RAM Advanse™

Version 7.0 May 2005

RAM International 2744 Loker Avenue West Bldg B, Ste 100 Carlsbad, CA 92008 Telephone: (760) 431-3610 Toll Free: (800) 726-7789 Fax: (760) 431-5214

TRADEMARKS
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DISCLAIMER
Both United States copyright law and international treaty provisions protect this software and related documentation. Any unauthorized copying or reproduction is strictly prohibited and subject to civil and criminal penalties. Please refer to the License Agreement for authorization to make a backup copy of the software. You may not sell this software or documentation or give copies of them away to anyone else. Except as expressly warranted in the License Agreement, RAM International disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the software, the accompanying written materials, and any accompanying hardware. All results should be verified to the user’s satisfaction. The contents of these written materials may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors and may be revised without prior notice.

Copyright 1990-2005, RAM International, L.L.C. All Rights Reserved.

RAM AdvanseTM, RAM ConnectionTM, RAM Connection StandaloneTM, RAM Structural SystemTM, RAM ManagerTM, RAM ModelerTM, RAM Steel® and RAM Frame® are trademarks of RAM International, L.L.C.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TRADEMARKS......................................................................................................................3 DISCLAIMER.........................................................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................17
How to learn RAM Advanse?.......................................................................................................................17 User Interaction Principle ............................................................................................................................17 Design in RAM Advanse ..............................................................................................................................17 Voice commands ..........................................................................................................................................18 Do you need assistance?.............................................................................................................................18 How to report bugs?.....................................................................................................................................18 New features..................................................................................................................................................19 Interface: .................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Analysis: .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Design: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Others:........................................................................................................................................................................ 20 RAM Connection:...................................................................................................................................................... 20

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................23
Main Window .................................................................................................................................................23 Data explorer .................................................................................................................................................24 Units ...............................................................................................................................................................26 Entering nodes, members and shells .........................................................................................................27 How to create nodes? ................................................................................................................................................. 28 End nodes of physical members ............................................................................................................................ 29 Nodes generation tools.......................................................................................................................................... 29 Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet............................................................................................... 29 How to create members?............................................................................................................................................ 30 Selecting the nodes ................................................................................................................................................ 30 Connecting the members ....................................................................................................................................... 32 Templates .............................................................................................................................................................. 32 How to create shells? ................................................................................................................................................. 32 Assigning properties to nodes, members and shells ...............................................................................33 Selecting the elements................................................................................................................................................ 34 Entering the required information in the worksheet................................................................................................... 34 Grouping members and shells ....................................................................................................................35 Load cases and combinations ....................................................................................................................37 Automatic generation of load combinations .............................................................................................................. 37 Entering loads for a load case.....................................................................................................................37 Display of data and results ..........................................................................................................................38 Zoom and rotation ........................................................................................................................................40 Panning..........................................................................................................................................................41 Selecting and hiding elements ....................................................................................................................41 Other basic operations.................................................................................................................................41 Undo Command ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 Erasing elements ........................................................................................................................................................ 41 Erasing the contents of a worksheet........................................................................................................................... 41 Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes ................................................................................................. 42 Segment Elements...................................................................................................................................................... 42 Customizing the interface............................................................................................................................42 General Configuration..................................................................................................................................45

CHAPTER 2: LOCAL AND GLOBAL AXES.......................................................................47

Coordinate systems ..................................................................................................................................... 47 Global coordinate system............................................................................................................................ 47 Local coordinate system ............................................................................................................................. 47 Principal coordinate system........................................................................................................................ 48 Element rotation ........................................................................................................................................... 48 180 and 90 degrees rotation........................................................................................................................................48 Rotating members at an angle.....................................................................................................................................50 Making a local axis parallel to a global axis...............................................................................................................50 Orientating a local axis toward a specific node ..........................................................................................................51 Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes .................................................................................52 Principal axes................................................................................................................................................ 53 Laterally restrained for torsion ................................................................................................................... 54

CHAPTER 3: PHYSICAL MEMBERS, STRUCTURE DEBUGGING AND COMMANDS FOR ROTATING THE STRUCTURE .................................................................................. 55
Physical members ........................................................................................................................................ 55 Model Data Check......................................................................................................................................... 63 Rotating the Structure.................................................................................................................................. 64

CHAPTER 4: END RELEASES AND TENSION-ONLY MEMBERS .................................. 67
Pin (hinges) at both ends of members ....................................................................................................... 67 Pin one end of a member............................................................................................................................. 68 Fixing ends of elements............................................................................................................................... 69 Tension only members ................................................................................................................................ 70 Pre-tension .................................................................................................................................................... 71

CHAPTER 5: CARDINAL POINTS, RIGID ZONE OFFSETS, RIGID FLOOR AND PRESSURE ON FRAME MEMBERS.................................................................................. 73
Cardinal Points ............................................................................................................................................. 73 Rigid zone offsets......................................................................................................................................... 74 Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor)............................................................................................. 78 Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points...................................... 80 Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges........................................................................................... 82 Rigid floor...................................................................................................................................................... 82 Entering Rigid floor....................................................................................................................................................83 Pressure on frame members ....................................................................................................................... 84

CHAPTER 6: CREATING SECTIONS AND MATERIALS.................................................. 87
Creating new sections ................................................................................................................................. 87 Section names .............................................................................................................................................. 88 Section Collections ...................................................................................................................................... 89 Parameters for the design of steel members ............................................................................................ 90 Laterally restrained for torsion: ..................................................................................................................................90 Qmod2' exact:.............................................................................................................................................................91 Tapered Members ......................................................................................................................................... 92 Creating Materials......................................................................................................................................... 94 Importing and exporting sections and materials ...................................................................................... 95

CHAPTER 7: USING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ............................................................. 99
Templates ...................................................................................................................................................... 99 Example 1: Creating a Truss ....................................................................................................................... 99 Example 2: Creating an entire structure .................................................................................................. 103 Completing data.......................................................................................................................................... 108

CHAPTER 8: OTHER ADVANCED SUBJECTS .............................................................. 111
Generation of load combinations ............................................................................................................. 111

Elastic supports ..........................................................................................................................................112 Prescribed displacements .........................................................................................................................113 Self - weight.................................................................................................................................................114 Thermal loads..............................................................................................................................................115 Node generation..........................................................................................................................................115 Copy nodes............................................................................................................................................................... 117 Linear generation of nodes....................................................................................................................................... 118 Quadratic generation of nodes ................................................................................................................................. 118 Circular generation of nodes .................................................................................................................................... 119

CHAPTER 9: ANALYSIS...................................................................................................121
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................121 Frame Element ............................................................................................................................................122 Shell Element ..............................................................................................................................................124 Rigid Diaphragm Constraints ....................................................................................................................125 P-Delta Analysis..........................................................................................................................................125 What is P-Delta effect? ............................................................................................................................................ 125 Small p-delta effect .................................................................................................................................................. 125 Large P-Delta effect ................................................................................................................................................. 126 P-Delta calculation methods .................................................................................................................................... 126 Iterative P-Delta Effects........................................................................................................................................... 126 P-Delta effect in load combinations ......................................................................................................................... 127 Dynamic analysis, and P-Delta ................................................................................................................................ 127 Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span .......................................................... 128 Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis...............................................................................................128 Eigen Value Analysis..................................................................................................................................130 References...................................................................................................................................................131

CHAPTER 10: DYNAMIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS ...............................................................133
Modal Analysis............................................................................................................................................133 Determination of the Dynamic Forces......................................................................................................134 Methods of Modal Superposition............................................................................................................................. 134 CQC Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 SRSS Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 134 ABS Method......................................................................................................................................................... 134 Seismic results with sign...................................................................................................................................... 134 Entering Mass .............................................................................................................................................135 Seismic Loads.............................................................................................................................................136 Seismic analysis .........................................................................................................................................138 Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration ........................................................138 Load combinations .....................................................................................................................................139 Construction details ...................................................................................................................................139 Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse ............................................................................................................139 Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings....................................................................................................140 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) .....................................................................................................142

CHAPTER 11: STEEL AND WOOD STRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION AND CODE CHECK ...........................................................................................................................................145
Optimization and code check ....................................................................................................................147 Optimization ............................................................................................................................................................ 147 Verification or Code Check ..................................................................................................................................... 147 Optimization basis ......................................................................................................................................148 How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section ..................................................................................148 Optimization process .................................................................................................................................149 Verification process ...................................................................................................................................150 Structure deflections and deformations ..................................................................................................150

Optimization with other criteria................................................................................................................. 151 Appropriate section not found .................................................................................................................. 152 Non-steel or wood members ..................................................................................................................... 152 AISC and AISI sections .............................................................................................................................. 152 Optimization with default collection of sections..................................................................................... 152

CHAPTER 12: PRINTING GRAPHICS AND REPORTS .................................................. 153
Model Data................................................................................................................................................... 153 Loads Data .................................................................................................................................................. 153 Analysis Results ......................................................................................................................................... 153 Dynamic Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 154 Steel Design ................................................................................................................................................ 154 Reinforced Concrete Design ..................................................................................................................... 155 Connections Design ................................................................................................................................... 156 Wood Design............................................................................................................................................... 156 List of Materials .......................................................................................................................................... 157 Parts List ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 List of Joints ............................................................................................................................................... 157 Diagrams ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 Report .......................................................................................................................................................................157 Display on the screen................................................................................................................................................159 Export diagrams to DXF files...................................................................................................................................160 Reports ........................................................................................................................................................ 161 General commands for print report...........................................................................................................................161 Customizing the heading of a report.........................................................................................................................163 Reports of the detailing modules ..............................................................................................................................164 Printing Graphics........................................................................................................................................ 164 Text Box....................................................................................................................................................... 166

CHAPTER 13: IMPORTING AND EXPORTING DATA .................................................... 169
Importing ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting ..................................................................................................................................................... 169 DXF files ...................................................................................................................................................... 169 What are DXF files? .................................................................................................................................... 169 Exporting as DXF files................................................................................................................................ 169 Importing a DXF file.................................................................................................................................... 170 Creating a DXF file...................................................................................................................................... 170 Reading DXF files ....................................................................................................................................... 171 RAM Structural System Files .................................................................................................................... 172 SDNF Files................................................................................................................................................... 172 What are SDNF files? ................................................................................................................................. 172 Sending data to a SDNF file....................................................................................................................... 172 Sending data to RAM BasePlate ............................................................................................................... 174

CHAPTER 14: SHELLS .................................................................................................... 175
Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 175 The Shell Element....................................................................................................................................... 175 Applications for the model ........................................................................................................................ 177 Generating shells........................................................................................................................................ 179 Description .................................................................................................................................................. 181 Entering Shell Thickness........................................................................................................................... 181 Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing)..................................................................................... 182 Assigning Materials.................................................................................................................................... 183 Pressure on the Plates............................................................................................................................... 183 Segmentation (meshing) of Plates............................................................................................................ 184 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells .......................................................... 187 Printing the results ..................................................................................................................................... 187

Shell stresses..............................................................................................................................................188 Internal forces in nodes .............................................................................................................................189 Corner Forces .............................................................................................................................................190 Face forces ..................................................................................................................................................190 Reinforced concrete design for plates .....................................................................................................191 Graphic environment..................................................................................................................................191 Frame members (default) ......................................................................................................................................... 192 Stresses..................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Internal forces in nodes ............................................................................................................................................ 192 Reinforcement in RC plates ..................................................................................................................................... 193 Smooth ..................................................................................................................................................................... 195 Envel and Max ......................................................................................................................................................... 195 Stresses on both sides of the shell ............................................................................................................................ 196

CHAPTER 15: CREATING NEW TYPES OF SECTIONS WITH MACROS......................197
Common parameters:.................................................................................................................................199 Default Units............................................................................................................................................................ 200 Section type.............................................................................................................................................................. 200 Shape........................................................................................................................................................................ 200 Design code.............................................................................................................................................................. 201 Design formulation .................................................................................................................................................. 201 Cbmax........................................................................................................................................................... 202 Connection ............................................................................................................................................................... 202 Category........................................................................................................................................................ 203 Commentary............................................................................................................................................................. 203 Section variables ........................................................................................................................................204 Prop AskUser ..............................................................................................................................................205 Prop Section Shape ....................................................................................................................................206 Node......................................................................................................................................................................... 206 SetLine...EndLine .................................................................................................................................................... 207 Segment ................................................................................................................................................................... 207 Rigid(ity).................................................................................................................................................................. 208 SetSolid.................................................................................................................................................................... 210 Bars and Bar............................................................................................................................................................. 211 Join........................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Closed ...................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Line .......................................................................................................................................................................... 213 Prop Tapered properties ............................................................................................................................213 Prop PropertiesCalc ...................................................................................................................................213

