RAM Advanse™

Version 7.0 May 2005

RAM International 2744 Loker Avenue West Bldg B, Ste 100 Carlsbad, CA 92008 Telephone: (760) 431-3610 Toll Free: (800) 726-7789 Fax: (760) 431-5214

TRADEMARKS
Microsoft, Windows, Excel and Word are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. The furnishing of the present program or documents does not give you any license to these trademarks and patents, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights implied.

DISCLAIMER
Both United States copyright law and international treaty provisions protect this software and related documentation. Any unauthorized copying or reproduction is strictly prohibited and subject to civil and criminal penalties. Please refer to the License Agreement for authorization to make a backup copy of the software. You may not sell this software or documentation or give copies of them away to anyone else. Except as expressly warranted in the License Agreement, RAM International disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the software, the accompanying written materials, and any accompanying hardware. All results should be verified to the user’s satisfaction. The contents of these written materials may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors and may be revised without prior notice.

Copyright 1990-2005, RAM International, L.L.C. All Rights Reserved.

RAM AdvanseTM, RAM ConnectionTM, RAM Connection StandaloneTM, RAM Structural SystemTM, RAM ManagerTM, RAM ModelerTM, RAM Steel® and RAM Frame® are trademarks of RAM International, L.L.C.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TRADEMARKS......................................................................................................................3 DISCLAIMER.........................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................17
How to learn RAM Advanse?.......................................................................................................................17 User Interaction Principle ............................................................................................................................17 Design in RAM Advanse ..............................................................................................................................17 Voice commands ..........................................................................................................................................18 Do you need assistance?.............................................................................................................................18 How to report bugs?.....................................................................................................................................18 New features..................................................................................................................................................19 Interface: .................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Analysis: .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Design: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Others:........................................................................................................................................................................ 20 RAM Connection:...................................................................................................................................................... 20

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................23
Main Window .................................................................................................................................................23 Data explorer .................................................................................................................................................24 Units ...............................................................................................................................................................26 Entering nodes, members and shells .........................................................................................................27 How to create nodes? ................................................................................................................................................. 28 End nodes of physical members ............................................................................................................................ 29 Nodes generation tools.......................................................................................................................................... 29 Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet............................................................................................... 29 How to create members?............................................................................................................................................ 30 Selecting the nodes ................................................................................................................................................ 30 Connecting the members ....................................................................................................................................... 32 Templates .............................................................................................................................................................. 32 How to create shells? ................................................................................................................................................. 32 Assigning properties to nodes, members and shells ...............................................................................33 Selecting the elements................................................................................................................................................ 34 Entering the required information in the worksheet................................................................................................... 34 Grouping members and shells ....................................................................................................................35 Load cases and combinations ....................................................................................................................37 Automatic generation of load combinations .............................................................................................................. 37 Entering loads for a load case.....................................................................................................................37 Display of data and results ..........................................................................................................................38 Zoom and rotation ........................................................................................................................................40 Panning..........................................................................................................................................................41 Selecting and hiding elements ....................................................................................................................41 Other basic operations.................................................................................................................................41 Undo Command ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 Erasing elements ........................................................................................................................................................ 41 Erasing the contents of a worksheet........................................................................................................................... 41 Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes ................................................................................................. 42 Segment Elements...................................................................................................................................................... 42 Customizing the interface............................................................................................................................42 General Configuration..................................................................................................................................45

CHAPTER 2: LOCAL AND GLOBAL AXES.......................................................................47

Coordinate systems ..................................................................................................................................... 47 Global coordinate system............................................................................................................................ 47 Local coordinate system ............................................................................................................................. 47 Principal coordinate system........................................................................................................................ 48 Element rotation ........................................................................................................................................... 48 180 and 90 degrees rotation........................................................................................................................................48 Rotating members at an angle.....................................................................................................................................50 Making a local axis parallel to a global axis...............................................................................................................50 Orientating a local axis toward a specific node ..........................................................................................................51 Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes .................................................................................52 Principal axes................................................................................................................................................ 53 Laterally restrained for torsion ................................................................................................................... 54

CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL MEMBERS, STRUCTURE DEBUGGING AND COMMANDS FOR ROTATING THE STRUCTURE .................................................................................. 55
Physical members ........................................................................................................................................ 55 Model Data Check......................................................................................................................................... 63 Rotating the Structure.................................................................................................................................. 64

CHAPTER 4: END RELEASES AND TENSION-ONLY MEMBERS .................................. 67
Pin (hinges) at both ends of members ....................................................................................................... 67 Pin one end of a member............................................................................................................................. 68 Fixing ends of elements............................................................................................................................... 69 Tension only members ................................................................................................................................ 70 Pre-tension .................................................................................................................................................... 71

CHAPTER 5: CARDINAL POINTS, RIGID ZONE OFFSETS, RIGID FLOOR AND PRESSURE ON FRAME MEMBERS.................................................................................. 73
Cardinal Points ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Rigid zone offsets......................................................................................................................................... 74 Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor)............................................................................................. 78 Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points...................................... 80 Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges........................................................................................... 82 Rigid floor...................................................................................................................................................... 82 Entering Rigid floor....................................................................................................................................................83 Pressure on frame members ....................................................................................................................... 84

CHAPTER 6: CREATING SECTIONS AND MATERIALS.................................................. 87
Creating new sections ................................................................................................................................. 87 Section names .............................................................................................................................................. 88 Section Collections ...................................................................................................................................... 89 Parameters for the design of steel members ............................................................................................ 90 Laterally restrained for torsion: ..................................................................................................................................90 Qmod2' exact:.............................................................................................................................................................91 Tapered Members ......................................................................................................................................... 92 Creating Materials......................................................................................................................................... 94 Importing and exporting sections and materials ...................................................................................... 95

CHAPTER 7: USING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ............................................................. 99
Templates ...................................................................................................................................................... 99 Example 1: Creating a Truss ....................................................................................................................... 99 Example 2: Creating an entire structure .................................................................................................. 103 Completing data.......................................................................................................................................... 108

CHAPTER 8: OTHER ADVANCED SUBJECTS .............................................................. 111
Generation of load combinations ............................................................................................................. 111

Elastic supports ..........................................................................................................................................112 Prescribed displacements .........................................................................................................................113 Self - weight.................................................................................................................................................114 Thermal loads..............................................................................................................................................115 Node generation..........................................................................................................................................115 Copy nodes............................................................................................................................................................... 117 Linear generation of nodes....................................................................................................................................... 118 Quadratic generation of nodes ................................................................................................................................. 118 Circular generation of nodes .................................................................................................................................... 119

CHAPTER 9: ANALYSIS...................................................................................................121
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................121 Frame Element ............................................................................................................................................122 Shell Element ..............................................................................................................................................124 Rigid Diaphragm Constraints ....................................................................................................................125 P-Delta Analysis..........................................................................................................................................125 What is P-Delta effect? ............................................................................................................................................ 125 Small p-delta effect .................................................................................................................................................. 125 Large P-Delta effect ................................................................................................................................................. 126 P-Delta calculation methods .................................................................................................................................... 126 Iterative P-Delta Effects........................................................................................................................................... 126 P-Delta effect in load combinations ......................................................................................................................... 127 Dynamic analysis, and P-Delta ................................................................................................................................ 127 Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span .......................................................... 128 Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis...............................................................................................128 Eigen Value Analysis..................................................................................................................................130 References...................................................................................................................................................131

CHAPTER 10: DYNAMIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS ...............................................................133
Modal Analysis............................................................................................................................................133 Determination of the Dynamic Forces......................................................................................................134 Methods of Modal Superposition............................................................................................................................. 134 CQC Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 SRSS Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 ABS Method......................................................................................................................................................... 134 Seismic results with sign...................................................................................................................................... 134 Entering Mass .............................................................................................................................................135 Seismic Loads.............................................................................................................................................136 Seismic analysis .........................................................................................................................................138 Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration ........................................................138 Load combinations .....................................................................................................................................139 Construction details ...................................................................................................................................139 Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse ............................................................................................................139 Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings....................................................................................................140 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) .....................................................................................................142

CHAPTER 11: STEEL AND WOOD STRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION AND CODE CHECK ...........................................................................................................................................145
Optimization and code check ....................................................................................................................147 Optimization ............................................................................................................................................................ 147 Verification or Code Check ..................................................................................................................................... 147 Optimization basis ......................................................................................................................................148 How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section ..................................................................................148 Optimization process .................................................................................................................................149 Verification process ...................................................................................................................................150 Structure deflections and deformations ..................................................................................................150

Optimization with other criteria................................................................................................................. 151 Appropriate section not found .................................................................................................................. 152 Non-steel or wood members ..................................................................................................................... 152 AISC and AISI sections .............................................................................................................................. 152 Optimization with default collection of sections..................................................................................... 152

CHAPTER 12: PRINTING GRAPHICS AND REPORTS .................................................. 153
Model Data................................................................................................................................................... 153 Loads Data .................................................................................................................................................. 153 Analysis Results ......................................................................................................................................... 153 Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 154 Steel Design ................................................................................................................................................ 154 Reinforced Concrete Design ..................................................................................................................... 155 Connections Design ................................................................................................................................... 156 Wood Design............................................................................................................................................... 156 List of Materials .......................................................................................................................................... 157 Parts List ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 List of Joints ............................................................................................................................................... 157 Diagrams ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 Report .......................................................................................................................................................................157 Display on the screen................................................................................................................................................159 Export diagrams to DXF files...................................................................................................................................160 Reports ........................................................................................................................................................ 161 General commands for print report...........................................................................................................................161 Customizing the heading of a report.........................................................................................................................163 Reports of the detailing modules ..............................................................................................................................164 Printing Graphics........................................................................................................................................ 164 Text Box....................................................................................................................................................... 166

CHAPTER 13: IMPORTING AND EXPORTING DATA .................................................... 169
Importing ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 DXF files ...................................................................................................................................................... 169 What are DXF files? .................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting as DXF files................................................................................................................................ 169 Importing a DXF file.................................................................................................................................... 170 Creating a DXF file...................................................................................................................................... 170 Reading DXF files ....................................................................................................................................... 171 RAM Structural System Files .................................................................................................................... 172 SDNF Files................................................................................................................................................... 172 What are SDNF files? ................................................................................................................................. 172 Sending data to a SDNF file....................................................................................................................... 172 Sending data to RAM BasePlate ............................................................................................................... 174

CHAPTER 14: SHELLS .................................................................................................... 175
Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 175 The Shell Element....................................................................................................................................... 175 Applications for the model ........................................................................................................................ 177 Generating shells........................................................................................................................................ 179 Description .................................................................................................................................................. 181 Entering Shell Thickness........................................................................................................................... 181 Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing)..................................................................................... 182 Assigning Materials.................................................................................................................................... 183 Pressure on the Plates............................................................................................................................... 183 Segmentation (meshing) of Plates............................................................................................................ 184 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells .......................................................... 187 Printing the results ..................................................................................................................................... 187

Shell stresses..............................................................................................................................................188 Internal forces in nodes .............................................................................................................................189 Corner Forces .............................................................................................................................................190 Face forces ..................................................................................................................................................190 Reinforced concrete design for plates .....................................................................................................191 Graphic environment..................................................................................................................................191 Frame members (default) ......................................................................................................................................... 192 Stresses..................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Internal forces in nodes ............................................................................................................................................ 192 Reinforcement in RC plates ..................................................................................................................................... 193 Smooth ..................................................................................................................................................................... 195 Envel and Max ......................................................................................................................................................... 195 Stresses on both sides of the shell ............................................................................................................................ 196

CHAPTER 15: CREATING NEW TYPES OF SECTIONS WITH MACROS......................197
Common parameters:.................................................................................................................................199 Default Units............................................................................................................................................................ 200 Section type.............................................................................................................................................................. 200 Shape........................................................................................................................................................................ 200 Design code.............................................................................................................................................................. 201 Design formulation .................................................................................................................................................. 201 Cbmax........................................................................................................................................................... 202 Connection ............................................................................................................................................................... 202 Category........................................................................................................................................................ 203 Commentary............................................................................................................................................................. 203 Section variables ........................................................................................................................................204 Prop AskUser ..............................................................................................................................................205 Prop Section Shape ....................................................................................................................................206 Node......................................................................................................................................................................... 206 SetLine...EndLine .................................................................................................................................................... 207 Segment ................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Rigid(ity).................................................................................................................................................................. 208 SetSolid.................................................................................................................................................................... 210 Bars and Bar............................................................................................................................................................. 211 Join........................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Closed ...................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Line .......................................................................................................................................................................... 213 Prop Tapered properties ............................................................................................................................213 Prop PropertiesCalc ...................................................................................................................................213

CHAPTER 16: CREATING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ..................................................215
The TEXT.tpl file..........................................................................................................................................216 The TPL file..................................................................................................................................................216 DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................ 216 VARIABLES ........................................................................................................................................................... 216 SELECT................................................................................................................................................................... 217 LINE ........................................................................................................................................................................ 218 DIAGONAL ............................................................................................................................................................ 219 TEMPLATE............................................................................................................................................................. 222 Example 1: Creating a template ................................................................................................................223 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing.................................................................................................................. 224 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing ................................................................................................ 224 3) Create the TPL file............................................................................................................................................... 225 Example 2: Creating a template ................................................................................................................227 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing........................................................................................................................... 228 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing ............................................................................................................ 228

3) Create the TPL file ...............................................................................................................................................229 Using the Example 2 template................................................................................................................... 232

CHAPTER 17: BUILDING STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 235
Generating deck or wall areas................................................................................................................... 235 Generating Wind Load ............................................................................................................................... 238 Rigid floor diaphragm ..............................................................................................................................................238 Generating wind loads ............................................................................................................................... 239 Generating masses for each floor ............................................................................................................ 241

CHAPTER 18: DESIGN AND DETAILING MODULES..................................................... 245
Design.......................................................................................................................................................... 245 Design and Detailing Modules .................................................................................................................. 245 Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 246 Invoking the Modules ................................................................................................................................. 246 Dependent detailing modules ...................................................................................................................................246 Independent detailing modules .................................................................................................................................248 Organization of the Modules ..................................................................................................................... 249 Navigation and Data Entry......................................................................................................................... 250 Zoom ........................................................................................................................................................................250 Font Size...................................................................................................................................................................251 DXF files ..................................................................................................................................................................251 Print graphics............................................................................................................................................................251 Panning .....................................................................................................................................................................251 Data Entry.................................................................................................................................................................252 Results and verifications ........................................................................................................................... 254

CHAPTER 19: GENERAL DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES ...................................... 255
Loads ........................................................................................................................................................... 255 Sections....................................................................................................................................................... 256 Selection of the design code..................................................................................................................... 256 Coordinate system used in design ........................................................................................................... 257 Design Parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 258 Braced Against Sidesway Flag ................................................................................................................. 258 Effective Length (K) Factors...................................................................................................................... 259 Axial unbraced length of the member (L) ................................................................................................ 260 Lbpos, Lbneg lengths............................................................................................................ 260 Cm Coefficients...................................................................................................................... 261 Cb Coefficients....................................................................................................................... 261 Lepos, Leneg lengths ...................................................................................................................... 262 m Coefficients................................................................................................................................... 262 mLT Coefficients .............................................................................................................................. 262 Torsion......................................................................................................................................................... 263 Design and optimization ............................................................................................................................ 263 Steel Connections ...................................................................................................................................... 264 Output of results......................................................................................................................................... 264 Screen output ............................................................................................................................................................265 Reports......................................................................................................................................................................266

CHAPTER 20: DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ....... 269
Determination of a member with an AISC section .................................................................................. 269 CODE=HOTROLLED .............................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINEOPEN ..................................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINECLOSED .............................................................................................................................................270

SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 270 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 270 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................271 ASD technical notes ...................................................................................................................................272 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 272 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 274 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 274 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 274 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 275 Combined stresses.................................................................................................................................................... 275 LRFD technical notes .................................................................................................................................275 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 275 Members in tension.................................................................................................................................................. 277 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 277 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 278 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................278 AISC-ASD Flowcharts ................................................................................................................................280 AISC-LRFD Flowcharts ..............................................................................................................................298

CHAPTER 21: DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS (AISI-96) ....................311
Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member ......................................................................311 CODE=COLDFORMED ......................................................................................................................................... 311 TYPE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 311 2nd order analysis........................................................................................................................................312 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................312 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 312 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Flexural members..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Compression members............................................................................................................................................. 314 Combined axial load and bending............................................................................................................................ 315 Tubular members ..................................................................................................................................................... 315 AISI 96 Flowcharts ......................................................................................................................................316

CHAPTER 22: DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS (BS 5950) ..............................................331
Determination of a member with a BS section ........................................................................................331 CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED ........................................................................................ 331 TYPE=LINEOPEN.................................................................................................................................................. 331 TYPE=LINECLOSED............................................................................................................................................. 331 SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 331 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 332 Load Combinations ....................................................................................................................................332 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................333 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................333 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 333 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 334 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 334 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 335 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 337 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................337 BS 5950 Flowcharts....................................................................................................................................339

CHAPTER 23: ACI REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN ................................................349
Loads ...........................................................................................................................................................349 Bar size series.............................................................................................................................................349

CHAPTER 24: REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM DESIGN............................................351
Identifying Concrete Beams ......................................................................................................................351

Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 352 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................352 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................353 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 353 General .....................................................................................................................................................................354 Limitations................................................................................................................................................................354 Flexural Design ........................................................................................................................................................354 Shear Design.............................................................................................................................................................355 Torsion Design .........................................................................................................................................................356 Detailing Requirements ............................................................................................................................................357 Reports and Screen Output....................................................................................................................... 358 Summary Report of Beam Design ............................................................................................................................358 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................362 Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module ................................................................................................ 363 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................363 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................369 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................371 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................373 Report of reinforced concrete beams....................................................................................................... 375 ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts ....................................................................................................... 378

CHAPTER 25: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS. 391
Identifying the columns for design........................................................................................................... 391 Column Design Parameters....................................................................................................................... 392 Braced Against Sidesway Flag .................................................................................................................................392 Effective Length (K) Factor......................................................................................................................................393 Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor........................................................................................................................393 Unbraced Member Length (L)..................................................................................................................................394 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 394 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................395 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................395 ACI Technical Notes ................................................................................................................................... 395 Design of longitudinal reinforcement .......................................................................................................................396 Slenderness effects ...................................................................................................................................................396 Bending design .........................................................................................................................................................398 Shear design..............................................................................................................................................................398 Special provisions for seismic design.......................................................................................................................399 Output .......................................................................................................................................................... 399 Report Output ...........................................................................................................................................................399 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................400 Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module............................................................................................. 402 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................402 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................414 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................419 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................419 Report of reinforced concrete columns ................................................................................................... 420 ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts.................................................................................................... 423

CHAPTER 26: FOOTING DESIGN AND DETAILING ...................................................... 441
Design Steps ............................................................................................................................................... 441 Soil-footing-structure modeling................................................................................................................................441 Adopted dimensions .................................................................................................................................................441 Verifications .............................................................................................................................................................441 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 441 Loads ........................................................................................................................................................................442 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................442 Overall stability against sliding, overturning and soil bearing capacity ...................................................................442

.......................................... 531 Connection Toolbar ................................................................................ 504 Individual Connections ................................................................................................................... 456 Configuration Screen .........519 The Connection Template Database............................................... 540 Assign selected connection template to model ...........................477 Determination of the wood member data..............................................................................................................504 Grouped Connections..................................................................................................................... 459 Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction ....................................................................................497 References............................ 477 Wood materials ................................................................... 514 HSS Section Supports ..............................................444 Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module ................ 541 ............... 453 Detailing Screen......................................... 496 Combined stresses.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................492 ASD technical notes ................................................................. 495 Beams and other flexural members.................................................................................................................................. 536 Groups4............................ 504 Designing Connections ............. 479 Species .............. 537 Customizing the connection toolbar..........................................................460 Column Located at Center of Footing.......................................................................532 Group1: Selection options (connections and joints)........................................................... 464 Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 537 Connection Worksheet..................................................................................................................................................... 486 Design post processing inside RAM Advanse .......................................................................................................................................................................... 496 Wood design macro for adjustment factors ......................................503 How to find technical information about a specific connection?..................... 533 Group2: Result display options........................................................................... 444 Foundation Spring Modeling Tools ............................................503 What is a Connection? ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 457 Report of reinforced concrete footings............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 535 Group3: Design and Assignment settings .....................................................467 CHAPTER 27: WOOD DESIGN (NDS-ASD) ..................................................................................................... 477 Member Section .......................................................................... 492 Wood Detailing Module .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................490 Reports .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 504 Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) ..................................... 460 Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) ......................................................................................................................540 Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Theory .Design ........503 How to Use RAM Connection? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 526 Databases for sections..............................................................................................5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons ........................................................................................... 522 Defining Connection Templates .................................................................... bolts and welds................................................................................................................. 480 Design Parameters ... 447 Design Screen ....................522 Database Organization ...............................................................................................................447 Data Screen ................................................................................................................................................................................................................477 Loads......................................494 Tension members ...................................................................................................................... 518 Design Criteria ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................500 CHAPTER 28: STEEL CONNECTIONS............................................. materials............. 490 Screen output ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 495 Columns and other compression members........................................................................................................... 491 Deflection control ..... 495 Members subject to torsion ................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................547 Print graphics.................................................................557 Loads ....................................................562 Reinforced Masonry Design .......................557 Stem axial loads ...................................................................................................................................................563 Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module .................................547 Panning .......................................555 General ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................555 3) Optimization..........547 DXF files .................................................................................. 552 CHAPTER 29: RETAINING WALLS................................................................................................................................................................................................................543 Assign connection description ....................................................................................................... 555 Design steps ......................................................................................573 References ....................................................................................................................................................Replace (all) the current selected connection (s)............................................................................................................................................................561 Design of components of the wall ......................................................................................................................................................557 Seismic Load ................................................................................................................................................................................... 577 1) Entering Data.........................578 Design Codes............................................................................................................................................577 3) Verifications ......................................................................................................................................................................................579 Load combinations.............547 3: Help area............................................................................ 543 1: Properties area ......................................................................................545 Font Size..............................580 Design parameters .....................557 Earth pressures ...556 Limitations.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 576 CHAPTER 30: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS..................557 Design Codes................571 View as RAM Advanse Model.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................577 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing.......................580 ..................................................................................543 Connection Pad ........................................................................................................................................................................................555 Technical notes.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................561 Unreinforced Concrete Design ............................................................................ 577 Design steps .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 555 1) Data introduction...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 555 Terminology ........ 551 References .........................................................................................548 Connections Reports ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................569 Configuration Screen........................................573 Reports and Screen Output ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 563 Data Screen.................................................................... 578 General ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................543 Deleting model connections.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................567 Detailing Screen ............................................555 2) Verification and Detailing .......................................................544 2: Drawing area .......................................................................................................................................................................577 4) Optimization.......................................................................................578 Limitations.....................................577 Technical Notes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................579 Pattern loading .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................547 LEO Code (macros)..................................................................................................................................................................................................561 Reinforced Concrete Design ..............................................................................................................560 Load Combinations..................................564 Design Screen........................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................................................578 Analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..................... 624 PROP READ statements (Property).................................. 621 IF THEN ELSE statements .................................................................................................................................................................................. 585 Detailing Screen........................... 597 Customizing geometry ........ 598 Connection Design....................................................................... 581 Design/Detailing Module Beam ......................................... 632 Additional commands for LEO Editor............................. 601 Assigning a status message to the connection........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 602 Bolted connection design example: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 598 Entering the commands .....................................................................................................................................................617 Explicit form....................................................... 581 Passing data of the main program ............................................................................................................................................................... 586 Configuration Screen ........................................................................................611 Data types and variables............................................................................................................................................................................................. 598 End Plate........................... ..................................597 Basic example of a macro ........................... 622 WHILE statements.................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................. 627 Parameters by reference........619 Structured statements............................ 580 Unbraced length Lb............................................................................... 621 FOR 2(i=0....................................................................................................................................................................................... 618 By assigning an initial value...................................................................... 622 WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements ............................................................................. 582 Design Screen ............................................................................................................................................. 602 Welded connection design example.............................................................................................................................. 590 CHAPTER 31: PROGRAMMING IN LEO.................581 Entering data for a Continuous Beam ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 629 Properties as parameters by reference................ <N ......................................................................................... 581 Detailing Requirements................................................................................................................................................... 581 Design ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 618 Operations with Float variables......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 629 Assigning expressions as parameters by reference...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................. 582 Data Screen ............... .. 621 FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements .............................................................................................................................610 LEO Commands ................................................................................ 588 Optimization screen ..................................................................................................................... 624 GROUP statements ....................... 590 Reports and Screen Output.................................... 617 Short form.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 580 Bending coefficient Cb ................................................................................................. ...................................................................................597 Macros for connections .................................................................................621 IF THEN statements..................................................................................606 Macros to define section types .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... +1) statements........................................................................................................................................632 .......................Cracked Section Factors ....... 624 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) ........................................................................... 605 Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse) ...........................................................................

.

e. This program provides unequaled flexibility for the design and analysis of different types of 2D or 3D structures containing linear members and shell elements. sections and materials) and the program verifies the members obtaining a strength ratio that reflects the status of each element. After each verification cycle. The engineer defines initial properties (i. All the provided tools for entering or generating data. How to learn RAM Advanse? We strongly suggest that new users start reading Chapter 1 of the manual and then continue with the RAM Advanse Examples Manual to learn and practice the basic commands of the program. wood (sawn lumber and glulam) and reinforced concrete elements using the AISC. Experienced users may want to see the new features that are briefly explained in the next section. RAM Advanse is also capable of designing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel structures. The most important benefit of this procedure is that the user will have a complete control of the structure design and the certainty that it suits to his/her requirements 17 . retaining walls and continuous beams. Specifically. This ‘select and apply’ rule is a unique and fundamental feature of the program that facilitates rapid model creation and output customization. The program includes special modules for designing isolated footings. the user has to select the desired elements (nodes. Additionally RAM Advanse can work with RAM Connection. For further details please see the indicated chapters. NDS and ACI codes respectively. general-purpose structural engineering software package. AISI. the user is free to change or confirm the properties with or without several tools developed for this purpose. User Interaction Principle RAM Advanse has adopted a constant philosophy in the way all of its commands (actions) are applied to members in a model. In addition. Second order (P-Delta Analysis) and Dynamic (Seismic Analysis). Design in RAM Advanse Another philosophy that RAM Advanse has adopted for the design of steel. a powerful and flexible 3D. BS. is the "trial and error" procedure. reinforced concrete columns. the engineer can then apply any command that will only affect those elements. together with the display and printing options adhere to this ‘select and apply’ principle. a revolutionary tool that allows the fast design of steel connections inside or outside RAM Advanse. reinforced concrete or wood structures. members or shells) of the structure and once they are selected.Introduction Introduction Welcome to RAM Advanse. The types of analysis available are: First order (Linear Analysis).

Do you need assistance? RAM Advanse has several tools that can help you during the execution of the program. please let us know. members or elements should be selected using traditional methods (mouse or spreadsheet). or at any time you need assistance on any particular feature you are working on. it is possible. all the involved changes are always thoroughly tested. How to report bugs? We are continuously improving the program to increase your productivity. You can call the Assistant (pressing F4 to activate it). for a feature that is not covered. however. analysis and design of a typical structure. 18 .com. Select the option: Help/Create bug report. and then commands can be verbally issued. combined with the mouse. press F1 (or click on the help button in the worksheet area) to access context sensitive help. It will guide you step-by-step through the modeling. In principle. can dramatically improve the speed at which models are created. Use the bug report option to compile all the information and send it to advansesupport@ramint.Introduction Voice commands This high-tech feature. Although. Additionally. If you find something that is not working as you expect during the check of your work. that a side effect is not detected during the quality assurance.

19 . This includes elapsed times and warnings. New features This section describes the features added in version 7. New colors and improved ranges for the display of forces and stresses. Interface: The user interface has been improved in many aspects.0. Enhanced spreadsheets with improved capacity to cut or paste information to the clipboard and many new features. Improved graphics quality. New tool for the generation of intermediate nodes at certain distances from the start or end nodes. Option to display merged loads for load combinations avoiding superposition. The most important are: • • • • • • New progress windows for analysis and design with an additional window that displays a log after the processes are completed.Introduction Select the desired options to create the compressed file and send it to our technical support. More detailed explanations of these features will be found in the corresponding chapters of the manual or in the Help context. New button ( ) to access units configuration dialog without going to the menu.

RAM Connection: Bracing connections that include bracing members as single angles.Introduction Analysis: The analysis has been dramatically improved with the implementation of a completely new analysis engine. The connections consider single braces. An internal bandwidth optimization is carried out before starting the analysis. W-shapes or HSS shapes. This will be reflected even more in big models or complex structures. Data exportation to RAM BasePlate enabled for HSS columns. Spread footings design per ACI-318. Through shear or transverse shear in plates. Improved data entering for members’ optimization process. Former versions had a maximum limit of 15 modes. Calculation of the P-Delta effects using a geometric stiffness matrix. Now the footing-detailing module suggests the dimensions of the footing to be analyzed. Automatic load patterns (skip loading) is available in the module. reinforced or un-reinforced walls according to ACI 318-99 and ACI 530-02. • • • Design: • • New retaining wall design module that includes cantilever and restrained walls. tees. tees or channels. New design and detailing module for continuous beams that includes wood. double braces (k-braces). masonry. Consideration of shear forces for static loads in reinforced concrete seismic design. Now the program calculates bending moments and shear forces acting in plates with out-of–plane loads. Improved quality and speed of printing graphs and tables. The following improvements have been obtained: • Improved analysis time. A sparse solver is employed and utilizes a sky-line column storage algorithm. Shell reports have been modified to include through shear and the new analysis features. where the reduction in time will be close to the smaller percentage. double angles. concrete. and any combination of braces and beams (only one brace per 20 . The number of mode frequencies is restricted now only by the number of masses. being more realistic (since it is directly derived from kinematics of motion) and also more robust in comparison with the method adopted in previous versions (the fictitious lateral load method). • • • • Others: • • • • • New Concise AISI member design report. The time required for the analysis has been reduced to a fraction in the order of 20 to 50% of the time required in previous versions. The order of the selected columns is smartly reordered (from bottom to top) before running the detailing concrete design module. concrete and steel beams according to the codes covered in the main program. channels.

Introduction quadrant is allowed). Calculation of welds for stiffeners and other minor enhancements. labels. simple plates or welds. 21 . views. • • 2D Graphics with DXF output for all existing connections and several options to draw (dimensions. etc.) and export drawings. The connectors between members and gusset may be angles.

.

output or process the model. Create nodes. section and load data is input. draw. Other basic operations 8. materials. we recommend you practice the basic operations by modeling one of the structures in the Examples Manual. manipulated and viewed. B: Toolbars – Commands to help you rapidly select. The main window is displayed below with all of the individual work areas identified. The basic operations of the program required to create a structural model are: 1. D: Data Panel Worksheet/Spreadsheet area – Area where member properties and geometric data are input for the selected members. and to familiarize the user with the programs interface. Note that the location and visibility of the toolbars are configurable (see the last sections of this chapter). members and shells 2. Customizing the interface After learning the basic operations. C: Data Explorer – Area to allow engineer to quickly navigate to desired input spreadsheet and to review what data has been input. The general use of these areas is described later in this chapter. 3. Assign properties to elements such as sections. 23 . Group members and shells 4. and design elements of your model. E: Display area – Area where model and any other selected display options are shown. Main Window RAM Advanse has a main window in which all the model geometric. In short the areas are: A: Applications menu bar: Where you can find the main commands of the program to input. etc. Enter loads 6. Create load cases and load combinations 5.Chapter 1: General Overview Chapter 1: General Overview The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the basic commands required to model a structure in RAM Advanse. view data or results. Display various member properties 7.

Chapter 1: General Overview RAM Advanse Main window. Or you can use the option available in the Applications Menu Bar or Main Menu: 24 . Remark. Data explorer The Explorer shows you all the available data worksheets where you can enter the data for the model. you can simply click over the required item in the Explorer and it will open the corresponding worksheet. To activate (or deactivate) it you have to press the following button in the Panels Toolbar as shown in the figure (if this toolbar is visible). To navigate from one worksheet to another..Initially the Data Explorer is disabled (hidden).

It is only necessary to enter data required to completely model the specific structure. Use one of these options to enable the worksheet. In this way the user can easily verify what data have been entered and what data is still required. It is also not necessary to follow a specific order in data entry. The user is not required to enter data for all of the items.Chapter 1: General Overview The data Explorer is always used with the Worksheet. if your structure does not have shells. 25 . then the corresponding shell item can be ignored. Therefore you have to activate the worksheet as well. The user can skip from one worksheet to another in almost any order. If the items in the list are checked . it means that those items contain data. For example.

as it is illustrated in the figure above. Units It is always recommended to define the current unit system before entering any data. and then the button related to the desired property (2). To define the units press the button or go to the Applications Menu Bar select the units option: Select the option: Configuration/Units 26 .Chapter 1: General Overview If you want to hide your Explorer then you can still get to any worksheet on the Data panel by pressing one of the Tab elements (1).

In this chapter we will explain the manual entry of nodes. linear members. you can create it using templates. 27 . SI or Metric). the user can select the desired units system (1) (English. There are several methods available to generate these elements. Refer to the relevant chapters of this manual for a description of the other methods available to create a model. members and shells A single structural model consists mainly of nodes. members and shells. you can import a model from a DXF file. you can import it from RAM Structural System or you can generate it manually. the specific units within the selected system for different groups of variables (2) or select custom predefined settings for the former options (3).Chapter 1: General Overview In the dialog box. For example. Entering nodes. and shell elements with their corresponding properties.

Use the space bar or tab button to move between cells on the same row and Enter to go to the next row of cells. You can click in the Nodes/Coordinates item of the Explorer or if it is hidden you can use the Tabs (Nodes) and the corresponding buttons (Coordinates) of the Data Panel.5 ft. You can even combine different units. Note that while you are entering the coordinates. but you want to enter a coordinate in feet. For example. Enter the node coordinate data in the worksheet.Chapter 1: General Overview How to create nodes? Go to the Nodes/Coordinates worksheet. When entering coordinates you can include the units of the coordinates. Then you can enter "10ft" and the program will automatically perform the conversion to the default units (in this case [in]). For example. if you are working with inches for lengths in the English units system. you can enter 10'-6" and the program will interpret this value as 10. the nodes are displayed graphically. Some examples of acceptable data entry are given next: 10ft 10’ 28 .

Press F2 if you want to edit the cell contents. Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet This is a powerful option for the generation of node coordinates.Chapter 1: General Overview 10ft-6in 10’-6” 10ft-6” 10ft-16cm 10m 10m-50cm This feature can be applied in any worksheet of the Data Panel. End nodes of physical members It is only necessary to enter the nodes at the ends of physical members. which has useful information on: 1) The data to be introduced in the worksheets and 2) The use of the tool buttons to generate the data. Press the button to undo the entered data. The user can create the coordinates in another application like Excel and then paste the data into RAM Advanse. 29 . The generation of intermediate nodes or the nodes at the intersections of members will be described later. In any worksheet of the Data Panel you can press F1 to display the Help context. See the description of all shortcuts and mouse operations in the help menu for more hints. Nodes generation tools At the bottom of the Coordinates worksheet you can find several buttons for the automatic generation of nodes. Press F1 to obtain more information related to the use and application of these tools. Press ESC if you want to cancel the entry.

its initial and final nodes have to be selected. It is also possible to copy the contents of a RAM Advanse worksheet and paste it into another application. How to create members? Go to Members/Connectivity worksheet (Nodes and Description) to generate members. The creation of members is simple and it is performed in two steps: 1. you can generate the nodes coordinates in Excel. press F1 and then go to General commands of the worksheet. copy them to the Clipboard and then paste them to the Nodes worksheet using the indicated button. Selecting the nodes To generate any member. Select the nodes that will be connected by the members. For example. the user can generate the springs for a mat-slab in Excel and then import them with this command. 2.Chapter 1: General Overview The illustrated button pastes the information of the Clipboard to the active worksheet of the Data Panel. 30 . This paste option can be applied to any worksheet of the Data Panel. For example. Connect the members pressing the button or . For more information on how to use this command.

You can select multiple members by enclosing the members in a rectangle created by click and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. invoke the Assistant (press F4) and go to General actions of frequent use or see the list of Mouse Operations. and in the case of shells. That is. click the cursor on the first node and then holding down the shift key select each of the remaining nodes. both nodes have to be enclosed in the rectangle. pressing the Shift key enables the selection of the elements within the area without affecting the selection state of the elements outside the area. the four nodes have to be enclosed.Chapter 1: General Overview To select multiple nodes. member or shell). If you press the Ctrl key instead of the Shift key while you are selecting members. all the elements partially covered by the area (with at least one node in rectangle) will be selected. 31 . In this case. the previously selected elements are deselected. Using this technique only the elements fully enclosed by the area are selected. Pressing the Shift key. the user can select (or deselect) several members without affecting the previously selected elements. For more information on the selection features. When you click on an element (node. in the case of members.

Press the button to connect the nodes alternately with members. See Chapter 3 for further details. You can create shells in the same way as members with the following two steps: 1.. Select the nodes that will be connected by shells or physical shells (with overall dimensions). Important! Note that the selection order of the nodes is very important as it defines the local axes of the members. Remark. You can press F1 to have more information related to the rest of the tool buttons of this worksheet. 32 . Templates Available structural templates allow for the rapid generation of members and nodes for specific types of structures.Note that it is also possible to manually enter (directly in the worksheet) the information (initial and final node numbers) for each member. It is also possible to generate the information in Excel (for example) and use the copy-paste command to bring the data into Advanse. You can define physical members by selecting only the start and final nodes of the member: The member will be automatically segmented for the analysis.Chapter 1: General Overview Connecting the members Press the button indicated in the previous figure to connect the members between the selected nodes. How to create shells? Go to Shells/Connectivity (Nodes) worksheet for the generation of shells. This feature is explained in detail later in the manual but should be kept in mind when creating typical structural components such as trusses. This button will connect the nodes in a continuous manner.

Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes: Assigning properties to nodes. Create shells by pressing the button . The steps to assign properties to elements are: 1. materials. members and shells have been entered. Important! The shell elements are finite elements that need to be segmented to increment the precision in the analysis. These properties include restraints. You can define the mesh size by typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet. as it is illustrated in the previous figure. Enter the required information in the corresponding worksheet. Please note the required selection order of the nodes. Note that you can create several shell elements if you select more than 4 nodes. 33 .Chapter 1: General Overview 2. Then. Press F1 to obtain more information related to the tool buttons of this worksheet. Select the desired elements to be assigned with the properties 3. etc. press the indicated button to generate them. Go to the required worksheet 2. The nodes have to be selected in the order shown in the figure. the user has to assign properties to them. thickness. members and shells Once the nodes. sections.

Entering the required information in the worksheet In the worksheet enter the required information. It can also be defined by using the tool buttons. Information can be entered manually in the worksheet. For example. or it can be pasted from the Clipboard. to assign the restraints to the support nodes you can proceed as follows: 1. select the support nodes to assign the restraints.Chapter 1: General Overview Selecting the elements Select the elements to be assigned with a property. For example. 34 . Note that in the worksheet only the information of the selected members are displayed. You can select any element by entering its number in the first column of the worksheet and pressing ENTER (as it is show in the previous figure). Go to the Nodes/Restraints worksheet. To copy a value to all the selected members put the cursor in the cell with the desired value and press the button indicated in the figure above.

the rapid and easy selection of elements is very important in the program. Press one of the following buttons indicated in the figure. To group several members or shells you have to assign them the same Description. which is found in the Members/Connectivity and Shells/Thickness worksheets. The members and shells can be grouped using the Description property.Chapter 1: General Overview 2. Therefore. Once the members or shells have a description. it is of vital importance to group the elements to facilitate easier selection (and design). Button to select all elements with the same description. Select the support nodes 3. It only erases the properties or information of the current worksheet. 35 . This tool button does not erase the related elements. so that elements can be selected in groups instead of individually. you can select the whole group (all members with the same description) by using the tool button shown in the figure above. Grouping members and shells As you may have noticed. All the current data in a worksheet may be cleared using the button .

Chapter 1: General Overview For example. The program will select all members with the same Description(s) of the previously selected members. to copy a description to all the selected members. To simultaneously select several groups select one instance (member or shell) of each group using the Shift key and then press the button . . You can use the button . select one instance of the members and then press the button . to select all the roof beams of the model shown in the figure above. for members and 36 . This command copies the description of the last selected element to the rest of the selected elements. You can automatically generate default descriptions with the buttons for shells.

Clear load cases or combinations. RAM Advanse manages the dynamic load cases exactly in the same way as the static load cases. Note that the limit of the number of load conditions in RAM Advanse is 200. This figure shows the option in the Application Menu bar used to create. You can use the Loads toolbar to select the current load case or combination for the entry or editing of loads Loads toolbar Automatic generation of load combinations You can automatically generate load combinations in RAM Advanse. 37 . Execute the Loads/Generate load combinations command on the main menu and select one of the combinations file provided by the program. delete. In the event that no generator file matches your needs. Create new load cases or combinations. edit and select load conditions (RAM Advanse refers to both load cases and load combinations as load conditions). 5. select the desired load case before proceeding to enter loads.Chapter 1: General Overview Load cases and combinations Loads tab of the main menu. This option allows you to: 4. Edit the load case or combinations. 6. Entering loads for a load case First. you can create a new one. For more details press F1 in the dialog box.

This command is very useful. for example. which will be associated with the loads to be entered. You can also copy the loads from one load case to the current load case. invoke the command Loads/Copy forces from another load case from the main menu. 38 . Display of data and results RAM Advanse follows the forces sign convention shown below: RAM Advanse can show almost all data and results in a graphical way. This procedure can also be used for 3D structures with similar load cases. This is controlled through the Display options window or the set of available tool bars that may be shown on the screen. to create alternate loads in different spans of continuous beams. Continue with the entry of the loads on nodes. members or shells as explained for other properties. To do this. You only have to create one load condition with the loads over all the spans and then copy the loads to the other load cases.Chapter 1: General Overview Select the current load case. Then you can erase the loads over alternate spans in the two load cases.

It has several tabs with the different display toolbars Available display toolbars. The following button the screen unselects all the display option buttons. Press the button with the desired option to display it or unselect it to hide the option. You can find it at the top right of 39 . A tooltip for the button will be displayed if you hover with the cursor over the desired button.Chapter 1: General Overview Enable the Display options window (1) or the different toolbars to display data and results (2) Display options window.

press the button to display the reactions and then press the "2" button. Display of translations and rotations 2. These buttons are applicable with the following display options (see Model properties and Analysis toolbars): 1. if you want to display the Reactions parallel to the global Y-axis. Zoom and rotation The following toolbars are used to zoom. Display of reactions 3. If you have a mouse wheel you can use it to rotate and zoom in or out the model. in the Units toolbar to view the units with all of the displayed values. If you want to display the moments around the global Z axis you have to press the "6" button.Chapter 1: General Overview Or you can use the available option in the main menu Note that you can also use the shortcut Ctrl + U to unselect all the display options This group of buttons allows the user to select the degree of freedom to be displayed for certain selected parameters. change perspective. Mouse wheel is equivalent to or or or or . rotate and edit the view of the model. . Visualization and Cursor toolbars to define the view of the model. font size. For example. Ctrl + mouse wheel is equivalent to Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + 0 (or mouse wheel click) is equivalent to 40 . . Display of masses Press the button .

go to the corresponding worksheet. the previous command will be undone and so on. Select what you want to view. Press the button . Other basic operations Undo Command If you have accidentally performed an action. Panning Click the right button at the point on the structure that you want centered on the screen. To view the whole model press the same button again. members and/or shells.Chapter 1: General Overview Notice that you can modify the rotation increment for each rotation command in the Configuration/General/View rotation increment option of the main menu. 41 . and press the button . Selecting and hiding elements The selection of elements and nodes are performed with the following toolbar: Selection toolbar To hide parts of your model you can perform the following steps: 1. If you press the button again. Clicking with the right button of your mouse will move the center of the screen to that point. Erasing elements If you want to delete nodes. you have to first select them and then press the button Erasing the contents of a worksheet To erase data related to a group of elements select the desired elements. (Unselect the other elements) 2. you can undo it by pressing the button in the Worksheet.

Chapter 1: General Overview Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes When you automatically generate data with the various tools available in the program. Visualization: toolbar to zoom in. 2. load areas. masses. shells. This command acts over all the elements in the entire structure.f: toolbar to select the desired degree of freedom. and define the perspective and font size of the graphics. This will eliminate all the unnecessary elements that can even affect the results of the analysis. The purposes of this tool is: 1. Design properties: toolbar to display parameters required for design.e. It is used in combination with other display buttons that require this information (i. Model: toolbar to open.. irrespective of which elements are currently selected. To eliminate duplicated members (members with exactly the same connectivity) 3. members. etc) is maintained even if there are some elements that have been deleted. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect members to the remainder nodes. Analysis: toolbar to display deflections. However if you want to reorder the numbers of your elements. . Customizing the interface The different tools available in RA are now grouped into different toolbars: • • • • • • • • • 42 Model properties: used to display data in the graphics window. Selection: toolbar to assist in the selection of elements. save or debug the model. Segment Elements This tool is used when a node is located in the same physical space as a member.. element numbering (nodes. deformed shapes and force diagrams after the analysis. Code Check: toolbar to display the results and status of the elements after the design. Note also that for consistent output and reference. If you had a printout before erasing these elements.of the main menu. it is possible to generate members and nodes that are duplicated or disconnected. press in the Model toolbar or use the option Tools/Data Generation/Delete duplicated elements.o. you will be able to compare similar elements of the new model to the ones of the initial model. Eliminate members with zero length and "floating" nodes (nodes not connected to elements) To execute the command. It is recommended that this command be issued before performing an analysis. you can select them and apply the tool of the worksheet. the member is segmented and the node is incorporated. See Chapter 3 for further details. d. displacement values or reactions). Rendering: to display the model in 3D with data and/or results. zoom out. This tool solves this problem by eliminating those elements.

RAM Voice) Different available toolbars in RA. Note that the Display options toolbar can contain the model properties. analysis and code check toolbars. Panels: toolbar to define if the different panels will be visible (Data Explorer. You can configure the location and visibility of your toolbars according to your needs: 1. Connection toolbar. Views: toolbar to select different predefined views. design properties.Chapter 1: General Overview • • • • • Cursor: toolbar to define the rotation of the model in the view. Loads: toolbar to select the current load condition. 43 . Units: toolbar to select the current units and define if they will be shown in the graphics display. Enable the desired toolbars. Data Panel. Alternatively you can use the mouse wheel. rendering.

Chapter 1: General Overview Option to enable/desable the toolbars (Checked toolbars are visible) 2. You can drag them with the left button of the mouse to the desired location. Note that you can also define the number of rows or columns of your toolbar picking the bottom or lateral edges of the toolbar with the mouse. These options follow standard Windows procedures. save your desktop using the following option 44 . 3) Once all your toolbars are in the desired locations and conditions. Define the desired position of your toolbars.

A shortcut will be assigned. Notice that it will be available for future use (2). General Configuration Several general characteristics of the program may be configured using the following option in the main menu: Configuration/General option 45 .Chapter 1: General Overview Save your current desktop (1).

size. 46 . alignment and fonts) Graphic scales for deflections and force diagrams Quality for printing graphics Quality for rendering Default folders for models and databases Nomenclature according to the country (US or UK) You will find more information in the Help context.Chapter 1: General Overview General Configuration dialog window A dialog window will be displayed where you can define the several characteristics of the program: • • • • • • • View rotation increment for graphics Graphics fonts (styles.

local axes are useful for defining the orientation of the element in space. distributed forces. bending moments. Also. These loads can also be related to the global system. and Z. springs. RAM Advanse orientates the frame members as follows: . axes. • • • Global coordinate system Local coordinate system Principal axis coordinates system Global coordinate system The global coordinate system is a user-selected system. This is because certain program commands (rigid floor. and principal. In RAM Advanse. Global axes are represented by X. Some of the data entered in the Global coordinate system are nodal coordinates. 47 By default. nodal forces and moments. Origin of local coordinate system is located at the J node (initial node). Local coordinate system Each frame member and shell of a structure has its own local coordinate system that is referred to as its local axes (represented by number 1. Some data and results are presented in this coordinate system. these include local loads. Results: the analysis results are related to local. Y. etc. and moments). 2. rotate structure) are based on this assumption. The structure geometry is entered in this coordinate system. J = initial node K = final node In frame members the data that is associated with the local axes coordinate system are: • • • • • Section orientation Rigid offsets and releases Some applied loads on the element (concentrated forces. and 3).Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Coordinate systems Three coordinate systems are used during the analysis of a structure. It is recommended that the structure be elevated in the Y axis. nodal restraints. axial forces.

Axis 3 is parallel to X-Z plane for horizontal members. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. 48 . However. Notice that this axis is automatically defined when the element is created and cannot be changed. for certain shapes the local axis is different from the principal axes. RAM Advanse allows the engineer to place the local axes in a different orientation to the principal axes. Axis 1 (longitudinal axis) will be ALWAYS located at the section’s center of gravity independent of the sections cardinal point (see chapter on cardinal points). The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. For inclined members. In most cases. and section modulus are related to the principal axis. axis 3 will be parallel to Z-axis. axis 3 will be perpendicular to the plane formed by axis 1 and its projection over plane X – Z.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes • Local 1-axis (axis of the element) lies along the vector created between the J and K nodes. This greatly facilitates the data entry. Axis 2 is defined by the right hand rule with the thumb finger pointing toward 1-axis. local and principal axes of the element coincide. In the case of members that are vertical with axis 1 in the Y direction. • • • Principal coordinate system Section properties such as moment of inertia. such as with Z and L profiles. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated. Element rotation There are several ways to rotate members to an angle other than the default orientation these include: 180 and 90 degrees rotation If you need to rotate a member 90 or 180 degrees.

49 . Elements have been rotated. Press button (180 degrees) or (90 degrees). as you need.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Go to Members/Local axes.

proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the local axis (2 or 3) that you want to set parallel to a global axis. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Enter the angle to be rotated (in degrees) and press Elements have been rotated. Y. you may want to set a local axis parallel to the global X-. 50 .Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Rotating members at an angle When you need to rotate one (or more) frame members to a known angle. other than 90 and 180 degrees. To do this. Making a local axis parallel to a global axis Occasionally.or Z-axes.

Orientating a local axis toward a specific node To orient a member’s local axis in the direction of a specific node proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated. If several nodes are selected press De-Select nodes command and then select the desired node. Note.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Then press one of these buttons: To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Y. the other local axes are also rotated accordingly. so as not to deselect the elements (notice that only one node should be selected). Select the node to which the local axis should orient (point). To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis X. Note.When you set the orientation of a local axis. To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Z. Remember to press Shift. 51 .Only one node should be selected.

52 .Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Select the local axis (2 or 3) that should point to the node. Then press The elements are now rotated with their local axis (axis 3 in this case) orientated to a node. Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes To orient an element’s local axis parallel to a vector determined by two nodes proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the two nodes that define the vector.

If several nodes are selected.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes . Select the local axis (2 or 3) that will be parallel to the vector.Only two nodes should be selected. we have: Local axes Principal axes 53 . This characteristic of the software allows the engineer to more easily set the orientation of certain elements. RAM Advanse allows you to set your members local axes system different to the principal axes. For instance. Then press The selected local axis (axis 3 in this case) is orientated parallel to the vector. press menu-item De-Select nodes and then select the two desired nodes. to use an L section. Principal axes As mentioned before.

This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. For the code check the forces in the principal axes are normally used. There are other design provisions in the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) for bending. Laterally restrained for torsion When the dimensions of a section are entered (ConfigurationDatabases/Sections/Edit or Configuration/Databases/Sections/New). This flag is only applicable in steel members. the user can define a flag to consider the section laterally restrained for torsion: Flag used to define the local axes or geometric axes to be used in the design of steel members instead of the principal axes. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. When the option is enabled.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. See the chapters devoted to Steel Design for further details 54 . In the next section you will find the way to change this.

The user only needs to define the nodes at the ends of a physical member and does not need to break the member at intermediate nodes along the length. which is hinged at the ends. In the past. The following example illustrates the process of defining a physical member. If the engineer has decided to use physical members in the model. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure This chapter explains how to work with physical members. Instead of defining four members between nodes 1-2.). physical members allow the creation of a structure model "as constructed". Now. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Chapter 3: Physical Members. Example of a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5 55 . explained farther down. this segmentation greatly increased the number and complexity of reports. Physical members Physical members are single continuous members such as girders that support multiple members framing in along their length. 3-4 and 4-5 due to the geometry of the problem. if not required by the engineer. As could be seen. physical members do not have to be used in the model. It describes how to delete duplicate elements and un-connected nodes. how to segment elements (members and shells) and how to rotate a structure. it is recommended to view the finite element model by selecting the command View/Finite element model (FEM)( ). Consider a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5. The decision to not consider physical members is indicated at analysis time by deselecting the Automatically segment physical members and shells option in the Finite element model tab of the analysis window (Menu Process/Analyze structure. This step will help to avoid unexpected or uncontrolled behavior in member segmentation during the actual analysis. and it provides result reports accordingly. the engineer had to fragment the elements of an actual structure for the analysis in any finite element program. For programs reporting analysis and design results for each node-to-node element. the user need to define one member between nodes 1 and 5. However. 2-3. regardless of the number of segments created along its span. with results accordingly..Chapter 3: Physical Members. RAM Advanse allows the user to specify what constitutes a physical member..

the segmentation is independent of the local axis of the shell. the model does not represent the actual finite elements in the model but rather the physical elements in the model) this option should be selected. The segmentation of shells can be done with the option Proportional segmentation of shells. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Before analyzing the model. to successfully analyze any model in which physical members are modeled (i. Note.e. You can disable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Calculation/Analyze structure…). You can enable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Process/Analyze structure…). the segmentation will be done following the direction of the local axis as shown in the next figure (this is the default option): 56 . The option Automatically segment physical members and shells is enabled by default. The generated segmentation will be “proportional” to the shape of the shell as shown on the figure below: Note. If the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled.Chapter 3: Physical Members. the user may view the actual Finite Elements (with the physical member segmented) in the model.

in some cases. which is part of the structure data.Chapter 3: Physical Members. The segmentation will generate new nodes (B and C) which will force more segmentations as shown in the figure below: 57 . the segmentation is dependent of the local axis of the shell. consider the structure in the next figure: The segmentation of the shells starts at node A. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure In this case. For example. The user must be aware that the Proportional segmentation of shells option can generate. excessive and unnecessary segmentation.

58 . if the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled.Chapter 3: Physical Members. members and shells). Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure On the other hand. the segmentation of the same structure will be done as shown below (the program will not consider the segmentation of the shell with the dotted line): The segmentation can be done to members and/or shells (the normal procedure is to segment both.

