: Fe': Computed axial stress. Ftor: Permitted torsion stress. Effective length factor for a prismatic member. Elastic buckling stress. . Fa: Axial compressive stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of bending moment.. Compression element width. Ratio of "critical" web stress to the shear yield stress of web material. Area of compression flange. Moment of inertia of a cross section about 22 and 33 local axis. Outside diameter of tubular member. I22. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2) Maximun Cb coefficient (given by the user). Critical stress.

Initial yield bending moment. Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Maxratio Mmax: Qmod: Qs: r: Axial stress reduction factor. Normal force. Moment at k end of the member. Elastic buckling moment. Shear modulus. Maximum allowed interaction ratio (given by the user). Torsion modulus. Shear force. rT: Radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web Se: SF: Sf: Effective section modulus.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) kv: Shear buckling coefficient. Elastic section modulus. Maximum unbraced length of the compression flange. l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Flange thickness. Reduction factor. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a Sratio: section. Ratio of effective profile area of an axially loaded member to its total profile area. Maximum bending moment in the unbraced beam segment. Moment at j end of the member. Extreme fiber bending moment. Lb: Lc: M1: M2: Mcr: Me: Mj: Mk: My: P: Qa: Laterally unsupported length of the compression flange of a flexural member. Web thickness. t: tf: tw: V: Thickness of an element. Radius of gyration. Tormod: 281 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 282 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 283 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 284 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 285 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 286 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 287 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 288 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 289 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 290 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 291 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 292 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 293 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 294 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 295 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 296 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 297 .

Bending coefficient. Required shear stress.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-LRFD Flowcharts AISC-LRFD-2001 DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS α Bratio: Cb: Magnification factor. Yield stress of steel. Required normal stress. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2). Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. Effective length factor for a prismatic member. For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. λc: 298 Column slenderness parameter. E: Error: Fcr: Fe: fun: fuv: Fy: K: Modulus of elasticity of steel (E=29000 ksi) Variable that has the error messages of a member design. . Critical stress. Elastic buckling stress. Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members an dependent upon column curvature caused by applied moments. l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the compression flange.

Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a section. Resistance factors (b: bending. σe22: Sratio: Vn: Equivalent slenderness parameter. Required axial strength (tension or compression). Limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact element. Nominal flexural strength due to local buckling. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Nominal flexural strength due to lateral torsional buckling. Elastic section modulus. Required flexural strength. Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. Radius of gyration. Full reduction factor for slender compression elements. Absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced beam segment. Nominal flexural strength. Nominal axial strength (tension or compression). Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Distance between points braced against lateral displacement of the compression Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. Absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. v: shear. Limiting buckling moment. Lp: Lr: M1: M2: Ma: Mb: Mc: Mcr: Mmax: Mn33: Mn22: MnLatT: MnLoc: Mp: Mr: Mu33: Mu22: φ: Pn: Pu: Q: Qa: Qs: r: Se: Sf: σe33. Effective section modulus about strong axis. Coefficients for the calculation of Fe and Me. Elastic buckling moment. t: torsion). Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element. about 22 axis. Reduction factor for slender stiffened compression elements.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) λe: λp: λr: Lb: flange. about 22 axis. Reduction factor for slender unstiffened compression elements. c: compression. Nominal flexural strength. Plastic bending moment. 299 . Absolute value of moment at centerline of the unbraced beam segment. Required flexural strength. about 33 axis. Absolute value of moment at quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. Nominal shear strength. about 33 axis.

Required shear strength about 3 axis. Nominal shear strength about 3 axis. Plastic section modulus. 300 . yo: Z Nominal shear strength about 2 axis. Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. Required shear strength about 2 axis.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Vn2: Vn3: Vu2: Vu3: xo.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 301 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

302

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

303

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

304

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

305

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

306

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

307

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

308

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

309

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)
This module is used to the design of cold-formed steel members in accordance with the AISI Specifications. The AISI Code has an integrated treatment for two design methods, the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design method (LRFD). The code adopted is: • The 1996 Edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Steel Structural Members (American Iron and Steel Institute).

Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member
When an AISI section is selected for a member, it is automatically defined as a cold formed steel member and will be designed in accordance with the AISI Code.

Example of the selection of an AISI section for a member. It is suggested that all the AISI sections start with the letters aisi, for example aisiBox, aisiC, etc. In this way the user will recognize them very easily. In the macros for sections , very important data are considered, which will be needed to properly perform an AISI design, apart from the geometry of the section:

CODE=COLDFORMED
This option defines that the section belongs to a cold-formed steel member, which will be designed with the AISI code.

TYPE
This command defines if the section is open or closed. The values that may be assigned are:
311

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

LINEOPEN This word is used to define an open section as in the case of I and C-sections. The geometry will define if an element is stiffened or unstiffened. If the element is connected at both ends it will be considered a stiffened element; unstiffened otherwise. LINECLOSED It shows that the section is closed as in the case of a tubular or box section. In this case all the elements of the section are considered stiffened. RIGID This command specifies the type of elements that comprises the AISI section. The user can define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Refer to the chapter “Creating Section Types” for more details relating to this subject. Important! Tapered members are not considered in the design of cold-formed sections

2nd order analysis
A second order analysis is recommended as the magnification of design moments to account for second order effects is not explicitly addressed in the cold-form design code. Although the code does not specifically mention this aspect, the second order analysis can be considered in the same way as is described in Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. The Cm and Cb parameters are calculated in the same manner for the first or second order analysis. The user may assign, however, any value for these parameters, to consider the type of analysis in accordance to his or her criteria. This can be accomplished by selecting all the desired members, choosing the option Members/Steel Design parameters from the spreadsheet and entering the correct values for the parameters as explained in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures.

Technical notes
Certain assumptions and simplifications have been incorporated in the AISI design module.

Assumptions and restrictions for elements
The following assumptions have been adopted in relation to the elements and parts of a given section. (Section B of the Code)

312

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

All considered elements are straight-line elements. In other words, they can be represented with a length and a thickness. At the edges or corners of the section where circular elements may be needed, they are approximated as a set of two straight lines as it is illustrated in the following figure:

Example of a section divided into linear elements to approximate a curved section. • The elements with intermediate stiffeners as the one shown in the following figure are divided in linear elements in a similar way as described in the former paragraph, without taking into account special considerations for the calculation of the effective lengths as prescribed in B4.1 or B5 of the Code.

Example of a section with a multiple stiffened element not considered in a special way for the calculation of the effective widths. • The ratios width/thickness of the elements are not verified in accordance to the limits specified in B1.1 of the Code. The user is responsible to verify that all those requirements are fulfilled for the adopted sections in the model. Sections with reinforced webs are not considered in a special way in the calculations.

Tension members
The calculation of tension members is given in section C2 of the Code (see also the flow chart at the end of this chapter). The adopted assumptions are: • • The net area is estimated as a function of the gross section applying a reduction factor. The influences of the type of connections used are not considered.

Flexural members
In the design of flexural members, the program takes into account the flexural strength based on the initiation of yielding, the lateral buckling strength and the local buckling specified in section C3 of the Code. The flow charts at the end of this chapter give more details of the different procedures adopted. The assumptions and restrictions adopted are:

313

When the transverse loads are very small in relation to the forces acting axially.05*Pn*φ for the LRFD method and P > 0.Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • A point symmetric section (such as the Z-section) is treated as a non-symmetrical section about both axes • In the shear calculations. . The adopted hypothesis and restrictions are: • • 314 A member is considered a compression member when Pu > 0. the ratio M1/M2 is positive when the member is deformed in a simple curvature and negative otherwise. which is used in most of the examples of the AISI Manual. the user may choose if the shear strength for I or C Shapes will be calculated with the exact shear modulus Qmod or with a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t. the restrictions at the ends of each member are verified together with the type of supports to which the member is connected. In the calculation of the Cm coefficient.05*Pn/Ω for the ASD method. No holes in the effective length region of the member are considered. the torsional strength of the sections is very low and is normally neglected. • • • Web crippling strength due to concentrated loads and reactions are not considered in the calculations (Section C3. Compression members The calculation for compression members follows the specifications given in section C4 of the Code.4 of the Code). Selection of the Qmod that will be adopted in the calculation of the shear strength for I or C shapes. the program will assume that the member has no transverse loads. This option is established when the type of section is defined. Due to the sign convention adopted. Note that due to the small thickness of most of these sections. The details of the calculations are given in the flow charts at the end of this chapter. Torsion is not considered in this type of member.

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • The program does not consider the provisions applicable to C-or Z-sections concentrically loaded along their longitudinal axis. with the flange attached to deck or sheathing through fasteners. (Section C4. In cases where this is desired it is suggested that you adopt the local axis as the design axis (check Laterally Restrained for Torsion in the Section dialog) and a Lb length that reflects the distance between fasteners. The strength for combined bending and shear is also considered with the equations given in Section C3. Combined compressive axial load and bending. This aspect is also considered in the program and it is detailed in the flow charts. Combined axial load and bending The combination of stresses is considered with the interaction equations given in Section C5 of the Code: Combined tensile axial load and bending. Tubular members The Code has a special section devoted to cylindrical tubular members (Section C6). 315 .4).3 of the Code. which considers special requirements for bending and axial compression loads. It is also important to note that the definition of sections for rectangular tubular members must be started in one corner of the section and not at the middle of one element as it is shown in the next figure. Correct and incorrect definitions of the different points of a rectangular tubular section. (See the chapter on the General Design of Steel Structures).

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) AISI 96 Flowcharts 316 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 317 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 318 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 319 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 320 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 321 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 322 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 323 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 324 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 325 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 326 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 327 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 328 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 329 .

.

etc. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the British Standard: • BS 5950-1:2000 Determination of a member with a BS section The determination of a member with a BS section is done before the design: Setting the steel design to BS A section that may be designed with the BS is defined in the LEO files (files with *..leo extension). See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED These values for CODE define that the section is of hot rolled steel or cold formed steel. In both cases. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RA allows the design of hot rolled and cold formed steel members in accordance to the BS. 331 . sections. besides the section geometry. adopting the Ultimate Limit State method of Design (or Load and Resistance Factor).EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. I. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C. SetSolid. as described further on. it may be designed with the BS. In this case. In these files you can find the following data and/or specific commands. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section.

L This formulation is for L shaped sections. Prentice Hall. the following load combinations may be included if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4DL±1. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles. When the IC formulation is adopted. 1988. wind load (WIND) and earthquake (EQ): 1.4WIND 1. Table 2. USA. These sections are designed according to the special specifications for single angle members or similar shapes. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a). H. applied to the known I. USA. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos. flange width (bf). Section 2. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). width (b).0DL±1.0DL±1.6LL 1.4DL + 1.4EQ 1. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. New York. based mainly on the shape of the section.2DL+1. square or rectangular tubes. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a). live load (LL). Theodore V. which can be adopted. flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) TUBE This option is applied only to circular.4DL±1. C and similar shapes. Load Combinations According to the BS5950 Code. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section.4WIND 1. Theodore V. John Wiley & Sons. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice. in which calculation details are included in the Code. 1968.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) FORMULATION=<formulation> The BS has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design.2EQ 332 . the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d). No special parameters are required. GEN Comprises a general formulation. Although the BS do not specify a general case.4. Galambos.2DL+1.2WIND 1. Structural Members and Frames.2LL±1.4DL 1.2LL±1. thickness (t). the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos (1968) was adopted and “calibrated” to the values obtained for the known sections and formulae given by the BS..4EQ 1.

the code requires a check for sway stability with the determination of the critical load factor (λcr) (Section 2. Members with such sections may be approximately calculated with a GEN formulation. Second order analysis Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design.1. To evaluate the need for a second order analysis. which may be calculated with the horizontal deflections on each floor due to the factored applied loads with an elastic analysis.2 ). The user has the option to give a defined value for both parameters. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect). they are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) You can automatically generate the required load combinations with the option Loads/Generate Loads Combinations and selecting the file: BS5950LoadCombosStrength. then the structure is sway sensitive and a second order analysis must be carried out. Because of this. • • Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. 333 . To do this. It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). Referring to the parameters m and mLT. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. see Chapter 1. L or T sections. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered.4.1 (BS). Technical notes Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • • • • Code checking is done using only the forces and moments at specific sections (stations) of the members. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*. Built up members (welded I. or box sections) were calculated with a py value 20 N/mm² below that obtained from Section 3.txt. For more information. The program does not consider the special considerations for I or H sections with unequal flanges. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel design parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. Depending upon the analysis requirements a P-Delta analysis may be specified. C.leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters. H. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section). If this factor is less than 10. H. Automatic generation of load combinations. (See the table below) The width of an element of a section is considered between centrelines and is corrected to the actual value for common shapes like I.

Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises bending and lateral-torsional buckling as specified on sections 4. The shear capacity calculations are specified in section 4.3 of the BS.3. The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: 334 .2. Class 3 (semi-compact) or class 4 (slender).6 of the BS. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members. Class 2 (compact).2 to 4. For more details see the flowchart given below. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 4. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RAM Advanse checks the sections according to the following table in order to classify them for the calculation of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure: Sections are classified as either Class 1 (plastic). There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes.

3. otherwise the member is considered in bending or tension.10.10.5. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.5.7 of the code. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • A member is considered in compression when the stress at both extreme fibres are in compression. For any other section.5 of the code. 4. 4.9/Qmod.2. RAM Advanse uses the general equations given in Tables 18 and 26 of the Code where Mmax and M24 are calculated considering intervals of 5% of L.4 with the definition of two parameters: Lv and Cnx type.3) and the member is considered to be loaded through the shear centre When determining the shear stress for the shapes.7. holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered. low shear (Section 4.2. • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 4. channels or T-sections are treated with the criteria given in Sections 4.2. the program adopts a shear area (Av) equal to 0.7.2.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) • • • The moment capacity of a section are based on the design strength and section modulus of the section as specified in Section 4. the program use a simplified value given by Section 4. Both parameters are entered in the spreadsheet Members/Steel Design Parameters Lv and Cnx Type parameters are located in the Members/Steel design parameters spreadsheet The following table relates the Cnx type values with the connection types of Table 25 of the Code.2. For the m coefficients calculation of each member.7. Compression members composed of angles.3 of the Code. The coexisting shear is considered in two groups.10. Lv is the length measured between interconnecting bolts and Cnx type is related to the connection types defined in Table 25 of the Code.2) and high shear (Section 4. 335 . Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. End connections.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 336 .

The program allows the use of Annex G directives for the design of members with one flange laterally restrained. For open sections. This criterion may be conservative for I or channel section members. To enable this option. This occurs mainly in thin walled closed sections. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centrelines of the elements confining the section. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section. whose torsional rigidities are very large or in members with small warping rigidities as angle and tee sections.0 according to Annex B2. There are some methods proposed. torsion. Von Mises interaction check is adopted to evaluate the maximum stress due to shear forces.5). The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor for compression members and the equivalent uniform moment factor (equal to 1. Flange=1 for the desired members. 337 . assuming that the flange thickness is constant. Warping is not considered. As an alternative to those methods. go to the Members/Steel design parameters Spreadsheet and set Restr. axial and bending • The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. Tapered members Only sections that vary their depth may be designed. but they are more suited to a plastic analysis and are restricted for specific shapes.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion were not included in the Code. A two-flange haunched member may be divided in two members. not considering warping. The cross section properties at each station are used with the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. a simplified method is proposed with the following restrictions and assumptions: • The torsional loading is mostly resisted by uniform torsion. a tapered member with varying depth and a constant member. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. The design is very similar to the one for prismatic members.

338 .Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) The Restr. Flange Flag parameter allows to use Annex G for members with one flange laterally restrained.

M5: Moment at 0.50.m.Pv) Zeff: Effective section modulus 339 .75 and 100% of L Pc: pc: PE: py: Pv: qw: r: S: Seff: Sv: Sx: Sy: t: Vb: Z: Compression resistance Compressive strength (π²*E/λ²) Design strength of steel Shear capacity of a member Shear buckling strength Radius of gyration Plastic modulus Effective plastic modulus Plastic modulus of the shear area Plastic modulus about the major axis Plastic modulus about the minor axis Thickness Shear buckling resistance of a web Section modulus Vcrit: min(Vb. compact=2.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) BS 5950 Flowcharts BS 5950-1:2000 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS Aeff: Effective cross-sectional area Area: Area Av: d: Fv: E: K: L: Mb: Mc: Shear area Depth of section Shear force Modulus of elasticity of steel Effective length factor Span Buckling resistance moment Moment capacity Equivalent uniform moment factors Class: Classification of sections in plastic=1.mx.my: Mmax: Maximum moment in the member M1.M3. semi-compact=3 or slender=4 mLT.25.M4.M2.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Zx: Zy: α: ε: λ: Section modulus about the major axis Section modulus about the minor axis Robertson constant (Annex C2) Constant SQRT(275/py) Slenderness λLO: Limiting equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λLT: Equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λw: λ0 SQRT(0.6*py/qe) Limiting slenderness (axial compression) 340 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 341 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 342 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 343 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 344 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 345 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 346 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 347 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 348 .

However. For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke one of three designer/detailing modules as described in the following chapters.8 10mm=1.) by editing the bars.0 .Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced concrete design Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced Concrete Design This chapter describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail concrete beams.500 349 . and the results can be displayed graphically or in report form. The next lines contain a series of reinforcing bars to be considered. This file sets the names and diameters of the reinforcing bars used in the verification and design of reinforced concrete elements. columns and footings in accordance with the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. followed by the equal sign (=) with the value of the diameter in the specified units.375 #4=0. the engineer does have the ability to filter the design in the designer/detailer module to obtain results for any individual load condition (case or combination).txt file which is located in the Base folder of the main directory of RAM Advanse. Concrete design is performed for all load combinations. All applicable loads and load combinations should be applied to the structure as illustrated in the Examples Manual. The user is not able to turn off any individual load case or combination when performing the design in the main program.6 8mm=0. This external file format is as follows: The first line of the text file contains the units in which the bar diameters are found. Refer to the next chapter on the Design/Detailing module for more information on filtering loads when viewing the results. A pair of examples is given next: cm 6mm=0. Bar size series It is important to note that the user can modify the diameters of the bars to be considered as well as their designation (#3 etc. Loads The application of appropriate loads and the generation of the required load combinations are the responsibility of the engineer. sorted by size. The ACI design post processing is performed automatically when the building is analyzed. The format is: name. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse.. The units can be inches (in) or centimeters (cm). in #3=0.

.

Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. as illustrated below: 351 . As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed. Identifying Concrete Beams RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns. This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. If you need to create a new section. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). To assign a reinforced concrete beam to a member select a RC Beam section as illustrated in the figure below. you should select the appropriate Section Type for Beams or Columns. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete beam design code as implemented by RAM Advanse.

0. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below. 352 . The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code.35*Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. the model should be analyzed appropriately. Note that if 0.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Creating new sections. Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below.0 is used in the analysis. For example.0 is entered.0 to 1. Valid values are 0. a value of 1. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. Analysis Before proceeding with a beam design.

13. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI 10. The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes in the column section).Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis. 353 . The toolbar button can be used to automatically enter the 0. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for beam design. Technical Notes The beam design in RAM Advanse incorporates the requirements of: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected beams.4.

shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General In the main program. intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer.3. this should be checked by the engineer. No deflection limits are checked. the engineer can specify which load conditions to consider for design. The main 354 .6) are implemented with Equation (10-5). particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution. The design assumptions of ACI 10. In the Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beam Detailer. Only rectangular beams are designed (no T or L beams). the position of the reinforcing is as specified when the section was created. The appropriate moment frame is specified as ordinary.3) compression reinforcing will be added. beam design is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog. but the limits of distance between lateral supports (ACI 10.2. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently. The minimum flexural reinforcing requirements of ACI 10.2. At each section.7. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer. the location of bars can be adjusted as described later. In the Reinforced concrete detailing module. In the main program the following additional limits exist Flexural Design The flexural design of concrete beams is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. No deep member design is considered. Where the compressive stress encroaches on the web of the T or L section the beam is designed to account for the reduction in the width of the compression zone. Note that no checks are performed on the validity of the flange width provided. Note that the distribution of flexural reinforcing provisions (ACI 10. For the summary output in the main program flexure. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in the RAM Advanse implementation of the ACI318 with respect to beam members: • • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. the flanges of the beam are ignored. In the main program.7 are fully implemented. the beam is designed for the envelope (max positive and negative) moments from all the appropriate load conditions. Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. For negative moments.5 are implemented. The following items are checked in the design of the reinforced concrete beams.1xLength). For T and L shape beams (RC Beam Detailer Only) the full flange width provided by the user is considered for calculating the compressive stress block under positive moments.75 #ρb (ACI 10. • • • • Flexure Shear Torsion Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design.4) are not considered.

10. 1 21. In the RC Beam Detailer the controlling shear at a distance of d (effective depth) from the face of a column may be 355 .10. which does not require any additional provisions. 2 21. Dimension limits engineers responsibility Implemented 21. The design shear force is that produced by the envelope of all selected load combinations.2.2 Flexural Requiremen axial loads ts 21.2.3.3 Flexural Frame Members Dimensiona l Limits Not Applicable As indicated below Assume zero axial loads.3.3.1 21.10 Reinforcing Limits and Prescriptive Reinforcing Requiremen As indicated below ts for Moderate Risk: Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Assume zero 21.4/ Limits on responsibility Responsibility 5 Concrete and Reinforcing Strength 21.4 Prescriptive Implemented Reinforcing Shear Design The shear design of concrete beams is according to the provisions of Chapter 11 of ACI.2. The following items describe the implementation of the flexural requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediate moment frames Special moment frames Engineer Engineer 21.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design program always assumes an ordinary moment frame.

3.4. Minimum and maximum allowable shear stirrups are provided per ACI 11.3. the maximum between Vu and Ve is considered within a 2d length for the shear design.4.5 and 11.6.3.6. Torsion Design When necessary. Torsion is only considered where the design torsion exceeds a lower limit as specified by ACI 11.6.2 of the Code.3.5.4.2. the minimum area of stirrups is per ACI 11.2 Implemente Not d Applicable Vc is considered according to Mpr.1.9.4. The moment frame type is specified as ordinary.1).3. For ordinary moment frames no additional provisions are implemented.4. For this. Note that RAM Advanse check the limits on concrete strength per 11.3.1.2. which is calculated according to Section 21. Additional longitudinal steel is calculated per 11.7. Finally.10. the user should define the load corresponding load combination to such case.1) and it is assumed that all the torque is resisted by stirrups (the nominal torsional moment strength provided by concrete is zero). The following items describe the implementation of the shear requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Special moment frames Implemented Design shear based on member 21.1 and 21. The torsion capacity of a section is limited per Equation (11-18) (ACI 11.6.6.1. No reduction in the factored torsion is considered per 11.1 21.3.1) is calculated considering an ordinary moment frame in the reinforced concrete beam detailer and in the main program (reinforced concrete design output). For special moment frames. taking into account the factored static load during the earthquake.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design used as the design shear (ACI 11. 356 . intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer.3(a bending ) capacity 21. This strength is evaluated according to the shear forces related to the probable flexural moment (Mpr). With high torsion.10. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer.5 when required. The design shear force (Ve) is determined from Section 21. The nominal torsion resisted with the provided stirrups is calculated per 11.5.6. the shear strength of the sections will be reduced according to Equation (11-13) (ACI 11. The capacity of a rectangular concrete section Equation (11-3) (ACI 11.3 refers to the requirement of designing the member for the maximum shear that the beam can be subject to.6.2.5. No axial load assumed Vc is Transverse Reinforcement considered in frame members The provisions of 21.3.6.3). the concrete capacity is sometimes ignored for resisting shear.6.1.3. Where significant torsion is present.2. assuming the ends of the member to be fully hinged. member torsion design can result in additional steel for both the longitudinal and the shear reinforcing of a member.3. Vertical stirrups (closed or open hoops) are designed in accordance with ACI 11. It is the responsibility of the designer to check that there are no other places critical for shear.

RAM Advanse should offer significant assistance in achieving compliance with the many detailing requirements.3 12.5.11 12.5 12. Note that it is the engineers responsibility to confirm that the reinforcing is in agreement with all the provisions of the local concrete building code.3.2. Development of bundled bars Development of standard hooks tension Comment Implemented Implemented Implemented Implemented except for 12.14 12.5. length and placing of reinforcing within a concrete section.6.6 12.4 12.4 12. Engineer responsibility Engineer responsibility Splices of reinforcement in Implemented tension Splices of reinforcement in Not compression Implemented Transverse reinforcement Hoops at lap locations Implemented Engineer responsibility 357 Special moment frames 21.2.2 Description Distribution of flexural reinforcing Spacing limits for shear reinforcing Maximum spacing of torsion reinforcement Development of deformed bars in tension Development of deformed bars comp.3.6 11.12 12. Development of negative moment reinforcing.4 11. These requirements often control the number. The following is a summary of detailing provisions: ACI 10. size and spacing of reinforcement comes from prescriptive code requirements. This section identifies those detailing provisions implemented by RAM Advanse in the Reinforced Concrete Beam Detailer.5 Not Implemented Not Implemented Implemented except 12.3.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Detailing Requirements A substantial influence over the number.16 Development flexural bars Implemented – General Development of positive moment reinforcing.3 .10 12.2 21.3.

The output consists of two lines for each member. Execute command Reports . Significantly. select the desired concrete design code and the two sizes of stirrups that you want the program to consider.2 Transverse reinforcement Implemented Note that the program gives most of the data to easily evaluate the requirements not covered directly by the program.Reinforced Concrete Design command as illustrated below.4.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Intermediate moment frames 21. Summary Report of Beam Design RAM Advanse provides a summary output for concrete beam design.10. Note that output is relatively wide. Reports and Screen Output Two forms of concrete design output are available to the engineer in RAM Advanse main program. To view the output of a reinforced concrete design. 358 .Reinforced concrete design From the displayed dialog (See figure below). more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section. first select the beams to obtain output for and then press the Reports . In the main program the engineers can obtain a design summary report and they can view the reinforcing in their concrete members.

cent.right column is the area of steel required from the K end of the section for the distance shown under I. The area shown under the A.left column is the steel area required from end J of the member for the distance shown in the I. and torsion. The report that appears is described below. Beam design output. The beam design is performed assuming an ordinary moment frame with no special seismic provisions implemented. Beams with rectangular sections are designed only for bending moment about axis 3. The area of steel in the 359 .left column. shear in axis 2. A.left. In the RC Beam Detailer the engineer can change this to examine the impact of some of the seismic provisions. and right ‘zones’. The area shown in the A.P.P. Other forces and sections are ignored.right.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Select OK and the report will be generated for all selected members.right This is the required top and bottom area of reinforcement for the left. central. A. The previous output is described below Beam Num The beam number to match the number of the beam selected in the model. A. If a beam should be designed for biaxial bending it should be specified as a column section.

See the explanation for I.P. bar area may be controlled by the required compression reinforcing. The inflection points reported are the largest distances from all the load conditions considered. That is.0 away from J end of beam (i.P. it has the J node at the left and the K node at the right Left and right.e.left away from end J to a distance I. I.right are the distances of the inflection points from the ends of the beam.P. I. they represent the J and K end of the member respectively. The areas are given for top and bottom reinforcement. Based on the above description the I.P. The "Left" is the J node.P. 360 .left. point and the K node. Where no inflection point occurs along a beam the reinforcing indicated for the center ‘zone’ (A. or bottom. as indicated by RAM Advanse Inflection points of the bending moment envelop. and I. the "Right" is the K node.P.right away from end K.0 away from K end of beam (i. below for more information on the inflection points. the steel shown in the A. The required reinforcement areas are provided in three zones: • • • The left zone is delimited by the J node and the left inflection point (I. right end of beam). The design moment shown in the output is the maximum moment for all load conditions in the various zones. The central zone is delimited by the I.left.0 in this case.P. left).cent zone is the area of steel required from the distance I. The right zone is delimited by the right I.right I.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design A. When compression reinforcing is required the top.P.P. Note that where left and right are referred to.right points.P.e.P.right are 0.cent is required from 0.P.left and I. Cent) applies to the entire length of the beam.P.left and I. left end of beam) to 0. Important! When you display a beam.