CHAPTER 16: CREATING STRUCTURE TEMPLATES ..................................................215
The TEXT.tpl file..........................................................................................................................................216 The TPL file..................................................................................................................................................216 DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................ 216 VARIABLES ........................................................................................................................................................... 216 SELECT................................................................................................................................................................... 217 LINE ........................................................................................................................................................................ 218 DIAGONAL ............................................................................................................................................................ 219 TEMPLATE............................................................................................................................................................. 222 Example 1: Creating a template ................................................................................................................223 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing.................................................................................................................. 224 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing ................................................................................................ 224 3) Create the TPL file............................................................................................................................................... 225 Example 2: Creating a template ................................................................................................................227 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing........................................................................................................................... 228 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing ............................................................................................................ 228

3) Create the TPL file ...............................................................................................................................................229 Using the Example 2 template................................................................................................................... 232

CHAPTER 17: BUILDING STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 235
Generating deck or wall areas................................................................................................................... 235 Generating Wind Load ............................................................................................................................... 238 Rigid floor diaphragm ..............................................................................................................................................238 Generating wind loads ............................................................................................................................... 239 Generating masses for each floor ............................................................................................................ 241

CHAPTER 18: DESIGN AND DETAILING MODULES..................................................... 245
Design.......................................................................................................................................................... 245 Design and Detailing Modules .................................................................................................................. 245 Introduction................................................................................................................................................. 246 Invoking the Modules ................................................................................................................................. 246 Dependent detailing modules ...................................................................................................................................246 Independent detailing modules .................................................................................................................................248 Organization of the Modules ..................................................................................................................... 249 Navigation and Data Entry......................................................................................................................... 250 Zoom ........................................................................................................................................................................250 Font Size...................................................................................................................................................................251 DXF files ..................................................................................................................................................................251 Print graphics............................................................................................................................................................251 Panning .....................................................................................................................................................................251 Data Entry.................................................................................................................................................................252 Results and verifications ........................................................................................................................... 254

CHAPTER 19: GENERAL DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES ...................................... 255
Loads ........................................................................................................................................................... 255 Sections....................................................................................................................................................... 256 Selection of the design code..................................................................................................................... 256 Coordinate system used in design ........................................................................................................... 257 Design Parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 258 Braced Against Sidesway Flag ................................................................................................................. 258 Effective Length (K) Factors...................................................................................................................... 259 Axial unbraced length of the member (L) ................................................................................................ 260 Lbpos, Lbneg lengths............................................................................................................ 260 Cm Coefficients...................................................................................................................... 261 Cb Coefficients....................................................................................................................... 261 Lepos, Leneg lengths ...................................................................................................................... 262 m Coefficients................................................................................................................................... 262 mLT Coefficients .............................................................................................................................. 262 Torsion......................................................................................................................................................... 263 Design and optimization ............................................................................................................................ 263 Steel Connections ...................................................................................................................................... 264 Output of results......................................................................................................................................... 264 Screen output ............................................................................................................................................................265 Reports......................................................................................................................................................................266

CHAPTER 20: DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ....... 269
Determination of a member with an AISC section .................................................................................. 269 CODE=HOTROLLED .............................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINEOPEN ..................................................................................................................................................270 TYPE=LINECLOSED .............................................................................................................................................270

SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 270 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 270 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................271 ASD technical notes ...................................................................................................................................272 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 272 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 274 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 274 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 274 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 275 Combined stresses.................................................................................................................................................... 275 LRFD technical notes .................................................................................................................................275 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 275 Members in tension.................................................................................................................................................. 277 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 277 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 278 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................278 AISC-ASD Flowcharts ................................................................................................................................280 AISC-LRFD Flowcharts ..............................................................................................................................298

CHAPTER 21: DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS (AISI-96) ....................311
Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member ......................................................................311 CODE=COLDFORMED ......................................................................................................................................... 311 TYPE ....................................................................................................................................................................... 311 2nd order analysis........................................................................................................................................312 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................312 Assumptions and restrictions for elements............................................................................................................... 312 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Flexural members..................................................................................................................................................... 313 Compression members............................................................................................................................................. 314 Combined axial load and bending............................................................................................................................ 315 Tubular members ..................................................................................................................................................... 315 AISI 96 Flowcharts ......................................................................................................................................316

CHAPTER 22: DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS (BS 5950) ..............................................331
Determination of a member with a BS section ........................................................................................331 CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED ........................................................................................ 331 TYPE=LINEOPEN.................................................................................................................................................. 331 TYPE=LINECLOSED............................................................................................................................................. 331 SetSolid..EndSolid ................................................................................................................................................... 331 FORMULATION=<formulation> ........................................................................................................................... 332 Load Combinations ....................................................................................................................................332 Second order analysis ...............................................................................................................................333 Technical notes...........................................................................................................................................333 Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements .......................................................................................... 333 Tension members ..................................................................................................................................................... 334 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................... 334 Columns and other compression members............................................................................................................... 335 Members subject to torsion ...................................................................................................................................... 337 Tapered members .......................................................................................................................................337 BS 5950 Flowcharts....................................................................................................................................339

CHAPTER 23: ACI REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN ................................................349
Loads ...........................................................................................................................................................349 Bar size series.............................................................................................................................................349

CHAPTER 24: REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM DESIGN............................................351
Identifying Concrete Beams ......................................................................................................................351

Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 352 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................352 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................353 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 353 General .....................................................................................................................................................................354 Limitations................................................................................................................................................................354 Flexural Design ........................................................................................................................................................354 Shear Design.............................................................................................................................................................355 Torsion Design .........................................................................................................................................................356 Detailing Requirements ............................................................................................................................................357 Reports and Screen Output....................................................................................................................... 358 Summary Report of Beam Design ............................................................................................................................358 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................362 Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module ................................................................................................ 363 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................363 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................369 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................371 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................373 Report of reinforced concrete beams....................................................................................................... 375 ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts ....................................................................................................... 378

CHAPTER 25: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS. 391
Identifying the columns for design........................................................................................................... 391 Column Design Parameters....................................................................................................................... 392 Braced Against Sidesway Flag .................................................................................................................................392 Effective Length (K) Factor......................................................................................................................................393 Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor........................................................................................................................393 Unbraced Member Length (L)..................................................................................................................................394 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 394 Cracked Section Factors ...........................................................................................................................................395 Second Order Analysis .............................................................................................................................................395 ACI Technical Notes ................................................................................................................................... 395 Design of longitudinal reinforcement .......................................................................................................................396 Slenderness effects ...................................................................................................................................................396 Bending design .........................................................................................................................................................398 Shear design..............................................................................................................................................................398 Special provisions for seismic design.......................................................................................................................399 Output .......................................................................................................................................................... 399 Report Output ...........................................................................................................................................................399 Screen Display of Reinforcement.............................................................................................................................400 Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module............................................................................................. 402 Data Screen...............................................................................................................................................................402 Design Screen...........................................................................................................................................................414 Detailing Screen .......................................................................................................................................................419 Configuration Screen................................................................................................................................................419 Report of reinforced concrete columns ................................................................................................... 420 ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts.................................................................................................... 423

CHAPTER 26: FOOTING DESIGN AND DETAILING ...................................................... 441
Design Steps ............................................................................................................................................... 441 Soil-footing-structure modeling................................................................................................................................441 Adopted dimensions .................................................................................................................................................441 Verifications .............................................................................................................................................................441 Technical Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 441 Loads ........................................................................................................................................................................442 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................442 Overall stability against sliding, overturning and soil bearing capacity ...................................................................442

............................................ 522 Defining Connection Templates ..................494 Tension members ........................................503 How to find technical information about a specific connection?.................492 ASD technical notes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 495 Beams and other flexural members.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 459 Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction ................................................................................................ 535 Group3: Design and Assignment settings ........................................................... 537 Customizing the connection toolbar...................... 518 Design Criteria ..................................................................................... 457 Report of reinforced concrete footings.....................................................................................................477 Determination of the wood member data............................... 480 Design Parameters .................................................................... 486 Design post processing inside RAM Advanse ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 531 Connection Toolbar ......................................................................................................................................................... 477 Member Section ..........................................................................................................................................................477 Loads....... 460 Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) .................................................. 495 Members subject to torsion ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 444 Foundation Spring Modeling Tools ............. 495 Columns and other compression members.................................................................................. 492 Wood Detailing Module ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 526 Databases for sections............................................................................................................................................................................ 540 Assign selected connection template to model ........................................... 453 Detailing Screen............... 456 Configuration Screen ....................... materials..........................................................................................503 What is a Connection? ..............................................................................................................................................................................522 Database Organization ............... 490 Screen output ..........................................................................................................................................................................................Design ...............................................................................................................503 How to Use RAM Connection? ................ 504 Individual Connections ........................................................................................................................................................ 533 Group2: Result display options............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 514 HSS Section Supports ....................................................................... 479 Species ...................... 496 Wood design macro for adjustment factors .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Theory .........................................................................532 Group1: Selection options (connections and joints)............................................................... 541 ..................................................................................................................504 Grouped Connections......................................490 Reports ......................................................................................................467 CHAPTER 27: WOOD DESIGN (NDS-ASD) ................................................... 496 Combined stresses............................5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons ......................... 537 Connection Worksheet.......................................................540 Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 504 Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) .............................460 Column Located at Center of Footing...........................................................................................................500 CHAPTER 28: STEEL CONNECTIONS......................................................... 464 Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 536 Groups4...................................................................................................................444 Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module . 477 Wood materials .................................................................................................................................. 504 Designing Connections ......................................... bolts and welds......................................................................................................................497 References................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 447 Design Screen ................................447 Data Screen ....................................................................................................................519 The Connection Template Database........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 491 Deflection control ......................................................................................................

.....................................................547 Print graphics........................................................................... 576 CHAPTER 30: DESIGN AND DETAILING OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS........................ 555 Terminology ....555 2) Verification and Detailing ......................................................................................578 Design Codes.............................................................................................................................................................................555 Technical notes...................................................................... 577 1) Entering Data......................................................................................................................................................................................................................557 Loads ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................543 Connection Pad .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................543 Deleting model connections....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................580 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................557 Earth pressures .................................................................................................545 Font Size.................579 Pattern loading ...................................................................................... 555 Design steps ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................543 Assign connection description ..........................................................................................................................................................................573 References ............................................557 Design Codes.......................................... 577 Design steps ...................... 578 General ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................577 4) Optimization.....569 Configuration Screen.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................564 Design Screen..........................................................................577 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing......................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................Replace (all) the current selected connection (s)...............................................................................................................................................556 Limitations...............................................................................................................................................................................................567 Detailing Screen .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................578 Limitations........................................................................................................573 Reports and Screen Output ......................................................................................................557 Stem axial loads ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................577 Technical Notes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 552 CHAPTER 29: RETAINING WALLS...................................................................................................................................................................................................................547 3: Help area..........................................................................................580 Design parameters ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................577 3) Verifications .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................547 DXF files .................................578 Analysis .... 555 1) Data introduction....................................................................................................................................................................... 543 1: Properties area ..........................560 Load Combinations....................................................... 563 Data Screen.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................544 2: Drawing area ........................547 LEO Code (macros)...............................................................561 Unreinforced Concrete Design ....................................................................................................579 Load combinations..............................................................................................................571 View as RAM Advanse Model..................................................................................561 Design of components of the wall ..562 Reinforced Masonry Design ................................................................................................547 Panning ...........................................................................................................548 Connections Reports ............................................................................................................................................................................ 551 References ..........................................................................................555 3) Optimization.....................................................................557 Seismic Load ......................................................................555 General ........563 Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module ...............................561 Reinforced Concrete Design ..................................