59 . Note that there is no continuity between the shell and the member in the lower part of the model.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Both cases are shown in the following figures: Deformed shape of the model when only “segmentation of shells” is done. there will be continuity in the model. in some cases (for example a shell enclosed with beams). Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure If you select the option Segment shells and not the option Segment members. there will be no continuity between the shell and members because the nodes generated by the segmentation of the shell will not be joined to the members. If you select both options.

that the original unsegmented element will be treated as a single element for the reports. it is recommended to apply smaller values for the tolerance. the related member will be segmented internally by the program considering that node. press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message. To do this. To do this. Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message. . If a segmentation error appears during analysis. 60 . Once the model has been analyzed. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Deformed shape of the model when segmentation is done to shells and members.Chapter 3: Physical Members. select the shell. if the node is closer than the tolerance to a member. press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. you can also press the “Finite element model” button program will show the split members and shells. the display of results and its design. Note the continuity between the shell and the member at the lower part of the model. and in the dialog box select the The user can also view the actual finite element model by pressing the following button in the Model toolbar: If the structure was not yet analyzed. the program will ask for a tolerance to build the FEM model (note that the tolerance option is also available at the Analysis window): Tolerance to be considered in the FEM Model. it is recommended to apply smaller values for this parameter. This tolerance is the maximum distance between a member and a node to consider the node as segmenting the member in the Finite Element model. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. select the shell. . and in the dialog box select the Note: The nodes generated with the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature are not generated with floor number or restrictions of contiguous nodes. That is. and the Note however.

the user may desire to obtain results for the overall wall or slab dimension.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Normally. This method is recommended whenever a uniform mesh is desired: 61 . This mesh is shown when is pressed The second way to define the mesh consists of typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet. In the case of shells and plates. 2) Define nodes at the sides to indicate the desired mesh. The first method consists of applying nodes at the sides of the shells where you want the shell to be divided. Adopted Finite Element Model for the previous example. There are two ways to determine the mesh. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Example of a continuous beam treated as a single physical element. this is performed when a denser mesh is required near singularities such as point loads or edges: 1) Define the overall dimensions. the FEM rules and hypothesis require that there be a finer mesh in order to achieve reliable results. However. The physical shell element allows you to define only the four extreme corners of a “physical” shell while controlling the required degree of meshing.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure 1) Define the overall dimensions and determine the local axes of the elements.Chapter 3: Physical Members. 3) Press the button and the Finite Element Model will be shown Warning! The user must always check the number of subdivisions adopted by the program. Note: When importing RAM Structural System models. it is advisable to check the generated finite element model (FEM). See chapter 14 for further details and suggestions. If elements don’t have enough subdivisions the results may be inacurate and even invalid. RAM Advanse automatically maintains the physical members defined in the RSS. 62 . Warning! If the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature is used. 2) Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes.

Press to segment elements (members and shells). Eliminate nodes that do not have any elements connected to them.Chapter 3: Physical Members. It is best that you execute this command after generating copies of your structure. 4. this command divides the frame member and then reconnects the two elements to the node. Press to join parts of your structure and eliminate duplicate nodes and elements. When a node is located along a frame member axis. 63 . Frame members are considered as duplicated when they are connected to the same nodes as other elements. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Model Data Check The Model toolbar has two commands available to assist you in cleaning up the structure to avoid analytical errors. 6. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect the frame members to the node that remains. Eliminate duplicated frame members (elements are considered as duplicated when they connect to the same two nodes as another element). 5. to eliminate one of the two and reconnect the elements to Eliminate duplicated frame members. When two nodes are superimposed. and before analyzing your structure. use the node that remains. The function of this command is: 3. Eliminate elements with zero length.

Notice that we are not referring to view rotation. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure When a node is on a frame member. To rotate the structure. members and shells) and take note of the coordinates of the pivotal point for rotation. Caution: If you use this command on previously defined physical members. Rotating the Structure This command allows you to rotate a portion or all of the structure. 64 . use elements to the node. they will permanently be segmented into smaller physical members.Chapter 3: Physical Members. This double division is due to the fact that the original entered numbers to indicate the shell segments on local axes are kept. It is suggested to verify the FEM model by pressing the button in all cases. while with the second button. In the case of physical shells. but the physical rotation of the nodal coordinates about some of the global axis. follow these steps: Select the elements to be rotated (nodes. with the first one you can “view” the Finite Element Model (FEM) keeping the original physical elements of the model unaltered. the physical elements will be segmented (original physical elements will be altered). to divide the frame member and connect the divided Note: The difference between the button and the button is that. the resulting segmented shells will be divided once more for analysis if the shell division has been specified entering the number of segments on both local axes.

Enter the pivotal point of rotation. 65 . Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Execute the Rotate command. the angle of the rotation and choose the axis about which the structure is to rotate.Chapter 3: Physical Members.

verify the supports and orientation of the elements. Nodes are rotated about the selected axis and do not remain in the same vertical or horizontal plane. Be sure to check nodal coordinates once the rotation is complete 66 . Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure After the rotation is completed.Chapter 3: Physical Members.

a single bolted connection will not carry bending moments and as such the joint should be released for that degree of freedom. some nodes might become unstable. for instance. for instance. Pin (hinges) at both ends of members It is quite common that an element has bolted joints at both ends. Warning! The user should note that if excessive members in a model are hinged. A release should be used to represent the actual condition of the joint. proceed as follows: Select members to be pinned 67 . represent the hinges of elements.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members End releases are needed to accurately model the joints between elements. Release the degree of freedom to accurately model the joint. To do this. Releases. Note: RAM Advanse’s default joint is a rigid connection of the element with the end nodes. In this case you should pin both ends of the member.

This can be done as follows: Select the element(s) to be released.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Go to Members/Hinges and press The elements are released and shown in the screen. Select the end to be released. Pin one end of a member Occasionally you will need to pin only one end of members. Remember to press Shift to select the nodes without deselecting the elements. 68 .

press the buttons that are complementary in action to the buttons described above: Fix both ends of selected members. if you need to fix some elements that were previously released.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Press to release bending moment about axis 3 or press button about axis 2. However. to release bending moment Fixing ends of elements By default. Fix the bending moment about axis 3 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members. Fix the bending moment about axis 2 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members. all frame members have rigid joints. Remember that you can also erase all release information by pressing a spreadsheet). (clear the contents of 69 .

Press to define the tension only members. All selected tension only members are shown when the display option 70 Hinges is pressed. . which is an iterative procedure for each load condition and therefore all load conditions are analyzed. including the combinations. The method RAM Advanse uses to analyze these members involves a nonlinear analysis. It is no longer possible to superimpose individual load case results even in a first order analysis. Warning! The tension only element flag is ignored in a dynamic analysis.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Tension only members All members defined as tension only will be capable of resisting only tension forces. To define the tension members proceed as follows: Select the elements to be defined as tension only members.

To consider a pre-tension in the elements proceed as follows: Select the desired elements. It is generally applied to members defined as tension only elements. Loads (show values) is selected. all the members with pre-tension forces will 71 . Go to Members/Loads on members/Pre-tension of cables and tensors and enter the value of the pretension. This option allows you to consider the influence of the initial tension in the deformation and distribution of forces in the structure. If the display option be displayed.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Pre-tension In several cases cables and tensors are subjected to a pre-tension force.

.

6. This feature is normally used to align members in the desired position. select the desired members Select the members. the center (5) or the center-of-gravity of the section (0) The default position is zero. Rigid Zone Offsets. which are aligned in relation to a center or a perimeter cross section axis. Common applications are to model eccentric members or tapered members. Rigid Zone Offsets.7. Rigid Floor and Pressure on frame Members This chapter explains several advanced concepts.9).3. To enter cardinal points.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. The available cardinal points are described in the following figure: Cardinal points defined along the perimeter (1. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Cardinal Points Cardinal points are used to define the members’ cross section axis location.2.8. 73 .4.

to account for panel zone deformation. shear forces. These rigid segments will not undergo deformation under bending moments.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Zone Offsets. 74 . Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Cardinal Point Worksheet (1. or axial forces. Rigid offsets are typically used to model large joints.2) and select the desired position (3) for your members. The following example can illustrate graphically the function of the cardinal points with respect to a tapered member: Examples of different position of the cardinal points (a) tapered members with default position (0). and several other reasons. Rigid zone offsets Rigid offsets are infinitely rigid segments at the ends of frame members. eccentric columns. they will just transmit the forces from one point to another along the length of the rigid offset. (b) tapered with position 2 (see the location of the member in relation to the nodes). and (c) tapered members with position 2 and with axis rigid end (see next section).

The clear length of the member will be the distance between nodes less the rigid ends. Leff=clear length of the member. To enter members with rigid axis ends. the end offsets are considered when the sections’ dimensions overlap. The values of the axis rigid end J and axis rigid end K are used to define the overlap distances. Rigid Zone Offsets. In the first method. Define the members and assign their sections. proceed as follows: 1. The distributed or concentrated loads on the member will be considered only for this length.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 3. Select the desired members. L = member length Note that the loads and forces in the member will be provided always along the clear length considering the axis rigid ends. It is strongly suggested to adopt only one method for each structure depending on the particular characteristics of the structure. Go to members/Cardinal point worksheet and use the tool to create axis rigid ends: 75 . 2. Axes rigid ends. the first one takes into account axes rigid ends in conjunction with cardinal points and the second one is considering rigid end offsets in the three directions of the global axes (with the member cardinal point in the default position). Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members RAM Advanse offers two ways of considering rigid end zones.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Axis rigid ends defined with the tool of the cardinal point worksheet The second method for defining rigid end offsets allows considering the offsets in any direction independently of the longitudinal axis of the member. The user has many tools to define the desired offsets. To model a rigid end zone with the second method proceed as follows: Select sections that intersect each other Select the member and the node where the rigid offset is required. The offsets are defined in the global directions. Rigid Zone Offsets.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. See the help context for the details of the tools. 76 .

Considering the second method. Rigid zone offset has been created. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Press to create rigid offset. Rigid Zone Offsets. proceed as follows: Select the overall column 77 . Warning: The tool only works for segmented columns (not physical columns) Notice that you can enter column eccentricities (offset columns) with any of the described methods.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.

Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Rigid offsets and press one of the following buttons: or Column offset has been created Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor) The cardinal points or the rigid end offsets (second method) can be used to align beams at floor level (drop the floor). Rigid Zone Offsets. Proceed as follows: Select beam to align with floor level (drop) 78 .

Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 79 . select its worksheet and use position 2 for the selected members. Rigid Zone Offsets. Or go to Rigid end offsets worksheet and press the following button Selected beams will be aligned with the floor level Warning! The use of cardinal points or rigid end offsets to align beams to floor level may alter the distribution of bending moments. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members If you are using cardinal points. see next section for further details.

It is important to notice that the rigid zone offsets or cardinal points change the model. the model will be changed . The cardinal points allow. If rigid offsets are included to align the beam at the floor level. while the rigid zone offsets may be suited for any particular condition. a uniformly distributed load and the end supports pinned.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. in general. The method to be adopted will depend on the facility to define the required data for the specific model to deal with. Lets take for example a beam with two segments. 80 . The bending moment diagram will have the known shape: Beam with two segmented pinned at both ends without rigid offsets or cardinal points. to define the axis location for common locations as at the top or bottom of the section in an easier and automatic way (internally the program adopts the required rigid offsets). Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points It is important to mention that both methods can be used to define the member longitudinal axis at the desired location. This influences the results to be obtained. Rigid Zone Offsets. Press the button to display the rigid ends for the cardinal points in green and the rigid zone offsets in red.

The rigid offsets modify also the distribution of the bending moments in more complex models. Note that the distribution of the bending moments have changed and that an axial load is generated due to the eccentricity at the supports. originating discontinuities at the locations of the concentrated loads from the beams framing into them (see the following figure). Model without rigid offsets with continuous bending moment diagram.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Beam with two segments with rigid offsets or cardinal points. 81 . Rigid Zone Offsets.

The simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges in the case of joints between a beam supported on a girder can influence the way the supporting girder resists the applied loads. the supporting beam will need to resist the rigid zone moment through its torsional stiffness.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. the supporting girders experiences a torsion due to the beam’s reaction at the specified offset. In some cases their use will not be appropriate and the user may use them only for displaying the 3D view of the structure in a more realistic way and not for the analysis. and the rigid diaphragm assumption is of no assistance to resist this torsion. In the case shown below. They can however be used simultaneously in beam-column joints. infinitely rigid link between all nodes in the horizontal plane. This constrains all nodes of a floor to translate (in X and Z-axes). In many cases this stiffness is not sufficient to adequately resist the applied load. Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges The user must be very careful when using rigid offsets and hinges simultaneously. Therefore. When rigid offsets and hinges are used in nodes between beams and girders.e. 82 . Rigid Zone Offsets. Rigid floor When a building is being analyzed the engineer can choose to model the structure with a Rigid floor Diaphragm or Rigid Floor. One problem is the possible creation of instabilities around hinged supports. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Model with rigid offsets with discontinuities in the bending moment diagram. and rotate (around Y) together. i. Part of the moments are taken by the rigid offsets. It depends on the engineers judgment whether to adopt rigid offsets for the different members of a model. Cross section showing girder (in profile) supporting a beam (shown with single line) with a specified rigid end offset. A Rigid floor diaphragm simulates the in-plane rigidity produced by the slab. Instability due to simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges around hinged supports. it is suggested not to use rigid offsets and pinned beam where two beams intersect.

it is necessary that the building height be orientated along the Y-axis. which will be the rotation point for the rest of the nodes of the floor. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members With a rigid floor all nodes of a floor translate as a whole in the in-plane directions All the nodes of a floor rotate around Y constrained to a single point The engineer should decide if the rigid floor assumption is appropriate for their structure. Important! In order to use rigid floor diaphragm. Entering Rigid floor To enter a Rigid floor diaphragm. If so this rigid floor diaphragm can result in a faster analysis. When a rigid floor is activated the vertical deformation of the beams (out of plane rigidity) isn't affected. but it is not adequate for very small structures.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. which is reasonable for any building of normal size. the first node of the floor will be considered the master node. follow these steps: Select the nodes of a floor (all the selected nodes should have the same Y coordinate). It is important to notice that the program accepts a tolerance for the difference between the y-coordinates of the nodes of each floor up to 0. This node is taken coincident with the mass node (only one node may have masses in the floor). Rigid Zone Offsets. If no masses are defined in the nodes of a floor. Each diaphragm or rigid floor may have just one master node. 83 .4in or 1cm.

bridges.) the wind force can be entered as a pressure on the frame members. and calculates an equivalent distributed force.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Nodes/Floor and press button Rigid floor diaphragm has been entered Repeat the same steps to enter the Rigid Floor number of the other floors. to clear the contents of the current spreadsheet and so erase Pressure on frame members In open structures (towers. Rigid Zone Offsets. RAM Advanse finds the projected area (depending on the dimensions of the section) perpendicular to the pressure force. During the analysis. Important: A Rigid Floor diaphragm can only be used when all the nodes of a floor have the same Y coordinate. 84 . Remember that you can press the rigid floor. Go to Members/Loads on members and press button Pressures. etc.

X. PresZ columns. Rigid Zone Offsets. Pres Z: Pressure of the wind in the Z direction.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members The pressures on the frame members are entered in the Pres. Pres X: Pressure of the wind in the X direction. 85 . Pres Y: Pressure of the wind in the Y direction. PresY.

.

Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials RAM Advanse comes with a complete section database.. follow these steps: Execute Configuration/Databases/Sections. Creating new sections To create a new section.. command. Those sections (profiles) and materials that are not available in the database can be added as described in this chapter. 87 . Press button New.

Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Choose the shape of the profile to be created. the data to define the section geometry (3) and then press OK. (See below to for more details concerning valid section names). wood sections (NDS) are shown in brown and yellow. the section name (2). BS sections are shown in blue and AISI sections start with the string “aisi”. These sections become part of the program database and can be used in all subsequent models. Type of section (should or not contain space characters) 88 . Enter the units system (1). Section names Names of the sections should consist of three parts: 1. Note that the AISC steel sections are shown in black or yellow.

NDS. and "TUBE". space characters. The Type of Sections should not have space characters.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials 2. BS. The sections in a collection should be ordered according to the order in which they should be considered in the optimization. C etc). and they can be designed by different codes (i. Examples of valid profile names are: W 15x25 TUBE 15x10 TUBE 15_25 Non valid profile names are: W15x25 (separation space character is missing) At least the name must have one separation space character Section Collections A section collection is defined as a group of members that will be considered in the optimization.191’.. hyphens. Designation or description (should or not space characters) A valid name is for example ‘PIPE 1-1_4x0. dots and special characters.. That is to say that a profile named “PIPE 11_4x0. Type of sections is for instance.the Type of Section groups the profile. RAM Advanse will create a new one. So if the user want that the section belongs one specific type section. where ‘PIPE’ is the section type (without space characters) followed by a single space ‘ ‘ and ‘1-1_4x0. “2x25x15”. which is the designation of the section (with or without spaces).191” will be stored in the PIPE group. "T2L". Note that the engineer can use different types of sections in the same collection (W. Important. "W". “15x22x1. In case the PIPE group does not exist.e.e.5”. AISI and AISC) You can create a new section collection executing the command Configuration/Databases/Sections/Section collections for optimization and executing the following steps: 89 . Designations can contain the division ("/") character.191. Designation is a description of the dimensions of this profile i. it must has the same name exactly. A space character 3.

5. The file is located in the “Sets” folder (in the main RAM Advanse folder). Repeat steps 2 to 4 as desired. 6. Parameters for the design of steel members Laterally restrained for torsion: When the option is enabled. sections are not added if they already exist in the collection.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Steps to create a new section collection for optimization. 2. which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. Press the button to add the selected sections. will deflect and bend about that leg only if the angle is restrained laterally along the length. or ctrl+left mouse button to select discrete sections). The collection files can be edited using Notepad or any text editor. Note that when sections are added to a collection they are not duplicated. 1. Select the desired sections to be included in the collection with the mouse. The first window displays a list of the available collections. Press the button to create a new collection. That is. 3. This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. For example an angle beam loaded parallel to one leg. The second window displays a list of sections in the currently selected collection. The name of the collection must be a valid and unique filename. RAM Advanse will create a text file with this name where it will save a list with the sections’ names. you can only have one instance of a section in a collection. Sort the section in the list according to their weight or to other criteria. 4. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. Select one of the groups that contain the desired sections. Then enter a name for the collection in the dialog window. The Collection window is divided in different areas. In this case simple bending occurs without any torsional 90 . (Drag a continuous list.

equal to the web depth multiplied by its thickness (d*tw). Qmod2' exact: This option is only valid for “I” and “C” shapes designed with the between the exact value based on the following definition: Maximum shear stress = V(shear force) * Qmod. or an approximate value for Qmod2’ used by most of the codes.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials rotation or lateral deflection and the geometric axis section properties should be used in the evaluation of the stresses: The geometric axes 2 and 3 should be used instead of the principal axes 2' and 3' for angle beams restrained laterally for torsion. Code. There are other design provisions on the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. Which implies an integral that considers the static moment about the neutral axis and the moment of inertia. The user can choose 91 . See the chapter devoted to Steel Design in this manual for further details.

d0 is the depth at the J end of a web-tapered member (see next figure) while dL is the depth at the K end of the member. The width of the section and its flange thickness are considered to be constant along the member. 92 . Although the program can deal in the analysis with any type of section with variable depth. the design is restricted to hot rolled steel members with a section that possesses at least one axis of symmetry perpendicular to the plane of bending. the user has to assign a section to the member following the usual steps illustrated in the figure after selecting the desired members: Then the initial and final depth of the member has to be provided. For this case. the program considers that the depth at the J end is equal to the specified depth of the adopted section (d0=d).Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Tapered Members RAM Advanse offers the possibility to consider tapered members with a linear variation of the depth. If d0>0 and dL>0 it is assumed that the section varies linearly from d0 at the J end to dL at the K end. If d0=0 and dL=0.

which increases the time needed for the solution. 93 . which reduces the time required for the solution and gives a more precise definition of the section properties. The stiffness matrix of the whole member is then assembled considering each sub-element with an equivalent prismatic section corresponding to the mean depth of the sub-element. Alternatively. you can use rigid end offsets to align tapered members The analysis of tapered members is performed with an internal subdivision of the member into 6 elements with a stepped variation of the section properties. (See Chapter 15).Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Note that a one side tapered member can be achieved by using the section cross section axis point or the member rigid end offsets as it is illustrated in the following figures: Use the cross section axis point to align the section in position number 2. All the section properties of each sub-element can be calculated in a similar way as for prismatic members. Or they can be calculated using the special subroutine Prop TaperedProperties as part of the section macro. In this way the section will be aligned at the top of the section.

Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Members with variable depth are subdivided in 6 sub-elements with an equivalent prismatic section. Creating Materials To create your own material. 94 . follow these steps: Execute command Configuration/Databases/Materials. To create a new tapered section invokes the Configuration/Databases/Sections command and create a new section using the I_tapered section type. For more details about the design of tapered steel members see the chapters on Design of hot rolled steel members (AISC or BS Codes). Note that no web depth is entered as it is assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in this worksheet. Note that a special built up section type is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up tapered members.

Enter data of the material and then press OK.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Select the desired folder and press button . select the group of materials to be exported: 95 . You can also define each value with its corresponding units. For further details see the help context. Importing and exporting sections and materials This feature allows the user to import and export sections and materials to the clipboard. To export the data. You can select any unit system for entering the data.

com) to download the latest files that include many tabulated sections.e. The steps to import data are as follows: • • • 96 Define the required fields. with a corresponding effect on code check equations. These entered values will override the calculated ones if the Read Only property is set to true.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials And then press the export button . Missing section properties will be calculated. area.ramint. Please see the Excel files with several available groups of sections and their properties that are included in the Tables directory or visit our web site (www. Copy the data to the clipboard. it preserves the imported properties and avoids overwriting them with the properties calculated by the program. Notice that calculated section properties (i. The exported data may then be pasted into any text editor or spreadsheet application such as Notepad or Excel: To import data of materials or sections. enter the new values in their corresponding fields and then proceed to copy the information to the clipboard. Note that when the property Read Only is enabled. it is recommended to first export an instance of the type of material or section to be imported to define the labels of the different fields. inertia. . Input the data in a spreadsheet. etc) may be entered together with geometric properties. This feature is particularly useful with steel sections where tabulated values can be slightly different from those calculated by the program.

button.tab) and it will be automatically imported. For more information about RSS Master Steel Tables see the RAM Manager Manual 97 . Additionally.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials • Press the button in RAM Advanse to paste the information into the database. using the Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System (RSS) contains all section properties of sections available in RSS. using the button. From Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System. To import the data. there are two options to import sections. • • From text files. select the desired table (file with extension .

.

This chapter explains how to use Templates to quickly generate portions of your structures. please visit our RAM Advanse community web page www. etc. Example 1: Creating a Truss For instance. To enter the truss. If not. In order to use Templates you should already be comfortable using RAM Advanse. Additional information such as supports. and incorporate them into the RAM Advanse program. such as number of segments. sections. One of the most unique and important characteristics of these templates is that you can create your own. 99 . See the chapter on Creating Structure Templates to get information on how to create your own Templates. They help in the generation of segments or parts of the structure. This Template requires the nodes shown below: Template Truss1 requires 4 referential nodes and the number of segments. etc. 2. Select them in certain specific order. RAM Advanse already contains several partial Templates. Templates When a Template is executed. we suggest you first read the RAM Advanse Examples Manual.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Templates are a unique concept introduced by RAM Advanse to allow engineers to create models of structures in a fraction of the time normally required. Execute the Template and enter the information that it asks for. it automatically generates nodes. frame members and descriptions. materials. should be entered manually. To execute a Template three steps are required: 1.ramint. proceed as follows: Enter the nodes illustrated in the following figure. 3. Enter the nodes that the Template requires.com to download other free Templates created by RAM International and other users. using the Truss1 Template you can enter a triangular truss.

Select nodes as required by the Template Then execute the desired Template in one of the two following ways: 1. Notice that they can be entered in any order. Go to Tools/Data generation/Templates 100 . Then select the nodes in the order required by the Template. Go to Members/Connectivity (Nodes and description worksheet and press button 2.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Go to Nodes/Coordinates and enter the nodes illustrated Enter the illustrated nodes.

enter 3 in the number of segments. 101 . Next enter the data required by the Template. Select Truss1 Template and press OK.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates To execute the desired Template. go to Members/Nodes and Description or Tools/Data Generation. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. In this case.

To change them to meaningful descriptions. Templates generally create meaningless descriptions such as "g1". follow these steps: Select description to be changed. you should change them to more meaningful descriptions.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the number of segments. etc. Descriptions typically created by Templates are g1. g3. "g2". To do this. etc. Therefore. enter 3 The truss has been created. Note . "h1". g2.When using the Templates it is very important the order in which nodes are selected. In this case. first select one element of the group and press 102 .

select Metric System 4.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Then go to Members/Nodes and Description and press In the same way as explained before.Remember that you should type the "diag1" description and then press the button. Change the generated descriptions to other more meaningful descriptions. The structure shown below will be entered using Templates. change the other descriptions. In this case. Note. This structure will be entered using Templates. Example 2: Creating an entire structure In the following example you will see how powerful Templates are. Enter the reference nodes 103 . Proceed as follows: 3. Select the preferred units system.

Remember to assign them a COL1 description. Select the nodes as requested by the Template. The template roofTruss1 will be used to generate the principal truss. Execute Template roofTruss1 and enter the number of segments (enter 4 in this case) 104 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the reference nodes before calling up the Templates (meters) Enter the columns as illustrated. Select the nodes as indicated. the roofTruss1 template will be used. Enter the columns and assign them COL1 description. To generate the principal truss. 1. 2.

105 . Note. The principal truss has been created.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute RoofTruss1 template Enter the number of segments (4). Assign descriptions as shown in the figure below: Assign descriptions as shown.In the event you did not select the correct number of nodes. you'll get the "Select 6 nodes in the illustrated order" message.

Select the nodes shown next: Select nodes in the illustrated order 106 . 5 meters in Z direction Now. Copy the whole structure 3 times.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Copy the frame 3 times. longitudinal trusses will be generated using theTruss1 template. each 5 meters in the Z direction. Template Truss1 is used to generate the longitudinal trusses.

107 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute Truss1 template Enter number of segments. As you can see. a longitudinal truss has been created Assign descriptions as shown Repeat previous steps to generate the other two trusses shown below. Enter 12 segments in this case.

the structure is ready to be completed with other information such as supports. loads. 108 . select the illustrated nodes Then press button Completing data As you can see. Then enter the roof beams. At this point. To complete the information. etc. To enter the roof beams. sections.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Repeat the steps explained before to enter the other two trusses. all the geometry of the structure was entered very quickly. please proceed as explained in the RAM Advanse Assistant (F4). materials.

To do this. 109 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates For instance. Go to sections spreadsheet. first select one member of the group description and press . This will expedite structural modeling. to enter sections. follow these next steps: Select a group of elements. choose the section that you need and press Sections have been assigned As you can see at this point it is very important to assign meaningful descriptions.

.

Note that the rest of the components of the formulae may or may not be separated by spaces. The formulae have to be organized in the following order: 3. Mathematics symbols (+. etc). 5. 4. -). 7. In the displayed window the engineer can enter a template file for the adopted local building code from which load combinations can be generated (based on the load case category. The reserved words AND or OR followed always by a space. Note that you can save or retrieve this file for use in any structure or even in the Continuous Beam or Retaining Wall detailing modules.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Generation of load combinations Elastic supports Prescribed displacements Self weight Thermal loads Generation of nodes This chapter deals with several additional features that provide RAM Advanse with several advanced capabilities. Window for the generation of load combinations. 111 . The tool is called from the command Loads/Generate load combinations on the main menu. LL for live loads. A factor which may be any real number. 6. Steps 1 – 4 are repeated as required. (These must be valid symbols that are to be associated with the individual load cases). The name of the desired category. DL for dead loads. Generation of load combinations This utility tool allows the engineer to generate combinations to be used in the model.

05DL + AND 1. two live load cases (LL1.40EQ If there is one dead load case (DL1.4EQ1 1.7LL1 + 1.05DL1 + 1. LL2. Elastic supports Elastic supports are modeled in the RAM Advanse program using springs. When the OK button is pressed. the combinations will be generated based on the selected load combination file and the currently available load cases.70LL +AND 1. category = DL). while the reserved word OR is used to generate different load combinations for each load case of the specified category The following example illustrates the procedure //Example combinations +AND 1. See the example files (path: main RAM Advanse directory/combos) that come with the program which have the basic load combinations to consider for the different codes. while the live loads are always in the same combination due to the AND designation. It is important to note that only the names of the categories can be used in the editor.28LL2 + 1. One possible method of calculating the spring stiffness is using the soil modulus of subgrade reaction as follows: K spring = Modulus of subgrade reaction* tributary area for the node It is the engineers' responsibility to obtain appropriate spring stiffness. proceed as follows: Select the nodes.05DL1 + 1.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects 8.4EQ2 Notice that the seismic load cases are not included in the same combination due to the OR designation.28LL1 + 1.40DL + AND 1. To enter the springs. Load combinations in the template file will be ignored if they contain a load category that is not currently adopted in the model.4DL1 + 1. category = LL) and two seismic load cases (EQ1. 112 .7LL2 1. Category = EQ) the following load combinations will be generated: 1.28LL + OR 1. EQ2.28LL1 + 1. Special commentary lines are also allowed if they start with "//" Note that the reserved word AND is used to show that each load combination to be generated has to include ALL the load cases that belong to the specified category.28LL2 + 1.

RZ). See the chapter of Footing Design and Detailing for more details. is available to assist the user in the entry of the appropriate Notice that the tool to model footings values for the rotational and translational springs under a footing of known dimensions. To enter prescribed displacements proceed as follows: 113 . it is possible for a node to have springs in some degree of freedom and restraints in the other degrees of freedom. TY. Prescribed displacements This option is used to apply specified ground displacements (translations and rotations) at joints that are restrained. TZ. Note: A node cannot have a spring if it is restrained in the same degree of freedom. Springs have been entered. The different components of the displacements are specified in the global coordinate system (TX. Only the components that have restrained degrees of freedom will be considered as loading the structure.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Nodes/Springs. RY. However. RX. Enter the value of the spring in the adequate direction and press .

Enter the displacement/rotations in the restrained degrees of freedom. Self .weight RAM Advanse can calculate the self-weight of the elements (shells and/or members) in a structure. 114 .Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Select the restrained node(s) with prescribed displacements . To activate the self-weight calculation proceed as follows: Select load case that is to include the self-weight loads.

the nodes and frame members). The user can draw the structure in any drawing software and then import the data in RAM Advanse. otherwise centigrade. transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. 2. Node generation RAM Advanse has several methods of generating nodes. The user enters the nodes required to position the new portion of the structure that will be generated including the nodes. Thermal loads When there are differences of temperature in-between faces of the members.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Gen/Self weight and press . Temp 1 is the temperature differential that will cause axial expansion (positive values) or shortening (negative values) in the member length. It causes bending about axis 3. This option allows you to define the basic geometry (that is. and Temp3 column. 3. Temp 2 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 2. if the nodes coordinates follow special functions like trigonometric or exponential functions. Temp 2. you can enter these loads in the following way: Go to Members and press the Load button and then go to Temperature differences The temperature differences are entered in the Temp1. Import from Excel and other spreadsheet applications. This tool is very useful for trusses or structures with typical geometry. Temperature loads are only applicable to linear elements and cannot be applied to shells. Note the temperature differential should be in degrees Fahrenheit if the units are in the English System. It causes bending about axis 2. press Note: Notice that you can also manually enter the self-weight multiplier. It is important for the user to know them in order to optimize the time of the data input: 1. Import from DXF files. The RAM Advanse Data Panel has only limited functions to manipulate the data. This option is particularly useful when the geometry is very complicated and the node coordinates are not easily defined. Therefore. . For more details see chapter related to Importing and Exporting Data. Note: To deactivate the self-weight calculation. Use of templates. the user can generate the 115 . Temp 3 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 3. For more details see Using Structure Templates.

The data is selected and copied to the Clipboard. copy button. This is performed with the known "copy and paste" operation very common in all applications. In RAM Advanse you go to the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates locate the area where the data are The data is pasted in the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects coordinates in applications like Excel which are plenty equipped with those functions and then transfer the data in RAM Advanse. For example. if you want to generate nodes following the natural logarithmic function y=ln(x). . The available tools are the following: • 116 Copy nodes. You can create the data in a spreadsheet application: Data generated in a spreadsheet like Excel. You can see the generated nodes in the Display window: 1. The use of special tools for the generation of nodes. Then you have to select the data and press the going to be entered and press the paste button.

Press “Copy Nodes”. Quadratic generation of nodes. Press the OK button. Circular generation of nodes. proceed as follows: Select the nodes to be copied. 117 . Enter the distance (in X. Y and Z direction) that the selected nodes will be copied to.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects • • • Lineal generation of nodes. Copy nodes To copy nodes. Two new nodes have been created. A dialog box appears.

Press “Quadratic generation of nodes” button. In the dialog box that appears enter the number of nodes to be generated and press OK. Now. we have: Quadratic generation of nodes Go to Nodes. 118 . select four nodes in the order shown in the illustration.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Linear generation of nodes Select two nodes Press Linear Generation of nodes button.

The new nodes will be generated in the plane defined by nodes 1-3 and perpendicular to 1-2. Node 2 (second node to be selected) is used to set a vector perpendicular to the circle.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects In the dialog box enter the nodes to be generated along sides 1-2 and 1-3. Press In the dialog box enter the number of nodes to be generated. and the total angle that the nodes will cover. Node 3 is the starting point of the generation and the node that determinates the radius of the circle. as shown below in the figure. 119 . Node 1 (first node to be selected) is the center of the circle. The result will be: Circular generation of nodes Select three nodes.

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects The result of the above choices is: 120 .

RAM Advanse is using a completely new analysis engine. It has been used mainly for linearelastic. The bandwidth optimization provides a substantial reduction in storage requirements and when it is combined with the direct sparse solvers. which is part of a general-purpose finite element analysis library based on object-oriented programming architecture. 121 . a brief description of these analysis capabilities and element types are summarized. developed completely by RAM International. RAM Advanse currently supports the following type of analysis: • • • • • • • Static Linear – Elastic Analysis Static Nonlinear – Elastic Analysis Eigen Value Analysis Frame element with 6 degrees of freedom (dof) at its both ends.0. nonlinear-inelastic and Eigen analysis of any type of framing systems. K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and D is the matrix of resulting displacements. The user is referred to associated references given within the text for further information. Tension-Only frame elements Quadrilateral Shell element with 6 dof at each corner (three translational dofs. The problem is more involved if non-elastic materials are considered or if P-Delta effects are taken into account (see more details in the following sections). two rotational dofs and one drilling dof) Linear axial and rotational springs In addition the following list contains element types currently available for the users: In the subsequent sections. the time to decompose large symmetric-profile matrices is greatly reduced.Chapter 9: Analysis Chapter 9: Analysis Introduction The static analysis of a structure involves the solution of a set of linear equations that can be shown in terms of the following form: P=KD (Eq 1) where P is the matrix of generalized applied loads. there is a vector of loads that generates a vector of displacements. Beginning with version 7. The analysis engine is built on a highly optimized matrix library that is particularly tuned for sparse matrix computation and it is armed with a state of the art bandwidth optimization technique based on Graph theory. LLC. Geometric nonlinear effects can be included. The currently enforced bandwidth optimization method is Reverse Cuthill-McKee Ordering algorithm. For each load case defined by the user.

Chapter 9: Analysis Frame Element Element Degrees of Freedom for Frame Element The frame element is a two-node element and there are 6 DOFs at each node.e. Fs = τna As). the implemented method is usually satisfactory. where A is the member cross section. Distribute loads (trapezoidal in general form) can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition. Therefore. Element stiffness matrix is derived as follows: • 122 . This area is multiplied by the shearing stress (τna) at the neutral axis to obtain the total shear force on the cross section (i. The element has the following features: • • • • Three translational and three rotational DOFs defined at each end. The corresponding neutral axis shear strain is γ = Fs / As G. it is assumed that there is a uniform shear stress on the cross section. For most members of practical length. For these cases. Based on this concept. These additional terms can be found in any structural analysis book (Reference 1). (As) for considering transverse shear deformations. Point loads can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition Shear deformations due to bending can be considered in analysis: The current implementation adopts the concept of an “equivalent shear area”.. Several references can be found in literature on how to calculate “equivalent shear area”. the influence of transverse shear deformations is negligible. it can be significant for members with small span-to-depth ratio. For illustrative purposes. shear deformations may be included in analysis by augmenting the member stiffness matrix with additional shear terms. Among these are Reference 2 and 3. RAM Advanse uses the cross-sectional property fs (form factor for shear) that is defined as As= fs A. However. the above figure is given showing total number of 12 DOFs.

it creates initial strains when placing these members into position) Geometric nonlinear effects are considered (see Iterative P-Delta Effects) in element formulation. St. Eq. Temperature effects can be included by considering both axial and bending effects due to relative temperature changes. shear modulus. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. (2) where Ix. due to fabrication errors. shear and axial releases can be defined at element ends. It should be noted that if αx and αy are zero. J. (2) is reduced to conventional stiffness matrix for frame members. The engine calculates these deformations at any point accounting for element end displacements 123 • • • . They are calculated as follows: Eq. Venant torsion constant. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. Deformation at any point within an element is extracted after the analysis is completed. The terms αx and αy are shear correction terms to account for transverse shear deformations. Such effects can be used for applying axial pre-stress to members or for considering member axial initial imperfections (for instance. In this case. Axial pre-tensioning can be defined. respectively. • • • • Bending. Offsets\eccentricities can be defined at element ends in three separate directions. (3) in which Asx and Asy are “equivalent shear area” for major and minor directions. therefore. E and L are major moment of inertia. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. G. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. Frame elements can be converted to tension-only members. respectively. Iy. elastic modulus and member length. In this case. members can be too short or too long.Chapter 9: Analysis Eq. minor moment of inertia.

Degrees of Freedom of Shell Element (local definition) The general characteristics of the shell element are summarized as follows: • • • • The element is a quadrilateral element with 6 DOFs at each node. geometric nonlinear effects) is not calculated for shell elements. Triangular shell elements in which three nodes of the shell are co-linear are not allowed (i. Shell Element A four-node shell element is developed and it consists of six degrees of freedom at each of the four nodes: three translation.e. Loads (point loads on nodes) can be applied in global system or in the local axis of the shell. The element is capable of generating both in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness. The drilling degree of freedom facilitates fixity of members that frame into the wall. Only constant surface loads are allowed. Surface loads can be applied to the shell either in global system or in local system of the shell. Refer to References 4. two rotation and one drilling degrees of freedom (see next Figure). the four node quadrilateral shell element can not be degenerated into a three node shell element. Shear deformations are not considered in the calculation of these deformations. Positive Definition of Shell Local Forces at Nodes 124 . Geometric stiffness matrix (i.e. 5 and 6 for further assistance.Chapter 9: Analysis and loads applied.

The secondary moments created by the lateral displacements are also called P-Delta moments. or simply the P-Delta effect. a rigid diaphragm is assumed completely in the X-Z plane: translation DOFs in X and Z directions and rotation around Y are used to define diaphragm constraint equations. members attached to these rigid diaphragms are moved together according to defined constraint equations. Small p-delta effect Secondary P-δ moments are caused by axial force acting through the lateral displacements of the member relative to its central line (See figure below).Chapter 9: Analysis Shell membrane and bending Forces Rigid Diaphragm Constraints RAM Advanse provides a method to define a rigid diaphragm by enforcing a set of constraint equations. 125 . member displacements are adjusted due to diaphragm rotation around Y according to the distance between member nodes and diaphragm mass center. This effect can be considered either at the analysis stage and/or at the code check stage. and P-∆ (large P-Delta). Otherwise. There are two kinds of P-delta effects: P-δ (small p-delta). Hence. The simplest method is to allow RAM Advanse to calculate P-Delta during the analysis stage. P-δ effect This effect is also called a member instability effect because it increases the instability of the members of a structure. What is P-Delta effect? When an element experiences a lateral displacement. all members attached to this diaphragm have the same displacements in X and Z if there is no rotation around Y. P-Delta Analysis To analyze most structures it is necessary to take into account the P-Delta effect. In the current implementation. secondary moments arise as a result of the axial force acting through the lateral displacement of the member. It is assumed that the diaphragm is infinitely rigid in its plane and it transmits forces through it without deforming. Therefore.

RAM Advanse used in previous versions the fictitious lateral load method to calculate the P-delta effect. P-Delta calculation methods As opposed to first-order analysis. P-Delta effect (also called P-Delta with axial-bending interaction) is a second order effect that causes a non-linearly behavior of the structure.. torsionbending interaction etc. Iterative P-Delta Effects P-Delta effects at element level are accounted for through element geometric stiffness matrix. and they usually carry low axial loads. Both P-delta moments combined are simply called the P-Delta effect.Chapter 9: Analysis Large P-Delta effect P-∆ moments are caused by axial force acting through the relative displacements of the ends of the member (figure below). It should be taken into account by the analysis. They are summarized below: • It considers axial. The current implementation has some limitations. one can ignore P- 126 .bending interaction in members (1D element only). The geometric stiffness matrix is calculated in each iteration and analysis is repeated until convergence (equilibrium) is achieved. P-∆ effect This effect is also called structure instability effect because increases the instability of the structure. which may considerably increase the computation time. girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. In the current version the adopted method is more robust and it is detailed in the following Section. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects). a second-order analysis requires several iterations to obtain the solution. The P-Delta effect generally decreases the structure and member stability. The current implementation considers only axial-bending interaction but it does not consider other effects such as torsion-axial force interaction. where a solution can be obtained in a direct way. Beams. one can disregard P-Delta effects.e. P-Delta effects can be ignored only when axial forces (tension or compression) are small and lateral displacements minor. If this is the case. even if lateral displacements are small. These effects can be interpreted as the effect of axial force on element bending (i. axial-bending interaction) so that they create additional flexural moments and then it leads to additional lateral displacements.

load combinations are prepared before the analysis as opposed to ones created after the analysis in the first-order analysis. and P-Delta Second order analysis cannot consider dynamic loads. the rest of the loads will be calculated with the P-Delta effect and the dynamic load forces will be "added" to the result obtained in the P-Delta analysis. respectively. No geometric stiffness matrix is calculated for shell elements. That is by simply adding together the results of each basic load case together multiplied by the respective combination factors. However. small P-Delta effects is accounted for. Note that it is referred to the figure given in Frame Element section. Dynamic analysis. 127 . the results for a combination can be found using superposition. Therefore. P-Delta effect in load combinations When a first-order analysis is performed. Therefore. when they are present in the load combination. (4) where P. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for further explanation. However. 4. the results for a combination cannot be calculated in the same way. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problem if encountered during analysis. The geometric stiffness matrix for a frame element is given in Eq.Chapter 9: Analysis Delta effects for these types of members. L are axial force and member length. it is advised to divide frame members into two or three sub-elements. for load combinations P-Delta will be calculated in the analysis results using the same iterative method as was used with the load cases as described above. With this modeling approach. If one also wants to consider small PDelta effects. The above procedure is generally referred to as large P-Delta. • • The P-Delta affect due to self-weight is always considered as if it were applied with equivalent forces at end nodes. This is only possible due to the linear elastic analysis assumption. when a second-order analysis is performed.

Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis RAM Advanse is capable of performing a nonlinear analysis.Chapter 9: Analysis Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span The current implementation for P-Delta application is in such a way that it considers axial. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects). where the original calculated tangent matrix is similar to the final one. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problems during analysis. This procedure could be faster than the first one. If this is the case. one can disregard P-Delta effects for them. It is usually used with nonlinear elements such as tension-only members or it is called for an analysis to include P-Delta effects. Thus. Two methods are available for the nonlinear analysis: The standard or full Newton Raphson method (NR) and the Modified Newton Rhapson method (MNR). In both methods the total applied load is divided into a number of load steps. 128 . girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. it may require more iteration. The standard method calculates. one can ignore P-Delta effects for these members. a tangent stiffness matrix of the structure that is used to iteratively search the equilibrium state. In the Modified Newton Raphson Method the load increments are applied using the tangent stiffness matrix too. but the iterative displacements are found using the original tangent matrix without updates. saving the time required for updating the tangent matrix.bending interaction in members (1D element only). it is recommended only for big models with few non linear members. a greater tolerance and may have more difficulties in the convergence. However. and they usually carry low axial loads. Beams. at each load step.

In this case. The number of iterations can also be set prior to the analysis. this increases analysis time but it helps convergence with smaller number of load increments. The following is a summary of the features in this type of analysis: • The number of (load) increments is defined before starting the analysis. Again. The load is applied incrementally and analysis is carried out until all loads are applied. the solution is forced to converge within number of iteration per load increment. this number can be increased if any difficulty is found in converging.Chapter 9: Analysis Comparison of the two methods available for the non-linear analysis. 129 . • • To perform the P-Delta analyses select the Second-Order option when the structure is analyzed. If divergence is observed in analysis solution. equilibrium is checked in such a way that the difference between element resisting forces and externally applied loads is less than the pre-defined tolerance. It is always recommended to perform a preliminary linear analysis to check the model and to compare the results with the non-linear analysis. one can increase the number of increments. In this case it is assumed that an equilibrium state is found. At the end of each increment. Usually.

e. It is assumed in the current implementation that constructed stiffness matrix is always positive definite and constructed mass matrix is a diagonal matrix.. higher periods). The program utilizes a sub-space iteration technique (see References 7. Enter the required parameters for the second order analysis.Chapter 9: Analysis Choose Perform second order analysis (P-Delta). In general for an efficient analysis the following values are recommended (default values): Number of increments = 1 Number of iterations per increment = 10 Convergence tolerance = 1E-5 Eigen Value Analysis The analysis engine is capable of finding Eigen values for a given system. The general characteristics of the current implementation are summarized as follows: 130 . 8. 9 and 10) to find the lowest frequencies (i.

Roark. Van Nostrand.L.. 1983 131 . 259-265. 3rd Edition. 1-4.. N. E. A.D. static condensation can be applied for Eigen solution. and Young. 1987 [9] Wilson. 7. (1991).R. 75-84 [5] Ibrahimbegovic. “A Unified Formulation for Triangular and Quadrilateral Flat Shell Finite Elements with Six Nodal Degrees of Freedom”. McGuire. R. static condensation is not used. (1988). The program internally sets a number of trial vectors. • • • • • References [1] Matrix Structural Analysis. E. The program also applies Gram-Schmidt orthogonality technique to prevent converging to already converged solutions.. 5th Edition. In this case. For most cases. If all masses are lumped at master nodes (master nodes generally associated with rigid diaphragms).J.. Computers & Structures. Thomas J.. 1975 [4] MacNeal.. If all the masses are not applied to master nodes and hence there are some other masses assigned to other nodes. "The Finite Element Methods: Linear and Static Dynamic Finite Element Analysis". and Ziemian.. L.J. 1996 [8] Hughes. It is advised to increase the required number of Eigen values that may accelerate convergence characteristics in subspace. McGraw-Hill. L. Vol. E. The program internally enforces spectrum slicing (Sturm sequence check) to make sure that found “n” Eigen values are the first “n” Eigen values in the solution queue. R. Timoshenko. Vol.. Gallagher. This guaranties that the solution does not miss any Eigen values so that the lowest “n” Eigen values are always found. 1955 [3] Formulas for Stress and Strain. 445-457 [6] Ibrahimbegovic. this number is enough to converge in sub-space. Vol. This is also called lumped mass approach. R. which is larger than the number of requested Eigen values. pp. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods. W. and Harder.L. "An Eigensolution Strategy For Large Systems". No. 30. There are rare cases that the program is not able to converge. Therefore. Computer and Structures. "Finite Element Procedures".L. S. L.. “A Robust Quadrilateral membrane Finite Element with Drilling Degrees of Freedom”. The algorithm is optimized for sparse computation.H. W.1. The program assigns 1. No. This usually reduces the risks for having numerical problems related to DOFs without mass.. Part 1.. Taylor. R. John Wiley & Sons. R. New York. “A Refined Four-noded Membrane Element with Rotational Degrees of Freedom”. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering.C. any mass should be defined at nodes or at master nodes. 2000 [2] Strength of Material. A.. and Wilson. Vol. and Wilson.. the program statically condenses out all degrees of freedom without mass.. (1990).H. 16.. 1-9 [7] Bathe. K. Princeton. R. 2nd Edition. Inc.0E-8 for degrees of freedom where no mass is defined. pp.Chapter 9: Analysis • • Only diagonal mass matrix is allowed in the current implementation.. 28.

Chapter 9: Analysis [10] Bathe. K. 98. Wilson. Journal of Engineering mechanics Division.L.J. Vol. E. EM6.. No. ASCE.. "Large Eigenvalue problems in Dynamic Analysis". 1972 132 .

Free vibration is only dependent on the rigidity of the structure and its masses. Each eigenvalue-eigenvector pair is called a natural vibration mode and they are calculated with a numeric method of iteration (see more details of the modal analysis in the Analysis Chapter). The Mode frequencies. not on the loads. M is the diagonal mass matrix and Z is the corresponding matrix of eigenvectors. Modal Analysis The Modal Analysis consists of the calculation of the period. frequencies and the undamped free vibration mode shapes of the structure. The modal shapes for each Mode. The seismic response spectrum. To perform a dynamic analysis it is necessary to first enter the corresponding masses in the respective nodes and a seismic response spectrum. The dynamic analysis can be subdivided into two parts.spectrum curve. The output of the modal analysis given by the program consists of the following: • • • • • • 133 . T is the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis RAM Advanse performs dynamic analysis using the method of modal superposition.T² M] Z=0 Where K is the stiffness matrix. which is an excellent insight to the behavior of the structure. periods and maximum accelerations The mass participation percentage that provides a measure of how important the Mode is in the calculation of the response of the structure. This parameter is very useful for the determination of the accuracy of the Modal Analysis The total mass that is the sum of the masses in each degree of freedom that acts over the whole structure. The function is displayed in a graphical way. The type of Modal Analysis performed by the program is the Eigenvalue Analysis. The list of the masses that are acting on the different nodes of the structure. The number of Modes to be calculated will depend on the following factors: • • The number of Modes specified by the user in the Analysis dialog window. which represent the ground acceleration in an earthquake in a certain direction. and the determination of the Seismic forces and displacements due to the combination of modes for a given direction of acceleration. the Modal Analysis which determines the free vibration behavior of the structure. In this process the following equation has to be solved: [K . The number of mass degrees of freedom of the structure that considers both the translational and rotational masses. It is given as a digitized response.

RAM Advanse includes a method to assign signs to the displacements. Therefore. It is quite conservative and therefore not commonly used. SRSS Method It combines the results by taking the square root of the sum of their squares. RAM Advanse offers two methods for performing this superposition: CQC Method CQC represents the Complete Quadratic Combination technique developed by Wilson. reactions. the member design will not be accurate if the moment diagram due to seismic loading does not reflect the true moment signs. They are printed for each load combination. This includes member forces. It is very similar to the CQC method. In this case the program performs a statistical measure of the likely maximum response of the structure for the given response spectrum. Advanse does this by taking the sign from the predominant modes acting on each member to determine the sign of the total seismic response. Seismic results with sign Even though the response can be expected to vary within a positive and negative value range. We can consider the case of a column in a building: 134 . It considers the statistical coupling between closely spaced Modes caused by modal damping. Determination of the Dynamic Forces Seismic Dynamic Forces are the maximum forces (response) that occur on the structure as a result of a dynamic analysis utilizing a loading response spectrum. displacements and stresses. forces and stresses calculated from the dynamic analysis. Therefore the damping factor is not considered in this method. Der Kiureghian and Bayo (1981) and is taken as the default method. considering a damping factor equal to zero. member forces and stresses). The sign of the results can impact the combination of dynamic loads with other types of loads that already have an associated sign. Therefore the damping factor must be greater than zero for this method. For example when bending and axial loads are combined. Methods of Modal Superposition Modal superposition is performed in order to compute the maximum displacements.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis • The base reactions that are the total moments and reactions in global coordinates required by the supports to resist the inertia forces originated by the response spectrum loading. the results of the adopted methods are traditionally given as single positive results (this includes the displacements. forces and stresses for each vibration mode. each Mode frequencies and for the modal combination. ABS Method It combines the results by taking the sum of absolute values.

the user must be aware that the signs are only estimated and must be used with caution. the user has to create load combinations in the two opposite directions. Entering Mass Modal shapes are automatically calculated when the structure contains a mass on at least one node. Nevertheless. 135 . Mass can only be entered at the nodes. follow these steps: Select the nodes. with the feature to calculate signs for the dynamic loads. for example in -X and +X direction. the combination of loads will better reflect the real behavior of the structure.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Combination of dynamic loads with and without signs with other type of loads. It is important to mention that when signs are going to be considered. which are to contain mass. As you can see. To enter mass.

Refer to the context sensitive help for instructions related to their use. Seismic Loads The dynamic response spectra analysis requires the following data: Dynamic scale factor = Seismic acceleration/gravity constant. To perform the seismic analysis. Now the masses have been introduced.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Enter in the value of the mass and then press (or press to copy the entire row). Damping constant (in percentage). You can view the mass graphically by depressing . They are located in the lower part of the worksheet.in the Model Properties toolbar. Seismic Response spectrum. proceed as follows: 136 . Choose the direction of the mass that you want to view graphically with It is important to note that there are two available tools to automatically generate masses for one or several floors considering members and shells. Available tools for automatic mass generation.

The seismic direction should be 0 degrees for an earthquake in global X. 137 . Note . Enter the scale factor and direction of the earthquake force. sx = Seism in X (positive direction) or ez = Earthquake in Z. E. In the opposite case the results for the seismic for X and -X or for Z and -Z will be the same). -90 degrees for an earthquake in global Z direction and +90 degrees for an earthquake in global -Z direction.g. 180 degrees for an earthquake in global -X.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a load case for seismic forces. (This is only valid when the seismic is calculated with sign. as specified by the code that you are using.

Notice that acceleration is normalized with respect to gravity. the response spectra curve shows on its vertical axis the maximum acceleration/gravity. You can also load a saved response spectrum using the saved with the button. All elements are considered as carrying compression as well as tension in dynamic load cases. That is. To perform a seismic design. Wind load). Seismic load is represented by a response spectrum.e. you should take into account the following: • Seismic loads. the response spectra. That is. Load combinations where seismic load is included. This kind of dynamic analysis is the most convenient for seismic design because most seismic building codes include the response spectra to be used in the design of a building. Construction details Warning! The program does not include the” tension only” option in the dynamic analysis. 138 . The response spectrum can be button and later recovered with this button Seismic analysis As described previously RAM Advanse performs modal dynamic analyses. and on it's horizontal axis the period of the structure. Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration Just as with other loads (i. you need to determine the magnitude of the seismic forces. This means that the seismic dynamic load is represented by a response spectra (it is also possible to represent other dynamic forces with a response spectra).Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Go to the Gen/Spectrum panel and enter the response spectrum specified by the code you are using for the design.