TYPE The Type indicates what kind of stirrup is required. as illustrated in the figure (b). The stirrup separation is given for three lengths along the member: the first 25%. The [] is an indicator of torsion in the section. whereas the >[]< symbol indicates compression reinforcing is required. 361 . the spacing between stirrups shall be less than 15 times the longitudinal bar diameter. Note again that no seismic provisions are considered in this design.) if detailing a beam using these results. as shown in figure (a). When closed stirrups are required for longitudinal compression bars.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Reinforcement bar zones in a beam The cut-off points should be calculated by the engineer (beyond the P.I. Stirrup spacing This is the maximum allowable stirrup separation for each zone. SKIN When torsion must be considered in the design this value reflects the additional longitudinal reinforcing area that must be distributed in the section (equivalent to Al/3 in the beam-detailing module). U indicates that stirrups can be open. The shear reinforcing will also be adjusted to resist the applied torsion. The spacing of the stirrups is based on the shear demand and the torsion demand on the section. the center half and the last 25% of the beam. A [] symbol shows that stirrups should be closed.

V is the maximum shear force parallel to axis 2. Note. even if this moment occurred somewhere other than the center of the beam. 362 . The display will indicate the correct layout of the longitudinal bars in the currently selected members. when no inflection point exists the A. V. Mmax/min. T is the maximum torsion moment. and T Mmax and Mmin show the maximum and minimum values of bending moments about axis 3. Length The length of the beam.cent (normally top steel) will contain the area of reinforcing required over the full length of the member. A more detailed output of the reinforcing can be obtained in the detailer described next. The Mmax and Mmin values shown reflect the moment that the steel was designed for. These are the true location of reinforcing bars in those sections selected. Screen Display of Reinforcement To obtain a schematic layout of your beam and column bars select the concrete members and select the button of the Model properties toolbar. This moment is the maximum moment for all load conditions and it is the value used to design the critical reinforcing. Open stirrups are assumed to only carry shear forces parallel to axis 2.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design (a) Closed stirrups ([]) (b) Open stirrups (U) An open stirrup should be placed as shown in the figure.

the engineer should enter the true dimensions. The toolbar button allows the engineer to select which load conditions the detailer will consider for design. sections and geometry of the structure to match real world conditions. where the user input the geometry. This screen allows you to modify materials. Sometimes dimensional modifications are made in the analysis phase to model more accurately the true structural behavior. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. 363 . Data Screen The initial screen that appears in the detailer is the data screen. As this module is most likely to be used to generate structural drawings. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. This screen allows you to modify the dimensions that were used in the analysis to match actual conditions. As in all the detailing modules for reinforced concrete. The four areas outlined above are described in detail below.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the concrete beam design/detailing module to design and detail a reinforced concrete member. This module is invoked by selecting one or more reinforced concrete beams located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete Beam from the menu bar. the design is faced as a trial and error process. materials and reinforcement and the program verifies the condition of the beam for the specified loads. it appears as shown in the following figure.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item A

Selects the moment frame type. Moment frame: [Ordinary/Intermediat See the notes above on the design and detailing e/Special]: implications of this action. Clear Cover: Distance from edge of section to outer edge of stirrups.

Modulus of elasticity, Concrete and reinforcing f’c, Fy, Specific material properties. Weight: Static load case during It is the design static earthquake gravitational load that simultaneously acts during the earthquake (only for Intermediate and Special moment frames)

364

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item B

Note that this column can be moved relative to the axis used in the analysis program. By clicking on the word Center (Figure on the left) and changing it to Left, the column is now located to the left of the gridline (Figure on the right). In addition, by selecting the 2ft dimension of the column (left figure) it can be modified (see 2.5ft dimension on the right figure). Remember that all text in red can be modified. Item C

By selecting the word Rectangular (left figure), the section can be changed to a T or L section as shown in the right hand figure. To change a dimension click on the text and edit appropriately. Once the section geometry is finalized, the design screen can be viewed.

365

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item D the spreadsheet

The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement, and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. It is active in the Data Screen, Design screen and in the Detailing Screen. The spreadsheet is divided in three pages, the first one called Bars has the data to define the longitudinal reinforcement, the second one, Stirrups, has the information required to define the stirrups and the last one, Sections, the location of the cross sections. Bars The data needed to define the longitudinal reinforcement are:

Group: Bar:

The group number of a set of bars with a specific geometry. The bar size designation. Top: Flag that determines if the reinforcement goes on the top (1) or at the bottom (0) of the beam. Level: Flag used to define if the reinforcement will be continuous (0) or discontinuous (1). Axis1: The axis from which the start point of the group of bars is measured. Dist1: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the start point relative to the Axis1. Hook1: Flag that determines if the bars start with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Qnty: The number of bars.

366

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Axis2: The axis from which the end point of the group of bars is measured. Dist2: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the end point relative to Axis2. Hook2: Stirrups: The data required for the definition of the stirrups are: Flag that determines if the bars end with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Stirrup: Bar:

The group of stirrups.

Span: Span number where the group of stirrups will be located. The bar size designation. The spacing between stirrups. # spa: The number of spaces in the group. This parameter indirectly defines the number of stirrups. # of legs: The number of vertical stirrup legs to resist shear. Closed: Sections: The engineer can stipulate at which location/s along the beam they wish to obtain a cross-section. Flag that determines if the stirrup is closed hoop (1). Spacing:

The cross section locations are defined with the following parameters: Axis: The axis from which the location of the cross section is to be measured. Dist: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the cross section relative to the specified axis. Typically, it will not be necessary to enter each bar individually into the beam. There are several tools that you can use to automatically determine the required reinforcement. Enter reinforcement:

367

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Displays a dialog window to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement of the beam. All the parameters are defined by the user. Suggest reinforcement: RAM Advanse suggests longitudinal and transverse reinforcement based on the bar size designation entered by the user in a dialog window. The reinforcing calculated is based only on the member forces at the columns and beam mid-spans. Enter continuous reinforcement: This tool is used to define the continuous longitudinal reinforcement of the beam, either top or the bottom. These bars will run the full length of the beam. Enter top reinforcement at axes: This tool is used to define the top discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement that will be defined at the supports. Enter bottom reinforcement: This tool is used to define the discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement at the bottom in the mid-span region of the beams. Splice bars at (% of L): This tool is used to define the location of the required bar splices of longitudinal reinforcement. Bars will be spliced at the specified distance if they are longer than the maximum bar length. This tool will only work for spans that are less than 75% of the maximum bar length. Enter 0% if you want the splices located at the span supports or enter 50% if you want the splices located at midspan. The user should always check the generated bars. Note that only the bars that need splices will be affected. The spliced bars will still be treated as single bars for selection. The splice length considered in this tool is for class B splices where the maximum percent of reinforcement spliced within required lap length is 100. The user can reduce manually the lap length for class A splices. Enter stirrups: This tool is used to define the transverse reinforcement along the spans of the beam.

368

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Design Screen

The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design data. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. Note that two diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time, thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (demand) curve. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the load condition selected. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition.

369

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Warning! It is the engineers responsibility to review the required steel with respect to the provided steel to confirm that sufficient capacity is provided by the bars shown. This is best viewed in the design screen and the report of the RC Beam Detailer where the design against the nominal moments or the design shear forces against the nominal shear forces can be visually displayed. In some circumstances, the area of required steel may exceed the provided. This will most often happen at the end of a member where there is not sufficient length to develop the bars that are required for moments at the face of the column-beam joint. Item A The figure below is for the design moments in the beam. Note that the maximum negative moment is located at the face of the column that coincides with the start point of the diagram. The diagrams are always displayed from face to face of columns. Measurements are shown from the face-of-column to the controlling inflection points. Note that the envelope diagrams consider only the selected load conditions.

By clicking on the title of the diagram (in red), the user has the option of changing the diagram to any of the following:

370

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

The Deflection, Moments, Shear, and Torsional moments are all dependent on the currently selected load condition. The other options are displayed and calculated for the selected load conditions. It is particularly important to view the envelope for design bending moments and the nominal bending moments. The last diagram illustrates the increase of section capacity over the development length of the longitudinal bars. As such the engineer can determine whether the strength of the beam is enough to resist the design moments over any length of the beam (particularly in the development zone of the bars). Item B the Spreadsheet The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Detailing Screen

The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the beam. Both longitudinal and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. Note that the user can only define the

371

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

reinforcement and the localization of the cross sections in the figure, but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside RAM Advanse. Item A

To display the reinforcing takeoff and lengths, click on the word Detailing and select ‘List’. Note that the fine control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. To edit one or certain groups of bars, they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected, they are shown in blue and the bars not selected in light gray:

Item B
372

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Configuration Screen

This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. The items considered are described in the table below. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99. The only option available for the moment. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear, torsion and detailing. Affects the development length of bars
373

Epoxy Coated

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

of bars. The ratio of reinforcement Rho Ratio between maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho. ACI 10.3.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8.4.1 of the Code.

Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars. The user shall between consider section 7.6 of the Code. reinforcement Round bar length to Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch, foot etc.

Estimated distance This is the distance, which is added to the clear cover (see of clear cover to bar group centroid data screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. Delta X for each solution The increment at which design checks are performed. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment, shear) along the beam. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. This option allows the user to manipulate the spacing of the

Horizontal tick spacing for text
374

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

spacing for text

tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. Applies the specification given in section 11.1.3.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. A normal value is 40 ft.

Reduce Vu near column face

Maximum bar length

Report of reinforced concrete beams
By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen, the report screen of reinforced concrete beams will be displayed. The screen is shown next:

Report screen of reinforced concrete beams. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report, see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The report of reinforced concrete beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. At the top the general information that are common to all the selected members of the beam is displayed. This section is followed by the data that is particular to each member of the beam. In the general information section, the user can find the loading conditions, the moment frame and the properties of the materials.

375

namely a flexural and a shear/torsion section. Example of the flexural verification diagram. The status of the different stations are graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. The results are divided in two sections. the reinforcement and some design parameters such as the clear cover. All diagrams are drawn from face-of-column to face-of-column. etc. In the specific data section for each member of the beam the user can find the geometry. One particular feature is the graphic layout of the bar pattern with the position and number of each group of bars. Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. 376 . Example of the graphic layout presented for the adopted reinforcement of the beam. In this way.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General information displayed in the report of reinforced concrete beams. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. the initial spacing of stirrups. Each member is divided in 10 equal lengths and thus 11 stations are considered in the verification of the bar layout.

in order to avoid a brittle failure of the member. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station.6. 377 .Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Note that the report indicates the spacing of bars required to meet cracking controls of the beam as specified in ACI 10. Most of the seismic considerations given on chapter 21 of the Code are taken into account (see previous section for exceptions). The actual spacing of the bars as currently laid out is also indicated. the purpose is to get members with shear strength greater than the maximum probable bending capacity of the member. In this case. This spacing is calculated considering the dimensions of the following figure: The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement.4. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts 378 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 379 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 380 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 381 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 382 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 383 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 384 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 385 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 386 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 387 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 388 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 389 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 390 .

As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed. This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. Assigning concrete sections to the members If you want to create a new section. and new sections (and materials) can be created as described in the Chapter on Creating Sections and Materials. you should select a Template for beams or columns as it is illustrated in the next figure: 391 . select the members graphically and proceed as shown in the figure below. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete column design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. To assign a concrete section to a member. Note that the columns can be rectangular or circular in shape. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Identifying the columns for design RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns.

392 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The creation of new sections is described in more detail in Chapter of Creating Sections and Materials. This setting has nothing to do with the member-unbraced length. Likewise. The parameters are considered in the design as described in the Technical Notes Section. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. as is described in the detailer section. Acceptable values are 0 and 1. The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). These include the sidesway flag. Column Design Parameters Several design parameters should be input during the modeling phase. but rather the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral load. The tool buttons below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. The Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway in (parallel to) the 2 axis. The engineer will be able to modify some of these parameters from within the column detailer. Braced Against Sidesway Flag To enter the required design parameters select the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab. the effective length factor and the member axial unbraced length.

The Cm value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the Reinforced Concrete Design toolbar button under the members design tab. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for columns. as they affect the calculated K. Effective Length (K) Factor The effective length (K) factor for each column should be entered. A spreadsheet value of 0.0 being used in the program. Likewise. 393 . K22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis K or Ky). As discussed in the technical section. Note that if using the nomograph the sidesway (braced2 and braced3) flags should be set first.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. Note that Cm33 is for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). Likewise. A spreadsheet value of 0. As discussed in the technical section this value is important when considering whether slenderness should be considered in the design of the column. this value is important when calculating the member local-stability moment-magnifier (Lamda ns).0 will always result in a K of 1. Note that K33 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis K or Kx). Cm22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). alternatively the engineer can use the toolbar buttons below the spreadsheet to automatically calculate the K factors from a nomograph. The engineer can use the toolbar button to set the Cm value to 0.0 for all currently selected members.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination. The K value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet. Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor The local member stability (Cm) Factor can be entered for each column.

Important: All of the design parameters described above can be modified in the detailer. The L22 and L33 value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab. the model should be analyzed appropriately. However. 394 . If necessary. A zero value means that it is equal to the member length between nodes. Also. modifications made in the detailer will not be reflected back in the model. It is suggested that all user design parameters be applied in the model prior to invoking the detailer.0 will result in L being calculated based on the distance between the nodes of the member. Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis L or Lux). These values represent the unbraced length between lateral supports that the program will consider in the design. The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code. Analysis Before proceeding with column design. you can enter the unsupported lengths between lateral supports (L33 and L22). A spreadsheet value of 0.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) Unbraced Member Length (L) The engineer can modify the unbraced length for axial load capacity (and slenderness) calculations. note that the Cb and Lb columns in the spreadsheet are not used in concrete design. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below. Likewise. L22 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis L or Luy).

A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed before entering the column detailer module.7 (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected members.4). The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes section).0 to 1. a value of 1. For example.0 is entered. the ACI318-99 section 10-11 recommends 0. ACI Technical Notes The column design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 395 . Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code.35 and 0.7 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for columns. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI318-99 (10. Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. Acceptable values are 0. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis. The toolbar buttons can be used to automatically enter values of 0.0.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below. Note that if 0.0 is used in the analysis. the results obtained from doing so should not differ significantly from that of a first order analysis. While technically there is no need to perform a second order analysis for a structure braced against sidesway.13.

This method divides the second order effect into two parts: a structure second order effect (P-∆) and a member local stability effect (p-(). • If the reinforcement is less than 1% (the minimum suggested reinforcement ratio). 396 .1 is a non-elastic fully second order analysis that is not available in Ram-Advanse and therefore. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for column design. or axial tension with flexure. The strain of concrete is proportional to the distance to the neutral axis. The following assumptions have been made: • • • • • • • • • Strength Design Theory. The nominal strength of a section is calculated with the following strength reduction factors: φ = 0. The tension strength of the concrete is neglected.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.10. All the moments are in reference to the geometric centroid of the section.003 The compression force of the concrete is calculated using the equivalent rectangular block of forces proposed by Whitney. The P-( effect is addressed through the local moment magnification (ACI-99 Section 10. whichever is smaller. of the ACI.10. Design of longitudinal reinforcement The longitudinal reinforcement is designed to resist both biaxial bending and axial loads.12). φ = 0. integrating the compression area.13) due to the deformation of the whole structure. For intermediate cases. • Slenderness effects The Code specifies that the slenderness effects in columns should be considered by performing either section 10. which means that the stress of the steel has a linear variation up to the yielding point.2 is implemented in the program. The stress in the reinforcement is calculated based on the strain of the centroid of each reinforcement bar. the cracking effect and other global non-linear factors. displaying a warning message. P-∆ is addressed through the end moment magnification factor (ACI-99 10. φ shall be permitted to be increased linearly to 0.9 in axial tension. not considering the reinforcement.90 as φ*Pn decreases from 10*fc’*Ag or φ*Pb.2 of the Code.10. 10.1 or 10. Maximum concrete strain εmax = 0.7 in axial compression. to zero. The strength reduction factors used are in accordance with 9. the calculation is done in a similar way with the specified strength of the concrete. or axial compression with flexure.3.10. Modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement E = 29000 ksi. The stress-strain diagram for the steel is elasto-plastic. 10. then it remains constant.

For sway frames this procedure is performed if equation 10-20 is exceeded. This is not currently performed in the program and only a warning will be issued.1 can be helpful to decide whether the members of the frame should be considered braced against sidesway. The moments M1 and M2 at the ends of the column are therefore obtained directly from the analysis without performing ACI-99 Equations (10-16) and (10-17). 397 . taking into account the inertia reduction factors suggested in 10. The user has the responsibility to decide if the columns belong to a sway or non-sway frame.11. Thus it is assumed that an elastic second order analysis has been performed. the cracked section factors should be modified by (1 + βd) as described in the ACI-99.4. The P-( is not considered in the analysis (even second order) and is therefore approximated following the procedure described in ACI-99 10.1. The P-∆ effects for columns subject to sidesway are automatically obtained from the analysis results. This procedure is used on braced frame members if ACI-99 equation 10-8 is exceeded. If the user wants to consider sustained lateral loads.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Important: The Code states that columns with k*lu/r >100 need to be designed according to 10.10.12. The criterion stated in 10.11.1. The flow charts attached to the end of this chapter indicate the algorithm used to consider the slenderness effects.

Details of how the shear design is performed are given in the attached flow charts. The shear forces in both axes are considered. RAM Advanse assumes that the interaction equation varies linearly between the condition with pure tension load and the condition with pure bending. Interaction diagram of a column. If Pu > Plim then the capacity of the column will be reduced to the Plim value. The program also checks if the adopted reinforcement area is within the maximum and minimum allowed reinforcement limits prescribed by the code or set by the user. Note that phi is defined for Mu and Pu values.1. The governing condition for bending is defined as the condition with the highest demand ratio. The demand or capacity ratio for the current load is defined as the ratio between the distances o-s and o-c of the interaction diagram.3. This methodology used to determine the true P-M limits involves a trial and adjustment procedure for establishing moment equilibrium. In the calculation of the nominal moment with tension forces. and the rebar pattern entered by the user in the Data Screen. the required reinforcement area (As) is calculated using an exact determination of the axial-moment (P-M) interaction limits of the column design. if subject to axial tension.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Bending design Having determined the magnified moments (the required design moments). This procedure uses the true (full) section properties. is taken according to Equation (11-8). this involves both shifting and rotating the neutral axis to obtain equilibrium. 398 . calculated with the interaction function. but torsion is neglected in the design of the stirrups (option to suggest reinforcement). Shear design Shear design is performed according to Chapter 11 of the Code. This may produce smaller Mn values. which are located a distance d from the face support of the column according to 11. which vary in the order of 20% in relation to the ones. The program considers the maximum factored shear forces (Vu). The demand or capacity ratio is defined as the ratio between the current loads acting on the column divided by the strength reduction factor (phi) and the nominal capacity (axial or bending moments) that are illustrated in the following figure.1. The nominal shear strength of the column. As illustrated in the attached flowcharts. It calculates also the nominal moments of the section with the adopted reinforcement and determines if the section is able to resist the imposed moments.

399 . In the main program the engineer can obtain a text summary design output.Reinforced Concrete Design menu item. This will provide a single line of output as shown below for all the rectangular and circular concrete columns currently selected.4. negative means compression. the reinforcement distribution is not known and an assumed distribution is considered. M33. A positive axial force means tension.4 for special moment frames. while in the detailing module. Report Output After an analysis. bending moment about axis 3 (major axis). Refer to the list of load combinations shown at the top of the output. This is because in the main program output. Output Two forms of concrete columns design output are available to the engineer in the program. Load Load is the number of the load condition that resulted in the largest area of reinforcing. Special moment frame where structures with high seismic performance are included. It is the column number in the model. and M22. F axial.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Special provisions for seismic design The user can specify the type of moment frame for each design (see the Detailer section): • • • Ordinary moment frame where no special considerations are taken into account. M22 These are the forces corresponding to the governing load condition.4.10. and the column headings of the table are described below: Important: some differences may appear between the results obtained with Reports/Reinforced concrete design and Detailing /Concrete columns. the engineer can view a text summary of column output for the currently selected columns by clicking on the Reports . . The attached flow charts show the details of the sections that are considered in the verification.5 for intermediate moment frames and according to 21. This version of the program considers all the requirements given in section 21. The length (Lo) measured from the joint face and the maximum tie spacing for this length (So) is calculated according to 21. respectively. and he or she can view the reinforcing in their concrete members. and bending moment about axis 2 (minor axis) for the load condition that gives the greatest reinforcement area. M33. This section of the code specifies that the shear design has to be performed based on the flexural resistance of columns. Intermediate moment frame where structures with intermediate seismic performance are considered. An example of this output is shown in the figure below. the exact reinforcement distribution and geometry are taken into account in the calculations. Significantly more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section. the axial force. Col Numb. F axial.5 of the code for special moment frames. are.

Reqd and A. The reinforcement shown represents the true location of the reinforcing bars that were required for the design. Shear and torsion demand are not considered in this separation. A. The column should at a minimum use the larger of A. Tie Spacing This is the maximum separation allowed between stirrups due to geometric considerations and code prescriptive detailing requirements. Screen Display of Reinforcement In columns the position of the reinforcement bars is very important. Refer to the column design/detailing module for consideration of shear demand on the design. Min. 400 . Important: Tie separation does not consider the shear demand on the column. An error message will appear if the required steel is larger than the maximum reinforcement area that is allowed by the code. Note however that the area should never be less than the minimum reinforcement area required by the code.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns A. Text summary of reinforced concrete column design Length This is the length of the column. required This is the computed required longitudinal reinforcement area. To view the position of the reinforcement (as shown in the figure below) select the desired columns graphically and press from the toolbar. but do not reflect any detailing changes made in the concrete detailing module. only the detailing code requirements. A. BxH The width and depth of the adopted rectangular section for each member. max This is the maximum area of steel allowed in this section. min This is the minimum reinforcement area required by the design code. Circular sections are not considered in this report.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Screen display of the reinforcing in the column and beams. 401 .

and also the ability to produce column detailing for design documents. On entry into the designer/detailer the program will provide reinforcing in the cross sections.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the column detailer to design columns subject to axial forces and bending moments. The module will provide suggested reinforcing when the module is invoked. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. design parameters and load data can all be modified. 402 . Note that the section and load data has all been read in from the modeled structure. This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. Note that the first tie spacing Sini has to be < So/2. section geometry. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. Data Screen The first screen viewed in the detailer is the data screen. The data screen. From this screen the material properties. Following a successful analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design of their concrete columns. The engineer can use this reinforcing or can modify it as desired. The user can modify these as illustrated below. The engineer can then invoke the designer/detailing module by selecting one or more columns located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete columns from the menu bar.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Note that when section data is modified in this screen it is copied up the column line. These are described in detail below. Important: Changes to the physical model made in the designer/detailer are NOT transferred back to the model in RAM Advanse. Item A 403 . They only exist for that invocation of the detailing module. The data screen can be divided into four areas as described below. However. it is important to begin the column modifications from the lowest level and work up. The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button. The screen can be subdivided in four areas outlined above. changes do not have to be made to each column up the column line. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design. if properties change up the column. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in this screen. Therefore.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns General parameters for the whole column line. 404 .

0. Type of splices: [Tangential/ Offset/ Bearing] Used to calculate the spacing between bars in the splice zones.85) 1 405 . Concrete and reinforcing material properties.1. the spacing between ties and the bar splices. t ratio The maximum Rho that the section can Maximum reinforcemen obtain before it fails code prescribed limits.1).01. The minimum specified Rho. Refer to ACI-99 12. See figure below. Beta the equivalent block stress in the concrete (0. The Code Minimum reinforcemen suggests 0.15.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Moment frame [Ordinary/ Intermediate/ Special]: Clear Cover Modulus of elasticity. unit weight: Beta D: Classification according to ACI-31899.1) t ratio: suggests a Rho of 0. For non-sway frames: the ratio of the maximum factored axial sustained load to the maximum factored axial load associated for the same load combination.3. eu The maximum allowed strain in the concrete (0. The moment frame type affects the maximum reinforcement ratio.9.60 For sway-frames: the ratio of the maximum factored sustained shear within a story to the maximum factored shear in that story.4. fy. Suggested and default value: 0. normally equal to 0. Note that ACI-99 (10.08 for ordinary or intermediate moment frames and 0. f’c.06 for special moment frames (ACI-99 21. Clear cover to longitudinal bars (not to transverse reinforcement).003) Block stress The reduction factor for the depth of Profile.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Tangential lap splices Item B Offset lap splices Bearing lap splices Types of splices considered by the program Geometric characteristics of the column can be set in this area. Column elevation Move the column position in relation to the axis 406 . Refer to the following diagrams for what information can be changed.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Modify the height between floors starting from the lowest level Modify the beam dimensions starting from the lowest level. The floor names can be changed but they are not saved between invocations of the designer/detailer module. Item C Section information is modified in this area. 407 . The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column. Beam dimensions are NOT automatically read in from the structural model.

Zoom fence on a particular column Select the column type (circular or rectangular). 408 . The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Member section information. These are not transferred back to the original analytical model.

Enter the dimensions. Enter Yes if none of the load combinations results in any of the bars going into tension. The actual reinforcement ratio is displayed for reference: If the value is highlighted in red it means that the actual reinforcement ratio is less than Min Rho or larger than Max Rho. This option tells the program if the splices are to be tension or compression splices. the diameter of the bars and number of bars. If it is highlighted in yellow it means that it is larger than Max Rho/2. Remember to start from the lowest level if you want to have data automatically copied up. Typically a tension splice should be assumed.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns There are two types of sections available: Rectangular and Circular. 409 .

The maximum code prescribed (allowed) tie spacing for column detailing (per 7.2) is also displayed for reference.10. Enter the desired tie spacing.5.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The user can input the initial spacing of the first tie. Note how the program considers the initial spacing when there are beams with different heights. 410 . Initial spacing of ties (Sini). The entry will be highlighted in yellow if it is larger than the maximum spacing. This spacing is applied to the top as well as to the bottom of the column.

over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. The spacing between longitudinal bars is shown as reference to help the user in the selection of the number of cross ties required for transverse reinforcement.5) requiring that at least alternate longitudinal bars must be braced and that no bar must be more than 6 in from a braced bar. Item D 411 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the number of legs in each direction for the transverse reinforcement. Lo is the minimum length. the spacing between bars is shown and the user can perform this verification by inspection. the user is required to specify Lo and So. However. Note that the program does not verify the ACI-99 code specification (7. In the case of intermediate or special moment frames.10. measured from joint face along the axis of the column.

Lu: Unsupported length for bending about axes 33 (major axis bending) and 22 (minor axis bending). Effective length factors for bending about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) A factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. Refer to the sheet below and the Technical Notes section for the impact of these parameters on the design. ] 412 . If Cm = 0 the program will automatically calculate the appropriate value suggested by the Code based on end moments for each load combination.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Forces and data related to the slenderness of the column. These parameters are read from the model for each column. The engineer can modify the data required for the design of slender columns. K: Cm Sway Enter Yes for sway frames and No for non[Yes/No sway frames. Any changes made here will not be reflected back in the model when the detailer is closed.

It is provided as a reminder of the value used during the analysis for this column. 413 . only in the structural analysis.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ] Ic/Ig It is not used in the design.

5 times the bar diameter or 1. including the slenderness effects. Ac: Splice length Area of the concrete section The required splice length. The Status is shown in green when it is O. Bar clear The clear spacing between bars in the spacing in splice zone. This button displays the design results. Item A The design results of the column.3) As required 414 The maximum required area of steel.6.5in (ACI-99 7.K and in red otherwise. This value represents the maximum of the area required for strength purposes and that . The Code specifies that this value shall not be less than the smaller of splices 1. Design screen.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Design Screen The second button on the toolbar is the design button. The text in parenthesis indicates whether a tension or compression splice was specified.