............................................................................................................... 632 Additional commands for LEO Editor............................. <N ..................... 629 Assigning expressions as parameters by reference................................................................................................................................................................ 602 Welded connection design example.......................................... 590 Reports and Screen Output.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 585 Detailing Screen......................................................619 Structured statements...............................................Cracked Section Factors .. 590 CHAPTER 31: PROGRAMMING IN LEO............................................................................................... 605 Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse) .............. 627 Parameters by reference............ 581 Passing data of the main program ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................... ................................................................... 621 FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements ............................................ 621 FOR 2(i=0.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 581 Detailing Requirements......................................................... 580 Bending coefficient Cb ........................................ +1) statements...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................597 Macros for connections ......................................................................... 581 Design/Detailing Module Beam ............................................ 622 WHILE statements...................................................................... 624 PROP READ statements (Property).......................................... 588 Optimization screen ...........................................................................................................................617 Explicit form.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 597 Customizing geometry ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 582 Data Screen ....................... 598 Connection Design............................................................................. 624 GROUP statements ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................597 Basic example of a macro ....................................632 ............................................................................................................................................................... 601 Assigning a status message to the connection................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 580 Unbraced length Lb.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 629 Properties as parameters by reference...................................................................... 582 Design Screen .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 598 End Plate........................................................................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................................................................................606 Macros to define section types ........ ....... 618 By assigning an initial value.............................................................................................................. 602 Bolted connection design example: ........................................ 581 Design .............................................................611 Data types and variables................... 617 Short form............ 586 Configuration Screen ............610 LEO Commands ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......621 IF THEN statements............................................................ 621 IF THEN ELSE statements ......... 618 Operations with Float variables........................................ 598 Entering the commands ............................................ 622 WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements .. 624 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) ...................................................................................................... ........................................................................581 Entering data for a Continuous Beam ............................................. ..................................................................................................................................................................................................

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RAM Advanse is also capable of designing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel structures. How to learn RAM Advanse? We strongly suggest that new users start reading Chapter 1 of the manual and then continue with the RAM Advanse Examples Manual to learn and practice the basic commands of the program. This ‘select and apply’ rule is a unique and fundamental feature of the program that facilitates rapid model creation and output customization. The types of analysis available are: First order (Linear Analysis). general-purpose structural engineering software package. Second order (P-Delta Analysis) and Dynamic (Seismic Analysis). BS. After each verification cycle. The program includes special modules for designing isolated footings. NDS and ACI codes respectively. the user has to select the desired elements (nodes. For further details please see the indicated chapters. User Interaction Principle RAM Advanse has adopted a constant philosophy in the way all of its commands (actions) are applied to members in a model. sections and materials) and the program verifies the members obtaining a strength ratio that reflects the status of each element. a revolutionary tool that allows the fast design of steel connections inside or outside RAM Advanse. a powerful and flexible 3D. the user is free to change or confirm the properties with or without several tools developed for this purpose. Design in RAM Advanse Another philosophy that RAM Advanse has adopted for the design of steel. Additionally RAM Advanse can work with RAM Connection. retaining walls and continuous beams. The most important benefit of this procedure is that the user will have a complete control of the structure design and the certainty that it suits to his/her requirements 17 . AISI. Specifically. the engineer can then apply any command that will only affect those elements.Introduction Introduction Welcome to RAM Advanse. together with the display and printing options adhere to this ‘select and apply’ principle. All the provided tools for entering or generating data. members or shells) of the structure and once they are selected. Experienced users may want to see the new features that are briefly explained in the next section. In addition.e. is the "trial and error" procedure. wood (sawn lumber and glulam) and reinforced concrete elements using the AISC. The engineer defines initial properties (i. reinforced concrete columns. This program provides unequaled flexibility for the design and analysis of different types of 2D or 3D structures containing linear members and shell elements. reinforced concrete or wood structures.

You can call the Assistant (pressing F4 to activate it). can dramatically improve the speed at which models are created. it is possible. Although. 18 . and then commands can be verbally issued. for a feature that is not covered. In principle. Select the option: Help/Create bug report.Introduction Voice commands This high-tech feature. Do you need assistance? RAM Advanse has several tools that can help you during the execution of the program. all the involved changes are always thoroughly tested. It will guide you step-by-step through the modeling.com. that a side effect is not detected during the quality assurance. however. Use the bug report option to compile all the information and send it to advansesupport@ramint. How to report bugs? We are continuously improving the program to increase your productivity. If you find something that is not working as you expect during the check of your work. press F1 (or click on the help button in the worksheet area) to access context sensitive help. members or elements should be selected using traditional methods (mouse or spreadsheet). Additionally. or at any time you need assistance on any particular feature you are working on. please let us know. analysis and design of a typical structure. combined with the mouse.

0. Improved graphics quality. More detailed explanations of these features will be found in the corresponding chapters of the manual or in the Help context. Option to display merged loads for load combinations avoiding superposition. New colors and improved ranges for the display of forces and stresses. New button ( ) to access units configuration dialog without going to the menu. This includes elapsed times and warnings. Interface: The user interface has been improved in many aspects. New features This section describes the features added in version 7. New tool for the generation of intermediate nodes at certain distances from the start or end nodes. Enhanced spreadsheets with improved capacity to cut or paste information to the clipboard and many new features.Introduction Select the desired options to create the compressed file and send it to our technical support. 19 . The most important are: • • • • • • New progress windows for analysis and design with an additional window that displays a log after the processes are completed.

The time required for the analysis has been reduced to a fraction in the order of 20 to 50% of the time required in previous versions. channels. where the reduction in time will be close to the smaller percentage. masonry. concrete and steel beams according to the codes covered in the main program. RAM Connection: Bracing connections that include bracing members as single angles. tees. double angles. The following improvements have been obtained: • Improved analysis time. double braces (k-braces). Consideration of shear forces for static loads in reinforced concrete seismic design. • • • • Others: • • • • • New Concise AISI member design report. Former versions had a maximum limit of 15 modes. Calculation of the P-Delta effects using a geometric stiffness matrix. The order of the selected columns is smartly reordered (from bottom to top) before running the detailing concrete design module. Improved data entering for members’ optimization process. concrete. Through shear or transverse shear in plates. New design and detailing module for continuous beams that includes wood. The number of mode frequencies is restricted now only by the number of masses. Data exportation to RAM BasePlate enabled for HSS columns. W-shapes or HSS shapes. Now the program calculates bending moments and shear forces acting in plates with out-of–plane loads. • • • Design: • • New retaining wall design module that includes cantilever and restrained walls.Introduction Analysis: The analysis has been dramatically improved with the implementation of a completely new analysis engine. reinforced or un-reinforced walls according to ACI 318-99 and ACI 530-02. being more realistic (since it is directly derived from kinematics of motion) and also more robust in comparison with the method adopted in previous versions (the fictitious lateral load method). A sparse solver is employed and utilizes a sky-line column storage algorithm. tees or channels. Shell reports have been modified to include through shear and the new analysis features. and any combination of braces and beams (only one brace per 20 . Now the footing-detailing module suggests the dimensions of the footing to be analyzed. Improved quality and speed of printing graphs and tables. The connections consider single braces. This will be reflected even more in big models or complex structures. An internal bandwidth optimization is carried out before starting the analysis. Automatic load patterns (skip loading) is available in the module. Spread footings design per ACI-318.

simple plates or welds. 21 . The connectors between members and gusset may be angles.Introduction quadrant is allowed).) and export drawings. • • 2D Graphics with DXF output for all existing connections and several options to draw (dimensions. views. Calculation of welds for stiffeners and other minor enhancements. etc. labels.

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Other basic operations 8. D: Data Panel Worksheet/Spreadsheet area – Area where member properties and geometric data are input for the selected members. draw. The main window is displayed below with all of the individual work areas identified. view data or results.Chapter 1: General Overview Chapter 1: General Overview The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the basic commands required to model a structure in RAM Advanse. In short the areas are: A: Applications menu bar: Where you can find the main commands of the program to input. output or process the model. C: Data Explorer – Area to allow engineer to quickly navigate to desired input spreadsheet and to review what data has been input. The general use of these areas is described later in this chapter. and design elements of your model. Enter loads 6. Assign properties to elements such as sections. E: Display area – Area where model and any other selected display options are shown. and to familiarize the user with the programs interface. 3. Main Window RAM Advanse has a main window in which all the model geometric. 23 . section and load data is input. The basic operations of the program required to create a structural model are: 1. materials. Display various member properties 7. Group members and shells 4. Note that the location and visibility of the toolbars are configurable (see the last sections of this chapter). Customizing the interface After learning the basic operations. etc. we recommend you practice the basic operations by modeling one of the structures in the Examples Manual. Create load cases and load combinations 5. Create nodes. members and shells 2. B: Toolbars – Commands to help you rapidly select. manipulated and viewed.

you can simply click over the required item in the Explorer and it will open the corresponding worksheet.Initially the Data Explorer is disabled (hidden). Data explorer The Explorer shows you all the available data worksheets where you can enter the data for the model.Chapter 1: General Overview RAM Advanse Main window.. To navigate from one worksheet to another. Remark. To activate (or deactivate) it you have to press the following button in the Panels Toolbar as shown in the figure (if this toolbar is visible). Or you can use the option available in the Applications Menu Bar or Main Menu: 24 .

if your structure does not have shells. The user can skip from one worksheet to another in almost any order. If the items in the list are checked . For example. It is only necessary to enter data required to completely model the specific structure. It is also not necessary to follow a specific order in data entry. The user is not required to enter data for all of the items.Chapter 1: General Overview The data Explorer is always used with the Worksheet. 25 . Use one of these options to enable the worksheet. In this way the user can easily verify what data have been entered and what data is still required. then the corresponding shell item can be ignored. Therefore you have to activate the worksheet as well. it means that those items contain data.

as it is illustrated in the figure above. To define the units press the button or go to the Applications Menu Bar select the units option: Select the option: Configuration/Units 26 .Chapter 1: General Overview If you want to hide your Explorer then you can still get to any worksheet on the Data panel by pressing one of the Tab elements (1). and then the button related to the desired property (2). Units It is always recommended to define the current unit system before entering any data.

SI or Metric). linear members. In this chapter we will explain the manual entry of nodes. Refer to the relevant chapters of this manual for a description of the other methods available to create a model. the specific units within the selected system for different groups of variables (2) or select custom predefined settings for the former options (3). 27 .Chapter 1: General Overview In the dialog box. For example. the user can select the desired units system (1) (English. you can import a model from a DXF file. you can create it using templates. members and shells. you can import it from RAM Structural System or you can generate it manually. There are several methods available to generate these elements. Entering nodes. and shell elements with their corresponding properties. members and shells A single structural model consists mainly of nodes.

the nodes are displayed graphically. For example. Note that while you are entering the coordinates. if you are working with inches for lengths in the English units system. For example. but you want to enter a coordinate in feet. Use the space bar or tab button to move between cells on the same row and Enter to go to the next row of cells. When entering coordinates you can include the units of the coordinates. You can even combine different units.5 ft. you can enter 10'-6" and the program will interpret this value as 10. Enter the node coordinate data in the worksheet. Some examples of acceptable data entry are given next: 10ft 10’ 28 .Chapter 1: General Overview How to create nodes? Go to the Nodes/Coordinates worksheet. Then you can enter "10ft" and the program will automatically perform the conversion to the default units (in this case [in]). You can click in the Nodes/Coordinates item of the Explorer or if it is hidden you can use the Tabs (Nodes) and the corresponding buttons (Coordinates) of the Data Panel.

29 .Chapter 1: General Overview 10ft-6in 10’-6” 10ft-6” 10ft-16cm 10m 10m-50cm This feature can be applied in any worksheet of the Data Panel. Press the button to undo the entered data. See the description of all shortcuts and mouse operations in the help menu for more hints. Nodes generation tools At the bottom of the Coordinates worksheet you can find several buttons for the automatic generation of nodes. which has useful information on: 1) The data to be introduced in the worksheets and 2) The use of the tool buttons to generate the data. Press F1 to obtain more information related to the use and application of these tools. Entering nodes coordinates in an Excel worksheet This is a powerful option for the generation of node coordinates. In any worksheet of the Data Panel you can press F1 to display the Help context. Press F2 if you want to edit the cell contents. Press ESC if you want to cancel the entry. End nodes of physical members It is only necessary to enter the nodes at the ends of physical members. The user can create the coordinates in another application like Excel and then paste the data into RAM Advanse. The generation of intermediate nodes or the nodes at the intersections of members will be described later.