Load combinations Once you have created a seismic load case in X. considering all the non-dynamic cases where the second order effects will be included. Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse RAM Advanse performs modal analysis as follows: 2. and a second one that will add all the dynamic cases calculated with a first order analysis.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Response spectra: acceleration/Gravity versus period of the structure. 139 . Ton. Lb. It is important to note that the combinations that include both types of load cases will be analyzed in two parts. Refer to your local concrete and building code for the pertinent detailing information. Modal superposition is done using the CQC. This factor scales the response spectra. Notice that RAM Advanse allows you to enter a Scale Factor. Note that RAM Advanse allows the simultaneous analysis of load cases with second order effects and dynamic load cases (these are calculated with a first order analysis). The first one. ABS or the SRSS method. 3. Nodal mass is entered in Kip. Results from a dynamic response spectra analysis are always positive since they represent the maximum values of the structure vibration. in order to obtain the respective units for the analysis. 4. The summation of bending moments and other forces is not zero at the nodes when the option seismic results with signs is not used. Kg. you should create the load combinations required by the code you are using. RAM Advanse offers an analysis option to automatically assign a sign to the calculated response based on the fundamental mode of response. or in Z. Construction details It is important that you understand the behavior of structures subject to seismic loads and the design details that are required to provide a structure with the required ductility. This is because of step 3. 5. RAM Advanse will divide the mass load by gravity. The RAM Advanse Reinforced Concrete Design modules handle many of these details included in Chapter 21 of the ACI -318 Code. Enter 1 (one) if the response spectra need not be scaled.

bending moments are always positive in a typical dynamic load case (right). The other nodes should not have mass. only the mass center node should have a mass. Reactions are always positive when the option seismic results with signs are not used. This rigidity is represented by rigid floor diaphragm.In a floor. To do this. Often a building contains a slab which increases the horizontal rigidity of a floor (perpendicular stiffness of the slab is taken as zero). 140 . All nodes in a floor (including the node with the masses) should be connected with a rigid floor diaphragm. Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings Dynamic analysis of buildings has some special considerations to be taken into account. To model this rigid diaphragm proceed as follows: • • • Create a node at the mass center of each floor Assign TX and TZ translational masses and RY rotational mass.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis As opposed to wind load (left). RAM Advanse offers an option to obtain the seismic results with signs. However. select all the nodes of a floor and then assign them a floor number. Note. These are the masses of the entire floor.

and RY floor masses to the master node. Select all the nodes in a floor Go to Nodes/Floor and press button to assign a floor number to the selected nodes.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a node (master node) in the mass center of each floor. 141 . Assign TX. TZ.

Analysis Then proceed to the analysis as usual: Perform analysis as usual Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) To see the modal shapes of the building.. Select desired modal shape Press 142 to see vibration.Notice that each floor should has a unique number in the structure. Note.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Assign all floor numbers. this number should not occur on any other floor. follow next steps: Press to activate modal shapes. That is to say. .

.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis To see vibration modes with 3D sections depress (or press ) in the Rendering toolbar. To view 3D vibration. You can also press to see a static view of the structure with the deformed modal shape or you can to see the normalized displacements of the selected mode 143 . press button and in the Code Check toolbar To view stress created by vibration modes also depress Press buttons press . and to see stress and vibration.

.

Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code check After the analysis and design of a steel or wood structure has been checked graphically. RAM Advanse will not optimize a structure if a group (or description) of members has different sections assigned within that group. 145 . 2) Sections that fail the code check will be changed to a section that passes the code check. The order of the sections in this list will determine the priority of each section to be considered for replacing the current section. first select all the members that should be included in the optimization. To optimize. Important.To optimize a structure. members with the same description (same group) should have the same initial section. you can proceed to structure optimization. Execute Optimize structure. The criterion to be adopted will be defined with the list of sections to be considered (section collection). There are many optimization criteria that can be applied to these processes. Structure optimization has two purposes: 1) Oversized sections will be changed to another section (normally with lower weight) from a predefined group of sections that can adequately carry the imposed loads.

the user has to check that the assigned material is adequate for all sections of the collection and the type of loads of the members. . 6. 146 . 3. . Therefore. Then check the load conditions that members should resist.When sections are changed all analysis results will be lost. 1.In the optimization of wood members.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Steps for the optimization of a structure. Choose the section collection to consider in the optimization. Note. you should analyze and design the structure again. determine the maximum allowable deflection for each description together with the load combinations to be considered for the deflection check. Assign the collection(s) to the desired groups of members. 2. and press OK. Optionally. Check all groups of members (descriptions) that you want to optimize. Check all approved changes and press OK. select Optimize. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. Warning. 4. Then select the operation to be performed: Optimize or Code check. RAM Advanse will change the current sections to those suggested. In this case. 5. When optimization is finished. See the Wood Design Chapter for more information.

and 2) Replaces elements that fail the code check by others that pass it. Oversized elements are not modified. In this case. After optimization. Verification or Code Check Verification or Code Check will suggest section changes for only those elements that fail the code check. until you are satisfied with the sections used in the structure. So you must perform the analysis-design cycle more than one time. analyze the structure again. After the structure has been optimized. it should be re-analyzed. . choose P-Delta analysis. You should study the structure results and optimize the structure again. Optimization and code check Optimization Optimization performs two actions: 1) Adopts the first section of the selected section collection (list of sections) that fulfills the strength and deflection requirements. Notice that the program tells you the reason for the changes (strength or deflection).Structure design is iterative. Normally this results in the reduction of the weight of oversized members to a lower weight section. Then press OK for RAM Advanse to make the suggested changes. Do not check changes that you don't want to perform.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Check all changes that you agree with. Important. 147 .

Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization basis The purpose of structure optimization is to find the optimum section that complies with your set of criteria (weight.e. RAM Advanse will choose the section to replace from the section collection. furthermore.. Elements with BEAM1 description will have a common section that may differ from COL1. L. the sections in the collection have to be sorted by weight. That is. a collection with sections that belong to different material types (steel. etc) can exist in a single section collection. C. That is. How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section The program chooses a section to replace the original only if it exists in the section collection. A search is done only among those sections. "Tube 15" has "Tube" type 148 .Remember that the Type of a section is defined by its name. after optimization. If an optimization based on the weight of the members is desired.Optimization and Verification assign the same section to all the elements of a group of members (or description). . RAM Advanse will assign the same section to all elements with the same description. Sizes in a set can be sorted by weight by clicking on after the collection is defined. Important . a "W 10x20" section has "W" type. all elements with description COL1 will have the same section. For example the test1 collection shown below is acceptable. The program will pick the first section in the list that resists the applied loads within the deflection limits. width or any other criteria). A section is assigned to each group of members. cold-form steel and wood) can also co-exist. Different types of sections (i. I. depth. Note. Note that the sequence in which sections are considered is based on the order of the sections in the collection.

RAM Advanse checks sections in the selected collection and selects those that pass the code check (strength and deflection) for all the selected load conditions and for all the selected elements that belong to the same group. 149 . Once RAM Advanse gets the first section that meets these criteria it is selected for a possible change.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization process For each group (description) of elements.

Note that you can enter absolute values (a) or values in function of the members length (b). then it is left without modification. Steps to include deflection check in the optimization. 1. The following procedure can be used to optimize your structure and at the same time limit deflections to allowable values. then RAM Advanse proceeds to the optimization explained above. Enable the deflection check 2. 3. 150 . (You may need to use service load conditions to perform this check).Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Verification process The Verification process is similar to the Optimization process. If the current section does not pass the code check. If the current section passes the code check. Structure deflections and deformations Optimization and verification processes may additionally check structure deflections or deformations (lateral deflections are considered with the same limit). checks are first made to see if the current section passes the code check. Define the allowable deflections. Select the load conditions to be considered. However.

151 . You can review the slopes graphically to see if they are within the given limits. One possible way to include them is limiting the value for the stress ratio to a value different than one. It is the engineers' responsibility to ascertain if this is appropriate for the given structure. Notice that you should work with physical members for deflection check because deflections are always calculated relative to the members end points. Optimization with other criteria There may be other factors to be considered in the optimization that are not included in the deflection or strength check. This deflection check is very important and it may be performed as part of the design process.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Notes: • • • Some load conditions should only be used for deflection verification and others should only be used for code check.

or change the geometry or loads of the model. The optimization process will look for the lightest section that comply with the defined strength and deflections requirements. Non-steel or wood members If the structure has frame members with sections that are not made of steel or wood. To correct this. 152 . AISC and AISI sections When both AISC and AISI elements are present in a structure. it means that no section in the section collection passes the code check for the imposed load conditions or specified lengths. RAM Advanse will ignore them during the optimization or verification processes.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Appropriate section not found In the event that you get the message "No section was found to resist imposed load” in the replace sections list. RAM Advanse can change one kind for the other. the optimization will consider the complete set of sections of the original adopted section. Optimization with default collection of sections If the user does not define a collection of section. add stronger sections to the section collection.

Groups of options in the Reports menu. This window also allows you to choose the load conditions to be included in the output. including the points of inflection and envelopes. Note: Before printing data or results. and then choose the type of output you want to see. seismic loads. The Reports menu is divided into four groups. The second group allows you to print all the information related to steel. distributed forces on members. geometric data for the design. RAM Advanse offers you a variety of printing options. The third group has lists of the structure’s members or connections with their section type and quantities. Analysis Results Before printing the reports. and connection design. These quantities are given in length. a window is displayed. etc. This window allows the engineer to choose which information will be printed. The first one provides the ability to print all the data and results of the analyzed structure. first select the elements that you want to be included in the printout. only the information of the graphically selected members will be printed. reinforced concrete. Like all the other reports. etc. Loads Data This option allows printing all the information relative to node forces. self-weight multipliers for load conditions. The last group allows the user to print the forces and deflections. weight or number of members. 153 .Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports For many of the output you are required to first analyze and design the structure. data of members. wood. A description of the options in each group of the Reports menu is given next: Model Data This option allows you to print all the structure geometric information like coordinates of the nodes.

It also gives the calculated accelerations for each vibration mode together with the percentage of mass participation. All the data and results that can be obtained are shown in the graphic below. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures. press the key to obtain the printed report. 154 . For more details about the information given in each type of report. or whether to group by elements. etc. This report also includes a graphic of the seismic response spectrum. Steel Design Before printing the report. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. The user must choose at least one static or dynamic load condition. a window is displayed. ) to select or deselect Dynamic Analysis The dynamic response results are displayed in this report. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design. Window of Analysis Results Use the two options at the top right edge of each group of reports ( all reports of the group. group by conditions. Note that for some print options additional information is required in the form of additional parameters like the number of stations along the member.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Once all the information to be printed is set.

In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. a window is displayed. the type of stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing steel design reports. This window allows you to choose the code to be used. 155 . Reinforced Concrete Design Before printing the report.

Each option is a summary of the former one. The user can also have a detailed report for each connection in the detailing module for connections. Each detailing module has a more detailed report where the user can introduce more information for a complete design. a window is displayed.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to the printing of reinforced concrete design reports. Wood Design Before printing the report. see the Reports section in the Connections chapter. For more details about the information given in each type of report. The report gives information relative to the design of beams and columns like forces acting on members. 156 . the stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design. spacing of stirrups. minimum and calculated reinforcement. a window is displayed. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. Connections Design Before printing the report. For more details about the information given in each type of report. For a more detailed design of reinforced concrete columns and beams. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. This window allows you to choose the scope of the report. considering all the selected connections. Window displayed prior to printing connection design reports. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. In this window the user can choose the code. etc. the connections grouped by tag. type. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the Design of Wood Members. family or description. maximum. use the respective detailing module.

this window allows you 157 . Diagrams This menu option has a sub-menu with three choices: Three choices to print/display the forces diagrams: a) Reports : to print a report. List of Joints This option prints the list of connections assigned to the joints. flexural and torsional forces as well as their respective envelopes. Report The diagrams display axial. List of Materials This option allows you to obtain a list of the selected materials with their respective quantities. shear. b) Show on screen : to show the diagrams on a graphical window. and c) Export as Dxf : To export as DXF file. Note that the envelopes will consider only the selected load conditions. Also. These quantities can be expressed in length or weight. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. translations and rotations for each selected member and load condition. Before printing the report window is displayed where the user can choose the diagrams to be printed.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing wood design reports. Parts List This command prints the list of parts for the currently selected members. This list may be very useful for the detailing and to know if there are still joints without connections.

Once the type of diagrams and the load conditions are chosen. The default value is 2. Note that where more diagrams are included in a line. All the diagrams are referenced to the member local axes. It is advisable to save the structure before executing this command and not to process more than approximately one hundred diagrams each time. which is recommended for reports in a letter size with portrait orientation. which is very useful for reinforced concrete members. Warning! The large number of figures that can be generated when multiple members and load conditions are chosen in big structures may produce problems of memory and resources on the computer. Screen displayed before the diagram report. 158 . You can choose the number of diagrams per printing line.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports to select the option to show the points where the values of the diagrams are zero. which varies between 1 and 6. It is advisable to perform a small print test to determine if the chosen number is adequate for the current paper size and printer. they will be smaller. That is to choose the particular members you want diagrams displayed for. the user will be able to see on the screen a preview of the report and continue with the printing.

It is important to note that the envelopes that are displayed with this option are calculated only from all the selected load combinations.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report of diagrams. In the upper part of the displayed window the user will find two menus to chose the type of diagram and the load condition to display in the diagrams. torsional moments. together with translation and rotation diagrams. The user can select the number of displayed diagrams per line. axial forces. Note that there is a track bar at the bottom of the window which allows you to chose any point along the member and get the numerical value of the diagram at that point. shear. The available member force options include the bending moments. 159 . Display on the screen This option displays the member force diagrams for the member that was selected first on the screen.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Option to display the diagrams on the screen. Note the track bar at the bottom of the window (at the left) which allows you to display the numerical values of the diagram at any point along the member. Export diagrams to DXF files This option displays a screen very similar to that of the detailing modules and includes an option to export the drawing as a DXF file. The type of diagrams is chosen from the menus at the top of the window. 160 . The screen is very similar to the ones of the detailing modules. Option to export diagrams as a DXF file.

For more details refer to your Windows manual or to your printer’s manual. In this case the standard dialog window for printing will appear 161 . Press CLOSE to close the report window. General commands for print report A description of all the buttons in the top bar of the screen report is given next. a screen similar to the one shown below will be displayed: Report screen The characteristics and components of the report screen are explained next.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports The reports have icons and information that are very useful. Standard window to setup the printer. Each time the user prints a report. Press to set all the print configuration parameters. Press to print the current report. The window that appears is the standard Windows printer setup dialog.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Standard dialog window for printing. to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. tabulations and graphics (with format). Press to copy a selected block (Ctrl+C) to the Clipboard to read it from another program like Excel. The program exports only the text without the font styles or graphics (without format). 162 . From Microsoft Word the user can make any modification desired to the report. Press to export the selected block to Microsoft Excel. etc. modify them in Microsoft Excel. and bring them back (using the Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V keys to copy and paste the selected blocks) to the RAM Advanse worksheets. Exported report to Microsoft Excel. WordPad. This button is very useful because the user can export the selected blocks of the report. to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. Press to select the complete report. This is a very useful button because it Press includes the styles. The program exports only the text without Press the font styles or graphics (without format).

Warning! When exporting a report.bmp file with your company logo. This logo is found in the logo.txt file that is located in the root directory of RAM Advanse (C:\RAMadvanseEng) can modify this and other data to show in the report title. To change the logo. The program will automatically insert the logo in the predetermined location on the report page. Press to save the complete report as a text file (*. It is advisable to make a back up of the original file (Reportitle. Warning! The user must be aware that the transfer of a report to Microsoft Word or Excel might take some time. even graphics are exported. Note that the export is done with the original formatting intact. Note that the drawing file is in a bitmap format and it can be edited in any drawing program.txt). Use this option to repeat the title block on the top of each page. which is automatically obtained. This requires that the user must have this software properly installed on their computer. This folder is located in the root directory\BMPS folder. 163 .bmp file in the BMPS folder.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report exported to Microsoft Word. the chosen units system.txt) in a safe location before proceeding with any changes. Later the user can read the report from WordPad or NotePad. Editing the Reportitle. and the date and time of the printed report. Customizing the heading of a report The logo of RAM International is located at the top left of the report. This will allow you to revert to the original file whenever necessary. Note that when this option is activated you will see the titles that will be repeated on the screen. Other information given in the report is the path of the file. RAM Advanse automatically runs the respective software (Word or Excel). depending on the speed of the processor and the number of pages of the report. replace the logo. This allows the user to export the file in a simple text format (TXT).

164 . If you have a black and white printer. Printing Graphics The program has an option to print exactly what is seen on the screen. refer to the chapters of each module as required. use the option to improve the quality of printings for black and white printers. If you have a color printer.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports of the detailing modules For more information about general commands. the printout will be in gray tones. refer to General commands for print report For a complete description about detailing module reports. If you want to print in gray tones. The user can change the print quality in the program configuration option. Option to print the current graphic on the screen. the printout will be in the original colors.

Better qualities will require more resources of the system. Notice that you can save the graph to a file. In this case you should use the following option: Option to save the current graphic in BMP or JPG format. The normal quality will give a standard print. 165 . to change the print quality.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Go to Configuration/General/Print.

Text Box This option found in the File tab of the main menu. you may experience small differences in the tones between your printed graph and the graph displayed in the screen. you can increment the quality. Remarks: If you experience printing problems (the computer freezes or the printing is too slow). take into account the following suggestions: • • • • Reduce the printing quality in RAM Advanse. Additionally you can set the scale and the size (in bitmaps) of the graph. Install the last available driver for your graphics card and printer considering your current operating system. allows the user to enter any information that will be printed on the graphic output. If you have a color printer. If the user wants to include a comment on the graphic. etc. a comment. a description. This information can be a title.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports A dialog window will appear were you should define the type of file BMP (Windows Bit Map) or JPG (JPEG graphic). This text box will be located below the graphic screen of RAM Advanse and will be printed along with the graphic. 166 . Reduce the printing quality in your printer (see your printer manual). Text Box. Once you succeed in printing the graphic. press the “Add text box” command that is explained next.

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Note that graphs include always the description of stresses and their type when they are drawn. 167 .

.

The following options are available: Importing • • • • DXF Importing from drawing software (MicroStation.2x file and later. What are DXF files? DXF files (Drawing Exchange Files) are ASCII files (plain text) that contain almost all the information necessary to produce a drawing. Note that the dxf file is created from all the members of the model. the nodes and frame members). select the command File/Export/DXF Model. Autocad. To export as a DXF file. These files have extension "DXF". enter the name of the file and press OK. Importing and exporting sections and materials. not just the currently visible or selected members on the RAM Advanse display. RAM Structural System . 169 .Full Model: To import all members from a RAM Structural System version 7. MicroStation. Exporting • • • • DXF: exporting to drawing software (Autocad.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data This chapter describes how to import and export information from and to other programs. RAM Advanse Neutral: exporting data to an ASCII text file. for more details see Chapter 6. DXF files DXF files allow you to interchange only the basic geometry (that is. Note: If you have RAM SS version 8. and others which create DXF files) RAM Advanse Neutral: Special tex t file containing the complete structure data. Exporting as DXF files RAM Advanse can export the geometry (frame member lines) of a model to a DXF file. RAM BasePlate: Exporting data of the selected column for the base plate design in RAM BasePlate It is also possible to import or export information to the databases. etc. including loads.Lateral Model: To import only lateral members from a RAM Structural System version 7.2x file and later. This is very useful for transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. SDNF: Exporting to steel detailing neutral file for detailing software.).0 or later you will be able to import models only for your current version of RAM SS. RAM Structural System .

This includes: • • Nodal coordinates Frame members All other data (restraints. hinges. but change everything to layer 0 (zero) before exporting. rigid offset. which are the most time consuming data to enter. etc. springs. Draw lines to represent the frame members.RAM Advanse only exports the basic geometry to DXF files. This option is very useful since it allows you to easily create nodes and frame members.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export.) are ignored. shells. Importing a DXF file RAM Advanse will import the basic geometry of a structure that was created in some other drawing software and exported in a DXF format file. draw the frame members of the structure using any available command but explode everything into LINES before exporting. Creating a DXF file You have to perform the following steps: 1. loads. Using your CAD software. 170 . use command File/Export/ DXFModel… Note. Draw using as many layers as you want. 2.

The graphic must be draw in simple lines. (a) Line as drawn (b) Nodes and elements as created by RAM Advanse RAM Advanse will automatically create joints when it is necessary. Shells cannot be imported.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data 3. Then select the desired file and press OK. it will automatically insert a node and will create an additional element as illustrated by the right picture. Other layer will not be considered during the drawing importation. circles and polygons. For good results: 1. Reading DXF files Make sure RAM Advanse is set to the correct units (the same length units of your drawing) before you import the DXF file. if RAM Advanse locates a line as illustrated in the picture below-left. If there are polylines. 171 . For instance. those must be exploded to lines.It is only possible to import frame members. Execute command File/Import from/DXF to read the DXF file Important! RAM Advanse will automatically insert nodes at straight-line intersection points. 2. Note. Save the drawing as DXF file. All the geometry must be in layer 0. Select the command File/Import from/DXF. .

Many detailing programs (e. Member fixity and tributary gravity loads will also be imported. the supporting beam will be broken in two and a node inserted. Note that RAM Advanse has a maximum of 10 uniform loads and 10 concentrated loads per member per load case. To import a RAM Structural System model. the desire units. For example. the member types by description (optional) and press OK. fixity etc) and gravity loads can be imported. Xsteel) can read or create SDNF files. Lateral Only – This option will import only lateral members from the RAM SS model. but not available in the RAM Advanse database. invoke the command File/Import from/RAM SS. execute command File/Export/SDNF. What are SDNF files? SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) are ASCII (plain text) files that allow you to send the structural member data to steel detailing software. will need to be manually added to RAM Advanse.ram file). Note that in RAM Advanse the intersection of any two members results in a node being created. Columns however will be imported as fixed top but not bottom. The structural geometry. Full Model –This option will import all lateral and gravity members. SDNF Files RAM Advanse can export the structural data as a SDNF file. Note that any member shapes used in the RAM Structural System. member properties (shapes. enter the name of the file. This is a standard format conceived to facilitate data interchange among analysis/design and detailing software. All gravity beam and brace members will be imported with pin conditions at their ends. The gravity loads can only be imported once the structure’s tributary loads have been calculated (by entering any of the design modules in the RAM Structural System).Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data RAM Structural System Files RAM Advanse has the ability to import a RAM Structural System model (. 172 . This file can be read by steel detailing software that supports the SDNF format. wherever a beam frames into another beam.g. Sending data to a SDNF file To export data to a SDNF file.

By default. BEAM or BRACE. the units and the member types. select File/Export/SDNF A dialog window will appear. The "Piecemark field" contains the RA member description The "Revision level field" is reported always as "0" Length units: in the specified units 173 . Now you can read the file with any detailing software that supports the SDNF file.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. You may change this in the dialog window. the member will be reported as a beam or column. as a brace. The "Type field" can only be COLUMN. otherwise. You have to define the file name. Some characteristics of the exported SDNF File: Member description first line: "Member number" "Cardinal point" field” "0 " "0 " “Type field” “Piecemark field” “Revision level The cardinal point number is according to the standards. if the member nodes are completely horizontal or vertical.

A dialog window will appear. Within RAM BasePlate you have a Load Combination Generator that will generate the combinations according to the selected code. the program will “remember” the template file that you have selected and you do not have to define it again. Immediatelly. The column can be a tube.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Sending data to RAM BasePlate RAM Advanse has the ability to export the required data for the design of base plates. The user has to select which moment will be considered: M33 if the strong axis option is selected or M22 if the weak axis option is selected. To design a base plate. the axis where the loads are applied (RAM BasePlate currently does not analyze biaxial bending) and the template file with the initial anchor geometry. pipe or wide flange and may be of any size contained in the database. Notice that only the load cases are considered. the Code for the load combinations. It is important to remark that RAM BasePlate works only with a single moment in the strong or in the weak axis. Press OK and the column shape together with the load cases will be exported. You have to define the loads to be considered. Dialog window to export data for RAM BasePlate. See RAM BasePlate documentation for further details. RAM Base Plate will be executed and you will be able to proceed with the base plate design. Notice also that if you have already exported data from a specific column. 174 . select the desired column and execute the command File/Export/RAM BasePlate.

In order to model with shells you should have a solid understanding of the finite element theory because it is very easy to make mistakes in the structural modeling or in misinterpreting the results. Bending and torsion moments originated by out-of-plane loads.Chapter 14: Shells Chapter 14: Shells Introduction In this chapter you will see how to enter shell elements. Two types of loads can act over the shells: Bending and torsion moments originated by loads acting out of the plane of the shell: M11. It is also possible to have loads acting in the plane of the shells (membrane loads) that can be normal loads F11 and F33 and shear loads F13. The calculation method uses the force matrix and the general element adopted is rectangular with four nodes. The Shell Element The following assumptions are made regarding the shell element used in RAM Advanse: • • • Rectangular plates Elastic material. isotropic and homogeneous Strength developed by a combination of bending and membrane actions. 175 . you will learn certain necessary concepts. M33 or M22 with the corresponding transverse shear forces. Adopted element of 4 nodes. and you will learn how to view the results numerically or graphically.

If both types of loads are considered. The adopted elements are formulated based on a numeric integration of 8 points located in both faces of the shell. the magnitude of which can be evaluated based on the differences in the forces for each common point of the shells. They are called the Gauss points: Gauss points of the element. Forces in the nodes calculated for each element. The numerical procedure always produces some amount of error.Chapter 14: Shells Membrane actions acting over the shell. 176 . we will have 6 degrees of freedom. The forces in the element are evaluated in the Gauss points using the local coordinate system and the values obtained are extrapolated to the nodes at the corners in global coordinate system.

Chapter 14: Shells Approximated error of the forces calculated in the nodes. These forces are parallel to the smallest dimension of the shell: Membrane behavior with forces acting in the plane of the shell. N2. which is only suggested for transition zones. It is recommended to avoid these elements. Applications for the model There are many applications for the adopted element. The program will generate an error if the following three nodes of the shell are collinear: N1. The calculation and distribution of stresses in this element is not as accurate as a traditional four-node element. This is just a special case of the rectangular element. This limitation is due to the definition of the local axes. The correct order of the nodes for the triangular element is shown in the next figure. N2. The behavior as a membrane is used when loads acting in the same plane of the shells originate the stresses in the shells. This feature is intended only to completely cover a non-rectangular area with the shells. 177 . Triangular element suggested only for transition zones. N3 or N1. with three nodes lying on one line. It is also possible to model a triangular element. N4.

Bending stresses frequently occur in floor slabs and mats: Example of slabs modeled with plates. It is also possible to have shells in three dimensions with a curvilinear axis. Loads that originate bending in shells.Chapter 14: Shells These types of loads occur frequently in shear walls with vertical and lateral forces: Example of a shear wall with a membrane effect. Bending occurs when loads act perpendicular to the plate’s plane. 178 .

The generation of shells is best explained with an example: Above is a row of four plates to be generated. Determination of the reinforcement needed in reinforced concrete slabs. RAM Advanse offers the ability to calculate the required reinforcement for flexure (positive and negative relative to shell local axis orientation) for shells positioned in the X-Z plane. and then press a button to create the elements. and then select the top row of nodes in the same direction. 179 .Chapter 14: Shells Shells with curvilinear axis. Generating shells The generation of shells is similar to the generation of frame members: that is. That is. Select the nodes in the order shown above. first select the bottom row of nodes. This option allows the user to verify the floor slabs and mat reinforcing requirements. first you need to select the nodes to which shells will be connected to.

Take the time to check the local axis orientation of the shells. If the plates have not been generated as you expected press plates and start over. Note – Be advised that the order of selection of nodes is very important to correctly generate the plates and to establish their local coordinates. The plates will be generated. the rest of the elements may be generated automatically by controlling the degree of segmentation (meshing).Chapter 14: Shells Next go to Shells/Nodes panel and press . Output such as top and bottom reinforcing steel is all presented relative to the shells local axis orientation. It is only necessary to define big physical units. Next select the top row of nodes in the order indicated. Node selection should be done in the following order: in order to undo the generation of First select the bottom row of nodes in the order indicated. 180 . Please notice that the top and bottom rows of nodes should be selected in the same direction.

follow these steps: 181 . To do this. the shells should be assigned a description immediately after you create them. First. select the plates to be assigned a description. Description As with beams.Chapter 14: Shells Irregular plate divided into smaller rectangular plates. The process for assigning the description is similar to that of beams and is explained below. select one of the groups of plates and then press Next. go to Shells/Description and press the button or write in the description and then press Entering Shell Thickness To enter the thickness of the plates.

type in the value of the thickness of the plates and press the button Note . Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing) There are two ways to indicate the segmentation (meshing): One. by entering the segmentation (meshing) values in the worksheet as was explained in Chapter 3. press the following buttons of the Display options window. you can use the quadratic generation ( ) or the tool to segment the shells ( but these options has not to be used with physical members. Alternatively.To graphically view the description and thickness of the plates. by extra nodes at the sides of the basic elements already defined and two. Then. The number of segments that will have each basic unit can be defined in the worksheet. or ). select the plates. 182 . Physical members.Chapter 14: Shells First.

Chapter 14: Shells Assigning Materials To assign materials. go to Shells/Materials. lift up (deactivate) the buttons in the Model properties toolbar. follow these steps: First choose the corresponding load condition.To avoid viewing the material names graphically. Choose the material with the mouse and press the button The materials have now been assigned. 183 . follow these steps: Select the Shells Tab Next. Note . and In the case of a reinforced concrete slab you will have to enter the mechanical cover too. Pressure on the Plates To enter pressure on the plates.

We strongly recommend you to read the available literature on this subject before you use shell elements in your structure. and also enter their thickness (entering thickness) and then select them. enter a pressure with the opposite sign. For example: first generate the shells that are illustrated in the graph (entering shells).Chapter 14: Shells Select the plates.If the pressure you see in the graph is opposite to what you want. it is necessary to mesh the shell into a reasonable number of sub-plates. Segmentation (meshing) of Plates To obtain an acceptable precision in the analysis of shells. then type in the value of the pressure and press Note . Model idealization and mesh subdividing is one of the most important steps in finite element modeling. Go to Shells/Load on shells. Engineering knowledge and judgement plays a very important role in the structure idealization. 184 . When subdividing a mesh. same shape finite elements should be employed. A positive value coincides with the positive direction of the local axis 2. In the case of very coarse meshes. subdividing is necessary in order to reduce errors and increase precision.

the case of a rectangular slab is presented. to subdivide. This example will be used in several sections of this chapter and will be referred to as Shell1. and there are tables with the solutions for the stresses and deflections following classic methods. Characteristics of the adopted example. performing two calculations with two different subdivisions. The differences between the forces in the nodes calculated in contiguous shells are good parameters to determine the precision obtained with the subdivision of the plates. It is important to mention that this precision diminishes at the borders.Chapter 14: Shells Select plates to be subdivided. As an example. Another possibility for determining the precision obtained is to study the convergence of the results. Large differences in the results will indicate that a larger number of plates are needed to accurately model the structural behavior. The slab is fixed in the four borders and it is a reinforced concrete slab. enter the number of segments of each plate. Then. It is a very simple example. The results obtained by tables are: 185 . The dimensions of the slab are: 30 ft x 15 ft and a uniform pressure is acting from top to bottom.

at midspan Mxx = -0.058*p*l².67 1.Chapter 14: Shells Main moments: on support Mxx = -0.010*p*l² Maximum deflection: ω = 0.084*p*l².041*p*l² Secondary moments: on support Mzz = -0.88 -2.61 2x4 -2.06 -2.35 8x16 -3.85 -2.49 2. The results (*) obtained are: Description M11 on supports (Kip) M11 at midspan (Kip) M33 on supports (Kip) 186 Tables -3.78 1.030*p*l4/(E*t3) Where l = the least span.49 . 4x8 and 8x16: Different subdivisions adopted for Shell1.82 4x8 -3. in this case = 15 ft E = Deformation Modulus t = thickness of the shell p = applied uniform pressure µ = Poisson Coefficient Three different numbers of subdivisions are adopted: 2x4.88 2.90 -1. at midspan Mzz = 0.

187 . The report options available are shown in the shell frame of the dialog shown in the next figure. The method adopted is the Strength Design Method suggested by the ACI 318-99. Printing the results This section describes the reports provided for the RAM Advanse Shell element.46 0.0047 0. Dialog window used for Print – Analysis Results options. The calculation is performed by unit length of the shell using the moments obtained in the elastic analysis. In the calculation the torsional moments and the membrane stresses are not considered. considering the properties introduced in the materials section and the mechanical cover.00472 0 12 4.45 0.Chapter 14: Shells (Kip) M33 at midspan (Kip) Maximum deflection (ft) Maximum error (%) 0.00183 61 0. These reports are provided by selecting menu Reports – Analysis Results.6 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells Within the options for printing results (see next section).00468 0 0. RAM Advanse includes the option to determine the reinforcement area needed for flexure in reinforced concrete shells or slabs.55 0.45 0.

Note that both the top and bottom face are relative to the shell local axes. τ13: Transverse shear stress. It is calculated with the following expression: σe = (σ²x + σ²y . σ33: In-plane normal stresses in the Axes 1 and 3 directions. σ min: Total minimum stress. The in-plane and out-of-plane forces determine the value of the stresses on both faces of a shell. Thus. 188 . σ22: Transverse direct stress (it is always assumed equal to zero). The shell stresses are defined as the forces per unit area of the plate that act within the element to resist the applied loads. σy = biaxial stresses referred to any coordinate system τ = Shear stress related to the former biaxial stresses All the calculated stresses consider bending and membrane forces. Ang σ: The angle of the main axes in relation to the local axes.σx*σy + 3*τ²)1/2 where: σe = von Mises uniaxial equivalent stress σx. The main or principal stresses are: σ max: Total maximum stress in the plane formed by the plate. Von Mises: The uniaxial equivalent stress proposed by von Mises (used for the design of steel plates). τ12. τ max: Maximum transverse shear stress (average for both faces) Ang: τ: The angle of the maximum shear stress in relation to local axes. The different stresses at each node are: σ11. Figure that shows the stresses in the local axes with the positive directions.Chapter 14: Shells Shell stresses In this report the shell stresses acting on each shell node are shown. τ13: The shear force along the edge. One located at the top face or +t/2 of the shell middle fiber and the other at the bottom face or-t/2 of the shell middle fiber. each node has two points where the stresses are calculated.

M13: Twisting moment. Fmin: Minimum axial force. V12. These forces are: F11. M max: Maximum bending moment. M33: Bending moments around Axis 1 and Axis 3. V23: Transverse shear forces. M11. Ang F: The angle of the main forces in relation to the local axes. 189 . F13: Membrane shear force. Vmax: Maximum shear force (average) Ang V: The angle of the maximum shear force in relation to local axes. F33: Normal membrane forces. The adopted sign convention is according to local axes. The main forces are: Fmax: Maximum axial force.Chapter 14: Shells Example of a Shell Stresses Report Internal forces in nodes They are defined as the resultant forces and moments considering the stresses along the thickness of the shell per unit length. M min: Minimum bending moment. Ang M: The angle of the main moments in relation to the local axes.

This option is useful to verify the magnitude of each force that must be in equilibrium with the force of the contiguous shell. mainly in the design of shear walls. As it was stated before. Corner Forces The local corner forces are the internal forces that are acting on each node of the plate. The adopted sign convention is: 190 . The option to get the envelope of corner forces is also included. Face forces This option shows the forces acting on each lateral face of the shells: Face forces with the adopted sign convention. This option displays the maximum local forces acting for the chosen load combinations.Chapter 14: Shells Adopted sign convention for internal forces in nodes. the precision of the number of plates applied to a specific problem is in direct relation to the equilibrium of these forces. Sign convention for corner forces according to global axes. It is very useful for design purposes. because it allows having the loads act on different sections of the wall. It is very useful in the design step. The convention adopted to display such forces is given in the following figure and it is related to the glocal axes.

The list of parameters is: 191 . according to local axis 2. clear and concise manner. M. The reference axes are by default the local axes. Reinforced concrete design for plates This option provides the required reinforcement area per unit length. positive if the bottommost fiber is in tension and negative otherwise. There is also a submenu where you can find the list of parameters that can be displayed and several options to display the graphs. V and S according to the former figure. considering the unitary bending moments obtained in the analysis. This option provides the range of values of the face forces. Bending moments. Warping moment.Chapter 14: Shells • • • • Shear forces. RAM Advanse allows printing the envelope of the face forces considering the selected load conditions. Axial force. F. positive for tension and negative for compression. M22. the parameter name and range are displayed. In a similar way as for the envelope of corner forces. Optionally a rotated coordinate system can be adopted This option is very useful when the direction of reinforcement does not coincide with the local axes. A graphic can show many results at the same time in an easy. Selecting the desired elements and then pressing the following buttons activates this option: (Rendering toolbar) + (Analysis toolbar) When you activate this option an additional window appears where the units. Graphic environment RAM Advanse offers the tools to display stresses and other results in a highly graphical manner.

e. the normal and shear stresses in the local axes. Fmax and Fmin. Mmax and Mmin. σ min. ) referring to the local axes. Stresses The stresses that can be seen graphically are: • -Von Mises stresses. • • • • • Stress contours for a membrane stresses example. -σ max. the principal bending moments. Important! The stresses that are shown are always in the positive face (according to local axes). -τ12 and τ23. M33 and M13. the transverse shear stresses in planes 1-2 and 2-3 respectively. the main or principal normal stresses. the normal forces and in-plane shear force related to the local axes. the bending and torsion unitary moments related to the local axes. They are the equivalent uniaxial stress proposed by von Mises and used in the design of steel plates. the principal normal forces. σ33 and τ13. The selected shells are shown in white with this option. M11. the main or principal transverse shear stress (averaged from both sides) -It is also possible to see the different stresses related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i. To see both faces enable the option to draw stresses on both sides of shells.Chapter 14: Shells Frame members (default) This option is used to view the stresses in the frame members (see the Examples Manual for more details). -σ11. Internal forces in nodes The internal forces that can be seen graphically are: • • • • 192 F11. F33 and F13. For more details see the section Principal stresses in the section Printing results. . -τ max.

e. ) referring to the local axis 1. Contours for a bending forces example. The reinforcement needed in the bottom is concentrated in the midspan and the reinforcement needed in the top is concentrated in the fixed borders. 193 . Reinforcement in RC plates The required reinforcement for flexure can be displayed in function of the following parameters: • • Location of the reinforcement (at the top or bottom of the shell) Orientation of the reinforcement referring to the local or any rotated axes. In the former example (Shell1) it is very easy to see the main reinforcement needed at the top and the bottom of the slab. Vmax.Chapter 14: Shells • • • V12 and V23. the transverse shear forces. the principal shear force (averaged) It is also possible to see the different forces and bending moments related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i.

194 . The rotation of the axes is referred to the local axis 1. . Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. The required reinforcement can be oriented in relation to the local axes or any rotated coordinate system.Chapter 14: Shells Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides.

Envel and Max The options (Envel and Max) provide the envelope graph for the chosen parameter. the positive envelope is displayed and when Max is deactivated the negative envelope is displayed. Smooth The option uses an algorithm that averages the values obtained in contiguous shells. In the next figure the positive and the negative envelopes for the moment M11 are presented for the example Shell1. The load combination used is c1=dl 195 .Chapter 14: Shells Reinforcement in rotated axes. This action smoothes the contour lines displayed. Note that these options work only with load combinations. Example of the effects of the option smooth. When the option Max is activated.

In this case the user has to activate the shell thickness (in the Rendering toolbar) together with the button to show the stresses (in the Analysis toolbar). Stresses on both sides of the shell RAM Advanse offers an option to display the stresses and the equivalent uniaxial stresses (von Mises stresses) on both sides of the shells. An example with von Mises stresses at both sides of the shell.Chapter 14: Shells Positive and negative envelopes for the bending moment M11 in model Shell1. 196 .

2) Create a new 100x100-pixel bitmap drawing that shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. (For more details please refer to the LEO Chapter of this Manual) This chapter shows you how to create new section types (all the files to be created have to be stored in the def folder of the main RA directory): 1. It is also possible to define how the main section properties will be calculated based on the cross section proportions (such as width. create the macro for the section type. replace the word TEST with the name of the section that you wish to create. save it as TEST_100x100. 1)Create a new 16x16-pixel bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_16x16. Create a new 16x16 pixels bitmap drawing. These are included in the program with macros where their shape and geometrical parameters are defined.bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def Example of 16x16 bmp For other section types. height. This drawing should illustrate the new shape. 3. such as the Paint program that comes with Windows. Example of a 100x100 bmp. To do this. 2. The adopted macro language is very simple: It is called LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) and it is used for different applications within RAM Advanse. 197 . use any drawing software that can handle BMP format. Note that this file will serve as the Help context for the user when they enter the cross section data. You can also add a remark. Then. 4. Let’s create a section type that will be called TEST.bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def. This drawing will be used for some reports too. Create a 100x100-bitmap drawing that clearly shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. Create a htm file with any text editor able to save files in this format. Next. Insert the bitmap created in the former step. thickness).Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros RAM Advanse has the ability to allow the user to create their own types of sections.

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros 3) Open a htm editor like Microsoft Word™ supplied with Microsoft Windows and insert the drawing. . Enter the new name for the section type 198 . Select a type of section similar to the new one and press and the LEO Editor will be opened with the new macro.htm in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def 1. Execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections from the main menu. If you want you can add some remarks. Save it as Test. which is similar to the new one. It advisable to copy a macro of an existing section type. Create the macro for the new section type.

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

LEO Editor with a macro for sections. Note that it is divided in three parts. The macros for sections have three parts. The first one is where the common properties or general parameters are defined. The second part defines the section variables or the input data for the section, for example the height, width, etc. Finally, the last part contains the subroutines that define the section. There we find the askUser function that defines the order and characteristics of the input data, the SectionShape function that defines the geometry of the section, and others. The next section of the manual details the characteristics of each part. The macro of each section type is stored in a basic text file with the extension .leo. located in the def folder of the main RA directory. Note that the macros of previous versions (before 6.0) with .def extension have been replaced. Warning- If this file contains errors, RAM Advanse will not necessarily give you an error message, and therefore the properties of the sections could be incorrect. The reason is that as in any programming language, only syntax errors are detected. The user is responsible for verifying that the section properties are correct.

Common parameters:
This part contains commands for the general definition of the section. For example, you have to include the following line: (To set In (inches) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='In' (To set Cm (centimeters) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='Cm' As you see, a command consists in this case in the assignation of a default value to a parameter. Note that if a string is assigned to the parameter, the string is between quotation marks. The most common commands are explained below:
199

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Default Units
Command action: Assigns the default units to a shape (cm, in or mm). When you create a new section the specified unit will show by default. However, you'll be able to change it when creating the section, if desired. Syntax: UNIT=<unit> Allowable values for <Unit>: cm: Centimeters in: Inches mm: Milimeters

Section type
Command action: Instructs RAM Advanse which procedure should be used to calculate section properties. Syntax TYPE=<type> Allowable values for <type> LINEOPEN: shape is an open section composed by elements that are thin in comparison with its overall dimensions. Normally it is applicable to steel shapes such as L, I, W, S, T2L, etc. LINECLOSED: section is also composed of thin elements but they belong to a closed shape such as: square box, pipe, etc. SOLID: shape is solid. This is applicable to square solid bars, round bars, reinforced concrete sections, etc.

Shape
Command action: Describes the shape of the section. If the shape is 'I' or 'C', RA offers two methods for the calculation of Qmod2 (an exact and an approximated method) . For other shapes RA will calculate Qmod2 with the exact method. T sections have to be defined always with shape='T' in order to follow the code specifications for these shapes. Syntax SHAPE=<shape> <Shape> is a string of maximum 5 characters that describes briefly the form of the section. The adopted strings are: 'Built Box', 'C', 'Circle', 'Circular', 'Compound', 'I', 'L', 'Rectangular', 'Spaced', 'T', 'Z'

200

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Design code
Command action: Specifies the design code to be used with this shape. Syntax CODE=<code> Allowable values for <code> HOTROLLED: Section is made from hot rolled steel and will be designed with LRFD or codes, as applicable. COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with -LRFD codes, as applicable. BS_COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with WOOD: Section is made of wood (lumber or glulam) and will be designed with RCONCRETE: Section is made of reinforced concrete and will be designed with as selected. -ASD, -

-ASD or Code

-ASD Code. or EH codes,

OTHER: Any other section or profile that does not belong to the categories explained above, such as aluminum.

Design formulation
Command action: For steel sections, RAM Advanse designs hot rolled or cold formed sections according to the design specification sections of the adopted Code. You should choose which specification RAM Advanse should use for this section. For wood sections, RAM Advanse has to know if it is lumber or glulam. This parameter is not required for AISI-cold formed sections. Note. - It is very important that you understand this instruction and its effects on the design of your new section template. Please see the chapters on Design of Steel Members (AISC or BS) for how the program has implemented the code provisions or the chapter devoted to wood design. Syntax FORMULATION=<formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> are GEN, TUBE, IC, and L for steel sections and LUMBER or GLULAM for wood. Each one of these formulations represents a different approach, as stated by the AISC, BS or NDS codes. These approaches (or formulations) are: IC: Assign this formulation only to I (W, HP, S, UB, UC or Joists) and C shapes. This formulation is exactly as explained in AISC-F (AISC-ASD and AISC LRFD) This formulation applies to rolled or welded I or H cross sections (BS). TUBE: This formulation should be used with Tube and Pipes shapes.
201

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

It is similar to the IC formulation but takes into account the large Warping constant of Tubes, closed shapes and it's high critical flexural-torsional bending moment.(AISC LRFD Specification for Steel Hollow Structural Sections). This formulation is intended for hot finished RHS or cold formed RHS L: This formulation should be used with L and T2L sections. It is explained in AISC-ASD and LRFD Specifications for Single-Angle Members. GEN: This formulation should be used with other shapes that do not belong to previous formulations. This formulation is similar to the IC formulation but does not use the flexural-torsional formulas suggested by the AISC. Instead, it uses more complicated and general formulas for the critical flexural-torsional bending moments (without simplifications), suggested by Galambos. T sections have a formulation=GEN and a shape='T'. The flexural-torsional strength of compound sections are calculated approximately with the method suggested by Galambos with a safety factor = 0.7. Ref: Galambos T. V., Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988. For wood members, the following formulations are available: LUMBER: This formulation should be used with rectangular and rounded sections. Spaced columns are also considered. This formulation is explained in Chapter 4 of the NDS-ASD Code. GLULAM: This formulation should be used only with rectangular sections. It is explained in Chapter 5 of the NDS-ASD Code.

Cbmax
Command action: It adopts maximum limits for Cb (Bending coefficient) This command sets a limit for the maximum value of Cb. The Code specifies to take Cb smaller than 2.3, which is the default value considered by the program. Syntax CBMAX=<value>

Connection
Command action: This command indicates if the connection between flange and web is continuous or intermittent (welded). If the shape is hot rolled then the connection is continuous. If the shape is welded then the connection is intermittent (built-up members). Syntax CONNECTION=<connection> Allowable values for <connection> CONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web is continuous
202

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

NONCONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web isn't continuous

Category
Command Action: It is an additional classification that is used for reinforced concrete members. It helps to determine the type of members suitable for the section (it is only a descriptive property). Syntax: CATEGORY=<Category> Allowable values for <category> are BEAM, COLUMN and WALL

Commentary
Command action: To make any comment you want concerning the shape. The commentary does not have an affect on properties or the design. You would use this, for instance, if the shape has unequal legs, some unique shape, or any other unusual condition that you wish to communicate to the user. This commentary appears when the user creates new sections. Syntax COMMENTARY=<commentary> Allowable values for <commentary> Any pertinent commentary. All the previous commands can be illustrated with an example. Lets define an angle section type with the following data:

Geometrical data of the angle. The following command lines should be included: UNIT='In' TYPE='LineOpen' SHAPE='L' CODE='HOTROLLED' FORMULATION='L' CBMAX=1.5 //It will be calculated with the Single-angle Specifications //Cbmax=1.5 < the default value of 2.5 (Section 5.2.2 AISC-LRFD) //It is a laminated shape
203

//Defines inches as the default unit //it is an open section //The shape is L, it is only a descriptive property of the shape

CONNECTION='Continuous'

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

COMMENTARY='(AISC L with unequal legs)'

Section variables
These commands specify the name, the default value and tags of the variables required for calculating section properties of the new section type. You should create as many variables as needed to define the shape dimensions. Syntax Name of the variable = default value [units] tag <string> Name of the variable. When possible, use a descriptive name with few characters. The first one should always be a letter (shouldn't be a number) following the general rules for variable names in LEO. For example: “a” “bf” “d2” “t” The tag is a text description of the variable. For instance, "Total height", "Width", "Web thickness", "Internal bending radius". Examples for variable definitions are: a = 0.0 [cm] tag 'Section height' bf = 1.0 [in] tag 'Flange thickness' Note that the default value has not to be necessarily zero. The units between brackets defines the units for the variable. In order to follow the different steel design codes for specific shapes, it is required to adopt unique names for certain variables. The shapes with specific variables are: Shapes with IC formulation (I, H or C shapes) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width r: radio (only for BS) k,k1 distances (only for AISC) Shapes with tube formulation Rectangular and/or square tubes: a: height b: width T: thickness
204

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Pipes D: diameter T: thickness Shapes with Gen formulation and shape=’T’ (only for BS) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width Shapes with L formulation a: height b: width (only for unequal legs) T: thickness Other shapes do not have any restrictions. Following the example of the angle section, the required variables are: //section variables a = 0.0[in] tag 'Height' b = 0.0[in] tag 'Width' T = 0.0[in] tag 'Thickness' k = 0.0[in] tag 'Distance k'

Prop AskUser
This subroutine defines the data that will be required. In general two types of command lines are used: Declaration: Html(fileName as string) This shows the help context that will be used when the data is asked. Specify a htm file that has to be located in the Def folder of the main directory of the program. Declaration: Ask(ref data, caption as string) This requests information from the user> Syntax Prop AskUser() html(<FileName.htm>) ask(Variable name, <input line>) ...
205

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

End Prop The variable has to be previously declared. The input line contains the text that will be associated with the requested variable Following with the example of the angle section, the required subroutine is: //user defined values Prop askUser() html('Test') ask(a, 'Height') ask(b, 'Width') //The help context that will be shown in the input data //First, the section height is asked //Then the section width

ask(T, 'Thickness') //and finally the thickness ask(k, 'Distance k') //This factor is only used for connections design End Prop

Prop Section Shape
The geometry of the section and some design properties are defined in this subroutine.

Node
Declaration: Node(id as integer, x as float, y as float) In order to define a new shape you should create nodes and then connect them with lines or elements. Command action: Creates a node that defines an edge of the section. Note. - The word "Node", as defined here, does not have any relation with the Node element of a structure. Syntax NODE (<Node number or identifier>, <X coordinate>, <Y coordinate>) The node is defined by an identifier and its coordinates. This command has to be repeated the required number of times to define all the edges of the desired section. The following lines have to be included for the example of the angle section:

Coordinates of the required nodes //Nodes Node(1, 0, 0)
206

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Node(2, -b+0.5*t, 0) Node(3, -b+0.5*t, a-0.5*t) The nodes that were defined are:

SetLine...EndLine
Declaration: SetLine(thickness as float, radius as simple) EndLine Command action: It allows to define the different elements of a section including the thickness and internal bent radius. Note that after starting this command, a variable number of lines can be adopted to include elements and their properties. The commands that are used within SetLine are: Rigid, Closed and Segment. Notice that at the end a line with the word EndLine indicates that the line definition has finished. Syntax SetLine(<variable for line thickness>, <variable for bent radius>) To define the line thickness, adopt any section variable as for example “t”. The bent radius has normally a value grater than zero for cold formed steel sections. The variable for the bent radius has also to be previously defined. If there is no bent radius, enter the a zero value “0”. Next, you will find the subroutine applied to the angle section example:

//lines SetLine(T, 0) //Other commands like rigid or closed are not included, they will be explained further in this chapter Segment(1, 2) Segment(2, 3) EndLine

Segment
Declaration:
207

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Segment(n1 as integer, n2 as integer) Command Action: It determines a line segment between two nodes (n1 and n2). This command has to be always within a SetLine. The actual values of rigid and closed will be assigned to the new segment Syntax: Segment(<Initial node identifier>, <final node identifier>) Two instruction lines are required for the angle section example:

Segment(1,2)

Segment(2,3) It is important to note that when defining the section, the start of the elements of an AISI closed section must be in a vertex; not in the middle of a length as shown in the next figures.

Correct and incorrect definitions of a tube section (AISI).

Rigid(ity)
Declaration: Rigid(value as integer) Command action: This command allows you to clearly specify what type of elements comprises a steel section profile. RAM Advanse requires this information for hot rolled steel shapes to determine if an element is Compact, Non-compact, or Slender, as AISC classifies them. When the AISC code check is performed, it is necessary to know if an element is stiffened, unstiffened, or an intermediate element such as a T web element.
208

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

The program use this parameter to determine the class of an element (plastic, compact, noncompact or slender). This check is performed in hotrolled or coldformed steel shapes. If this command is ignored, RAM Advanse may consider an element to be stiffened or unstiffened. RAM Advanse will consider an element to be stiffened if each end of the element is connected to another element. Therefore, if only one other element is connected to the end of the element, it will be considered as being unstiffened.

When the RIGID command is omitted, RAM Advanse will consider the elements as illustrated in the figure. In the case of cold-formed steel sections, the program requires to define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Examples of rigid values to be adopted in AISI sections Syntax Rigid(<value>) This command should be inserted into the element creation command, as explained before: Notice that one rigid value may exist for several line segments with the same characteristics. Allowable Values for <rigid > The following rigid values represent the different possible elements of a shape (for more details, see the tables given in the steel design chapters): 1: Outstanding legs of pairs of angles in continuous contact: angles or plates projecting from rolled beams or columns 2: Stems of tees 3: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators 4: Flanges of square and rectangular box and hollow structural sections of uniform thickness, subject to bending or compression
209

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

5: All other uniformly compressed stiffened elements i.e., supported along two edges. (Not applicable for BS) 6: Webs in combined flexural and axial compression 7: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators. Compact limit= 65*sqrt(Fy) 8: Circular hollow sections, in axial compression, in flexure 9: Flanges of I-shaped rolled beams and channels in flexure 10: Unsupported width of cover plates perforated with a succession of access holes. (Not applicable for BS)

SetSolid
Declaration: SetSolid EndSolid Action command: This command defines the perimeter shape of a solid section. Between the reserved words SetSolid and EndSolid three or more Segment commands have to be included. The EndSolid finishes the definition of the solid section. Syntax SetSolid Segment(n1,n2) Segment(n2,n3) ....Segment(n3,n4) ... End Solid Important Notice that you should close the border. This means that if you start with node 1 you should also end with node 1 in a clockwise direction.