Asreq/Aspro Ratio between the required v reinforcement area and the provided area. Rho required is the As required divided by the member area.13. This variable show if the frame was specified as a sway frame (Yes) or as a non-sway frame (No) Effective length factor about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) This value is used to determine if frame columns are permitted to ignore slenderness effects (P-(. Ig* refers to the cracked section moment of inertia used in the analysis. As provided Rho req/Rho prov Provided reinforcement area.12) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section. Ratio between the required reinforcement ratio and the provided reinforcement ratio. 10. Pu Axial load of the controlling load combination.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns prescribed by the code as a minimum allowed (Rho min).2. Negative loads are in compression and positive loads are in 415 . lu is the unsupported length and r is the radius of gyration of the cross section.5). ACI-99 10. Euler’s critical load for a slender column (ACI-99 10. and does not consider the minimum Rho limit from the data screen. The value must be equal or less than one to be acceptable. The As required is based purely on the area of steel required to meet demand.12. This value is shown in red when it is larger than one. Sway K Klu/r Pc Ig Item B Item B shows the proportion of the mobilized strength of the column for each load combination. K is the effective length factor.

Mc22 Factored bending moments used for design. Refer to the technical notes section for more information. dns33. 416 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns tension. This is based on the member end moments if not specified by the engineer. Phi Strength reduction factor calculated for the critical station of the considered load combination. These consider the slenderness of the column when necessary Mc = Mu*dns. Remark: The additional moment magnification required to account for structural lateral load drift is implicit through the mandatory second order (PDelta) analysis. Mc33. Cm33. dns22 Moment magnification factor to reflect the effect of member curvature between ends of a compression member. Cm22 These show the calculated or the engineer specified values.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Item C Shear design.4.4 Factored shear force for the controlling load condition. The program calculates the maximum spacing required to resist shear and considers the code prescribed limits on reinforcement spacing. 417 Vu . For circular columns the resultant Vu is shown. It will be shown in red if it is larger than the calculated Sini. measured from joint face along the axis of the column.4. This spacing should be equal or less than the allowed spacing. The Status is shown in green when it is O. ACI 21. It will be shown in red if it is greater than the calculated So Maximum allowed spacing of transverse reinforcement for intermediate or special moment frames in the Lo zone. Provided S The spacing provided by the engineer.K. Lo given by the user. It is only required for intermediate or special moment frames. Initial tie spacing calculated as being required by the program. Provided Sini Calculated Sini Provided So (*) Calculated So (*) Provided Lo (*) Calculated Lo (*) Initial tie spacing given by the user. over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. Calculated S The maximum spacing allowed for ties. So given by the user. It will be shown in red if it is smaller than Allowed Lo Minimum length.

Nominal shear strength (concrete + reinforcement) Vs Vn 418 . Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Vc Nominal shear strength provided by concrete for the controlling load condition.

W. “Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake and Wind Forces” PCA Publications. and the elevation with the reinforcing bars that are required per the previous screen design. To access to this screen press the button 419 . These are saved between invocations of the module. 1995 ISBN 0-89312-098-7 (page 369)]. Configuration Screen This screen allows the user to establish standards and control over the design and details calculated by the program. K. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. As such it is the number of bars in the middle of the column that show in the elevation. Fanella D.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the typical section of the column for each floor.. Note that the common practice in detailing dictates that the elevation is drawn through the middle part of the column. Domel A. A. S. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. and not the exterior bars. A column with 4 vertical bars on all sides will still only show two vertical bars in the elevation view [Ghosh. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in the data screen.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Configuration screen. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete columns. Affects the development length of bars. Used for rounding down the spacing between ties Used to round-up the length of splices Epoxy Coated Round spacing to closest Round splices to closest Report of reinforced concrete columns By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. the report screen of reinforced concrete columns will be displayed. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module and should be set before the detailing is viewed. 420 . Concrete Type Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. Refer to the table below.

The fs/fy ratio for the critical bar in tension is also included to compare the basic limits of the interaction diagram with the value obtained for the point: 421 . General data displayed in the report of reinforced concrete columns. the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33. the reinforcement.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The top section of the report contains data that is common to all the selected members. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed. In the specific data section for each column. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. the design parameters and the forces at both ends of the column corresponding to the selected loading conditions. This is followed by specific information on each column. the user can find the geometry. the user can find the loading conditions. Information specific to a column in the column line. In this version of RAM Advanse. In the general data section. the type of moment frame and the properties of the materials.

see the table in the Design Screen section of this chapter). All the seismic considerations given on Chapter 21 of the Code are considered. Report screen with all the information regarding shear design. which will determine the governing loading condition for the biaxial compression design. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. Sini and the length Lo are shown in the report (for a detailed description of these variables. All the tie spacing like S. So.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Basic limits with known fs/fy ratios that may be compared with the fs/fy ratio obtained for the current load acting on the column. Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the biaxial compression design. 422 . The biggest capacity ratio will be the one.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts 423 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 424 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 425 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 426 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 427 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 428 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 429 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 430 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 431 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 432 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 433 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 434 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 435 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 436 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 437 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 438 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 439 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 440 .

refer to appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction – Theory at the end of this chapter. The analysis should consider the soil-structure interaction where appropriate. overturning and soil bearing capacity is the last step. together with the design of the required longitudinal reinforcement. Adopted dimensions The next step is determining the basic dimensions for the footing geometry. the model should be analyzed appropriately. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). ) located at The first button calculates the minimum dimensions of the base to accomplish with the soil allowable stress. For more details about the basic concepts for soil-footing-structure modeling and how to use this tool. Design Steps Soil-footing-structure modeling Before proceeding with footing design. or where the dynamic properties of the structure are influenced by soil-structure interaction. They can be calculated with 2 buttons ( the top of the detailing module screen. The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the applied shear forces without reinforcement. and make an approximation to the depth based on service loads with an overall load factor of 1. Technical Notes The footing design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 441 . These verifications are realized in the design and detailing module. according to isolate footing to use. A soil-structure analysis should consider appropriate soil springs for all the situations that include eccentric columns (columns that are not located at the center of a footing). Verifications The check of the overall stability against sliding. The base and depth dimensions should be defined separately. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.6 (This factor may be changed).Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This section describes the provisions of the isolated. with the recommended methods by RAM Advanse to model the soil-structure interaction and their implications in footing design: adopted dimensions and verifications. The input data for modeling is described in: Foundation Spring Modeling Tools. reinforced concrete footing-design code as implemented by RAM Advanse.

only the applied loads are considered when performing design of the footing. overturning and soil bearing capacity Any isolated shallow foundation must have stability against: Sliding: produced by the lateral forces acting on the footing base. Analysis A numerical method is adopted to find the stress distribution in the soil. which can be represented by the modulus of subgrade reaction (ks). Pp = passive earth pressure H Horizontal load acting on the foundation. Due to the numerical integration method used values such as soil pressures may differ by up to 3% from the exact solutions. The footing is assumed to be infinitely rigid. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for footing design. Any passive earth pressure developed by the soil in front of the foundation will help against the slide forward. Fr = base friction and adhesion. Overall stability against sliding. see design/detail module). see design/detail module). Loads In accordance to Chapter 15 of the Code. Service load conditions can also be used to verify soil stresses and settlements (Item B of the Design Screen. that is. All load combinations (factored and service) need to be generated by the engineer. However. covered by pavement or a sidewalk) it may be included to produce the passive pressure.67 For cohesion = 0. This method considers the soil as an elastic material.50 Overturning at the bottom edge of the footing (point O) 442 . according to the applicable code.e.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. For estimating the passive pressure and the soil bearing capacity the following reduction coefficients are suggested (and used as default values): For friction angle = 0. the soil stress distribution below the footing is assumed to be linear. SFsliding=(Fr+Pp)/H Where: SFsliding= Safety factor against sliding. If this soil is permanent (i. The engineer can consider some or all load combinations when performing the design. When calculating the soil pressures the weight of the footing and fill is considered. the footings should be designed to resist the factored loads and induced reactions (Item A of the Design Screen.

usace. and foundation depth.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Overturning about the footing base involves taking the moment summation about point O. if the engineer has enough soil information. for a better approximation. which affects the effective soil unit weight and pressures. New York. M = overturning moment and x distance to the overturning edge. load eccentricity. Ws=weight of the soil over the foundation. Additionally the depth of water table is taken into account. Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. freatic level.army. etc). inclined loading. However. SFoverturning=(Wc+Ws+P)*x/M Where SFoverturning=Safety factor against overturning.Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905). Only a uniform soil layer is considered. Joseph E. The differences are mainly in the correction factors.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals 443 . Any method for obtaining the bearing capacity is just an estimate and can be adopted depending on the engineers’ judgement or familiarity with the method. Eccentricity and inclined loading correction factors may not be used simultaneously and the factors not used are unity. 1995 2) USA Corps of Engineers.. 1992. These three components are affected by correction factors due to foundation shape. Wc=weight of the foundation. Sometimes the allowable bearing pressure is already furnished to the user and can be considered directly. Meyerhof or Vesic (this option considers the loads acting on the footing and the specific conditions of their surroundings as ground slope. For more information on the bearing capacity equations the user is referred to the following references 1) Bowles. Free downloadable on /www. Mc Graw Hill. he or she could use the included option to calculate the bearing capacity of shallow foundations with the equations proposed by Hansen. the soil cohesion and the lateral pressure. Bearing capacity failure or allowable bearing pressure Please consider that the allowable soil pressure for a footing takes into account both bearing capacity and settlements. The bearing capacity calculation considers the wedge weight. It is not advisable to have the eccentricity of the resultant out of the central middle third of the foundation (kern) because this can produce differential settlement that tilts the foundation. Engineering and Design . P Vertical load.

b) the critical section used to consider punching shear at the perimeter columns is located at a distance d/2 from the column face. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement is always distributed uniformly across the entire width of the footing.4. otherwise a standard hook is adopted. Both one and two-way shear is considered in the design. to resist uplift of a footing. The figure notes below describe the location of critical sections used for design.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Design The strength design is performed considering both bending and shear.2 specifies a concentration of longitudinal reinforcing in a center band for rectangular footings. this provision is only considered by the program for centered footings. it is recommendable to follow the procedure below for the Soil-footing-structure modeling (step 1) in foundation design.4. a) One-way shear strength is verified taking a critical section at a distance d from the face of the column. only one is considered to check if there is enough space. Top-of-footing (tension) reinforcing. ACI-99 section 15. Although both development lengths (in tension and compression) are listed in the report. a) The maximum factored moment is calculated at critical sections located at the faces of the column assuming a concrete column. is not performed in RAM Advanse Foundation Spring Modeling Tools Once the user knows how these Code provisions are implemented for footing design. When the dowels are only in compression (Splices in compression=Yes). The ‘column’ dimensions should be adjusted appropriately to consider a steel base plate. 444 . The length of dowels is calculated considering the splice length and the minimum development length necessary inside the footing taking into account the compression or tension in the bars. The development length in the footing is in accordance with Chapter 12 of the Code and the critical sections are the same as the ones adopted for bending. Refer to the attached flowcharts and ACI318-99 for details of the design procedure implemented. the development length should be straight. Important.

Soil Type . Dialog used to generate soil springs to model the Soil-Structure interaction. Column Position: To automatically calculate rigid offset lengths the program currently allows nine different column positions on the footing. Select the radio button that best reflects the position of your column. The basic concepts to use this tool are described in Appendix A.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The program has a special tool to help you with input data for footing modeling and determining the spring constants required to model the soil-structure interaction correctly. to activate this functionality select the support nodes where the footing/s are to be located. By selecting ‘Use’ and entering a value. any modulus value can be entered. Press the footing button shown below to model the footing-soil springs. First. at the end of this chapter. Press the indicated button to model footings for the currently selected nodes The following dialog will appear. This selection is used to establish the footing modulus of sub-grade reaction.Modulus of Subgrade Reaction: Select the type of soil that most closely matches that of your site. Spring Method: 445 .

221-229 446 . Finally krzz = kt*B2/12 Taylor Method Taylor. Note that to clear the footing springs and rigid offset from an existing footing select the ‘Remove Springs’ option in this frame. The derivation of kr is as follows: Parameters affecting the rotation and the calculation of the spring constants. 5th Australia-New Zealand Conference. kip/ft2/ft). Direct Method kt = ks * B* L krxx = ks*B*L3/12 krzz = ks*L*B3/12 Where ks is the modulus of subgrade reaction (Force/Area per Length Settlement e.g. ks = σ / δ Considering a conventional analysis of rigid footings the soil pressure can be computed from principles of mechanics of materials for combined bending and axial stresses: σ1 = N/(B*L) . From the definition of modulus of subgrade reaction. The two methods.δ1) / B Considering that θ is a small angle. direct and Taylor. There are two methods available to calculate the appropriate spring constants.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The footing is modeled with three springs. Vertical spring constant: kt = ks * B* L For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (δ2 . krzz).δ1) / B [Eqn I] Stress in soil at edge of footing is moment/section modulus of footing = M*(B/2)/(L*B*B*B/12) = 6*M/(B2*L). thus krzz = ks*L*B3/12. pp. one translation spring (kt) and two rotation springs (krxx.6*Mzz/(B2*L). (1967) “Design of Spread Footings For Earthquake Loadings”. are described below. On SMFE. Kr assumes that the ks value is uniform throughout the area below the footing. σ 2 = N/(B*L) + 6*Mzz/(B2*L). [Eqn II] Substituting Eqns II into Eqn I we get : θ = 12*Mzz/ks/(B3*L) And krzz = Mzz/θ. W. so θ = (δ2 . Proc. tan θ = θ. P.

22*B/L)) for rigid footings. Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module Following a successful modeling and analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design and detailing of their concrete footings. and taking into account the Vesic´s proposal relating ks with Es: ks = Es / (B*(1. To invoke the Design/Detailing module select one or several nodes that will have the same footing. steps 2 and 3 (Adopted dimensions and verifications). This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. With the data provided. This method calculates a rotational stiffness based on the soil properties and footing dimensions. future invocations of this dialog with the same node selected will not necessarily result in the correct data being displayed in the dialog. (a) Eccentric footing with a strap beam (b) Model to use in the analysis. the program automatically calculates the required spring constants and rigid offsets to the geometric center of the footing. tan θ = θ. Es is the stress-strain modulus and Iθ is an influence factor which can be expressed as Iθ = 16 / (π*(1+0. For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (1-µ2)*Mzz*Iθ / (Es*B2*L) Where µ is the Poisson’s ratio. Analysis reactions are therefore calculated in the geometric center of the footing. W. thus krzz = ks*L*B3/Iθ Finally krzz = kt*B2/Iθ Although you provide the program with fundamental data on the footing and soil. go to the menu and select Detailing/Footings. the data is not transferred into the design/detailing module. Refer to chapter of Detailing Modules for information about how to invoke and navigate within the design/detailing modules. Therefore. Considering that θ is a small angle. We get: θ = Iθ*Mzz / (B3*L) And krzz = Mzz / θ. Data Screen Press the button to view the data screen that is the initial screen that appears in the detailer: 447 . Taylor as referenced above. RAM Advanse does not store this information with the node. Furthermore.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This method does not assume uniform soil stiffness below the footing but rather is based on studies performed by P. Thereby taking into account the effect of the footings’ vertical and rotational stiffness on the behavior of the structure.µ2)). Using this modeling technique the engineer can easily implement and model a combined (strap) type footing as illustrated below. Most of the soil parameters are incorporated into the modulus of subgrade reactions so that this is the only parameter entered by the user.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Data screen that allows you to change the material and loads on the footing. The footing dimensions are not read in from the model. This screen allows you to modify material and load data. The dimensions will be calculated on this screen as described below. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. 448 . The three areas outlined above are described in detail below. In this screen you can modify the column dimensions that were read in from the model. as these values are currently not saved with the footing node.

unit weight Footing bar sizes (xx. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. Fy.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Item A General data Clear Cover Distance from edge of section to the outer edge of the longitudinal reinforcement. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. zz) Column tie bar size and tie spacing Show dowels[Yes/No] . f’c. This ill allo o to specif 449 Modulus of elasticity. Size of reinforcement according to the standard bar designation (ACI-318) for bending about X axis (xx) and bending about Zaxis (zz). Reinforcement of the column. If this option is activated a column cross-section will appear.

In this case. Enter No if some load combination cause tension in the dowels. Enter Yes if you want to include the shear force (transmitted by the column) multiplied by the depth of the foundation in the bending moment acting on the footing base. The version of the adopted standard used in the design procedure. It is used to calculate the vertical displacement and rotation of the footing. Design moment [Yes/No] Design code Soil Data Modulus of subgrade reaction: Typically this value should be the same value used in the analysis. The calculated dowel lengths will also be shown in the detailing screen. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. ACI 31899. Splices in compression [Yes/No] Enter Yes if the dowels are in compression for all the load combination used in the design.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This will allow you to specify column reinforcement/dowel information. Enter No if you have the Soil unit weight (wet) Calculate soil bearing capacity 450 . Even if this value was specified when generating a soilspring. See the design flow chart included at the end of this chapter in order to understand the assumptions made by the program. It is used for the calculation of the bearing capacity and the soil weight over the foundation Enter Yes to calculate the soil bearing capacity using the soil data. The soil unit weight over the freatic level. it is NOT read in from the selected footing node.

451 . Input of the column geometry.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing allowable soil stress as datum considering the maximum allowed settlements Allowable soil stress Reference stress to be compared with the maximum soil stress of the different service load conditions Cohesion Interparticle attraction that measures the shear strength of cohesive soils Parameter that measures the shear strength of granular soils Ground slope to be considered in the bearing capacity Soil unit weight below water level Friction angle Slope of ground from base Saturated unit weight Depth of water level Depth of water level from ground level Item B Geometric characteristics of the footing.

One important feature to input here is the footing type that define the position of the column in relation to the footing base: There are 10 options to define the position of the column relative to the footing base.0 x Node 1 LL This module assumes that the forces shown are always for the geometric center of the footing.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Enter the actual dimensions of the column. Thus n1c2=+1n1DL+1n1LL is interpreted as follows: n1c2 = Node 1 Combination 2 +1n1DL = 1. shear and axial forces are retrieved from the analysis performed in RAM Advanse. Note that if several support nodes are selected prior to entering the design module. The detailing module does not automatically transfer the dimensions and geometry footing from the main program. n2 is node number 2 etc.0 x Node 1 DL +1n1LL = 1. The depth of the footing base below ground is used to compute the weight of the fill. Note that n1 is node number 1. the different load combinations for each selected node are displayed in the order that they were selected. shear forces and bending moments. For footings with the columns located at the center of the footing these forces represent the column 452 . The last option allows specifying the position of the column in relation to the center of the footing. The loads read in from the analysis can be seen in the table (as illustrated above) together with their values. Item C Input of the load combinations to use in design: axial forces. Only bending moments.

select the appropriate factored load combinations and proceed to the design screen. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design. The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button. If you are only interested in checking soil pressures. 453 .. The adopting dimensions for the footing: base and depth are realized on this screen using simply 2 buttons at the top of this screen bar. For footings where the column is located away from the footing center these represent the reaction forces at the end of the rigid offset. To perform footing design. Note. The depth is approximately taking into account the required depth to resist service loads with a load factor of 1.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing forces. The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the shear force without requiring any reinforcement. as shown in the figure.6 (changeable). If no rigid offset was considered in the analysis (and the column is offset) then these forces must be transformed manually (the engineer must change the values) to the center of the footing prior to viewing the design screen. select the appropriate service load combinations and check the bearing pressures in the design screen. Note that the results are presented in two areas shown in the next figure. Adopting footing dimensions Both dimensions will be calculated separately. This screen is used to display the capacity of the footing. value that the user should define before applying the tool for the footing design. calculates the minimum dimensions of the base considering that the maximum The first button soil stresses should be less than the allowable stress.Base dimension calculation is performed with the allowable soil stress. Design Screen Press the button to view the design results.

Due to the adopted numerical method. The nomenclature of the ACI-318 has been adopted. Design of the capacity of the footing for the controlling load combinations. Item A The first area is devoted to providing general information and the results of one-way shear. punching shear and bending design of the footing. Some parameters are clarified in the following figures: 454 . the calculated values of Mu and Vu can differ between 0 to 2% in relation to the exact solutions.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Two main areas in the design screen.

Both lengths are shown in the report.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Development lengths for straight bars and standard hooks. development length for standard hooks be adopted in tension bars. Axial force. The verification will be done only with one of them depending on de enable flag. development length for straight bars to be adopted in compression bars Length Ldh. Item B 455 . As shown in the graphic the development length of dowels could be: Length Ld. bending moments and shear forces acting on a footing The user can check if the footing complies with all the requirements of the Code with all the results and information given in this screen.

Detailing Screen Press the button to view the detailing screen. Safety factors and total soil pressure due to the active load condition. which include the effect of the weight of the footing and fill. Note that for the footing design the soil weight is not considered. 456 . Caution! Even in the case of an unsuccessful design (i. The user can choose any service load condition and compare the obtained stresses with the allowable soil pressures. sliding and bearing capacity are given for the current load condition if the option to calculate the bearing capacity is enabled. the design status is no-good in the design screen). The bars shown reflect the design from the previous screen. It is also possible to verify if there is a zone with zero stress which means that the soil resultant (the cross in the figure) is outside the kern limit of the base. The dowels are also displayed when the option Show Dowels is selected in the data screen. In the graphic area of the screen the user can see the soil stresses and the footing elastic settlements.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Elastic settlement. These stresses are total stresses. If a rotation spring was calculated (and used in the analysis). Note also that the safety factors against overturning. it is not valid for these load conditions where the footing is not in full contact with the footing (zero stress zones). the engineer will still be able to view this screen.e. It displays the footing in plan and elevation with the reinforcing bars shown.

If the reinforcing bars of the footing need hooks. 457 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Detailing screen exportable as DXF file. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. It allows the user to establish some standards for design and also to have control over the reinforcing design. Note that no top-of-footing steel is provided. Configuration Screen Press the button to view the Configuration Screen. The engineer will need to do this if uplift exists on the edge of a footing and soil or other load is supported above the footing. they will be displayed only in the x-direction. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module.

The code specifies that it must not exceed 3 times the thickness of the slab or 18in (7. Round spacing to closest Concrete type The spacing between bars can be rounded down to the closest increment specified. Typically a value of 0. Per the applicable code the percentage of the balanced steel allowed for design before compression reinforcing is required. Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for cohesion 458 . So for example.75 is suggested by ACI. Used in the calculation of development length of bars.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Round bar Longitudinal bar lengths can be length to closest rounded up to the increment specified. The upper limit for bar spacing. Enter No if over the it is uncertain if the soil over the foundation foundation will be always present. all the longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch etc. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths.5) Epoxy Coated Maximum Rho/Rho balanced Maximum bar spacing Consider the soil Enter Yes when the soil over the foundation is permanent.6.

too. The available options are Meyerhof. The mean and maximum compression of the soil are printed with the controlling load case. The first one is devoted to the soil-foundation interaction. These values shall be compared with the allowable compression of the soil. Hansen or Vesic. which are divided in three parts.5 Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for friction for friction angle angle used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. The maximum elastic deformation of the soil and the base area in compression are printed. The top section of the report contains the data (loads. Suggested value 0. This part is particularly useful when the footing is checked in service conditions. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. Report of reinforced concrete footings By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. material.67 Ultimate soil This option defines the formulae to bearing capacity be used in the calculation of the soil after bearing capacity. Suggested value 0. The selection will depend on engineering judgement.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing for cohesion used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. the report screen of reinforced concrete footings will be displayed. soil and geometry) of the footing that is common to all the selected nodes. which is useful to 459 . This is followed by the reinforcement details adopted for the footing. The data is followed by the results. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete footings.

The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. RAM Advanse automatically handles two typical footing situations. If the soil bearing capacity was calculated.Theory The model may need to consider the interaction between footings and the structure. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed: The biggest capacity ratio will be the one that will determine the governing loading condition for bending. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the footing design. the safety factors against sliding. 460 . The next group of results is devoted to bending. overturning moment and bearing capacity will also be printed. Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction . Besides the provided and required steel area for bending. Column Located at Center of Footing Consider the following column-footing system Typical footing with the column located at the center of the foundation. the typical case of a column located at the center of a footing and the less common case of a column located around the edge of a footing.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing evaluate the footing behavior. the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33.

If the engineer assumes that the column is fixed against rotation for analysis purposes. In this case the effect of soil on the vertical translation and the rotation of the footing. This phenomenon can be modeled by using adequate translation and rotation springs. Pinned columns (such as steel columns located at footing center) typically do not subject the footing to moment load and as such it is typically not necessary to implement a soil spring in this instance. The footing is modeled using translation and rotation springs. with a column located at its center and subject to mainly axial load.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing If the column is continuous with the footing. then when subject to lateral load the actual footing rotates (see (a) in figure below) and this modifies the column bending moment and the distribution of the soil stress (see (b) in figure). but the lateral displacement will likely be underestimated. and that often a simplified model can be used in which rotation and vertical translation are neglected. Note that the footing rotates due to the differential soil deformation. a more accurate modeling technique needs to consider the soil-structure interaction. This models the elasticity of the soil. This is also true for the case of a pinned column located at the footing center. 461 . then the column forces may be overly conservative. is small. Therefore. a) Actual footing rotation. b) Soil stresses. Note that the rotation of a typical footing.

Obviously this is not trivial and it is recommended that uplift be avoided whenever possible. Notice that the simplified model (fixed support) should only be used if the stiffness of the footing and soil is high compared to the bending stiffness of the column. The differences between moments are small in this example. The following figures show the differences between two models in a typical example (units of kip-ft). This may require changing the spring stiffness for each individual load combination. Note that this calculation is only valid if the entire footing remains in contact with the soil for all load combinations. If during the design of the footings it appears that this assumption has been violated the engineer is responsible for adjusting the spring stiffness to model the soil-structure interaction appropriately. Comparison between the fixed support model and the spring model. but should be evaluated for each model independently. In the next section we will describe how the program can automatically calculate a rotation spring constant.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Simplified model (fixed support). The rotation of the footing is neglected. 462 .

2) Perform analysis. 3) Design the footings (See the section on the Design and Detailing module) 463 . The modeling sequence can thus be summarized as follows: 1) Create the model with springs. b) Fixed support is valid when footing rotation is negligible.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Limitations: a) Rotation spring constant is valid only if footing base is in full contact with the soil.

b) Required model when footing stiffness affects analytical results. The axial force (N) causes a moment of magnitude N*d The axial force causes a strong moment of (N*d) Similarly to the footings with columns at their centers. Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) To illustrate the impact of footing rotation on eccentric footings consider the following columnfooting system: Column footing system to be used for illustration of modeling concepts. The column is continuous (fixed) to the footing.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) Acceptable model when foundation stiffness is large relative to the columns. particularly when a column is subject to a significant moment. For pinned columns the entire axial and moment load must be resisted by the footing. The column takes a portion of the moment and the moment acting on the footing is somewhat less than N*d. If the column is continuous with the footing then this rotation modifies the column moments and the distribution of soil stresses. eccentric footings rotate because of the applied bending moment. The example has only axial load in the column. 464 .

Therefore. To model this situation appropriately it is recommended that a rigid offset is provided from the column to the footing centroid. Also. when appropriate. The footing is modeled using a rigid offset to the geometric center of the footing and the respective translation and rotation springs. the model should incorporate the load eccentricity and footing rotation in the analysis.0). This rigid offset is appropriate when the footing is assumed to act as a rigid member (bending in the footing is ignored in the analysis). Ignoring the rotation of the footing will often neglect the increased bending moment in the column and the moment reduction of the footing. a) Inadequate spring model b) Inadequate fixed support model. This is the assumption made in the design of the footings in RAM Advanse. In this case the distribution of the soil stresses does 465 . In the instance where no rigid offset is present the column will not resist any bending moment. The soil spring properties can then be calculated with respect to the footing centroid. In the model where a rigid offset is present the column will have a non-zero bending moment and the soil stress will vary linearly below the footing. This modeling technique is illustrated in the following figure.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) The actual behavior of the footing. When modeling an eccentric footing a simplified fixed support should not be used as this ignores the additional moment present in the columns as illustrated below. b) The column may take a significant portion of the bending moments c) The moment on the footing is less than the full N*d (x is always less than 1. the reaction-resultant of the footing will have to coincide with the action line of the axial force N.