Chapter 1: General Overview The illustrated button pastes the information of the Clipboard to the active worksheet of the Data Panel. Connect the members pressing the button or . press F1 and then go to General commands of the worksheet. the user can generate the springs for a mat-slab in Excel and then import them with this command. It is also possible to copy the contents of a RAM Advanse worksheet and paste it into another application. 2. How to create members? Go to Members/Connectivity worksheet (Nodes and Description) to generate members. Selecting the nodes To generate any member. For more information on how to use this command. 30 . The creation of members is simple and it is performed in two steps: 1. This paste option can be applied to any worksheet of the Data Panel. its initial and final nodes have to be selected. Select the nodes that will be connected by the members. you can generate the nodes coordinates in Excel. For example. copy them to the Clipboard and then paste them to the Nodes worksheet using the indicated button. For example.

invoke the Assistant (press F4) and go to General actions of frequent use or see the list of Mouse Operations. 31 . the four nodes have to be enclosed. and in the case of shells. click the cursor on the first node and then holding down the shift key select each of the remaining nodes. all the elements partially covered by the area (with at least one node in rectangle) will be selected. both nodes have to be enclosed in the rectangle. That is. pressing the Shift key enables the selection of the elements within the area without affecting the selection state of the elements outside the area. When you click on an element (node. the user can select (or deselect) several members without affecting the previously selected elements. In this case. For more information on the selection features.Chapter 1: General Overview To select multiple nodes. If you press the Ctrl key instead of the Shift key while you are selecting members. in the case of members. the previously selected elements are deselected. Using this technique only the elements fully enclosed by the area are selected. member or shell). You can select multiple members by enclosing the members in a rectangle created by click and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. Pressing the Shift key.

How to create shells? Go to Shells/Connectivity (Nodes) worksheet for the generation of shells. You can create shells in the same way as members with the following two steps: 1.Chapter 1: General Overview Connecting the members Press the button indicated in the previous figure to connect the members between the selected nodes. Press the button to connect the nodes alternately with members. Remark. This feature is explained in detail later in the manual but should be kept in mind when creating typical structural components such as trusses. Important! Note that the selection order of the nodes is very important as it defines the local axes of the members. Select the nodes that will be connected by shells or physical shells (with overall dimensions). Templates Available structural templates allow for the rapid generation of members and nodes for specific types of structures. You can press F1 to have more information related to the rest of the tool buttons of this worksheet. This button will connect the nodes in a continuous manner.. You can define physical members by selecting only the start and final nodes of the member: The member will be automatically segmented for the analysis.Note that it is also possible to manually enter (directly in the worksheet) the information (initial and final node numbers) for each member. See Chapter 3 for further details. 32 . It is also possible to generate the information in Excel (for example) and use the copy-paste command to bring the data into Advanse.

Go to the required worksheet 2. materials. members and shells have been entered. Press F1 to obtain more information related to the tool buttons of this worksheet.Chapter 1: General Overview 2. You can define the mesh size by typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet. sections. These properties include restraints. press the indicated button to generate them. thickness. Important! The shell elements are finite elements that need to be segmented to increment the precision in the analysis. 33 . The nodes have to be selected in the order shown in the figure. Create shells by pressing the button . Note that you can create several shell elements if you select more than 4 nodes. members and shells Once the nodes. the user has to assign properties to them. Select the desired elements to be assigned with the properties 3. Enter the required information in the corresponding worksheet. Please note the required selection order of the nodes. etc. Then. as it is illustrated in the previous figure. The steps to assign properties to elements are: 1. Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes: Assigning properties to nodes.

to assign the restraints to the support nodes you can proceed as follows: 1. or it can be pasted from the Clipboard. You can select any element by entering its number in the first column of the worksheet and pressing ENTER (as it is show in the previous figure). For example. To copy a value to all the selected members put the cursor in the cell with the desired value and press the button indicated in the figure above. Go to the Nodes/Restraints worksheet.Chapter 1: General Overview Selecting the elements Select the elements to be assigned with a property. Note that in the worksheet only the information of the selected members are displayed. Entering the required information in the worksheet In the worksheet enter the required information. It can also be defined by using the tool buttons. select the support nodes to assign the restraints. Information can be entered manually in the worksheet. 34 . For example.

35 . Grouping members and shells As you may have noticed. This tool button does not erase the related elements. which is found in the Members/Connectivity and Shells/Thickness worksheets. so that elements can be selected in groups instead of individually. it is of vital importance to group the elements to facilitate easier selection (and design).Chapter 1: General Overview 2. Once the members or shells have a description. All the current data in a worksheet may be cleared using the button . The members and shells can be grouped using the Description property. you can select the whole group (all members with the same description) by using the tool button shown in the figure above. the rapid and easy selection of elements is very important in the program. Button to select all elements with the same description. It only erases the properties or information of the current worksheet. Press one of the following buttons indicated in the figure. Select the support nodes 3. Therefore. To group several members or shells you have to assign them the same Description.

for members and 36 .Chapter 1: General Overview For example. You can use the button . To simultaneously select several groups select one instance (member or shell) of each group using the Shift key and then press the button . . This command copies the description of the last selected element to the rest of the selected elements. select one instance of the members and then press the button . You can automatically generate default descriptions with the buttons for shells. to copy a description to all the selected members. The program will select all members with the same Description(s) of the previously selected members. to select all the roof beams of the model shown in the figure above.

you can create a new one. RAM Advanse manages the dynamic load cases exactly in the same way as the static load cases. select the desired load case before proceeding to enter loads. Note that the limit of the number of load conditions in RAM Advanse is 200. This figure shows the option in the Application Menu bar used to create. Entering loads for a load case First. edit and select load conditions (RAM Advanse refers to both load cases and load combinations as load conditions). 5. Edit the load case or combinations. You can use the Loads toolbar to select the current load case or combination for the entry or editing of loads Loads toolbar Automatic generation of load combinations You can automatically generate load combinations in RAM Advanse. Create new load cases or combinations. This option allows you to: 4. In the event that no generator file matches your needs.Chapter 1: General Overview Load cases and combinations Loads tab of the main menu. 37 . For more details press F1 in the dialog box. delete. Clear load cases or combinations. 6. Execute the Loads/Generate load combinations command on the main menu and select one of the combinations file provided by the program.

This is controlled through the Display options window or the set of available tool bars that may be shown on the screen. which will be associated with the loads to be entered.Chapter 1: General Overview Select the current load case. invoke the command Loads/Copy forces from another load case from the main menu. You can also copy the loads from one load case to the current load case. 38 . Then you can erase the loads over alternate spans in the two load cases. You only have to create one load condition with the loads over all the spans and then copy the loads to the other load cases. for example. members or shells as explained for other properties. to create alternate loads in different spans of continuous beams. Continue with the entry of the loads on nodes. This command is very useful. Display of data and results RAM Advanse follows the forces sign convention shown below: RAM Advanse can show almost all data and results in a graphical way. To do this. This procedure can also be used for 3D structures with similar load cases.

Chapter 1: General Overview Enable the Display options window (1) or the different toolbars to display data and results (2) Display options window. It has several tabs with the different display toolbars Available display toolbars. You can find it at the top right of 39 . Press the button with the desired option to display it or unselect it to hide the option. The following button the screen unselects all the display option buttons. A tooltip for the button will be displayed if you hover with the cursor over the desired button.

If you have a mouse wheel you can use it to rotate and zoom in or out the model. If you want to display the moments around the global Z axis you have to press the "6" button. rotate and edit the view of the model. press the button to display the reactions and then press the "2" button. Visualization and Cursor toolbars to define the view of the model. . change perspective. . Mouse wheel is equivalent to or or or or . For example. Ctrl + mouse wheel is equivalent to Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + Shift + mouse wheel is equivalent to Ctrl + 0 (or mouse wheel click) is equivalent to 40 . Display of reactions 3. if you want to display the Reactions parallel to the global Y-axis. These buttons are applicable with the following display options (see Model properties and Analysis toolbars): 1. in the Units toolbar to view the units with all of the displayed values. Display of translations and rotations 2. Zoom and rotation The following toolbars are used to zoom. font size. Display of masses Press the button .Chapter 1: General Overview Or you can use the available option in the main menu Note that you can also use the shortcut Ctrl + U to unselect all the display options This group of buttons allows the user to select the degree of freedom to be displayed for certain selected parameters.

Other basic operations Undo Command If you have accidentally performed an action. To view the whole model press the same button again. Erasing elements If you want to delete nodes. you have to first select them and then press the button Erasing the contents of a worksheet To erase data related to a group of elements select the desired elements.Chapter 1: General Overview Notice that you can modify the rotation increment for each rotation command in the Configuration/General/View rotation increment option of the main menu. If you press the button again. go to the corresponding worksheet. Select what you want to view. Clicking with the right button of your mouse will move the center of the screen to that point. Press the button . you can undo it by pressing the button in the Worksheet. Selecting and hiding elements The selection of elements and nodes are performed with the following toolbar: Selection toolbar To hide parts of your model you can perform the following steps: 1. (Unselect the other elements) 2. and press the button . members and/or shells. 41 . Panning Click the right button at the point on the structure that you want centered on the screen. the previous command will be undone and so on.

The purposes of this tool is: 1. Customizing the interface The different tools available in RA are now grouped into different toolbars: • • • • • • • • • 42 Model properties: used to display data in the graphics window. d. displacement values or reactions). press in the Model toolbar or use the option Tools/Data Generation/Delete duplicated elements. save or debug the model. To eliminate duplicated members (members with exactly the same connectivity) 3. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect members to the remainder nodes.e. 2. members. and define the perspective and font size of the graphics. Rendering: to display the model in 3D with data and/or results. deformed shapes and force diagrams after the analysis. Visualization: toolbar to zoom in. It is used in combination with other display buttons that require this information (i. load areas.o. Segment Elements This tool is used when a node is located in the same physical space as a member.f: toolbar to select the desired degree of freedom. Analysis: toolbar to display deflections. element numbering (nodes. This will eliminate all the unnecessary elements that can even affect the results of the analysis. you will be able to compare similar elements of the new model to the ones of the initial model. . Eliminate members with zero length and "floating" nodes (nodes not connected to elements) To execute the command. This command acts over all the elements in the entire structure.. masses. It is recommended that this command be issued before performing an analysis. Note also that for consistent output and reference.Chapter 1: General Overview Delete duplicated elements and un-connected nodes When you automatically generate data with the various tools available in the program. irrespective of which elements are currently selected. zoom out. etc) is maintained even if there are some elements that have been deleted. you can select them and apply the tool of the worksheet.of the main menu. shells. Model: toolbar to open. it is possible to generate members and nodes that are duplicated or disconnected. the member is segmented and the node is incorporated. This tool solves this problem by eliminating those elements.. See Chapter 3 for further details. Design properties: toolbar to display parameters required for design. Selection: toolbar to assist in the selection of elements. However if you want to reorder the numbers of your elements. Code Check: toolbar to display the results and status of the elements after the design. If you had a printout before erasing these elements.

You can configure the location and visibility of your toolbars according to your needs: 1. Alternatively you can use the mouse wheel. Connection toolbar.Chapter 1: General Overview • • • • • Cursor: toolbar to define the rotation of the model in the view. Data Panel. 43 . Enable the desired toolbars. Panels: toolbar to define if the different panels will be visible (Data Explorer. design properties. Note that the Display options toolbar can contain the model properties. rendering. Units: toolbar to select the current units and define if they will be shown in the graphics display. Loads: toolbar to select the current load condition. RAM Voice) Different available toolbars in RA. analysis and code check toolbars. Views: toolbar to select different predefined views.

Note that you can also define the number of rows or columns of your toolbar picking the bottom or lateral edges of the toolbar with the mouse. save your desktop using the following option 44 .Chapter 1: General Overview Option to enable/desable the toolbars (Checked toolbars are visible) 2. Define the desired position of your toolbars. You can drag them with the left button of the mouse to the desired location. These options follow standard Windows procedures. 3) Once all your toolbars are in the desired locations and conditions.

General Configuration Several general characteristics of the program may be configured using the following option in the main menu: Configuration/General option 45 . Notice that it will be available for future use (2).Chapter 1: General Overview Save your current desktop (1). A shortcut will be assigned.

size. 46 . alignment and fonts) Graphic scales for deflections and force diagrams Quality for printing graphics Quality for rendering Default folders for models and databases Nomenclature according to the country (US or UK) You will find more information in the Help context.Chapter 1: General Overview General Configuration dialog window A dialog window will be displayed where you can define the several characteristics of the program: • • • • • • • View rotation increment for graphics Graphics fonts (styles.