The commands for the definition of the previous figure are: //solids SetSolid Segment(1, 4)
210

<0 or 1 to determine if a bar will be drawn on the initial point>) BAR (<X coordinate of the bar>. <Y coordinate of the bar>) The following is an example of the application of this command for a rectangular reinforced concrete section: The commands to define the reinforcement of the section consider a coordinate system with its center on the bottom left corner of the section. Syntax BARS (<X coordinate of the initial point>.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(4. <number of spaces between bars in the line between the initial and final points>. 1) EndSolid Bars and Bar Declaration: Bars(x1 as float. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top left corner Join Declaration: Join(thickness as float. Both commands are used normally after defining a solid section with SetSolid. 211 . true) //Draw 3 spaces with 4 bars at the bottom part Bar(b-s. 3) Segment(3. while the command Bar draws only one bar. <Y coordinate of the initial point>. y as float) Command action: The command Bars allows you to specify the number of bars that will be drawn in 3D for reinforced concrete members. 3. s. setInitial as boolean) Bar(x as float. n1 as integer. //Bars Bars(s. x2 as float. <Y coordinate of the final point>. nroBars as integer. b-s. 2) Segment(2. <X coordinate of the final point>. s. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top right corner Bar(s. y2 as float. n2 as integer) Action command: This command indicates the nodes that are considered joined when a single section is made up of more than one individual profile (like a W and C-section). y1 as float.

a box or a tubular section)..0) ..e. An example for this command can be found in the C&C section where it is used to join nodes 3 and 5 of the two shapes (groups of elements) with a thickness given by the tf2 variable in the following way: Example for the application of the Join command Join(tf2. It is used with the SetLine command.2) 212 .<node of the first group of elements>.<node of the second group of elements>) Note that the nodes to be joined must be very close. 5) //join nodes 3 and 5 with a thickness equal to tf2 Closed Declaration: Closed(value as boolean) Action command: This command allows you to indicate which elements are connected in a closed shape (i. Syntax Closed(<0 or 1>) Where 0: Is for open elements 1: Is for closed elements The application of the command can be illustrated with the following box section SetLine(t.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Syntax Join(<variable for join thickness>. Closed(1) //The following segments will be considered part of a closed section Segment(1. 3.

Syntax Line(<thickness>.<rigid>. n2 as integer) Command action: This is an alternative command to create a segment connecting two nodes with a line including all the characteristics of the line as bent radius and rigidity in a single command. without bent radius.<closed>.2) //Draws a line with thckness=t. See the Chapter for Creating Sections and Materials for further details. rigid as integer. rigid=7. radius as simple.4) Segment(4. open segments between nodes 2 and 3 Prop Tapered properties Definition: Prop TaperedProperties(Depth as float) End Prop This optional subroutine is specially conceived for tapered members. Therefore. Only the redefined properties have to be specified.0. without bent radius.0.2.1. <final node>) For the example of the angular section. the subroutine has to include the formulae for the calculation of all the different section properties as a function of the depth. rigid=7. Therefore. The template is the TAPERED_I (three plate) section template. Note that no web depth is entered as it assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in the worksheet.1) EndLine Line Declaration Line(thickness as float. you can see the list of declarations in the LEO Editor. Prop PropertiesCalc This is another optional subroutine that allows a section to override calculated properties of the section and perform that calculation based on the equations of the subroutine. the following command lines are required: Line(t.0. <bent radius>.3) Segment(3. the depth may have a fixed small value because the real depth will be defined during the execution of the program with the variables d0 and dL in the Data Panel/Member/Section. open segments between nodes 1 and 2 Line(t. The user may use this subroutine to include special formulae or considerations in the section properties calculations.3) //Draws a line with thckness=t. close as integer.7. 213 . 0.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(2. To see the list of properties that may be edited or modified.7. It overrides the calculation of the section properties with the actual depth. Note that a special built-up section template is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up steel tapered members. n1 as integer.<initial node>.

you can test the calculation adopting section STube 3. which differ with the adopted one because the program is calculating with a general procedure (for all types of sections) that give approximated values. 214 .5x2.785 in4 Notice that the original value for the former section was Jtor=3.5x1_4 with a = 3.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Select the option to view declarations to see the list of available section properties.5 and t = 0. Insert the following code: Prop PropertiesCalc adopted for the example Now. the torsional constant (Jtor) of a rectangular tube (Stube section) may be calculated with the following formula: Jtor = 2*t*a²*b²/(a+b) for b/t>10 To adopt this equation. execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections and edit the STube macro. b = 2.1875in The calculated Jtor = 4. For example.5 in.912 in4.

bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates 3.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Create a larger bitmap drawing that shows dimensions and variables 4. Create a new 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_20x20. Create a new text file as explained next and save it as TEST. 4. Create a new150x150 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_150x150. It is advisable to take a look at the available templates located in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.tpl in the same RAM Advanse\Templates folder. the following steps should be done: 2. The best way to create a new template is to use and modify an existing one. Proceed as follows: 1. In the example that follows we will create a template called TEST. 2. Let's suppose that we want to create a new template named TEST. To create a Template. 215 . Create a new bitmap drawing of 150x150 pixels and save it as TEST_ 150x150. This chapter will explain how to create your own templates. Create a new bitmap drawing of 20x20 pixels. Save the 20x20 drawing with the name TEST_20x20.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates RAM Advanse allows you to create your own structure Templates and incorporate them into the program.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Create a text file that contains the Template definition All the Templates that come with your copy of RAM Advanse have been created as described in this chapter. Create a new bitmap drawing that represents the Template 3.

Syntax: DESCRIPTION <description> Allowable values of <description>: A 25-40 characters commentary that indicates the purpose or use of the template.tpl file The *. Most commands take more than one line. . . Each command can take one or more lines. Notice that this command requires 4 lines.To create the bitmap drawing. two lines compose one command in this case: DESCRIPTION and the value of the description (Truss triangular type 1). Note. Warning. you should include the following lines: DESCRIPTION Truss triangular type 1 As you can see.tpl in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. For instance. Following is an explanation of the most common commands: DESCRIPTION Command action: Insert a description or commentary about the template.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Create a new text file as indicated next and save it as TEST. The TEXT. to assign a description to the template (this is not the description of the elements but of the template).TPL file defines how the structure will be created and it has a specific format that allows RAM Advanse to recognize it.tpl file contains errors. RAM Advanse will not give any error message therefore the created structure may have errors. Syntax: 216 . This description is seen when the template is invoked. use the Paint program from Windows or any other program that supports the BMP format. VARIABLES Command action: Use this command to declare the variables required by the template to generate the structure. The TPL file The TPL file is a text file with the required commands to define the creation of a structure.When the *.

don't use more than two characters and the first character should be a letter not a number.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates VAR <name> <description> <default value> Allowable values of <name>: Name of the variable. This is a very important command to validate the node selection. SELECT Command action: This command indicates how many nodes should be selected to use the template. Syntax: SELECT <number of nodes> Values of <number of nodes>: The number of nodes that the user must select before using the template. Example: "Number of segments" "Height" Allowable values of <default value>: The default value of the variable. Example: 1 217 . . If possible. This is the value that RAM Advanse will assign in the event that the user omitted entering a value. Example: 2 0 desc1 Note. the structure generated by RAM Advanse may contain errors. This should have less than 20 characters and should give a clue about the meaning of the variable.The variables created using this command will appear in the dialog box that shows up when the template is executed. Example: “a” “bf” “d” Allowable values of <description>: A description of the variable. If this command is left out.

Values of <number of segments>: The number of segments (or frame members) of the line that is being created.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 2 3 4 5 LINE Command action: This command creates a line between two nodes selected by the user. Example: any integer value. Notice that this is selection order of the nodes. Example: “Col1” "Beam1" "g1 "H1" desc1 Notice that you could assign a variable name instead of a constant value. not the absolute number of the nodes. In that way. The line can be segmented into a number of frame members. If there is already a line of members between the two nodes. the user is able to assign a description when the template is being executed. After using the template the user may modify the member's descriptions. Syntax: LINE <description> <number of segments> <n1> <n2> Values for <description>: The description to be assigned to the members that will be created.tpl template as an example). Example: 218 . Note that you can define also physical members if you consider only the two extreme nodes of a member. variable or formula. The members of the line are assigned with a description. 3 ns (ns-2)/2 Values of <n1>: The initial node of the line to be created.(See the Joist. they will not be modified.

Values of <n2> The final node of the line to be created. Therefore. for example. You should notice that these numbers (n1 and n2) refer to the order of selection of the nodes. Syntax: DIAGONAL <description> <n1> <n2> 219 . and you wish to create a line between the 4th and 2nd nodes. the 4th selected node} 2 {n2=final node of the line i. it is not replaced. n1 and n2 should be: 4 {n1=initial node of the line i. The diagonal elements can also be sub-divided.e.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 (first selected node) 2 (second selected node) 3 (third selected node) Up to the number of selected nodes. if 5 nodes were selected. If there is any member between the nodes to be generated. as illustrated in the figure above of a triangular truss.e. the 2nd selected node} Example: to create a line between the 1st and 2nd selected nodes. enter the next command: LINE G1 {frame members description} Ns {variable for number of segments} 1 {line starts at the 1st selected node} 2 {line ends at the 2nd selected node} DIAGONAL Command action: This command creates one or more diagonal members between two lines of members.

instead of a constant value. <n3>. and <n4> Normally. Two lines (defined by n1-n2 and n3-n4) delimit the diagonal elements. as illustrated in the next figure delimit the diagonal elements. Please notice that the default description can be a variable previously defined. Values for <n1>. 220 . two lines of elements. <n2>.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates <n3> <n4> <number of segments> <initial offset 1-2> <initial offset 3-4> <final offset 1-2> <final offset 3-4> <step> <number of segments in each diagonal member> Values of <description> Any description to be assigned by default to the diagonal member. Description by default of diagonal members.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Line 1 is the line determined by n1-n2. Initial offset 1-2 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n1 node. 221 . Notice that this value should be zero or negative. Initial offset 3-4 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n3 node. Final offset 1-2 is the offset related to the n2 node. where the diagonals should end. Line 2 is the line determined by n3-n4.

Note that this value should be zero or negative.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Final offset 3-4 is the offset related to the n4 node. TEMPLATE Command action: Executes a template like a subroutine. This is the step between one diagonal element and another.tpl template that is located at the folder RAM Advanse\Templates. Enter 1 or zero if you don't wish to segment the diagonal or the number of pieces if you want to segment. Notice that it should be 1 or greater. An example of this command can be seen in the RoofTruss1. Syntax TEMPLATE <template> <number of selected nodes> <n1> <n2> … <nn> <parameters> 222 . Each diagonal can be segmented into various pieces. where the diagonals should end.

the command will be as follows: TEMPLATE Trian1. Therefore. enter 3 4 Values of <parameters>: These are the parameters (variables values) required by the template to be called in the same order as they are present in the dialog box.tpl {the template to be executed} 3 {number of nodes to be selected for Trian1 template } 3 {Select 1st node for Trian1 (this is the 3rd currently selected node) } 2 {Select 2nd node for Trian1 (this is the 2nd currently selected node) } 8 {Select 3rd node for Trian1 (this is the 8th currently selected node) } ns {first parameter required by Trian1: number of segments} Example 1: Creating a template In this example. Consequently.. You should notice that this is the selection order of the nodes. if you need to call the Trian1 template. the template illustrated below is going to be created: 223 . n2. which required 3 selected nodes and the number of segments.. The template to be executed should be located in the templates directory (RAM Advanse\templates). if you wish to select the 3rd and 4th nodes.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Values of <template> It is the name of the template to be executed. Example: RoofTruss1 (with or without extension) Truss1 Values of <number of selected nodes> This is the number of nodes that should be selected in order to execute the template to be called up. Values of <n1. nn> This selects the desired nodes for the template that is being called up.

To do this you can use the Paint software that comes with Windows. we'll use the member descriptions illustrated above Note.The name of this template is example1. in bmp format. 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. The following are the steps required to create this template: 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format. By default.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Arbitrarily. Illustrative 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing. . 224 . We'll allow the user to enter the number of segments and this value will be stored in the NS variable. Then save the drawing as example1_20x20. we decide that the user should select 4 nodes in the illustrated order. Note that the order is arbitrary but not the number of nodes.bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates.

This file defines how the template will work. The file will be as follows: {description or commentary about this template} DESCRIPTION Example 1 DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable to store the number of segments } VAR ns Number of segments 2 {4 nodes should be selected before using this template} SELECT 4 {Generation of the first and last vertical members.tpl is going to be created. .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels. the example1. save the picture as example1_150x150. in bmp format.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. 3) Create the TPL file Now. respectively} LINE g3 2 1 3 LINE g3 2 2 4 {Generation of the horizontal members } LINE g1 225 . Then.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that will need to be provided by the end user. Note.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates NS 1 2 LINE g2 NS 3 4 {Generation of the middle vertical members} DIAGONAL g3 1 2 3 4 ns 1 1 -1 -1 1 2 {Generation of the diagonal members} DIAGONAL g4 1 2 5 6 ns 0 1 -1 0 226 .

227 . Notice that there are 8 nodes.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 0 DIAGONAL g4 5 6 3 4 ns 1 0 0 -1 1 0 Example 2: Creating a template In the following example we will create the template that is illustrated below: In this template we want the user to select the nodes as illustrated.

The name of this template is example2. the illustrated descriptions will be assigned by the template. . The steps to create this template are as follows 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format. 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. Note. Then save the drawing as example2_20x20. By default.bmp in the c:\RAM Advanse\Templates folder.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Two variables are required to store the desired number of segments. in bmp format. 228 . Illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing. The roof beam descriptions will be entered by the user and stored in the descRoof variable. These values will be stored in the ns1 and ns2 variables.

tpl file that defines how the structure is going to be created. Note. save the picture as example2_150x150. 3) Create the TPL file Create the example2. The file contents are as follows: {description or commentary about the template} DESCRIPTION 3D example truss DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable required to input the number of segment 1} VAR Ns1 Number of segment1 2 {variable required to input the number of segment 2} VAR Ns2 Number of segment2 2 {variable where the description of the roof beams will be stored} VAR Desc1 Description 1 Roof1 {required number of selected nodes to execute this template } 229 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that must be provided by the end user. Next. in bmp format.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. .

tpl 4 1 230 .tpl 4 5 6 7 8 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the right side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 2 6 4 8 ns2 {call the Truss2 template to generate the left side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 1 2 3 4 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the rear truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates SELECT 8 {call the Truss2 template to generate the front truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 5 3 7 ns2 {generation of the roof beams. 231 .tpl and run RAM Advanse to execute it. Notice that it uses description to be entered by you} DIAGONAL Desc1 3 4 7 8 ns1 1 1 -1 -1 1 0 Now save this file as RAM Advanse\Templates\example2.

simply go to RAM Advanse and execute the templates dialog box. Go to Tools/Data Generation/Templates Or you can also go to Members/Connectivity and press 232 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Using the Example 2 template To execute the template created by the previous example.

any newly created template appears automatically. RAM Advanse will automatically ask for the variables. When the template is executed.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates As you can see. 233 .

.

Generating deck or wall areas Deck or wall areas are used to generate the loads transmitted by surface loads. In the case of a free border. The areas have to be fully enclosed by members . following a clockwise or counter clockwise order of selection.Chapter 17: Building Structures Chapter 17: Building Structures RAM Advanse has several special commands to facilitate data entry for building structures. These options are described in more detail below. These commands provide the engineer the capability of automatically: • • • Generating deck or wall areas (transmitted surface loads). Generating the mass for a rigid diaphragm from applied surface loads. The first require the selection of the surrounding beams and the second requires the selection of the nodes that define the deck area. In all cases the nodes of the members ends are required to be in a plane. There are two options to generate load areas. Generating wind loads for each rigid diaphragm floor level. all the enclosed areas will be considered: The tools for the generation of the load areas are located in the worksheet Areas/Nodes that conform the perimeter: 235 . the user should model an additional beam in order to fulfill the former requirement: When physical members surround the area.

Select the girders (members or physical members) that surround the deck area. Click the tool button and enter the direction of load distribution. Create deck/wall area at selected nodes (in a plane): The function of this tool is to generate a deck/wall element covering all the selected nodes in a clockwise or counter clockwise order. 236 . The steps to generate the deck surface are: Select the desired load case. Press any of the following buttons: To create a deck spanning in the X direction. and setting the direction of load distribution as a specific angle (clockwise) of the horizontal Global-X direction or of the horizontal plane for inclined areas. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-X direction or in the horizontal plane for inclined areas. Defining deck/wall areas spanning in Z / Vertical direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. Note that the order of the nodes does not determine the orientation of the loads. The tool does not define the direction of the deck/wall. Defining deck/wall areas spanning at an angle relative to the X axis / Horizontal plane: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members.Chapter 17: Building Structures This worksheet has the following tools: Defining deck/wall areas spanning in X / Horizontal direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-Z direction or in the vertical direction for inclined areas.

Chapter 17: Building Structures To create a deck spanning in the Z direction. You can use the option Tools/Deck area Selection in the main menu to easily select all the deck/wall areas or the group of deck/wall areas attached to the selected nodes. In this case you have to go to Areas/Description and deck/wall spanning and then the following tools may be used: To assign direction for load distribution in global X direction/horizontal plane XZ. Go to Area/Description and deck/wall spanning. To assign direction for load distribution at an angle relative to global X axis/horizontal plane 237 . Press the button and the program will automatically assign a new description. You can enter also any description manually. To assign direction for load distribution in global Z direction/vertical plane. In the above example . The deck areas are not required to be generated one by one. they will be considered in the distribution of loads. you will have to specify the deck direction If you have used the tool manually.. the members that belong to the four deck areas were simultaneously selected. The generated deck area will be shown with the specified deck orientation (for load distribution purposes). Notes: 1. To create a deck spanning at an angle relative to the X-axis. If there are members in the middle of the load area (marked in blue). to generate a load area. 2. Assign a description to the generated deck areas.

Notice that there is a tool to graphically see the loads that are generated on the beams. ) or perpendicular to the area ( ). The direction of the pressure may act downwards in the negative direction of the vertical axis (Yaxis. the generated loads (displayed on green) will still be displayed graphically until the user applies the tool again or until the user analyze the structure. these are the nodes that will be constrained to displace as a rigid diaphragm. If a deck area is deleted. then go to deck Areas/Surface load in the worksheet and enter the pressure that is acting on the defined surface. The generated loads are displayed in green and the other loads (defined directly by the user) are shown in red: Note: This command is applied over all deck areas. even if it has been or has not been Generating Wind Load Lateral wind loads can be calculated from a pressure applied to the side of a building. Rigid floor diaphragm Before generating a story wind load a rigid floor diaphragm should be created. The final step is to define the magnitude and direction of the loads that will act on the previously defined deck areas.Chapter 17: Building Structures XZ. 238 . This happens because the program automatically executes the tool executed previously. before the analysis. To create rigid diaphragms proceed as follows. This command is only applicable to rigid diaphragm stories. even if not all areas are selected. Select all the nodes of a floor. You can select the areas that will have the same load.

lateral wind loads can be automatically calculated from an applied lateral pressure. WX=Wind in X and WZ=Wind in Z). Enter wind load cases (for example. 239 .Chapter 17: Building Structures Press the floor number button Or enter the floor number and press . Generating wind loads For models that contain rigid diaphragms. All the selected nodes (nodes with the same floor number) will now be constrained to move together as in a rigid diaphragm.

enter the appropriate values in the Pressure Calculation frame. The applied wind pressure is multiplied by the exposed area to generate a lateral wind load at each selected floor. Select the desired load case name from the drop down list box. Roberson Crowe. To use this option.21 kg/m3). Houghton Mifflin Where: Cd = Coefficient of Drag (approximately 2. Press Calculate Pressures to calculate automatically wind pressure in the X and Z directions. These include: Wind Pressure in X/Z: Based on the selected floors and columns RAM Advanse can calculate an exposed vertical surface associated with each floor. Note that the force applied to a story is calculated as the pressure times the floor height (largest column length below a floor) times the projected width of the structure in the required direction (based on the nodes selected in each floor). The pressure will then be calculated using the following formula: Pressure = Cd*1/2*d*v2 Co. 1975) (Ref. Pressure Calculation: If you want the program will calculate the wind pressure on the structure based on the wind speed and a structural shape drag coefficient. V = Wind velocity. 240 . Press The next dialog that appears requires several pieces of data. Load Case name: The lateral load that is calculated must be associated with a load case.Chapter 17: Building Structures Select all the beams and columns of the floors against which wind will act. Engineering Fluid Mechanics. which should have already been created. d = Density of Atmosphere (approximately 1.0 for a flat surface).

The center of mass is the single point on the floor where the mass from all the elements and shells of a rigid floor can be considered to act without changing the results. then RAM Advanse can automatically calculate the center of mass and the translation / rotation story mass properties. with the masses calculated in the following way: Translation masses Tx = Tz = dead load case * dead load factor + live load case * live load factor considering all the dead and live load forces on members and floor nodes.Chapter 17: Building Structures Enter the required information and press OK. The program allows the engineer to create this node for each floor. These mass values are typically located at the center of mass of the floor. The rotation mass is calculated with the following expression: Ry = integral (r²*dm) Where: r: distance from the mass center to the point where dm is acting. Generating masses for each floor To perform a dynamic analysis on a building structure with rigid diaphragms it is necessary to associate translation and rotation masses with the floor. and wind forces parallel to Z axis are assigned to WZ = Wind in Z load case. Notice that in this example wind force parallel to the X-axis is assigned to WX = Wind in X load case. The program will automatically create a node at the center of pressure of each floor. 241 . Wind story force is applied at this node. dm: is the mass that is equivalent to the distribution of the linear or surface loads of the elements of the floor. If loads have been applied to individual nodes on a floor.

242 . Refer to the previous section on wind load generation for how to create rigid diaphragms. This figure indicates that RAM Advanse should consider all the existing nodal dead load and half the nodal live load when calculating the mass properties for the floor. Select all the beams and columns from desired floors. Press Enter the required information and press OK. rigid floor diaphragms should be created.Chapter 17: Building Structures See the required steps for the generation of masses for each floor in the following paragraphs to know how the data is entered. Before using the command for the generation.

Z 243 . press or about Y-axis respectively and . or for Mass values in X. To view the translation and rotation mass values.Chapter 17: Building Structures Nodes have been generated at the mass centers. .

.

It is important to define some design parameters before proceeding with the design.e. More details related to the design of each particular material may be found in each specific design chapter Go to Process/Design all of the main menu or pulse F10 to design the model. The strength ratio determines the condition of each member in relation to its strength (i. the program adopts the ASD (NDS) Code. etc). footings. wood and connections from the Detailing menu. if it is over or sub dimensioned) and the design status shows the overall condition of each element (OK or No Good). the user can design the model to check the design conditions of each member of the structure. United Kingdom: BS 5950 Code. For wood members. For steel members. connections. To design steel members with the BS Code you can adopt the UK nomenclature with the option located in Configuration/General/Nomenclature. These modules are divided into 2 groups: • • Dependent detailing modules: reinforced concrete beam. This procedure is performed for wood and steel materials while concrete is designed directly in the detailing modules. This is evaluated with the strength ratio and design status.e. wood members. materials. Independent detailing modules: retaining walls and continuous beams from the same menu. The dependent module will allow you to obtain the immediate custom design of the different components that participate in your structure. With the former information the user can decide if it is necessary to perform further changes (i.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design After the analysis. retaining walls and continuous beams that will allow you to reduce your working time considerably. In this case the duration of each load condition has to be specified. The program offers the following possibilities: • • United States: ASD (AISI_AISC) or LRFD (AISI_AISC). You will find special options for each type of material. This information will be used only in the design procedures. reinforced concrete column. Warning: The design results will not be available for wood members analyzed with the LRFD Design Code option. select other sections. it is required to define the code that will be used in the design. Design and Detailing Modules RAM Advanse has design and detailing modules for concrete members. To use these modules the engineer should provide an 245 .

or make an isolated analysis. and the results can be displayed graphically or in a report form. the engineer can use any of the available modules for more advanced design and detailing to further manipulate his or her design and obtain details for DXF purposes. before invoking the detailing module. and complete his or her design and detailing of any member. The independent modules will allow you to easily generate a new model from this application. connections. 246 . Note that the beams must be in a continuous line. select the beams you want to detail in RAM Advanse and then invoke the beam detailing module as described below. the same as in the other modules. or with extension "RTW" or "RCB" to be used directly by the respective module. to detail a reinforced concrete beam. wood or steel structure requires the engineer to design and detail all the members in the structure. Invoking the Modules Dependent detailing modules Select those elements to be designed and detailed before invoking a dependent detailing module. The design. To use the module. isolated spread footings. Analyze the structure and select the members in RAM Advanse. Analyze a concrete structure.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. the user should enter all the necessary data to obtain the new model before making the analysis and going to the design screen. In both cases. in the case of the dependent modules. refer to the particular member section in this manual. RAM Advanse has provided several Design and Detailing modules to assist the engineer in the design and detailing of: concrete columns and beams. Select the line of beams containing the members to be detailed. For more detailed information on the content and display for each individual design/detailing module. is realized automatically to obtain the results in graphical form or report form. It is advisable to consider each span as a physical member because all the tools of the detailer are designed with this consideration. in the case of the independent modules. which form a continuous beam for example. For example. Introduction The design of any reinforced concrete. The basic design is performed automatically after the building is analyzed. These modules allow the engineer to take the results of the analysis performed in the main application. This section describes how to invoke the design/detailing modules. how the design/detailing modules are organized and how to navigate within the modules. retaining walls and continuous beams. wood members. It can be saved with extension "AVW" and be used by RAM Advanse.

When selecting columns in a stack the engineer should start at the lowest column and select the columns sequentially upwards. starting at the lowest column. the engineer can select the lowest column and press the Selection toolbar. Invoke the Detailing/Reinforced concrete beam command as illustrated. in the Selection toolbar.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules To select all the beams in a line. To in select all the columns in a column stack. select an end member and press in the Selection toolbar. Select all the members that belong to the column line to be detailed. 247 . and press The column module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Reinforced concrete columns menu item. Columns are selected and the detailer is invoked in a similar manner.

Independent detailing modules To use an independent detailing module. Select all the nodes that are to have a common footing. Only one type of footing can be designed at a time. you won’t have to select the elements in RAM Advanse since you will be able to generate a new model inside of this module directly. the engineer can select one or more foundation nodes. but the forces used to control the design are taken from all the nodes selected before invoking the detailer. Select Detailing/Footings as indicated. If more than one node is selected the loads for each node will be transferred into the module.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Invoke the Columns module For footings. 248 . The footing module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Footings menu item.

The screen has default values when an independent module is invoked. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when a dependent module is invoked. material and load data are entered or modified as required. In the case of the footings. the selected nodes do not contain geometric information so the footing dimensions are not read from the model. you will be ready to introduce your model. Select Detailing/Continuous Beam as illustrated.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Select Detailing/Retaining wall as illustrated. column or footing. Each module has four screens that can be accessed by pressing the following buttons: Data editing screen. In this screen geometric. Organization of the Modules Every detailing module works in the same way. This screen has two different formats for entering data depending on the module: • The first screen has a table as illustrated in the figure • The second screen has a path with drop-down options as shown below 249 . but it is not necessarily associated with any particular beam. The material data of this screen is maintained between sequential calling of the module. Once you enter the module.

These options may be enabled depending on the detailing module. the user will be able to edit design values through a spreadsheet on the left side. The engineer can typically locate information here on the design results.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design screen. This screen displays the generated details that can be exported to a CAD program. To change material properties or geometry to achieve a satisfactory design. These results are shown in a tabular form or in a graphical form according to the detailing module. Configuration screen. Detailing screen. This screen displays design and analysis results as stresses and/or resistance. 250 . This screen is used to establish the design and detailing criteria that RAM Advanse uses to determine the appropriate design and details. This data is saved between different module calls and should be used typically to establish office standards for design and detailing of the various member types. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. All options of the different screens are described next. the engineer can print a report . press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. according to the detailing module. This extra screen is used to print a report with all the data and design results. Navigation and Data Entry Each module presents similar navigation and movement characteristics. the engineer should switch to the data screen as described previously. Zoom fence. See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. Zoom out. Additionally. Zoom To zoom. Depending on the detailing module. These diagrams can be simple when a single stress is graphed as moment Mu or merged as moment Mu vs phi*Mn.

and save it. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. Activate and inactivate edges movement. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. Press . use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. 251 . Click with the right mouse button on the point to be centered on the screen. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). Print graphics Print current graphic. Hint: If a mouse wheel is available way as in the main RA screen. the engineer can use the wheel to zoom in or out in a similar Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. . This option is enabled when the button appears in the bar. name the file. DXF files Some modules have the option to export graphics to DXF. This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Fit in window.

Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules The screen will redraw with the clicked point at the center of the window. Enter the information and then press Enter or click out of the edit box. All editable values appear in red color. Press ESC to cancel data editing. zoom in on the value. Hint: If there are problems in selecting a value for editing. Click with the left mouse button on the red text. Note that in some cases the red texts have the display option through a drop-down as shown below. 252 . Data Entry Several screens allow the engineer to modify values. Click on the value (left-mouse button) to make it editable as shown in the figure below.

Units for the entered data can be specified during data entry as illustrated in the figures below.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Click the mouse on the red text. By adding the unit to the entered number. Acceptable values and units. Remark: The defined units groups of variables of the main program are not valid in the detailing modules. the value will be automatically converted to the current unit system. 253 . Some Design and Detailing screens also have editable data (text in red) used to choose display options. The user can enter data in a unit that is different from the currently selected global unit.

indicating the design status of the member according to 3 colors: • • • Red. 254 . This indicator prevents the user from having to repeatedly go to the Report to see if the member fulfills all the code verifications. All the modules also have a graphic indicator for the strength verification and deflection called Traffic light. All the input data. when the member fails in the strength verification and the ratio is >1. design parameters and results will be printed in a Report. when the member fulfills all the code verifications. the user is able to immediately see the analysis and design results of the member. Green. detailing or report screen). See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. the Traffic light is automatically enabled (when the user goes to design.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Results and verifications In the design and detailing screens. Once the data has been input. when the member fulfills the strength verifications but not some other parameter such as deflection or slenderness.0 Yellow.

For the ASD method. and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. Manual of Steel Construction – ASD (9th Edition -1989). AISI –ASD-LRFD Cold Formed Steel Manual – (1996 Edition). the AISC Specifications (American Institute of Steel Construction) for hot rolled sections and the AISI Specifications (American Iron and Steel Institute) for cold-formed sections are used while the BS 5950 is adopted for the UK. The user may specify load conditions used for the optimization process and those that will be considered in the output report. Loads The user will need to ensure that all loads are applied correctly and that required load combinations have been generated.2001). Design is then performed automatically and the results are shown graphically or in a text form. The user may not exclude any of the created load conditions. which has been developed more recently. No increase is considered on the allowable stresses in ASD design. AISC-LRFD. The program does not automatically consider if a load is a wind or seismic load when performing a design. The program allows the user to choose between two countries: US and UK. Manual of Steel Construction – LRFD (3rd Edition .serviceability and ultimate. Two methods are available for performing steel member design in the US.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures This chapter describes the general options available in RAM Advanse for the design of steel members. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is deflection. The design philosophy embodied in the former concept includes the consideration of the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use. The BS 5950 Code is a Limit State Design method that requires the use of factored loads similar to the American AISC LRFD method. This 255 . The LRFD method will require specification of factored loads for limit states. See the result output sections of this chapter for more information. British Standard BS 5950-1:2000. It is important to verify load types if they belong to a limit state. the user will need to specify service or nominal load conditions. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. The ASD codes allow wind and earthquake loads to be reduced and allowable stresses to be magnified by a factor of one third (1/3). Two major categories of limit state are recognized . The user is required to provide several design parameters before proceeding with the analysis of the model. Within the US. The Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. The following codes are implemented in the current release of RAM Advanse: • • • • AISC-ASD. which was popular in the past.

Selecting a steel section to the members. Selection of the design code When a section is assigned to a member. Section 2.4. For detailed information on defining new sections see the Chapter “Creating New Types of Section with Macros”. Note that new sections may be created and added to the list of available sections as described in Chapter “Creating Sections and Materials”. the program checks the type of material (hot-rolled or coldformed steel) and associates the appropriate design code.4.2. Illustrative figure of the local axes of a section. while the local 2 axis is also called the y-y axis or weak axis.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures increase has to be reflected in the load factors of the ASD load combination (see load combination AISC-ASD-LoadCombosStrength. Sections Use the procedure illustrated in the following figure to assign steel section sizes to members. The user is responsible to include in the load conditions the notional horizontal forces specified in BS 5950. For more information on the design of steel members in accordance with a specific code see the chapters “Design of AISC Hot 256 .txt). The local 3 axis is also called the x-x axis or strong axis.

Also note that in total asymmetric sections the longitudinal axis does not coincide with the centroid of the section. Because of this. for example with L or Z shapes. Option to determine the reference axis to be used in design for laterally restrained members for torsion along their length. However. aisiAAB. and the member is then designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. AISC or BS codes. located in Configuration/databases/Sections of the main menu. For these situations it is important to define which coordinate system will be used. ‘COLDFORMED’ and ‘BS_COLDFORMED’ implicitly results in the use of the AISI. etc. rigid offsets or the cardinal points have to be specified in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the correct position. Coordinate system used in design Normally the coordinate system adopted in design is coincident with the local axis. the program assumes the principal axes are coincident with the local axes. For these cases. the variable ‘CODE’ assigned with either “HOTROLLED’. It is customary though to only name hot-rolled sections based on their shape and size (W12x…). 257 . RAM Advanse presents a new option. When this option is enabled.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Rolled Steel Members”. “Design of AISI Cold Formed Steel Members” and “Design of BS Steel members”. which at the same time coincides with the principal axis. It is important to remark that sections with CODE=HOTROLLED may be designed with either AISC or BS. respectively. As examples of this naming convention. there are cases where the local axis does not coincide with the principal axis. to define a member laterally restrained for torsion. Note that in section definition (*. AISI sections (cold-formed) could be named aisiAAA.leo) files. it is recommended that the naming convention adopted for section specification files reflect the implicitly used code as was done with the default sections in the database.

effective length factors and unbraced lengths.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In total asymmetric sections like the L shape. but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length.AISI) or m (BS) coefficients. the user has to use the axis location tool or to adopt rigid offsets in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the right position. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) and the Cm (AISC. Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to running analysis and design. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse’s context sensitive Help system. To enter required design parameters select the Members/General Design Parameters and the Members/Steel Design Parameters tabs. Examples of some of the design parameters that may be specified are frame bracing. Valid values are 0 and 1. See the next section for additional information. If the user is going to adopt specific values for former coefficients then it is not necessary to add a value for the variable. Valid values are 0 and 1. Braced3 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 3 axis. Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. 258 . The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. Braced Against Sidesway Flag The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). The tool buttons located below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. Likewise. sway (unbraced) or non-sway (braced). the Assistant or refer to the Examples Manual. In the same way.

are used for the 1-2 and 1-3 planes. These values are entered in the Members/General Design Parameters spreadsheet.0 (zero) value. If the user decides to rotate the columns afterwards. Note that there are two toolbar buttons available to assist you in calculating the K factors based on the nomogram proposed by Jackson and Moreland as suggested by the AISC code for unbraced structures or the nomogram of Figure E. Note that members pinned top and bottom are always assigned K=1. the K factor is a function of the end conditions of the member.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Effective Length (K) Factors The axial buckling capacity of a member is a function of the member length and the fixity of its ends. The K factor. By default K values are 1. (Kx or Kmajor) and K22 (Ky or Kminor). 259 . and are entered in the Members tab in the General Design Parameters worksheet.0 for design.2 (BS 5950-1:2000) for the sway buckling mode in the BS Code. multiplied by the true unbraced length of the element gives its effective length. Press the button and the K coefficients will be calculated automatically. respectively. In any case. The effective length is used to determine the member’s capacity to carry axial load. K Factors K33. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for the desired members (mainly vertical members and columns) It is important to verify that columns have been rotated to their correct position before applying the command to automatically calculate the K factors. If the K column contains a 0. the adjoining members and whether it is braced against joint translation in the direction under consideration. the K factors will have to be recalculated. For more details see the Help Context. Refer to the appropriate design code for additional information.0.0. RAM Advanse will assume K=1.

Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending AROUND axis 3-3 (also called major axis L or Lux). the unbraced length between lateral supports may be introduced (L33and L22). Axial unbraced length of the member (L) The L22 and L33 parameters represent the axial unbraced length of the member in the 3-3 (strong) and 2-2 (weak) axis respectively. Similarly. These values represent the unbraced lengths between lateral supports to be considered in design. Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. Lbpos. Where a single member is divided into multiple sub-members for analysis reasons.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Warning! This tool is not applicable or appropriate for web tapered members. AISI-ASD Methods) or in the calculation of the nominal moment. Press the buttons and to see the K values graphically. L22 is the unbraced length AROUND axis 2-2 (also called minor axis L or Luy). RAM Advanse will use the unbraced length as the distance between member nodes if a value of 0. When this parameter has a zero value. The values for L22 and L33 may be entered directly into the spreadsheet. the program will take the distance between nodes as the unbraced length. These parameters are used in the calculation of the bending allowable stress Fb (AISC-ASD. AISI-LRFD Methods). Refer to Chapter F (AISC) or the flow charts at the end of the AISC or AISI chapters for more information.0 is entered. 260 . Mn (AISC-LRFD. Lbneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. the true unbraced length for axial capacity calculations should be provided for each of the sub-members. If necessary.

A spreadsheet value of 0. Likewise.0 to all selected members. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the adopted code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations). In this case the user has to define the right values for Lbneg.e. The ‘Cm’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. 261 .Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures LBpos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and LBneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. the members will have only values for Lbpos.0 in the spreadsheet then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment.001in). The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet. RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element. based on the elements end moments. Cm coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). Enter the Lb value when it is different from the length of the frame member. Cm22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). Please notice that if models from older RA versions are calculated. Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) in the spreadsheet or press the button to clear the values in order to let the program calculate them. If the Cb value is 0. Cm coefficients will then be calculated automatically. When any Lb is zero (0). Note that Cm33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). 0. Cm Coefficients Cm coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Chapter H in the AISC or AISI Codes or the flow charts at the end of the chapters devoted to steel design). Cb Coefficients Cb coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis. If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member. an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i.

e. The ‘m’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. Refer to Section 4. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet.1cm).5 or the flow charts at the end of the steel design chapter for more information. m Coefficients “m” coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Tables 18 and 26 of the BS or the flow charts at the end of the chapter devoted to BS steel design). Cb coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. Please note that for destablizing loads. Enter the Le value when it is different from the length of the frame member. These parameters are used in the calculation of the moment capacity Mx (BS5950). Note that m33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis m or mx). Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length member. These coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). Likewise. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one. the user should consider this effect in the Le values. Cb must be calculate manually or take a value of one. Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member.3. If the mLT value is 0.0 will result in m being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the BS code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations).0 in the spreadsheet 262 . Leneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. mLT Coefficients mLT coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis. RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element. m22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis m or my).Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Refer to the appropriate steel design code for additional information. When any Le is zero (0). (Table 13 BS 5950-1:2000) Lepos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and Leneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. 0.0 to all selected members.0 to all selected members and the coefficients will then be calculated automatically. Lepos. A spreadsheet value of 0. The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment.

which verifies if the chosen section fills all the strength requirements. Selecting the ‘Optimize’ option will result in the program selecting the lightest member section which meets all code requirements. Selecting ‘Code check’ will cause the program to change a member section assignment only if it fails the applicable code check. the user has to choose the desired design method from the dialog window (ASD . The user can verify design in accordance with the chosen code. torsion is considered without the effect of warping in a simplified form. Select the option Process/Optimize structure from the main menu to run optimization. Either of two types of optimizations may be selected. it is suggested that a second order analysis be used in order to take into account their effects in the calculated forces on the members. This allows for the optimization of sections too. by the adopted code. See the LRFD method in the AISC or AISI chapters or the BS Chapter for more details. See the following sections for more details on the output of results. select the option Process/Design all. mLT coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. If the LRFD or BS method is selected. The results are shown in the AISC or BS comprehensive report. and then replacing all under and over sized members with this selection.0 to all selected members. In the case of hot rolled steel members. if a group of possible sections is selected instead of a single section. For more details related to torsion see the following chapters. Torsion Torsion is not considered in the design of cold-formed sections ( code). The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. for all the members. 263 . Before the design. LRFD or BS). To verify if members comply with a given code. based on the elements end moments. Refer to the BS steel design code for additional information. Design and optimization The design of members is performed by an iterative procedure.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. Optimization may be performed once initial verification results are available.

Because of this. too(3). This section describes these options. A new analysis and design of the structure is required after the change of sections The optimization process is iterative because the change of sections causes a change in the distribution of stresses in the members. The type of optimization has been selected as ‘Optimize’ (4). all the descriptions and load combinations have been selected. and which causes a new change in sections. RAM Advanse will then change all the selected sections to the new ones. button. Steel Connections The program has incorporated a new module for the design and verification of steel connections (only available for AISC members). and results will alternate between optimizations. See the Connections Chapter for more details.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Select the group of members (descriptions) (1) that are going to be optimized and also the load conditions to consider(2). In the example shown.K. Check those section changes that you want and then press the O. You can control the deflections.The section collection has been selected (5) and the OK button is then pressed to start the optimization process. Please refer to the chapter devoted to the Steel Structure Optimization and Code Check for more details. in some cases. After the optimization is performed. optimization results may not converge in a unique section selection. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. Warning! All the results from the analysis and design are lost when sections are changed. 264 . Output of results There are several options available to display analysis and design results to the screen or in report form.

Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Code Check buttons bar. fail. You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range. Note that when a different group of members is selected. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. Design Status: There are cases where members have enough strength to resist the applied forces but other conditions given by the code. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options. 265 .0 and >1. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. such as the limit slenderness ratio (kl/r>200). select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. To select the members within a given range. This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window.0. Stress ratio fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to between 0. • Maximum stress ratio: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition. The colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Screen output The user has different options to see the results Code Check toolbar with different options for the presentation of design results. The following lists the main options available for display of results to the screen. the range of colors is recalculated.

The colors represent the nine different ranges of stresses. 266 . The other colors represent the interaction range value for the current load condition. such as the slenderness of the member. which are defined as shown in the legend. press the and buttons. If the button is pressed together with the previous one.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. To select and view only the members within a certain range of stresses select the stresses that you are interested in and then press the button Press the . The reports are grouped into three types. Thus a specific member will maintain its color independently of the other members selected with it. the result will include the name of the governing load condition for each member. which include options for extensive or concise. members with very low stresses and members working very close to their strength capacity. should be verified as well. The name of the governing load is pressed. button to show the interaction values of each member for the current load condition. Pressing together with shows the selected members with the color range determined from considering the full set of load combinations (not only the current load condition). The labels represent the results for the current load condition. Design Status In same cases the verifications of stresses are not enough to verify the correctness of a member. taking into account the full load combinations (not just the current load condition). Reports are generated by selecting the desired members and then the option Reports – Steel design from the menu. The ranges do not change when different members are selected. If the user selects one of the two following buttons . combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Stress ratio fixed scale All the selected members will be colored with one of the nine available colors when the button of the Code Check tool bar is pressed. To verify the same results. only the members with an ‘OK’ status or with a ‘no good’ status will be displayed from the selected group of members respectively. This option is ideal for identifying members that do not comply with the strength requirements. The option available with the button will show if a member complies with all the requirements of the code. In this case. Members with interaction values greater than one will be colored in red. Reports Different types of reports are available for displaying the results obtained after running a design with a given code. the interaction values together with the governing load condition will be displayed for each selected member. Other aspects.

the results obtained are related only to the critical member for each load condition. Comprehensive AISC member design This report provides full results for each selected member. A brief description of each type of report is included in the following paragraphs. This means that when more than one member falls under the same description.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In the dialog window. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each 267 . However. only the controlling member in the group (having the critical load) will be considered. it shows all the results for each selected load condition. Group by description – controlling load case This report organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. Group by member – each load case This report provides one line of summary information for each member and load condition. The results correspond to the controlling member in each group for each load condition. The window allows exclusion of any load condition. Note that in a report there are no indications of the eliminated (non-selected) load conditions. the type of report is selected together along with the load conditions to be considered in the design. This means that when more than one member has the same description. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. Group by description – each load case This report also organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. The report is organized in sections divided by the members of each group. The report presents the results for the critical member in the group.

Concise BS member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the BS (approximately one page). The report includes the results for shear. Comprehensive BS member design This report provides full results for each selected member designed by the BS.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures load condition. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. The last column at the end of the different stations (0. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. The last column at the end of the different stations (0.25.75. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition. Concise AISC member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member (approximately one page). 268 . and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. Concise AISI member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the AISI code (approximately one page).50. bending. The report includes the results for shear.50. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition. The report includes the results for shear. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. torsion and the interaction for the controlling load case of each member. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered.75. and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. Comprehensive AISI member design This report provides full results for each cold-formed steel member designed by the AISI code.25.

the name of the cold formed sections which do not conform to the current method. while the hot rolled sections have a name that reflects only the shape. Note that all the AISC standard sections should not start with the letters aisc. and Load and Resistance Factors Design (LRFD). Normally. adopting the alternative designs of Allowable Stress Design (ASD). This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the following American Institute of Steel Construction design codes: • • Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition) Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor design (3rd Edition) Determination of a member with an AISC section The determination of a member with an AISC section is done when assigning a hot rolled section and after selecting the AISC code before executing the design after the analysis. Example of an AISC section assignation for a member.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Chapter 20: Design of Hot Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) This module allows the design of hot rolled steel members in accordance to the AISC Codes. 269 . include the letters aisi.

based mainly on the shape of the section. SetSolid. etc.leo extension) you can find the following data and/or specific commands used in the AISC design. section E for compression. the allowable stress design (ASD) or the load and resistance factor design (LRFD). sections. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice. In this case. In spite of the possibility of using one general formulation. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C. C and similar shapes. in which calculation details are presented in section F for bending. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section. applied to the known W. Yet.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) The ASD or LRFD design methods have to be selected before executing the design. I. In the LEO files (files with *. FORMULATION=<formulation> The AISC Code has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design.EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. which can be adopted. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section. besides the section geometry.. as will be shown later. Because of this. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. this was submitted to a series of simplifications and modifications depending on the particular shape of the section for a more direct application. CODE=HOTROLLED This value for CODE defines that the section is of hot rolled steel and that it will be designed with the AISC Code. as described further on. in addition to their 270 . The election of the method is done before performing the analysis. there are two methods to choose from. These assumptions cause differences in the results between the general and particular formulae.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) respective appendices. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a). New York. The user does have the option to give a user defined value to the Cm and Cb parameter. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. which is very similar to the IC formulation. Prentice Hall. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos. GEN Comprises the general formulation. 1968. See the flowcharts for each method for more details. 1988. Refer to Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. No special parameters are required. TUBE This option is applied only to LINECLOSED sections. The proposed equations allow the estimation of the P-Delta (capital letter) as well as the P-delta (small letter) effect. Theodore V. including circular sections and rectangular tubes. John Wiley & Sons. 271 . This is the methodology implemented to design WT sections in RAM Advanse. Second order analysis It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). In this way. flange width (bf). L This formulation is for L shaped sections.80) for the calculation of the critical moment of the LRFD method. and section B regarding the design requirements for each code. These sections are designed according to a special specification for single angle members located in the code Appendix. these are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. When the IC formulation is adopted. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a). not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect). USA.. Galambos. the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d). so the user must determine how the P-delta effect will be considered. the user can select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel Design Parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. The code gives an indirect way to consider the second order effect by the magnification of the bending moments obtained from an elastic analysis. Referring to the parameters Cm and Cb. Both effects should be considered when designing. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles. Structural Members and Frames. but includes the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos: Equation (3. Theodore V.145) for the elastic critical stress of the ASD method. Equation (3. USA. flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) and the parameters k and k1 for the connections design. width (b). thickness (t). the user can incorporate a magnification factor in his or her load combinations to consider both effects. To do this.

• • • • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable. If the user does not give a value for the RIGID variable.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements • The moment of inertia about 33 axis (usually called strong axis) must be equal or bigger than the moment of inertia about 22 axis (usually called weak axis). The program does not consider hybrid sections (sections which elements have different yield stresses). Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. The width b of an element of the section is considered between centerlines. then the program considers two options: stiffened or unstiffened. the program displays an error message. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. The element is considered stiffened if both ends are connected. 272 . the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. The adopted RIGID variable for each element of a section determines the slender limits and whether an element will be considered as stiffened or unstiffened (see the table given further on). if this is not the case. and is considered unstiffened if only one end is connected. Because of this.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 273 .

local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified on sections F1 to F3 of the AISC Code. A section is considered to have a compression flange that is solid and approximately rectangular in cross section and that has an area not less than the tension flange (equation F18 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). The shear stress is given in section F4 of the code. Based on section D2 of the code. Based on section B7 of the code. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. i. For the Cm calculation of each member. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • 274 A member is considered in compression when fa > 0. When determining the shear stress for I or C shapes. a limiting value of 300 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to tension. .05*Fa. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used. the program is considering this limit for all types of tension members. • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section E2 of the code. When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section D1 of the code (AISC-ASD-89). • Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design. a limiting value of 200 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to compression (fa>0. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. only gross section checks are performed.e. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • • Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes.05Fa). Although this limit is only for built-up members. Due to sign conventions. For more details see the flowchart given below. The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: • • A member is considered to be loaded through the shear center (equation F1-5 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). which is the default value adopted by the program. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding.

Therefore torsion is not considered in the interaction equations. Carter. Steel Design Guide Series 9.4 of the “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members” Guide (Paul A. not considering warping. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section).9* not considering warping) *Paul A. Seaburg. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centerlines of the elements confining the section. The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. AISC Inc.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered. AISC Inc. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. Charles J. Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion are given in sections 4. See the flowcharts for more details... Seaburg. 275 . Charles J. Carter. 1997). For open sections. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending Biaxial shear and torsion (equation 4.1 to 4. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of sections H1 and H2 of the code. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section. Steel Design Guide Series 9. “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members”. The restrictions and assumptions adopted for torsional analysis are the following: • Warping is not considered in members subject to torsion. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered. 1997 LRFD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness.

leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters and whether the element will be considered stiffened or unstiffened. This applies mainly to sections with different flanges. Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. Because of this. 276 . the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. The program does not consider the influence of hc (twice the distance from the centroid to the inside face of the compression flange less the corner radius) when calculating the limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact elements (λr). (See the table below) • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • There are no special considerations for built up members.

The adopted assumptions and restrictions are: • • A member is considered to be in compression when Pu > 0.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Members in tension The calculation of members in tension is given in chapter D of the code (see the flowcharts at the end of the chapter) and the conditions are: • • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members. The program has adopted a slenderness limit Kl/r for members in tension of 300 (Sections B7 and D2 of the code). 277 . Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the calculation of the effective section are not considered. The type of union is not considered in the design and in the estimation of the net area. Columns and other compression members The compression member analysis follows the steps given in chapter E of the code.05*Pn*φ.

a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. In general. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. The compression design follows mainly the criteria given in Appendix E of the code.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • • The slenderness limit Kl/r for members in compression is 200 (Section B7 of the norm) and is only considered if the axial stress is over 5% of the capacity of the section. M33). section F1 for bending and section F2 for shear. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. The additional assumptions adopted for tapered members are: • • 278 The member shall have at least one axis of symmetry (2-axis). Due to sign conventions. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. which is the default value adopted by the program. The program assumes a compressive residual stress in flange of 10 ksi for rolled shapes and 16. The shear and flexural design follows the criteria given in Appendix F. When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. Although the flexural-torsional buckling of many common shapes is not mandatory to be checked because it normally does not control the capacity of the member. the design is very similar to the one for prismatic members. The classification is made considering the critical element of the section. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor Kγ for compression members. which shall be perpendicular to the plane of bending (3-axis. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding. The flanges shall be of equal and constant area. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. non-compact and slender. Transverse stiffeners are not considered for the determination of shear stress for deep girders. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. The reason is that there may be cases as columns with relatively thin elements and/or short lengths where the flexural-torsional buckling is critical. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. • • Tapered members The design of tapered members is restricted to AISC sections. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified in section C3 of the code.5 ksi for welded (built-up) members. . For the Cm calculation of each member. the program always performs this verification. It uses the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. When determining the shear stress of I or C shapes. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • • There are three categories of sections for local buckling: compact.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • The depth shall vary linearly from d0 (node J) to dL (node K). while the program is obtaining the interaction equations for each station of the tapered member. and the prismatic cross sectional properties of the segment of the member under consideration. The bending strength is calculated assuming the full member length (or the user entered length). the code suggests a simplified and conservative method to check only the smallest section for compression and the largest section for bending. The shear strength is determined without modifications to the normal procedure for prismatic members. An adequate effective length factor must be given taking into account the tapered member. The user should know that. It is not calculated by the program and can be obtained using the charts developed by Lee et al (1972) with some restraint modifiers that are included in the AISC Code. when designing the member. • • • • 279 . bending and axial loads in each segment are considered with respect to the cross sectional properties of that segment. The maximum shear. considering the section properties of the section at the station. This factor is introduced in the design-parameters-tab of the worksheet as a K value.

Moment of inertia of a cross section about 22 and 33 local axis. Bending stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of axial force. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2) Maximun Cb coefficient (given by the user). Effective length factor for a prismatic member.. I33: K: 280 II22p. I22. . Euler stress for a prismatic member divided by factor of security. Flange width of rolled beam. Fa: Axial compressive stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of bending moment. Fob: Elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Area of compression flange. Ratio of "critical" web stress to the shear yield stress of web material. Cc': Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling. Outside diameter of tubular member. modified to account for effective width Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members and dependent upon Cmmin: Cv: D: d: Minimum Cm coefficient (given by the user). Bending coefficient. Ftor: Permitted torsion stress. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. Error: Variable that has the error messages of a member design. Fv: fv: Fy: h: Permitted shear stress. Elastic buckling stress. I33p: Moment of inertia of a cross section about the principal axis. Critical stress. Computed bending stress. Yield stress of steel. Section depth. fa: Fb: fb: Fcr: Fe: Fe': Computed axial stress. Computed shear stress. Clear distance between flanges.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-ASD Flowcharts A: Af: b: bf: Bratio: Cb: Cbmax: Gross-sectional area. Compression element width.

Moment at j end of the member. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a Sratio: section. Shear force. Extreme fiber bending moment. Flange thickness. Tormod: 281 . Maximum unbraced length of the compression flange. Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Maximum allowed interaction ratio (given by the user). Shear modulus. Lb: Lc: M1: M2: Mcr: Me: Mj: Mk: My: P: Qa: Laterally unsupported length of the compression flange of a flexural member. t: tf: tw: V: Thickness of an element. Moment at k end of the member. rT: Radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web Se: SF: Sf: Effective section modulus. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Radius of gyration.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) kv: Shear buckling coefficient. Maxratio Mmax: Qmod: Qs: r: Axial stress reduction factor. Normal force. Web thickness. Elastic section modulus. Reduction factor. l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. Elastic buckling moment. Maximum bending moment in the unbraced beam segment. Ratio of effective profile area of an axially loaded member to its total profile area. Torsion modulus. Initial yield bending moment.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 282 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 283 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 284 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 285 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 286 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 287 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 288 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 289 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 290 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 291 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 292 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 293 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 294 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 295 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 296 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 297 .

l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the compression flange. Critical stress. For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. λc: 298 Column slenderness parameter. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2). Required shear stress. Elastic buckling stress. Yield stress of steel. Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members an dependent upon column curvature caused by applied moments. Effective length factor for a prismatic member. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. Bending coefficient. .Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-LRFD Flowcharts AISC-LRFD-2001 DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS α Bratio: Cb: Magnification factor. E: Error: Fcr: Fe: fun: fuv: Fy: K: Modulus of elasticity of steel (E=29000 ksi) Variable that has the error messages of a member design. Required normal stress.