This is obviously true for a concrete column but may not be true for a steel column with a pinned base. 466 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing not agree with the actual behavior of the column-footing system as illustrated in the next figure.

3) Design the footings. Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts The following flow charts are presented to inform the user the details of the design considerations that have been included in the program or the ones omitted for the design of isolated spread footings. Note the rigid offsets in the eccentric footings. the translation and the rotation springs. Therefore. 467 . a) Example of a structure with different types of footings. 2) Analyze the structure. The suggested method of modeling different type of footings. the correct procedure to design an eccentric footing.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Bending moment in column and soil stresses for a) the adequate spring model for concrete columnfooting and b) for the invalid concrete column-footing model. b) Model of the footings to adopt for analysis. with a column fixed to the footing is as follows: 1) Model the footing with springs including rigid offset.

Muz: factored bending moments acting in the footing P: service axial load in the footing 468 . (15. shear forces and bending moments entered by the user or read in from the analysis are assumed to occur in the geometrical center of the footing. i. false for normal concrete) Mx.10. * Pressure in the soil is considered with a planar variation.5.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Material: Reinforced Concrete Elements: footings Code: ACI 318-99 Assumptions remarks: * Minimum reinforcement is always used. * Clear spacing of bars being developed or spliced should not be less than 2db and clear cover should not be less than db. the footing is considered to be infinitely rigid. Data: B: footing width bc: column width (for rectangular sections) (bw=D for circular sections) c: free cover for longitudinal reinforcement D: diameter of the column (for circular sections) db: diameter of footing bars dbc: minimum diameter of column longitudinal bars dbs: diameter of ties (at least #3 for #10 or smaller and #4 otherwise (7. * No shear reinforcement is considered.7)) L: footing length lc: column height (for rectangular sections) (lc=D for circular sections) lwc: Boolean variable (true for lightweight concrete. * Soil under the footing is considered elastic and homogeneous. * Axial loads.Mz: Mmax: service bending moments acting in the footing maximum factored bending moment of the different load combinations Mux.1)) ebs: f´c: Boolean constant (ebt=true if the column is tied) specified compressive strength of concrete fy: specified yield strength of reinforcement k: coefficient of subgrade reaction of soil hf: height of the footing slab (> 10 in.e.

Vuzz.9) Pu:factored axial load in the footing Vxx.. Vczz. Muzz: Nbxx.90 for bending) γc: concrete unit weight γs: unit weight of the soil over the footing Calculation of initial variables: Ab1: Area of one-bar dd: maximum allowed straight development length Output results: Asxx.85 for shear.qmin. Nbzz: area of reinforcement needed in both directions (about axes x minimum dowel development length for the column reinforcement factored bending moments in the critical sections of the footing number of bars needed in both directions qmax. Vcxz: Vuxx. 0.Vzz: service shear forces in the footing Vmax: maximum factored shear force of the different load combinations factored shear forces in the footing Vuxx. szz: spacing between bars in both directions Vcxx.. Aszz: and z) ldbc Muxx.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing pos: position of the column (1.2.Vuzz: φ: strength reduction factor (0. Vuxz: nominal shear strength factored shear forces in the critical sections of the footing 469 .qav: total service stresses in the soil sxx..

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 470 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 471 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 472 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 473 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 474 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 475 .

.

Required Data: Loads Loads and load combinations must be properly generated.1997 Edition . The Design parameters worksheet is fully integrated in RAM Advanse and will be described next. The Wood Detailing module is an independent module (changes are lost when the module is closed and do not get saved into the model). While no load condition may be excluded from the analysis. moisture conditions. The Wood Detailing module will be described later in this Chapter. etc. 477 . Determination of the wood member data To use the Wood Design module. See the result output section of this chapter for more information. wood members must be grouped by “Description”.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) This section describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail wood members using the add-on design and detailing modules. Wood members are designed according to the following American design Code: • National Design Specification . Design parameters such as species.American Forest & Paper Association American Wood Council. Normally. grade. Member Section A member is automatically considered a “Wood Member” when a wood section is assigned to it. are specified for each group. it is possible to specify load conditions used for the optimization process and output report. This module includes design check of wood members in accordance to the NDS Code. names of sections reflect their shapes and materials. adopting the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD). The required data may be entered in two ways as follows: • • Design parameter worksheets Wood Detailing Module.

In this file the specific commands used for Wood Design can be entered as follows: CODE ‘WOOD’ //This reserved word indicates that it is a wood section and it will be designed with the NDS-ASD Code. rectangular sections given in Table 1B of the NDS Supplement. It is also possible to define new rectangular. The type of wood section is defined with the section macros (files with the section type followed with the leo extension). ‘Circular’ or ‘Spaced’ //Indicates the type of section. • Glulam Table 1C (Section Properties of Western Species) and Table 1D (Section Properties of Southern Pine) of the same Supplement are adopted.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Example of a wood section assignation for a member. The following sections are installed with the program: • Standard Dressed (S4S) Sawn Lumber These sections include boards. RAM Advanse is installed with a library of standard wood sections. 478 . rounded and spaced-column wood sections. dimension lumber and timber. These wood sections are grouped in folders. SHAPE ‘Rectangular’.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) FORMULATION ‘Lumber’ or ‘Glulam’ //Only rectangular glulam sections are considered. It is the engineer’s responsibility to assign the right material considering the type (beam or column). dimension lumber or timber). The desired wood material can be assigned to each group of members as defined by the member description: First select the desired wood material (1) and then use one of the two available tool buttons (2) to assign the material to one or several wood members. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Templates for more details (specially the notes preceded by ) Wood materials Wood design has two formulations or groups to be considered as materials for design: • • Lumber group.e. 479 . positive or negative bending moments) and size of members (i. Includes sawn lumber (timber or dimension lumber). select the Configuration/Data bases/Materials option. MSR or MEL lumber. Glulam group Glued-Laminated Timber. To edit or create a new wood material. loads (i.e.

select the desired material or the New option to define a new material. The required data for materials are: Species Included are the most common species for The United States and Canada. where the main properties of the material are entered or modified: Edit or Enter the wood design properties.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Then. A dialog window will appear. Following is the list of these species: 480 .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lumber: Aspen Beech-Birch-Hickory Cotton Wood Douglas Fir-Larch Douglas Fir-Larch (North) Douglas Fir-South Eastern Hemlock-Balsam Fir Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack Eastern Soft Woods Eastern White Pine Hem-Fir Hem-Fir (North) Mixed Maple Mixed Oak Northern Red Oak Northern Species Northern White Cedar Red Maple Red Oak Red Wood Spruce-Pine-Fir Spruce-Pine-Fir (South) Western Cedars Western Woods White Oak Yellow Poplar Southern Pine Southern Pine-Dry Southern Pine-Green Mixed Southern Pine Balsam Fir Coast Sitka Spruce Eastern Hemlock 481 .

3 Stud Construction Standard Utility No.1 No.3.1. open grain No.1 & Btr Clear Structural Select Structural.2 No. open grain No.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack (N) Eastern Spruce Mountain Hemlock Northern Pine Ponderosa Pine Red Pine Sitka Spruce Western Cedars (North) Western Hemlock Western Hemlock (North) Western White Pine Glulam: Hem-Fir Douglas Fir-Larch Southern Pine Grades The grades (stress grading criteria) adopted are the most commonly used: Select Structural No.1 Dense 482 . open grain No. open grain Dense Select Structural Non-Dense Select Structural No.2.

which are MSR (Machine Stress Rated Lumber) MEL (Machine Evaluated Lumber) Combination Symbol Properties of glued laminated timber members are defined by the Combination Symbol.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) No.2 Dense No.3 and Stud Dense Structural 86 Dense Structural 72 Dense Structural 65 Clear Heart Structural Two special groups are attached to the grades.2 Non-Dense No.1 Non-Dense No. The following combination symbols are installed with the program: 16F-V2 16F-V3 16F-V5 16F-V6 16F-V7 20F-V2 20F-V3 20F-V4 20F-V7 20F-V8 20F-V9 22F-V3 22F-V8 24F-V2 24F-V4 24F-V8 16F-E2 16F-E3 16F-E6 16F-E7 483 .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 20F-E2 20F-E3 20F-E6 20F-E7 22F-E1 22F-E2 22F-E4 22F-E5 22F-E6 24F-E10 24F-E11 24F-E13 24F-E14 24F-E15 24F-E18 20F-V5 22F-V1 22F-V2 22F-V4 22F-V5 24F-V1 24F-V3 24F-V5 26F-V1 26F-V2 26F-V3 26F-V4 16F-E1 20F-E1 22F-E3 24F-E1 24F-E2 24F-E4 28F-E1 484 .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 28F-E2 30F-E1 30F-E2 Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression are also considered. 485 .

The following table contains the values used for various conditions considering the minor and major axes: Node 1 Node 2 Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Pinned Fixed Free Braced K-value yes yes no yes no no 0. Note that the adjoining framing members will be always neglected.0.4 Pinned Pinned Pinned Fixed Any other configuration not included in the table will be assigned a value of 1.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to performing analysis and design. fixed or free even if it is inclined. K33): K22 and K33 are the effective length factors for bending about axis 2-2 (minor) and 3-3 (major). These parameters are a function of the type of structure (braced or unbraced).80 1. This tool takes into account the buckling length coefficients based on NDS Appendix G. The tool will recognize automatically if a member end is pinned.2 1. the program will assume a value of K=1. General design parameter spreadsheet Effective Length Factors (K22. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse's context sensitive Help system. the user has always to check the calculated values considering that they are only approximations. L22): 486 . However. and the relative rigidity of the member and the contiguous members connected to it (E*I/L). A tool has been included in the program to automatically calculate the effective length factors for wood ( K33 and K22).0 2.65 0. Unbraced Lengths (L33. If K has its default value of (0).1 2.

Valid values are 0 and 1. Braced Against Sidesway Flag: The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). If L22 or L33=0. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘weak axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis.3 of the Code). The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) by the available tool. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. where lu = laterally unsupported span length of bending member and d = depth of member Wet/Dry Service Conditions: This parameter defines the moisture conditions for which design values or adjustment factors (Ct and CM) will be calculated. Glulam: Dry (1) for 16% or less. Rigid end zones are assumed to reduce the length of the members. The tool may be used to automatically calculate the values for these cases. Temperature Conditions: Three levels of service temperatures are defined: 487 . This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length. The NDS Code suggests different values for cantilever and single span beams depending on the type of load (Table 3. If. For multiple span applications the engineer should enter the appropriate values in the worksheet.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) These distances are measured between centers of gravity of the bracing members in the 1-2 (weak) (L22 for bending about 2-2) axis and the 1-3 (strong) (L33 for bending about 3-3) axis respectively. for analysis. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the ‘strong axis’ of the member. Wet (1) for over 16%. Likewise. Le=1.63*lu+3*d when 7<=lu/d<=14. It is the length of the face of the member that is in compression for any load condition. Wood design parameter spreadsheet Effective span length of bending member (Le): This unbraced length is the length used for the determination of the slenderness ratio (Rb) and the general beam stability factor (CL). the program will assume the length L between nodes.3.3 and Le=1. the values of these parameters should reflect the real length of the member. the physical member has been subdivided. And wet (1) for over 19%.06*lu when lu/d<7. The default value is (0) and the program will consider the general formulae given for single span or cantilever bending members with any loading conditions: Le=2.84*lu when lu/d>14. The NDS Specification indicates this value to be: Sawn lumber: Dry (0) for 19% or less.3.

If Li has its default value (0). the prolonged heating can cause a permanent loss of strength therefore it is not considered by the program. Repetitive Member: This flag can be applied to joists.3. For temperatures above 150°F. This parameter is the repetitive member factor (Cr) applied to dimension lumber.4. which are in contact or spaced not more than 24" on centers and meet the conditions specified in Section 4. This assumption is on the conservative side and the maximum difference in relation to the exact value of the calculated Cv is in the order of 10%. the program will assume a value of Li=L. Length of the bending member between points of zero moment (Li): This distance should be entered only for glulam members.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) T<100°F (38°C) 100°F(38°C)<T<=125°F(52°C) 125°F<T<=150°F(66°C) Most cases will fall within the first level. of the Code. It is the length of the beam between points of zero moments and it is used for the calculation of the Volume Factor (Cv). 488 . truss chords. The selected level will affect the Temperature Factor (Ct) calculations. etc.

489 . the shortest duration of the different loads should be selected.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Data for the model design Before analyzing the structure. the code and the load duration of each load condition to be considered in the design has to be specified. The following load duration categories are available: Load Duration Permanent Ten years Two months Seven Days Ten Minutes Impact Typical Design Loads Dead Load Occupancy Live Load Snow Load Construction Load Wind/Earthquake Load Impact Load For load combinations.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design post processing inside RAM Advanse The basic design post processing is performed automatically after analysis. Reports Select Reports/Wood Design to print the wood reports. 490 . Results can be displayed graphically or in text form. Selecting Reports/Wood Design displays a dialog box with options for a concise or detailed report. It allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if separation lines will be printed in the report: Reports dialog window.

This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Screen output There are several options to graphically verify the adequacy of wood members. Design Status: This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Tool buttons bar. the range of colors is recalculated. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. Code check display Options.0 and >1. This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. Fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to the range between 0.0. Results may be displayed on screen in the following ways: • Free scale: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. To select the members within a given range. select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. 491 . Note that when a different group of members is selected. Colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition.

Select the desired member. Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. The name of the governing load is pressed. Deflection control The structural analysis provides the basis for determining the deflections of wood members. the deflection control is simplified to the determination of the calculated elastic deformation which the user should compare to the allowable deflection determined by the local building Code or the specific requirements of the member. 492 . The program considers only the bending deformation. it is suggested to avoid mixing different types of sections in the collections such as dimension lumber with timber.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range. The user can check the deflection using the option Print/Analysis results/Local deflections. thus the adopted modulus of elasticity (from tables) have a 10% reduction to consider the shear deflection. Note that for optimization. The usual practice in wood members is to calculate the long-term deflection as a multiple of the permanent load elastic deflection (See Section 3. Wood Detailing Module For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke the detailing module to further manipulate the design and obtain details for a specific member. please see Chapter 11 for further details related to the optimization. Select only the member that is to be designed and detailed before invoking the detailing module.5 of the NDS Code). combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Important! Wood structures can be optimized. the option Print/Forces diagrams/Show on screen/ Translations in 2. or pressing the Display option Note that you can include the deflection check in the optimization process. See the Optimization Chapter in this manual for more details. Therefore.

as illustrated. Typical cases of these modifications are the reduction of applied shear forces near supports. Hint: You can also double click the desired member to open directly the Wood Detailing Dialog Window. modification of adjustment factors for a specific member. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. the member design status is OK. the detailed report may be printed. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when the module is invoked. etc. After editing or entering data. Wood Detailing Dialog Window to enter/edit the data for the code check of the member. A dialog window will appear with a context sensitive help at the right side Geometric. material and load data is entered or modified in this screen as required.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) And invoke the Detailing/Wood command. Please see the context sensitive help for further information. 493 . If the red light is on. Important: Notice that the changes that are performed within the detailer will not be saved. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the member are no good. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases as it allows the user to apply special modifications to calculated parameters. by the preceding icon. The user can easily recognize all data that has been transferred from the main program. When the yellow light is on. Notice also that there are options that can only be calculated or modified in this detailing module such as bearing strength verifications. if the green light is on. etc. Notice that you have status traffic lights at the bottom right of the window. override of the adjustment factors.

3 of the Code. These factors indicate whether the member has sustained exposure to high moisture (19% for solid sawn. it is not included on reports printed directly from the main program. torsion and axial loads. Column Stability Factor (Cp). Table 2. 494 • • The following adjustment factors are included: . 7.0 is adopted. 5A. Flat Use Factor (Cfu). Repetitive member Factor (Cr) applied only to dimension lumber. rounded and spaced sections. 4D. and 5B. Beam Stability Factor (CL). 5. 3. 6.1 of the Code.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for wood member design are as follows: • A unified verification procedure has been adopted for rectangular. 10.3.15 is adopted for these cases. This factor is calculated only for lumber following Section 3. 5A and 5B are considered in the verifications. This general procedure considers a member subjected to flexure and shear on both principal axes.3.4 and Appendix C of the Code are implemented. See the tables in the NDS supplement for information on other CH factors. This factor is available in the Wood Detailer and included in the Detailer Reports.3.7.11. Incising Factor (Ci) for structural sawn lumber incised to increase penetration of preservatives. The CD factor must be entered for each load combination since the CD factor will change based on the types of loads that are applied in each load combination. This factor is used for loads applied in the axis 3-3. Load duration factor (CD) according to Table 2. This factor is calculated internally by the program to account for the buckling of axially loaded members according to Section 3. A default value of 1. Note that the adopted CD factor for a load combination should be for the load with the shortest load duration in that load combination. The factors specified for Tables 4A. The factors specified for Tables 4B and 4D are considered in the verifications.3 of the Code 9.3. 4. Shear Stress Factor (CH). 4B. 8. 4B. 4C. Table 2. Volume Factor (Cv).2 and Appendix B for typical loads. A value of 1. 1. 2. Temperature Factors (Ct) for members that will experience sustained exposure to elevated temperatures. 16% for glulam members). Wet Service Factors (Cm) based on the moisture service conditions specified in Tables 4A. It is always assumed that local axis 2 is perpendicular to grain direction for sawn lumber and to wide faces of laminations for glulam The adjustment factors are calculated in separate procedures (Wood Design macro) considering all cases specified by the Code. Size Factors (CF) applied only for visually graded sawn lumber and round timber. . 4C. 11. This factor is calculated only for glulam members following Section 5. This factor has to be specified by the user.

type of load. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Prismatic members in axial tension. Notice that you can include it in the optimization process. The form factor (Cf). Curvature factor (glulam) used in curved members. The user can enter notch dimensions (width and length) and location (up or down) in the spreadsheet area. the refinement of calculating the reduction of the shear force within a distance from support equal to the depth is conservatively not considered. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding and lateral stability as specified on section 3. Shear stresses on both principal axes are checked independently. size. Bearing Area Factor 2. • • • • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 3.4. i. The shear stress requirements are given in section 3. Adopted shear design equations are those specified in Section 3. Adjustment factors affect the allowable stress of members and are a function of the species. Shear stress is normally not a failure mode in wood flexural members. 3.e. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: 495 . the user may apply the appropriate reduction by using the Wood Detailer. which is only used for the adjustment of tabulated bending design values of equivalent rectangular sections in manual calculations.6 of the NDS Code. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 3. Therefore. Loads are considered applied at the top of bending members and side loads on orthogonal faces (biaxial bending). Fire retardant treatment factors.2 of the Code.4 of the Code.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) The program does not consider the following adjustment factors 1. The requirements of Section 3.4. When shear stresses are significant. It has to be performed by the user with the available tools of RAM Advanse and considering the adequate modulus of elasticity affected by service conditions. etc. service conditions. Following is the list of adopted restrictions and assumptions: • Deflection control is not checked in the wood design module. only gross section checks are performed. Bearing area factor is not considered in minimum bearing length calculations.8 of the code (NDS-ASD-97). There are no special considerations regarding the type of connections used.4 of the NDS Code for notched bending members are included in the program. grade. 4. The members are assumed with a concentric axial load. The program does not consider the effect of fire.3 of the NDS Code.

Condition 'b' occurs when this distance is between L/20 and L/10 (L is the distance between lateral supports). However. According to this Section. Members subject to torsion The Code has no special consideration for wood members loaded in such a manner as to induce torsional stresses.Fv3/3) This equation is only applicable to rectangular members. it is advisable to avoid torsion whenever possible.4.2 of the NDS Code.2 of the NDS Code. Condition 'a' is defined when the shear block centroid is within L/20 from the column end. It is important to mention that due to uncertainties in allowable torsional stresses.1 and 15. two end conditions related to end fixity are possible. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending 496 . Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of Section 15. This special type is commonly known as Spaced Columns. Spaced Columns are formed of two individual members with their longitudinal axes parallel.4 of the NDS Code. The hypothesis adopted for this type of columns are described in Section 15.4. separated at the ends and middle points of their length by shear blocks.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) • • Members in compression with side loads are checked with the general equations 15. Faherty & Williamson (1999) recommend one equation for this case which is adopted by the program: fs=T*(3*a+1.8*b)/(8*SQR(a)*SQR(b)) where fs is the torsional stress at midpoint of long side T is the applied torque a is the longest side dimension divided by 2 b is the shortest side dimension divided by 2 The capacity of the section is given by fs/F where F is the allowable torsional stress assumed equal to the minimum shear allowable stress divided by three: F=min(Fv2/3. Eccentricity from rigid offsets is included in the analysis of wood members. Two eccentricities are used as follows: e1: measured parallel to wide face e2: parallel to narrow face • A special type of columns is considered in addition to the simple solid wood columns.

The LEO Editor will be called with the wood design macro.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Wood design macro for adjustment factors The program comes already with a default design macro for wood that determines how the adjustment factors will be calculated according to the adopted NDS Code and it is not necessary to modify it in order to design wood members. Programming in LEO) The adopted programming language is quite simple and the user may modify quickly the macro according to his/her own design criteria or local codes. Constant definitions. Each time that the program calculates these parameters. 2.25 to 1. The macro may be edited using the following option of the main menu: Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design. The following code groups are found in the macro: 1. List of the required constants. Subroutine for the calculation of the Duration Factors (CDCalculation). the user may edit or modify it to consider particular design factors adjusted to local codes. However. the west-coast user can modify the duration factor for seven days from 1. Each of them is used to define a specific adjustment factor or design parameter. for example. (See more details and an application example in Chapter 28.33 as it is required by several local codes. Leo Editor with the Wood Design macro. Several subroutines form the wood design macro. it will call the subroutine passing in the required parameters. 497 . Here. which at the same time have only small variations in relation to the adopted Standard.

Subroutine for the calculation of the maximum physical length.3. Subroutine for the calculation of the Temperature factors (CalcCT). Subroutine for the calculation of the volume factor (CalcCv). Fb=1[ksi] Fc=1[ksi] //Test CDCalculation CDtest=0.0[in] //member height b=2. This length will be shown on the report. Note that to test the different subroutines you can use an additional code that assigns the required data and calls the different subroutines. The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2.4 of the Code. The entire code can be executed or it can be debugged. Subroutine for the wet service factors (CalcCM). 9.0 CDCalculation(Duration. Then the test variables are initialized and finally the calculation subroutines are called. The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2.11 of the Code.3. According to the type of wood.CDtest) //Test LmaxCalculation 498 . verifying the intermediate results. 10. b.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 3. etc. material. 2=Glulam. 4. An example of a test code is the following. Subroutine for the calculation of the flat use factor (Calcfu). the maximum member length may be defined. 3=Plywood Species='southern pine' Grade ='no. 1' IncisedWood=true //Flag to show if the member is incised RepetitiveMember=true //Flag to show if the member is part of joists IsColumn=false Wet=true //Flag to show if it is a column //Wet/dry conditions Temperature = '100f<t<=125f' //Exposition to temperature Li=20[ft] //Custom length between inflection points. 7. 8. 5. Note that first all the required data are defined as d. Subroutine for the calculation of the incising factors (CalcCi). // values for tests Duration=0 d=4. 6. line-by-line. The calculated values are checked against the expected ones. Subroutine for the calculation of the size factors (CalcCF).0[in] //member width Material=Lumber //Material 1=Lumber. Subroutine for the calculation of the repetitive member factor (CalcCr).

TestCFE) //Test CalcCfu TestCfu=0. TestCv) //Test CalcCr TestCr=0. TestCFFc.0 TestCFFc=0.0 TestCFFby=0.0 CalcCfu(d. Grade. TestCr) //Test CalcCM TestCMFb=0.0 TestCMFcp=0.Material. TestCFFb.0[ft] LmaxCalculation (d. TestCFFt. Material.0 TestCiFbtc=0. TestCFFby. b.0 TestCFFt=0. Species.b. Material. b.0 499 .TestCiE. TestCt1. Material.0 TestCFE=0.0 TestCME=0. Material. TestCfu) //Test CalcCv TestCv=0. RepetitiveMember.0 CalcCi(IncisedWood.0 TestCMFv=0.0 CalcCr(b. Wet.0 TestCt2=0. Li.0 CalcCF (d. IsColumn.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lmaxtest=0. Species.Lmaxtest) //Test CalcCi TestCiE=0.TestCiFvpc) //Test CalcCt TestCt1=0.0 TestCiFvpc=0.0 CalcCT(Temperature. b.0 TestCMFc=0.0 CalcCv(d.Material.TestCiFbtc. TestCt2) //Test CalcCF TestCFFb=0.

. Faherty. Inc. Design of Wood Structures. 1997. 4. TestCMFb. American Forest and Paper Association. Inc. 500 . Third Edition. McGraw Hill. Third Edition. AFPA.0 CalcCM(b. TestCMFc. Commentary on the National Design Specification for Wood Construction. TestCMFcp. Wet. AFPA. Breyer. 1999. TestCFFc. 1997 Edition. 1993. 1997.. 3. Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook. 2. Material. Keith F & Williamson. Fb. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. American Forest and Paper Association. TestCFFb.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) TestCMFt=0. TestCME. Fc. TestCMFv.. McGraw Hill. Thomas G. Donald E. TestCMFt) References 1. .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 501 .

.

if member sizes and forces change after the connections are designed. At the end of this chapter the list of the main references used in the development of the program is given where the user can find more information. How to find technical information about a specific connection? When you are entering or reviewing the different parameters of a connection you can go to the help context where you will find a detailed description of the data and checks that are performed for each connection type. This “intelligence” allows the connection to modify itself as changes in its members and forces occur. beam-girder. there needs to be a database of connection templates from which to assign to your structure. Before a connection can actually exist on your structure however. Following this section we will describe in more detail some of the features of RAM Connection. as well as the number of bolts. Connections are designed and verified according to AISC-ASD 9th edition and LRFD 2nd edition steel manuals. they (the connections) can easily be redesigned. Connection Output and how to Customize your Environment and connection designs. moment. Connection Assignment/Optimization. It is recommended that you read at least the first two sections of this chapter to help you understand how the connection module works. office standards etc. optimize or verify connections of a structural model. welds. bracing. joint forces. What is a Connection? RAM Connection defines a Single Connection as all the parameters that completely define the quantities and dimensions of the pieces that make up a connection. including how to customize this toolbar. It is recommended that the structure be analyzed with final member sizes specified before connections are assigned to joints. Each connection can also have “intelligence” that allows it to customize itself to its environment (member sizes. Following the How To Use section we describe in more detail the features of RAM Connection including the Connection Database. geometry and material of the connecting pieces etc. In this chapter we first define what is considered to be a “Connection” within the context of RAM Connection. automatically utilizing member dimensions and forces in the connection designs. beam-to-column web.) using a macro language called LEO. size of bolts. etc). splice or combined). It includes the information related to the Connection Family (beam-to-column flange. 503 . The connection module is completely integrated into RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Chapter 28: Steel Connections RAM Connection allows the engineer to rapidly design. We then proceed to directly show you How To Use RAM Connection. For this section we will use the installed connection database and the default Connection toolbar. the type of connection (shear. All connection templates are defined in the Connection database that is accessible from the Configuration menu. RAM Connection installs with an extensive pre-defined database of connection templates. To get you productive on RAM Connection we will proceed directly to the section on How To Use RAM Connection. However. Both member forces and sizes are utilized to design the connections.