47 By default. and moments). bending moments. Also. 2. rotate structure) are based on this assumption. nodal restraints. local axes are useful for defining the orientation of the element in space.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Coordinate systems Three coordinate systems are used during the analysis of a structure. In RAM Advanse. axial forces. Y. This is because certain program commands (rigid floor. and Z. It is recommended that the structure be elevated in the Y axis. RAM Advanse orientates the frame members as follows: . and 3). axes. Global axes are represented by X. Some of the data entered in the Global coordinate system are nodal coordinates. and principal. these include local loads. Results: the analysis results are related to local. • • • Global coordinate system Local coordinate system Principal axis coordinates system Global coordinate system The global coordinate system is a user-selected system. J = initial node K = final node In frame members the data that is associated with the local axes coordinate system are: • • • • • Section orientation Rigid offsets and releases Some applied loads on the element (concentrated forces. Local coordinate system Each frame member and shell of a structure has its own local coordinate system that is referred to as its local axes (represented by number 1. Origin of local coordinate system is located at the J node (initial node). nodal forces and moments. etc. The structure geometry is entered in this coordinate system. Some data and results are presented in this coordinate system. distributed forces. These loads can also be related to the global system. springs.

Element rotation There are several ways to rotate members to an angle other than the default orientation these include: 180 and 90 degrees rotation If you need to rotate a member 90 or 180 degrees. axis 3 will be perpendicular to the plane formed by axis 1 and its projection over plane X – Z. 48 . However. for certain shapes the local axis is different from the principal axes. • • • Principal coordinate system Section properties such as moment of inertia. In most cases. In the case of members that are vertical with axis 1 in the Y direction. RAM Advanse allows the engineer to place the local axes in a different orientation to the principal axes. such as with Z and L profiles. Axis 3 is parallel to X-Z plane for horizontal members. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes. and section modulus are related to the principal axis.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes • Local 1-axis (axis of the element) lies along the vector created between the J and K nodes. Notice that this axis is automatically defined when the element is created and cannot be changed. axis 3 will be parallel to Z-axis. This greatly facilitates the data entry. local and principal axes of the element coincide. For inclined members. Axis 1 (longitudinal axis) will be ALWAYS located at the section’s center of gravity independent of the sections cardinal point (see chapter on cardinal points). proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated. Axis 2 is defined by the right hand rule with the thumb finger pointing toward 1-axis. The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes.

as you need. Press button (180 degrees) or (90 degrees).Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Go to Members/Local axes. 49 . Elements have been rotated.

Making a local axis parallel to a global axis Occasionally. Y.or Z-axes. 50 . To do this. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Enter the angle to be rotated (in degrees) and press Elements have been rotated.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Rotating members at an angle When you need to rotate one (or more) frame members to a known angle. proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the local axis (2 or 3) that you want to set parallel to a global axis. you may want to set a local axis parallel to the global X-. other than 90 and 180 degrees.

so as not to deselect the elements (notice that only one node should be selected). Remember to press Shift. To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Z.When you set the orientation of a local axis. the other local axes are also rotated accordingly. Orientating a local axis toward a specific node To orient a member’s local axis in the direction of a specific node proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated.Only one node should be selected. Select the node to which the local axis should orient (point).Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Then press one of these buttons: To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis Y. Note. Note. 51 . If several nodes are selected press De-Select nodes command and then select the desired node. To set the chosen local axis parallel to axis X.

Orientating a local axis parallel to a vector between two nodes To orient an element’s local axis parallel to a vector determined by two nodes proceed as follows: Select elements to be rotated Select the two nodes that define the vector. 52 .Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes Select the local axis (2 or 3) that should point to the node. Then press The elements are now rotated with their local axis (axis 3 in this case) orientated to a node.

Select the local axis (2 or 3) that will be parallel to the vector.Only two nodes should be selected. to use an L section.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes . RAM Advanse allows you to set your members local axes system different to the principal axes. we have: Local axes Principal axes 53 . press menu-item De-Select nodes and then select the two desired nodes. Then press The selected local axis (axis 3 in this case) is orientated parallel to the vector. For instance. This characteristic of the software allows the engineer to more easily set the orientation of certain elements. Principal axes As mentioned before. If several nodes are selected.

This flag is only applicable in steel members.Chapter 2: Local and Global Axes The analysis results provided by RAM Advanse are given relative to the principal and local axes. which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) for bending. In the next section you will find the way to change this. See the chapters devoted to Steel Design for further details 54 . For the code check the forces in the principal axes are normally used. There are other design provisions in the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. When the option is enabled. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. the user can define a flag to consider the section laterally restrained for torsion: Flag used to define the local axes or geometric axes to be used in the design of steel members instead of the principal axes. Laterally restrained for torsion When the dimensions of a section are entered (ConfigurationDatabases/Sections/Edit or Configuration/Databases/Sections/New). This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. Forces are provided relative to the principal axes.

Instead of defining four members between nodes 1-2. 2-3. it is recommended to view the finite element model by selecting the command View/Finite element model (FEM)( ).Chapter 3: Physical Members. However.). Consider a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5.. For programs reporting analysis and design results for each node-to-node element. physical members do not have to be used in the model. Physical members Physical members are single continuous members such as girders that support multiple members framing in along their length. The user only needs to define the nodes at the ends of a physical member and does not need to break the member at intermediate nodes along the length. with results accordingly. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Chapter 3: Physical Members. 3-4 and 4-5 due to the geometry of the problem. The decision to not consider physical members is indicated at analysis time by deselecting the Automatically segment physical members and shells option in the Finite element model tab of the analysis window (Menu Process/Analyze structure. which is hinged at the ends. It describes how to delete duplicate elements and un-connected nodes. the user need to define one member between nodes 1 and 5. regardless of the number of segments created along its span. The following example illustrates the process of defining a physical member. Example of a continuous (physical) member between nodes 1 and 5 55 . if not required by the engineer. Now. explained farther down. As could be seen. the engineer had to fragment the elements of an actual structure for the analysis in any finite element program. If the engineer has decided to use physical members in the model. this segmentation greatly increased the number and complexity of reports. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure This chapter explains how to work with physical members.. In the past. RAM Advanse allows the user to specify what constitutes a physical member. This step will help to avoid unexpected or uncontrolled behavior in member segmentation during the actual analysis. and it provides result reports accordingly. physical members allow the creation of a structure model "as constructed". how to segment elements (members and shells) and how to rotate a structure.

The generated segmentation will be “proportional” to the shape of the shell as shown on the figure below: Note. the user may view the actual Finite Elements (with the physical member segmented) in the model. the segmentation will be done following the direction of the local axis as shown in the next figure (this is the default option): 56 . You can enable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Process/Analyze structure…). Note. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Before analyzing the model. If the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled. The segmentation of shells can be done with the option Proportional segmentation of shells. You can disable this option by clicking on the corresponding check box (Menu Calculation/Analyze structure…).e. the segmentation is independent of the local axis of the shell. The option Automatically segment physical members and shells is enabled by default. the model does not represent the actual finite elements in the model but rather the physical elements in the model) this option should be selected. to successfully analyze any model in which physical members are modeled (i.Chapter 3: Physical Members.

The user must be aware that the Proportional segmentation of shells option can generate. The segmentation will generate new nodes (B and C) which will force more segmentations as shown in the figure below: 57 . in some cases.Chapter 3: Physical Members. consider the structure in the next figure: The segmentation of the shells starts at node A. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure In this case. excessive and unnecessary segmentation. which is part of the structure data. For example. the segmentation is dependent of the local axis of the shell.

the segmentation of the same structure will be done as shown below (the program will not consider the segmentation of the shell with the dotted line): The segmentation can be done to members and/or shells (the normal procedure is to segment both. members and shells). Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure On the other hand.Chapter 3: Physical Members. if the Proportional segmentation of shells option is not enabled. 58 .

59 . Note that there is no continuity between the shell and the member in the lower part of the model. there will be continuity in the model. there will be no continuity between the shell and members because the nodes generated by the segmentation of the shell will not be joined to the members. in some cases (for example a shell enclosed with beams). If you select both options. Both cases are shown in the following figures: Deformed shape of the model when only “segmentation of shells” is done.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure If you select the option Segment shells and not the option Segment members.

To do this. Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message. . it is recommended to apply smaller values for the tolerance. and the Note however. Another alternative is to segment individually the shell indicated in the error message. Note the continuity between the shell and the member at the lower part of the model. the program will ask for a tolerance to build the FEM model (note that the tolerance option is also available at the Analysis window): Tolerance to be considered in the FEM Model. select the shell. the related member will be segmented internally by the program considering that node. you can also press the “Finite element model” button program will show the split members and shells. if the node is closer than the tolerance to a member. To do this. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. This tolerance is the maximum distance between a member and a node to consider the node as segmenting the member in the Finite Element model. the display of results and its design. that the original unsegmented element will be treated as a single element for the reports. select the shell. If a segmentation error appears during analysis. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Deformed shape of the model when segmentation is done to shells and members. That is. and in the dialog box select the The user can also view the actual finite element model by pressing the following button in the Model toolbar: If the structure was not yet analyzed. 60 . press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. .Chapter 3: Physical Members. press the segmentation button "Selected members and shells" option. and in the dialog box select the Note: The nodes generated with the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature are not generated with floor number or restrictions of contiguous nodes. Once the model has been analyzed. it is recommended to apply smaller values for this parameter.

There are two ways to determine the mesh. This method is recommended whenever a uniform mesh is desired: 61 . this is performed when a denser mesh is required near singularities such as point loads or edges: 1) Define the overall dimensions. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Example of a continuous beam treated as a single physical element. However. The physical shell element allows you to define only the four extreme corners of a “physical” shell while controlling the required degree of meshing. Normally. the user may desire to obtain results for the overall wall or slab dimension.Chapter 3: Physical Members. 2) Define nodes at the sides to indicate the desired mesh. the FEM rules and hypothesis require that there be a finer mesh in order to achieve reliable results. Adopted Finite Element Model for the previous example. In the case of shells and plates. The first method consists of applying nodes at the sides of the shells where you want the shell to be divided. This mesh is shown when is pressed The second way to define the mesh consists of typing the number of segments in each direction in the worksheet.

If elements don’t have enough subdivisions the results may be inacurate and even invalid. 3) Press the button and the Finite Element Model will be shown Warning! The user must always check the number of subdivisions adopted by the program. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure 1) Define the overall dimensions and determine the local axes of the elements.Chapter 3: Physical Members. See chapter 14 for further details and suggestions. it is advisable to check the generated finite element model (FEM). 62 . RAM Advanse automatically maintains the physical members defined in the RSS. Warning! If the Automatically segment physical members and shells feature is used. Note: When importing RAM Structural System models. 2) Go to Shells/Description and thickness in the worksheet and determine the number of segments in each direction of the local axes.

Frame members are considered as duplicated when they are connected to the same nodes as other elements. Eliminate nodes that do not have any elements connected to them. Eliminate elements with zero length. 6. 63 . Eliminate duplicated frame members (elements are considered as duplicated when they connect to the same two nodes as another element). 4. use the node that remains. Press to segment elements (members and shells). this command divides the frame member and then reconnects the two elements to the node. It is best that you execute this command after generating copies of your structure. Press to join parts of your structure and eliminate duplicate nodes and elements. When a node is located along a frame member axis. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Model Data Check The Model toolbar has two commands available to assist you in cleaning up the structure to avoid analytical errors.Chapter 3: Physical Members. The function of this command is: 3. to eliminate one of the two and reconnect the elements to Eliminate duplicated frame members. When two nodes are superimposed. To eliminate duplicated nodes and reconnect the frame members to the node that remains. 5. and before analyzing your structure.

to divide the frame member and connect the divided Note: The difference between the button and the button is that. Caution: If you use this command on previously defined physical members. It is suggested to verify the FEM model by pressing the button in all cases. the resulting segmented shells will be divided once more for analysis if the shell division has been specified entering the number of segments on both local axes. with the first one you can “view” the Finite Element Model (FEM) keeping the original physical elements of the model unaltered. This double division is due to the fact that the original entered numbers to indicate the shell segments on local axes are kept. use elements to the node. Notice that we are not referring to view rotation. the physical elements will be segmented (original physical elements will be altered). members and shells) and take note of the coordinates of the pivotal point for rotation. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure When a node is on a frame member. they will permanently be segmented into smaller physical members. In the case of physical shells.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Rotating the Structure This command allows you to rotate a portion or all of the structure. while with the second button. 64 . To rotate the structure. follow these steps: Select the elements to be rotated (nodes. but the physical rotation of the nodal coordinates about some of the global axis.

Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure Execute the Rotate command. Enter the pivotal point of rotation. the angle of the rotation and choose the axis about which the structure is to rotate. 65 .Chapter 3: Physical Members.

Be sure to check nodal coordinates once the rotation is complete 66 . Nodes are rotated about the selected axis and do not remain in the same vertical or horizontal plane. verify the supports and orientation of the elements.Chapter 3: Physical Members. Structure Debugging and Commands for Rotating the Structure After the rotation is completed.

some nodes might become unstable. represent the hinges of elements. Pin (hinges) at both ends of members It is quite common that an element has bolted joints at both ends. proceed as follows: Select members to be pinned 67 . for instance. Release the degree of freedom to accurately model the joint.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members End releases are needed to accurately model the joints between elements. Warning! The user should note that if excessive members in a model are hinged. for instance. To do this. In this case you should pin both ends of the member. A release should be used to represent the actual condition of the joint. a single bolted connection will not carry bending moments and as such the joint should be released for that degree of freedom. Note: RAM Advanse’s default joint is a rigid connection of the element with the end nodes. Releases.

68 . This can be done as follows: Select the element(s) to be released. Select the end to be released. Remember to press Shift to select the nodes without deselecting the elements. Pin one end of a member Occasionally you will need to pin only one end of members.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Go to Members/Hinges and press The elements are released and shown in the screen.

Remember that you can also erase all release information by pressing a spreadsheet). press the buttons that are complementary in action to the buttons described above: Fix both ends of selected members.Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Press to release bending moment about axis 3 or press button about axis 2. Fix the bending moment about axis 3 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members. Fix the bending moment about axis 2 of the selected ends (nodes) of the selected members. to release bending moment Fixing ends of elements By default. if you need to fix some elements that were previously released. all frame members have rigid joints. However. (clear the contents of 69 .

Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Tension only members All members defined as tension only will be capable of resisting only tension forces. . It is no longer possible to superimpose individual load case results even in a first order analysis. including the combinations. The method RAM Advanse uses to analyze these members involves a nonlinear analysis. All selected tension only members are shown when the display option 70 Hinges is pressed. which is an iterative procedure for each load condition and therefore all load conditions are analyzed. Press to define the tension only members. Warning! The tension only element flag is ignored in a dynamic analysis. To define the tension members proceed as follows: Select the elements to be defined as tension only members.

Loads (show values) is selected. all the members with pre-tension forces will 71 .Chapter 4: End Releases and Tension-Only Members Pre-tension In several cases cables and tensors are subjected to a pre-tension force. To consider a pre-tension in the elements proceed as follows: Select the desired elements. Go to Members/Loads on members/Pre-tension of cables and tensors and enter the value of the pretension. It is generally applied to members defined as tension only elements. This option allows you to consider the influence of the initial tension in the deformation and distribution of forces in the structure. If the display option be displayed.

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the center (5) or the center-of-gravity of the section (0) The default position is zero. This feature is normally used to align members in the desired position. Rigid Zone Offsets.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. which are aligned in relation to a center or a perimeter cross section axis.9). Common applications are to model eccentric members or tapered members. Rigid Zone Offsets. select the desired members Select the members. The available cardinal points are described in the following figure: Cardinal points defined along the perimeter (1.3.4. 73 .6. Rigid Floor and Pressure on frame Members This chapter explains several advanced concepts.8.2. To enter cardinal points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Cardinal Points Cardinal points are used to define the members’ cross section axis location.7.

These rigid segments will not undergo deformation under bending moments. to account for panel zone deformation. Rigid Zone Offsets. they will just transmit the forces from one point to another along the length of the rigid offset.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. or axial forces. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Cardinal Point Worksheet (1. (b) tapered with position 2 (see the location of the member in relation to the nodes). eccentric columns.2) and select the desired position (3) for your members. and several other reasons. 74 . shear forces. The following example can illustrate graphically the function of the cardinal points with respect to a tapered member: Examples of different position of the cardinal points (a) tapered members with default position (0). and (c) tapered members with position 2 and with axis rigid end (see next section). Rigid zone offsets Rigid offsets are infinitely rigid segments at the ends of frame members. Rigid offsets are typically used to model large joints.

proceed as follows: 1. 3. The clear length of the member will be the distance between nodes less the rigid ends. In the first method. Leff=clear length of the member. To enter members with rigid axis ends. It is strongly suggested to adopt only one method for each structure depending on the particular characteristics of the structure. the first one takes into account axes rigid ends in conjunction with cardinal points and the second one is considering rigid end offsets in the three directions of the global axes (with the member cardinal point in the default position). 2. The distributed or concentrated loads on the member will be considered only for this length. L = member length Note that the loads and forces in the member will be provided always along the clear length considering the axis rigid ends. The values of the axis rigid end J and axis rigid end K are used to define the overlap distances. the end offsets are considered when the sections’ dimensions overlap. Select the desired members.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Zone Offsets. Axes rigid ends. Define the members and assign their sections. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members RAM Advanse offers two ways of considering rigid end zones. Go to members/Cardinal point worksheet and use the tool to create axis rigid ends: 75 .

The user has many tools to define the desired offsets.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Axis rigid ends defined with the tool of the cardinal point worksheet The second method for defining rigid end offsets allows considering the offsets in any direction independently of the longitudinal axis of the member. Rigid Zone Offsets. To model a rigid end zone with the second method proceed as follows: Select sections that intersect each other Select the member and the node where the rigid offset is required. 76 . See the help context for the details of the tools. The offsets are defined in the global directions.

Rigid Zone Offsets. proceed as follows: Select the overall column 77 . Considering the second method. Warning: The tool only works for segmented columns (not physical columns) Notice that you can enter column eccentricities (offset columns) with any of the described methods.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid zone offset has been created. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Press to create rigid offset.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Members/Rigid offsets and press one of the following buttons: or Column offset has been created Beams aligned to floor level (dropped floor) The cardinal points or the rigid end offsets (second method) can be used to align beams at floor level (drop the floor).Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Proceed as follows: Select beam to align with floor level (drop) 78 . Rigid Zone Offsets.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members If you are using cardinal points.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. select its worksheet and use position 2 for the selected members. Rigid Zone Offsets. Or go to Rigid end offsets worksheet and press the following button Selected beams will be aligned with the floor level Warning! The use of cardinal points or rigid end offsets to align beams to floor level may alter the distribution of bending moments. 79 . see next section for further details.

the model will be changed . to define the axis location for common locations as at the top or bottom of the section in an easier and automatic way (internally the program adopts the required rigid offsets). Press the button to display the rigid ends for the cardinal points in green and the rigid zone offsets in red. The bending moment diagram will have the known shape: Beam with two segmented pinned at both ends without rigid offsets or cardinal points. Rigid Zone Offsets. while the rigid zone offsets may be suited for any particular condition. in general. It is important to notice that the rigid zone offsets or cardinal points change the model. If rigid offsets are included to align the beam at the floor level. a uniformly distributed load and the end supports pinned. The method to be adopted will depend on the facility to define the required data for the specific model to deal with. This influences the results to be obtained. The cardinal points allow. 80 . Lets take for example a beam with two segments.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Some advises in relation to the use of rigid zone offsets and cardinal points It is important to mention that both methods can be used to define the member longitudinal axis at the desired location.

originating discontinuities at the locations of the concentrated loads from the beams framing into them (see the following figure). Rigid Zone Offsets. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Beam with two segments with rigid offsets or cardinal points. Model without rigid offsets with continuous bending moment diagram. Note that the distribution of the bending moments have changed and that an axial load is generated due to the eccentricity at the supports. The rigid offsets modify also the distribution of the bending moments in more complex models.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. 81 .

Simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges The user must be very careful when using rigid offsets and hinges simultaneously. and rotate (around Y) together.e. This constrains all nodes of a floor to translate (in X and Z-axes). Therefore. The simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges in the case of joints between a beam supported on a girder can influence the way the supporting girder resists the applied loads. It depends on the engineers judgment whether to adopt rigid offsets for the different members of a model. the supporting beam will need to resist the rigid zone moment through its torsional stiffness. Instability due to simultaneous use of rigid offsets and hinges around hinged supports. They can however be used simultaneously in beam-column joints. Rigid floor When a building is being analyzed the engineer can choose to model the structure with a Rigid floor Diaphragm or Rigid Floor. Cross section showing girder (in profile) supporting a beam (shown with single line) with a specified rigid end offset. the supporting girders experiences a torsion due to the beam’s reaction at the specified offset. Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Model with rigid offsets with discontinuities in the bending moment diagram. and the rigid diaphragm assumption is of no assistance to resist this torsion. In many cases this stiffness is not sufficient to adequately resist the applied load. When rigid offsets and hinges are used in nodes between beams and girders. i. 82 . One problem is the possible creation of instabilities around hinged supports. Part of the moments are taken by the rigid offsets. it is suggested not to use rigid offsets and pinned beam where two beams intersect. In the case shown below. In some cases their use will not be appropriate and the user may use them only for displaying the 3D view of the structure in a more realistic way and not for the analysis. A Rigid floor diaphragm simulates the in-plane rigidity produced by the slab.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. infinitely rigid link between all nodes in the horizontal plane. Rigid Zone Offsets.

the first node of the floor will be considered the master node.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Entering Rigid floor To enter a Rigid floor diaphragm. Rigid Zone Offsets.4in or 1cm. If no masses are defined in the nodes of a floor. When a rigid floor is activated the vertical deformation of the beams (out of plane rigidity) isn't affected. follow these steps: Select the nodes of a floor (all the selected nodes should have the same Y coordinate). Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members With a rigid floor all nodes of a floor translate as a whole in the in-plane directions All the nodes of a floor rotate around Y constrained to a single point The engineer should decide if the rigid floor assumption is appropriate for their structure. Each diaphragm or rigid floor may have just one master node. which will be the rotation point for the rest of the nodes of the floor. it is necessary that the building height be orientated along the Y-axis. Important! In order to use rigid floor diaphragm. If so this rigid floor diaphragm can result in a faster analysis. It is important to notice that the program accepts a tolerance for the difference between the y-coordinates of the nodes of each floor up to 0. This node is taken coincident with the mass node (only one node may have masses in the floor). but it is not adequate for very small structures. which is reasonable for any building of normal size. 83 .

to clear the contents of the current spreadsheet and so erase Pressure on frame members In open structures (towers. and calculates an equivalent distributed force. etc. Go to Members/Loads on members and press button Pressures. During the analysis. Rigid Zone Offsets. RAM Advanse finds the projected area (depending on the dimensions of the section) perpendicular to the pressure force. bridges. 84 . Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members Go to Nodes/Floor and press button Rigid floor diaphragm has been entered Repeat the same steps to enter the Rigid Floor number of the other floors. Important: A Rigid Floor diaphragm can only be used when all the nodes of a floor have the same Y coordinate. Remember that you can press the rigid floor.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points.) the wind force can be entered as a pressure on the frame members.

Rigid Floor and Pressure on Frame Members The pressures on the frame members are entered in the Pres. PresY. Rigid Zone Offsets.X. Pres X: Pressure of the wind in the X direction.Chapter 5: Cardinal Points. Pres Z: Pressure of the wind in the Z direction. 85 . PresZ columns. Pres Y: Pressure of the wind in the Y direction.

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Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials RAM Advanse comes with a complete section database. Those sections (profiles) and materials that are not available in the database can be added as described in this chapter. Press button New. follow these steps: Execute Configuration/Databases/Sections.. 87 . Creating new sections To create a new section. command..

Note that the AISC steel sections are shown in black or yellow. Enter the units system (1). Type of section (should or not contain space characters) 88 . Section names Names of the sections should consist of three parts: 1.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Choose the shape of the profile to be created. the section name (2). BS sections are shown in blue and AISI sections start with the string “aisi”. wood sections (NDS) are shown in brown and yellow. the data to define the section geometry (3) and then press OK. These sections become part of the program database and can be used in all subsequent models. (See below to for more details concerning valid section names).