Resistance factors (b: bending. Nominal flexural strength. Required flexural strength. Lp: Lr: M1: M2: Ma: Mb: Mc: Mcr: Mmax: Mn33: Mn22: MnLatT: MnLoc: Mp: Mr: Mu33: Mu22: φ: Pn: Pu: Q: Qa: Qs: r: Se: Sf: σe33. σe22: Sratio: Vn: Equivalent slenderness parameter. about 33 axis. about 33 axis. Required axial strength (tension or compression). Effective section modulus about strong axis. Distance between points braced against lateral displacement of the compression Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. Coefficients for the calculation of Fe and Me. c: compression. Absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. Absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced beam segment. Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a section. about 22 axis.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) λe: λp: λr: Lb: flange. about 22 axis. Absolute value of moment at centerline of the unbraced beam segment. Required flexural strength. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Absolute value of moment at quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. Nominal flexural strength due to lateral torsional buckling. Full reduction factor for slender compression elements. 299 . Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. Nominal flexural strength. Radius of gyration. Nominal shear strength. Nominal flexural strength due to local buckling. Elastic section modulus. Limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact element. Plastic bending moment. Reduction factor for slender unstiffened compression elements. t: torsion). Elastic buckling moment. Nominal axial strength (tension or compression). v: shear. Limiting buckling moment. Reduction factor for slender stiffened compression elements.

Required shear strength about 3 axis.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Vn2: Vn3: Vu2: Vu3: xo. Plastic section modulus. Required shear strength about 2 axis. Nominal shear strength about 3 axis. yo: Z Nominal shear strength about 2 axis. Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. 300 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 301 .

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

302

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

303

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

304

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

305

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

306

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

307

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

308

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD)

309

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)
This module is used to the design of cold-formed steel members in accordance with the AISI Specifications. The AISI Code has an integrated treatment for two design methods, the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design method (LRFD). The code adopted is: • The 1996 Edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Steel Structural Members (American Iron and Steel Institute).

Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member
When an AISI section is selected for a member, it is automatically defined as a cold formed steel member and will be designed in accordance with the AISI Code.

Example of the selection of an AISI section for a member. It is suggested that all the AISI sections start with the letters aisi, for example aisiBox, aisiC, etc. In this way the user will recognize them very easily. In the macros for sections , very important data are considered, which will be needed to properly perform an AISI design, apart from the geometry of the section:

CODE=COLDFORMED
This option defines that the section belongs to a cold-formed steel member, which will be designed with the AISI code.

TYPE
This command defines if the section is open or closed. The values that may be assigned are:
311

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

LINEOPEN This word is used to define an open section as in the case of I and C-sections. The geometry will define if an element is stiffened or unstiffened. If the element is connected at both ends it will be considered a stiffened element; unstiffened otherwise. LINECLOSED It shows that the section is closed as in the case of a tubular or box section. In this case all the elements of the section are considered stiffened. RIGID This command specifies the type of elements that comprises the AISI section. The user can define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Refer to the chapter “Creating Section Types” for more details relating to this subject. Important! Tapered members are not considered in the design of cold-formed sections

2nd order analysis
A second order analysis is recommended as the magnification of design moments to account for second order effects is not explicitly addressed in the cold-form design code. Although the code does not specifically mention this aspect, the second order analysis can be considered in the same way as is described in Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. The Cm and Cb parameters are calculated in the same manner for the first or second order analysis. The user may assign, however, any value for these parameters, to consider the type of analysis in accordance to his or her criteria. This can be accomplished by selecting all the desired members, choosing the option Members/Steel Design parameters from the spreadsheet and entering the correct values for the parameters as explained in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures.

Technical notes
Certain assumptions and simplifications have been incorporated in the AISI design module.

Assumptions and restrictions for elements
The following assumptions have been adopted in relation to the elements and parts of a given section. (Section B of the Code)

312

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

All considered elements are straight-line elements. In other words, they can be represented with a length and a thickness. At the edges or corners of the section where circular elements may be needed, they are approximated as a set of two straight lines as it is illustrated in the following figure:

Example of a section divided into linear elements to approximate a curved section. • The elements with intermediate stiffeners as the one shown in the following figure are divided in linear elements in a similar way as described in the former paragraph, without taking into account special considerations for the calculation of the effective lengths as prescribed in B4.1 or B5 of the Code.

Example of a section with a multiple stiffened element not considered in a special way for the calculation of the effective widths. • The ratios width/thickness of the elements are not verified in accordance to the limits specified in B1.1 of the Code. The user is responsible to verify that all those requirements are fulfilled for the adopted sections in the model. Sections with reinforced webs are not considered in a special way in the calculations.

Tension members
The calculation of tension members is given in section C2 of the Code (see also the flow chart at the end of this chapter). The adopted assumptions are: • • The net area is estimated as a function of the gross section applying a reduction factor. The influences of the type of connections used are not considered.

Flexural members
In the design of flexural members, the program takes into account the flexural strength based on the initiation of yielding, the lateral buckling strength and the local buckling specified in section C3 of the Code. The flow charts at the end of this chapter give more details of the different procedures adopted. The assumptions and restrictions adopted are:

313

No holes in the effective length region of the member are considered.Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • A point symmetric section (such as the Z-section) is treated as a non-symmetrical section about both axes • In the shear calculations. This option is established when the type of section is defined. Torsion is not considered in this type of member. Selection of the Qmod that will be adopted in the calculation of the shear strength for I or C shapes. Note that due to the small thickness of most of these sections. The details of the calculations are given in the flow charts at the end of this chapter.4 of the Code). the ratio M1/M2 is positive when the member is deformed in a simple curvature and negative otherwise. the program will assume that the member has no transverse loads. When the transverse loads are very small in relation to the forces acting axially. Compression members The calculation for compression members follows the specifications given in section C4 of the Code.05*Pn*φ for the LRFD method and P > 0. . In the calculation of the Cm coefficient. the restrictions at the ends of each member are verified together with the type of supports to which the member is connected. • • • Web crippling strength due to concentrated loads and reactions are not considered in the calculations (Section C3. The adopted hypothesis and restrictions are: • • 314 A member is considered a compression member when Pu > 0. which is used in most of the examples of the AISI Manual. the user may choose if the shear strength for I or C Shapes will be calculated with the exact shear modulus Qmod or with a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t. the torsional strength of the sections is very low and is normally neglected.05*Pn/Ω for the ASD method. Due to the sign convention adopted.

4). In cases where this is desired it is suggested that you adopt the local axis as the design axis (check Laterally Restrained for Torsion in the Section dialog) and a Lb length that reflects the distance between fasteners. (See the chapter on the General Design of Steel Structures). The strength for combined bending and shear is also considered with the equations given in Section C3. (Section C4. Combined axial load and bending The combination of stresses is considered with the interaction equations given in Section C5 of the Code: Combined tensile axial load and bending. Combined compressive axial load and bending. which considers special requirements for bending and axial compression loads. This aspect is also considered in the program and it is detailed in the flow charts. with the flange attached to deck or sheathing through fasteners.3 of the Code. 315 . Correct and incorrect definitions of the different points of a rectangular tubular section. Tubular members The Code has a special section devoted to cylindrical tubular members (Section C6).Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • The program does not consider the provisions applicable to C-or Z-sections concentrically loaded along their longitudinal axis. It is also important to note that the definition of sections for rectangular tubular members must be started in one corner of the section and not at the middle of one element as it is shown in the next figure.

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) AISI 96 Flowcharts 316 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 317 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 318 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 319 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 320 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 321 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 322 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 323 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 324 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 325 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 326 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 327 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 328 .

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) 329 .

.

the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section. In both cases. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. In this case. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable.leo extension). I. it may be designed with the BS. sections. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C. adopting the Ultimate Limit State method of Design (or Load and Resistance Factor). In these files you can find the following data and/or specific commands. as described further on. 331 . besides the section geometry.EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. etc. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the British Standard: • BS 5950-1:2000 Determination of a member with a BS section The determination of a member with a BS section is done before the design: Setting the steel design to BS A section that may be designed with the BS is defined in the LEO files (files with *. SetSolid. CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED These values for CODE define that the section is of hot rolled steel or cold formed steel..Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RA allows the design of hot rolled and cold formed steel members in accordance to the BS.

1968.6LL 1. which can be adopted. 1988.4. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section. New York. wind load (WIND) and earthquake (EQ): 1. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a).2LL±1.4WIND 1.0DL±1.4DL±1.4WIND 1. Prentice Hall. GEN Comprises a general formulation.4EQ 1.4DL 1. applied to the known I. based mainly on the shape of the section. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a). Load Combinations According to the BS5950 Code. Theodore V. Although the BS do not specify a general case.. Theodore V. USA. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice.4DL±1.2WIND 1. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. square or rectangular tubes. Table 2. Structural Members and Frames. USA.2LL±1. John Wiley & Sons. the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d). These sections are designed according to the special specifications for single angle members or similar shapes. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) TUBE This option is applied only to circular. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos.2DL+1. the following load combinations may be included if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4DL + 1. Galambos. width (b). in which calculation details are included in the Code. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) FORMULATION=<formulation> The BS has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design.2DL+1. L This formulation is for L shaped sections. When the IC formulation is adopted. flange width (bf). No special parameters are required. the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos (1968) was adopted and “calibrated” to the values obtained for the known sections and formulae given by the BS. thickness (t). Section 2.4EQ 1.0DL±1. C and similar shapes. H.2EQ 332 . live load (LL).

which may be calculated with the horizontal deflections on each floor due to the factored applied loads with an elastic analysis. • • Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. Technical notes Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • • • • Code checking is done using only the forces and moments at specific sections (stations) of the members. see Chapter 1. It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. the code requires a check for sway stability with the determination of the critical load factor (λcr) (Section 2.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) You can automatically generate the required load combinations with the option Loads/Generate Loads Combinations and selecting the file: BS5950LoadCombosStrength. then the structure is sway sensitive and a second order analysis must be carried out. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*. If this factor is less than 10.txt. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered.1. Built up members (welded I. Second order analysis Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Automatic generation of load combinations. select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel design parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. Referring to the parameters m and mLT. L or T sections. (See the table below) The width of an element of a section is considered between centrelines and is corrected to the actual value for common shapes like I. or box sections) were calculated with a py value 20 N/mm² below that obtained from Section 3. 333 .1 (BS).2 ). Because of this. H. For more information. The program does not consider the special considerations for I or H sections with unequal flanges. All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness. they are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect). To evaluate the need for a second order analysis. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. Members with such sections may be approximately calculated with a GEN formulation. C. Depending upon the analysis requirements a P-Delta analysis may be specified. H. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section).4. To do this.leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters. The user has the option to give a defined value for both parameters.

The shear capacity calculations are specified in section 4. There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes. For more details see the flowchart given below.6 of the BS.3 of the BS. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. Class 3 (semi-compact) or class 4 (slender). The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: 334 .3. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 4. Class 2 (compact). The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RAM Advanse checks the sections according to the following table in order to classify them for the calculation of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure: Sections are classified as either Class 1 (plastic).2 to 4. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises bending and lateral-torsional buckling as specified on sections 4.2.

10. Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design.5 of the code. 4.7.10. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done.2. Lv is the length measured between interconnecting bolts and Cnx type is related to the connection types defined in Table 25 of the Code.2) and high shear (Section 4. The coexisting shear is considered in two groups.2. For any other section.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) • • • The moment capacity of a section are based on the design strength and section modulus of the section as specified in Section 4. the program use a simplified value given by Section 4. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • A member is considered in compression when the stress at both extreme fibres are in compression.7 of the code.5. 335 . For the m coefficients calculation of each member.5. low shear (Section 4. holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered.3) and the member is considered to be loaded through the shear centre When determining the shear stress for the shapes. Compression members composed of angles.3 of the Code.7.2.2.2.4 with the definition of two parameters: Lv and Cnx type.10.7.9/Qmod. otherwise the member is considered in bending or tension. Both parameters are entered in the spreadsheet Members/Steel Design Parameters Lv and Cnx Type parameters are located in the Members/Steel design parameters spreadsheet The following table relates the Cnx type values with the connection types of Table 25 of the Code. 4. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.3. the program adopts a shear area (Av) equal to 0. channels or T-sections are treated with the criteria given in Sections 4. End connections. RAM Advanse uses the general equations given in Tables 18 and 26 of the Code where Mmax and M24 are calculated considering intervals of 5% of L. • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 4.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 336 .

A two-flange haunched member may be divided in two members.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion were not included in the Code. There are some methods proposed. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section. This criterion may be conservative for I or channel section members. whose torsional rigidities are very large or in members with small warping rigidities as angle and tee sections. For open sections.0 according to Annex B2. a simplified method is proposed with the following restrictions and assumptions: • The torsional loading is mostly resisted by uniform torsion. 337 . but they are more suited to a plastic analysis and are restricted for specific shapes. The program allows the use of Annex G directives for the design of members with one flange laterally restrained. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centrelines of the elements confining the section. The design is very similar to the one for prismatic members. Warping is not considered. The cross section properties at each station are used with the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. This occurs mainly in thin walled closed sections. axial and bending • The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. Flange=1 for the desired members. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor for compression members and the equivalent uniform moment factor (equal to 1.5). not considering warping. go to the Members/Steel design parameters Spreadsheet and set Restr. torsion. Tapered members Only sections that vary their depth may be designed. a tapered member with varying depth and a constant member. As an alternative to those methods. To enable this option. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. assuming that the flange thickness is constant. Von Mises interaction check is adopted to evaluate the maximum stress due to shear forces.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) The Restr. 338 . Flange Flag parameter allows to use Annex G for members with one flange laterally restrained.

mx. compact=2.M5: Moment at 0.75 and 100% of L Pc: pc: PE: py: Pv: qw: r: S: Seff: Sv: Sx: Sy: t: Vb: Z: Compression resistance Compressive strength (π²*E/λ²) Design strength of steel Shear capacity of a member Shear buckling strength Radius of gyration Plastic modulus Effective plastic modulus Plastic modulus of the shear area Plastic modulus about the major axis Plastic modulus about the minor axis Thickness Shear buckling resistance of a web Section modulus Vcrit: min(Vb.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) BS 5950 Flowcharts BS 5950-1:2000 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS Aeff: Effective cross-sectional area Area: Area Av: d: Fv: E: K: L: Mb: Mc: Shear area Depth of section Shear force Modulus of elasticity of steel Effective length factor Span Buckling resistance moment Moment capacity Equivalent uniform moment factors Class: Classification of sections in plastic=1. semi-compact=3 or slender=4 mLT.M3.M4.M2.50.Pv) Zeff: Effective section modulus 339 .my: Mmax: Maximum moment in the member M1.m.25.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Zx: Zy: α: ε: λ: Section modulus about the major axis Section modulus about the minor axis Robertson constant (Annex C2) Constant SQRT(275/py) Slenderness λLO: Limiting equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λLT: Equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λw: λ0 SQRT(0.6*py/qe) Limiting slenderness (axial compression) 340 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 341 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 342 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 343 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 344 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 345 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 346 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 347 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 348 .

The units can be inches (in) or centimeters (cm). Concrete design is performed for all load combinations. Refer to the next chapter on the Design/Detailing module for more information on filtering loads when viewing the results. For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke one of three designer/detailing modules as described in the following chapters. in #3=0. However. columns and footings in accordance with the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.. and the results can be displayed graphically or in report form.0 . The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse.375 #4=0. followed by the equal sign (=) with the value of the diameter in the specified units.500 349 . This file sets the names and diameters of the reinforcing bars used in the verification and design of reinforced concrete elements.txt file which is located in the Base folder of the main directory of RAM Advanse. The format is: name. Bar size series It is important to note that the user can modify the diameters of the bars to be considered as well as their designation (#3 etc.6 8mm=0. sorted by size. Loads The application of appropriate loads and the generation of the required load combinations are the responsibility of the engineer. The ACI design post processing is performed automatically when the building is analyzed. The next lines contain a series of reinforcing bars to be considered. All applicable loads and load combinations should be applied to the structure as illustrated in the Examples Manual. This external file format is as follows: The first line of the text file contains the units in which the bar diameters are found.) by editing the bars. The user is not able to turn off any individual load case or combination when performing the design in the main program. A pair of examples is given next: cm 6mm=0. the engineer does have the ability to filter the design in the designer/detailer module to obtain results for any individual load condition (case or combination).Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced concrete design Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced Concrete Design This chapter describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail concrete beams.8 10mm=1.

.

Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). as illustrated below: 351 . This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete beam design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. If you need to create a new section. you should select the appropriate Section Type for Beams or Columns. To assign a reinforced concrete beam to a member select a RC Beam section as illustrated in the figure below. Identifying Concrete Beams RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns.

0 is entered.0 is used in the analysis.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Creating new sections.35*Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. Note that if 0. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below. the model should be analyzed appropriately.0 to 1.0. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. 352 . For example. a value of 1. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below. Analysis Before proceeding with a beam design. Valid values are 0. The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis.

13.4. The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes in the column section). 353 . This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI 10. Technical Notes The beam design in RAM Advanse incorporates the requirements of: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The toolbar button can be used to automatically enter the 0. A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns.35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected beams. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for beam design.

75 #ρb (ACI 10.1xLength).2. Note that the distribution of flexural reinforcing provisions (ACI 10. Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. The following items are checked in the design of the reinforced concrete beams.5 are implemented. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently. In the main program the following additional limits exist Flexural Design The flexural design of concrete beams is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. the position of the reinforcing is as specified when the section was created. Where the compressive stress encroaches on the web of the T or L section the beam is designed to account for the reduction in the width of the compression zone.3. Only rectangular beams are designed (no T or L beams). For T and L shape beams (RC Beam Detailer Only) the full flange width provided by the user is considered for calculating the compressive stress block under positive moments. At each section. The design assumptions of ACI 10. The appropriate moment frame is specified as ordinary. No deep member design is considered. particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution.4) are not considered. The main 354 . but the limits of distance between lateral supports (ACI 10. The minimum flexural reinforcing requirements of ACI 10.7. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0. this should be checked by the engineer. • • • • Flexure Shear Torsion Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design. the location of bars can be adjusted as described later. the beam is designed for the envelope (max positive and negative) moments from all the appropriate load conditions. intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer.2. beam design is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog. the engineer can specify which load conditions to consider for design. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in the RAM Advanse implementation of the ACI318 with respect to beam members: • • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. In the Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beam Detailer.7 are fully implemented. shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. For negative moments.6) are implemented with Equation (10-5). In the Reinforced concrete detailing module. In the main program. For the summary output in the main program flexure.3) compression reinforcing will be added. No deflection limits are checked. the flanges of the beam are ignored.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General In the main program. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer. Note that no checks are performed on the validity of the flange width provided.

which does not require any additional provisions. 1 21.2 Flexural Requiremen axial loads ts 21.4 Prescriptive Implemented Reinforcing Shear Design The shear design of concrete beams is according to the provisions of Chapter 11 of ACI.4/ Limits on responsibility Responsibility 5 Concrete and Reinforcing Strength 21.1 21.10 Reinforcing Limits and Prescriptive Reinforcing Requiremen As indicated below ts for Moderate Risk: Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Assume zero 21. The following items describe the implementation of the flexural requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediate moment frames Special moment frames Engineer Engineer 21.2.2.3 Flexural Frame Members Dimensiona l Limits Not Applicable As indicated below Assume zero axial loads.10. The design shear force is that produced by the envelope of all selected load combinations. 2 21.3.10.2. In the RC Beam Detailer the controlling shear at a distance of d (effective depth) from the face of a column may be 355 .Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design program always assumes an ordinary moment frame.3.3. Dimension limits engineers responsibility Implemented 21.

6.1. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer.3.3.2. the user should define the load corresponding load combination to such case. Where significant torsion is present.5.2. which is calculated according to Section 21.5 and 11. For special moment frames. the minimum area of stirrups is per ACI 11.2.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design used as the design shear (ACI 11.3). intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer. Torsion is only considered where the design torsion exceeds a lower limit as specified by ACI 11.2.6.3. Note that RAM Advanse check the limits on concrete strength per 11.9.1 21. The nominal torsion resisted with the provided stirrups is calculated per 11.1.10.7. 356 .2 Implemente Not d Applicable Vc is considered according to Mpr.1. the maximum between Vu and Ve is considered within a 2d length for the shear design.1) is calculated considering an ordinary moment frame in the reinforced concrete beam detailer and in the main program (reinforced concrete design output).4. member torsion design can result in additional steel for both the longitudinal and the shear reinforcing of a member.4. The following items describe the implementation of the shear requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Special moment frames Implemented Design shear based on member 21. No reduction in the factored torsion is considered per 11.5 when required.2 of the Code.3(a bending ) capacity 21.3. the shear strength of the sections will be reduced according to Equation (11-13) (ACI 11.6.3. Finally.4. The design shear force (Ve) is determined from Section 21. This strength is evaluated according to the shear forces related to the probable flexural moment (Mpr). assuming the ends of the member to be fully hinged.3 refers to the requirement of designing the member for the maximum shear that the beam can be subject to. The moment frame type is specified as ordinary.6.4.1). taking into account the factored static load during the earthquake.6. For this. It is the responsibility of the designer to check that there are no other places critical for shear.3. Additional longitudinal steel is calculated per 11.5. For ordinary moment frames no additional provisions are implemented. No axial load assumed Vc is Transverse Reinforcement considered in frame members The provisions of 21.1. Vertical stirrups (closed or open hoops) are designed in accordance with ACI 11.1 and 21.10.4.3.3. Torsion Design When necessary.3.3.6. Minimum and maximum allowable shear stirrups are provided per ACI 11. With high torsion. The capacity of a rectangular concrete section Equation (11-3) (ACI 11.5.1) and it is assumed that all the torque is resisted by stirrups (the nominal torsional moment strength provided by concrete is zero). The torsion capacity of a section is limited per Equation (11-18) (ACI 11.6.6. the concrete capacity is sometimes ignored for resisting shear.6.

4 11.6.2. This section identifies those detailing provisions implemented by RAM Advanse in the Reinforced Concrete Beam Detailer.3.4 12.3 12.6 11. These requirements often control the number.11 12.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Detailing Requirements A substantial influence over the number.12 12. Note that it is the engineers responsibility to confirm that the reinforcing is in agreement with all the provisions of the local concrete building code. Development of bundled bars Development of standard hooks tension Comment Implemented Implemented Implemented Implemented except for 12. size and spacing of reinforcement comes from prescriptive code requirements.3 .5 Not Implemented Not Implemented Implemented except 12.5 12.2 21. Engineer responsibility Engineer responsibility Splices of reinforcement in Implemented tension Splices of reinforcement in Not compression Implemented Transverse reinforcement Hoops at lap locations Implemented Engineer responsibility 357 Special moment frames 21.3.2 Description Distribution of flexural reinforcing Spacing limits for shear reinforcing Maximum spacing of torsion reinforcement Development of deformed bars in tension Development of deformed bars comp.2. Development of negative moment reinforcing.5.6 12.14 12.3. length and placing of reinforcing within a concrete section. RAM Advanse should offer significant assistance in achieving compliance with the many detailing requirements. The following is a summary of detailing provisions: ACI 10.16 Development flexural bars Implemented – General Development of positive moment reinforcing.10 12.4 12.3.5.

2 Transverse reinforcement Implemented Note that the program gives most of the data to easily evaluate the requirements not covered directly by the program.4. first select the beams to obtain output for and then press the Reports . Significantly. To view the output of a reinforced concrete design.Reinforced Concrete Design command as illustrated below. select the desired concrete design code and the two sizes of stirrups that you want the program to consider. In the main program the engineers can obtain a design summary report and they can view the reinforcing in their concrete members. Reports and Screen Output Two forms of concrete design output are available to the engineer in RAM Advanse main program.10. The output consists of two lines for each member.Reinforced concrete design From the displayed dialog (See figure below).Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Intermediate moment frames 21. Note that output is relatively wide. Summary Report of Beam Design RAM Advanse provides a summary output for concrete beam design. more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section. 358 . Execute command Reports .

left.cent. The report that appears is described below.right. central.left column. shear in axis 2. A. Beam design output.right column is the area of steel required from the K end of the section for the distance shown under I. and right ‘zones’.right This is the required top and bottom area of reinforcement for the left. Other forces and sections are ignored. The area shown under the A. In the RC Beam Detailer the engineer can change this to examine the impact of some of the seismic provisions.left column is the steel area required from end J of the member for the distance shown in the I. The beam design is performed assuming an ordinary moment frame with no special seismic provisions implemented. and torsion.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Select OK and the report will be generated for all selected members. Beams with rectangular sections are designed only for bending moment about axis 3. A. The previous output is described below Beam Num The beam number to match the number of the beam selected in the model.P.P. If a beam should be designed for biaxial bending it should be specified as a column section. A. The area of steel in the 359 . The area shown in the A.

left. Note that where left and right are referred to. the steel shown in the A.left away from end J to a distance I.P. or bottom. Cent) applies to the entire length of the beam.right away from end K. The right zone is delimited by the right I. they represent the J and K end of the member respectively.P.P.P.cent zone is the area of steel required from the distance I.right points.e. as indicated by RAM Advanse Inflection points of the bending moment envelop.P. The areas are given for top and bottom reinforcement.P. it has the J node at the left and the K node at the right Left and right.e. 360 .0 away from J end of beam (i. right end of beam).right are the distances of the inflection points from the ends of the beam. the "Right" is the K node. The design moment shown in the output is the maximum moment for all load conditions in the various zones. The inflection points reported are the largest distances from all the load conditions considered. I. The central zone is delimited by the I.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design A.right are 0.cent is required from 0. point and the K node.P.left. bar area may be controlled by the required compression reinforcing.0 away from K end of beam (i. I.left and I.0 in this case. left). When compression reinforcing is required the top. The required reinforcement areas are provided in three zones: • • • The left zone is delimited by the J node and the left inflection point (I. That is.P. The "Left" is the J node.left and I.P. and I. Important! When you display a beam. left end of beam) to 0. below for more information on the inflection points.P.P.right I.P. See the explanation for I. Based on the above description the I. Where no inflection point occurs along a beam the reinforcing indicated for the center ‘zone’ (A.P.

361 . A [] symbol shows that stirrups should be closed. SKIN When torsion must be considered in the design this value reflects the additional longitudinal reinforcing area that must be distributed in the section (equivalent to Al/3 in the beam-detailing module). The shear reinforcing will also be adjusted to resist the applied torsion. TYPE The Type indicates what kind of stirrup is required. as illustrated in the figure (b).I. Note again that no seismic provisions are considered in this design. the spacing between stirrups shall be less than 15 times the longitudinal bar diameter. U indicates that stirrups can be open. The spacing of the stirrups is based on the shear demand and the torsion demand on the section. The stirrup separation is given for three lengths along the member: the first 25%. as shown in figure (a). Stirrup spacing This is the maximum allowable stirrup separation for each zone. The [] is an indicator of torsion in the section. the center half and the last 25% of the beam. When closed stirrups are required for longitudinal compression bars.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Reinforcement bar zones in a beam The cut-off points should be calculated by the engineer (beyond the P.) if detailing a beam using these results. whereas the >[]< symbol indicates compression reinforcing is required.

362 . Mmax/min. T is the maximum torsion moment.cent (normally top steel) will contain the area of reinforcing required over the full length of the member. A more detailed output of the reinforcing can be obtained in the detailer described next. This moment is the maximum moment for all load conditions and it is the value used to design the critical reinforcing.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design (a) Closed stirrups ([]) (b) Open stirrups (U) An open stirrup should be placed as shown in the figure. The display will indicate the correct layout of the longitudinal bars in the currently selected members. These are the true location of reinforcing bars in those sections selected. Screen Display of Reinforcement To obtain a schematic layout of your beam and column bars select the concrete members and select the button of the Model properties toolbar. V is the maximum shear force parallel to axis 2. Open stirrups are assumed to only carry shear forces parallel to axis 2. The Mmax and Mmin values shown reflect the moment that the steel was designed for. Length The length of the beam. when no inflection point exists the A. even if this moment occurred somewhere other than the center of the beam. V. and T Mmax and Mmin show the maximum and minimum values of bending moments about axis 3. Note.

Data Screen The initial screen that appears in the detailer is the data screen. sections and geometry of the structure to match real world conditions. This module is invoked by selecting one or more reinforced concrete beams located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete Beam from the menu bar. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. 363 . As in all the detailing modules for reinforced concrete. Sometimes dimensional modifications are made in the analysis phase to model more accurately the true structural behavior. The four areas outlined above are described in detail below.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the concrete beam design/detailing module to design and detail a reinforced concrete member. the engineer should enter the true dimensions. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. materials and reinforcement and the program verifies the condition of the beam for the specified loads. As this module is most likely to be used to generate structural drawings. This screen allows you to modify materials. where the user input the geometry. This screen allows you to modify the dimensions that were used in the analysis to match actual conditions. it appears as shown in the following figure. the design is faced as a trial and error process. The toolbar button allows the engineer to select which load conditions the detailer will consider for design.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item A

Selects the moment frame type. Moment frame: [Ordinary/Intermediat See the notes above on the design and detailing e/Special]: implications of this action. Clear Cover: Distance from edge of section to outer edge of stirrups.

Modulus of elasticity, Concrete and reinforcing f’c, Fy, Specific material properties. Weight: Static load case during It is the design static earthquake gravitational load that simultaneously acts during the earthquake (only for Intermediate and Special moment frames)

364

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item B

Note that this column can be moved relative to the axis used in the analysis program. By clicking on the word Center (Figure on the left) and changing it to Left, the column is now located to the left of the gridline (Figure on the right). In addition, by selecting the 2ft dimension of the column (left figure) it can be modified (see 2.5ft dimension on the right figure). Remember that all text in red can be modified. Item C

By selecting the word Rectangular (left figure), the section can be changed to a T or L section as shown in the right hand figure. To change a dimension click on the text and edit appropriately. Once the section geometry is finalized, the design screen can be viewed.

365

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item D the spreadsheet

The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement, and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. It is active in the Data Screen, Design screen and in the Detailing Screen. The spreadsheet is divided in three pages, the first one called Bars has the data to define the longitudinal reinforcement, the second one, Stirrups, has the information required to define the stirrups and the last one, Sections, the location of the cross sections. Bars The data needed to define the longitudinal reinforcement are:

Group: Bar:

The group number of a set of bars with a specific geometry. The bar size designation. Top: Flag that determines if the reinforcement goes on the top (1) or at the bottom (0) of the beam. Level: Flag used to define if the reinforcement will be continuous (0) or discontinuous (1). Axis1: The axis from which the start point of the group of bars is measured. Dist1: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the start point relative to the Axis1. Hook1: Flag that determines if the bars start with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Qnty: The number of bars.

366

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Axis2: The axis from which the end point of the group of bars is measured. Dist2: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the end point relative to Axis2. Hook2: Stirrups: The data required for the definition of the stirrups are: Flag that determines if the bars end with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Stirrup: Bar:

The group of stirrups.

Span: Span number where the group of stirrups will be located. The bar size designation. The spacing between stirrups. # spa: The number of spaces in the group. This parameter indirectly defines the number of stirrups. # of legs: The number of vertical stirrup legs to resist shear. Closed: Sections: The engineer can stipulate at which location/s along the beam they wish to obtain a cross-section. Flag that determines if the stirrup is closed hoop (1). Spacing:

The cross section locations are defined with the following parameters: Axis: The axis from which the location of the cross section is to be measured. Dist: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the cross section relative to the specified axis. Typically, it will not be necessary to enter each bar individually into the beam. There are several tools that you can use to automatically determine the required reinforcement. Enter reinforcement:

367

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Displays a dialog window to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement of the beam. All the parameters are defined by the user. Suggest reinforcement: RAM Advanse suggests longitudinal and transverse reinforcement based on the bar size designation entered by the user in a dialog window. The reinforcing calculated is based only on the member forces at the columns and beam mid-spans. Enter continuous reinforcement: This tool is used to define the continuous longitudinal reinforcement of the beam, either top or the bottom. These bars will run the full length of the beam. Enter top reinforcement at axes: This tool is used to define the top discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement that will be defined at the supports. Enter bottom reinforcement: This tool is used to define the discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement at the bottom in the mid-span region of the beams. Splice bars at (% of L): This tool is used to define the location of the required bar splices of longitudinal reinforcement. Bars will be spliced at the specified distance if they are longer than the maximum bar length. This tool will only work for spans that are less than 75% of the maximum bar length. Enter 0% if you want the splices located at the span supports or enter 50% if you want the splices located at midspan. The user should always check the generated bars. Note that only the bars that need splices will be affected. The spliced bars will still be treated as single bars for selection. The splice length considered in this tool is for class B splices where the maximum percent of reinforcement spliced within required lap length is 100. The user can reduce manually the lap length for class A splices. Enter stirrups: This tool is used to define the transverse reinforcement along the spans of the beam.

368

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Design Screen

The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design data. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. Note that two diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time, thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (demand) curve. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the load condition selected. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition.

369

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Warning! It is the engineers responsibility to review the required steel with respect to the provided steel to confirm that sufficient capacity is provided by the bars shown. This is best viewed in the design screen and the report of the RC Beam Detailer where the design against the nominal moments or the design shear forces against the nominal shear forces can be visually displayed. In some circumstances, the area of required steel may exceed the provided. This will most often happen at the end of a member where there is not sufficient length to develop the bars that are required for moments at the face of the column-beam joint. Item A The figure below is for the design moments in the beam. Note that the maximum negative moment is located at the face of the column that coincides with the start point of the diagram. The diagrams are always displayed from face to face of columns. Measurements are shown from the face-of-column to the controlling inflection points. Note that the envelope diagrams consider only the selected load conditions.

By clicking on the title of the diagram (in red), the user has the option of changing the diagram to any of the following:

370

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

The Deflection, Moments, Shear, and Torsional moments are all dependent on the currently selected load condition. The other options are displayed and calculated for the selected load conditions. It is particularly important to view the envelope for design bending moments and the nominal bending moments. The last diagram illustrates the increase of section capacity over the development length of the longitudinal bars. As such the engineer can determine whether the strength of the beam is enough to resist the design moments over any length of the beam (particularly in the development zone of the bars). Item B the Spreadsheet The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Detailing Screen

The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the beam. Both longitudinal and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. Note that the user can only define the

371

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

reinforcement and the localization of the cross sections in the figure, but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside RAM Advanse. Item A

To display the reinforcing takeoff and lengths, click on the word Detailing and select ‘List’. Note that the fine control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. To edit one or certain groups of bars, they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected, they are shown in blue and the bars not selected in light gray:

Item B
372

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Configuration Screen

This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. The items considered are described in the table below. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99. The only option available for the moment. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear, torsion and detailing. Affects the development length of bars
373

Epoxy Coated

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

of bars. The ratio of reinforcement Rho Ratio between maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho. ACI 10.3.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8.4.1 of the Code.

Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars. The user shall between consider section 7.6 of the Code. reinforcement Round bar length to Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch, foot etc.

Estimated distance This is the distance, which is added to the clear cover (see of clear cover to bar group centroid data screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. Delta X for each solution The increment at which design checks are performed. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment, shear) along the beam. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. This option allows the user to manipulate the spacing of the

Horizontal tick spacing for text
374

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

spacing for text

tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. Applies the specification given in section 11.1.3.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. A normal value is 40 ft.

Reduce Vu near column face

Maximum bar length

Report of reinforced concrete beams
By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen, the report screen of reinforced concrete beams will be displayed. The screen is shown next:

Report screen of reinforced concrete beams. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report, see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The report of reinforced concrete beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. At the top the general information that are common to all the selected members of the beam is displayed. This section is followed by the data that is particular to each member of the beam. In the general information section, the user can find the loading conditions, the moment frame and the properties of the materials.

375

the reinforcement and some design parameters such as the clear cover.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General information displayed in the report of reinforced concrete beams. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. Example of the graphic layout presented for the adopted reinforcement of the beam. etc. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. In this way. Example of the flexural verification diagram. The results are divided in two sections. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. The status of the different stations are graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. In the specific data section for each member of the beam the user can find the geometry. Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. 376 . Each member is divided in 10 equal lengths and thus 11 stations are considered in the verification of the bar layout. All diagrams are drawn from face-of-column to face-of-column. the initial spacing of stirrups. One particular feature is the graphic layout of the bar pattern with the position and number of each group of bars. namely a flexural and a shear/torsion section.

A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. the purpose is to get members with shear strength greater than the maximum probable bending capacity of the member.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Note that the report indicates the spacing of bars required to meet cracking controls of the beam as specified in ACI 10. This spacing is calculated considering the dimensions of the following figure: The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. In this case.4. Most of the seismic considerations given on chapter 21 of the Code are taken into account (see previous section for exceptions). The actual spacing of the bars as currently laid out is also indicated.6. 377 . The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. in order to avoid a brittle failure of the member.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts 378 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 379 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 380 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 381 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 382 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 383 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 384 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 385 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 386 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 387 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 388 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 389 .

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design 390 .

you should select a Template for beams or columns as it is illustrated in the next figure: 391 . Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. select the members graphically and proceed as shown in the figure below.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete column design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. Identifying the columns for design RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. and new sections (and materials) can be created as described in the Chapter on Creating Sections and Materials. Assigning concrete sections to the members If you want to create a new section. To assign a concrete section to a member. This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. Note that the columns can be rectangular or circular in shape. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed.

The engineer will be able to modify some of these parameters from within the column detailer. The parameters are considered in the design as described in the Technical Notes Section.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The creation of new sections is described in more detail in Chapter of Creating Sections and Materials. These include the sidesway flag. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. The Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway in (parallel to) the 2 axis. Column Design Parameters Several design parameters should be input during the modeling phase. This setting has nothing to do with the member-unbraced length. The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). Braced Against Sidesway Flag To enter the required design parameters select the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. 392 . Acceptable values are 0 and 1. Likewise. The tool buttons below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. as is described in the detailer section. but rather the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral load. the effective length factor and the member axial unbraced length.

Effective Length (K) Factor The effective length (K) factor for each column should be entered.0 being used in the program. A spreadsheet value of 0. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for columns. As discussed in the technical section.0 will always result in a K of 1. Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor The local member stability (Cm) Factor can be entered for each column.0 for all currently selected members.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination. Note that K33 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis K or Kx). this value is important when calculating the member local-stability moment-magnifier (Lamda ns). The Cm value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the Reinforced Concrete Design toolbar button under the members design tab. Likewise. The engineer can use the toolbar button to set the Cm value to 0.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. 393 . Cm22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). Likewise. As discussed in the technical section this value is important when considering whether slenderness should be considered in the design of the column. alternatively the engineer can use the toolbar buttons below the spreadsheet to automatically calculate the K factors from a nomograph. K22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis K or Ky). Note that Cm33 is for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). as they affect the calculated K. The K value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet. A spreadsheet value of 0. Note that if using the nomograph the sidesway (braced2 and braced3) flags should be set first.

The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code. Important: All of the design parameters described above can be modified in the detailer. Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis L or Lux). It is suggested that all user design parameters be applied in the model prior to invoking the detailer.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) Unbraced Member Length (L) The engineer can modify the unbraced length for axial load capacity (and slenderness) calculations. Analysis Before proceeding with column design. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below. modifications made in the detailer will not be reflected back in the model. However. note that the Cb and Lb columns in the spreadsheet are not used in concrete design.0 will result in L being calculated based on the distance between the nodes of the member. A zero value means that it is equal to the member length between nodes. you can enter the unsupported lengths between lateral supports (L33 and L22). 394 . Also. If necessary. These values represent the unbraced length between lateral supports that the program will consider in the design. A spreadsheet value of 0. L22 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis L or Luy). the model should be analyzed appropriately. Likewise. The L22 and L33 value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab.

35 and 0.0 is entered. The toolbar buttons can be used to automatically enter values of 0. For example.7 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for columns. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below. a value of 1.0. The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes section). ACI Technical Notes The column design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 395 . Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. While technically there is no need to perform a second order analysis for a structure braced against sidesway.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. Note that if 0. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed before entering the column detailer module.4). the ACI318-99 section 10-11 recommends 0.13. the results obtained from doing so should not differ significantly from that of a first order analysis. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI318-99 (10.0 is used in the analysis. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis.7 (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected members.0 to 1. Acceptable values are 0.

All the moments are in reference to the geometric centroid of the section. φ shall be permitted to be increased linearly to 0. Modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement E = 29000 ksi.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. This method divides the second order effect into two parts: a structure second order effect (P-∆) and a member local stability effect (p-().13) due to the deformation of the whole structure. The nominal strength of a section is calculated with the following strength reduction factors: φ = 0. φ = 0. Maximum concrete strain εmax = 0. The stress-strain diagram for the steel is elasto-plastic. The strength reduction factors used are in accordance with 9. not considering the reinforcement. the cracking effect and other global non-linear factors.003 The compression force of the concrete is calculated using the equivalent rectangular block of forces proposed by Whitney. The tension strength of the concrete is neglected.3.10. Design of longitudinal reinforcement The longitudinal reinforcement is designed to resist both biaxial bending and axial loads. • Slenderness effects The Code specifies that the slenderness effects in columns should be considered by performing either section 10. • If the reinforcement is less than 1% (the minimum suggested reinforcement ratio). which means that the stress of the steel has a linear variation up to the yielding point.9 in axial tension. 10. to zero. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for column design. of the ACI. The following assumptions have been made: • • • • • • • • • Strength Design Theory. For intermediate cases.7 in axial compression. or axial tension with flexure.10. The P-( effect is addressed through the local moment magnification (ACI-99 Section 10. 396 .1 is a non-elastic fully second order analysis that is not available in Ram-Advanse and therefore.90 as φ*Pn decreases from 10*fc’*Ag or φ*Pb.10. 10.10. The stress in the reinforcement is calculated based on the strain of the centroid of each reinforcement bar. integrating the compression area.2 is implemented in the program.2 of the Code.1 or 10.12). whichever is smaller. displaying a warning message. The strain of concrete is proportional to the distance to the neutral axis. then it remains constant. or axial compression with flexure. P-∆ is addressed through the end moment magnification factor (ACI-99 10. the calculation is done in a similar way with the specified strength of the concrete.

This procedure is used on braced frame members if ACI-99 equation 10-8 is exceeded.12. The criterion stated in 10. For sway frames this procedure is performed if equation 10-20 is exceeded.10.11. The P-∆ effects for columns subject to sidesway are automatically obtained from the analysis results.1 can be helpful to decide whether the members of the frame should be considered braced against sidesway. Thus it is assumed that an elastic second order analysis has been performed. taking into account the inertia reduction factors suggested in 10. The moments M1 and M2 at the ends of the column are therefore obtained directly from the analysis without performing ACI-99 Equations (10-16) and (10-17). The P-( is not considered in the analysis (even second order) and is therefore approximated following the procedure described in ACI-99 10. The flow charts attached to the end of this chapter indicate the algorithm used to consider the slenderness effects.1. 397 .4. the cracked section factors should be modified by (1 + βd) as described in the ACI-99.11. This is not currently performed in the program and only a warning will be issued. If the user wants to consider sustained lateral loads.1. The user has the responsibility to decide if the columns belong to a sway or non-sway frame.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Important: The Code states that columns with k*lu/r >100 need to be designed according to 10.

which are located a distance d from the face support of the column according to 11.1. Shear design Shear design is performed according to Chapter 11 of the Code. The demand or capacity ratio for the current load is defined as the ratio between the distances o-s and o-c of the interaction diagram. Details of how the shear design is performed are given in the attached flow charts.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Bending design Having determined the magnified moments (the required design moments). this involves both shifting and rotating the neutral axis to obtain equilibrium. which vary in the order of 20% in relation to the ones. if subject to axial tension.1. As illustrated in the attached flowcharts. This procedure uses the true (full) section properties. but torsion is neglected in the design of the stirrups (option to suggest reinforcement). The demand or capacity ratio is defined as the ratio between the current loads acting on the column divided by the strength reduction factor (phi) and the nominal capacity (axial or bending moments) that are illustrated in the following figure. and the rebar pattern entered by the user in the Data Screen. In the calculation of the nominal moment with tension forces.3. The program considers the maximum factored shear forces (Vu). the required reinforcement area (As) is calculated using an exact determination of the axial-moment (P-M) interaction limits of the column design. The nominal shear strength of the column. calculated with the interaction function. This methodology used to determine the true P-M limits involves a trial and adjustment procedure for establishing moment equilibrium. This may produce smaller Mn values. The governing condition for bending is defined as the condition with the highest demand ratio. The program also checks if the adopted reinforcement area is within the maximum and minimum allowed reinforcement limits prescribed by the code or set by the user. If Pu > Plim then the capacity of the column will be reduced to the Plim value. Interaction diagram of a column. RAM Advanse assumes that the interaction equation varies linearly between the condition with pure tension load and the condition with pure bending. 398 . is taken according to Equation (11-8). The shear forces in both axes are considered. It calculates also the nominal moments of the section with the adopted reinforcement and determines if the section is able to resist the imposed moments. Note that phi is defined for Mu and Pu values.

M33. Output Two forms of concrete columns design output are available to the engineer in the program. the axial force. Report Output After an analysis. and the column headings of the table are described below: Important: some differences may appear between the results obtained with Reports/Reinforced concrete design and Detailing /Concrete columns. F axial. It is the column number in the model. the exact reinforcement distribution and geometry are taken into account in the calculations. Significantly more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section. The attached flow charts show the details of the sections that are considered in the verification. and M22. Special moment frame where structures with high seismic performance are included. are. the reinforcement distribution is not known and an assumed distribution is considered.10. and he or she can view the reinforcing in their concrete members. Refer to the list of load combinations shown at the top of the output. Intermediate moment frame where structures with intermediate seismic performance are considered.4. An example of this output is shown in the figure below. This will provide a single line of output as shown below for all the rectangular and circular concrete columns currently selected. respectively.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Special provisions for seismic design The user can specify the type of moment frame for each design (see the Detailer section): • • • Ordinary moment frame where no special considerations are taken into account.Reinforced Concrete Design menu item. M22 These are the forces corresponding to the governing load condition. F axial.5 for intermediate moment frames and according to 21. Load Load is the number of the load condition that resulted in the largest area of reinforcing. The length (Lo) measured from the joint face and the maximum tie spacing for this length (So) is calculated according to 21. bending moment about axis 3 (major axis). M33. This section of the code specifies that the shear design has to be performed based on the flexural resistance of columns. . 399 . Col Numb. This is because in the main program output. the engineer can view a text summary of column output for the currently selected columns by clicking on the Reports . A positive axial force means tension. This version of the program considers all the requirements given in section 21. In the main program the engineer can obtain a text summary design output. and bending moment about axis 2 (minor axis) for the load condition that gives the greatest reinforcement area.4 for special moment frames.4.5 of the code for special moment frames. while in the detailing module. negative means compression.

A.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns A. BxH The width and depth of the adopted rectangular section for each member. Shear and torsion demand are not considered in this separation. Reqd and A. min This is the minimum reinforcement area required by the design code. 400 . but do not reflect any detailing changes made in the concrete detailing module. A. Note however that the area should never be less than the minimum reinforcement area required by the code. Min. Circular sections are not considered in this report. The column should at a minimum use the larger of A. Refer to the column design/detailing module for consideration of shear demand on the design. Tie Spacing This is the maximum separation allowed between stirrups due to geometric considerations and code prescriptive detailing requirements. An error message will appear if the required steel is larger than the maximum reinforcement area that is allowed by the code. To view the position of the reinforcement (as shown in the figure below) select the desired columns graphically and press from the toolbar. max This is the maximum area of steel allowed in this section. Important: Tie separation does not consider the shear demand on the column. required This is the computed required longitudinal reinforcement area. Screen Display of Reinforcement In columns the position of the reinforcement bars is very important. The reinforcement shown represents the true location of the reinforcing bars that were required for the design. Text summary of reinforced concrete column design Length This is the length of the column. only the detailing code requirements.

401 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Screen display of the reinforcing in the column and beams.

402 . Note that the section and load data has all been read in from the modeled structure. The engineer can then invoke the designer/detailing module by selecting one or more columns located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete columns from the menu bar. From this screen the material properties. This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. The module will provide suggested reinforcing when the module is invoked. Data Screen The first screen viewed in the detailer is the data screen.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the column detailer to design columns subject to axial forces and bending moments. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. The engineer can use this reinforcing or can modify it as desired. On entry into the designer/detailer the program will provide reinforcing in the cross sections. Note that the first tie spacing Sini has to be < So/2. The data screen. Following a successful analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design of their concrete columns. design parameters and load data can all be modified. and also the ability to produce column detailing for design documents. The user can modify these as illustrated below. section geometry.

All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design. Important: Changes to the physical model made in the designer/detailer are NOT transferred back to the model in RAM Advanse.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Note that when section data is modified in this screen it is copied up the column line. it is important to begin the column modifications from the lowest level and work up. The screen can be subdivided in four areas outlined above. The data screen can be divided into four areas as described below. Item A 403 . Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in this screen. These are described in detail below. Therefore. if properties change up the column. However. changes do not have to be made to each column up the column line. The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button. They only exist for that invocation of the detailing module.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns General parameters for the whole column line. 404 .

normally equal to 0.1. The Code Minimum reinforcemen suggests 0.3. Clear cover to longitudinal bars (not to transverse reinforcement). For non-sway frames: the ratio of the maximum factored axial sustained load to the maximum factored axial load associated for the same load combination.4.06 for special moment frames (ACI-99 21.9.01. See figure below. t ratio The maximum Rho that the section can Maximum reinforcemen obtain before it fails code prescribed limits.15. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. Suggested and default value: 0. eu The maximum allowed strain in the concrete (0. unit weight: Beta D: Classification according to ACI-31899.1). The minimum specified Rho.003) Block stress The reduction factor for the depth of Profile.08 for ordinary or intermediate moment frames and 0.0. Note that ACI-99 (10. f’c.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Moment frame [Ordinary/ Intermediate/ Special]: Clear Cover Modulus of elasticity. The moment frame type affects the maximum reinforcement ratio. fy.1) t ratio: suggests a Rho of 0. Refer to ACI-99 12.60 For sway-frames: the ratio of the maximum factored sustained shear within a story to the maximum factored shear in that story. the spacing between ties and the bar splices. Type of splices: [Tangential/ Offset/ Bearing] Used to calculate the spacing between bars in the splice zones. Beta the equivalent block stress in the concrete (0.85) 1 405 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Tangential lap splices Item B Offset lap splices Bearing lap splices Types of splices considered by the program Geometric characteristics of the column can be set in this area. Refer to the following diagrams for what information can be changed. Column elevation Move the column position in relation to the axis 406 .

Item C Section information is modified in this area. 407 . The floor names can be changed but they are not saved between invocations of the designer/detailer module.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Modify the height between floors starting from the lowest level Modify the beam dimensions starting from the lowest level. Beam dimensions are NOT automatically read in from the structural model. The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column.

These are not transferred back to the original analytical model. 408 . Zoom fence on a particular column Select the column type (circular or rectangular). The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Member section information.

Typically a tension splice should be assumed. If it is highlighted in yellow it means that it is larger than Max Rho/2. The actual reinforcement ratio is displayed for reference: If the value is highlighted in red it means that the actual reinforcement ratio is less than Min Rho or larger than Max Rho. This option tells the program if the splices are to be tension or compression splices.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns There are two types of sections available: Rectangular and Circular. Remember to start from the lowest level if you want to have data automatically copied up. Enter Yes if none of the load combinations results in any of the bars going into tension. the diameter of the bars and number of bars. 409 . Enter the dimensions.

Initial spacing of ties (Sini). The entry will be highlighted in yellow if it is larger than the maximum spacing.10. 410 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The user can input the initial spacing of the first tie.5. Note how the program considers the initial spacing when there are beams with different heights. This spacing is applied to the top as well as to the bottom of the column.2) is also displayed for reference. The maximum code prescribed (allowed) tie spacing for column detailing (per 7. Enter the desired tie spacing.

Item D 411 . over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. Note that the program does not verify the ACI-99 code specification (7.5) requiring that at least alternate longitudinal bars must be braced and that no bar must be more than 6 in from a braced bar.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the number of legs in each direction for the transverse reinforcement. measured from joint face along the axis of the column. the spacing between bars is shown and the user can perform this verification by inspection. the user is required to specify Lo and So. In the case of intermediate or special moment frames.10. The spacing between longitudinal bars is shown as reference to help the user in the selection of the number of cross ties required for transverse reinforcement. However. Lo is the minimum length.

If Cm = 0 the program will automatically calculate the appropriate value suggested by the Code based on end moments for each load combination. These parameters are read from the model for each column. The engineer can modify the data required for the design of slender columns. Any changes made here will not be reflected back in the model when the detailer is closed. Refer to the sheet below and the Technical Notes section for the impact of these parameters on the design. Effective length factors for bending about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) A factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. ] 412 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Forces and data related to the slenderness of the column. K: Cm Sway Enter Yes for sway frames and No for non[Yes/No sway frames. Lu: Unsupported length for bending about axes 33 (major axis bending) and 22 (minor axis bending).

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ] Ic/Ig It is not used in the design. only in the structural analysis. 413 . It is provided as a reminder of the value used during the analysis for this column.

Item A The design results of the column.6. This button displays the design results. The Code specifies that this value shall not be less than the smaller of splices 1. The text in parenthesis indicates whether a tension or compression splice was specified.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Design Screen The second button on the toolbar is the design button.K and in red otherwise.5in (ACI-99 7. Bar clear The clear spacing between bars in the spacing in splice zone. Design screen.5 times the bar diameter or 1. Ac: Splice length Area of the concrete section The required splice length.3) As required 414 The maximum required area of steel. including the slenderness effects. The Status is shown in green when it is O. This value represents the maximum of the area required for strength purposes and that .

Asreq/Aspro Ratio between the required v reinforcement area and the provided area.2.12. This value is shown in red when it is larger than one. and does not consider the minimum Rho limit from the data screen. K is the effective length factor. Sway K Klu/r Pc Ig Item B Item B shows the proportion of the mobilized strength of the column for each load combination. ACI-99 10. Negative loads are in compression and positive loads are in 415 .13. As provided Rho req/Rho prov Provided reinforcement area.12) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section. The As required is based purely on the area of steel required to meet demand. Ratio between the required reinforcement ratio and the provided reinforcement ratio.5). Pu Axial load of the controlling load combination. Euler’s critical load for a slender column (ACI-99 10. This variable show if the frame was specified as a sway frame (Yes) or as a non-sway frame (No) Effective length factor about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) This value is used to determine if frame columns are permitted to ignore slenderness effects (P-(. lu is the unsupported length and r is the radius of gyration of the cross section. Rho required is the As required divided by the member area. The value must be equal or less than one to be acceptable.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns prescribed by the code as a minimum allowed (Rho min). Ig* refers to the cracked section moment of inertia used in the analysis. 10.

Remark: The additional moment magnification required to account for structural lateral load drift is implicit through the mandatory second order (PDelta) analysis. 416 . Refer to the technical notes section for more information. Mc22 Factored bending moments used for design. Mc33. dns22 Moment magnification factor to reflect the effect of member curvature between ends of a compression member. Phi Strength reduction factor calculated for the critical station of the considered load combination. Cm33. dns33.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns tension. Cm22 These show the calculated or the engineer specified values. This is based on the member end moments if not specified by the engineer. These consider the slenderness of the column when necessary Mc = Mu*dns.