No consideration is given to any other joint force or connection design. The engineer can still find out which connections end up being identical even when they were designed individually. joints with different size members or material may produce slightly different connections. This assignment procedure permits the optimization of assigned connections by placing the connections in order of increasing strength the optimum connection for the applied forces will be selected. Therefore. For all the joints with identical member sizes the resulting connections will be identical (same bolts number. Only connections of the same family (beam-to-column flange. connections are typically designed either in groups or individually. moment or bracing connections) can be grouped together. which satisfies the joint forces and geometric conditions. Designing connections in a group allows you to minimize the number of unique connection designs on a structure. the assignment lists should be created keeping in mind that the list order will determine which connection is selected at a particular location. plate sizes etc.).e. The inversion of this axis (downwards) will lead in some cases to incorrect connections or the inversion of results i. 504 . even though some connections could be different due to the macro.Chapter 28: Steel Connections How to Use RAM Connection? RAM Connection is designed to give you extensive flexibility in the way you design and manage your connections. The connections can be designed in a group or one by one. As the connections typically have some ability to adapt to the geometry of the connecting pieces. Designing Connections Important Note: The connection design and the inclination angles are based on the assumption that the beam local axis 2 is coincident with the global positive Y Axis (upwards). and then use some of the available connection selection tools to determine how you would like to group your connections. top plate will be bottom plate. However. from a user customizable list of connections. Grouped Connections Grouped connections are connections on several different joints that are to be designed with the same connection template. It may be preferable to initially design all connections individually. The engineer has control as to which joints are to be grouped together. In general. it is also set up to allow you to get productive without requiring significant work on your part. This allows for each connection to be designed for its own forces and geometry. or beam-to-girder etc. The use and customization of the Connection Toolbar will be explained in detail in the following sections. Remark: All grouped connections will have the same description. If you have a RAM Connection License and the program is not active in RAM Advanse please see the Installation Manual. providing the most efficient use of material. As you gain experience with RAM Connection you can customize the behavior to better suit your business practice.) and same type (shear. Individual Connections Individual connections are designed for the forces and member sizes at a specific joint. The assignment procedure (from the connection toolbar) consists of having the program select the first connection template.

0.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 1) Before connections are designed the engineer should configure the Connection Design criteria. Dialog window to configure the connections design The user may choose the maximum allowable strength ratio that will be used in the design of connections. The default and typical value is 1. it will affect also the code check and the determination of the status of the connection. The load conditions to be used in the design of the connection can also be selected in this window.0 will affect not only the design. To display the connection toolbar select the Connection toolbar button (if it is not visible. This will cause the connection toolbar to show on the right edge of the screen. It is important to note that a value other than 1. All load conditions are selected by default. 505 . turn the Panels toolbar on from View/Toolbars). To establish connection design criteria click on the menu command Configuration/ Connections and choose the Design Configuration option. 2) To automatically design connections the engineer should display the connection toolbar.

or deselect it if you want all the selected joints grouped for design. There are many tools available to assist you in selecting joints.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar displayed at right edge of screen. 3) Select the design state button to indicate the upcoming design will be performed individually (each connection is based only on its own forces). 506 . One option is to use the menu command Tools/Select Joints to select joints from a common family out of the currently selected members. If you selected to group connections (in the previous step) all selected joints of the same family type will be grouped (one design for all joints with same member sizes and inclination angles). so the selection is important. Depress state button to design the connections individually 4) Select the members and nodes you would like connections designed for.

you should select the related beam (usually a cantilever beam) and column. 5) Select the smart connections group button if this was not the active group button (Smart Connections and Basic Connections will be discussed in more detail in the Connection Database 507 .column splice joints Continuous beam over column joints Column – beam – braces joints Continuous beam – braces joints Vertical X-braces joints Elements to select Beam + node Beam + node Beam + node (Right) Beam + node (Bottom) Column + node Column + node Column + node Beam + node Braces + node Note that for the case of brackets.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint selection options. Select the members and nodes for which connections are to be designed. The following table shows the elements that should be selected for each type of joint: Joint type Beam – column flange joints Beam – column web joints Beam – girder joints Beam – beam splice joints Column. The beam will be used to pass the loads to the bracket. Another option is to manually select each joint.

choose one of the assignment buttons as the shear plate (1) or the bolted end plate (2). If assigned by group. For example. etc) of the joint and will apply the corresponding templates. 6) From the connection toolbar select the connection (shear plate (1). each connection will automatically be given a description (assignment button's name) that identifies the design group. it will also be given the template name used in its generation. From smart connection group (3). bolt dimensions etc).) that is to be assigned for the selected joints.Chapter 28: Steel Connections section). etc. The program will automatically determine the family (beam to column flange. and a tag (set on the connection pad or in the macro) that contains the designed features of each connection (the plate size. if the double angle. The use of the tag will be explained later. beam to girder. Press the Smart Connection group button to display the smart connection assignment buttons. beam to column web. shear connection is selected to assign Press the Double Angle ( 508 ) button . You will notice that the second column of buttons is updated with the connections available to be assigned for this group button. bolted end plate (2). See the toolbar section for more information.

i.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The double angle shear connection will automatically be designed at the selected joints. etc. 509 DA_BCF_L 3x3x1/4_3B3/4 . CA for the gusset to column connection.e. Naming Convention The following connection naming convention has been adopted: <Connection Type – Connection Family -Connection Characteristic – Design Parameter> Smart Connection example: DA BCF Weld support Bolt beam Basic Connection example: Connection types CA = Shear angle(s) SP = Shear single plate EP = Shear end plate SS = Stiffened seated connection US = Unstiffened seated connection TEE = Shear tee TP = Through plate (only HSS supports) BP = Bent plate(s) DW = Directly welded moment connection EEP = Extended end plate FP = Flange plates MA = moment angles MT = Moment tees CP = Cap plate 4A = Four angles beam splice PBr = Plate bracket TBr = Tee bracket Remark: Bracing connections will have combined connection types. directly welded for the gusset to beam connections.

510 . For example press the buttons (Double Angle) and then the (Flange Plate) to get the combined connection of a flange plated moment connection with a double angle shear. This will be shown on the screen on the joint as follows: Shear and moment connection assigned to a joint. Connection characteristics bolted = all-bolted connection welded = all-welded connection Bolt support = bolted to support Weld support = welded to support Bolt beam = bolted to the beam Weld beam = welded to the beam n = number of bolts l = connector length Press the button to graphically display the number and template's name of the selected connections. all the capacity values calculated to evaluate the strength ratio and the status of the connections are included.Column flange BCW = Beam . 7) You can combine shear connections with moment connections when the combination is possible.Column web BG = Beam .Girder BS = Beam splice CS = Column splice CC = Continuous beam over column CBB = Column. beams and braces CVR = Chevron braces VXB = Vertical X braces Remark: In the detailed connection reports.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection families BCF = Beam . Any supplemental verification required is the responsibility of the engineer.

) or the shrink Three-dimensional view of a double-angle shear connection. press the button. A shear connection displaying its capacity ratio and status for the current load condition Note that the capacity ratio may be different for the different selected connections because the loads acting on them are different but the connections are identical. no other connection is allowed in the same plane.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that when the connections are drawn in low-resolution (wire) mode. Notice that the true dimensional characteristics of the connections are shown (plate length. the shear connection is drawn under the line of the beam and the moment connection is drawn above the beam line. 9) To view the designs Double-Click on the connection to view the Connection Pad 511 . Bracing connection assigned to a joint button of the toolbar. press the extruded shape button ( extruded shape button ( ). If a bracing connection is adopted. The only condition is to adopt a maximum number of one brace per quadrant. In this case the low-resolution connection draw will be placed over the related node. etc). bolts. If you want to consider the envelope of all load conditions. The bracing connection has all the options to combine any arrangement of beams and braces. Connection capacity and status for the envelope of all load conditions To draw connections in extruded (3D) form. The 8) To view the results of the connection designs on the screen press the capacity ratio and status of the current load condition will be displayed for all selected connections. These positions are assuming that the direction of the local beam axis 2 is vertical upwards.

for more details see the Design Criteria section later. If the forces dialog is inactive..Chapter 28: Steel Connections Before the connection pad is displayed. option in the main menu.. it uses a conservative envelope of forces for each design set of joints of the group. turn it on from Configuration/ Connections/ Show "Loads specification for report" dialog box. in the Loads specification for report dialog. 10) To view a detailed design report select the 11) To view the connection geometry report select the button button 12) A detailed or summary report for connection groups is available by selecting all the desired connections and selecting the Reports/Connections design. the program will show the dialog box Loads specification for report that will ask you if you want to consider the forces envelope or all the load conditions forces separately in the connection Pad.. To do so select the required connection and then press on the toolbar and go to Detailing/Connections. If you want to see the design envelope of forces. When a group connection is designed. select the option Envelope forces. it can be displayed for each design set of joints. Connection Pad to edit and check connections. More information on the connection pad is found in the following sections of this chapter. 512 ...

Notes: 513 . click on one connection in the group and click click to color all the groups individually (up to 9 unique groups can be colored. You can generate a report organized by family. description. As you can see getting connection designs is quick and easy. connection type. The following sections describe in more detail the features that were used above. The command will act on the selected connections and will preserve the previously defined groups and connection types. Hint: To enable or disable the display of the descriptions. you will need to redesign your connections by clicking on the redesign button in the connection toolbar. etc. press the button properties toolbar. all connections that are designed individually are given the same color (white). structure geometry or loads. there is significant flexibility in exactly how connections are assigned and designed. Notice also that you can have a list of the joints and their connections with the option Reports//List of joints… It is very useful to know the joints that need to be designed and the ones that have already assigned connections. in the Model . however. tag. 13) If you modify a member size. or 14) To select all connections in a single group.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections reports dialog window. Note that for grouped connections the redesign will be based on the description of the connections (connections with the same description are grouped).

BP. The 3D and 2D graphics can be used as a tool to verify the connections appropriateness. therefore. When the beam axial load is taken into account for shear connections the program also verifies the flexural and prying action capacities of some connection elements. the engineer should verify that the geometry of the designed connections is appropriate. Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) Many of the connections allow beam inclination angles.G. The user could specify special copes in these cases and may independently verify some additional connection capacities. A useful tool for this purpose is the that allows the selection of all structure connections that are O. the connection drawing could be incorrect. In this particular case and in all cases in general. either horizontal and/or vertical.G. so that the connection could still be OK.K. but the connection drawings will clearly show this incompatibility. In these cases the program does not display any error message. The list of the connections that allow inclination angles are as follows: Connection CA Family Horizontal BCF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Clip (shear) BCW Angle/s BG SP Shear Plate BCF BCW BG 514 Inclination angles Vertical Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Both Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . it is strongly recommended to verify the design status of the resultant connections. In this case the capacity verifications are not valid anymore and the calculation assumptions are incorrect Besides the geometry verification and members compatibility made by the program. but the status of the connection is N.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • If the strength ratio is less than the limit specified by the engineer. (for the • • • • Some shear connections such as the TEE. An example of such a situation is when the beam flange width is wider than the column internal space in a BCW connection or when there are beams with depths larger than the girder depths they frame into. or N. US. This may lead to the use of thicker plates or the reduction of bolt gages when the connection macro is a design macro. the engineer should verify that the applied connections are able to transfer all the forces between members. (because of some geometric requirement is not satisfied or the members compatibility does not comply). After connections assignment or after the re-design of groups of connections. respectively. and it is activated after pressing either status display button current load case) or (for the load envelope). TP and SS does not allow axial forces. the connection calculations required to guarantee the required ductility prescribed by the code are the responsibility of the engineer.

End Plate FP Flange Plate BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BCF BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BS CS MA Moment Angles MT Moment BCF BCF Direct Weld BCW No No No 515 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections BS CS EP End Plate SS Stiffened Shr US BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Unstiffened BCW Shr TEE Shear Tee TP Through Plate BP Bent Plate DW EEP Ext.

CVR. the beam local axis 2 must be coincident with the global Y positive axis (upwards). Bracing connections VXB braces The CA connection has a 15º skew limit imposed by the code.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Tee CP Cap Plate 4A Four Angles Splice PBr Plate Bracket TBr Tee Bracket CBB Bracing connections CVR beams CBB. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). Slope angle for BCF and BCW families. Remark: For a correct calculation and graphic representation of the connections. 516 . Each BP template connection has the skew angle limits specified in the connection pad. No No No BCF No No No BCW No No No BS No No No CC No No No No Yes (20°-70°) No The skew angle in degrees is defined over a horizontal plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. The inclination angles are considered as follows: Skew angle for BCF and BCW families. Counterclockwise angles are considered positive.

When a connection should be assigned with an angle larger than this limit. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). that is to say. it can be assigned either with the worksheet tools or by changing the members’ geometry temporarily to assign the connection. Upward angles are considered positive. When only a skew angle exists. When skew and slope angles exist. It is the engineer responsibility to verify in each case the additional required capacity verifications due to the inclination angles. the beam forces are conservatively assumed to remain the same. For braces: Remarks: • The components of the beam forces (moment. When only slope angle exists. They 517 • . The maximum angle at which a connection will automatically be considered a beam-column web as opposed to a beam-column flange connection must be defined. This limit is currently assumed to be 44º from the support face (BCF) or from the support side (BCW). the beam forces are decomposed over the support axis. it is treated as if only the slope angle would exist. it is considered as rectangular joint. The worksheet tools should be applied over an existing connection.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The slope angle in degrees is defined over a vertical plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. axial. shear) transmitted to the support vary according to the inclination angles.

BCW BCF. so you will have a BCF connection with a skew angle greater than 44º. • HSS Section Supports The connections that accept HSS section supports include some specific and other modified capacity verifications in reference to I shape supports. Otherwise (default option) . BCW bolted/welded bolted bolted bolted/welded bolted/welded bolted/welded welded welded bolted/welded welded welded welded welded welded welded welded bolted (to HSS) welded(to Doubler) welded Characteristics to support CBB Bolted (CA. The following connections allow square or rectangular HSS supports: Connection CA SP TP TEE US SS DW EEP FP (or diaphragm plate) Bracing Family to beam BCF. the user should identify the braces with the option located in the worksheet Members\Nodes and Description\Braces.BCW BCF. The maximum slope angle allowed for members is 30º. Members with bigger vertical inclination angles are not considered for the connection assignment. it will consider it as a sloped beam.BCW BCF. SP).BCW bolted bolted welded welded Characteristics to support 518 . /welded welded The following connections allow circular HSS supports: Connection SP TP Family to beam BCF.BCW BCF.BCW BCF.BCW BCF.BCW BCF. • To differentiate between sloped beams and diagonals. If this flag is enabled the program will assume that the member is a brace.Chapter 28: Steel Connections could apply even a BCF connection over a BCW connection.BCW BCF.BCW BCF.

The user should always check the obtained results to correct or reject the assigned connections that are not acceptable (status = N. the last checked connection in the list would be assigned even if it does not satisfy the force or geometric conditions for all the joint sets. might have differences in the resisting elements (number of bolts. Each connection button in the connections toolbar (either from the Smart Connections or Basic Connections group) is associated with a list of one or more connection templates. the connections will receive also as a description the name of the assignment button. The following drawing shows schematically how the selected model joints are grouped when assigning connections by group. so. as the macro code specifies so. If the assignment was by group. When an assignment button is applied to the model. size and thickness of some pieces) between assignment joint sets. 519 . and may have a tag if it has been specified in the connection pad or in the macro. and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial). the re-design will execute the modified macro. or ratio>max ratio defined by the user). Any database connection template may be included in the list of an assignment button. and the connection template is assigned (after joints are selected) the program will check the templates in the order of the list. Note that the order of the list will give the hierarchy and preference for the connection assignment. but the model connection itself is stored with the structure and is not linked to the template after assignment. These differences are expressed in the tag defined in the same macro. It should be noted that the resultant connections of Smart Connections buttons. The user has to be aware that the design may not always be successful. and the program will display a message if the assignment has not been successful. When assigning by group. Either the assignment method is by group or individually.G. the resultant connections receive the name of the template used for design. As soon as it finds a connection template that complies with the strength requirements and geometrical conditions of all the appropriate joint sets (joints of the same family with identical geometry and inclination angles . but it still has a relation with the macro. if the macro is modified after the assignment.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Design Criteria It is important for the user to know exactly how the design process is performed. For moment connections this criterion may not always be conservative. it will be assigned. the resultant connections are based on one of the specified connection templates. If no connection meets all the requirements. In this way the design is covering the worst possible combination of forces in a conservative way.see the joint grouping graphic below). for these connections the program is considering four different combination of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial. therefore.

accept positive and negative shear loads (reported always as positive values). the design loads are the result of the most adverse load combination. Some shear connections such as the SP. are only those shown in the connection pad. and in this case. and it is assumed to be taken by a moment connection when the beam moment value is relevant. The design of the moment connections by group considers the four different combinations of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial load. and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial load). The design of the shear connections by group considers the load envelope of all the joints on a given assignment set. In this way the design is conservatively covering the worst possible combination of forces. The load envelope ratio for shear and moment connections could be bigger than the worst load condition stress ratio due to the envelope calculation method. The joint loads considered for connection design. The beam axial force is not taken into account in the shear connections. As it was stated in the "Inclination angles of members" section.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint grouping when the connections are assigned by group. taking into account only the slope angle. Joint loads as the M22 bending moment and torsional moment are not considered nor checked in any way during connection design and calculation. particularly when the axial load and slope angle are relevant. 520 . as the connection is symmetric. other connections such as SS or US do not allow negative shear loads. However. the beam loads are decomposed over the support axis.

The configuration of the different assignment buttons of the toolbar. defining the template lists that will be included in each assignment button.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The next flowchart describes schematically the design procedure that is followed when the connections are designed in groups: Thus the connections design configuration should be executed in two parts: • • The definition of the templates to be used which may or may not include design macros (LEO). Remarks: 521 .

The bracing connections where the geometry is imposed (it is not automatically calculated) and/or a load is specified in one connector may generate moments in the gusset-to-column or gusset-to beam connections. and it is out of the valid range.. remove or modify connections from this provided list of connections. the range for the skew and slope angles. Beam . Beam .Column Web (BCW) 3.Column Flange (BCF) 2. If after the connection assignation a variable is modified. as it is assumed that the required moment connection will take the axial force. each connection is given one of these designations: 1. Chevron braces (CVR) 9. In the connections reports. etc. will only take the shear force and not the axial force. Continuous beam over column (CC) 7. member section types. Column. Beam Splice (BS) 5. Beam – Girder (BG) 4. The Connection Template Database RAM Connection ships with an extensive collection of pre-defined connections templates. Consider that the macro (LEO file) can also modify the connection variables. The engineer is free to add. Vertical X braces (VXB) To view all the connection templates that are installed on your computer select the Configuration/Databases/Connections. the connection is invalidated and it does not allow reporting data or results and it is not displayed. For example.G.. such connections will be displayed with a zero ratio and N. Single plates or clip angles are not allowed to deal with moments and an error message will be displayed in this case. • • In the next sections the parts of the program that can be customized will be explained. beams and braces (CBB) 8. status. The connection assignation will be effective only in the joints where the range check of the connection variables is fulfilled. Database Organization Each connection in the database is categorized according to the family to which it belongs. Column Splice (CS) 6. These moments should be transmitted only by directly welded connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • The shear connections assigned to joints where the moment is bigger than a minimum value. command as illustrated below: 522 . RAM Connection currently offers engineers the following families of connections.

only for moment and shear connections). moment and shear connection templates are in one folder and even in one connection template (combined connection template. 523 . Within each folder is a list of single connection templates. This classification keeps the shear. plate sizes etc) to resist the applied forces. Moment or Bracing) and type (Shear plate. The folder name should be used as an organizational tool to assist you in grouping connections according to your own practice.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Go to Databases/Connections The window that is displayed is the connection-database window. It does not calculate the quantity or dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. end plate etc). even in different folders. Two templates with the same name are not allowed. welds. It is the engineer’s prerogative how to group templates within a folder. Each connection template in the database can be considered a ‘Basic’ or a ‘Smart’ connection according to the design routines programmed in the macro. plates etc) to resist the applied forces. Smart Connection: A connection template that can automatically calculate the quantity and dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. the engineer can also create folders where the bracing. However. moment and bracing connections separate. The connection templates that are installed with RAM Connection are grouped in two main groups (Smart and Basic connections) and subdivided according to function (Shear. Basic Connection: A connection template that can automatically adjust the geometry (position or dimensions) of the connection pieces to fit the connection members.

before creating your own connection database think about how you want to organize the data. these are the connection templates assigned to the default connection toolbar that was used in the previous ‘How To’ section. others may be designed according to geometry. In fact. If a smart connection template does not design the connection the way you would typically like. the default Smart DA does not design your bolts size. each with its own bolt dimension (5/8. For example. 7/8) then put all these connection templates in the list of the appropriate assignment button (see customizing the toolbar) and the first one that works for the selected joint group will be assigned. but each of these connections contains the intelligence (in its LEO code) to design some of its own properties based on the forces (this is the characteristic that makes them ‘Smart’) and members to which it is assigned. while some of the connection parameters are designed based on the required forces. ¾. Note that the items that are optimized in each template are listed. you may create copies of the smart connection with variations on the parameter that you want designed. To handle this situation create 3 copies of the smart connection template(using the database command Copy the selected object ). The ‘Basic’ connections contain a simple macro that adjusts the dimensions and location of the connection pieces according to the joint members.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The smart connections folders contain a single connection for each family and connection type. it will make it easier to locate the connections you want to consider for design. the default size is ¾ inch and if the bolts fail they will not be increased in size. if an item is not listed then there is a default value associated with the connection that you can modify as required to suit your requirements: 524 . The following smart connection templates are included in the program. However. It is very important to note that in the case of Smart Connections. Once again it should be noticed that this organizational structure (separating the smart connection templates from the other connection templates) is not significant in terms of how RAM Connection works.

BG bolted flange plate connections Smart FP Smart EEP Smart MA Smart CBB BCF. weld size to support number of bolts. weld size for welded connections and angle size number of bolts and angle size number of bolts. SSP. plate size bolt rows and angle size Welds. weld size and connector size angle size bolts rows or weld size extended plate size for BCW connections bolts rows. weld size to support welds sizes. plate size. BG double angle connections Smart DA Beam splice Smart SP Smart SP Beam splice Smart EP BS double angle bolted connections BCF. plate size. BG directly welded connections BCF. SS2L BCF. BG. BCW. BCW. type SST. weld size to beam for bolted connections and plate size and welds sizes for welded connections tee size. BCW.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Type of connections (Folder name) Smart DA Family and Description Optimization of the following parameters number of bolts for bolted connections. BCW. pf . BCW. single plate angle connections BS single plate angle connections BCF. BG end plate connections Smart ST BCF. bolts and element thicknesses BCF. top and bottom plate sizes bolts sizes. BCW unstiffened seated connections BCF. BG shear tee connections Smart SS Smart US Smart DW Smart FP BCF. bolts spacing. top and bottom plate thickness. distances between bolts. plate size number of bolts. number of bolts for bolted and weld size for welded connections bolts rows . BCW stiffened seated connections. BG welded flange plate connections BCF extended end plate connections BCF bolted moment angle CBB 525 . BCW.

Note: if you want to enter a new connection template in an existing folder. place the cursor in the folder where you want to insert the template. The connection template name thus reflects the relevant characteristics of the connection. For details please see the dialog help context..Chapter 28: Steel Connections Basic connection templates are organized in different folders with the following naming convention: Basic + {Connections type initials} + {connection family} + {connection characteristics}. The program will not allow you to enter a template unless there are available folders (groups) already defined and selected. Proceed to the database from Configuration/Databases/Connections. To do this.. To add a new folder for your connection templates proceed as follows. Press New group button (top of the toolbar) Enter a name for the New folder where you are going to define your connections. Remark: The folders where the Connection Database. even a network directory. the LEO files and the Toolbar are located could be configured. by choosing any required directory. Press New item to define a new connection template. select the option Configuration/General... The following window will appear: 526 . Directories configuration Defining Connection Templates The steps to define a connection template and add them to the connection database are discussed next.

Shear Connection and Moment Connection for a combined connection template. 527 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Enter a descriptive name for the template connection. A simple connection template is comprised of either a shear or a moment connection. The name is used to identify the template and has to be unique in the whole database. Select family. For example. the extended end plate connection is considered a combined connection. Then choose if you want to define a simple or a combined connection template. A combined connection is comprised of both a shear and a moment connection. and press OK.

beam-to-column-flange. 528 . Continuous beam over column 7. Column. The drop down list will contain all the available connections depending on the selected family. Beam Splice 5.: beam-to-girder. beams and braces 8.g. shear web plates are available only in “Beam Splice” or “Column Splice” families. The 9 available families in the list are: 1. Vertical X braces (2) Connection Type: For simple connections only the correspondent list (Shear. The corresponding connection pad with the default data will be displayed.Column Flange 2.Column Web 3. (3) OK: To finish the connection template definition press the OK button.Girder 4. for example. Moment or Gusset) will be displayed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Or Select the family and the connection type for a simple connection (1) Family: describes the type of connected members (e. Beam . and for combined connections both connection lists will be displayed (2a and 2b). Beam . Chevron braces 9. etc). Beam . Column Splice 6.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections After pressing the OK button the connection pad is displayed. 529 button as shown below: . To do this. Note: To create a copy of a connection template. you can use the Copy button. or size of plates etc. 1) Select the folder you want copied to Excel. place the cursor at the connection that you want to copy and press the You also have the following tools to manage the database: Create a new template folder Create a new template Edit the current template Delete the current template or folder (with all its templates) Rename the current template or folder Move the current folder or template one position up Move the current folder or template one position down Export to the clipboard all the templates of the current folder Import the templates from the clipboard Order alphabetically all folders Order alphabetically all connections of the selected folder If you want to create multiple connection templates that are similar except for one or few parameters (number of bolts.) then it may be preferable to use the ability to generate connections in Excel™ as illustrated below. The off-white background and DATABASE window title indicate we are creating a connection template for the database.

Each template data corresponds to one table row. Open Excel and paste the information in a worksheet In Excel you will see the templates and its variables names. 4) Then select ALL the information and copy the data to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) 5) In RAM Connection paste the connection templates into the database by pressing the indicated paste button. 530 . REMEMBER to name the connections uniquely (maintain the folder name at the beginning of the name).Chapter 28: Steel Connections 2) As illustrated above. 3) In Excel modify the desired data. press the button “Copy to clipboard”.

the user can edit or define new items in a very similar way as connections. bolts and welds RAM Connection already comes with the most common types of bolts. In the case of bolts and welds. Databases for sections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The new connection templates will be imported. In the case of materials and sections of members. In the connection pad of any template or model connection. See the main program manual for further details. materials and sections. materials. go to the desired field and click on the right part of the combo box to access to the item database. 531 . they are extracted from the main program (RAM Advanse or RAM SS). welds. Note: The process to import several connection templates may take some time.

532 . edit and manage the database.Chapter 28: Steel Connections A dialog window will appear with the list of available items and the tool buttons to create. To display the connection toolbar press the button on the Panels toolbar. A new pad with the data related to the selected item will appear when you edit or create a new item. Connection Toolbar The connection toolbar helps in the design and management of connections. It is located on the right side of the screen and it is comprised of different sections or groups of buttons classified according to their function.

Group 5 Connection group buttons: Select one to show all the connection assignment buttons (Group 6) in the group. etc. members. You can click with the left button of the mouse over each desired connection. are identical) To select all connections of the model To deselect all connections To select all connections with the same tag (same designed elements) The program offers many graphical ways for selecting model connections. To select multiple connections. inclination angles. press Shift while clicking with the mouse on each connection. 533 . Each button can have one or more connection templates associated with it that will be assigned to the appropriate selected joints. Group 6 Connection assignment buttons: List of assignment buttons included in the selected button group (Group 5). Group 3 Design and Assignment settings: Assignment and design options Group 4 User group button: By default each assignment button in this group contains a connection set used for optimization in versions prior to v5.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar groups Group 1 Selection buttons: Buttons to assist the user in selecting or displaying connections Group 2 Result Display buttons: Buttons to display connection properties (name. You can click on the desired connection or you can drag around it with the mouse. Here the frequently used commands for the selection of connections are assigned to the following buttons: To select equal connections (all connection parameters as bolts. Group1: Selection options (connections and joints) This first group of the connection toolbar is devoted for the selection of connections. so the user has to first select the elements where the desired command will be applied. grouping) or results.1. The toolbar follows the general rule of 'select and apply'. welds.