Examples of valid profile names are: W 15x25 TUBE 15x10 TUBE 15_25 Non valid profile names are: W15x25 (separation space character is missing) At least the name must have one separation space character Section Collections A section collection is defined as a group of members that will be considered in the optimization.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials 2. hyphens. The sections in a collection should be ordered according to the order in which they should be considered in the optimization. Important. and they can be designed by different codes (i. and "TUBE". A space character 3. "W". “15x22x1.the Type of Section groups the profile. "T2L". “2x25x15”. Type of sections is for instance.5”.e.191” will be stored in the PIPE group. NDS. Designation is a description of the dimensions of this profile i. The Type of Sections should not have space characters. So if the user want that the section belongs one specific type section. space characters.191’. it must has the same name exactly. which is the designation of the section (with or without spaces). where ‘PIPE’ is the section type (without space characters) followed by a single space ‘ ‘ and ‘1-1_4x0. BS.. AISI and AISC) You can create a new section collection executing the command Configuration/Databases/Sections/Section collections for optimization and executing the following steps: 89 .191.e. In case the PIPE group does not exist. C etc). Note that the engineer can use different types of sections in the same collection (W. RAM Advanse will create a new one. dots and special characters.. Designation or description (should or not space characters) A valid name is for example ‘PIPE 1-1_4x0. That is to say that a profile named “PIPE 11_4x0. Designations can contain the division ("/") character.

Sort the section in the list according to their weight or to other criteria. Select the desired sections to be included in the collection with the mouse. The second window displays a list of sections in the currently selected collection. Parameters for the design of steel members Laterally restrained for torsion: When the option is enabled. Note that when sections are added to a collection they are not duplicated. The first window displays a list of the available collections. In this case simple bending occurs without any torsional 90 . The file is located in the “Sets” folder (in the main RAM Advanse folder). 3. (Drag a continuous list. or ctrl+left mouse button to select discrete sections). 6. The collection files can be edited using Notepad or any text editor. For example an angle beam loaded parallel to one leg. This is of particular importance in angle or Z-shapes laterally restrained for torsion along their length. which can be designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Steps to create a new section collection for optimization. you can only have one instance of a section in a collection. Press the button to create a new collection. 2. will deflect and bend about that leg only if the angle is restrained laterally along the length. sections are not added if they already exist in the collection. The Collection window is divided in different areas. Select one of the groups that contain the desired sections. The name of the collection must be a valid and unique filename. the program assumes the principal axes to be coincident to the local axes. 1. 5. Then enter a name for the collection in the dialog window. RAM Advanse will create a text file with this name where it will save a list with the sections’ names. That is. Repeat steps 2 to 4 as desired. Press the button to add the selected sections. 4.

The user can choose 91 . Qmod2' exact: This option is only valid for “I” and “C” shapes designed with the between the exact value based on the following definition: Maximum shear stress = V(shear force) * Qmod. There are other design provisions on the codes that have to be considered in the design of such members. Which implies an integral that considers the static moment about the neutral axis and the moment of inertia. See the chapter devoted to Steel Design in this manual for further details.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials rotation or lateral deflection and the geometric axis section properties should be used in the evaluation of the stresses: The geometric axes 2 and 3 should be used instead of the principal axes 2' and 3' for angle beams restrained laterally for torsion. Code. or an approximate value for Qmod2’ used by most of the codes. equal to the web depth multiplied by its thickness (d*tw).

If d0>0 and dL>0 it is assumed that the section varies linearly from d0 at the J end to dL at the K end. the program considers that the depth at the J end is equal to the specified depth of the adopted section (d0=d). the user has to assign a section to the member following the usual steps illustrated in the figure after selecting the desired members: Then the initial and final depth of the member has to be provided. d0 is the depth at the J end of a web-tapered member (see next figure) while dL is the depth at the K end of the member. 92 .Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Tapered Members RAM Advanse offers the possibility to consider tapered members with a linear variation of the depth. The width of the section and its flange thickness are considered to be constant along the member. For this case. If d0=0 and dL=0. the design is restricted to hot rolled steel members with a section that possesses at least one axis of symmetry perpendicular to the plane of bending. Although the program can deal in the analysis with any type of section with variable depth.

In this way the section will be aligned at the top of the section. All the section properties of each sub-element can be calculated in a similar way as for prismatic members. which reduces the time required for the solution and gives a more precise definition of the section properties. which increases the time needed for the solution. The stiffness matrix of the whole member is then assembled considering each sub-element with an equivalent prismatic section corresponding to the mean depth of the sub-element. you can use rigid end offsets to align tapered members The analysis of tapered members is performed with an internal subdivision of the member into 6 elements with a stepped variation of the section properties. Or they can be calculated using the special subroutine Prop TaperedProperties as part of the section macro.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Note that a one side tapered member can be achieved by using the section cross section axis point or the member rigid end offsets as it is illustrated in the following figures: Use the cross section axis point to align the section in position number 2. Alternatively. (See Chapter 15). 93 .

For more details about the design of tapered steel members see the chapters on Design of hot rolled steel members (AISC or BS Codes). Note that no web depth is entered as it is assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in this worksheet.Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Members with variable depth are subdivided in 6 sub-elements with an equivalent prismatic section. Note that a special built up section type is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up tapered members. follow these steps: Execute command Configuration/Databases/Materials. Creating Materials To create your own material. 94 . To create a new tapered section invokes the Configuration/Databases/Sections command and create a new section using the I_tapered section type.

Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials Select the desired folder and press button . select the group of materials to be exported: 95 . Importing and exporting sections and materials This feature allows the user to import and export sections and materials to the clipboard. To export the data. For further details see the help context. Enter data of the material and then press OK. You can select any unit system for entering the data. You can also define each value with its corresponding units.

Note that when the property Read Only is enabled. The exported data may then be pasted into any text editor or spreadsheet application such as Notepad or Excel: To import data of materials or sections. with a corresponding effect on code check equations. enter the new values in their corresponding fields and then proceed to copy the information to the clipboard.e.com) to download the latest files that include many tabulated sections. Copy the data to the clipboard. inertia. The steps to import data are as follows: • • • 96 Define the required fields. it preserves the imported properties and avoids overwriting them with the properties calculated by the program. These entered values will override the calculated ones if the Read Only property is set to true.ramint. This feature is particularly useful with steel sections where tabulated values can be slightly different from those calculated by the program. it is recommended to first export an instance of the type of material or section to be imported to define the labels of the different fields. etc) may be entered together with geometric properties. Missing section properties will be calculated. Input the data in a spreadsheet. Notice that calculated section properties (i. Please see the Excel files with several available groups of sections and their properties that are included in the Tables directory or visit our web site (www. .Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials And then press the export button . area.

Additionally. using the button. using the Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System (RSS) contains all section properties of sections available in RSS. there are two options to import sections. For more information about RSS Master Steel Tables see the RAM Manager Manual 97 .Chapter 6: Creating Sections and Materials • Press the button in RAM Advanse to paste the information into the database. From Master Steel Tables of the RAM Structural System. button. To import the data.tab) and it will be automatically imported. select the desired table (file with extension . • • From text files.

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Example 1: Creating a Truss For instance. In order to use Templates you should already be comfortable using RAM Advanse. RAM Advanse already contains several partial Templates. This chapter explains how to use Templates to quickly generate portions of your structures. One of the most unique and important characteristics of these templates is that you can create your own. sections. Enter the nodes that the Template requires. See the chapter on Creating Structure Templates to get information on how to create your own Templates. 2. using the Truss1 Template you can enter a triangular truss. we suggest you first read the RAM Advanse Examples Manual. Select them in certain specific order. To execute a Template three steps are required: 1.com to download other free Templates created by RAM International and other users. and incorporate them into the RAM Advanse program. This Template requires the nodes shown below: Template Truss1 requires 4 referential nodes and the number of segments. please visit our RAM Advanse community web page www. should be entered manually. etc. They help in the generation of segments or parts of the structure. Additional information such as supports. materials. 3. etc. 99 . such as number of segments. it automatically generates nodes. To enter the truss. If not. proceed as follows: Enter the nodes illustrated in the following figure.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Templates are a unique concept introduced by RAM Advanse to allow engineers to create models of structures in a fraction of the time normally required.ramint. Templates When a Template is executed. frame members and descriptions. Execute the Template and enter the information that it asks for.

Go to Tools/Data generation/Templates 100 . Select nodes as required by the Template Then execute the desired Template in one of the two following ways: 1.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Go to Nodes/Coordinates and enter the nodes illustrated Enter the illustrated nodes. Notice that they can be entered in any order. Go to Members/Connectivity (Nodes and description worksheet and press button 2. Then select the nodes in the order required by the Template.

101 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates To execute the desired Template. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. Select Truss1 Template and press OK. enter 3 in the number of segments. In this case. go to Members/Nodes and Description or Tools/Data Generation. Next enter the data required by the Template.

first select one element of the group and press 102 . "g2". Descriptions typically created by Templates are g1. Templates generally create meaningless descriptions such as "g1". g2. follow these steps: Select description to be changed. g3. Note .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the number of segments. "h1". etc. etc. To do this. To change them to meaningful descriptions. In this case.When using the Templates it is very important the order in which nodes are selected. you should change them to more meaningful descriptions. Therefore. enter 3 The truss has been created.

In this case. Select the preferred units system. select Metric System 4.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Then go to Members/Nodes and Description and press In the same way as explained before. The structure shown below will be entered using Templates. Proceed as follows: 3. Example 2: Creating an entire structure In the following example you will see how powerful Templates are.Remember that you should type the "diag1" description and then press the button. Enter the reference nodes 103 . change the other descriptions. Change the generated descriptions to other more meaningful descriptions. This structure will be entered using Templates. Note.

1. Select the nodes as indicated. Select the nodes as requested by the Template. The template roofTruss1 will be used to generate the principal truss. the roofTruss1 template will be used. Execute Template roofTruss1 and enter the number of segments (enter 4 in this case) 104 . Remember to assign them a COL1 description. Enter the columns and assign them COL1 description.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Enter the reference nodes before calling up the Templates (meters) Enter the columns as illustrated. 2. To generate the principal truss.

Assign descriptions as shown in the figure below: Assign descriptions as shown. The principal truss has been created. you'll get the "Select 6 nodes in the illustrated order" message. Note. 105 .Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute RoofTruss1 template Enter the number of segments (4).In the event you did not select the correct number of nodes.

Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Copy the frame 3 times. longitudinal trusses will be generated using theTruss1 template. Template Truss1 is used to generate the longitudinal trusses. 5 meters in Z direction Now. Copy the whole structure 3 times. Select the nodes shown next: Select nodes in the illustrated order 106 . each 5 meters in the Z direction.

Enter 12 segments in this case. 107 . As you can see.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Execute Truss1 template Enter number of segments. a longitudinal truss has been created Assign descriptions as shown Repeat previous steps to generate the other two trusses shown below.

please proceed as explained in the RAM Advanse Assistant (F4). select the illustrated nodes Then press button Completing data As you can see. all the geometry of the structure was entered very quickly. To complete the information. loads. sections. Then enter the roof beams. materials. the structure is ready to be completed with other information such as supports. 108 . To enter the roof beams. At this point.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates Repeat the steps explained before to enter the other two trusses. etc.

follow these next steps: Select a group of elements.Chapter 7: Using Structure Templates For instance. to enter sections. Go to sections spreadsheet. first select one member of the group description and press . 109 . choose the section that you need and press Sections have been assigned As you can see at this point it is very important to assign meaningful descriptions. This will expedite structural modeling. To do this.

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LL for live loads. 5. The reserved words AND or OR followed always by a space. Generation of load combinations This utility tool allows the engineer to generate combinations to be used in the model. The name of the desired category. (These must be valid symbols that are to be associated with the individual load cases). 7. In the displayed window the engineer can enter a template file for the adopted local building code from which load combinations can be generated (based on the load case category. -). 6. 111 . Window for the generation of load combinations. Mathematics symbols (+.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Generation of load combinations Elastic supports Prescribed displacements Self weight Thermal loads Generation of nodes This chapter deals with several additional features that provide RAM Advanse with several advanced capabilities. 4. Note that you can save or retrieve this file for use in any structure or even in the Continuous Beam or Retaining Wall detailing modules. etc). The formulae have to be organized in the following order: 3. A factor which may be any real number. Note that the rest of the components of the formulae may or may not be separated by spaces. DL for dead loads. The tool is called from the command Loads/Generate load combinations on the main menu. Steps 1 – 4 are repeated as required.