Initial tie spacing calculated as being required by the program. Provided S The spacing provided by the engineer.4. 417 Vu . Provided Sini Calculated Sini Provided So (*) Calculated So (*) Provided Lo (*) Calculated Lo (*) Initial tie spacing given by the user.K. over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. Calculated S The maximum spacing allowed for ties.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Item C Shear design. It is only required for intermediate or special moment frames. ACI 21.4. Lo given by the user. So given by the user. It will be shown in red if it is larger than the calculated Sini. It will be shown in red if it is smaller than Allowed Lo Minimum length. The program calculates the maximum spacing required to resist shear and considers the code prescribed limits on reinforcement spacing.4 Factored shear force for the controlling load condition. For circular columns the resultant Vu is shown. This spacing should be equal or less than the allowed spacing. measured from joint face along the axis of the column. The Status is shown in green when it is O. It will be shown in red if it is greater than the calculated So Maximum allowed spacing of transverse reinforcement for intermediate or special moment frames in the Lo zone.

Nominal shear strength (concrete + reinforcement) Vs Vn 418 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Vc Nominal shear strength provided by concrete for the controlling load condition. Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.

These are saved between invocations of the module. To access to this screen press the button 419 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the typical section of the column for each floor. and the elevation with the reinforcing bars that are required per the previous screen design. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in the data screen. W. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. K. A. Configuration Screen This screen allows the user to establish standards and control over the design and details calculated by the program.. S. 1995 ISBN 0-89312-098-7 (page 369)]. Fanella D. “Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake and Wind Forces” PCA Publications. Note that the common practice in detailing dictates that the elevation is drawn through the middle part of the column. Domel A. A column with 4 vertical bars on all sides will still only show two vertical bars in the elevation view [Ghosh. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. As such it is the number of bars in the middle of the column that show in the elevation. and not the exterior bars.

For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report. 420 . Used for rounding down the spacing between ties Used to round-up the length of splices Epoxy Coated Round spacing to closest Round splices to closest Report of reinforced concrete columns By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete columns. Refer to the table below.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Configuration screen. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module and should be set before the detailing is viewed. Concrete Type Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. the report screen of reinforced concrete columns will be displayed. Affects the development length of bars.

Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. the user can find the loading conditions. This is followed by specific information on each column. the design parameters and the forces at both ends of the column corresponding to the selected loading conditions. The fs/fy ratio for the critical bar in tension is also included to compare the basic limits of the interaction diagram with the value obtained for the point: 421 . the type of moment frame and the properties of the materials.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The top section of the report contains data that is common to all the selected members. In this version of RAM Advanse. the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33. Information specific to a column in the column line. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed. the reinforcement. In the specific data section for each column. In the general data section. the user can find the geometry. General data displayed in the report of reinforced concrete columns.

see the table in the Design Screen section of this chapter). Sini and the length Lo are shown in the report (for a detailed description of these variables. So. 422 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Basic limits with known fs/fy ratios that may be compared with the fs/fy ratio obtained for the current load acting on the column. which will determine the governing loading condition for the biaxial compression design. The biggest capacity ratio will be the one. All the seismic considerations given on Chapter 21 of the Code are considered. All the tie spacing like S. Report screen with all the information regarding shear design. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the biaxial compression design.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts 423 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 424 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 425 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 426 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 427 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 428 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 429 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 430 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 431 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 432 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 433 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 434 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 435 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 436 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 437 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 438 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 439 .

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns 440 .

The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the applied shear forces without reinforcement. These verifications are realized in the design and detailing module. Verifications The check of the overall stability against sliding. The base and depth dimensions should be defined separately. according to isolate footing to use. the model should be analyzed appropriately. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). together with the design of the required longitudinal reinforcement. For more details about the basic concepts for soil-footing-structure modeling and how to use this tool. or where the dynamic properties of the structure are influenced by soil-structure interaction. reinforced concrete footing-design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. Technical Notes The footing design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 441 . ) located at The first button calculates the minimum dimensions of the base to accomplish with the soil allowable stress.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This section describes the provisions of the isolated.6 (This factor may be changed). overturning and soil bearing capacity is the last step. They can be calculated with 2 buttons ( the top of the detailing module screen. The analysis should consider the soil-structure interaction where appropriate. Adopted dimensions The next step is determining the basic dimensions for the footing geometry. Design Steps Soil-footing-structure modeling Before proceeding with footing design. The input data for modeling is described in: Foundation Spring Modeling Tools. refer to appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction – Theory at the end of this chapter. with the recommended methods by RAM Advanse to model the soil-structure interaction and their implications in footing design: adopted dimensions and verifications. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. A soil-structure analysis should consider appropriate soil springs for all the situations that include eccentric columns (columns that are not located at the center of a footing). and make an approximation to the depth based on service loads with an overall load factor of 1.

see design/detail module). overturning and soil bearing capacity Any isolated shallow foundation must have stability against: Sliding: produced by the lateral forces acting on the footing base.50 Overturning at the bottom edge of the footing (point O) 442 . Due to the numerical integration method used values such as soil pressures may differ by up to 3% from the exact solutions. The engineer can consider some or all load combinations when performing the design. This method considers the soil as an elastic material. All load combinations (factored and service) need to be generated by the engineer. the soil stress distribution below the footing is assumed to be linear. Overall stability against sliding.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. according to the applicable code. Pp = passive earth pressure H Horizontal load acting on the foundation. that is. Service load conditions can also be used to verify soil stresses and settlements (Item B of the Design Screen. However. Loads In accordance to Chapter 15 of the Code. the footings should be designed to resist the factored loads and induced reactions (Item A of the Design Screen. If this soil is permanent (i. Fr = base friction and adhesion. SFsliding=(Fr+Pp)/H Where: SFsliding= Safety factor against sliding. Any passive earth pressure developed by the soil in front of the foundation will help against the slide forward.e. which can be represented by the modulus of subgrade reaction (ks). only the applied loads are considered when performing design of the footing. Analysis A numerical method is adopted to find the stress distribution in the soil. The footing is assumed to be infinitely rigid. covered by pavement or a sidewalk) it may be included to produce the passive pressure. see design/detail module). When calculating the soil pressures the weight of the footing and fill is considered. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for footing design.67 For cohesion = 0. For estimating the passive pressure and the soil bearing capacity the following reduction coefficients are suggested (and used as default values): For friction angle = 0.

1992. Sometimes the allowable bearing pressure is already furnished to the user and can be considered directly. for a better approximation. Bearing capacity failure or allowable bearing pressure Please consider that the allowable soil pressure for a footing takes into account both bearing capacity and settlements.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Overturning about the footing base involves taking the moment summation about point O. the soil cohesion and the lateral pressure. Additionally the depth of water table is taken into account.usace. Mc Graw Hill. However. SFoverturning=(Wc+Ws+P)*x/M Where SFoverturning=Safety factor against overturning. he or she could use the included option to calculate the bearing capacity of shallow foundations with the equations proposed by Hansen. Ws=weight of the soil over the foundation. P Vertical load. New York. load eccentricity..army. For more information on the bearing capacity equations the user is referred to the following references 1) Bowles. The bearing capacity calculation considers the wedge weight. Free downloadable on /www. Eccentricity and inclined loading correction factors may not be used simultaneously and the factors not used are unity.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals 443 . inclined loading. Meyerhof or Vesic (this option considers the loads acting on the footing and the specific conditions of their surroundings as ground slope. etc). if the engineer has enough soil information. The differences are mainly in the correction factors. Joseph E.Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905). These three components are affected by correction factors due to foundation shape. freatic level. Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. Engineering and Design . 1995 2) USA Corps of Engineers. It is not advisable to have the eccentricity of the resultant out of the central middle third of the foundation (kern) because this can produce differential settlement that tilts the foundation. and foundation depth. M = overturning moment and x distance to the overturning edge. Wc=weight of the foundation. Only a uniform soil layer is considered. Any method for obtaining the bearing capacity is just an estimate and can be adopted depending on the engineers’ judgement or familiarity with the method. which affects the effective soil unit weight and pressures.

Note that the longitudinal reinforcement is always distributed uniformly across the entire width of the footing. Important.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Design The strength design is performed considering both bending and shear. 444 . to resist uplift of a footing. the development length should be straight.2 specifies a concentration of longitudinal reinforcing in a center band for rectangular footings. a) One-way shear strength is verified taking a critical section at a distance d from the face of the column. ACI-99 section 15. this provision is only considered by the program for centered footings. When the dowels are only in compression (Splices in compression=Yes). The development length in the footing is in accordance with Chapter 12 of the Code and the critical sections are the same as the ones adopted for bending. The length of dowels is calculated considering the splice length and the minimum development length necessary inside the footing taking into account the compression or tension in the bars. only one is considered to check if there is enough space. Top-of-footing (tension) reinforcing. is not performed in RAM Advanse Foundation Spring Modeling Tools Once the user knows how these Code provisions are implemented for footing design. otherwise a standard hook is adopted. it is recommendable to follow the procedure below for the Soil-footing-structure modeling (step 1) in foundation design. b) the critical section used to consider punching shear at the perimeter columns is located at a distance d/2 from the column face. The figure notes below describe the location of critical sections used for design. a) The maximum factored moment is calculated at critical sections located at the faces of the column assuming a concrete column. Although both development lengths (in tension and compression) are listed in the report. The ‘column’ dimensions should be adjusted appropriately to consider a steel base plate. Both one and two-way shear is considered in the design.4.4. Refer to the attached flowcharts and ACI318-99 for details of the design procedure implemented.

Soil Type . Spring Method: 445 . at the end of this chapter. Select the radio button that best reflects the position of your column.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The program has a special tool to help you with input data for footing modeling and determining the spring constants required to model the soil-structure interaction correctly. This selection is used to establish the footing modulus of sub-grade reaction. By selecting ‘Use’ and entering a value. First. Dialog used to generate soil springs to model the Soil-Structure interaction.Modulus of Subgrade Reaction: Select the type of soil that most closely matches that of your site. The basic concepts to use this tool are described in Appendix A. Column Position: To automatically calculate rigid offset lengths the program currently allows nine different column positions on the footing. Press the footing button shown below to model the footing-soil springs. any modulus value can be entered. to activate this functionality select the support nodes where the footing/s are to be located. Press the indicated button to model footings for the currently selected nodes The following dialog will appear.

5th Australia-New Zealand Conference. kip/ft2/ft). thus krzz = ks*L*B3/12.δ1) / B Considering that θ is a small angle.g. ks = σ / δ Considering a conventional analysis of rigid footings the soil pressure can be computed from principles of mechanics of materials for combined bending and axial stresses: σ1 = N/(B*L) . direct and Taylor. σ 2 = N/(B*L) + 6*Mzz/(B2*L). one translation spring (kt) and two rotation springs (krxx.221-229 446 . krzz). P. The derivation of kr is as follows: Parameters affecting the rotation and the calculation of the spring constants. W. The two methods. Finally krzz = kt*B2/12 Taylor Method Taylor.δ1) / B [Eqn I] Stress in soil at edge of footing is moment/section modulus of footing = M*(B/2)/(L*B*B*B/12) = 6*M/(B2*L). Vertical spring constant: kt = ks * B* L For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (δ2 . [Eqn II] Substituting Eqns II into Eqn I we get : θ = 12*Mzz/ks/(B3*L) And krzz = Mzz/θ. (1967) “Design of Spread Footings For Earthquake Loadings”. pp. tan θ = θ. From the definition of modulus of subgrade reaction.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The footing is modeled with three springs. On SMFE. There are two methods available to calculate the appropriate spring constants. Direct Method kt = ks * B* L krxx = ks*B*L3/12 krzz = ks*L*B3/12 Where ks is the modulus of subgrade reaction (Force/Area per Length Settlement e.6*Mzz/(B2*L). Note that to clear the footing springs and rigid offset from an existing footing select the ‘Remove Springs’ option in this frame. are described below. Kr assumes that the ks value is uniform throughout the area below the footing. Proc. so θ = (δ2 .

the data is not transferred into the design/detailing module. (a) Eccentric footing with a strap beam (b) Model to use in the analysis. the program automatically calculates the required spring constants and rigid offsets to the geometric center of the footing. thus krzz = ks*L*B3/Iθ Finally krzz = kt*B2/Iθ Although you provide the program with fundamental data on the footing and soil. For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (1-µ2)*Mzz*Iθ / (Es*B2*L) Where µ is the Poisson’s ratio. go to the menu and select Detailing/Footings. Most of the soil parameters are incorporated into the modulus of subgrade reactions so that this is the only parameter entered by the user. Es is the stress-strain modulus and Iθ is an influence factor which can be expressed as Iθ = 16 / (π*(1+0. future invocations of this dialog with the same node selected will not necessarily result in the correct data being displayed in the dialog. steps 2 and 3 (Adopted dimensions and verifications). Thereby taking into account the effect of the footings’ vertical and rotational stiffness on the behavior of the structure.22*B/L)) for rigid footings. With the data provided. Refer to chapter of Detailing Modules for information about how to invoke and navigate within the design/detailing modules. Therefore. Taylor as referenced above. RAM Advanse does not store this information with the node.µ2)). This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. We get: θ = Iθ*Mzz / (B3*L) And krzz = Mzz / θ.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This method does not assume uniform soil stiffness below the footing but rather is based on studies performed by P. tan θ = θ. To invoke the Design/Detailing module select one or several nodes that will have the same footing. This method calculates a rotational stiffness based on the soil properties and footing dimensions. Analysis reactions are therefore calculated in the geometric center of the footing. Furthermore. and taking into account the Vesic´s proposal relating ks with Es: ks = Es / (B*(1. W. Using this modeling technique the engineer can easily implement and model a combined (strap) type footing as illustrated below. Data Screen Press the button to view the data screen that is the initial screen that appears in the detailer: 447 . Considering that θ is a small angle. Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module Following a successful modeling and analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design and detailing of their concrete footings.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Data screen that allows you to change the material and loads on the footing. In this screen you can modify the column dimensions that were read in from the model. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. The three areas outlined above are described in detail below. This screen allows you to modify material and load data. The dimensions will be calculated on this screen as described below. as these values are currently not saved with the footing node. 448 . The footing dimensions are not read in from the model.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Item A General data Clear Cover Distance from edge of section to the outer edge of the longitudinal reinforcement. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. If this option is activated a column cross-section will appear. unit weight Footing bar sizes (xx. Fy. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. Reinforcement of the column. Size of reinforcement according to the standard bar designation (ACI-318) for bending about X axis (xx) and bending about Zaxis (zz). This ill allo o to specif 449 Modulus of elasticity. zz) Column tie bar size and tie spacing Show dowels[Yes/No] . f’c.

It is used to calculate the vertical displacement and rotation of the footing. Enter No if you have the Soil unit weight (wet) Calculate soil bearing capacity 450 . See the design flow chart included at the end of this chapter in order to understand the assumptions made by the program.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This will allow you to specify column reinforcement/dowel information. ACI 31899. Enter No if some load combination cause tension in the dowels. Design moment [Yes/No] Design code Soil Data Modulus of subgrade reaction: Typically this value should be the same value used in the analysis. Splices in compression [Yes/No] Enter Yes if the dowels are in compression for all the load combination used in the design. It is used for the calculation of the bearing capacity and the soil weight over the foundation Enter Yes to calculate the soil bearing capacity using the soil data. The soil unit weight over the freatic level. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. In this case. Even if this value was specified when generating a soilspring. Enter Yes if you want to include the shear force (transmitted by the column) multiplied by the depth of the foundation in the bending moment acting on the footing base. The calculated dowel lengths will also be shown in the detailing screen. it is NOT read in from the selected footing node. The version of the adopted standard used in the design procedure.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing allowable soil stress as datum considering the maximum allowed settlements Allowable soil stress Reference stress to be compared with the maximum soil stress of the different service load conditions Cohesion Interparticle attraction that measures the shear strength of cohesive soils Parameter that measures the shear strength of granular soils Ground slope to be considered in the bearing capacity Soil unit weight below water level Friction angle Slope of ground from base Saturated unit weight Depth of water level Depth of water level from ground level Item B Geometric characteristics of the footing. 451 . Input of the column geometry.

shear forces and bending moments. The detailing module does not automatically transfer the dimensions and geometry footing from the main program. the different load combinations for each selected node are displayed in the order that they were selected. One important feature to input here is the footing type that define the position of the column in relation to the footing base: There are 10 options to define the position of the column relative to the footing base. n2 is node number 2 etc. shear and axial forces are retrieved from the analysis performed in RAM Advanse. The last option allows specifying the position of the column in relation to the center of the footing. The depth of the footing base below ground is used to compute the weight of the fill. Note that if several support nodes are selected prior to entering the design module.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Enter the actual dimensions of the column.0 x Node 1 DL +1n1LL = 1. For footings with the columns located at the center of the footing these forces represent the column 452 . The loads read in from the analysis can be seen in the table (as illustrated above) together with their values.0 x Node 1 LL This module assumes that the forces shown are always for the geometric center of the footing. Only bending moments. Note that n1 is node number 1. Thus n1c2=+1n1DL+1n1LL is interpreted as follows: n1c2 = Node 1 Combination 2 +1n1DL = 1. Item C Input of the load combinations to use in design: axial forces.

If you are only interested in checking soil pressures. This screen is used to display the capacity of the footing. as shown in the figure.6 (changeable). To perform footing design. 453 . select the appropriate factored load combinations and proceed to the design screen. calculates the minimum dimensions of the base considering that the maximum The first button soil stresses should be less than the allowable stress. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design. The adopting dimensions for the footing: base and depth are realized on this screen using simply 2 buttons at the top of this screen bar..Base dimension calculation is performed with the allowable soil stress. If no rigid offset was considered in the analysis (and the column is offset) then these forces must be transformed manually (the engineer must change the values) to the center of the footing prior to viewing the design screen. Note. value that the user should define before applying the tool for the footing design. Note that the results are presented in two areas shown in the next figure. The depth is approximately taking into account the required depth to resist service loads with a load factor of 1. The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the shear force without requiring any reinforcement. Design Screen Press the button to view the design results.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing forces. select the appropriate service load combinations and check the bearing pressures in the design screen. Adopting footing dimensions Both dimensions will be calculated separately. For footings where the column is located away from the footing center these represent the reaction forces at the end of the rigid offset. The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button.

punching shear and bending design of the footing. Item A The first area is devoted to providing general information and the results of one-way shear.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Two main areas in the design screen. the calculated values of Mu and Vu can differ between 0 to 2% in relation to the exact solutions. The nomenclature of the ACI-318 has been adopted. Design of the capacity of the footing for the controlling load combinations. Some parameters are clarified in the following figures: 454 . Due to the adopted numerical method.

Item B 455 . bending moments and shear forces acting on a footing The user can check if the footing complies with all the requirements of the Code with all the results and information given in this screen. The verification will be done only with one of them depending on de enable flag. development length for straight bars to be adopted in compression bars Length Ldh. Axial force.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Development lengths for straight bars and standard hooks. Both lengths are shown in the report. development length for standard hooks be adopted in tension bars. As shown in the graphic the development length of dowels could be: Length Ld.

e. The dowels are also displayed when the option Show Dowels is selected in the data screen. the design status is no-good in the design screen). The user can choose any service load condition and compare the obtained stresses with the allowable soil pressures. Note also that the safety factors against overturning.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Elastic settlement. These stresses are total stresses. Note that for the footing design the soil weight is not considered. Detailing Screen Press the button to view the detailing screen. which include the effect of the weight of the footing and fill. it is not valid for these load conditions where the footing is not in full contact with the footing (zero stress zones). It displays the footing in plan and elevation with the reinforcing bars shown. sliding and bearing capacity are given for the current load condition if the option to calculate the bearing capacity is enabled. It is also possible to verify if there is a zone with zero stress which means that the soil resultant (the cross in the figure) is outside the kern limit of the base. The bars shown reflect the design from the previous screen. In the graphic area of the screen the user can see the soil stresses and the footing elastic settlements. the engineer will still be able to view this screen. Safety factors and total soil pressure due to the active load condition. Caution! Even in the case of an unsuccessful design (i. If a rotation spring was calculated (and used in the analysis). 456 .

If the reinforcing bars of the footing need hooks. Note that no top-of-footing steel is provided. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. The engineer will need to do this if uplift exists on the edge of a footing and soil or other load is supported above the footing. they will be displayed only in the x-direction. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module. 457 . Configuration Screen Press the button to view the Configuration Screen. It allows the user to establish some standards for design and also to have control over the reinforcing design.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Detailing screen exportable as DXF file.

The code specifies that it must not exceed 3 times the thickness of the slab or 18in (7.75 is suggested by ACI. all the longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch etc.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Round bar Longitudinal bar lengths can be length to closest rounded up to the increment specified.5) Epoxy Coated Maximum Rho/Rho balanced Maximum bar spacing Consider the soil Enter Yes when the soil over the foundation is permanent. Used in the calculation of development length of bars. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. Typically a value of 0. Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for cohesion 458 . So for example. Round spacing to closest Concrete type The spacing between bars can be rounded down to the closest increment specified. Per the applicable code the percentage of the balanced steel allowed for design before compression reinforcing is required. The upper limit for bar spacing. Enter No if over the it is uncertain if the soil over the foundation foundation will be always present.6.

67 Ultimate soil This option defines the formulae to bearing capacity be used in the calculation of the soil after bearing capacity. which is useful to 459 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing for cohesion used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. The data is followed by the results. too. soil and geometry) of the footing that is common to all the selected nodes. This is followed by the reinforcement details adopted for the footing. Suggested value 0. The mean and maximum compression of the soil are printed with the controlling load case. The top section of the report contains the data (loads. The selection will depend on engineering judgement. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete footings. Report of reinforced concrete footings By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. material. which are divided in three parts. Hansen or Vesic. The maximum elastic deformation of the soil and the base area in compression are printed. Suggested value 0. The first one is devoted to the soil-foundation interaction.5 Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for friction for friction angle angle used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. the report screen of reinforced concrete footings will be displayed. The available options are Meyerhof. These values shall be compared with the allowable compression of the soil. This part is particularly useful when the footing is checked in service conditions. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report.

RAM Advanse automatically handles two typical footing situations. the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed: The biggest capacity ratio will be the one that will determine the governing loading condition for bending.Theory The model may need to consider the interaction between footings and the structure. Column Located at Center of Footing Consider the following column-footing system Typical footing with the column located at the center of the foundation. overturning moment and bearing capacity will also be printed. the typical case of a column located at the center of a footing and the less common case of a column located around the edge of a footing. The next group of results is devoted to bending.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing evaluate the footing behavior. If the soil bearing capacity was calculated. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction . Besides the provided and required steel area for bending. the safety factors against sliding. 460 . Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the footing design.

The footing is modeled using translation and rotation springs. a more accurate modeling technique needs to consider the soil-structure interaction. then the column forces may be overly conservative. This is also true for the case of a pinned column located at the footing center. is small. but the lateral displacement will likely be underestimated. then when subject to lateral load the actual footing rotates (see (a) in figure below) and this modifies the column bending moment and the distribution of the soil stress (see (b) in figure). Pinned columns (such as steel columns located at footing center) typically do not subject the footing to moment load and as such it is typically not necessary to implement a soil spring in this instance. and that often a simplified model can be used in which rotation and vertical translation are neglected. This phenomenon can be modeled by using adequate translation and rotation springs. In this case the effect of soil on the vertical translation and the rotation of the footing.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing If the column is continuous with the footing. Therefore. 461 . with a column located at its center and subject to mainly axial load. a) Actual footing rotation. b) Soil stresses. This models the elasticity of the soil. Note that the footing rotates due to the differential soil deformation. If the engineer assumes that the column is fixed against rotation for analysis purposes. Note that the rotation of a typical footing.

but should be evaluated for each model independently. Notice that the simplified model (fixed support) should only be used if the stiffness of the footing and soil is high compared to the bending stiffness of the column. The rotation of the footing is neglected.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Simplified model (fixed support). This may require changing the spring stiffness for each individual load combination. Comparison between the fixed support model and the spring model. Note that this calculation is only valid if the entire footing remains in contact with the soil for all load combinations. 462 . The following figures show the differences between two models in a typical example (units of kip-ft). If during the design of the footings it appears that this assumption has been violated the engineer is responsible for adjusting the spring stiffness to model the soil-structure interaction appropriately. Obviously this is not trivial and it is recommended that uplift be avoided whenever possible. In the next section we will describe how the program can automatically calculate a rotation spring constant. The differences between moments are small in this example.

b) Fixed support is valid when footing rotation is negligible. The modeling sequence can thus be summarized as follows: 1) Create the model with springs. 2) Perform analysis. 3) Design the footings (See the section on the Design and Detailing module) 463 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Limitations: a) Rotation spring constant is valid only if footing base is in full contact with the soil.

The axial force (N) causes a moment of magnitude N*d The axial force causes a strong moment of (N*d) Similarly to the footings with columns at their centers. eccentric footings rotate because of the applied bending moment. The column is continuous (fixed) to the footing. Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) To illustrate the impact of footing rotation on eccentric footings consider the following columnfooting system: Column footing system to be used for illustration of modeling concepts. The example has only axial load in the column. For pinned columns the entire axial and moment load must be resisted by the footing. The column takes a portion of the moment and the moment acting on the footing is somewhat less than N*d. particularly when a column is subject to a significant moment. If the column is continuous with the footing then this rotation modifies the column moments and the distribution of soil stresses.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) Acceptable model when foundation stiffness is large relative to the columns. 464 . b) Required model when footing stiffness affects analytical results.

b) The column may take a significant portion of the bending moments c) The moment on the footing is less than the full N*d (x is always less than 1. This modeling technique is illustrated in the following figure. In the model where a rigid offset is present the column will have a non-zero bending moment and the soil stress will vary linearly below the footing. when appropriate. The soil spring properties can then be calculated with respect to the footing centroid. This is the assumption made in the design of the footings in RAM Advanse.0). In this case the distribution of the soil stresses does 465 . Ignoring the rotation of the footing will often neglect the increased bending moment in the column and the moment reduction of the footing. This rigid offset is appropriate when the footing is assumed to act as a rigid member (bending in the footing is ignored in the analysis). Also. When modeling an eccentric footing a simplified fixed support should not be used as this ignores the additional moment present in the columns as illustrated below. the model should incorporate the load eccentricity and footing rotation in the analysis. a) Inadequate spring model b) Inadequate fixed support model.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) The actual behavior of the footing. The footing is modeled using a rigid offset to the geometric center of the footing and the respective translation and rotation springs. To model this situation appropriately it is recommended that a rigid offset is provided from the column to the footing centroid. the reaction-resultant of the footing will have to coincide with the action line of the axial force N. Therefore. In the instance where no rigid offset is present the column will not resist any bending moment.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing not agree with the actual behavior of the column-footing system as illustrated in the next figure. This is obviously true for a concrete column but may not be true for a steel column with a pinned base. 466 .

the correct procedure to design an eccentric footing. 2) Analyze the structure. the translation and the rotation springs. Therefore. with a column fixed to the footing is as follows: 1) Model the footing with springs including rigid offset. The suggested method of modeling different type of footings. Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts The following flow charts are presented to inform the user the details of the design considerations that have been included in the program or the ones omitted for the design of isolated spread footings. 467 . Note the rigid offsets in the eccentric footings.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Bending moment in column and soil stresses for a) the adequate spring model for concrete columnfooting and b) for the invalid concrete column-footing model. a) Example of a structure with different types of footings. 3) Design the footings. b) Model of the footings to adopt for analysis.

7)) L: footing length lc: column height (for rectangular sections) (lc=D for circular sections) lwc: Boolean variable (true for lightweight concrete.1)) ebs: f´c: Boolean constant (ebt=true if the column is tied) specified compressive strength of concrete fy: specified yield strength of reinforcement k: coefficient of subgrade reaction of soil hf: height of the footing slab (> 10 in. * Pressure in the soil is considered with a planar variation. Data: B: footing width bc: column width (for rectangular sections) (bw=D for circular sections) c: free cover for longitudinal reinforcement D: diameter of the column (for circular sections) db: diameter of footing bars dbc: minimum diameter of column longitudinal bars dbs: diameter of ties (at least #3 for #10 or smaller and #4 otherwise (7. * Clear spacing of bars being developed or spliced should not be less than 2db and clear cover should not be less than db.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Material: Reinforced Concrete Elements: footings Code: ACI 318-99 Assumptions remarks: * Minimum reinforcement is always used.5. * Axial loads. i.e.Muz: factored bending moments acting in the footing P: service axial load in the footing 468 . the footing is considered to be infinitely rigid.Mz: Mmax: service bending moments acting in the footing maximum factored bending moment of the different load combinations Mux. * Soil under the footing is considered elastic and homogeneous. * No shear reinforcement is considered.10. false for normal concrete) Mx. (15. shear forces and bending moments entered by the user or read in from the analysis are assumed to occur in the geometrical center of the footing.

Vcxz: Vuxx.. Vuzz. szz: spacing between bars in both directions Vcxx.qmin.2.. 0.. Aszz: and z) ldbc Muxx.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing pos: position of the column (1. Vuxz: nominal shear strength factored shear forces in the critical sections of the footing 469 . Nbzz: area of reinforcement needed in both directions (about axes x minimum dowel development length for the column reinforcement factored bending moments in the critical sections of the footing number of bars needed in both directions qmax.Vuzz: φ: strength reduction factor (0.90 for bending) γc: concrete unit weight γs: unit weight of the soil over the footing Calculation of initial variables: Ab1: Area of one-bar dd: maximum allowed straight development length Output results: Asxx.qav: total service stresses in the soil sxx.9) Pu:factored axial load in the footing Vxx.Vzz: service shear forces in the footing Vmax: maximum factored shear force of the different load combinations factored shear forces in the footing Vuxx.85 for shear. Muzz: Nbxx. Vczz.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 470 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 471 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 472 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 473 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 474 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 475 .

.

Required Data: Loads Loads and load combinations must be properly generated. grade. 477 . Normally. While no load condition may be excluded from the analysis. The Wood Detailing module will be described later in this Chapter. etc. it is possible to specify load conditions used for the optimization process and output report. are specified for each group. Determination of the wood member data To use the Wood Design module. moisture conditions. The Wood Detailing module is an independent module (changes are lost when the module is closed and do not get saved into the model). adopting the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD). Member Section A member is automatically considered a “Wood Member” when a wood section is assigned to it.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) This section describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail wood members using the add-on design and detailing modules.American Forest & Paper Association American Wood Council. The required data may be entered in two ways as follows: • • Design parameter worksheets Wood Detailing Module. Wood members are designed according to the following American design Code: • National Design Specification . names of sections reflect their shapes and materials. Design parameters such as species. wood members must be grouped by “Description”. See the result output section of this chapter for more information. This module includes design check of wood members in accordance to the NDS Code. The Design parameters worksheet is fully integrated in RAM Advanse and will be described next.1997 Edition .

The type of wood section is defined with the section macros (files with the section type followed with the leo extension). • Glulam Table 1C (Section Properties of Western Species) and Table 1D (Section Properties of Southern Pine) of the same Supplement are adopted. rectangular sections given in Table 1B of the NDS Supplement. 478 . It is also possible to define new rectangular.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Example of a wood section assignation for a member. dimension lumber and timber. These wood sections are grouped in folders. In this file the specific commands used for Wood Design can be entered as follows: CODE ‘WOOD’ //This reserved word indicates that it is a wood section and it will be designed with the NDS-ASD Code. SHAPE ‘Rectangular’. rounded and spaced-column wood sections. The following sections are installed with the program: • Standard Dressed (S4S) Sawn Lumber These sections include boards. RAM Advanse is installed with a library of standard wood sections. ‘Circular’ or ‘Spaced’ //Indicates the type of section.

dimension lumber or timber). It is the engineer’s responsibility to assign the right material considering the type (beam or column). Includes sawn lumber (timber or dimension lumber). To edit or create a new wood material. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Templates for more details (specially the notes preceded by ) Wood materials Wood design has two formulations or groups to be considered as materials for design: • • Lumber group. positive or negative bending moments) and size of members (i. The desired wood material can be assigned to each group of members as defined by the member description: First select the desired wood material (1) and then use one of the two available tool buttons (2) to assign the material to one or several wood members.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) FORMULATION ‘Lumber’ or ‘Glulam’ //Only rectangular glulam sections are considered. MSR or MEL lumber. loads (i. select the Configuration/Data bases/Materials option.e. 479 . Glulam group Glued-Laminated Timber.e.

select the desired material or the New option to define a new material.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Then. The required data for materials are: Species Included are the most common species for The United States and Canada. A dialog window will appear. Following is the list of these species: 480 . where the main properties of the material are entered or modified: Edit or Enter the wood design properties.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lumber: Aspen Beech-Birch-Hickory Cotton Wood Douglas Fir-Larch Douglas Fir-Larch (North) Douglas Fir-South Eastern Hemlock-Balsam Fir Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack Eastern Soft Woods Eastern White Pine Hem-Fir Hem-Fir (North) Mixed Maple Mixed Oak Northern Red Oak Northern Species Northern White Cedar Red Maple Red Oak Red Wood Spruce-Pine-Fir Spruce-Pine-Fir (South) Western Cedars Western Woods White Oak Yellow Poplar Southern Pine Southern Pine-Dry Southern Pine-Green Mixed Southern Pine Balsam Fir Coast Sitka Spruce Eastern Hemlock 481 .

2 No.1 No.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack (N) Eastern Spruce Mountain Hemlock Northern Pine Ponderosa Pine Red Pine Sitka Spruce Western Cedars (North) Western Hemlock Western Hemlock (North) Western White Pine Glulam: Hem-Fir Douglas Fir-Larch Southern Pine Grades The grades (stress grading criteria) adopted are the most commonly used: Select Structural No.2.1 & Btr Clear Structural Select Structural.1.1 Dense 482 . open grain No.3 Stud Construction Standard Utility No. open grain No. open grain No. open grain Dense Select Structural Non-Dense Select Structural No.3.

1 Non-Dense No.3 and Stud Dense Structural 86 Dense Structural 72 Dense Structural 65 Clear Heart Structural Two special groups are attached to the grades.2 Non-Dense No. The following combination symbols are installed with the program: 16F-V2 16F-V3 16F-V5 16F-V6 16F-V7 20F-V2 20F-V3 20F-V4 20F-V7 20F-V8 20F-V9 22F-V3 22F-V8 24F-V2 24F-V4 24F-V8 16F-E2 16F-E3 16F-E6 16F-E7 483 .Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) No.2 Dense No. which are MSR (Machine Stress Rated Lumber) MEL (Machine Evaluated Lumber) Combination Symbol Properties of glued laminated timber members are defined by the Combination Symbol.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 20F-E2 20F-E3 20F-E6 20F-E7 22F-E1 22F-E2 22F-E4 22F-E5 22F-E6 24F-E10 24F-E11 24F-E13 24F-E14 24F-E15 24F-E18 20F-V5 22F-V1 22F-V2 22F-V4 22F-V5 24F-V1 24F-V3 24F-V5 26F-V1 26F-V2 26F-V3 26F-V4 16F-E1 20F-E1 22F-E3 24F-E1 24F-E2 24F-E4 28F-E1 484 .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 28F-E2 30F-E1 30F-E2 Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression are also considered. 485 .

K33): K22 and K33 are the effective length factors for bending about axis 2-2 (minor) and 3-3 (major).1 2. Unbraced Lengths (L33. fixed or free even if it is inclined. This tool takes into account the buckling length coefficients based on NDS Appendix G.0. If K has its default value of (0). the user has always to check the calculated values considering that they are only approximations. These parameters are a function of the type of structure (braced or unbraced).0 2. The tool will recognize automatically if a member end is pinned. L22): 486 . For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse's context sensitive Help system.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to performing analysis and design. General design parameter spreadsheet Effective Length Factors (K22. A tool has been included in the program to automatically calculate the effective length factors for wood ( K33 and K22).4 Pinned Pinned Pinned Fixed Any other configuration not included in the table will be assigned a value of 1.80 1.65 0. Note that the adjoining framing members will be always neglected. The following table contains the values used for various conditions considering the minor and major axes: Node 1 Node 2 Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Pinned Fixed Free Braced K-value yes yes no yes no no 0. and the relative rigidity of the member and the contiguous members connected to it (E*I/L). However.2 1. the program will assume a value of K=1.

3 of the Code).3.3. but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. If L22 or L33=0. for analysis.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) These distances are measured between centers of gravity of the bracing members in the 1-2 (weak) (L22 for bending about 2-2) axis and the 1-3 (strong) (L33 for bending about 3-3) axis respectively. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the ‘strong axis’ of the member. For multiple span applications the engineer should enter the appropriate values in the worksheet. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. It is the length of the face of the member that is in compression for any load condition. Le=1. The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) by the available tool.63*lu+3*d when 7<=lu/d<=14. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length. The NDS Code suggests different values for cantilever and single span beams depending on the type of load (Table 3. The default value is (0) and the program will consider the general formulae given for single span or cantilever bending members with any loading conditions: Le=2. Wet (1) for over 16%. where lu = laterally unsupported span length of bending member and d = depth of member Wet/Dry Service Conditions: This parameter defines the moisture conditions for which design values or adjustment factors (Ct and CM) will be calculated.84*lu when lu/d>14. Valid values are 0 and 1. Glulam: Dry (1) for 16% or less. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘weak axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. And wet (1) for over 19%. Likewise. If.06*lu when lu/d<7. the program will assume the length L between nodes. Braced Against Sidesway Flag: The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). Wood design parameter spreadsheet Effective span length of bending member (Le): This unbraced length is the length used for the determination of the slenderness ratio (Rb) and the general beam stability factor (CL).3 and Le=1. The tool may be used to automatically calculate the values for these cases. the values of these parameters should reflect the real length of the member. The NDS Specification indicates this value to be: Sawn lumber: Dry (0) for 19% or less. Rigid end zones are assumed to reduce the length of the members. Temperature Conditions: Three levels of service temperatures are defined: 487 . the physical member has been subdivided.

the program will assume a value of Li=L. Length of the bending member between points of zero moment (Li): This distance should be entered only for glulam members. the prolonged heating can cause a permanent loss of strength therefore it is not considered by the program. This assumption is on the conservative side and the maximum difference in relation to the exact value of the calculated Cv is in the order of 10%. If Li has its default value (0). 488 . truss chords. of the Code. The selected level will affect the Temperature Factor (Ct) calculations. This parameter is the repetitive member factor (Cr) applied to dimension lumber. which are in contact or spaced not more than 24" on centers and meet the conditions specified in Section 4. Repetitive Member: This flag can be applied to joists.4. It is the length of the beam between points of zero moments and it is used for the calculation of the Volume Factor (Cv).3. etc. For temperatures above 150°F.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) T<100°F (38°C) 100°F(38°C)<T<=125°F(52°C) 125°F<T<=150°F(66°C) Most cases will fall within the first level.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Data for the model design Before analyzing the structure. The following load duration categories are available: Load Duration Permanent Ten years Two months Seven Days Ten Minutes Impact Typical Design Loads Dead Load Occupancy Live Load Snow Load Construction Load Wind/Earthquake Load Impact Load For load combinations. the shortest duration of the different loads should be selected. 489 . the code and the load duration of each load condition to be considered in the design has to be specified.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design post processing inside RAM Advanse The basic design post processing is performed automatically after analysis. Results can be displayed graphically or in text form. Selecting Reports/Wood Design displays a dialog box with options for a concise or detailed report. 490 . It allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if separation lines will be printed in the report: Reports dialog window. Reports Select Reports/Wood Design to print the wood reports.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Screen output There are several options to graphically verify the adequacy of wood members. the range of colors is recalculated. Code check display Options. Colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. 491 . Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Tool buttons bar.0 and >1. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. Note that when a different group of members is selected. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. Fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to the range between 0. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. Design Status: This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. Results may be displayed on screen in the following ways: • Free scale: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. To select the members within a given range.0. select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window.

See the Optimization Chapter in this manual for more details. combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Important! Wood structures can be optimized. 492 . Wood Detailing Module For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke the detailing module to further manipulate the design and obtain details for a specific member. The name of the governing load is pressed. The user can check the deflection using the option Print/Analysis results/Local deflections.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range. Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. please see Chapter 11 for further details related to the optimization. it is suggested to avoid mixing different types of sections in the collections such as dimension lumber with timber. The usual practice in wood members is to calculate the long-term deflection as a multiple of the permanent load elastic deflection (See Section 3. Deflection control The structural analysis provides the basis for determining the deflections of wood members. The program considers only the bending deformation. Select only the member that is to be designed and detailed before invoking the detailing module. the deflection control is simplified to the determination of the calculated elastic deformation which the user should compare to the allowable deflection determined by the local building Code or the specific requirements of the member. thus the adopted modulus of elasticity (from tables) have a 10% reduction to consider the shear deflection. Note that for optimization. the option Print/Forces diagrams/Show on screen/ Translations in 2. Select the desired member. or pressing the Display option Note that you can include the deflection check in the optimization process. Therefore.5 of the NDS Code).

The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when the module is invoked. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the member are no good. Notice also that there are options that can only be calculated or modified in this detailing module such as bearing strength verifications. etc. the member design status is OK. After editing or entering data. The user can easily recognize all data that has been transferred from the main program. Notice that you have status traffic lights at the bottom right of the window. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases as it allows the user to apply special modifications to calculated parameters. if the green light is on. the detailed report may be printed. material and load data is entered or modified in this screen as required. etc. Typical cases of these modifications are the reduction of applied shear forces near supports. as illustrated. Wood Detailing Dialog Window to enter/edit the data for the code check of the member. Please see the context sensitive help for further information.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) And invoke the Detailing/Wood command. modification of adjustment factors for a specific member. 493 . When the yellow light is on. override of the adjustment factors. A dialog window will appear with a context sensitive help at the right side Geometric. Important: Notice that the changes that are performed within the detailer will not be saved. If the red light is on. Hint: You can also double click the desired member to open directly the Wood Detailing Dialog Window. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. by the preceding icon.

Note that the adopted CD factor for a load combination should be for the load with the shortest load duration in that load combination. This factor is calculated only for glulam members following Section 5. 5.7. 1. rounded and spaced sections. This factor is calculated internally by the program to account for the buckling of axially loaded members according to Section 3.4 and Appendix C of the Code are implemented. This factor has to be specified by the user.3 of the Code.15 is adopted for these cases.3. This factor is calculated only for lumber following Section 3. and 5B. 10. This factor is available in the Wood Detailer and included in the Detailer Reports.2 and Appendix B for typical loads. 16% for glulam members). 4.3 of the Code 9. .11. 4B. 4C. 4C. Volume Factor (Cv).3.1 of the Code. it is not included on reports printed directly from the main program. torsion and axial loads. This general procedure considers a member subjected to flexure and shear on both principal axes. It is always assumed that local axis 2 is perpendicular to grain direction for sawn lumber and to wide faces of laminations for glulam The adjustment factors are calculated in separate procedures (Wood Design macro) considering all cases specified by the Code. Repetitive member Factor (Cr) applied only to dimension lumber. Flat Use Factor (Cfu). 2. 5A and 5B are considered in the verifications. See the tables in the NDS supplement for information on other CH factors.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for wood member design are as follows: • A unified verification procedure has been adopted for rectangular. Load duration factor (CD) according to Table 2. Wet Service Factors (Cm) based on the moisture service conditions specified in Tables 4A. Size Factors (CF) applied only for visually graded sawn lumber and round timber. Table 2. Column Stability Factor (Cp). 8. 5A. Beam Stability Factor (CL). Table 2. Incising Factor (Ci) for structural sawn lumber incised to increase penetration of preservatives. 3. A value of 1. The factors specified for Tables 4B and 4D are considered in the verifications. The CD factor must be entered for each load combination since the CD factor will change based on the types of loads that are applied in each load combination. 11.0 is adopted. Shear Stress Factor (CH). 4D. 4B.3. Temperature Factors (Ct) for members that will experience sustained exposure to elevated temperatures. 494 • • The following adjustment factors are included: . This factor is used for loads applied in the axis 3-3. A default value of 1. The factors specified for Tables 4A.3. 7. 6. These factors indicate whether the member has sustained exposure to high moisture (19% for solid sawn.

service conditions. Adopted shear design equations are those specified in Section 3. the user may apply the appropriate reduction by using the Wood Detailer. Shear stress is normally not a failure mode in wood flexural members.4.e. 4.2 of the Code. 3. The program does not consider the effect of fire. • • • • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 3. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: 495 . grade. Adjustment factors affect the allowable stress of members and are a function of the species.8 of the code (NDS-ASD-97). the refinement of calculating the reduction of the shear force within a distance from support equal to the depth is conservatively not considered. Notice that you can include it in the optimization process. which is only used for the adjustment of tabulated bending design values of equivalent rectangular sections in manual calculations. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 3. The form factor (Cf). The user can enter notch dimensions (width and length) and location (up or down) in the spreadsheet area.4. Loads are considered applied at the top of bending members and side loads on orthogonal faces (biaxial bending). The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Prismatic members in axial tension. The members are assumed with a concentric axial load. Following is the list of adopted restrictions and assumptions: • Deflection control is not checked in the wood design module. There are no special considerations regarding the type of connections used. Fire retardant treatment factors. size.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) The program does not consider the following adjustment factors 1. Shear stresses on both principal axes are checked independently. The shear stress requirements are given in section 3. Therefore. Bearing area factor is not considered in minimum bearing length calculations. type of load. Bearing Area Factor 2. When shear stresses are significant. The requirements of Section 3. It has to be performed by the user with the available tools of RAM Advanse and considering the adequate modulus of elasticity affected by service conditions.4 of the NDS Code for notched bending members are included in the program. Curvature factor (glulam) used in curved members.4 of the Code.3 of the NDS Code. i. etc. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding and lateral stability as specified on section 3.6 of the NDS Code. only gross section checks are performed.

However. Spaced Columns are formed of two individual members with their longitudinal axes parallel. It is important to mention that due to uncertainties in allowable torsional stresses.2 of the NDS Code. it is advisable to avoid torsion whenever possible. Two eccentricities are used as follows: e1: measured parallel to wide face e2: parallel to narrow face • A special type of columns is considered in addition to the simple solid wood columns. The hypothesis adopted for this type of columns are described in Section 15.1 and 15. Members subject to torsion The Code has no special consideration for wood members loaded in such a manner as to induce torsional stresses. separated at the ends and middle points of their length by shear blocks.4. Eccentricity from rigid offsets is included in the analysis of wood members. Condition 'b' occurs when this distance is between L/20 and L/10 (L is the distance between lateral supports).2 of the NDS Code. two end conditions related to end fixity are possible. According to this Section. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of Section 15. Faherty & Williamson (1999) recommend one equation for this case which is adopted by the program: fs=T*(3*a+1. Condition 'a' is defined when the shear block centroid is within L/20 from the column end.8*b)/(8*SQR(a)*SQR(b)) where fs is the torsional stress at midpoint of long side T is the applied torque a is the longest side dimension divided by 2 b is the shortest side dimension divided by 2 The capacity of the section is given by fs/F where F is the allowable torsional stress assumed equal to the minimum shear allowable stress divided by three: F=min(Fv2/3.4.Fv3/3) This equation is only applicable to rectangular members.4 of the NDS Code. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending 496 . This special type is commonly known as Spaced Columns.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) • • Members in compression with side loads are checked with the general equations 15.

List of the required constants. which at the same time have only small variations in relation to the adopted Standard. 497 .33 as it is required by several local codes. The LEO Editor will be called with the wood design macro. Here.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Wood design macro for adjustment factors The program comes already with a default design macro for wood that determines how the adjustment factors will be calculated according to the adopted NDS Code and it is not necessary to modify it in order to design wood members. the west-coast user can modify the duration factor for seven days from 1. Leo Editor with the Wood Design macro. Each time that the program calculates these parameters. (See more details and an application example in Chapter 28. Several subroutines form the wood design macro. Constant definitions.25 to 1. Each of them is used to define a specific adjustment factor or design parameter. 2. Subroutine for the calculation of the Duration Factors (CDCalculation). Programming in LEO) The adopted programming language is quite simple and the user may modify quickly the macro according to his/her own design criteria or local codes. it will call the subroutine passing in the required parameters. The following code groups are found in the macro: 1. The macro may be edited using the following option of the main menu: Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design. However. the user may edit or modify it to consider particular design factors adjusted to local codes. for example.

CDtest) //Test LmaxCalculation 498 . etc. 5. Note that to test the different subroutines you can use an additional code that assigns the required data and calls the different subroutines. Subroutine for the calculation of the volume factor (CalcCv). Subroutine for the calculation of the incising factors (CalcCi). Subroutine for the calculation of the Temperature factors (CalcCT). the maximum member length may be defined. b. line-by-line. 8. The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2. 3=Plywood Species='southern pine' Grade ='no. This length will be shown on the report. 7.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 3. According to the type of wood. Subroutine for the calculation of the maximum physical length.3.0 CDCalculation(Duration. Subroutine for the calculation of the flat use factor (Calcfu). An example of a test code is the following. 10. 1' IncisedWood=true //Flag to show if the member is incised RepetitiveMember=true //Flag to show if the member is part of joists IsColumn=false Wet=true //Flag to show if it is a column //Wet/dry conditions Temperature = '100f<t<=125f' //Exposition to temperature Li=20[ft] //Custom length between inflection points. material. 6.3.4 of the Code. 4. verifying the intermediate results. The calculated values are checked against the expected ones. Note that first all the required data are defined as d. Then the test variables are initialized and finally the calculation subroutines are called. Subroutine for the wet service factors (CalcCM). Subroutine for the calculation of the repetitive member factor (CalcCr). The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2. // values for tests Duration=0 d=4. 9. The entire code can be executed or it can be debugged.0[in] //member width Material=Lumber //Material 1=Lumber. Fb=1[ksi] Fc=1[ksi] //Test CDCalculation CDtest=0.0[in] //member height b=2.11 of the Code. 2=Glulam. Subroutine for the calculation of the size factors (CalcCF).

Material.0 TestCMFv=0.Material. TestCFFt.0 TestCiFbtc=0.Material. RepetitiveMember. TestCr) //Test CalcCM TestCMFb=0.0 TestCME=0. TestCFE) //Test CalcCfu TestCfu=0.0 499 .TestCiFbtc.0 CalcCfu(d. Grade.0 TestCMFc=0. TestCFFby. Wet. Species. b.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lmaxtest=0.0 TestCMFcp=0. Li. TestCv) //Test CalcCr TestCr=0.0 TestCt2=0.0 CalcCT(Temperature.0 TestCFE=0. TestCFFb. TestCFFc. b.0 TestCFFc=0. Species.0 CalcCF (d. TestCfu) //Test CalcCv TestCv=0. Material. TestCt2) //Test CalcCF TestCFFb=0.TestCiFvpc) //Test CalcCt TestCt1=0.0 TestCFFt=0.TestCiE.0 CalcCv(d. TestCt1.Lmaxtest) //Test CalcCi TestCiE=0.0 TestCFFby=0. Material. Material.0 CalcCi(IncisedWood. b.0 TestCiFvpc=0.b. IsColumn.0[ft] LmaxCalculation (d.0 CalcCr(b.

American Forest and Paper Association. 2. 1997 Edition. . TestCMFt) References 1. 1997. Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook. TestCMFc.0 CalcCM(b.. Design of Wood Structures. 1993. Breyer. Wet. TestCFFb. Inc.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) TestCMFt=0. Fb. AFPA. 1999. TestCMFv. American Forest and Paper Association. TestCME. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Commentary on the National Design Specification for Wood Construction. AFPA. 3. McGraw Hill. 4.. Thomas G. Faherty. TestCMFb. TestCFFc. Donald E. McGraw Hill. Third Edition. 1997. Material. Keith F & Williamson. Fc. TestCMFcp. 500 . Third Edition.. Inc.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 501 .

.

joint forces. How to find technical information about a specific connection? When you are entering or reviewing the different parameters of a connection you can go to the help context where you will find a detailed description of the data and checks that are performed for each connection type. Following this section we will describe in more detail some of the features of RAM Connection. optimize or verify connections of a structural model. office standards etc. splice or combined). What is a Connection? RAM Connection defines a Single Connection as all the parameters that completely define the quantities and dimensions of the pieces that make up a connection. automatically utilizing member dimensions and forces in the connection designs. beam-girder. welds. This “intelligence” allows the connection to modify itself as changes in its members and forces occur. if member sizes and forces change after the connections are designed. Connection Assignment/Optimization. etc). Each connection can also have “intelligence” that allows it to customize itself to its environment (member sizes. size of bolts. moment. However. 503 . For this section we will use the installed connection database and the default Connection toolbar. Following the How To Use section we describe in more detail the features of RAM Connection including the Connection Database.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Chapter 28: Steel Connections RAM Connection allows the engineer to rapidly design. Connection Output and how to Customize your Environment and connection designs. It is recommended that you read at least the first two sections of this chapter to help you understand how the connection module works. geometry and material of the connecting pieces etc. bracing. they (the connections) can easily be redesigned. At the end of this chapter the list of the main references used in the development of the program is given where the user can find more information. beam-to-column web. It is recommended that the structure be analyzed with final member sizes specified before connections are assigned to joints. the type of connection (shear. All connection templates are defined in the Connection database that is accessible from the Configuration menu. It includes the information related to the Connection Family (beam-to-column flange. We then proceed to directly show you How To Use RAM Connection. Both member forces and sizes are utilized to design the connections. Before a connection can actually exist on your structure however.) using a macro language called LEO. Connections are designed and verified according to AISC-ASD 9th edition and LRFD 2nd edition steel manuals. The connection module is completely integrated into RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. including how to customize this toolbar. RAM Connection installs with an extensive pre-defined database of connection templates. In this chapter we first define what is considered to be a “Connection” within the context of RAM Connection. as well as the number of bolts. there needs to be a database of connection templates from which to assign to your structure. To get you productive on RAM Connection we will proceed directly to the section on How To Use RAM Connection.

even though some connections could be different due to the macro. 504 . which satisfies the joint forces and geometric conditions.) and same type (shear. This allows for each connection to be designed for its own forces and geometry. and then use some of the available connection selection tools to determine how you would like to group your connections. from a user customizable list of connections. The engineer can still find out which connections end up being identical even when they were designed individually.). Remark: All grouped connections will have the same description. plate sizes etc. As you gain experience with RAM Connection you can customize the behavior to better suit your business practice. Grouped Connections Grouped connections are connections on several different joints that are to be designed with the same connection template. The inversion of this axis (downwards) will lead in some cases to incorrect connections or the inversion of results i. The engineer has control as to which joints are to be grouped together. connections are typically designed either in groups or individually. The connections can be designed in a group or one by one. moment or bracing connections) can be grouped together. If you have a RAM Connection License and the program is not active in RAM Advanse please see the Installation Manual. the assignment lists should be created keeping in mind that the list order will determine which connection is selected at a particular location. For all the joints with identical member sizes the resulting connections will be identical (same bolts number. it is also set up to allow you to get productive without requiring significant work on your part. No consideration is given to any other joint force or connection design. Therefore. top plate will be bottom plate. Designing Connections Important Note: The connection design and the inclination angles are based on the assumption that the beam local axis 2 is coincident with the global positive Y Axis (upwards). The use and customization of the Connection Toolbar will be explained in detail in the following sections.e. However.Chapter 28: Steel Connections How to Use RAM Connection? RAM Connection is designed to give you extensive flexibility in the way you design and manage your connections. or beam-to-girder etc. As the connections typically have some ability to adapt to the geometry of the connecting pieces. Only connections of the same family (beam-to-column flange. Individual Connections Individual connections are designed for the forces and member sizes at a specific joint. In general. This assignment procedure permits the optimization of assigned connections by placing the connections in order of increasing strength the optimum connection for the applied forces will be selected. The assignment procedure (from the connection toolbar) consists of having the program select the first connection template. providing the most efficient use of material. It may be preferable to initially design all connections individually. Designing connections in a group allows you to minimize the number of unique connection designs on a structure. joints with different size members or material may produce slightly different connections.