You can find several options for the selection of joints in Tools/Select joints option. This tool is normally used to select the connections to be detailed after with the command Detailing/Connections… When using the connections detailer the Connection Pad will consider all equal (selected) connections. Selecting joints: Before assigning a connection to a joint. Note that all the connections that have exactly the same properties. select an instance of the desired connection and go to Tools/Connection Selection and choose the desired option.Chapter 28: Steel Connections You can make a fence over the desired connections clicking and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. the members and node that make up the joint need to be selected. 534 . in this way a change can be made to multiple connections at one time. select an instance of the desired connection and press connections in the model that share the same description will be selected. will be selected. even if they have different descriptions and template names. Available options for the connection selection If you want to select connections by description (remember that a design group has the same in the Selection toolbar. Press to select all connections that are identical (in every parameter of the connection pad). You can select groups of connections too. All description).

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Available options for the joints selection. Notice that you can limit the selection by beam depth and beam end conditions. Group2: Result display options The second group is devoted for the display tools: colors the selected connections by description. displays the tag of the selected connections. with special characteristics as a determined range of beam heights and end conditions.. Notice that you have a Special selection. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the load envelope. Then you can erase the connections of the selected joints and/or proceed with a new design by pressing any assignment button of the connection toolbar. Special selection of joints. Other orientation would lead to nonsense connections. Note: The beam local axis 2 is supposed vertical.. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the current load condition. displays graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. Another important option for joints selection is the command Select connection nodes and members in Tools/Connection Selection. option. This tool is very useful if you want to change or modify the design of a group of connections. The related members and nodes will be highlighted in the model. 535 . which allows the selection of joints of a particular family.

Press to select all smart connections with the same designed elements (expressed in the tag). Group3: Design and Assignment settings The third group of buttons is used in the design of connections. To select connections by status. to redesign connections. Note that the tag text that is displayed is defined in the LEO code with the command Tag = 'string to be displayed' or in the Connection Pad. certain parameters are designed by the LEO Macro (plate thickness. For basic connections this button will show the connection template name. Press the button to display graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. but all must have been designed with the same assignment button. This tool is very useful when the model is re-analyzed due to changes in model geometry. The same description can be given to several connections to group them for design purposes to ensure the same designs during assignment. and the user wants to find all the connections that have similar designs so as to assist in determining an appropriate grouping of connections. This tool is useful when connections are designed individually. to define the design criteria to be adopted. The available buttons are: to specify if connection design on selected joints will be made by group (button lifted) or individually (button depressed). Note also that connections with the same tag could have different connection data as for example the members sections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections When a smart connection template is assigned. so the text to be displayed may be modified by the user. Display of the connection number and the template name (for smart connections).) connections. This will enable the to select all the OK connections or press buttons at the top of the graphic screen. Note that when the connections were designed by group. Press the to select all the not good (N. welds etc). they are automatically given a description consisting of the assign button name plus a sequential number. you have to first display the status and capacity ratio of the connections using the (current load condition) or (envelope of load conditions) buttons of the connection toolbar . The user can get quick visual feedback of the designed parameters by pressing the button which displays a line summary (tag) with the value of the designed parameters on the selected connections.G. to assign the same description to the selected connections. For details see the How to Use RAM Connection? section at the beginning of this chapter. including the maximum allowable strength ratio and load conditions to be considered. In this case the program will redesign all the selected 536 . bolts. loads or member sections.

5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons The user can create its own groups of connection assignment buttons (see Customizing the toolbar next). Groups4. the templates macros. go to the main menu. the user might get results different from the original design. the available assignment buttons on the toolbar (group 6 of the connection toolbar) will change to reflect the group selected. Remark: For individually designed connections.. the user has to select absolutely all the connections of the original design groups. If the connections descriptions (groups).Chapter 28: Steel Connections connections considering the new loads and/or geometry of the model. the assignment buttons of each group button. To configure the connections toolbar. 3. The connections toolbar configuration window will appear with the current configuration of the toolbar. option. Warning! To maintain the original design criteria. and select Configuration/Connections /Customize Toolbar. or the list of templates of the assignment buttons were modified after the assignation. Selection of their joints. which is equivalent to applying each template on the button list. 537 . and the list of connection templates that will be associated with each assignment buttons. this command is equivalent to re-assign the original template (run the macro). The configuration of the toolbar determines the group buttons. Deletion of the current connections.. Remember that the template position determines the order in which these templates will be attempted. This command performs the following actions in each design group: 1. Application of the original design button. This command is equivalent to reassigning the connections to the joints in their original groups (same description). Customizing the connection toolbar It is important that the connection toolbar be configured according to your practice and preferences. 2. The engineer may choose to configure the shear. By selecting one of the group buttons. even if loads or members have not been changed. moment and bracing connections in different groups or smart connections and basic connections in different groups.

On the left pane of the window (1). on the right (2) you will find the group buttons (with the assignment buttons inside) and finally in the middle (3). irrespective of which ‘group’ of assignment buttons is selected. You will be asked for the name of the new Dialog window asking the name of the new group. 538 . button. therefore.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar configuration window. The toolbar root folder corresponds to the connection toolbar Group 4 (See the connection toolbar groups at the beginning of this section). You can create a new group button with the group. place the cursor on the group where you want the new button to be placed. To create a new assignment button. you have all the available database connection templates. any assignment button placed in root folder will always appear on the toolbar Group 4. you have the tools to configure the toolbar.

The user can define the bitmap to be associated for each button with the tool 539 . Select the connection templates you want associated with the button “ My Button” in the group “My Group”. Note that if you have selected a folder of the database. If you want to sort the templates use the buttons selected template up or down. Then go to the list of available connections of the database and choose the templates for the button (1). Then press the button and enter the name of the new button. and to move the or erase a button or a template Notice that all buttons that are created have by default the same bitmap. You can also insert a separator between buttons with the tool with the tool . It is very important to specify the order of the templates within a list because this order will be used for the assignment.Chapter 28: Steel Connections For example locate a new assignment button in the recently created group. Press the button to include the current template in the button list (2). all the connection templates of the folder will be assigned to the button keeping the same order as the database (3).

unlike other model connections. connections can be assigned using the worksheet. The connections worksheet is displayed by pressing the Conn tab. has not been assigned by an assignment button. A single connection. It is also possible to use the connection worksheet to assign "single" connections or delete connections. You have several ready-to-use choices in the SmartConn folder. the connections will always be designed individually no matter if the design individually button in the toolbar is depressed or not.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The bitmap has to be a bmp file of 22x22 pixels. Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet Once connections templates have been created in the database. Notice that you can draw your own bmp´s with any drawing application like Microsoft Paint. 540 . Note that if assigned from the worksheet. Connection Worksheet The data of the currently selected connections is displayed in the connection worksheet.

Assign selected connection template to model Select members and nodes where you want the connection designed. The steps to assign single connections to a model are shown below. There is also a way to replace existing connections that is explained below down. 541 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note: It is recommended to interact and verify the status of the single connections in the model separately from the other model connections. In the worksheet database area select the desired connection template to be assigned. Press the button to assign the template connection. You can select several members and nodes at once. This is because the redesign button (in the connections toolbar) does not display warning messages for these connections when they are inadequate (NG).

one of the main functions of the assign button the worksheet is to test and assign recently created templates. you cannot assign a column splice connection on a beam to girder joint. Otherwise. otherwise the Beam to Girder connection will not be assigned. This command will only assign connections where it is possible.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The single connections are assigned. you can select indiscriminately a large group of members and nodes and the connection will only be applied where that connection is possible. When a new connection template is created it can be directly assigned to a joint with the assign button of the worksheet. If the user is going to assign a Beam to Girder connection. For example. in 542 . Trying to do so will have no effect and it will be ignored (no message is displayed). Therefore. the girder must be defined in RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System as a physical member. Therefore. the connection toolbar has to be configured to consider the new template in an assignment button.

Note that it is not possible to assign a template from another family. Deleting model connections.. However the engineer should be aware that the description for these connections is used to identify the design groups and will be used also for the redesign of connections (redesign tool of the connections toolbar).. In the worksheet select the desired connection template to replace. It is accessed when any template of the database is edited. even if connections with lower value labels are deleted.. button at Note: The connection label (identification number) once assigned to a model connection does not change. Connection Pad The connection Pad is required for the creation of templates for the database and also to review/edit a model connection. CNXn) to the currently selected connections (recommended only for single connections) is to apply the assign description button from the worksheet or connections toolbar. Assign connection description It is possible to modify or assign the descriptions of your model connections. buttons to This tool is very useful to replace existing connections with other connections of the same family. To assign the same description to the currently selected connections you may copy them to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) and then paste them to all the desired connections (Ctrl+V).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Replace (all) the current selected connection (s) This option allows you to replace one or all the model connections currently selected and displayed in the connection spreadsheet. The connection pad has the following areas: 543 . Another method to assign the same description (CNX1. or when several identical model connections are selected and the detailing command is invoked from the main menu. If only connections have been selected. or many model connections with the connections detailer. shells and nodes are also selected. when the user double clicks a model connection. CNX2. To delete a connection of the model select it and press . It is recommended to only change the description when two or more identical groups/connections need to be grouped together and designed as one new group. they can also be deleted with the worksheet tool the end of the worksheet. Press one of the replace one or all of the selected model connections respectively. This button will delete only the selected connections even if members. because the user only needs to select the connections and not the members and the nodes. Alternatively the engineer can type any description label into the spreadsheet description column. .

2) Drawing area. these data are not required.e.. any change in this data will not be permanent. LEO file. Code. and the all the specific data required in Shear. the joint loads are passed to the connection automatically. English and SI. Tag. When creating a template ( icon). The loads can be entered in a worksheet that enables only certain loads according to the selected connection i. Used to enter connection information. Notes: All data with the icon (when editing model connections) is passed to the connection pad directly from RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. 3) Help area. 1) Properties area. in a bracket plate connection. This feature will be explained in detail below and in the LEO Chapter. Remember also that the LEO file (macro) offers the engineer the possibility to program the template to automatically calculate some of the connection properties. Note that when editing model connections. When editing a model connection. Moment or connections. 1: Properties area In this section the user enters all the necessary data to define the connection template (or reviews/modifies the properties of the selected model connections). only shear load is allowed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection pad. 544 . The available codes are ASD and LRFD. The following connection data should be provided: Units system. Used to display information about the specific item selected in the properties area. as they will be modified for each model joint. Loads. The available units systems are Metric. as they are updated every time a report or graphical presentation is required. Used to display the entered data in 3D or 2D.

in this case the program will transform the entered value to the current units system. SI: mm. Notice that the current units of each property are shown beside their value.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Templates could be used with either ASD or LRFD code. If you are creating a connection template in the database through the connection pad. The following length units are displayed according to the unit system selected. Note: All the connection properties with units.) will show their value and will be edited according to the current units system. you should assign your required sections and materials. 2: Drawing area In this part of the Connection Pad a true 3D or 2D visual representation of the selected connection is shown. for example. a dimension in centimeters for example. If you enter a property value with small units. Notice that you can only see one representation at a time. Choose the unit system of your preference to enter and display the connection data. inches or mm. 545 . Notice that the program will allow you to enter. etc.5” in Setback means 1.1 ft” in Setback means 0. Press to view the 3D model of the joint or press to view the 2D drawing of the joint at the bottom part of the window. ft.5 inches Entering “0. select ASD and provide all the connection data. the currently shown units will be considered for the value. this will not change the units of the property (in this case a length measure will not be changed to a force measure). If you want to see it drawn with some specific member sections (and materials) or if you want to get preliminary or test reports.5 kip” for a length. the resulting value may not be the expected. the default units when editing the property will be cm. m. the default units would be m. Also. “1.1 feet (the default unit becomes “ft”). plate length. If you want to enter information for both codes. enter the information for one or for both options. it is filled with the default connection properties values. then change to LRFD and enter the data that is different or is not required in the ASD code. on the other hand. the first time the connection pad is displayed. feet or m. m. English: in. You may also enter a value with its own units. according to the current units system. (as edge distances. if big units would have been used (as meters or feet). Metric: cm. as required. which could be different from the current units system. Although this is accepted. Consider that this modification is applied only to the template or model connection currently being modified. For example (If the current units system is English): Entering “1. If you enter a value without units.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections 3D view of a Single Plate BCF. Connection pad tools for the 2D views. 2D Drawing with different views and the option to export as a DXF file. To zoom. The following buttons are used to zoom and rotate the view of the connection: Connection pad tools to zoom and rotate the connection 3D representation. You may view the connection transparent (3D view). press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. 546 .

Press . To rotate horizontally. in the plane perpendicular to the screen. you may do this with a right-click over the center of the drawing. To rotate vertically. Fit in window. use the Ctrl-mouse wheel combination. Notice that the new positions are not saved and this should be done prior to printing or exporting the drawing. DXF files This module has the option to export graphics to DXF. make the drawing area active. use the Shift-mouse wheel combination. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. To rotate vertically. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. If a mouse wheel is available . Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. To zoom. 547 . Activate and inactivate edges movement. name the file. and save it. Zoom fence. in the screen plane. the engineer can use the wheel to rotate. use the mouse wheel. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. Print graphics Print current graphic. zoom in or out. use the Ctrl-Shift-mouse wheel combination. use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. You can reposition the dim lines when this option is enabled.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Zoom out. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. First. 3: Help area In this section of the Connection Pad the help information related to the selected data in the Properties area is displayed: Click the button to return to the previous explanation of the help window. Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Click the button to print the current explanation of the help window. LEO Code (macros) The macro files for connections may be created to be used for a variety of conditions with formulae to calculate some connection data per user’s specifications. The Connection Pad also has a toolbar in the bottom part of the window. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the connection are no good. Click this button to see the model connection results report. Push this button to display the Drawing area (2D view). Push this button to display the Help area. Notice that you have a status traffic light at the bottom right of the toolbar. Pull the button to hide it. When the yellow light is on. Pull it to hide the Help area. If the red light is on. You can select the macro file that will be adopted for each connection template. which has different functions: Toolbar of the Connection Pad (when editing a model connection) Click this button to save all the data entered or modified in the Connection Pad. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. Pull the button to hide it. Edit the desired connection template and in the Connection Pad choose the LEO file that you want to adopt for the connection clicking the right side of the LEO file entrance box to display the LEO window. 548 . Click this button to prevent from saving all the data that has been entered or modified in the Connection Pad. the connection design status is OK. Click this button to see the connection data report. Push this button to display the Drawing area (3D view). if the green light is on.

Therefore. where you can enter formulae. you may get different results based on the modifications made to the LEO file. the Single Plate – BCW (beam-column web) cannot share the same LEO file with the Single Plate . For example.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Window to select and manage the LEO file (macros) Note that only the available LEO files for the specific type of connection that is being edited will be displayed. Notice that the following parameters are designed in the macro: Number of bolts on both sides of the angles (to the beam and to the support) Angle thickness 549 . if the LEO files referenced by the connections have been modified. select an all bolted double angle shear connection template beam to column flange family (DA BCF All Bolted Connection in the Smart DA Database folder) and edit the following macro: DA BCF BOLT. The user can create a new LEO file with the be edited with the displayed: New File Command. For example. Once the file is created. The LEO Code can always be edited or changed to suit the specific design procedures of the user or the user’s company. The LEO window will be LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2). it can Edit LEO File Command of the Connection Pad. Note: When redesigning model connections. LEO code is executed.BCF (beam-column flange) connection.

materials.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that the remaining parameters (i. where the used code is indicated: 2. The LEO Code determines the parameters that will be designed: In the example you can find the following parts in the LEO code: 1. • Macro main design procedure. Note that the LEO Code is very flexible and allows considering any design criteria. In this example. Heading of the design procedure. etc) are constant and are defined in the template. the angle thickness and the number of bolts will be calculated according to the required loads. which defines the adopted design variables of the connection.e. 550 . Main hypothesis or conditions required for the macro. In this case. Please review the LEO Chapter together with the given examples for further applications. bolt spacing. the bolt size. the angles have to be bolted to the support and to the beam. Each user can customize this part of the LEO code to reflect the preferred design criteria and the angle sizes and bolt diameters to be considered in the design.

or creating/editing a connection template in the database. If a dimension is out of range.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections Reports You can obtain connection reports from the Connection Pad or from the program main menu. RAM Connection also offers the possibility to have detailed or summary reports of several connections. At the beginning of the report there is a list of the load conditions considered. this check will indicate if a plate exceeds the support width) in which case a warning message will also be reported. invalidating the connection. the most critical strength ratio and the status of the connection are reported. The second section of the report checks that the critical dimensions are within allowable code prescribed ranges or geometrical requirements.G. the status of the connection will reflect it. To obtain data or results reports from the Connection Pad. You can press: or . Finally. at the bottom of the report. If any capacity is not sufficient. There is also a geometric verification to see the compatibility of the connection with the members (for example. select the desired connections and go to Reports/Connections design… 551 . the status of the connection will change to N. (not good). The data report provides the full description of the connection(s) considering the geometry and characteristics of the members and connection elements. To obtain model connection reports for a group of connections. The results report provides all the connection capacity values for each load condition or for the load envelope depending on the option selected in the dialog Loads specification for report before the pad was opened. The third section shows the different capacity checks that are performed comparing the calculated capacity of the connection with the connection required force. either you are reviewing/editing a model connection or a group of identical model connections (Detailing connections).

Design Loads for Seated-beam in LRFD. 2nd Edition. You can specify if the connections will be grouped by tag. Design Criteria for Stiffened Seated Connections to Column Webs. while the rest of reports are a review of the design that include the strength ratio and status considering the selected load conditions. JR. Note that you have an option to report a list of joints. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Brockenbrough. The Connectors report is a summary of all the connectors with their main characteristics (note that the connections are grouped according to the listed parameters. References The used references are: AISC. Manual of Steel Construction. and Sputo Thomas. 1994. 1994. Extended End-Plate Moment Connections. H. AISC. Proceedings of NSCC Sponsored by AISC. Engineering Journal. summary or detailed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Select the type of report. Murray Thomas M. and R. 1998 J. Load and Resistance Factor Design. The detailed report always considers the connections load envelope of the selected load conditions. 2001. 1-3. Volume II . Ellifritt Duane S. 552 . by type. 1990. so. Manual of Steel Construction. Garret.Connections.. AISC. 3rd Edition. AISC. AISC. Steel Design Guide Series 4. within the connections of a group there could be differences in the parameters not listed). April. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Manual of Steel Construction. by family. 2nd Edition. 1986. New Orleans. by description or connectors. L.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Akbar R.A. R. The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Connections. Packer. LLC. Henderson. Loescher Michael. 553 .Connections and Trusses . D. Donald R.1-1. Dowswell Bo. Handbook of Structural Steel Connection Design and Details. 1999. 2003. University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Thornton.22. Bull Moose Tube HSS Connections Manual.Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual. and J. McGraw Hill.1.. J. J. 1991. 1990. AISC . American Institute of Steel Construction. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. M Ales.. Joseph M. AISC. Bull Moose Tube Company. IL. 1997. 1997. Master of Engineering Project. Structural Design Solutions. Proceedings of the 1991 National Steel Construction Conference. 1999 Sherman. Connection Design for Steel Structures (Lecture Notes). Ales.A Design Guide. William A. Sherman. Hollow Structural Section . Chicago. pp. The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Columns.E.. Tamboli.

.

Technical notes Warning! It is suggested to read carefully this notes before using the module because they summarize the scope. Design steps 1) Data introduction The user has to enter the required data related to the geometry and characteristics of the desired wall before performing the analysis and design of the wall. sliding and soil pressures). 2) Verification and Detailing Once the wall is defined. The report or the Design Screen will show the different diagrams and strengths of the elements of the wall according to the adopted codes (ACI 318 or MSJ). geometry. and design parameters may be modified at any moment before and after the analysis. you can proceed with the analysis and verifications. Terminology The following names have been adopted for the different parts or elements of a wall: • • • • Toe Heel Stem Key 555 . All data entries as the material properties. Similar to the other design modules.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Chapter 29: Retaining Walls This chapter describes the options available in the module for the design and detailing of retaining walls. once the geometry is totally defined. 3) Optimization The optimization process can be achieved in two phases by two tool buttons: 1) suggest geometry to comply with global stability requirements starting from the given retained height and loads and 2) suggest reinforcement. the aim of this one is to obtain a fully functional and economic retaining wall according to the code practice and the office standards of the engineer. The data input is performed through drop-down windows or multiple options in the pad. hypothesis and methods adopted. You can review the Chapter related to the general characteristics of the detailing modules for more details about their management and organization. which is performed in the detailing window. The report shows additionally the results of the global verifications (overturning.

Different parts of a retaining wall. Graphical input of wall loads and geometry Context sensitive help Backfill with multiple horizontal soil layers (up to 5 layers) Sloped backfill (only positive slopes are allowed) Surcharge (on both sides of the wall) Options to define cantilever. General The general characteristics of the module are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analysis and design of reinforced or unreinforced concrete or masonry retaining walls . Coulomb.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls The front face corresponds to the side of the toe and the posterior face to the heel and backfill side. at rest pressures) 556 . unreinforced concrete or masonry materials (only for stem blocks) are allowed Axial loads on the stem are considered (with or without eccentricity) Wind lateral pressures Includes moment and shear diagrams Influence of adjacent footings Different theories for calculating lateral soil pressures (Rankine. gravity or restrained retaining walls (with a lateral restraint and pinned or fixed base) Tapered stems or stems with several blocks of uniform thickness Hydrostatic water pressure (no seepage) Reinforced concrete. EFP (Equivalent Fluid Method).

the program has different options for their calculation (see configuration window).01*H to 0. ACI 31899 (ACI 1999). stem lateral loads and sloped backfill. In concrete retaining walls the axial loads are not considered in the design. stem axial loads.004*H for granular soils and 0. Building Code Requirements for Masonry structures.04*H for cohesive soils. Loads The module works with surcharges on both sides of the wall. Rankine Method: It is used for walls that are allowed to have a lateral displacement big enough to produce an active earth pressure.001*H to 0. This implies to have an amount of lateral translation in the order of 0. adjacent footing loads. Only positive eccentricities are allowed for axial loads (from the center line to the left) because this is critical for global stability checks. includes the maximum allowable axial load and the strength ratio taking into account the compression and flexure interaction. Stem axial loads Axial loads at the stem are always considered for the global stability of the wall and in the design of masonry stem blocks. 557 . Earth pressures Considering that lateral earth pressures are the most significant load in a retaining wall. This method does not consider the wall –soil friction. Wall tilt calculations (deflections) DXF export of the main graphics Option to save and retrieve data and results Detailed report Limitations The features not covered by the module are: • • • • Alternate retaining walls or counterfort and buttressed reinforced concrete walls Walls modeled with springs (possible for next version) Shear reinforcement Restrained walls can not have multiple restraints (multi-level basement walls) Design Codes The currently implemented codes for retaining wall design are: • • American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02 reported by MSJC.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • • • • Seismic load (with the Mononobe-Okabe method considering a single homogeneous backfill layer without cohesion). The strength capacities table presented for masonry.

The program considers a default value equal to (1-sin φ)*(1+sin β). where φ is the friction angle. the program is able to consider the cohesion of the soil layers of the backfill. The reason is that any soil beneath the water level will have a different unit weight (saturated) than a similar soil located over the water level. β is the slope angle of the backfill. It is important to remark that lateral earth pressure calculations for the global stability of the wall do not consider the heel of the wall (see next figure). The only difference is that it considers the wall-soil friction (δ). Drains or any other technical alternative may be used to solve this problem. Although this method is common. to avoid the presence of water on backfills due to economic reasons. Bowles (1995) gave some suggestions depending on the soil types. The section adopted for this verification is coincident with the back face of the stem instead of the vertical section at the end of the heel: Lateral earth pressures and their horizontal distances to point O. The user can. whenever is possible. define any appropriated value for this parameter. In this case it is suggested to neglect the tension zone for the active soil pressures where cracks may be formed in the soil-wall interface. In this case the water level should be defined and it has to coincide with any interface between soil layers. Equivalent Fluid Pressure (EFP): This method assumes that the soil behaves as a fluid with an equivalent unit weight related to the lateral earth pressure coefficient multiplied by the soil unit weight (pressure per unit depth).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Coulomb Method: It is used with the same considerations of the Rankine method. This option is found in the configuration window. Backfill with cohesive soils: Although this type of backfills are not recommended. Although the presence of water is considered by the program it is suggested. In this case the lateral at-rest soil coefficient (Ko) is adopted. Effect of water in earth pressures: The presence of water is considered as an hydrostatic pressure without considering any seepage for the calculation of the destabilizing pressures. several references do not recommend it because it does not take into account the soil properties. At rest pressure: This option is used mostly for restrained walls or walls where the lateral displacements are negligible. 558 . however.

which has a distance shown in the former figure. Both methods are based on the Theory of Elasticity. It is important to note that the Boussinesq method requires the value of the Poisson constant and it will have a big influence on the calculated pressures. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. 559 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Use of vertical component for stability checks: The program allows to choose if the vertical component of earth pressures will be considered for overturning. If the EFP method is used. Bowles (1997) gives different suggestions for this value. The two available methods for the calculation of the lateral pressures are Spangler (1956) and Boussinesq (suggested by Bowles. concentrated loads). This depth is also defined in the configuration window. the value of this property has to be selected carefully considering that it will be taken constant for all soil layers independently of the number of adopted soil layers. Therefore. an equivalent lateral soil pressure coefficient will be calculated and the inclination angle of the resultant force will be coincident with the backfill slope similarly to the Rankine method. 1997). sliding or soil pressure checks. lineal loads. Resisting pressures: There are three options to consider the resisting pressures in the case of the overturning check: Do not consider any pressure. It is important to note that the location of the vertical component will be normally at the heel edge for all earth pressure calculation methods on exception of the Coulomb method. The height that will be adopted for the resisting earth pressures will be equal to the depth of the foundation base minus the undermining depth. The decision will depend on the engineering judgment. strip footings. This will depend only on the engineering judgment. The different options are available in the configuration window. The program will automatically calculate the lateral pressures of the adjacent footing and will add them to the lateral earth pressures. Adjacent footings: The program offers different options to consider the influence of adjacent footings (rectangular footings. Water level is not considered for the resisting forces being on the safe side.

These are normalizing factors for construction of smoothed elastic response spectra for ground motions of normal duration.25 Where Aa. It consists in the calculation of the coefficient for combined active and earthquake forces (Kae).05 to 0. The precision will be limited to the calculated pressures at those points. the wet soil unit weight will be adopted for all layers over the water level and the submerged unit weight (saturated unit weight minus water unit weight) for the rest of the layers.5 sec. 560 . It is important to remark that the obtained diagram is closer to the real soil diagram because it has no abrupt changes.1 to 0. The method uses the ratio of the horizontal earthquake acceleration component and the acceleration due to gravity (kh). The EPV is proportional to spectral ordinates at a period of about 1 sec. For the backfill. The method is limited only for cohesion-less material. Av are Effective peak acceleration and effective peak velocity They are dimensionless coefficients representing the Effective Peak Acceleration (EPA) and the Effective Peak Velocity (EPV). the obtained pressure diagram (red line) and the theoretical pressure diagram (gray) for three soil stratum. The following figure describes the effect of the calculation points (black squares).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Lateral earth pressures due to adjacent footing load Weight: It will be calculated based on the unit weights of the different materials of the wall. This value is normally tabulated (common values are in the range of 0.40) or can be calculated as: kh=Aa*(0. The EPA is proportional to spectral ordinates for periods in the range of 0. Seismic Load The program may consider seismic loads using an extension of the Coulomb´s active earth pressure theory using the Mononobe-Okabe equation including the modifications of Seed and Whitman.2SQR(Av)/Aa/Delta)0. It considers the calculation of the increased earth pressures (in walls that may yield laterally) and the inertial forces of the wall due to self-weight. Precision of the lateral earth forces calculation: The pressures will be calculated on a maximum of 20 equally distant points. covering the whole height of the wall. no water table and no liquefaction possibility. Effect of calculation points over the theoretical pressure diagram.