All load conditions are selected by default. The default and typical value is 1. The load conditions to be used in the design of the connection can also be selected in this window. This will cause the connection toolbar to show on the right edge of the screen. To display the connection toolbar select the Connection toolbar button (if it is not visible. 2) To automatically design connections the engineer should display the connection toolbar. 505 . To establish connection design criteria click on the menu command Configuration/ Connections and choose the Design Configuration option.0 will affect not only the design. it will affect also the code check and the determination of the status of the connection.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 1) Before connections are designed the engineer should configure the Connection Design criteria. Dialog window to configure the connections design The user may choose the maximum allowable strength ratio that will be used in the design of connections. turn the Panels toolbar on from View/Toolbars). It is important to note that a value other than 1.0.

or deselect it if you want all the selected joints grouped for design. There are many tools available to assist you in selecting joints. so the selection is important. 3) Select the design state button to indicate the upcoming design will be performed individually (each connection is based only on its own forces). Depress state button to design the connections individually 4) Select the members and nodes you would like connections designed for.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar displayed at right edge of screen. If you selected to group connections (in the previous step) all selected joints of the same family type will be grouped (one design for all joints with same member sizes and inclination angles). 506 . One option is to use the menu command Tools/Select Joints to select joints from a common family out of the currently selected members.

5) Select the smart connections group button if this was not the active group button (Smart Connections and Basic Connections will be discussed in more detail in the Connection Database 507 . Select the members and nodes for which connections are to be designed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint selection options. Another option is to manually select each joint.column splice joints Continuous beam over column joints Column – beam – braces joints Continuous beam – braces joints Vertical X-braces joints Elements to select Beam + node Beam + node Beam + node (Right) Beam + node (Bottom) Column + node Column + node Column + node Beam + node Braces + node Note that for the case of brackets. The beam will be used to pass the loads to the bracket. you should select the related beam (usually a cantilever beam) and column. The following table shows the elements that should be selected for each type of joint: Joint type Beam – column flange joints Beam – column web joints Beam – girder joints Beam – beam splice joints Column.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections section). 6) From the connection toolbar select the connection (shear plate (1). See the toolbar section for more information. if the double angle. The program will automatically determine the family (beam to column flange.) that is to be assigned for the selected joints. shear connection is selected to assign Press the Double Angle ( 508 ) button . it will also be given the template name used in its generation. If assigned by group. choose one of the assignment buttons as the shear plate (1) or the bolted end plate (2). From smart connection group (3). Press the Smart Connection group button to display the smart connection assignment buttons. etc. and a tag (set on the connection pad or in the macro) that contains the designed features of each connection (the plate size. etc) of the joint and will apply the corresponding templates. each connection will automatically be given a description (assignment button's name) that identifies the design group. beam to column web. bolt dimensions etc). beam to girder. For example. You will notice that the second column of buttons is updated with the connections available to be assigned for this group button. bolted end plate (2). The use of the tag will be explained later.

CA for the gusset to column connection.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The double angle shear connection will automatically be designed at the selected joints. etc.e. directly welded for the gusset to beam connections. Naming Convention The following connection naming convention has been adopted: <Connection Type – Connection Family -Connection Characteristic – Design Parameter> Smart Connection example: DA BCF Weld support Bolt beam Basic Connection example: Connection types CA = Shear angle(s) SP = Shear single plate EP = Shear end plate SS = Stiffened seated connection US = Unstiffened seated connection TEE = Shear tee TP = Through plate (only HSS supports) BP = Bent plate(s) DW = Directly welded moment connection EEP = Extended end plate FP = Flange plates MA = moment angles MT = Moment tees CP = Cap plate 4A = Four angles beam splice PBr = Plate bracket TBr = Tee bracket Remark: Bracing connections will have combined connection types. i. 509 DA_BCF_L 3x3x1/4_3B3/4 .

510 .Column web BG = Beam . 7) You can combine shear connections with moment connections when the combination is possible.Girder BS = Beam splice CS = Column splice CC = Continuous beam over column CBB = Column. all the capacity values calculated to evaluate the strength ratio and the status of the connections are included.Column flange BCW = Beam . beams and braces CVR = Chevron braces VXB = Vertical X braces Remark: In the detailed connection reports. For example press the buttons (Double Angle) and then the (Flange Plate) to get the combined connection of a flange plated moment connection with a double angle shear. Connection characteristics bolted = all-bolted connection welded = all-welded connection Bolt support = bolted to support Weld support = welded to support Bolt beam = bolted to the beam Weld beam = welded to the beam n = number of bolts l = connector length Press the button to graphically display the number and template's name of the selected connections. This will be shown on the screen on the joint as follows: Shear and moment connection assigned to a joint. Any supplemental verification required is the responsibility of the engineer.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection families BCF = Beam .

press the button.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that when the connections are drawn in low-resolution (wire) mode. The 8) To view the results of the connection designs on the screen press the capacity ratio and status of the current load condition will be displayed for all selected connections. 9) To view the designs Double-Click on the connection to view the Connection Pad 511 . bolts. press the extruded shape button ( extruded shape button ( ). If a bracing connection is adopted. A shear connection displaying its capacity ratio and status for the current load condition Note that the capacity ratio may be different for the different selected connections because the loads acting on them are different but the connections are identical. Notice that the true dimensional characteristics of the connections are shown (plate length. ) or the shrink Three-dimensional view of a double-angle shear connection. etc). If you want to consider the envelope of all load conditions. These positions are assuming that the direction of the local beam axis 2 is vertical upwards. The only condition is to adopt a maximum number of one brace per quadrant. Connection capacity and status for the envelope of all load conditions To draw connections in extruded (3D) form. In this case the low-resolution connection draw will be placed over the related node. the shear connection is drawn under the line of the beam and the moment connection is drawn above the beam line. no other connection is allowed in the same plane. The bracing connection has all the options to combine any arrangement of beams and braces. Bracing connection assigned to a joint button of the toolbar.

512 .. More information on the connection pad is found in the following sections of this chapter. it can be displayed for each design set of joints. it uses a conservative envelope of forces for each design set of joints of the group. If the forces dialog is inactive. To do so select the required connection and then press on the toolbar and go to Detailing/Connections. in the Loads specification for report dialog. When a group connection is designed. for more details see the Design Criteria section later. turn it on from Configuration/ Connections/ Show "Loads specification for report" dialog box.. If you want to see the design envelope of forces.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Before the connection pad is displayed... 10) To view a detailed design report select the 11) To view the connection geometry report select the button button 12) A detailed or summary report for connection groups is available by selecting all the desired connections and selecting the Reports/Connections design.. the program will show the dialog box Loads specification for report that will ask you if you want to consider the forces envelope or all the load conditions forces separately in the connection Pad. option in the main menu. select the option Envelope forces. Connection Pad to edit and check connections.

13) If you modify a member size. The following sections describe in more detail the features that were used above. press the button properties toolbar. Hint: To enable or disable the display of the descriptions. structure geometry or loads. however. Note that for grouped connections the redesign will be based on the description of the connections (connections with the same description are grouped). etc.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections reports dialog window. The command will act on the selected connections and will preserve the previously defined groups and connection types. click on one connection in the group and click click to color all the groups individually (up to 9 unique groups can be colored. connection type. in the Model . description. all connections that are designed individually are given the same color (white). Notice also that you can have a list of the joints and their connections with the option Reports//List of joints… It is very useful to know the joints that need to be designed and the ones that have already assigned connections. As you can see getting connection designs is quick and easy. Notes: 513 . you will need to redesign your connections by clicking on the redesign button in the connection toolbar. or 14) To select all connections in a single group. tag. You can generate a report organized by family. there is significant flexibility in exactly how connections are assigned and designed.

it is strongly recommended to verify the design status of the resultant connections. The 3D and 2D graphics can be used as a tool to verify the connections appropriateness. and it is activated after pressing either status display button current load case) or (for the load envelope). the engineer should verify that the geometry of the designed connections is appropriate.K. but the connection drawings will clearly show this incompatibility. An example of such a situation is when the beam flange width is wider than the column internal space in a BCW connection or when there are beams with depths larger than the girder depths they frame into. US. In this particular case and in all cases in general. This may lead to the use of thicker plates or the reduction of bolt gages when the connection macro is a design macro. (because of some geometric requirement is not satisfied or the members compatibility does not comply). either horizontal and/or vertical. the connection drawing could be incorrect. the engineer should verify that the applied connections are able to transfer all the forces between members. so that the connection could still be OK. A useful tool for this purpose is the that allows the selection of all structure connections that are O. TP and SS does not allow axial forces. (for the • • • • Some shear connections such as the TEE. When the beam axial load is taken into account for shear connections the program also verifies the flexural and prying action capacities of some connection elements. The list of the connections that allow inclination angles are as follows: Connection CA Family Horizontal BCF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Clip (shear) BCW Angle/s BG SP Shear Plate BCF BCW BG 514 Inclination angles Vertical Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Both Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . BP. the connection calculations required to guarantee the required ductility prescribed by the code are the responsibility of the engineer. respectively.G. In this case the capacity verifications are not valid anymore and the calculation assumptions are incorrect Besides the geometry verification and members compatibility made by the program. therefore. The user could specify special copes in these cases and may independently verify some additional connection capacities. After connections assignment or after the re-design of groups of connections.G. or N.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • If the strength ratio is less than the limit specified by the engineer. but the status of the connection is N. Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) Many of the connections allow beam inclination angles. In these cases the program does not display any error message.

End Plate FP Flange Plate BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BCF BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BS CS MA Moment Angles MT Moment BCF BCF Direct Weld BCW No No No 515 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections BS CS EP End Plate SS Stiffened Shr US BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Unstiffened BCW Shr TEE Shear Tee TP Through Plate BP Bent Plate DW EEP Ext.

Slope angle for BCF and BCW families. Counterclockwise angles are considered positive.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Tee CP Cap Plate 4A Four Angles Splice PBr Plate Bracket TBr Tee Bracket CBB Bracing connections CVR beams CBB. Bracing connections VXB braces The CA connection has a 15º skew limit imposed by the code. CVR. Each BP template connection has the skew angle limits specified in the connection pad. Remark: For a correct calculation and graphic representation of the connections. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). No No No BCF No No No BCW No No No BS No No No CC No No No No Yes (20°-70°) No The skew angle in degrees is defined over a horizontal plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. The inclination angles are considered as follows: Skew angle for BCF and BCW families. 516 . the beam local axis 2 must be coincident with the global Y positive axis (upwards).

Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). This limit is currently assumed to be 44º from the support face (BCF) or from the support side (BCW). it can be assigned either with the worksheet tools or by changing the members’ geometry temporarily to assign the connection. When skew and slope angles exist. Upward angles are considered positive. it is treated as if only the slope angle would exist.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The slope angle in degrees is defined over a vertical plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. For braces: Remarks: • The components of the beam forces (moment. the beam forces are decomposed over the support axis. it is considered as rectangular joint. axial. When a connection should be assigned with an angle larger than this limit. shear) transmitted to the support vary according to the inclination angles. When only slope angle exists. the beam forces are conservatively assumed to remain the same. When only a skew angle exists. They 517 • . The worksheet tools should be applied over an existing connection. It is the engineer responsibility to verify in each case the additional required capacity verifications due to the inclination angles. that is to say. The maximum angle at which a connection will automatically be considered a beam-column web as opposed to a beam-column flange connection must be defined.

Otherwise (default option) .BCW BCF. it will consider it as a sloped beam.BCW BCF.Chapter 28: Steel Connections could apply even a BCF connection over a BCW connection.BCW BCF. SP).BCW BCF. • HSS Section Supports The connections that accept HSS section supports include some specific and other modified capacity verifications in reference to I shape supports. The maximum slope angle allowed for members is 30º.BCW BCF.BCW BCF. Members with bigger vertical inclination angles are not considered for the connection assignment.BCW bolted bolted welded welded Characteristics to support 518 .BCW BCF.BCW BCF. the user should identify the braces with the option located in the worksheet Members\Nodes and Description\Braces. If this flag is enabled the program will assume that the member is a brace. BCW bolted/welded bolted bolted bolted/welded bolted/welded bolted/welded welded welded bolted/welded welded welded welded welded welded welded welded bolted (to HSS) welded(to Doubler) welded Characteristics to support CBB Bolted (CA. • To differentiate between sloped beams and diagonals. The following connections allow square or rectangular HSS supports: Connection CA SP TP TEE US SS DW EEP FP (or diaphragm plate) Bracing Family to beam BCF.BCW BCF. so you will have a BCF connection with a skew angle greater than 44º. /welded welded The following connections allow circular HSS supports: Connection SP TP Family to beam BCF.

size and thickness of some pieces) between assignment joint sets. or ratio>max ratio defined by the user). therefore. for these connections the program is considering four different combination of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial. so. Any database connection template may be included in the list of an assignment button. if the macro is modified after the assignment. as the macro code specifies so. Each connection button in the connections toolbar (either from the Smart Connections or Basic Connections group) is associated with a list of one or more connection templates.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Design Criteria It is important for the user to know exactly how the design process is performed. and may have a tag if it has been specified in the connection pad or in the macro. 519 . but the model connection itself is stored with the structure and is not linked to the template after assignment. but it still has a relation with the macro.G. the resultant connections receive the name of the template used for design. and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial). and the connection template is assigned (after joints are selected) the program will check the templates in the order of the list. The following drawing shows schematically how the selected model joints are grouped when assigning connections by group. As soon as it finds a connection template that complies with the strength requirements and geometrical conditions of all the appropriate joint sets (joints of the same family with identical geometry and inclination angles . Note that the order of the list will give the hierarchy and preference for the connection assignment. the connections will receive also as a description the name of the assignment button. When assigning by group. might have differences in the resisting elements (number of bolts. These differences are expressed in the tag defined in the same macro. the re-design will execute the modified macro. For moment connections this criterion may not always be conservative. and the program will display a message if the assignment has not been successful. it will be assigned. the last checked connection in the list would be assigned even if it does not satisfy the force or geometric conditions for all the joint sets. the resultant connections are based on one of the specified connection templates. The user should always check the obtained results to correct or reject the assigned connections that are not acceptable (status = N. It should be noted that the resultant connections of Smart Connections buttons. In this way the design is covering the worst possible combination of forces in a conservative way.see the joint grouping graphic below). When an assignment button is applied to the model. If no connection meets all the requirements. If the assignment was by group. The user has to be aware that the design may not always be successful. Either the assignment method is by group or individually.

Joint loads as the M22 bending moment and torsional moment are not considered nor checked in any way during connection design and calculation. The design of the shear connections by group considers the load envelope of all the joints on a given assignment set. particularly when the axial load and slope angle are relevant. the design loads are the result of the most adverse load combination. accept positive and negative shear loads (reported always as positive values). other connections such as SS or US do not allow negative shear loads. The joint loads considered for connection design. The load envelope ratio for shear and moment connections could be bigger than the worst load condition stress ratio due to the envelope calculation method. and in this case.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint grouping when the connections are assigned by group. However. as the connection is symmetric. Some shear connections such as the SP. The design of the moment connections by group considers the four different combinations of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial load. 520 . and it is assumed to be taken by a moment connection when the beam moment value is relevant. the beam loads are decomposed over the support axis. In this way the design is conservatively covering the worst possible combination of forces. taking into account only the slope angle. As it was stated in the "Inclination angles of members" section. are only those shown in the connection pad. The beam axial force is not taken into account in the shear connections. and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial load).

Remarks: 521 . defining the template lists that will be included in each assignment button.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The next flowchart describes schematically the design procedure that is followed when the connections are designed in groups: Thus the connections design configuration should be executed in two parts: • • The definition of the templates to be used which may or may not include design macros (LEO). The configuration of the different assignment buttons of the toolbar.

member section types.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • The shear connections assigned to joints where the moment is bigger than a minimum value.Column Web (BCW) 3. The Connection Template Database RAM Connection ships with an extensive collection of pre-defined connections templates. Beam Splice (BS) 5. remove or modify connections from this provided list of connections. such connections will be displayed with a zero ratio and N. In the connections reports. Beam . These moments should be transmitted only by directly welded connections. Consider that the macro (LEO file) can also modify the connection variables. each connection is given one of these designations: 1.. as it is assumed that the required moment connection will take the axial force. Beam – Girder (BG) 4. command as illustrated below: 522 . Column Splice (CS) 6. Continuous beam over column (CC) 7. Column. Vertical X braces (VXB) To view all the connection templates that are installed on your computer select the Configuration/Databases/Connections. status. the connection is invalidated and it does not allow reporting data or results and it is not displayed.G. Chevron braces (CVR) 9. Single plates or clip angles are not allowed to deal with moments and an error message will be displayed in this case. Beam .Column Flange (BCF) 2. The engineer is free to add. etc. For example. If after the connection assignation a variable is modified. beams and braces (CBB) 8. Database Organization Each connection in the database is categorized according to the family to which it belongs. the range for the skew and slope angles. and it is out of the valid range. The bracing connections where the geometry is imposed (it is not automatically calculated) and/or a load is specified in one connector may generate moments in the gusset-to-column or gusset-to beam connections.. The connection assignation will be effective only in the joints where the range check of the connection variables is fulfilled. RAM Connection currently offers engineers the following families of connections. will only take the shear force and not the axial force. • • In the next sections the parts of the program that can be customized will be explained.

plate sizes etc) to resist the applied forces. However. It is the engineer’s prerogative how to group templates within a folder. Within each folder is a list of single connection templates. The folder name should be used as an organizational tool to assist you in grouping connections according to your own practice. This classification keeps the shear. moment and bracing connections separate. Basic Connection: A connection template that can automatically adjust the geometry (position or dimensions) of the connection pieces to fit the connection members. Moment or Bracing) and type (Shear plate. Each connection template in the database can be considered a ‘Basic’ or a ‘Smart’ connection according to the design routines programmed in the macro. only for moment and shear connections). It does not calculate the quantity or dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. The connection templates that are installed with RAM Connection are grouped in two main groups (Smart and Basic connections) and subdivided according to function (Shear. welds. the engineer can also create folders where the bracing.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Go to Databases/Connections The window that is displayed is the connection-database window. Two templates with the same name are not allowed. even in different folders. plates etc) to resist the applied forces. end plate etc). moment and shear connection templates are in one folder and even in one connection template (combined connection template. Smart Connection: A connection template that can automatically calculate the quantity and dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. 523 .

Chapter 28: Steel Connections The smart connections folders contain a single connection for each family and connection type. before creating your own connection database think about how you want to organize the data. Note that the items that are optimized in each template are listed. others may be designed according to geometry. For example. Once again it should be noticed that this organizational structure (separating the smart connection templates from the other connection templates) is not significant in terms of how RAM Connection works. it will make it easier to locate the connections you want to consider for design. It is very important to note that in the case of Smart Connections. The ‘Basic’ connections contain a simple macro that adjusts the dimensions and location of the connection pieces according to the joint members. the default size is ¾ inch and if the bolts fail they will not be increased in size. To handle this situation create 3 copies of the smart connection template(using the database command Copy the selected object ). 7/8) then put all these connection templates in the list of the appropriate assignment button (see customizing the toolbar) and the first one that works for the selected joint group will be assigned. In fact. The following smart connection templates are included in the program. if an item is not listed then there is a default value associated with the connection that you can modify as required to suit your requirements: 524 . while some of the connection parameters are designed based on the required forces. these are the connection templates assigned to the default connection toolbar that was used in the previous ‘How To’ section. ¾. However. but each of these connections contains the intelligence (in its LEO code) to design some of its own properties based on the forces (this is the characteristic that makes them ‘Smart’) and members to which it is assigned. each with its own bolt dimension (5/8. the default Smart DA does not design your bolts size. you may create copies of the smart connection with variations on the parameter that you want designed. If a smart connection template does not design the connection the way you would typically like.

BCW. type SST. plate size. BCW. SS2L BCF. BCW. BCW stiffened seated connections. BCW unstiffened seated connections BCF. weld size to support welds sizes. distances between bolts. BCW. single plate angle connections BS single plate angle connections BCF. weld size to beam for bolted connections and plate size and welds sizes for welded connections tee size. BG double angle connections Smart DA Beam splice Smart SP Smart SP Beam splice Smart EP BS double angle bolted connections BCF. plate size bolt rows and angle size Welds. top and bottom plate thickness. plate size number of bolts. top and bottom plate sizes bolts sizes. SSP. BG welded flange plate connections BCF extended end plate connections BCF bolted moment angle CBB 525 . BG directly welded connections BCF.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Type of connections (Folder name) Smart DA Family and Description Optimization of the following parameters number of bolts for bolted connections. BG shear tee connections Smart SS Smart US Smart DW Smart FP BCF. BG bolted flange plate connections Smart FP Smart EEP Smart MA Smart CBB BCF. BG. weld size and connector size angle size bolts rows or weld size extended plate size for BCW connections bolts rows. number of bolts for bolted and weld size for welded connections bolts rows . BG end plate connections Smart ST BCF. bolts spacing. plate size. weld size to support number of bolts. bolts and element thicknesses BCF. BCW. weld size for welded connections and angle size number of bolts and angle size number of bolts. BCW. pf .

To add a new folder for your connection templates proceed as follows. The connection template name thus reflects the relevant characteristics of the connection. place the cursor in the folder where you want to insert the template. select the option Configuration/General. Remark: The folders where the Connection Database.. Proceed to the database from Configuration/Databases/Connections. To do this. Press New item to define a new connection template.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Basic connection templates are organized in different folders with the following naming convention: Basic + {Connections type initials} + {connection family} + {connection characteristics}. For details please see the dialog help context.. The following window will appear: 526 .. by choosing any required directory. Note: if you want to enter a new connection template in an existing folder. the LEO files and the Toolbar are located could be configured. Press New group button (top of the toolbar) Enter a name for the New folder where you are going to define your connections. even a network directory. Directories configuration Defining Connection Templates The steps to define a connection template and add them to the connection database are discussed next.. The program will not allow you to enter a template unless there are available folders (groups) already defined and selected.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Enter a descriptive name for the template connection. Select family. and press OK. For example. Then choose if you want to define a simple or a combined connection template. 527 . the extended end plate connection is considered a combined connection. Shear Connection and Moment Connection for a combined connection template. The name is used to identify the template and has to be unique in the whole database. A combined connection is comprised of both a shear and a moment connection. A simple connection template is comprised of either a shear or a moment connection.

shear web plates are available only in “Beam Splice” or “Column Splice” families.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Or Select the family and the connection type for a simple connection (1) Family: describes the type of connected members (e. The drop down list will contain all the available connections depending on the selected family. Column Splice 6.Column Flange 2. (3) OK: To finish the connection template definition press the OK button. for example. The corresponding connection pad with the default data will be displayed. beams and braces 8. Beam .Girder 4. Beam . The 9 available families in the list are: 1. and for combined connections both connection lists will be displayed (2a and 2b). Chevron braces 9. etc).: beam-to-girder. 528 . Vertical X braces (2) Connection Type: For simple connections only the correspondent list (Shear. Continuous beam over column 7. Column.Column Web 3.g. Moment or Gusset) will be displayed. Beam Splice 5. Beam . beam-to-column-flange.

you can use the Copy button. place the cursor at the connection that you want to copy and press the You also have the following tools to manage the database: Create a new template folder Create a new template Edit the current template Delete the current template or folder (with all its templates) Rename the current template or folder Move the current folder or template one position up Move the current folder or template one position down Export to the clipboard all the templates of the current folder Import the templates from the clipboard Order alphabetically all folders Order alphabetically all connections of the selected folder If you want to create multiple connection templates that are similar except for one or few parameters (number of bolts.) then it may be preferable to use the ability to generate connections in Excel™ as illustrated below.Chapter 28: Steel Connections After pressing the OK button the connection pad is displayed. 1) Select the folder you want copied to Excel. Note: To create a copy of a connection template. The off-white background and DATABASE window title indicate we are creating a connection template for the database. or size of plates etc. 529 button as shown below: . To do this.

3) In Excel modify the desired data. 530 . Each template data corresponds to one table row. press the button “Copy to clipboard”. 4) Then select ALL the information and copy the data to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) 5) In RAM Connection paste the connection templates into the database by pressing the indicated paste button. REMEMBER to name the connections uniquely (maintain the folder name at the beginning of the name). Open Excel and paste the information in a worksheet In Excel you will see the templates and its variables names.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 2) As illustrated above.

Note: The process to import several connection templates may take some time. materials. Databases for sections. the user can edit or define new items in a very similar way as connections. go to the desired field and click on the right part of the combo box to access to the item database. they are extracted from the main program (RAM Advanse or RAM SS). bolts and welds RAM Connection already comes with the most common types of bolts.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The new connection templates will be imported. 531 . welds. In the connection pad of any template or model connection. In the case of materials and sections of members. materials and sections. In the case of bolts and welds. See the main program manual for further details.

Connection Toolbar The connection toolbar helps in the design and management of connections. edit and manage the database. To display the connection toolbar press the button on the Panels toolbar.Chapter 28: Steel Connections A dialog window will appear with the list of available items and the tool buttons to create. A new pad with the data related to the selected item will appear when you edit or create a new item. It is located on the right side of the screen and it is comprised of different sections or groups of buttons classified according to their function. 532 .

members. The toolbar follows the general rule of 'select and apply'. Here the frequently used commands for the selection of connections are assigned to the following buttons: To select equal connections (all connection parameters as bolts. Group1: Selection options (connections and joints) This first group of the connection toolbar is devoted for the selection of connections. are identical) To select all connections of the model To deselect all connections To select all connections with the same tag (same designed elements) The program offers many graphical ways for selecting model connections. grouping) or results. Group 6 Connection assignment buttons: List of assignment buttons included in the selected button group (Group 5). You can click on the desired connection or you can drag around it with the mouse. welds. press Shift while clicking with the mouse on each connection. You can click with the left button of the mouse over each desired connection. Group 3 Design and Assignment settings: Assignment and design options Group 4 User group button: By default each assignment button in this group contains a connection set used for optimization in versions prior to v5.1. etc. so the user has to first select the elements where the desired command will be applied. To select multiple connections. Each button can have one or more connection templates associated with it that will be assigned to the appropriate selected joints.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar groups Group 1 Selection buttons: Buttons to assist the user in selecting or displaying connections Group 2 Result Display buttons: Buttons to display connection properties (name. Group 5 Connection group buttons: Select one to show all the connection assignment buttons (Group 6) in the group. 533 . inclination angles.

the members and node that make up the joint need to be selected. Available options for the connection selection If you want to select connections by description (remember that a design group has the same in the Selection toolbar. will be selected. even if they have different descriptions and template names. in this way a change can be made to multiple connections at one time. Press to select all connections that are identical (in every parameter of the connection pad).Chapter 28: Steel Connections You can make a fence over the desired connections clicking and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. select an instance of the desired connection and press connections in the model that share the same description will be selected. Selecting joints: Before assigning a connection to a joint. This tool is normally used to select the connections to be detailed after with the command Detailing/Connections… When using the connections detailer the Connection Pad will consider all equal (selected) connections. 534 . Note that all the connections that have exactly the same properties. All description). select an instance of the desired connection and go to Tools/Connection Selection and choose the desired option. You can select groups of connections too. You can find several options for the selection of joints in Tools/Select joints option.

displays the tag of the selected connections. Other orientation would lead to nonsense connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Available options for the joints selection. Notice that you can limit the selection by beam depth and beam end conditions. which allows the selection of joints of a particular family.. with special characteristics as a determined range of beam heights and end conditions. Note: The beam local axis 2 is supposed vertical. 535 . This tool is very useful if you want to change or modify the design of a group of connections. option. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the current load condition. Notice that you have a Special selection.. Another important option for joints selection is the command Select connection nodes and members in Tools/Connection Selection. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the load envelope. displays graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. Group2: Result display options The second group is devoted for the display tools: colors the selected connections by description. Then you can erase the connections of the selected joints and/or proceed with a new design by pressing any assignment button of the connection toolbar. The related members and nodes will be highlighted in the model. Special selection of joints.

they are automatically given a description consisting of the assign button name plus a sequential number. but all must have been designed with the same assignment button. The available buttons are: to specify if connection design on selected joints will be made by group (button lifted) or individually (button depressed). welds etc). so the text to be displayed may be modified by the user. This tool is useful when connections are designed individually. and the user wants to find all the connections that have similar designs so as to assist in determining an appropriate grouping of connections. to define the design criteria to be adopted. For details see the How to Use RAM Connection? section at the beginning of this chapter. To select connections by status.G. Note that the tag text that is displayed is defined in the LEO code with the command Tag = 'string to be displayed' or in the Connection Pad. loads or member sections. you have to first display the status and capacity ratio of the connections using the (current load condition) or (envelope of load conditions) buttons of the connection toolbar . Note also that connections with the same tag could have different connection data as for example the members sections. including the maximum allowable strength ratio and load conditions to be considered. to assign the same description to the selected connections. In this case the program will redesign all the selected 536 . certain parameters are designed by the LEO Macro (plate thickness. The same description can be given to several connections to group them for design purposes to ensure the same designs during assignment. The user can get quick visual feedback of the designed parameters by pressing the button which displays a line summary (tag) with the value of the designed parameters on the selected connections. For basic connections this button will show the connection template name.Chapter 28: Steel Connections When a smart connection template is assigned. This tool is very useful when the model is re-analyzed due to changes in model geometry. Note that when the connections were designed by group. Press to select all smart connections with the same designed elements (expressed in the tag). Group3: Design and Assignment settings The third group of buttons is used in the design of connections. to redesign connections. Press the button to display graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. Press the to select all the not good (N. This will enable the to select all the OK connections or press buttons at the top of the graphic screen. Display of the connection number and the template name (for smart connections).) connections. bolts.

This command performs the following actions in each design group: 1. the user has to select absolutely all the connections of the original design groups. option. the assignment buttons of each group button. go to the main menu. moment and bracing connections in different groups or smart connections and basic connections in different groups. Remember that the template position determines the order in which these templates will be attempted.5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons The user can create its own groups of connection assignment buttons (see Customizing the toolbar next). this command is equivalent to re-assign the original template (run the macro). The configuration of the toolbar determines the group buttons. and select Configuration/Connections /Customize Toolbar. By selecting one of the group buttons. or the list of templates of the assignment buttons were modified after the assignation.Chapter 28: Steel Connections connections considering the new loads and/or geometry of the model. The connections toolbar configuration window will appear with the current configuration of the toolbar. The engineer may choose to configure the shear. even if loads or members have not been changed. Application of the original design button. Groups4. Selection of their joints. Remark: For individually designed connections. 2. and the list of connection templates that will be associated with each assignment buttons. Warning! To maintain the original design criteria.. 537 . the templates macros. This command is equivalent to reassigning the connections to the joints in their original groups (same description). 3. Deletion of the current connections. If the connections descriptions (groups). which is equivalent to applying each template on the button list.. Customizing the connection toolbar It is important that the connection toolbar be configured according to your practice and preferences. the user might get results different from the original design. the available assignment buttons on the toolbar (group 6 of the connection toolbar) will change to reflect the group selected. To configure the connections toolbar.

You will be asked for the name of the new Dialog window asking the name of the new group. 538 . you have all the available database connection templates. The toolbar root folder corresponds to the connection toolbar Group 4 (See the connection toolbar groups at the beginning of this section). On the left pane of the window (1).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar configuration window. button. you have the tools to configure the toolbar. on the right (2) you will find the group buttons (with the assignment buttons inside) and finally in the middle (3). place the cursor on the group where you want the new button to be placed. irrespective of which ‘group’ of assignment buttons is selected. To create a new assignment button. You can create a new group button with the group. therefore. any assignment button placed in root folder will always appear on the toolbar Group 4.

If you want to sort the templates use the buttons selected template up or down. and to move the or erase a button or a template Notice that all buttons that are created have by default the same bitmap. Press the button to include the current template in the button list (2).Chapter 28: Steel Connections For example locate a new assignment button in the recently created group. Note that if you have selected a folder of the database. The user can define the bitmap to be associated for each button with the tool 539 . You can also insert a separator between buttons with the tool with the tool . Then go to the list of available connections of the database and choose the templates for the button (1). Then press the button and enter the name of the new button. all the connection templates of the folder will be assigned to the button keeping the same order as the database (3). Select the connection templates you want associated with the button “ My Button” in the group “My Group”. It is very important to specify the order of the templates within a list because this order will be used for the assignment.

unlike other model connections. Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet Once connections templates have been created in the database.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The bitmap has to be a bmp file of 22x22 pixels. It is also possible to use the connection worksheet to assign "single" connections or delete connections. The connections worksheet is displayed by pressing the Conn tab. 540 . Notice that you can draw your own bmp´s with any drawing application like Microsoft Paint. You have several ready-to-use choices in the SmartConn folder. has not been assigned by an assignment button. the connections will always be designed individually no matter if the design individually button in the toolbar is depressed or not. A single connection. Connection Worksheet The data of the currently selected connections is displayed in the connection worksheet. Note that if assigned from the worksheet. connections can be assigned using the worksheet.

There is also a way to replace existing connections that is explained below down. This is because the redesign button (in the connections toolbar) does not display warning messages for these connections when they are inadequate (NG). The steps to assign single connections to a model are shown below. 541 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note: It is recommended to interact and verify the status of the single connections in the model separately from the other model connections. Press the button to assign the template connection. Assign selected connection template to model Select members and nodes where you want the connection designed. You can select several members and nodes at once. In the worksheet database area select the desired connection template to be assigned.

you can select indiscriminately a large group of members and nodes and the connection will only be applied where that connection is possible. Trying to do so will have no effect and it will be ignored (no message is displayed). the girder must be defined in RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System as a physical member. one of the main functions of the assign button the worksheet is to test and assign recently created templates. Otherwise. otherwise the Beam to Girder connection will not be assigned. Therefore. in 542 . Therefore. If the user is going to assign a Beam to Girder connection. For example. the connection toolbar has to be configured to consider the new template in an assignment button. This command will only assign connections where it is possible. you cannot assign a column splice connection on a beam to girder joint. When a new connection template is created it can be directly assigned to a joint with the assign button of the worksheet.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The single connections are assigned.

It is recommended to only change the description when two or more identical groups/connections need to be grouped together and designed as one new group. CNXn) to the currently selected connections (recommended only for single connections) is to apply the assign description button from the worksheet or connections toolbar.. button at Note: The connection label (identification number) once assigned to a model connection does not change. This button will delete only the selected connections even if members. To assign the same description to the currently selected connections you may copy them to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) and then paste them to all the desired connections (Ctrl+V). Note that it is not possible to assign a template from another family.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Replace (all) the current selected connection (s) This option allows you to replace one or all the model connections currently selected and displayed in the connection spreadsheet. even if connections with lower value labels are deleted. they can also be deleted with the worksheet tool the end of the worksheet. or many model connections with the connections detailer. Connection Pad The connection Pad is required for the creation of templates for the database and also to review/edit a model connection. or when several identical model connections are selected and the detailing command is invoked from the main menu. CNX2. It is accessed when any template of the database is edited. when the user double clicks a model connection. shells and nodes are also selected.. Assign connection description It is possible to modify or assign the descriptions of your model connections. Alternatively the engineer can type any description label into the spreadsheet description column. buttons to This tool is very useful to replace existing connections with other connections of the same family. In the worksheet select the desired connection template to replace. If only connections have been selected. because the user only needs to select the connections and not the members and the nodes.. . Another method to assign the same description (CNX1. Press one of the replace one or all of the selected model connections respectively. To delete a connection of the model select it and press . The connection pad has the following areas: 543 . However the engineer should be aware that the description for these connections is used to identify the design groups and will be used also for the redesign of connections (redesign tool of the connections toolbar). Deleting model connections.

English and SI. The available units systems are Metric. Moment or connections. LEO file. Loads.. the joint loads are passed to the connection automatically. Code. 1) Properties area. and the all the specific data required in Shear. When editing a model connection. Note that when editing model connections. 2) Drawing area. 1: Properties area In this section the user enters all the necessary data to define the connection template (or reviews/modifies the properties of the selected model connections). Used to display information about the specific item selected in the properties area. When creating a template ( icon). as they will be modified for each model joint. Remember also that the LEO file (macro) offers the engineer the possibility to program the template to automatically calculate some of the connection properties. Used to display the entered data in 3D or 2D. The loads can be entered in a worksheet that enables only certain loads according to the selected connection i.e. Notes: All data with the icon (when editing model connections) is passed to the connection pad directly from RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. Tag. in a bracket plate connection. any change in this data will not be permanent. Used to enter connection information. The available codes are ASD and LRFD. as they are updated every time a report or graphical presentation is required. only shear load is allowed. The following connection data should be provided: Units system.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection pad. This feature will be explained in detail below and in the LEO Chapter. 544 . 3) Help area. these data are not required.

enter the information for one or for both options. m. you should assign your required sections and materials. If you want to see it drawn with some specific member sections (and materials) or if you want to get preliminary or test reports.5 kip” for a length. If you enter a property value with small units. Notice that the program will allow you to enter. The following length units are displayed according to the unit system selected. “1. ft. 2: Drawing area In this part of the Connection Pad a true 3D or 2D visual representation of the selected connection is shown. it is filled with the default connection properties values. Although this is accepted. m. Notice that the current units of each property are shown beside their value. If you are creating a connection template in the database through the connection pad. You may also enter a value with its own units. this will not change the units of the property (in this case a length measure will not be changed to a force measure). SI: mm. Choose the unit system of your preference to enter and display the connection data.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Templates could be used with either ASD or LRFD code. select ASD and provide all the connection data. English: in. Metric: cm. (as edge distances.1 ft” in Setback means 0.5 inches Entering “0. etc. Note: All the connection properties with units. on the other hand. If you enter a value without units. which could be different from the current units system. plate length. feet or m. according to the current units system. for example. the default units would be m. the default units when editing the property will be cm. if big units would have been used (as meters or feet). For example (If the current units system is English): Entering “1. Press to view the 3D model of the joint or press to view the 2D drawing of the joint at the bottom part of the window. the first time the connection pad is displayed. the resulting value may not be the expected. Consider that this modification is applied only to the template or model connection currently being modified.1 feet (the default unit becomes “ft”). a dimension in centimeters for example. 545 . in this case the program will transform the entered value to the current units system. inches or mm.) will show their value and will be edited according to the current units system.5” in Setback means 1. Notice that you can only see one representation at a time. then change to LRFD and enter the data that is different or is not required in the ASD code. the currently shown units will be considered for the value. as required. If you want to enter information for both codes. Also.

The following buttons are used to zoom and rotate the view of the connection: Connection pad tools to zoom and rotate the connection 3D representation. 546 . You may view the connection transparent (3D view). press one of the following buttons: Zoom in.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 3D view of a Single Plate BCF. To zoom. 2D Drawing with different views and the option to export as a DXF file. Connection pad tools for the 2D views.

The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. To zoom. use the Ctrl-Shift-mouse wheel combination. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. Zoom fence. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. use the mouse wheel. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. use the Shift-mouse wheel combination. you may do this with a right-click over the center of the drawing. Activate and inactivate edges movement. Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. 3: Help area In this section of the Connection Pad the help information related to the selected data in the Properties area is displayed: Click the button to return to the previous explanation of the help window. and save it. zoom in or out. 547 . make the drawing area active. To rotate horizontally. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). If a mouse wheel is available . use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. First. You can reposition the dim lines when this option is enabled. Fit in window. DXF files This module has the option to export graphics to DXF. use the Ctrl-mouse wheel combination. To rotate vertically. To rotate vertically. the engineer can use the wheel to rotate.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Zoom out. name the file. in the screen plane. Print graphics Print current graphic. Notice that the new positions are not saved and this should be done prior to printing or exporting the drawing. in the plane perpendicular to the screen. Press .

548 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Click the button to print the current explanation of the help window. If the red light is on. You can select the macro file that will be adopted for each connection template. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. Click this button to prevent from saving all the data that has been entered or modified in the Connection Pad. Click this button to see the connection data report. Edit the desired connection template and in the Connection Pad choose the LEO file that you want to adopt for the connection clicking the right side of the LEO file entrance box to display the LEO window. Notice that you have a status traffic light at the bottom right of the toolbar. Pull it to hide the Help area. if the green light is on. Push this button to display the Drawing area (2D view). it shows that the status and strength ratio of the connection are no good. When the yellow light is on. Push this button to display the Help area. Push this button to display the Drawing area (3D view). which has different functions: Toolbar of the Connection Pad (when editing a model connection) Click this button to save all the data entered or modified in the Connection Pad. Pull the button to hide it. The Connection Pad also has a toolbar in the bottom part of the window. LEO Code (macros) The macro files for connections may be created to be used for a variety of conditions with formulae to calculate some connection data per user’s specifications. Click this button to see the model connection results report. the connection design status is OK. Pull the button to hide it.

it can Edit LEO File Command of the Connection Pad. if the LEO files referenced by the connections have been modified. Notice that the following parameters are designed in the macro: Number of bolts on both sides of the angles (to the beam and to the support) Angle thickness 549 . Therefore. LEO code is executed.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Window to select and manage the LEO file (macros) Note that only the available LEO files for the specific type of connection that is being edited will be displayed. The user can create a new LEO file with the be edited with the displayed: New File Command. Note: When redesigning model connections. the Single Plate – BCW (beam-column web) cannot share the same LEO file with the Single Plate . For example.BCF (beam-column flange) connection. The LEO window will be LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2). For example. where you can enter formulae. select an all bolted double angle shear connection template beam to column flange family (DA BCF All Bolted Connection in the Smart DA Database folder) and edit the following macro: DA BCF BOLT. Once the file is created. you may get different results based on the modifications made to the LEO file. The LEO Code can always be edited or changed to suit the specific design procedures of the user or the user’s company.

In this case. where the used code is indicated: 2. Each user can customize this part of the LEO code to reflect the preferred design criteria and the angle sizes and bolt diameters to be considered in the design. which defines the adopted design variables of the connection. etc) are constant and are defined in the template. 550 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that the remaining parameters (i. the angles have to be bolted to the support and to the beam. the bolt size. Main hypothesis or conditions required for the macro. bolt spacing. Note that the LEO Code is very flexible and allows considering any design criteria. Please review the LEO Chapter together with the given examples for further applications.e. The LEO Code determines the parameters that will be designed: In the example you can find the following parts in the LEO code: 1. • Macro main design procedure. the angle thickness and the number of bolts will be calculated according to the required loads. In this example. Heading of the design procedure. materials.

If a dimension is out of range. invalidating the connection. the status of the connection will reflect it. To obtain model connection reports for a group of connections. To obtain data or results reports from the Connection Pad. the most critical strength ratio and the status of the connection are reported. The second section of the report checks that the critical dimensions are within allowable code prescribed ranges or geometrical requirements. The results report provides all the connection capacity values for each load condition or for the load envelope depending on the option selected in the dialog Loads specification for report before the pad was opened. At the beginning of the report there is a list of the load conditions considered. The data report provides the full description of the connection(s) considering the geometry and characteristics of the members and connection elements. If any capacity is not sufficient. select the desired connections and go to Reports/Connections design… 551 . You can press: or . RAM Connection also offers the possibility to have detailed or summary reports of several connections.G. There is also a geometric verification to see the compatibility of the connection with the members (for example. The third section shows the different capacity checks that are performed comparing the calculated capacity of the connection with the connection required force. the status of the connection will change to N.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections Reports You can obtain connection reports from the Connection Pad or from the program main menu. at the bottom of the report. (not good). either you are reviewing/editing a model connection or a group of identical model connections (Detailing connections). or creating/editing a connection template in the database. Finally. this check will indicate if a plate exceeds the support width) in which case a warning message will also be reported.

Design Loads for Seated-beam in LRFD. 552 . 1998 J. AISC. Proceedings of NSCC Sponsored by AISC. The detailed report always considers the connections load envelope of the selected load conditions. 2nd Edition. and R. Steel Design Guide Series 4. Engineering Journal. Load and Resistance Factor Design. AISC. Murray Thomas M.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Select the type of report. by description or connectors. by family. Note that you have an option to report a list of joints. Load and Resistance Factor Design. AISC. L. and Sputo Thomas. while the rest of reports are a review of the design that include the strength ratio and status considering the selected load conditions. Design Criteria for Stiffened Seated Connections to Column Webs. Garret. 2001. 3rd Edition. Manual of Steel Construction. within the connections of a group there could be differences in the parameters not listed). 1-3. New Orleans. 1994. Manual of Steel Construction. References The used references are: AISC. Load and Resistance Factor Design. JR. H. by type. You can specify if the connections will be grouped by tag. summary or detailed. 1986.Connections. Brockenbrough. 2nd Edition. so. April. AISC. The Connectors report is a summary of all the connectors with their main characteristics (note that the connections are grouped according to the listed parameters. 1994. Ellifritt Duane S. Extended End-Plate Moment Connections. 1990.. Manual of Steel Construction. Volume II .

and J. McGraw Hill. 1997. Sherman. Henderson.Connections and Trusses . Connection Design for Steel Structures (Lecture Notes).1-1.A Design Guide. pp.1. IL. Joseph M. Handbook of Structural Steel Connection Design and Details. Ales. Packer. LLC. Thornton. William A. Chicago.E. Loescher Michael. AISC.. 1991. The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Connections. Master of Engineering Project. 1999 Sherman. Proceedings of the 1991 National Steel Construction Conference. 2003. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. Dowswell Bo. Hollow Structural Section .A. M Ales. D. 1999. Bull Moose Tube HSS Connections Manual.22..Chapter 28: Steel Connections Akbar R.Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual. The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Columns. J. American Institute of Steel Construction. AISC . Tamboli. Structural Design Solutions. Bull Moose Tube Company.. 1990. J. 1997. Donald R. R. 553 . University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee.

.

which is performed in the detailing window.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Chapter 29: Retaining Walls This chapter describes the options available in the module for the design and detailing of retaining walls. Similar to the other design modules. Terminology The following names have been adopted for the different parts or elements of a wall: • • • • Toe Heel Stem Key 555 . you can proceed with the analysis and verifications. geometry. the aim of this one is to obtain a fully functional and economic retaining wall according to the code practice and the office standards of the engineer. All data entries as the material properties. The data input is performed through drop-down windows or multiple options in the pad. The report or the Design Screen will show the different diagrams and strengths of the elements of the wall according to the adopted codes (ACI 318 or MSJ). and design parameters may be modified at any moment before and after the analysis. hypothesis and methods adopted. once the geometry is totally defined. You can review the Chapter related to the general characteristics of the detailing modules for more details about their management and organization. The report shows additionally the results of the global verifications (overturning. Design steps 1) Data introduction The user has to enter the required data related to the geometry and characteristics of the desired wall before performing the analysis and design of the wall. Technical notes Warning! It is suggested to read carefully this notes before using the module because they summarize the scope. 3) Optimization The optimization process can be achieved in two phases by two tool buttons: 1) suggest geometry to comply with global stability requirements starting from the given retained height and loads and 2) suggest reinforcement. 2) Verification and Detailing Once the wall is defined. sliding and soil pressures).

Chapter 29: Retaining Walls The front face corresponds to the side of the toe and the posterior face to the heel and backfill side. Coulomb. Graphical input of wall loads and geometry Context sensitive help Backfill with multiple horizontal soil layers (up to 5 layers) Sloped backfill (only positive slopes are allowed) Surcharge (on both sides of the wall) Options to define cantilever. gravity or restrained retaining walls (with a lateral restraint and pinned or fixed base) Tapered stems or stems with several blocks of uniform thickness Hydrostatic water pressure (no seepage) Reinforced concrete. EFP (Equivalent Fluid Method). at rest pressures) 556 . Different parts of a retaining wall. General The general characteristics of the module are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analysis and design of reinforced or unreinforced concrete or masonry retaining walls . unreinforced concrete or masonry materials (only for stem blocks) are allowed Axial loads on the stem are considered (with or without eccentricity) Wind lateral pressures Includes moment and shear diagrams Influence of adjacent footings Different theories for calculating lateral soil pressures (Rankine.

Loads The module works with surcharges on both sides of the wall. includes the maximum allowable axial load and the strength ratio taking into account the compression and flexure interaction. Only positive eccentricities are allowed for axial loads (from the center line to the left) because this is critical for global stability checks.04*H for cohesive soils. This implies to have an amount of lateral translation in the order of 0. ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02 reported by MSJC. In concrete retaining walls the axial loads are not considered in the design. the program has different options for their calculation (see configuration window).001*H to 0.01*H to 0. The strength capacities table presented for masonry. 557 . Earth pressures Considering that lateral earth pressures are the most significant load in a retaining wall. Stem axial loads Axial loads at the stem are always considered for the global stability of the wall and in the design of masonry stem blocks. Building Code Requirements for Masonry structures. stem axial loads. stem lateral loads and sloped backfill.004*H for granular soils and 0.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • • • • Seismic load (with the Mononobe-Okabe method considering a single homogeneous backfill layer without cohesion). ACI 31899 (ACI 1999). Rankine Method: It is used for walls that are allowed to have a lateral displacement big enough to produce an active earth pressure. This method does not consider the wall –soil friction. adjacent footing loads. Wall tilt calculations (deflections) DXF export of the main graphics Option to save and retrieve data and results Detailed report Limitations The features not covered by the module are: • • • • Alternate retaining walls or counterfort and buttressed reinforced concrete walls Walls modeled with springs (possible for next version) Shear reinforcement Restrained walls can not have multiple restraints (multi-level basement walls) Design Codes The currently implemented codes for retaining wall design are: • • American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.

Effect of water in earth pressures: The presence of water is considered as an hydrostatic pressure without considering any seepage for the calculation of the destabilizing pressures. Although the presence of water is considered by the program it is suggested.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Coulomb Method: It is used with the same considerations of the Rankine method. β is the slope angle of the backfill. It is important to remark that lateral earth pressure calculations for the global stability of the wall do not consider the heel of the wall (see next figure). This option is found in the configuration window. where φ is the friction angle. The reason is that any soil beneath the water level will have a different unit weight (saturated) than a similar soil located over the water level. several references do not recommend it because it does not take into account the soil properties. The user can. The program considers a default value equal to (1-sin φ)*(1+sin β). however. whenever is possible. Bowles (1995) gave some suggestions depending on the soil types. to avoid the presence of water on backfills due to economic reasons. In this case it is suggested to neglect the tension zone for the active soil pressures where cracks may be formed in the soil-wall interface. The only difference is that it considers the wall-soil friction (δ). In this case the lateral at-rest soil coefficient (Ko) is adopted. The section adopted for this verification is coincident with the back face of the stem instead of the vertical section at the end of the heel: Lateral earth pressures and their horizontal distances to point O. the program is able to consider the cohesion of the soil layers of the backfill. Drains or any other technical alternative may be used to solve this problem. Equivalent Fluid Pressure (EFP): This method assumes that the soil behaves as a fluid with an equivalent unit weight related to the lateral earth pressure coefficient multiplied by the soil unit weight (pressure per unit depth). 558 . Although this method is common. At rest pressure: This option is used mostly for restrained walls or walls where the lateral displacements are negligible. In this case the water level should be defined and it has to coincide with any interface between soil layers. Backfill with cohesive soils: Although this type of backfills are not recommended. define any appropriated value for this parameter.

Resisting pressures: There are three options to consider the resisting pressures in the case of the overturning check: Do not consider any pressure. If the EFP method is used. Water level is not considered for the resisting forces being on the safe side. concentrated loads). 1997).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Use of vertical component for stability checks: The program allows to choose if the vertical component of earth pressures will be considered for overturning. The decision will depend on the engineering judgment. It is important to note that the Boussinesq method requires the value of the Poisson constant and it will have a big influence on the calculated pressures. This will depend only on the engineering judgment. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. sliding or soil pressure checks. which has a distance shown in the former figure. an equivalent lateral soil pressure coefficient will be calculated and the inclination angle of the resultant force will be coincident with the backfill slope similarly to the Rankine method. Both methods are based on the Theory of Elasticity. Therefore. Adjacent footings: The program offers different options to consider the influence of adjacent footings (rectangular footings. The two available methods for the calculation of the lateral pressures are Spangler (1956) and Boussinesq (suggested by Bowles. The different options are available in the configuration window. The program will automatically calculate the lateral pressures of the adjacent footing and will add them to the lateral earth pressures. strip footings. Bowles (1997) gives different suggestions for this value. the value of this property has to be selected carefully considering that it will be taken constant for all soil layers independently of the number of adopted soil layers. It is important to note that the location of the vertical component will be normally at the heel edge for all earth pressure calculation methods on exception of the Coulomb method. 559 . The height that will be adopted for the resisting earth pressures will be equal to the depth of the foundation base minus the undermining depth. This depth is also defined in the configuration window. lineal loads.

It consists in the calculation of the coefficient for combined active and earthquake forces (Kae). The following figure describes the effect of the calculation points (black squares). Seismic Load The program may consider seismic loads using an extension of the Coulomb´s active earth pressure theory using the Mononobe-Okabe equation including the modifications of Seed and Whitman.40) or can be calculated as: kh=Aa*(0. The precision will be limited to the calculated pressures at those points. Precision of the lateral earth forces calculation: The pressures will be calculated on a maximum of 20 equally distant points.5 sec. 560 . no water table and no liquefaction possibility.05 to 0. Av are Effective peak acceleration and effective peak velocity They are dimensionless coefficients representing the Effective Peak Acceleration (EPA) and the Effective Peak Velocity (EPV). This value is normally tabulated (common values are in the range of 0.25 Where Aa. It is important to remark that the obtained diagram is closer to the real soil diagram because it has no abrupt changes.2SQR(Av)/Aa/Delta)0. The method uses the ratio of the horizontal earthquake acceleration component and the acceleration due to gravity (kh). Effect of calculation points over the theoretical pressure diagram. For the backfill. the wet soil unit weight will be adopted for all layers over the water level and the submerged unit weight (saturated unit weight minus water unit weight) for the rest of the layers.1 to 0. The EPV is proportional to spectral ordinates at a period of about 1 sec. The EPA is proportional to spectral ordinates for periods in the range of 0. the obtained pressure diagram (red line) and the theoretical pressure diagram (gray) for three soil stratum. The method is limited only for cohesion-less material. These are normalizing factors for construction of smoothed elastic response spectra for ground motions of normal duration.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Lateral earth pressures due to adjacent footing load Weight: It will be calculated based on the unit weights of the different materials of the wall. It considers the calculation of the increased earth pressures (in walls that may yield laterally) and the inertial forces of the wall due to self-weight. covering the whole height of the wall.