∆Pae=Pae-Pa. It is important to know that the combinations may be automatically generated with the load combination generator. Design of components of the wall The different elements of the wall (stem blocks. Their names start with “S”. Finally.5. When Kae is calculated. 561 .4. Delta is the maximum lateral displacement during the earthquake. heel or key) may have reinforcement and should always be checked for flexure and shear. The rest of the design considerations are similar to the ones adopted for concrete design. δ is the soil-wall friction angle and θ is defined as the arctan (kh/(1-kv)).2 of the Code. Unreinforced Concrete Design If no reinforcement is defined. toe. the program will consider the element as a plain concrete member. plain concrete or masonry. More details of this method may be found in Das (1995). The flexure strength is defined with the tension strength given in Section 22. Load factor combinations for concrete design: They are used for the design of the different (reinforced) concrete elements of the wall. β is the slope angle. Their names start with “R”. while for the foundation base only concrete materials are allowed. The program allows to set different materials for stem blocks: reinforced concrete. kv is the vertical seismic component. it is assumed that ∆Pae acts at 0. Chapter 22 of the ACI-318 specifications will be adopted. The shear strength is determined according to Section 22. The equation used for Kae is: Where: φ is the friction angle. α is the internal slope angle of the stem (related to the horizontal plane).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Both factors (Aa and Av) are given by the Applied Technology Council or the local building codes like the BOCA seismic maps for most regions in the United States.6*H. Their names start with “A”.5. In this case. Allowable stress design combinations for masonry design: Note that only the combinations of this set will be considered in the masonry design. Load Combinations The module has up to three groups of load combinations: Service Combinations: They are used for global checks and for the deflections calculation. the active force per unit width of the wall including the seismic effect (Pae) is calculated and the seismic force (∆Pae) is obtained by subtracting Pa to Pae. The adopted method for the design of this material is the limit states design. The program assumes kv=0.

The program checks the strength along the whole length of each element considering that the reinforcement may change due to cut offs and it is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog.7 are fully implemented.2. The program does not consider any extra reinforcement to resist axial loads (in tension or compression).7. The design assumptions of ACI 10. flexure. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0.2.1.1xLength) The following figure illustrates the critical sections that are normally adopted to check the different wall components for flexure. particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution.3) compression reinforcing will be added.1 of the code.75ρb (ACI 10. Critical sections for flexure design The shear design of the different reinforced concrete elements is performed according to Chapter 11 of the ACI code.3.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the different elements of reinforced concrete has the following characteristics: The flexural design is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10.3. The program does not consider stirrups or any other shear reinforcement. The critical sections for shear may coincide with the flexure sections or they me be localized at a distance d (effective depth) from the face of support. For the summary output in the main program. This is established according to Section 11. The wall is calculated as a slab in one direction. The development lengths are calculated according to Chapter 12 of the code and the critical sections are the same as the ones considered for flexure. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently. 562 . The option is available in the configuration window. shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. It does not consider either any special consideration for the reinforcement in seismic areas.

j = ratio of the distance between centroid of flexural compressive forces and centroid of tensile forces to the distance d. Fb = allowable compressive stress due to flexure only. The resisting moments for masonry and reinforcement (Mrm and Mrs respectively) are calculated together with the corresponding stresses (fb and fs): Mrs = Fs*As*j*d Mrm = Fb*k*j*b*d² Where Fs = allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement. BM 1. together with an allowable shear stress (Fv) and an allowable compression stress due to flexure (Fb). the design is a trial and error process.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Masonry Design The design of the masonry stem blocks are performed with the following specification: 2002 version of the Building Code Requirements for Masonry reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee. The masonry below the neutral axis is assumed cracked. For example. stresses are proportional to strains. No special consideration is adopted for seismic loads. The adopted method is the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and therefore. The user is responsible to adopt a correct value for the thickness according to the nominal thickness of the masonry available in the market. the modulus of elasticity is constant. The basic equations assume that the plane sections remain plane after bending. k = ratio of the depth of the compressive stress block to the total depth from compression face to the reinforcing steel (d). The reinforcement development length and the splices are calculated according to Section 2. materials and reinforcement (if required) and the program will check the condition of the wall for any 563 . where the user enters the geometry. The net thickness is normally given by the supplier and depends on the type of grout (full or partial). The allowable shear force (Va) is calculated as: Va = Fv*b*d. the program will request a special load combination group for the design of these special elements.1. Another parameter that must be selected with caution is the reinforcement spacing. Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module This section describes the available options in the retaining wall design/detailing module. Mrs). ACI 530-02. shear and flexure design is performed according to Section 2. where Fv is the allowable shear stress. An allowable axial load (Pa) is calculated. The smaller of the resisting moments is the allowable moment. The program data base includes a small set of masonry materials that have the following nomenclature: BM XX-YY or CM XX-YY Where B= concrete masonry units. The flexure design is performed with a transformed section. This parameter together with the net thickness is used for the calculation of the net area and net inertia. Ma = min(Mrm. XX = specified compression strength in ksi and YY is the grade of the reinforcement steel in ksi. This value depends strictly on the masonry geometry and normally has a fixed value.3 of the Code. As in many other detailing modules. masonry does not resist tension forces. b= width of the member effective in compression. which at the same time are used for determining the allowable axial load. The axial.5-40 is a concrete masonry unit with f’m = 1500 psi and FS = 20000 psi that corresponds to a grade 40 steel. C = clay masonry units. Only rectangular sections are considered.10. and completely bonded reinforcement.

materials or loads.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls applied load cases. In this way the user may optimize the design of the wall. This module is independent of the main program (no data from the main model is used ) and it is called selecting the command Detailing/Retaining Walls… from the main menu. Calling the retaining wall module from the main menu. Initial screen of the module: Data Screen. Data Screen The first screen that is accessed after calling the module is the data screen that is used for the introduction of geometrical data. This screen allows you to easily modify or define the dimensions and loads of the wall. In the data screen 3 different areas may be distinguished: 564 .

this window may change as data are being entering. Graphic (B) 5. The user can modify all the properties. is used for introducing all the necessary information related to the retaining wall. The graphic window (B). Properties (A) 4. shows the information about the selected current item in the property window (A). The help window (C). through this window. as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or edit this value. represents the whole information entered in the property window like geometry and assigned loads. in red text. 565 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Data screen with 3 different windows 3. Help (C) The property window (A). Some options will only appear for certain options or loads.

which involves an automatic calculation of the wall. 566 . you can see the design or detailing screen. After entering all the data.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Every item in the Pad is included in the help context.

The user can view the combined diagrams too.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design Screen Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the Design Screen. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the retaining wall. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time. those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: 567 . thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required strength) curve and the capacity (actual strength) curve.

This helps in getting a global picture of the strength status. the green light indicates that the design status of the wall is OK. Traffic Lights 568 . thus it fails. Finally. The yellow light indicates that the adopted reinforcement arrangement is no good (i.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Combined bending moment and simple shear diagram Note that at the top left corner you can select the element of the wall that will be considered for displaying the diagrams.e. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition. A special option is available that allows to simultaneously check the diagrams for all elements of the wall. This is an indicator of the design status where: the red light indicates that the relationship between stresses is greater than one or the global stability checks are no good. Notice the existence of a “traffic lights” in the top right corner. the reinforcement extends out of the wall). The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition.

The following window will be displayed where the desired bar sizes for the different bar groups are introduced. 569 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the retaining wall. Note that the user can export the figure by pressing the DXF button. Notice that there are three ways to define the reinforcement in a retaining wall: • Using the Suggest Reinforcement Button . Both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements are shown on this screen. A CAD file will be created and may be edited with any drafting software.

. The program will show a dialog window to define the bar sizes together with bar spacings. The program will automatically calculate the required bar lengths to cover the geometry and conditions of the wall. 570 . • Independently on how have you defined your reinforcement. distance to the start point.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls When you press the OK button. Note that when you enter the first value of a new group of reinforcement.It is important to define also the free covers to be adopted for the different wall elements with the button . This option do not include the required reinforcement for masonry stem blocks or reinforced concrete keys. axis of reference. This method allows to define any type of reinforcement. Note also that this tool will erase any previously defined reinforcement of any element of the wall. which may be edited according to the required characteristics of the new group. The following data are required for each group: bar size. the rest of the parameters will adopt initial default values. distance to the end point and flags to define if the ends are hooked or not. Using the worksheet. The reinforcement of these elements should be defined with the other choices after the use of the present tool. • Using the Define Continuous or Discontinuous Reinforcement buttons ( . you can edit the values in the worksheet to control exactly the lengths and positions of the different bar groups. spacing. This option is used when a particular reinforcement bar group has to be introduced (with a defined spacing between bars). ). the required reinforcement for the whole wall will be automatically designed. Remark.

Configuration Screen Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some calculation methods and office standards for design. but it does not need to be modified for subsequent walls. Option Active pressures calculation Description It determines the calculation method used for the 571 . Note that changed data on this screen are saved with the model and the defined options may be set as defaults for subsequent new walls with the option Set these values as default. All the required data for each bar type are included. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed. The worksheet is used to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Worksheet for defining the bar groups. It is found in the Detailing Screen and it has two tabs. The items considered are described in the table below. and to have control over the reinforcement design. The first one is used for longitudinal bars and the second one for transverse bars.

These methods consider the acting loads in the wall and the specific surrounding conditions as the backfill slope angle. It is used in cohesive soils and the tension zone may or may not be neglected. If Yes. It is recommended a value between 1. Calculation method for soil bearing pressures Consider active pressure vertical component for overturning Consider active pressure vertical component for sliding Consider active pressure vertical component for soil pressures Allowable safety factor for overturning Allowable safety factor for sliding Allowable safety factor for bearing capacity Frost depth Undermining depth 572 . consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the overturning check. An error will be displayed if the soil bearing safety factor is less that the given value. The program offers four methods: Rankine. If Yes. etc. Meyerhof or Vesic.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls method calculation of lateral earth pressures. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the soil pressures check. Consider tension zone for the active earth pressures Consider resisting pressure for Three options are available: Not consider any resisting overturning pressure. It is recommended a value between 1. Calculation method for lateral pressures due to adjacent footings Two options are available. Note that the option to calculate the bearing capacity should be enabled. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the sliding check.0. water level. Equivalent Fluid Pressures (EFP) and at-rest pressures (Ko). Lower depths of the foundation base in relation to this depth are not allowed.5 and 2. The Boussinesq method need the Poisson coefficient for the backfill and the SpanglerJarquio method is only available for strip foundations.5 and 2. More details related to these methods may be found in Bowles (1997) and Das (1995). It is recommended a value equal to 3. Coulomb. The program will not consider the resisting pressures of the soils over the undermining depth for global verifications. An error will be displayed if the sliding safety factor is less that the given value. If Yes. It will not allow a foundation base depth smaller than the undermining depth. The bearing capacity may be calculated with the equations given by Hansen.0.0. An error will be displayed if the overturning safety factor is less that the given value.

1. the load combos will not be generated. Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of load factors combinations.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the vertical reinforcement ratio.75 Section 14. the load combos will not be generated.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. If no file is selected. Load Factors combinations Maximum ratio allowed between Rho / Rho balanced Minimum vertical reinforcement ratio Minimum horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio Minimum spacing between longitudinal bars Round bar length to Estimated distance to mechanical center Reduce Vu near support face View as RAM Advanse Model This option allows to see the wall as a standard RAM Advanse Model. rigid offsets. which is added to the clear cover to determine the distance from the edge of wall (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel (bar diameter*0. materials. the results of the analysis and the results of the design. This is the distance.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio. If no file is selected.6 of the Code. The ratio of reinforcement Rho provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced Rho.3. It is the free horizontal distance between bars.3.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Service load combinations Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of service load combinations.5). Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch. foot etc. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. Fore more details about the available commands. refer to Chapter 1 of this Manual. force diagrams and any other data or result over each wall element. loads and reinforcement) 573 . In the report you will find: • A summary of the data (geometry. The user may access to this window to see the acting loads. Section 14. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report where you can find the input data. The user shall consider section 7. Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Applies the specification given in section 11. A general tool bar is available with different buttons to see different data or analysis results in a similar way as in RA. ACI 10.

loads. and the report will be displayed. the user will find different design parameters. but for reinforced concrete and masonry the results are presented in tables and graphically as shown below: 574 . The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report. The screen is shown To enter to the report. At the top the general information of the wall is displayed. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. Finally. the report presents the design results for each member of the wall.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • A summary of the global verifications. as geometry. In this section and depending on the material. and the safety factors for the global checks of each service load combination. Then the user will find the results of the global checks that include resisting forces. press the button next: Report screen. materials.1xLength) of the wall for reinforced concrete or masonry. etc. The report of retaining walls displays all the detailed information of the wall. destabilizing forces. A summary of design results for flexure and shear considering the envelopes at evenly spaced stations along each element (0. The results presentation depends on the material. soil properties.

this part of the diagram is displayed in red. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. In this way. All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a concrete stem The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. For masonry design the results are presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 575 . If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station.

Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905)..army. References • • • • Bowles. Free downloadable on /www. Boston. 1995 USA Corps of Engineers.usace. in a similar manner as concrete blocks. 1992. 1995 576 . The user should note that in this case.". Engineering and Design . USA Corps of Engineers. For shear. the resistant moments in the table are the admissible according to the adopted design code (allowable stress ASD).mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals.army.usace. 1989. New York. Das. "Principles of Foundation Eng. Braja M. Mc Graw Hill. Engineering and Design – Retaining and Flood Walls (EM 1110-22502). 3rth Edition.. Joseph E. Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. Free downloadable on /www.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a masonry stem The program perform verifications for masonry blocks (such as bending moment or shear force).mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals. PWS. the table shows the admissible shear force (Va).

the model should be analyzed completely. geometry and other design parameters can be modified at any time during the analysis. 4) Optimization The last step is the optimization of sections that can be completed for steel and wood beams only. and obtaining results through a specific report for continuous beams. NDS for wood. sections. The available codes for this module are: AISC and BS for steel. All input data like material properties. ACI for concrete and AISI for cold formed steel. and different coefficients and design parameters for wood beams. For more details about these and other parameters. The analysis should consider a moment of inertia reduction (factor Ig) only for reinforced concrete. This input is done through drop-down windows in the case of multiple options or by keypad for singular options. see the relative chapters exclusive to each material. 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing Before proceeding with a beam design. The module supports steel. prescribed by the design code. This module will allow you to model. the code verifications are the next step where it calculates the longitudinal reinforcement for reinforced concrete beams only. and design any continuous beam under a variety loads. or wood members submitted to shear and bending. materials. 3) Verifications Depending on the selected material and design code. detailing. The verifications are completed in the design and detailing module that will be explained further ahead. Design steps 1) Entering Data The user should enter all the necessary data to obtain a new model before doing the analysis and going to the design screen. designing. This section will describe all the available options in the module such as input geometry. It is a useful tool dedicated to provide the user all the tools necessary for inputting data. Optimization involves reducing oversized sections an optimal section (normally a lighter section) 577 . sections. design. loads . and detailing for continuous beams. and sections in a practical and simple manner.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The Continuous Beam module allows the user to easily and quickly model a continuous beam independently of the main program. analyze. the unbraced length Lb and the bending coefficient Cb for steel beams. materials. cold formed steel. analysis. reinforced concrete.

Limitations The following limitations currently exist in this program with respect to the analysis and design beams: • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. Cold-formed Steel Design Manual – Load and Resistance Factor Design (Edition . AISC-LRFD. see the following conceptual map: 578 . Design Codes The following codes are considered in the present version: • AISC-ASD. NDS. The user can see it. see the optimization chapter of the Manual. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). National Design Specification. For more details. • • • • AISI – ASD-LRFD. American Forest & Paper Association . the engineer can use the main portion of the program. ACI. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The following items are checked in the design of steel.American Wood Council (Edition – 1997). For a better orientation. Technical Notes General The design of beams accounts for all load conditions. British Code BS 5950-1:2000. If this is required. by selecting the load case or load combination required in the bar Condition in the design screen. Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered.1996). • • • Flexure Shear Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) Important! No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams from a predefined group of sections. reinforced concrete and wood beams. Torsion is not considered. No deep member design is considered. Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor Design (3rd Edition 2001). Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition -1989). The user should specify the code that will be used for the design according to the material that will be used. or for sections that fail the code check. they will be changed to larger sections that pass the code check.

Dead loads are applied permanently and thus are not subjected to distribution. For example. To define skip loading. (*) The beam may have the two extreme spans as cantilevers. the engineer needs to generate load combinations and choose the files which included skip loading.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis Pattern loading This is a special tool of the module that allows the generation of different load conditions considering pattern loading. Percentage: This determines the fraction of the live load (between 0 and 100%) that will be effectively distributed. Note that it uses the conjunction OR for live load. The generated loads will be named starting with “SK”. The tool works only with live loads. we will have the following generated load patterns: Load SK1 SK2 SK3 SK4 SK5 SK6 SK7 SK8 SK9 SK10 Span1 (*) + + + + + Span2 + + + + + Span3 + + + + + Span4 + + + + + Span5 (*) + + + + + (-) Negative load (downward) . The load conditions that will be generated are 2*n. 579 . in a 5 span continuous beam (*). where n is the number of spans of the continuous beam.

in LRFD (AISC. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. These names start with “S”. see Chapter F (AISC-ASD or LRFD) in the steel manual. Valid values are 0. Design Load Combinations that are used for the design of the different beam spans. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. For more information about these and other parameters. a value of 1. some beam parameters that the user must keep in mind for input data are described. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code.35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) to consider the cracked section in the analysis. it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to beams and columns. Cracked Section Factors To analyze a concrete structure accurately. These names start with “D”. The number of combinations depends on the Skip loading option. refer to specific chapters of each material.0 to 1. Depending on the material and Code.35 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. in ASD (AISC. These parameters are used for the calculation of the allowable bending stress. ultimate limit states combinations or unfactored load combinations may be selected. Important! • The Inertia reduction factor Ig for reinforced concrete will be considered constant for all the spans of the beam. Mn. If LB=0 the program will adopt LB=L (distance between nodes). it means that the upward or downward loads are zero. Note that if 0. 580 . Unbraced length Lb The unbraced length of the compression flange of the section is needed for the lateral torsional flexural buckling capacity calculation of steel members.0. Fb. For example.0 is entered.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams If the program uses a zero (0) instead of (+) or (-). Load combinations There are two groups of load combinations: Service Load Combinations that are used for deflection control. AISI) or for the nominal moment strength. You may automatically generate all the required combinations with the load combination generator. Note that only the load combinations of this group will be considered in the design. This value can be entered directly into the Inertia reduction factor Ig option in the design data as shown in the figure below. AISI). For more information. Design parameters Next. Enter the 0.0 is used in the analysis.

. the program allows you to introduce these values but it is the responsibility of the user to adopt the correct value and to use an appropriate approach for it.. loads. type of restrictions.With the purpose of facilitating the user the navigation and input data. refer to the chapter “Reinforced Concrete Beam Design” in the Manual. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases since it allows the user to modify a special. the user enters the necessary data for the analysis in the spreadsheet such as geometry. the program will calculate the value according to the Code. refer to the Examples Manual of Continuous Beam.. and general design data. Design/Detailing Module Beam Entering data for a Continuous Beam The layout of Continuous Beam allows the user to optimize his time while inputting data through drop-down windows in cases where multiple options are found.. are presented in this Manual. For that.. Detailing Requirements To obtain detailed information for the provisions adopted by the program for the detailing of reinforced concrete beams. 581 . Refer to the chapter for Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within these modules. For detailed information about the input data. As in all the detailing modules. Design All the considerations and detailed information about the design procedure. AISI). LRFD. and design code to be employees. the user can refer to previous chapters corresponding to the material the user wants to design.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams It should be noted that the unbraced length Lb can in some cases be greater than the total length of the beam (distance between nodes). Typical cases of these modifications are: “force shear reduction near column face”. calculated parameter. Then the program verifies the beam condition for the specification loads. “factors of inertia”. Note. Bending coefficient Cb This bending coefficient is used in steel design and it depends on the moment gradient (AISC-ASD. Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length of the member. according to the material. If this is the case. the coefficient Cb should be calculated manually or the user must assume a value equal to 1. If the automatic calculation is adopted. The value depends on the structure type (braced or unbraced) and the moments at the ends of the spans(according to each load condition). This module is invoked by selecting Detailing/Continuous Beam from the menu bar of the main program. The automatic calculation is recommended. the module has a detailed help for each option.

In this screen. save it with an “AVW” extension. Note. The model can also be saved with an “RCB” extension and use it directly in Continuous Beam. for example selecting alternate members. loads in the analysis plane and restrictions. section. pinned. Data Screen The first screen displayed after entering the module is the data screen. geometry. Some examples are shown below: What the user should not do Once the user has selected the elements correctly. which will consider the following data of the main model: geometry. the user should select from the main program the members he wants to analyze. the module will assume for the model a pinned restriction and the user will change it according to requirements. not in the main program. 582 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Passing data of the main program Contrary to the dependent modules that were explained in the detailing module chapter. The user should only consider that the first selected beam will be the reference for the results location in one or other direction.. the user can modify the material properties. Note that all beam data and the assigned loads have been entered and generated in the module.. hinged and spring.The program will show an error message when the user selects members that do not belong to a continuous beam. and use it in RAM Advanse. including other elements or excluding spans. sections. he is ready to enter to the module. Continuous Beam is a design/detailing independent module that allows you to generate a new model from this application. To pass data of the main program. considering that the selection order of the elements that compose his beam is not relevant. The restrictions follow the next priority and excluding order in case of existing more than one restriction for each node: fixed. and design parameters. When there are connected members. materials.

If this model is to be used to generate structural drawings. Help (C) The property window (A) is used for introducing all the necessary information about the beam. Properties (A) 2. The Data screen has 3 different windows as shown below: Data Screen for a continuous beam with 3 different windows 1. the engineer should be careful to enter the exact dimensions. This advantage allows you to model more exactly the beam behavior. and any other option in a easily way and every time that the user wants. 583 . Some options will appear only for certain matericals due to the design code requirements for that material.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Initial screen in the module: Data Screen This screen allows you to modify dimensions. loads. This window will be change interactively as data is being entered. Graphic (B) 3.

The user can modify all the properties in red text as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or type a new value.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The graphic window (B) represents the summary of information that is entered in the property window. Every item has an applicable help section. The help window (C) shows the information about the currently selected item in the property window (A). such as thegeometry and assigned loads. you can now view the design screen: 584 . After completing the modeling.

The yellow light indicates that the ratio between stresses is satisfactory. is not satisfactory. Notice the existence of a Traffic light in the top right corner. Those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: Combine the demand and capacity curves for bending moment and simple shear into one diagram. This traffic light is an indicator of design status where the red light indicates that the ratio of demand to capacity is greater than one and thus fails. The user can view combined diagrams too. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. Finally. such as deflection.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design screen. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time. 585 . thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (supplied) curve. the green light indicates that the status of design of the member is is satisfactory for all strength and service requirements. but another requirement. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. Traffic light.

but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside Continuous Beam. Note. The Width of supports is constant. Both longitudinal reinforcing and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. Window A: 586 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars designed for the beam.The Width of supports of the beam is constant and defined by the user in the Data Screen as shown below.. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. Note that the user can only define the reinforcement and the locations of the cross sections in the figure.

Note that control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected. they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The reinforcing can be entered through the Suggested reinforcing option in the data screen or through the Detailing screen. they are shown in blue and the bars not selected are shown in light gray as shown below: Window B (spreadsheet) 587 . Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. To edit a single bar or certain groups of bars.

is used to define the stirrups. Note that data changed on this screen are saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. For detailed information about this screen. Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design. called Stirrups. called Bars. It is active only in the Detailing Screen for this module. is used to define the longitudinal reinforcement. and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. called Sections. and the last one. Note. is used to define the location of the cross sections. refer to the chapter Reinforced Concrete Beam Design – Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module. The spreadsheet is divided into three pages: the first one. 588 . the second one.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement.

Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99. The user shall between consider section 7. torsion and detailing. 589 . Normal weight or lightweight affects shear. Affects the development length of bars. The items considered are described in the table below.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams These criteria should be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch. The only option available at this time. Estimated distance This is the distance that is added of clear cover to to the clear cover (see data bar group centroid screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. reinforcement Round bar length Longitudinal bar lengths can be to adjusted up to the closest increment specified.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for his or her final design.6 of the Code. Epoxy Coated Ratio between The ratio of reinforcement Rho maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho.3 specifies that this factor should be 0. ACI 10. foot etc. Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars.1 of the Code.3.4. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required.

3. and the results of the design. In the report you will find: • • A summary of analysis results performed for all the load combinations at different stations spaced at equal distances along the beam. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment and shear) along the beam. A summary of design results for flexure and shear performed for the most critical state or combination at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. In other words. This option allows the engineer to change the existing sections with sections that are recommended (based on explicit criteria) from a collection of sections. Fore more details about commands and procedures for section optimization. 590 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Delta X for each The increment at which design solution checks are performed. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. Optimization screen Optimization is valid only for steel and wood members. Horizontal tick This option allows the user to spacing for text manipulate the spacing of the tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. Maximum length bar It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices.1 x Length) for reinforced concrete only. Note..1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. the results of the analysis. the original section can be replaced with another that resists the imposed loads. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. A normal value is 40 ft.1. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report that will summarize the input data. Reduce Vu near Applies the specification given column face in section 11. refer to the corresponding chapter of this Manual.

For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report. Then the user will find analysis results for the total length of the beam. the general information for all the sections of the beam is displayed such as sections.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams To enter the report. the user can find the loading conditions and a graphic display of loads . press the button shown next: on any screen and the report will be displayed. The report of beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. member forces and deflections. 591 . number of spans. etc.such as reactions. At the top. see the Report section of the chapter for Printing Graphics and Reports. The screen is Report screen of continuous beams. material. General information. In this section.

Afterward. The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. the report presents the design results for each section of the beam. Finally. In this section. the report presents the envelopes of bending moment M33 and shear V2 and the deflections. Envelopes of bending moment M33. and depending on the material.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis results. the user will find design parameters. The presentation of results depends on the material. thus for example: steel design results are presented in tables as shown below: 592 .

For reinforced concrete. the report will present a Status verification for each span of the beam.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a steel beam. the design results will be presented in tables and with graphics as shown in the figure below: 593 . • "ratio > 1" when the element fails one or more code verifications. There are two possible options: • “OK” when the element fulfills all the bending moment and shear code verifications. In this case.

Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. the design results will be presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 594 . this part of the diagram is displayed in red. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. Example of the flexural verification diagram. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. For wood.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a reinforced concrete beam. All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear force envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. This allows the user to evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously.

Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for wood beam As seen before. the program displays code verifications for results such as bending moment and shear force as shown in the Status verification. 595 .

.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Chapter 31: Programming in LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) This chapter is intended for users that want to know more in depth the details of the macro language. and would like to customize the connection design. It is not required that the users know this information to use RAM Advanse or RAM Connection. etc. girders) sizes. you can customize the connection geometry according to the member’s sizes to which the connection connects. Basic example of a macro Before describing LEO commands. size of bolts. RAM Advanse allows you to customize your connections using LEO. The following sections describe the different applications and the last sections describe in detail the different available commands. and structured statements. To accommodate all the variations of connections (number of bolts. If however you are comfortable with some basic programming tasks. an example of connection customization with LEO will be illustrated. This will allow you to code office standard or user experience ‘rules’ into the connection designs. wood design or section types (only for RAM Advanse) to meet office or other standards then this chapter will describe how to do that. Language for Engineering Objects (LEO) is a language embedded into the program where you can enter simple formulas or more significantly more complicated procedures to customize your connections. weld length. With LEO. etc). an extensive list of connections would be required. Macros for connections Since connections can be assigned to different beam. data types. plate thickness. braces and support (columns. To avoid the need for an extensive connection’s database. different connections will be required based on the member geometry and loads. variables. for example. Or you can even code how to design the connection parts including items such as number of bolts. In the example a shear-end-plate connection will be adjusted to the beam and column sizes. 597 .