Load factor combinations for concrete design: They are used for the design of the different (reinforced) concrete elements of the wall. More details of this method may be found in Das (1995). Their names start with “S”. The equation used for Kae is: Where: φ is the friction angle. Their names start with “R”.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Both factors (Aa and Av) are given by the Applied Technology Council or the local building codes like the BOCA seismic maps for most regions in the United States.2 of the Code. When Kae is calculated.4. plain concrete or masonry. In this case. while for the foundation base only concrete materials are allowed. toe. Delta is the maximum lateral displacement during the earthquake. ∆Pae=Pae-Pa. It is important to know that the combinations may be automatically generated with the load combination generator. the program will consider the element as a plain concrete member. Unreinforced Concrete Design If no reinforcement is defined.5. Their names start with “A”. The shear strength is determined according to Section 22. The rest of the design considerations are similar to the ones adopted for concrete design.5. heel or key) may have reinforcement and should always be checked for flexure and shear. β is the slope angle. kv is the vertical seismic component. The program assumes kv=0. The program allows to set different materials for stem blocks: reinforced concrete. it is assumed that ∆Pae acts at 0. α is the internal slope angle of the stem (related to the horizontal plane). Chapter 22 of the ACI-318 specifications will be adopted.6*H. Design of components of the wall The different elements of the wall (stem blocks. The adopted method for the design of this material is the limit states design. 561 . the active force per unit width of the wall including the seismic effect (Pae) is calculated and the seismic force (∆Pae) is obtained by subtracting Pa to Pae. Finally. The flexure strength is defined with the tension strength given in Section 22. Load Combinations The module has up to three groups of load combinations: Service Combinations: They are used for global checks and for the deflections calculation. δ is the soil-wall friction angle and θ is defined as the arctan (kh/(1-kv)). Allowable stress design combinations for masonry design: Note that only the combinations of this set will be considered in the masonry design.

Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the different elements of reinforced concrete has the following characteristics: The flexural design is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. The program checks the strength along the whole length of each element considering that the reinforcement may change due to cut offs and it is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog.2. shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. The program does not consider any extra reinforcement to resist axial loads (in tension or compression). This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently.2. The option is available in the configuration window.3) compression reinforcing will be added.3. This is established according to Section 11.1 of the code. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0.1.75ρb (ACI 10. The wall is calculated as a slab in one direction.1xLength) The following figure illustrates the critical sections that are normally adopted to check the different wall components for flexure. The program does not consider stirrups or any other shear reinforcement. The design assumptions of ACI 10. particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution.7 are fully implemented. It does not consider either any special consideration for the reinforcement in seismic areas. For the summary output in the main program. The critical sections for shear may coincide with the flexure sections or they me be localized at a distance d (effective depth) from the face of support. 562 .3. flexure.7. Critical sections for flexure design The shear design of the different reinforced concrete elements is performed according to Chapter 11 of the ACI code. The development lengths are calculated according to Chapter 12 of the code and the critical sections are the same as the ones considered for flexure.

and completely bonded reinforcement. The masonry below the neutral axis is assumed cracked. which at the same time are used for determining the allowable axial load. masonry does not resist tension forces. shear and flexure design is performed according to Section 2. This parameter together with the net thickness is used for the calculation of the net area and net inertia.1. No special consideration is adopted for seismic loads.3 of the Code. where the user enters the geometry.10. The net thickness is normally given by the supplier and depends on the type of grout (full or partial). Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module This section describes the available options in the retaining wall design/detailing module. The adopted method is the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and therefore. The program data base includes a small set of masonry materials that have the following nomenclature: BM XX-YY or CM XX-YY Where B= concrete masonry units. ACI 530-02. An allowable axial load (Pa) is calculated. Only rectangular sections are considered. BM 1. The smaller of the resisting moments is the allowable moment. For example. The reinforcement development length and the splices are calculated according to Section 2. b= width of the member effective in compression. materials and reinforcement (if required) and the program will check the condition of the wall for any 563 . Fb = allowable compressive stress due to flexure only. where Fv is the allowable shear stress.5-40 is a concrete masonry unit with f’m = 1500 psi and FS = 20000 psi that corresponds to a grade 40 steel. As in many other detailing modules. together with an allowable shear stress (Fv) and an allowable compression stress due to flexure (Fb). Ma = min(Mrm. The allowable shear force (Va) is calculated as: Va = Fv*b*d. Another parameter that must be selected with caution is the reinforcement spacing. j = ratio of the distance between centroid of flexural compressive forces and centroid of tensile forces to the distance d. k = ratio of the depth of the compressive stress block to the total depth from compression face to the reinforcing steel (d). the program will request a special load combination group for the design of these special elements. The resisting moments for masonry and reinforcement (Mrm and Mrs respectively) are calculated together with the corresponding stresses (fb and fs): Mrs = Fs*As*j*d Mrm = Fb*k*j*b*d² Where Fs = allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement. the design is a trial and error process. the modulus of elasticity is constant. Mrs). The flexure design is performed with a transformed section. stresses are proportional to strains. The user is responsible to adopt a correct value for the thickness according to the nominal thickness of the masonry available in the market. This value depends strictly on the masonry geometry and normally has a fixed value. XX = specified compression strength in ksi and YY is the grade of the reinforcement steel in ksi. C = clay masonry units. The axial.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Masonry Design The design of the masonry stem blocks are performed with the following specification: 2002 version of the Building Code Requirements for Masonry reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee. The basic equations assume that the plane sections remain plane after bending.

In this way the user may optimize the design of the wall. Initial screen of the module: Data Screen. In the data screen 3 different areas may be distinguished: 564 . materials or loads. Data Screen The first screen that is accessed after calling the module is the data screen that is used for the introduction of geometrical data. Calling the retaining wall module from the main menu.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls applied load cases. This screen allows you to easily modify or define the dimensions and loads of the wall. This module is independent of the main program (no data from the main model is used ) and it is called selecting the command Detailing/Retaining Walls… from the main menu.

The user can modify all the properties. as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or edit this value. through this window. Some options will only appear for certain options or loads. in red text. The help window (C). Help (C) The property window (A). this window may change as data are being entering. Properties (A) 4. The graphic window (B). shows the information about the selected current item in the property window (A). Graphic (B) 5. 565 . is used for introducing all the necessary information related to the retaining wall.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Data screen with 3 different windows 3. represents the whole information entered in the property window like geometry and assigned loads.

566 . you can see the design or detailing screen.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Every item in the Pad is included in the help context. After entering all the data. which involves an automatic calculation of the wall.

thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required strength) curve and the capacity (actual strength) curve. those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: 567 . This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the retaining wall. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design Screen Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the Design Screen. The user can view the combined diagrams too.

This is an indicator of the design status where: the red light indicates that the relationship between stresses is greater than one or the global stability checks are no good. The yellow light indicates that the adopted reinforcement arrangement is no good (i. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition.e. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. A special option is available that allows to simultaneously check the diagrams for all elements of the wall. Notice the existence of a “traffic lights” in the top right corner. the green light indicates that the design status of the wall is OK.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Combined bending moment and simple shear diagram Note that at the top left corner you can select the element of the wall that will be considered for displaying the diagrams. Traffic Lights 568 . the reinforcement extends out of the wall). thus it fails. This helps in getting a global picture of the strength status. Finally.

Note that the user can export the figure by pressing the DXF button. A CAD file will be created and may be edited with any drafting software.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the retaining wall. The following window will be displayed where the desired bar sizes for the different bar groups are introduced. 569 . Both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements are shown on this screen. Notice that there are three ways to define the reinforcement in a retaining wall: • Using the Suggest Reinforcement Button .

• Using the Define Continuous or Discontinuous Reinforcement buttons ( . which may be edited according to the required characteristics of the new group.. Note that when you enter the first value of a new group of reinforcement. This method allows to define any type of reinforcement. 570 . Remark. you can edit the values in the worksheet to control exactly the lengths and positions of the different bar groups. The program will show a dialog window to define the bar sizes together with bar spacings. the rest of the parameters will adopt initial default values. spacing. axis of reference. This option is used when a particular reinforcement bar group has to be introduced (with a defined spacing between bars). The program will automatically calculate the required bar lengths to cover the geometry and conditions of the wall. This option do not include the required reinforcement for masonry stem blocks or reinforced concrete keys. Using the worksheet. the required reinforcement for the whole wall will be automatically designed.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls When you press the OK button. • Independently on how have you defined your reinforcement. The reinforcement of these elements should be defined with the other choices after the use of the present tool. distance to the start point. ). The following data are required for each group: bar size. Note also that this tool will erase any previously defined reinforcement of any element of the wall.It is important to define also the free covers to be adopted for the different wall elements with the button . distance to the end point and flags to define if the ends are hooked or not.

The first one is used for longitudinal bars and the second one for transverse bars.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Worksheet for defining the bar groups. The items considered are described in the table below. Note that changed data on this screen are saved with the model and the defined options may be set as defaults for subsequent new walls with the option Set these values as default. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed. It is found in the Detailing Screen and it has two tabs. but it does not need to be modified for subsequent walls. All the required data for each bar type are included. Option Active pressures calculation Description It determines the calculation method used for the 571 . and to have control over the reinforcement design. The worksheet is used to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Configuration Screen Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some calculation methods and office standards for design.

etc. water level. It will not allow a foundation base depth smaller than the undermining depth. The program offers four methods: Rankine. The program will not consider the resisting pressures of the soils over the undermining depth for global verifications. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the sliding check. If Yes. Calculation method for lateral pressures due to adjacent footings Two options are available.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls method calculation of lateral earth pressures.5 and 2.0. It is recommended a value equal to 3.0. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. The bearing capacity may be calculated with the equations given by Hansen. Meyerhof or Vesic. It is recommended a value between 1. If Yes. More details related to these methods may be found in Bowles (1997) and Das (1995). the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the soil pressures check. The Boussinesq method need the Poisson coefficient for the backfill and the SpanglerJarquio method is only available for strip foundations. These methods consider the acting loads in the wall and the specific surrounding conditions as the backfill slope angle.0. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the overturning check. Calculation method for soil bearing pressures Consider active pressure vertical component for overturning Consider active pressure vertical component for sliding Consider active pressure vertical component for soil pressures Allowable safety factor for overturning Allowable safety factor for sliding Allowable safety factor for bearing capacity Frost depth Undermining depth 572 . An error will be displayed if the soil bearing safety factor is less that the given value. If Yes. Note that the option to calculate the bearing capacity should be enabled. Coulomb. It is recommended a value between 1. Equivalent Fluid Pressures (EFP) and at-rest pressures (Ko). An error will be displayed if the sliding safety factor is less that the given value. Consider tension zone for the active earth pressures Consider resisting pressure for Three options are available: Not consider any resisting overturning pressure.5 and 2. It is used in cohesive soils and the tension zone may or may not be neglected. An error will be displayed if the overturning safety factor is less that the given value. Lower depths of the foundation base in relation to this depth are not allowed.

refer to Chapter 1 of this Manual. which is added to the clear cover to determine the distance from the edge of wall (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel (bar diameter*0. In the report you will find: • A summary of the data (geometry. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. the results of the analysis and the results of the design.3. the load combos will not be generated.3 specifies that this factor should be 0. Fore more details about the available commands. Section 14.3. If no file is selected. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report where you can find the input data. ACI 10. Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. The user shall consider section 7. Load Factors combinations Maximum ratio allowed between Rho / Rho balanced Minimum vertical reinforcement ratio Minimum horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio Minimum spacing between longitudinal bars Round bar length to Estimated distance to mechanical center Reduce Vu near support face View as RAM Advanse Model This option allows to see the wall as a standard RAM Advanse Model.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Service load combinations Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of service load combinations. loads and reinforcement) 573 . A general tool bar is available with different buttons to see different data or analysis results in a similar way as in RA. Applies the specification given in section 11. rigid offsets.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio.6 of the Code.1.5).3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the vertical reinforcement ratio. The user may access to this window to see the acting loads. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch. Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of load factors combinations. The ratio of reinforcement Rho provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced Rho. the load combos will not be generated. If no file is selected.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. This is the distance.75 Section 14. materials. foot etc. force diagrams and any other data or result over each wall element. It is the free horizontal distance between bars.

The screen is shown To enter to the report. the report presents the design results for each member of the wall. The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. etc. soil properties. and the safety factors for the global checks of each service load combination. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report. press the button next: Report screen. The results presentation depends on the material. Then the user will find the results of the global checks that include resisting forces. destabilizing forces. loads. In this section and depending on the material. Finally. materials. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The report of retaining walls displays all the detailed information of the wall. the user will find different design parameters. A summary of design results for flexure and shear considering the envelopes at evenly spaced stations along each element (0. and the report will be displayed. as geometry. At the top the general information of the wall is displayed.1xLength) of the wall for reinforced concrete or masonry. but for reinforced concrete and masonry the results are presented in tables and graphically as shown below: 574 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • A summary of the global verifications.

All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. For masonry design the results are presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 575 . this part of the diagram is displayed in red. In this way. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a concrete stem The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously.

army. PWS. Joseph E.. Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition.army. "Principles of Foundation Eng. Free downloadable on /www. the resistant moments in the table are the admissible according to the adopted design code (allowable stress ASD).. in a similar manner as concrete blocks.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a masonry stem The program perform verifications for masonry blocks (such as bending moment or shear force).usace. 3rth Edition. References • • • • Bowles. Mc Graw Hill. USA Corps of Engineers. The user should note that in this case.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals. Das. the table shows the admissible shear force (Va). Free downloadable on /www. 1995 576 . 1992. Engineering and Design – Retaining and Flood Walls (EM 1110-22502). For shear. Boston. Engineering and Design .Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905).". 1995 USA Corps of Engineers. 1989. Braja M.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals. New York.usace.

analyze. or wood members submitted to shear and bending. ACI for concrete and AISI for cold formed steel. the unbraced length Lb and the bending coefficient Cb for steel beams. This module will allow you to model. designing. prescribed by the design code. For more details about these and other parameters. This section will describe all the available options in the module such as input geometry. All input data like material properties. 4) Optimization The last step is the optimization of sections that can be completed for steel and wood beams only. sections. Design steps 1) Entering Data The user should enter all the necessary data to obtain a new model before doing the analysis and going to the design screen. The analysis should consider a moment of inertia reduction (factor Ig) only for reinforced concrete. cold formed steel. and design any continuous beam under a variety loads. sections. Optimization involves reducing oversized sections an optimal section (normally a lighter section) 577 . analysis. and obtaining results through a specific report for continuous beams. materials. geometry and other design parameters can be modified at any time during the analysis. the model should be analyzed completely.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The Continuous Beam module allows the user to easily and quickly model a continuous beam independently of the main program. see the relative chapters exclusive to each material. It is a useful tool dedicated to provide the user all the tools necessary for inputting data. NDS for wood. detailing. This input is done through drop-down windows in the case of multiple options or by keypad for singular options. The verifications are completed in the design and detailing module that will be explained further ahead. 3) Verifications Depending on the selected material and design code. 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing Before proceeding with a beam design. The module supports steel. and sections in a practical and simple manner. the code verifications are the next step where it calculates the longitudinal reinforcement for reinforced concrete beams only. and different coefficients and design parameters for wood beams. materials. loads . reinforced concrete. and detailing for continuous beams. design. The available codes for this module are: AISC and BS for steel.

If this is required. No deep member design is considered. or for sections that fail the code check. the engineer can use the main portion of the program. they will be changed to larger sections that pass the code check. Torsion is not considered. Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition -1989). • • • • AISI – ASD-LRFD. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Cold-formed Steel Design Manual – Load and Resistance Factor Design (Edition . For more details.American Wood Council (Edition – 1997). Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. AISC-LRFD. The user can see it. Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor Design (3rd Edition 2001).1996). see the optimization chapter of the Manual. • • • Flexure Shear Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) Important! No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). British Code BS 5950-1:2000. Design Codes The following codes are considered in the present version: • AISC-ASD. For a better orientation. National Design Specification. Technical Notes General The design of beams accounts for all load conditions. The user should specify the code that will be used for the design according to the material that will be used. American Forest & Paper Association . ACI. see the following conceptual map: 578 . by selecting the load case or load combination required in the bar Condition in the design screen. NDS. reinforced concrete and wood beams.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams from a predefined group of sections. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in this program with respect to the analysis and design beams: • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. The following items are checked in the design of steel.

(*) The beam may have the two extreme spans as cantilevers. The tool works only with live loads. in a 5 span continuous beam (*). For example. we will have the following generated load patterns: Load SK1 SK2 SK3 SK4 SK5 SK6 SK7 SK8 SK9 SK10 Span1 (*) + + + + + Span2 + + + + + Span3 + + + + + Span4 + + + + + Span5 (*) + + + + + (-) Negative load (downward) .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis Pattern loading This is a special tool of the module that allows the generation of different load conditions considering pattern loading. The generated loads will be named starting with “SK”. Percentage: This determines the fraction of the live load (between 0 and 100%) that will be effectively distributed. 579 . the engineer needs to generate load combinations and choose the files which included skip loading. Note that it uses the conjunction OR for live load. The load conditions that will be generated are 2*n. To define skip loading. where n is the number of spans of the continuous beam. Dead loads are applied permanently and thus are not subjected to distribution.

580 . Note that only the load combinations of this group will be considered in the design. Enter the 0. in ASD (AISC. it means that the upward or downward loads are zero. For more information. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. For more information about these and other parameters. see Chapter F (AISC-ASD or LRFD) in the steel manual. If LB=0 the program will adopt LB=L (distance between nodes). Load combinations There are two groups of load combinations: Service Load Combinations that are used for deflection control. Valid values are 0. AISI) or for the nominal moment strength. Note that if 0.0 to 1. The number of combinations depends on the Skip loading option. it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to beams and columns.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams If the program uses a zero (0) instead of (+) or (-).35 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. Design parameters Next. refer to specific chapters of each material. These names start with “D”. For example. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code.0. This value can be entered directly into the Inertia reduction factor Ig option in the design data as shown in the figure below. ultimate limit states combinations or unfactored load combinations may be selected. Fb. You may automatically generate all the required combinations with the load combination generator. These names start with “S”. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. a value of 1. These parameters are used for the calculation of the allowable bending stress. in LRFD (AISC.0 is entered. some beam parameters that the user must keep in mind for input data are described. Depending on the material and Code. Unbraced length Lb The unbraced length of the compression flange of the section is needed for the lateral torsional flexural buckling capacity calculation of steel members. Important! • The Inertia reduction factor Ig for reinforced concrete will be considered constant for all the spans of the beam. Design Load Combinations that are used for the design of the different beam spans.0 is used in the analysis. Mn. Cracked Section Factors To analyze a concrete structure accurately. AISI).35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) to consider the cracked section in the analysis.

Detailing Requirements To obtain detailed information for the provisions adopted by the program for the detailing of reinforced concrete beams. AISI). type of restrictions. are presented in this Manual. according to the material. Bending coefficient Cb This bending coefficient is used in steel design and it depends on the moment gradient (AISC-ASD.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams It should be noted that the unbraced length Lb can in some cases be greater than the total length of the beam (distance between nodes). the coefficient Cb should be calculated manually or the user must assume a value equal to 1. The automatic calculation is recommended. Typical cases of these modifications are: “force shear reduction near column face”.. Then the program verifies the beam condition for the specification loads. and general design data. loads. This module is invoked by selecting Detailing/Continuous Beam from the menu bar of the main program.With the purpose of facilitating the user the navigation and input data. the user enters the necessary data for the analysis in the spreadsheet such as geometry... For that. the user can refer to previous chapters corresponding to the material the user wants to design. Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length of the member. Note. “factors of inertia”. The value depends on the structure type (braced or unbraced) and the moments at the ends of the spans(according to each load condition). Design All the considerations and detailed information about the design procedure. For detailed information about the input data. As in all the detailing modules. refer to the chapter “Reinforced Concrete Beam Design” in the Manual. the program will calculate the value according to the Code. If this is the case. calculated parameter. 581 . refer to the Examples Manual of Continuous Beam. the module has a detailed help for each option. the program allows you to introduce these values but it is the responsibility of the user to adopt the correct value and to use an appropriate approach for it. If the automatic calculation is adopted. LRFD. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases since it allows the user to modify a special. Refer to the chapter for Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within these modules.. Design/Detailing Module Beam Entering data for a Continuous Beam The layout of Continuous Beam allows the user to optimize his time while inputting data through drop-down windows in cases where multiple options are found. and design code to be employees..

the user should select from the main program the members he wants to analyze.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Passing data of the main program Contrary to the dependent modules that were explained in the detailing module chapter. pinned. geometry. Note that all beam data and the assigned loads have been entered and generated in the module. The model can also be saved with an “RCB” extension and use it directly in Continuous Beam. save it with an “AVW” extension. he is ready to enter to the module. 582 . To pass data of the main program. hinged and spring. Some examples are shown below: What the user should not do Once the user has selected the elements correctly. which will consider the following data of the main model: geometry. The user should only consider that the first selected beam will be the reference for the results location in one or other direction. loads in the analysis plane and restrictions.The program will show an error message when the user selects members that do not belong to a continuous beam. including other elements or excluding spans. Continuous Beam is a design/detailing independent module that allows you to generate a new model from this application. not in the main program.. and design parameters. Note. Data Screen The first screen displayed after entering the module is the data screen. In this screen. section. the module will assume for the model a pinned restriction and the user will change it according to requirements.. considering that the selection order of the elements that compose his beam is not relevant. for example selecting alternate members. The restrictions follow the next priority and excluding order in case of existing more than one restriction for each node: fixed. When there are connected members. sections. and use it in RAM Advanse. materials. the user can modify the material properties.

Help (C) The property window (A) is used for introducing all the necessary information about the beam. and any other option in a easily way and every time that the user wants. Some options will appear only for certain matericals due to the design code requirements for that material. This advantage allows you to model more exactly the beam behavior. Graphic (B) 3. This window will be change interactively as data is being entered. the engineer should be careful to enter the exact dimensions.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Initial screen in the module: Data Screen This screen allows you to modify dimensions. Properties (A) 2. If this model is to be used to generate structural drawings. loads. 583 . The Data screen has 3 different windows as shown below: Data Screen for a continuous beam with 3 different windows 1.

such as thegeometry and assigned loads. The help window (C) shows the information about the currently selected item in the property window (A). After completing the modeling. The user can modify all the properties in red text as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or type a new value. you can now view the design screen: 584 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The graphic window (B) represents the summary of information that is entered in the property window. Every item has an applicable help section.

thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (supplied) curve. 585 . Notice the existence of a Traffic light in the top right corner. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design screen. The yellow light indicates that the ratio between stresses is satisfactory. Those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: Combine the demand and capacity curves for bending moment and simple shear into one diagram. is not satisfactory. but another requirement. Finally. such as deflection. the green light indicates that the status of design of the member is is satisfactory for all strength and service requirements. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. The user can view combined diagrams too. Traffic light. This traffic light is an indicator of design status where the red light indicates that the ratio of demand to capacity is greater than one and thus fails. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time.

The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. Window A: 586 .The Width of supports of the beam is constant and defined by the user in the Data Screen as shown below. The Width of supports is constant.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars designed for the beam.. Note that the user can only define the reinforcement and the locations of the cross sections in the figure. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside Continuous Beam. Both longitudinal reinforcing and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. Note.

they are shown in blue and the bars not selected are shown in light gray as shown below: Window B (spreadsheet) 587 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The reinforcing can be entered through the Suggested reinforcing option in the data screen or through the Detailing screen. Note that control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected. To edit a single bar or certain groups of bars. they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet.

Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement. is used to define the location of the cross sections. It is active only in the Detailing Screen for this module. Note. 588 . is used to define the longitudinal reinforcement. Note that data changed on this screen are saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. the second one. called Sections. and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. refer to the chapter Reinforced Concrete Beam Design – Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module. called Bars. For detailed information about this screen. and the last one. The spreadsheet is divided into three pages: the first one. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. called Stirrups. is used to define the stirrups. Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design.

Normal weight or lightweight affects shear. Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars. Affects the development length of bars.4. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch.3. The user shall between consider section 7. The items considered are described in the table below. ACI 10.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams These criteria should be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for his or her final design.1 of the Code. The only option available at this time. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99. Estimated distance This is the distance that is added of clear cover to to the clear cover (see data bar group centroid screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. 589 .6 of the Code.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8. reinforcement Round bar length Longitudinal bar lengths can be to adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Epoxy Coated Ratio between The ratio of reinforcement Rho maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho. torsion and detailing. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required.3 specifies that this factor should be 0. foot etc.

3. the original section can be replaced with another that resists the imposed loads.. This option allows the engineer to change the existing sections with sections that are recommended (based on explicit criteria) from a collection of sections. Fore more details about commands and procedures for section optimization.1. Note. and the results of the design. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report that will summarize the input data. Optimization screen Optimization is valid only for steel and wood members. Horizontal tick This option allows the user to spacing for text manipulate the spacing of the tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. Maximum length bar It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. In other words. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment and shear) along the beam.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Delta X for each The increment at which design solution checks are performed. A summary of design results for flexure and shear performed for the most critical state or combination at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. A normal value is 40 ft. 590 . Reduce Vu near Applies the specification given column face in section 11. refer to the corresponding chapter of this Manual. In the report you will find: • • A summary of analysis results performed for all the load combinations at different stations spaced at equal distances along the beam. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete.1 x Length) for reinforced concrete only.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. the results of the analysis.

The report of beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. The screen is Report screen of continuous beams. material. member forces and deflections. press the button shown next: on any screen and the report will be displayed. the user can find the loading conditions and a graphic display of loads .such as reactions. etc.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams To enter the report. the general information for all the sections of the beam is displayed such as sections. see the Report section of the chapter for Printing Graphics and Reports. At the top. 591 . number of spans. General information. In this section. Then the user will find analysis results for the total length of the beam. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report.

In this section. the report presents the design results for each section of the beam. thus for example: steel design results are presented in tables as shown below: 592 . The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. Afterward. the user will find design parameters. Envelopes of bending moment M33. Finally. The presentation of results depends on the material. and depending on the material. the report presents the envelopes of bending moment M33 and shear V2 and the deflections.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis results.

There are two possible options: • “OK” when the element fulfills all the bending moment and shear code verifications. • "ratio > 1" when the element fails one or more code verifications. the report will present a Status verification for each span of the beam. In this case. For reinforced concrete.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a steel beam. the design results will be presented in tables and with graphics as shown in the figure below: 593 .

If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. Example of the flexural verification diagram. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear force envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. For wood. All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. the design results will be presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 594 . This allows the user to evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a reinforced concrete beam.

the program displays code verifications for results such as bending moment and shear force as shown in the Status verification.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for wood beam As seen before. 595 .

.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Chapter 31: Programming in LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) This chapter is intended for users that want to know more in depth the details of the macro language. Or you can even code how to design the connection parts including items such as number of bolts. an extensive list of connections would be required. With LEO. and structured statements. To accommodate all the variations of connections (number of bolts. and would like to customize the connection design. If however you are comfortable with some basic programming tasks. 597 . girders) sizes. an example of connection customization with LEO will be illustrated. To avoid the need for an extensive connection’s database. for example. size of bolts. you can customize the connection geometry according to the member’s sizes to which the connection connects. different connections will be required based on the member geometry and loads. This will allow you to code office standard or user experience ‘rules’ into the connection designs. It is not required that the users know this information to use RAM Advanse or RAM Connection. data types. RAM Advanse allows you to customize your connections using LEO. Language for Engineering Objects (LEO) is a language embedded into the program where you can enter simple formulas or more significantly more complicated procedures to customize your connections. wood design or section types (only for RAM Advanse) to meet office or other standards then this chapter will describe how to do that. weld length. The following sections describe the different applications and the last sections describe in detail the different available commands. variables. etc. Macros for connections Since connections can be assigned to different beam. In the example a shear-end-plate connection will be adjusted to the beam and column sizes. Basic example of a macro Before describing LEO commands. braces and support (columns. plate thickness. etc).

and open a specific connection.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Connection pad of the connection to be customized. End Plate To locate the shear plate at a distance equal to (beam depth)/4 below the top of the beam. include for example.. double click on the connection or go to the menu Configuration/Databases\Connections. The 598 . Once the file is created.. More elaborated macros include. etc. The file window is activated with the LEO File option in the connection pad. open the connection pad. Create a new LEO file with the New LEO File Command inside the file window. (See the Connections Chapter for more information). it can be edited with the LEO window will be displayed: Edit LEO File Command from the Pad. we will customize the vertical location of the end plate considering the beam size. Customizing geometry First. the following actions should be done: Set the plate position on beam = Upper Set the distance to beam top = (Beam Depth)/4 Entering the commands First. To do this. the calculation of the number of bolts based on the required capacity. Some examples are detailed further on and the user is also referred to the pre-defined macros of each connection type.

To find the variable names. Note that the order is identical to the connection pad. Press in the LEO window to see the list of parameters. Now. you can enter the LEO code and debug it. 599 . the required parameters should be defined using the appropriate variable names . In the editor. select the desired property in the list and press the OK button. you can select the desired property from a list. To enter the formula to locate the end plate at beam-depth/4 from beam top do the following: Place the cursor in the LEO window where you want to copy the variable name.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO A LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2) is opened. To find the variable name.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Then press this button to see the list of variables Select the desired varible in the list. Press the OK button. Notice that once the code is running. To re-run the code. 600 . you can press macro and the cursor is placed at the last executed line. Using the same procedure. 2= Center and 3= Bottom) After entering the formulas. Or you can press step (one line) at a time. To do this. press and then press again one of the above buttons. 1= Upper. write the following formulas (“//” are comments) Write the formulas indicated in the figure (for the PosC property. the cursor is kept at the last line. and to run the to run one Notice that the Help Context of the Leo Editor has a brief description of the different tools for writing and debugging your macros. you can run the macro. The LEO name of the property has been copied to the editor. For the example select the one that defines the position on the beam.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Notice that the distance to beam top has changed as illustrated in the figure. Press OK in the LEO window to save the code that you entered. Note. If you exit the LEO window with “Cancel”, the code that you entered is not saved. If you want the end plate located at a constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam, you can enter the following instructions:

Constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam to the end-plate

Notice that values should always have their corresponding units between brackets. Important: variables entered by the user in the macro should always have their corresponding units. If a value without units is used in later mathematical operations with variables that have units, the mathematical operations will not be valid, yielding unexpected and corrupted results, and this could even modify the units of the variables in the connection pad.

Connection Design
LEO allows the users to design the connections according to their requirements or rules. With LEO the user have access to all data, including geometry, loads and connection capacities. The load data include the maximum connection forces or moments. The capacities variables include all the calculated capacities as bolt shear, bolt bearing, etc. You can see all the available variables by selecting the declarations’ option in the main LEO window:

601

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

You can expand each group to see the list of variables with their descriptions:

Select the name and press CTRL+C to copy the name of any variable to the clipboard. To paste the name in the LEO Editor, press CTRL+V The use of these variables allows the implementation of simple design rules as angle selection, definition of diameter and number of bolts, and much more. The capacities are initially with zero values. To set them with the actual values, the "Calculate" property should be executed, which besides calculating the connection capacities modifies the stress ratio and the status connection variables. If during the connection design, some relevant data for capacity has been modified, as number of bolts, weld length, etc., the special procedure Calculate should be called after the modifications, to get the updated capacities, ratio and status values. Assigning a status message to the connection. The status connection variable is a string that contains the current connection status (OK or N.G.). The user can assign his or her own message to the status variable (recommended no more than 10 characters). For example, if the connection does not satisfy some geometric condition and the user wants to assign an error message, he/she should change the status value as follows: Status = 'Ang > 5in' Note.- The changes in status variable will not be visible in the connection report but will be visible during the graphical results presentation and through the summary report in RAM Advanse (accessed by Reports menu\ Connections design ... option). Bolted connection design example: The following is a design example of an Angles(s) shear connection. To follow the design procedure, please copy the code to an Angle(s) connection and execute it step by step.
602

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 3x3x3_8' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop selectBolt(tw as float) = '1/2" A325 N' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = '7/8" A325 N' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = '1" A325 N' exit End If
End prop

prop doDesign //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) SupportPlateBoltsBolt = selectBolt(tw) BeamPlateBoltsBolt = SupportPlateBoltsBolt //call calculation of capacities
603

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

calculate //store the initial number of bolts nbolts1 = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //No of bolts due to shear on beam BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(2,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BAngleBoltCapacity1+0.99)
//No. of bolts due to bearing on beam

BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(BeamPlateBoltsNrow,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BeamBearing1+0.99) SupportPlateBoltsNrow = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //length of the angle Length = BeamSidePlateLev*2+(BeamPlateBoltsNrow1)*BeamPlateBoltsSpaV //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesign //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

604

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Welded connection design example The design of welded connections and bolted connections are similar. The basic idea for welded connections is to find a resistance by unit weld length to calculate after the required weld length to support the maximum load. It should be noted that due to the weld eccentricity, the weld capacity has no direct and proportional relation with its length. The following code shows an Angle(s) shear connection design according to the weld capacity. prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 1-1_2x1-1_2x3_16' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop doDesignWeld //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) //select welding size BeamPlateWeldsWeldD = nearestBot(Angle_Thickness/[in]*16,1) SupportPlateWeldsWeldD = BeamPlateWeldsWeldD //call calculation of capacities length = 3[in] status = '' ratio = 0 calculate
605

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

//length of the angle at the beam side weldlength = (length + 2*angle_width) weldstress = BAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthB = max(3[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress2*angle_width,1[in])) //length of the angle at the support side weldlength = length weldstress = SAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthS = max(2[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress,1[in])) //length of the angle length = max(lengthS,lengthB) //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesignWeld //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse)
Another application of macros within RAM Advanse is the wood design. This allows you to customize the design with local codes. You can edit or change the wood design macro to define mainly the way how the strength factors will be calculated. Use the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design

606

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Path to call the LEO Editor for Wood Design

LEO Editor for Wood Design. The LEO Editor will be opened with the macro for wood design. The macro is formed by several subroutines, which are described in the Wood Design Chapter. Lets look at an example of wood design customization with LEO. We will customize the Load Duration factors to adjust to the US West Cost practice.

In the LEO Editor click on the CD Calculation Property to expand it

607

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

CD Calculation Property expanded As you can notice the CD factor for a Load duration of seven days is 1.25. It has to be edited to 1.33.

CD Duration Factor modified from 1.25 to 1.33 Now you have to check that the macro is working properly. To do this you need a test code that calls the modified subroutine.

608

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Test code at the end of the macro. Now that the desired formulae are entered, you are ready to run the test code. But first put a break in the following line.

Define a break. Go to the desired line and press the Now, you can press break point. to view the data panel and

button. to run the code. The macro will stop at the

609

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

The execution of the macro is stopped at the break point. This is indicated with the red arrow. Press Press run one step at a time. to debug inside the subroutine

When you pass with the debugger the edited line of the CD Calculation subroutine, the factor adopts the desired value of 1.33. To re-run the code, press and then press again one of the above buttons. After verifying that your macro is working properly, you can erase the test code and save the macro. Now the wood design will consider the changes. As you have seen, it is very easy to perform changes to the subroutines and customize them.

Macros to define section types
Another application of macros is the definition of section types. The characteristics and calculation of the section properties are defined in the macro related to each section type. The different available macros can be edited or modified with the option: Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections. The special commands and variables that are used are described in Chapter 15.

610

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

LEO Commands
In this section you will find the descriptions of the available LEO commands: +, –, *, /, ^, Div, Mod, (& / &+) Max, Min Trunc Round Abs Sqrt Sqr Sin, Cos Int Frac NearestRound NearestTop NearestBot =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, == Arithmetic operators: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, real division, power, integer division, remainder obtained by dividing its operands, concatenation. Compare two values and return the larger one and the smaller one. Truncates a real number to an integer. Rounds a real-type value to an integer-type value (nearest whole number). Returns the absolute value of the argument. Returns the square root of the argument. Returns the square of the argument. Returns the sine and cosine of the argument. Returns the integer part of a real number. Returns the fractional part of a real number. NearestRound, NearestTop, NearestBot (Value as float, Near as float) as float. Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near" Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equalto, greater-than-or-equal-to, absolute equality.

&=, &<>, &<, &>, Relational operators for strings: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than&<=, &>=, &== or-equal-to, greater-than-or-equal-to, casesensitive equality. Trim UpperCase Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to uppercase. Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to lowercase. Boolean operators: Conjunction, disjunction, exclusive disjunction, negation.
611

LowerCase

and, or, xor, not

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Pi

Returns 3.141592

Lets illustrate some applications of the former commands. =, <>, <, >, <=, >= Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equal-to, greater-thanor-equal-to Note.- All this operators have a 1E-8 tolerance. // examples to illustrate the tolerance for the relational operators Cmp1 = (1.000000001 = 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 = 1.000000001) Cmp3 = (1.00000001 = 1.0) Cmp4 = '015' < '1' //units conversion takes place before comparison Cmp5 = 2.2[cm] >= 2.2[in]
//if dimensions differ, only the values are compared

Cmp6 = 9[in] > 5[ton/cm2] Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = false Cmp5 (Boolean) = false Cmp6 (Boolean) = true == Relational operator: Absolute equality Unlike "=" operator, the absolute equality makes the comparison without any tolerance over Float and Simple operands. Cmp1 = (1.000000001 == 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 == 1.000000001)
612

This operators are not casesensitive. Note. inequality.2[in]' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = true &== Relational operator for strings: Absolute equality. &<=.9 613 . String) temp = 0. &>. &<.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Cmp3 = (1. greater-than.. This operator is case-sensitive Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'RAM Advanse' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true +. less-than-or-equal-to.00000001 == 1. &>= Relational operators for strings: Equality.2[ft] &<= '2. (&+ / &) Arithmetic operators: Addition (integer .real. less-than. &<>. greater-than-or-equal-to. Examples: Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'RAM Advanse' Cmp3 = '015' &> '1' Cmp4 = 2.0) Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false &=.

7 st3 (String) = Width is : 2 in st4 (Float) = 3.. &" operators could be used indistinctly. but with all letters converted to lowercase. ' temp = ' st1 = temp st2 = Trim(temp) Results: st1 (String) = ' Remove spaces ..7 st3 = 'Width is : ' & 2[in] st4 = 2[in] + 3[cm] st5 = '2 in' + '3 cm' st6 = '83' + temp Results: st1 (String) = Value : 7. st2 (String) = 'Remove spaces ..1811 in st6 (Single) = 83.9 Note.5 & 6. but with all letters converted to uppercase. st = uppercase('Change to UpperCase') Results: st (String) = 'CHANGE TO UPPERCASE' LowerCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text. Trim Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Remove spaces ..1811 in st5 (Float) = 3.' UpperCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text..The "&+.141 st2 (String) = 5.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st1 = 'Value : ' & Pi + 4 st2 = 5.56.. 614 ' ..

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st = lowercase('Change to LowerCase') Results: st (String) = 'change to lowercase' Div Arithmetic operator: Integer division res = 26 div 4. Min Compares two values and returns the larger one and the smaller one. 3[cm]) res3 = min('2 in'. only the values are compared res5 = max(6.3[cm]) res6 = min(9[in]. '3 cm') //if dimensions differ. (x mod y = x – (x div y) * y) res = 26 mod 4. '3 cm') res4 = min(2[in].1 Result: res (Integer) = 2 Max. the operator uses its integer part. res1 = max(4. 7.1 Result: res (Integer) = 6 Mod Arithmetic operator: Returns the remainder obtained by dividing its operands. 11) //units conversion takes place before comparison res2 = max(2[in].3 615 . If an operand is real. 5[ton/cm2]) Results: res1 (Integer) = 11 res2 (Float) = 2 in res3 (Float) = 3 cm res4 (Float) = 3 cm res5 (Float) = 7.

5[in]. 1[cm]) (25. NearestTop. nearestBot (Value as float.Equal units: res1 = NearestTop res2 = NearestTop res3 = NearestBot Results: res1 (Float) = 2. Near as float) as float. upward or downward.2[ft]) (25. downward.The results will be shown in the current unit system. res3 = NearestTop(2. NearestRound: Rounded to the nearest multiple of "Near". Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near". 1[cm]) res4 = NearestRound(25. Results: res1 (Float) = 2 in res2 (Float) = 14 cm res3 (Float) = 26 in Note. 1[cm]) 1[in]) 1[in]) res2 = NearestTop(5. 0.4[cm].. . 1[cm]) .1[ft]. NearestBot : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near".2 ft res2 (Float) = 26 cm res3 (Float) = 25 cm res4 (Float) = 25 cm .44[in].4[cm]."Near" without explicit units.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res6 (Float) = 5 NearestRo und NearestTo p NearestBot NearestRound.1[ft].4[cm]. the "Value" parameter units will be used. If this parameter has no units. NearestTop : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near". upward. .Different units: res1 = NearestTop(3[cm]. (1/16)[in]) 616 ( 2. res1 = NearestTop(2.

This is the complete form to make a declaration.5 Results: i (Integer) = 0 s (String) = '' sp1 (Single) = 0..0 b (Boolean) = true sf (String) = 'initial value' sp2 (Single) = 0. "0. String Integer values Double precision True or False 255 characters Variables declaration: Explicit form.5 in res3 (Float) = 2. "false" to a boolean.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res2 = NearestTop(2.5[cm]. '' (empty) to a string.0" to a float (float type will be explained further down).5 in res2 (Float) = 2. 617 .5 Note.5[in].For variables without initial value. Simple. Boolean. 1/16) Results: res1 (Float) = 2. LEO assigns them the following values: "0" to an integer. 1/16) res3 = NearestTop(2. and "0. Examples: //without initial value var i as integer var s as string var sp1 as simple //assigning an initial value var b as boolean = true var sf as string = 'initial value' var sp2 as simple = 0.5 cm Data types and variables Integer.0" to a simple.

2 By assigning an initial value. The data type is taken from the assigned value that could be an initial value or another variable. an initial value could also be assigned. This is the shortest declaration form. Examples: b as boolean s as string f as simple = 1.0 //simple (the decimal symbol should be included. rotation. it consists only of an assignment.0 s1 (String) = hi! s2 (String) = 12 s3 (String) = 12 Float It is a Simple data type with Dimension and Unit. Dimension: The measurable properties (force. Examples: b i = true = 5 //boolean //integer sp = 0. the "var" command is omitted and only the name of the variable is declared.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Short form. In the short form. length.2 Results: b (Boolean) = false s (String) = '' f (Single) = 1. 618 //string //assigning variables and properties //string . otherwise it will be taken as integer) s1 = 'hi!' //string //expressions are allowed as initial values s2 = 1 & 2 s3 = s2 Results: b (Boolean) = true i (Integer) = 5 sp (Single) =0.

82[kip/in2] //Units: Ton-cm //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f3 = 2[ton/cm2] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f4 = 2[ksi] //Units: Kip-ft //Dimension: Force*Length f5 = 6[kip*ft] Results: f1 (Float) = 2 in (units: Kip-in.4468 ksi f4 (Float) = 2 ksi f5 (Float) = 6 Kip*ft Operations with Float variables. time) or a combination of them. Examples: f1 = 5[kip] / 2[in2] f2 = 2[kip] * 3[ft] 619 . LEO will adopt one unit system to calculate the whole expression.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO temperature. It is possible to evaluate expressions of float variables with different dimensions and/or units.82 ksi f3 (Float) = 28. Dimension: Length) f2 (Float) = 12. As long as there is consistency in the dimensions of the variables. otherwise. it will treat the variables only as numbers and the result will have no units. Unit: This is the unit used to express the dimension. Examples: //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Length var f1 as float = 2[in] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f2 as float = 12.

75 ksi Moment (Float) = 6 Kip*in 620 .5 ksi = 6 Kip*ft = 2 in = 4 in2 = 3 kip Length (Float) Pressure (Float) = 0.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Length = 2[in] Area = sqr(Length) Force = 3[kip] Pressure = Force / Area Moment = Force * Length Results: f1 (Float) f2 (Float) Area (Float) Force (Float) = 2.

then "User Code" is executed. LEO has the following structured statements: To insert a statement in the editor. IF THEN statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code" End If where COND returns a Boolean value. If COND is True. FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements This statement requires the user to specify explicitly the number of iterations that wants the loop to go through The syntax is: For I = 0 To N-1 "User Code" End For 621 . IF THEN ELSE statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code 1" Else "User Code 2" End If where COND returns a Boolean value. If COND is True.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Structured statements. otherwise it is not. otherwise "User Code 2" is executed. and include its code inside the statement structure. then "User Code 1" is executed. select and click an item LEO inserts the whole structure of the selected statement. The user should only replace the "COND" word with the statement condition.

I < 5. "User Code" is executed once more and the FOR1 statement terminates. I := I + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //short expression form. The FOR1 statement executes "User Code" repeatedly. Exp2 is the conditional expression that returns a Boolean value. and Exp3 is the step.j:=j-1 res = 'Iteration ' & I & J End for WHILE statements The syntax is: While COND "User Code" End while 622 . FOR2statement executes "User Code" repeatedly. When Exp2 returns False the statement terminates Examples: //long expression form For I = 0. (I<5)and(j>10). +1) statements The syntax is: Exp1 is the counter "I" initialization. incrementing "I" after each iteration. < 5 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //more than one variables in the expressions J = 15 For I = 0.I:=I+1. <N . used when the conditional and step expressions are over the counter "I" For I = 0. FOR 2(i=0. When "I" reaches the same value as "N-1".Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where N is the number of iterations. + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //the step +1 could also be omitted For I = 0. < 5. incrementing the counter "I" after each iteration.

As long as COND returns True. 623 .Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where COND returns a Boolean value. execution continues. The while statement executes its constituent "User Code" repeatedly. testing COND before each iteration.

It is also possible to expand or collapse a Group pressing "Ctrl + Left click" or "Ctrl + Enter" over the title or the text inside the title. The syntax is: Group //COMMENT "User Code" End Group Example: To collapse this group press To expand press Note. PROP READ statements (Property) Properties or Subroutines are self-contained statement blocks that can be called from different locations in the code. execution continues. "User Code 2" repeatedly. The while statement executes "User Code 1". Note that "User Code 1" is always executed at least once. i.. they could expand or collapse. They also could be used as variables in expressions for assignments or 624 . GROUP statements This tool allows the code organization into pieces that behave like folders. As long as COND returns False.e. testing COND in each iteration.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements The syntax is: While true do "User Code 1" If COND Then //exit while break End If "User Code 2" End while where COND returns a Boolean value.

the result is also float. which is stored in the result variable. This means that the properties behave as functions. When the user declares a property. Properties could also have assigned an initial value that could also be an expression. in the case it will behave as a function. returning its value also as a float.f2 as float) = 2. and.f2 as float) as float=2."result" is the variable that stores the property return value.f3) End Prop Note. This could be used as any other variable inside the property.f1) result = max(result. the "Max3" property will now find the maximum value of its two float parameters and its initial float value.. returning a value and/or receiving values as parameters. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. For example.3[in] End Prop //initialized by an expression 625 . should specify its name.f2 as float) as float = x End Prop //property type "as float" could be omitted Prop Max3(f1 as float.3[in] result = max(result. the type of its return value. This feature is explained in next paragraphs The syntax is: Prop NAME( ) = EXP End Prop Example: The property "Max3" finds the maximum of its three float parameters. To keep the change on parameters permanently.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO operations.f2 as float. Prop Max3(f1 as float.f2) result = max(result. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property.f2) End Prop //initialized by a variable Prop Max3(f1 as float. number and type of parameters.f3 as float) as float result = max(f1. //initialized by a value Prop Max3(f1 as float.

a volume with the third. resulting in a zero volume.0[in]) as boolean = False area = f1*f2 volume = f1*f2*f3 if (area > 0)and(volume > 0) then result = True End If End Prop Call with all the parameters: a = 2[in] 626 . And if the third parameter is omitted.f2 as float=f1. Examples: (tw as float.f2 as float. A parameter list is a sequence of parameter declarations separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses. area as float volume as float Prop Area_Volume(f1 as float.f2) if f3 > result then result = f3 End if End Prop Parameters: Most property headers include a parameter list. the property call should pass them in the correspondent order and type property’s parameter list. The user could omit some or all of property's parameters in a call. i as integer) //default values (tw as float = 5[in].f3 as float) as float=max(f1.4[in]) Calling properties: When you call a property. and in some cases by the = symbol and a default value.f3 as float=0. Each declaration is followed by a type identifier. If the second parameter has been omitted. Example: The "Area_Volume" property calculates an area with its first two parameters. in which case. the property assumes that it is equal to the first parameter. the property takes a zero value. if the property is declared with parameters. LEO takes their default values. th as float. Expressions could also be used as parameters. You can make the call using the property’s declared name.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop Max3(f1 as float. th = 3. the execution passes from the point where the call is made to the body of the property. and returns a true value if the two previous calculations are greater than zero.

c) Results: area (Float) = 6 in2 volume (Float) = 24 in3 res (Boolean) = True Call with only some parameters: a = 2[in] res = Area_Volume(a) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 0 in3 res (Boolean) = False Property call with values as parameters. #f3:=c) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 16 in3 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) The properties have another functionality when they receive a value as if they were variables.5[in].c) Results: area (Float) = 7 in2 volume (Float) = 21 in3 Call with some parameters.This type of call requires no specific parameter order because the "#" sign indicates the parameter (e. Remark. to pass "a" to the f1 parameter) a = 2[in] c = 4[in] Area_Volume(#f1:=a.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO b = 3[in] c = 4[in] res = Area_Volume(a..b. The values assigned to the properties in this way. #f1:=a. The property has not been assigned to any variable c = 3[in] Area_Volume(3. are stored in an internal property variable called "Value".g. The syntax is: 627 .2[in]. which could be read with the "Set" operator.

returns the square root of the argument: x = 81 res1 = RootSqr(x) Results: x (Integer) = 81 res1 (Float) = 9 628 . when used to behave as a function.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop NAME( ) = EXP Set End Prop Example: RootSqr property: Prop RootSqr(x as float) as float result = sqrt(x) Set res = sqr(Value) End Prop This property.

Parameters by reference. In this case we will write them only once and we are going to reuse them with only one line. To keep the change on parameters permanently.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO But. for example. An important feature in LEO is that the reference parameters are pointers. the "res" variable" receives the square of the assigned value as it is defined in the Set statement of the property: x = 81 RootSqr(x) = 9 Results: x (Integer) = 81 res (Float) = 81 Notes. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. Prop ifThen(cond as boolean.The "res" variable should be declared before the property. this reference could be called as many times as required inside the main property. ref condTrue) = cond If cond then condTrue End if End prop Prop ifElse(cond as boolean. This concept allows to generate very general properties that can be reused in many different simply and easy ways in the future We can generate.. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property. And if the reference is a property or an expression. The argument of the property has no change in this case. if it is assigned a value to the property. This type of declaration is made simply by adding the "REF" word before the usual parameter declaration. ref condTrue. ref condFalse) = cond If cond then condTrue Else condFalse 629 . The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. Example: Prop getUppercase(ref s as string) s = uppercase(s) //returns in s End prop the uppercase of “s” Properties as parameters by reference. the properties ifThen and ifElse which are statements that due to their structure take several code lines.

3 ifElse(x > 0. message('x is zero')) Results: Res (String) = 'x is zero' 2) x = -3. ref x as simple. this concept allows a major code reutilization. it is suggested to the user to load and execute it step by step. ref counter as integer) //x and dx should be initialized properly to: //x: the first value to be tested //dx: the initial value of dx and sign to assure that zero will be found 630 .message('x is positive'). message('x is negative')) Result: Res (String) = 'x is negative' Example2: The main property finds the solution of any equation or function (included in the reference property) using the bisection method. The next code shows the use of a property as a reference parameter and illustrates how to use the reference property to be called many times during the execution of the main property. prop bisect(ref y as simple. For a better understanding of the following property. The reference to expressions is a powerful concept not able to be found in other languages. ref isDone as boolean. ref dx as simple.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End if End prop We can reuse it in the following manner: 1) res as string Prop message(s as string) res = s End Prop x = 0 ifThen(x = 0.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO //initial values x1 = x y1 = y x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y dx0 = dx counter = 0 while not isDone do //change dx sign if y1 * y2 <= 0 then dx = .0 end if //calc new values x1 = x2 y1 = y2 x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y counter = counter + 1 //loop counter end while End prop x = 0.dx / 2.0 prop y(x as simple) = x*x-5*x-3 //equation to be solved 631 .0 dx = 0.5 count1 = 0 res = 0.

In this way.res. This feature is an enhancement of the previously explained LEO capacity to use properties as reference parameters. The following are examples of expressions assignment: Res := y(x) //this expression is not valid as reference parameter Res:=y(x). Also.". x = -10 dx = 1 count1 = 0 bisect(2*x+5. Assigning expressions as parameters by reference.count1) //solve a linear equation It is also possible to use expressions as (2*x+5) directly as reference parameters.res //this expression could be used as reference parameter (it includes the reference variable after the expression) The following property call is valid in LEO. The different tools and options are described in the Help Context of the Editor. x. the assignments.001 or count1>30. However there are additional useful commands that are accessible by keyboard combinations: Ctrl+A 632 Selects all the line where the cursor is located . abs(dx)<0. LEO Editor allows to expand and collapse objects and subroutines (generically called titles). The expression variable to be used as reference parameter should also be declared after the assignment. unlikeusual LEO code where the assignments use the "=" operand. The reference expression is evaluated (property y(x) is calculated) and the assignment executed (Res receives the y(x) value) every time the reference expression is called. x.count1) //solve equation It should be noted that the isDone condition is calculated each time it is required (each time it is called) inside the property. should be done using the ":=" operand.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End prop bisect(y(x). the user can have an overview of his objects and subroutines but also can quickly get into the detail of each one easily.001 or count1>30." in the main property call. abs(dx)<0. bisect(res:=y(x). the reference expression result is the Res value as it has been declared after the ". separated from the expression by a ".dx. the reference property y(x) is calculated each time the bisect main property requires a new Y value.001.count1) //solve equation and store last y(x) result in Res Additional commands for LEO Editor LEO Editor is a simple editor that allows the user to expand or collapse objects or subroutines. dx. abs(dx)<0. dx. When Assigning expressions to be used as reference parameters. x.

If more than one line wants to be copied. If more than one line wants to be moved. End For. select them previously. Moves to the click line the line where the cursor is located. select them previously. Inserts the correspondent statement End (End if. If the line is a collapsed title. end Prop. Increases and decreases indent of the selected lines. Copy the selected text to the clipboard Paste the text in the clipboard at the cursor location. Collapses / expands a title. To expand or collapse a title (subroutine or object). Press Ctrl and Left click over the title or the text inside the title. Put the cursor at the title or at the text inside a title and press Ctrl+Enter to toggle between collapsed/expanded. the entire title and contents is deleted. Copies the line where the cursor is to the line where the click is done.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO located Ctrl-T Ctrl+Ins / Ctrl+C Shift+Ins / Ctrl+V Ctrl+E TAB / Shift+TAB Delete word contiguous to cursor. If a title is collapsed. etc). Deletes the line where the cursor is located. the operation is performed to all the text inside the title as well. Ctrl-Del ALT + left click ALT + Ctrl + left CTRL + Enter CTRL+left click 633 .