. (See the Connections Chapter for more information). The 598 . Create a new LEO file with the New LEO File Command inside the file window. Customizing geometry First. More elaborated macros include. etc. double click on the connection or go to the menu Configuration/Databases\Connections. the following actions should be done: Set the plate position on beam = Upper Set the distance to beam top = (Beam Depth)/4 Entering the commands First. End Plate To locate the shear plate at a distance equal to (beam depth)/4 below the top of the beam.. and open a specific connection.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Connection pad of the connection to be customized. it can be edited with the LEO window will be displayed: Edit LEO File Command from the Pad. we will customize the vertical location of the end plate considering the beam size. To do this. open the connection pad. The file window is activated with the LEO File option in the connection pad. Once the file is created. include for example. the calculation of the number of bolts based on the required capacity. Some examples are detailed further on and the user is also referred to the pre-defined macros of each connection type.

you can select the desired property from a list. Now. To enter the formula to locate the end plate at beam-depth/4 from beam top do the following: Place the cursor in the LEO window where you want to copy the variable name. In the editor. Press in the LEO window to see the list of parameters. 599 . select the desired property in the list and press the OK button. the required parameters should be defined using the appropriate variable names . Note that the order is identical to the connection pad. To find the variable names. you can enter the LEO code and debug it. To find the variable name.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO A LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2) is opened.

you can run the macro. Press the OK button. 2= Center and 3= Bottom) After entering the formulas. Notice that once the code is running. write the following formulas (“//” are comments) Write the formulas indicated in the figure (for the PosC property. To re-run the code. and to run the to run one Notice that the Help Context of the Leo Editor has a brief description of the different tools for writing and debugging your macros.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Then press this button to see the list of variables Select the desired varible in the list. To do this. 600 . For the example select the one that defines the position on the beam. press and then press again one of the above buttons. Or you can press step (one line) at a time. the cursor is kept at the last line. The LEO name of the property has been copied to the editor. Using the same procedure. you can press macro and the cursor is placed at the last executed line. 1= Upper.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Notice that the distance to beam top has changed as illustrated in the figure. Press OK in the LEO window to save the code that you entered. Note. If you exit the LEO window with “Cancel”, the code that you entered is not saved. If you want the end plate located at a constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam, you can enter the following instructions:

Constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam to the end-plate

Notice that values should always have their corresponding units between brackets. Important: variables entered by the user in the macro should always have their corresponding units. If a value without units is used in later mathematical operations with variables that have units, the mathematical operations will not be valid, yielding unexpected and corrupted results, and this could even modify the units of the variables in the connection pad.

Connection Design
LEO allows the users to design the connections according to their requirements or rules. With LEO the user have access to all data, including geometry, loads and connection capacities. The load data include the maximum connection forces or moments. The capacities variables include all the calculated capacities as bolt shear, bolt bearing, etc. You can see all the available variables by selecting the declarations’ option in the main LEO window:

601

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

You can expand each group to see the list of variables with their descriptions:

Select the name and press CTRL+C to copy the name of any variable to the clipboard. To paste the name in the LEO Editor, press CTRL+V The use of these variables allows the implementation of simple design rules as angle selection, definition of diameter and number of bolts, and much more. The capacities are initially with zero values. To set them with the actual values, the "Calculate" property should be executed, which besides calculating the connection capacities modifies the stress ratio and the status connection variables. If during the connection design, some relevant data for capacity has been modified, as number of bolts, weld length, etc., the special procedure Calculate should be called after the modifications, to get the updated capacities, ratio and status values. Assigning a status message to the connection. The status connection variable is a string that contains the current connection status (OK or N.G.). The user can assign his or her own message to the status variable (recommended no more than 10 characters). For example, if the connection does not satisfy some geometric condition and the user wants to assign an error message, he/she should change the status value as follows: Status = 'Ang > 5in' Note.- The changes in status variable will not be visible in the connection report but will be visible during the graphical results presentation and through the summary report in RAM Advanse (accessed by Reports menu\ Connections design ... option). Bolted connection design example: The following is a design example of an Angles(s) shear connection. To follow the design procedure, please copy the code to an Angle(s) connection and execute it step by step.
602

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 3x3x3_8' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop selectBolt(tw as float) = '1/2" A325 N' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = '7/8" A325 N' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = '1" A325 N' exit End If
End prop

prop doDesign //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) SupportPlateBoltsBolt = selectBolt(tw) BeamPlateBoltsBolt = SupportPlateBoltsBolt //call calculation of capacities
603

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

calculate //store the initial number of bolts nbolts1 = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //No of bolts due to shear on beam BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(2,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BAngleBoltCapacity1+0.99)
//No. of bolts due to bearing on beam

BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(BeamPlateBoltsNrow,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BeamBearing1+0.99) SupportPlateBoltsNrow = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //length of the angle Length = BeamSidePlateLev*2+(BeamPlateBoltsNrow1)*BeamPlateBoltsSpaV //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesign //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

604

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Welded connection design example The design of welded connections and bolted connections are similar. The basic idea for welded connections is to find a resistance by unit weld length to calculate after the required weld length to support the maximum load. It should be noted that due to the weld eccentricity, the weld capacity has no direct and proportional relation with its length. The following code shows an Angle(s) shear connection design according to the weld capacity. prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 1-1_2x1-1_2x3_16' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop doDesignWeld //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) //select welding size BeamPlateWeldsWeldD = nearestBot(Angle_Thickness/[in]*16,1) SupportPlateWeldsWeldD = BeamPlateWeldsWeldD //call calculation of capacities length = 3[in] status = '' ratio = 0 calculate
605

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

//length of the angle at the beam side weldlength = (length + 2*angle_width) weldstress = BAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthB = max(3[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress2*angle_width,1[in])) //length of the angle at the support side weldlength = length weldstress = SAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthS = max(2[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress,1[in])) //length of the angle length = max(lengthS,lengthB) //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesignWeld //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse)
Another application of macros within RAM Advanse is the wood design. This allows you to customize the design with local codes. You can edit or change the wood design macro to define mainly the way how the strength factors will be calculated. Use the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design

606

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Path to call the LEO Editor for Wood Design

LEO Editor for Wood Design. The LEO Editor will be opened with the macro for wood design. The macro is formed by several subroutines, which are described in the Wood Design Chapter. Lets look at an example of wood design customization with LEO. We will customize the Load Duration factors to adjust to the US West Cost practice.

In the LEO Editor click on the CD Calculation Property to expand it

607

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

CD Calculation Property expanded As you can notice the CD factor for a Load duration of seven days is 1.25. It has to be edited to 1.33.

CD Duration Factor modified from 1.25 to 1.33 Now you have to check that the macro is working properly. To do this you need a test code that calls the modified subroutine.

608

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Test code at the end of the macro. Now that the desired formulae are entered, you are ready to run the test code. But first put a break in the following line.

Define a break. Go to the desired line and press the Now, you can press break point. to view the data panel and

button. to run the code. The macro will stop at the

609

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

The execution of the macro is stopped at the break point. This is indicated with the red arrow. Press Press run one step at a time. to debug inside the subroutine

When you pass with the debugger the edited line of the CD Calculation subroutine, the factor adopts the desired value of 1.33. To re-run the code, press and then press again one of the above buttons. After verifying that your macro is working properly, you can erase the test code and save the macro. Now the wood design will consider the changes. As you have seen, it is very easy to perform changes to the subroutines and customize them.

Macros to define section types
Another application of macros is the definition of section types. The characteristics and calculation of the section properties are defined in the macro related to each section type. The different available macros can be edited or modified with the option: Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections. The special commands and variables that are used are described in Chapter 15.

610

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

LEO Commands
In this section you will find the descriptions of the available LEO commands: +, –, *, /, ^, Div, Mod, (& / &+) Max, Min Trunc Round Abs Sqrt Sqr Sin, Cos Int Frac NearestRound NearestTop NearestBot =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, == Arithmetic operators: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, real division, power, integer division, remainder obtained by dividing its operands, concatenation. Compare two values and return the larger one and the smaller one. Truncates a real number to an integer. Rounds a real-type value to an integer-type value (nearest whole number). Returns the absolute value of the argument. Returns the square root of the argument. Returns the square of the argument. Returns the sine and cosine of the argument. Returns the integer part of a real number. Returns the fractional part of a real number. NearestRound, NearestTop, NearestBot (Value as float, Near as float) as float. Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near" Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equalto, greater-than-or-equal-to, absolute equality.

&=, &<>, &<, &>, Relational operators for strings: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than&<=, &>=, &== or-equal-to, greater-than-or-equal-to, casesensitive equality. Trim UpperCase Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to uppercase. Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to lowercase. Boolean operators: Conjunction, disjunction, exclusive disjunction, negation.
611

LowerCase

and, or, xor, not

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Pi

Returns 3.141592

Lets illustrate some applications of the former commands. =, <>, <, >, <=, >= Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equal-to, greater-thanor-equal-to Note.- All this operators have a 1E-8 tolerance. // examples to illustrate the tolerance for the relational operators Cmp1 = (1.000000001 = 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 = 1.000000001) Cmp3 = (1.00000001 = 1.0) Cmp4 = '015' < '1' //units conversion takes place before comparison Cmp5 = 2.2[cm] >= 2.2[in]
//if dimensions differ, only the values are compared

Cmp6 = 9[in] > 5[ton/cm2] Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = false Cmp5 (Boolean) = false Cmp6 (Boolean) = true == Relational operator: Absolute equality Unlike "=" operator, the absolute equality makes the comparison without any tolerance over Float and Simple operands. Cmp1 = (1.000000001 == 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 == 1.000000001)
612

Note.real. Examples: Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'RAM Advanse' Cmp3 = '015' &> '1' Cmp4 = 2. &<. greater-than. (&+ / &) Arithmetic operators: Addition (integer . String) temp = 0.This operators are not casesensitive.0) Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false &=. &>= Relational operators for strings: Equality.. &>.2[in]' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = true &== Relational operator for strings: Absolute equality. &<>. greater-than-or-equal-to.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Cmp3 = (1. This operator is case-sensitive Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'RAM Advanse' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true +. &<=.9 613 . inequality. less-than-or-equal-to. less-than.00000001 == 1.2[ft] &<= '2.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st1 = 'Value : ' & Pi + 4 st2 = 5..56.7 st3 (String) = Width is : 2 in st4 (Float) = 3.141 st2 (String) = 5.. but with all letters converted to uppercase.1811 in st6 (Single) = 83.' UpperCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text..The "&+. ' temp = ' st1 = temp st2 = Trim(temp) Results: st1 (String) = ' Remove spaces .5 & 6. st2 (String) = 'Remove spaces ... 614 ' . &" operators could be used indistinctly.7 st3 = 'Width is : ' & 2[in] st4 = 2[in] + 3[cm] st5 = '2 in' + '3 cm' st6 = '83' + temp Results: st1 (String) = Value : 7. Trim Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Remove spaces .1811 in st5 (Float) = 3..9 Note. st = uppercase('Change to UpperCase') Results: st (String) = 'CHANGE TO UPPERCASE' LowerCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text. but with all letters converted to lowercase..

res1 = max(4. '3 cm') res4 = min(2[in]. 7. only the values are compared res5 = max(6. Min Compares two values and returns the larger one and the smaller one.1 Result: res (Integer) = 2 Max. the operator uses its integer part. 5[ton/cm2]) Results: res1 (Integer) = 11 res2 (Float) = 2 in res3 (Float) = 3 cm res4 (Float) = 3 cm res5 (Float) = 7. 3[cm]) res3 = min('2 in'. 11) //units conversion takes place before comparison res2 = max(2[in]. '3 cm') //if dimensions differ.1 Result: res (Integer) = 6 Mod Arithmetic operator: Returns the remainder obtained by dividing its operands.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st = lowercase('Change to LowerCase') Results: st (String) = 'change to lowercase' Div Arithmetic operator: Integer division res = 26 div 4.3[cm]) res6 = min(9[in]. If an operand is real. (x mod y = x – (x div y) * y) res = 26 mod 4.3 615 .

0. NearestRound: Rounded to the nearest multiple of "Near".Equal units: res1 = NearestTop res2 = NearestTop res3 = NearestBot Results: res1 (Float) = 2.4[cm]. . NearestTop.4[cm].2[ft]) (25.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res6 (Float) = 5 NearestRo und NearestTo p NearestBot NearestRound. Results: res1 (Float) = 2 in res2 (Float) = 14 cm res3 (Float) = 26 in Note. Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near". 1[cm]) . res1 = NearestTop(2. downward. upward or downward. the "Value" parameter units will be used."Near" without explicit units. Near as float) as float. If this parameter has no units. 1[cm]) (25.Different units: res1 = NearestTop(3[cm]. 1[cm]) res4 = NearestRound(25.4[cm]. NearestBot : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near". nearestBot (Value as float.1[ft].. (1/16)[in]) 616 ( 2. upward. 1[cm]) 1[in]) 1[in]) res2 = NearestTop(5. res3 = NearestTop(2.1[ft]. . NearestTop : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near".2 ft res2 (Float) = 26 cm res3 (Float) = 25 cm res4 (Float) = 25 cm .The results will be shown in the current unit system.5[in].44[in].

String Integer values Double precision True or False 255 characters Variables declaration: Explicit form. Boolean. and "0.5 Results: i (Integer) = 0 s (String) = '' sp1 (Single) = 0. "0.5[cm].5 in res2 (Float) = 2. Simple.0 b (Boolean) = true sf (String) = 'initial value' sp2 (Single) = 0.0" to a float (float type will be explained further down).5[in]. '' (empty) to a string.0" to a simple. 1/16) res3 = NearestTop(2.. This is the complete form to make a declaration. 1/16) Results: res1 (Float) = 2. "false" to a boolean. 617 .For variables without initial value. LEO assigns them the following values: "0" to an integer.5 in res3 (Float) = 2.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res2 = NearestTop(2. Examples: //without initial value var i as integer var s as string var sp1 as simple //assigning an initial value var b as boolean = true var sf as string = 'initial value' var sp2 as simple = 0.5 cm Data types and variables Integer.5 Note.

the "var" command is omitted and only the name of the variable is declared.2 By assigning an initial value.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Short form.2 Results: b (Boolean) = false s (String) = '' f (Single) = 1. 618 //string //assigning variables and properties //string . length.0 //simple (the decimal symbol should be included. an initial value could also be assigned. Examples: b i = true = 5 //boolean //integer sp = 0. The data type is taken from the assigned value that could be an initial value or another variable. This is the shortest declaration form. it consists only of an assignment. Examples: b as boolean s as string f as simple = 1.0 s1 (String) = hi! s2 (String) = 12 s3 (String) = 12 Float It is a Simple data type with Dimension and Unit. In the short form. rotation. Dimension: The measurable properties (force. otherwise it will be taken as integer) s1 = 'hi!' //string //expressions are allowed as initial values s2 = 1 & 2 s3 = s2 Results: b (Boolean) = true i (Integer) = 5 sp (Single) =0.

4468 ksi f4 (Float) = 2 ksi f5 (Float) = 6 Kip*ft Operations with Float variables. Examples: //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Length var f1 as float = 2[in] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f2 as float = 12. It is possible to evaluate expressions of float variables with different dimensions and/or units.82[kip/in2] //Units: Ton-cm //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f3 = 2[ton/cm2] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f4 = 2[ksi] //Units: Kip-ft //Dimension: Force*Length f5 = 6[kip*ft] Results: f1 (Float) = 2 in (units: Kip-in.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO temperature. otherwise.82 ksi f3 (Float) = 28. As long as there is consistency in the dimensions of the variables. time) or a combination of them. Examples: f1 = 5[kip] / 2[in2] f2 = 2[kip] * 3[ft] 619 . Dimension: Length) f2 (Float) = 12. Unit: This is the unit used to express the dimension. LEO will adopt one unit system to calculate the whole expression. it will treat the variables only as numbers and the result will have no units.

75 ksi Moment (Float) = 6 Kip*in 620 .Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Length = 2[in] Area = sqr(Length) Force = 3[kip] Pressure = Force / Area Moment = Force * Length Results: f1 (Float) f2 (Float) Area (Float) Force (Float) = 2.5 ksi = 6 Kip*ft = 2 in = 4 in2 = 3 kip Length (Float) Pressure (Float) = 0.

IF THEN statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code" End If where COND returns a Boolean value.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Structured statements. FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements This statement requires the user to specify explicitly the number of iterations that wants the loop to go through The syntax is: For I = 0 To N-1 "User Code" End For 621 . then "User Code 1" is executed. If COND is True. then "User Code" is executed. otherwise "User Code 2" is executed. select and click an item LEO inserts the whole structure of the selected statement. The user should only replace the "COND" word with the statement condition. IF THEN ELSE statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code 1" Else "User Code 2" End If where COND returns a Boolean value. and include its code inside the statement structure. LEO has the following structured statements: To insert a statement in the editor. otherwise it is not. If COND is True.

used when the conditional and step expressions are over the counter "I" For I = 0. < 5. The FOR1 statement executes "User Code" repeatedly. + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //the step +1 could also be omitted For I = 0. incrementing "I" after each iteration.j:=j-1 res = 'Iteration ' & I & J End for WHILE statements The syntax is: While COND "User Code" End while 622 . incrementing the counter "I" after each iteration. "User Code" is executed once more and the FOR1 statement terminates. +1) statements The syntax is: Exp1 is the counter "I" initialization. Exp2 is the conditional expression that returns a Boolean value. I := I + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //short expression form. (I<5)and(j>10). <N .I:=I+1. When Exp2 returns False the statement terminates Examples: //long expression form For I = 0. FOR2statement executes "User Code" repeatedly.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where N is the number of iterations. and Exp3 is the step. FOR 2(i=0. I < 5. < 5 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //more than one variables in the expressions J = 15 For I = 0. When "I" reaches the same value as "N-1".

execution continues. The while statement executes its constituent "User Code" repeatedly. testing COND before each iteration.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where COND returns a Boolean value. 623 . As long as COND returns True.

Note that "User Code 1" is always executed at least once. they could expand or collapse. execution continues.It is also possible to expand or collapse a Group pressing "Ctrl + Left click" or "Ctrl + Enter" over the title or the text inside the title. They also could be used as variables in expressions for assignments or 624 . PROP READ statements (Property) Properties or Subroutines are self-contained statement blocks that can be called from different locations in the code. As long as COND returns False. "User Code 2" repeatedly. GROUP statements This tool allows the code organization into pieces that behave like folders.. The syntax is: Group //COMMENT "User Code" End Group Example: To collapse this group press To expand press Note. i. testing COND in each iteration. The while statement executes "User Code 1".e.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements The syntax is: While true do "User Code 1" If COND Then //exit while break End If "User Code 2" End while where COND returns a Boolean value.

f2 as float) as float = x End Prop //property type "as float" could be omitted Prop Max3(f1 as float. should specify its name.f2 as float) = 2. the type of its return value. To keep the change on parameters permanently. When the user declares a property. This could be used as any other variable inside the property.f2 as float) as float=2.f2 as float. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property.f3 as float) as float result = max(f1.3[in] result = max(result.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO operations. the "Max3" property will now find the maximum value of its two float parameters and its initial float value. Properties could also have assigned an initial value that could also be an expression. the result is also float. and. returning a value and/or receiving values as parameters.f2) End Prop //initialized by a variable Prop Max3(f1 as float. in the case it will behave as a function. This means that the properties behave as functions.."result" is the variable that stores the property return value.f2) result = max(result.f1) result = max(result. returning its value also as a float.3[in] End Prop //initialized by an expression 625 . Prop Max3(f1 as float. which is stored in the result variable.f3) End Prop Note. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. This feature is explained in next paragraphs The syntax is: Prop NAME( ) = EXP End Prop Example: The property "Max3" finds the maximum of its three float parameters. For example. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. //initialized by a value Prop Max3(f1 as float. number and type of parameters.

the property takes a zero value. if the property is declared with parameters.4[in]) Calling properties: When you call a property.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop Max3(f1 as float. the property assumes that it is equal to the first parameter. Example: The "Area_Volume" property calculates an area with its first two parameters.f3 as float) as float=max(f1. i as integer) //default values (tw as float = 5[in]. Each declaration is followed by a type identifier. A parameter list is a sequence of parameter declarations separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses. The user could omit some or all of property's parameters in a call.0[in]) as boolean = False area = f1*f2 volume = f1*f2*f3 if (area > 0)and(volume > 0) then result = True End If End Prop Call with all the parameters: a = 2[in] 626 .f2 as float=f1.f2) if f3 > result then result = f3 End if End Prop Parameters: Most property headers include a parameter list. You can make the call using the property’s declared name. and returns a true value if the two previous calculations are greater than zero. Expressions could also be used as parameters.f3 as float=0. th = 3. th as float. the execution passes from the point where the call is made to the body of the property. a volume with the third. LEO takes their default values. If the second parameter has been omitted. And if the third parameter is omitted. in which case. the property call should pass them in the correspondent order and type property’s parameter list. area as float volume as float Prop Area_Volume(f1 as float. Examples: (tw as float.f2 as float. resulting in a zero volume. and in some cases by the = symbol and a default value.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO b = 3[in] c = 4[in] res = Area_Volume(a. which could be read with the "Set" operator.2[in]. The property has not been assigned to any variable c = 3[in] Area_Volume(3. The syntax is: 627 . The values assigned to the properties in this way. Remark. #f1:=a.g. #f3:=c) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 16 in3 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) The properties have another functionality when they receive a value as if they were variables. to pass "a" to the f1 parameter) a = 2[in] c = 4[in] Area_Volume(#f1:=a.b..This type of call requires no specific parameter order because the "#" sign indicates the parameter (e.5[in].c) Results: area (Float) = 7 in2 volume (Float) = 21 in3 Call with some parameters. are stored in an internal property variable called "Value".c) Results: area (Float) = 6 in2 volume (Float) = 24 in3 res (Boolean) = True Call with only some parameters: a = 2[in] res = Area_Volume(a) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 0 in3 res (Boolean) = False Property call with values as parameters.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop NAME( ) = EXP Set End Prop Example: RootSqr property: Prop RootSqr(x as float) as float result = sqrt(x) Set res = sqr(Value) End Prop This property. when used to behave as a function. returns the square root of the argument: x = 81 res1 = RootSqr(x) Results: x (Integer) = 81 res1 (Float) = 9 628 .

for example. ref condTrue) = cond If cond then condTrue End if End prop Prop ifElse(cond as boolean.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO But. The argument of the property has no change in this case. the "res" variable" receives the square of the assigned value as it is defined in the Set statement of the property: x = 81 RootSqr(x) = 9 Results: x (Integer) = 81 res (Float) = 81 Notes. the properties ifThen and ifElse which are statements that due to their structure take several code lines. Prop ifThen(cond as boolean. An important feature in LEO is that the reference parameters are pointers. This concept allows to generate very general properties that can be reused in many different simply and easy ways in the future We can generate. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. this reference could be called as many times as required inside the main property. Example: Prop getUppercase(ref s as string) s = uppercase(s) //returns in s End prop the uppercase of “s” Properties as parameters by reference. In this case we will write them only once and we are going to reuse them with only one line. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property.. To keep the change on parameters permanently. And if the reference is a property or an expression. ref condTrue. This type of declaration is made simply by adding the "REF" word before the usual parameter declaration. ref condFalse) = cond If cond then condTrue Else condFalse 629 .The "res" variable should be declared before the property. Parameters by reference. if it is assigned a value to the property.

message('x is negative')) Result: Res (String) = 'x is negative' Example2: The main property finds the solution of any equation or function (included in the reference property) using the bisection method. it is suggested to the user to load and execute it step by step. this concept allows a major code reutilization. ref isDone as boolean. prop bisect(ref y as simple. The next code shows the use of a property as a reference parameter and illustrates how to use the reference property to be called many times during the execution of the main property. For a better understanding of the following property.message('x is positive'). ref dx as simple.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End if End prop We can reuse it in the following manner: 1) res as string Prop message(s as string) res = s End Prop x = 0 ifThen(x = 0. The reference to expressions is a powerful concept not able to be found in other languages. ref x as simple. ref counter as integer) //x and dx should be initialized properly to: //x: the first value to be tested //dx: the initial value of dx and sign to assure that zero will be found 630 . message('x is zero')) Results: Res (String) = 'x is zero' 2) x = -3.3 ifElse(x > 0.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO //initial values x1 = x y1 = y x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y dx0 = dx counter = 0 while not isDone do //change dx sign if y1 * y2 <= 0 then dx = .0 dx = 0.0 end if //calc new values x1 = x2 y1 = y2 x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y counter = counter + 1 //loop counter end while End prop x = 0.dx / 2.5 count1 = 0 res = 0.0 prop y(x as simple) = x*x-5*x-3 //equation to be solved 631 .

" in the main property call. x. Also. dx. abs(dx)<0. the user can have an overview of his objects and subroutines but also can quickly get into the detail of each one easily.dx. However there are additional useful commands that are accessible by keyboard combinations: Ctrl+A 632 Selects all the line where the cursor is located .count1) //solve a linear equation It is also possible to use expressions as (2*x+5) directly as reference parameters. the reference expression result is the Res value as it has been declared after the ". x = -10 dx = 1 count1 = 0 bisect(2*x+5. separated from the expression by a ". the assignments.001 or count1>30. abs(dx)<0. dx. LEO Editor allows to expand and collapse objects and subroutines (generically called titles). Assigning expressions as parameters by reference.res. should be done using the ":=" operand. the reference property y(x) is calculated each time the bisect main property requires a new Y value.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End prop bisect(y(x). The different tools and options are described in the Help Context of the Editor. The following are examples of expressions assignment: Res := y(x) //this expression is not valid as reference parameter Res:=y(x). bisect(res:=y(x).count1) //solve equation It should be noted that the isDone condition is calculated each time it is required (each time it is called) inside the property. abs(dx)<0.001 or count1>30. x. The reference expression is evaluated (property y(x) is calculated) and the assignment executed (Res receives the y(x) value) every time the reference expression is called. In this way. This feature is an enhancement of the previously explained LEO capacity to use properties as reference parameters. When Assigning expressions to be used as reference parameters. x.res //this expression could be used as reference parameter (it includes the reference variable after the expression) The following property call is valid in LEO. unlikeusual LEO code where the assignments use the "=" operand.". The expression variable to be used as reference parameter should also be declared after the assignment.count1) //solve equation and store last y(x) result in Res Additional commands for LEO Editor LEO Editor is a simple editor that allows the user to expand or collapse objects or subroutines.001.

If the line is a collapsed title. If more than one line wants to be copied. select them previously. To expand or collapse a title (subroutine or object). the entire title and contents is deleted. Collapses / expands a title. the operation is performed to all the text inside the title as well. Ctrl-Del ALT + left click ALT + Ctrl + left CTRL + Enter CTRL+left click 633 . Inserts the correspondent statement End (End if. Put the cursor at the title or at the text inside a title and press Ctrl+Enter to toggle between collapsed/expanded. End For. Press Ctrl and Left click over the title or the text inside the title. etc). Moves to the click line the line where the cursor is located. end Prop. select them previously.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO located Ctrl-T Ctrl+Ins / Ctrl+C Shift+Ins / Ctrl+V Ctrl+E TAB / Shift+TAB Delete word contiguous to cursor. Copy the selected text to the clipboard Paste the text in the clipboard at the cursor location. Copies the line where the cursor is to the line where the click is done. If more than one line wants to be moved. Increases and decreases indent of the selected lines. Deletes the line where the cursor is located. If a title is collapsed.