It is important to note that only the names of the categories can be used in the editor. Special commentary lines are also allowed if they start with "//" Note that the reserved word AND is used to show that each load combination to be generated has to include ALL the load cases that belong to the specified category.28LL2 + 1. Category = EQ) the following load combinations will be generated: 1.05DL1 + 1.70LL +AND 1.28LL1 + 1. while the reserved word OR is used to generate different load combinations for each load case of the specified category The following example illustrates the procedure //Example combinations +AND 1.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects 8.28LL + OR 1.28LL1 + 1.4DL1 + 1. See the example files (path: main RAM Advanse directory/combos) that come with the program which have the basic load combinations to consider for the different codes. EQ2.7LL1 + 1.28LL2 + 1.4EQ2 Notice that the seismic load cases are not included in the same combination due to the OR designation. 112 .40EQ If there is one dead load case (DL1. category = LL) and two seismic load cases (EQ1. Load combinations in the template file will be ignored if they contain a load category that is not currently adopted in the model. category = DL). LL2.40DL + AND 1. To enter the springs. while the live loads are always in the same combination due to the AND designation. proceed as follows: Select the nodes.4EQ1 1.05DL1 + 1. Elastic supports Elastic supports are modeled in the RAM Advanse program using springs. One possible method of calculating the spring stiffness is using the soil modulus of subgrade reaction as follows: K spring = Modulus of subgrade reaction* tributary area for the node It is the engineers' responsibility to obtain appropriate spring stiffness. two live load cases (LL1. When the OK button is pressed.7LL2 1. the combinations will be generated based on the selected load combination file and the currently available load cases.05DL + AND 1.

RZ). Only the components that have restrained degrees of freedom will be considered as loading the structure. To enter prescribed displacements proceed as follows: 113 . Note: A node cannot have a spring if it is restrained in the same degree of freedom. See the chapter of Footing Design and Detailing for more details. However. Springs have been entered. it is possible for a node to have springs in some degree of freedom and restraints in the other degrees of freedom.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Nodes/Springs. TZ. RX. is available to assist the user in the entry of the appropriate Notice that the tool to model footings values for the rotational and translational springs under a footing of known dimensions. The different components of the displacements are specified in the global coordinate system (TX. RY. Prescribed displacements This option is used to apply specified ground displacements (translations and rotations) at joints that are restrained. TY. Enter the value of the spring in the adequate direction and press .

Enter the displacement/rotations in the restrained degrees of freedom.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Select the restrained node(s) with prescribed displacements . Self .weight RAM Advanse can calculate the self-weight of the elements (shells and/or members) in a structure. To activate the self-weight calculation proceed as follows: Select load case that is to include the self-weight loads. 114 .

Use of templates. transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. Temp 1 is the temperature differential that will cause axial expansion (positive values) or shortening (negative values) in the member length. The user enters the nodes required to position the new portion of the structure that will be generated including the nodes. press Note: Notice that you can also manually enter the self-weight multiplier. Note the temperature differential should be in degrees Fahrenheit if the units are in the English System. Temp 2 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 2. It causes bending about axis 2. For more details see Using Structure Templates. Therefore. the user can generate the 115 . Import from DXF files. Temp 2. This option is particularly useful when the geometry is very complicated and the node coordinates are not easily defined. 3. It causes bending about axis 3. This option allows you to define the basic geometry (that is. Thermal loads When there are differences of temperature in-between faces of the members. Temp 3 is the gradient per unit length of temperature in local axis 3. . and Temp3 column. The RAM Advanse Data Panel has only limited functions to manipulate the data. The user can draw the structure in any drawing software and then import the data in RAM Advanse. Note: To deactivate the self-weight calculation. Import from Excel and other spreadsheet applications. For more details see chapter related to Importing and Exporting Data. 2. the nodes and frame members). if the nodes coordinates follow special functions like trigonometric or exponential functions. This tool is very useful for trusses or structures with typical geometry. It is important for the user to know them in order to optimize the time of the data input: 1. otherwise centigrade. Node generation RAM Advanse has several methods of generating nodes. Temperature loads are only applicable to linear elements and cannot be applied to shells.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Go to Gen/Self weight and press . you can enter these loads in the following way: Go to Members and press the Load button and then go to Temperature differences The temperature differences are entered in the Temp1.

For example. if you want to generate nodes following the natural logarithmic function y=ln(x). The use of special tools for the generation of nodes. Then you have to select the data and press the going to be entered and press the paste button.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects coordinates in applications like Excel which are plenty equipped with those functions and then transfer the data in RAM Advanse. The data is selected and copied to the Clipboard. You can create the data in a spreadsheet application: Data generated in a spreadsheet like Excel. In RAM Advanse you go to the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates locate the area where the data are The data is pasted in the Data Panel Nodes/Coordinates. This is performed with the known "copy and paste" operation very common in all applications. You can see the generated nodes in the Display window: 1. copy button. . The available tools are the following: • 116 Copy nodes.

Circular generation of nodes. Copy nodes To copy nodes. Enter the distance (in X. 117 . proceed as follows: Select the nodes to be copied. Press “Copy Nodes”. Two new nodes have been created. A dialog box appears. Press the OK button. Y and Z direction) that the selected nodes will be copied to.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects • • • Lineal generation of nodes. Quadratic generation of nodes.

we have: Quadratic generation of nodes Go to Nodes. Now. In the dialog box that appears enter the number of nodes to be generated and press OK. select four nodes in the order shown in the illustration.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects Linear generation of nodes Select two nodes Press Linear Generation of nodes button. 118 . Press “Quadratic generation of nodes” button.

and the total angle that the nodes will cover. as shown below in the figure. Node 1 (first node to be selected) is the center of the circle. The new nodes will be generated in the plane defined by nodes 1-3 and perpendicular to 1-2. The result will be: Circular generation of nodes Select three nodes. Press In the dialog box enter the number of nodes to be generated. Node 2 (second node to be selected) is used to set a vector perpendicular to the circle. Node 3 is the starting point of the generation and the node that determinates the radius of the circle.Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects In the dialog box enter the nodes to be generated along sides 1-2 and 1-3. 119 .

Chapter 8: Other Advanced Subjects The result of the above choices is: 120 .

For each load case defined by the user. a brief description of these analysis capabilities and element types are summarized.0. Beginning with version 7. 121 . K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and D is the matrix of resulting displacements. The currently enforced bandwidth optimization method is Reverse Cuthill-McKee Ordering algorithm. the time to decompose large symmetric-profile matrices is greatly reduced. The bandwidth optimization provides a substantial reduction in storage requirements and when it is combined with the direct sparse solvers. The problem is more involved if non-elastic materials are considered or if P-Delta effects are taken into account (see more details in the following sections). nonlinear-inelastic and Eigen analysis of any type of framing systems. which is part of a general-purpose finite element analysis library based on object-oriented programming architecture. RAM Advanse currently supports the following type of analysis: • • • • • • • Static Linear – Elastic Analysis Static Nonlinear – Elastic Analysis Eigen Value Analysis Frame element with 6 degrees of freedom (dof) at its both ends. The analysis engine is built on a highly optimized matrix library that is particularly tuned for sparse matrix computation and it is armed with a state of the art bandwidth optimization technique based on Graph theory. RAM Advanse is using a completely new analysis engine. there is a vector of loads that generates a vector of displacements. Geometric nonlinear effects can be included. LLC. It has been used mainly for linearelastic. The user is referred to associated references given within the text for further information.Chapter 9: Analysis Chapter 9: Analysis Introduction The static analysis of a structure involves the solution of a set of linear equations that can be shown in terms of the following form: P=KD (Eq 1) where P is the matrix of generalized applied loads. Tension-Only frame elements Quadrilateral Shell element with 6 dof at each corner (three translational dofs. developed completely by RAM International. two rotational dofs and one drilling dof) Linear axial and rotational springs In addition the following list contains element types currently available for the users: In the subsequent sections.

The element has the following features: • • • • Three translational and three rotational DOFs defined at each end. For most members of practical length. The corresponding neutral axis shear strain is γ = Fs / As G.Chapter 9: Analysis Frame Element Element Degrees of Freedom for Frame Element The frame element is a two-node element and there are 6 DOFs at each node. it can be significant for members with small span-to-depth ratio. This area is multiplied by the shearing stress (τna) at the neutral axis to obtain the total shear force on the cross section (i. Therefore. Based on this concept. RAM Advanse uses the cross-sectional property fs (form factor for shear) that is defined as As= fs A. Distribute loads (trapezoidal in general form) can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition. Point loads can be applied along the element according to global or element local definition Shear deformations due to bending can be considered in analysis: The current implementation adopts the concept of an “equivalent shear area”. the implemented method is usually satisfactory. the above figure is given showing total number of 12 DOFs. the influence of transverse shear deformations is negligible. Element stiffness matrix is derived as follows: • 122 . it is assumed that there is a uniform shear stress on the cross section. Several references can be found in literature on how to calculate “equivalent shear area”.e. (As) for considering transverse shear deformations. These additional terms can be found in any structural analysis book (Reference 1). Fs = τna As). where A is the member cross section. However. For these cases. Among these are Reference 2 and 3.. shear deformations may be included in analysis by augmenting the member stiffness matrix with additional shear terms. For illustrative purposes.

Frame elements can be converted to tension-only members. respectively. therefore. shear modulus. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. The engine calculates these deformations at any point accounting for element end displacements 123 • • • . St. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases.Chapter 9: Analysis Eq. Offsets\eccentricities can be defined at element ends in three separate directions. In this case. minor moment of inertia. Iy. elastic modulus and member length. shear and axial releases can be defined at element ends. E and L are major moment of inertia. a nonlinear (iterative) analysis is utilized. (3) in which Asx and Asy are “equivalent shear area” for major and minor directions. It should be noted that if αx and αy are zero. Temperature effects can be included by considering both axial and bending effects due to relative temperature changes. In this case. The terms αx and αy are shear correction terms to account for transverse shear deformations. (2) where Ix. Such effects can be used for applying axial pre-stress to members or for considering member axial initial imperfections (for instance. Calculated stiffness matrix and effects of loads applied to elements are modified due to releases. due to fabrication errors. respectively. Axial pre-tensioning can be defined. They are calculated as follows: Eq. (2) is reduced to conventional stiffness matrix for frame members. Deformation at any point within an element is extracted after the analysis is completed. J. G. Eq. members can be too short or too long. Venant torsion constant. it creates initial strains when placing these members into position) Geometric nonlinear effects are considered (see Iterative P-Delta Effects) in element formulation. • • • • Bending.

Geometric stiffness matrix (i. Shear deformations are not considered in the calculation of these deformations.Chapter 9: Analysis and loads applied. 5 and 6 for further assistance. the four node quadrilateral shell element can not be degenerated into a three node shell element. geometric nonlinear effects) is not calculated for shell elements.e. Surface loads can be applied to the shell either in global system or in local system of the shell. The element is capable of generating both in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness. The drilling degree of freedom facilitates fixity of members that frame into the wall. Only constant surface loads are allowed.e. Triangular shell elements in which three nodes of the shell are co-linear are not allowed (i. two rotation and one drilling degrees of freedom (see next Figure). Refer to References 4. Positive Definition of Shell Local Forces at Nodes 124 . Shell Element A four-node shell element is developed and it consists of six degrees of freedom at each of the four nodes: three translation. Loads (point loads on nodes) can be applied in global system or in the local axis of the shell. Degrees of Freedom of Shell Element (local definition) The general characteristics of the shell element are summarized as follows: • • • • The element is a quadrilateral element with 6 DOFs at each node.

Hence. a rigid diaphragm is assumed completely in the X-Z plane: translation DOFs in X and Z directions and rotation around Y are used to define diaphragm constraint equations. In the current implementation. It is assumed that the diaphragm is infinitely rigid in its plane and it transmits forces through it without deforming. members attached to these rigid diaphragms are moved together according to defined constraint equations. P-δ effect This effect is also called a member instability effect because it increases the instability of the members of a structure. There are two kinds of P-delta effects: P-δ (small p-delta). or simply the P-Delta effect. The simplest method is to allow RAM Advanse to calculate P-Delta during the analysis stage. P-Delta Analysis To analyze most structures it is necessary to take into account the P-Delta effect. Small p-delta effect Secondary P-δ moments are caused by axial force acting through the lateral displacements of the member relative to its central line (See figure below). all members attached to this diaphragm have the same displacements in X and Z if there is no rotation around Y. secondary moments arise as a result of the axial force acting through the lateral displacement of the member. Otherwise. 125 . What is P-Delta effect? When an element experiences a lateral displacement. and P-∆ (large P-Delta). The secondary moments created by the lateral displacements are also called P-Delta moments. Therefore.Chapter 9: Analysis Shell membrane and bending Forces Rigid Diaphragm Constraints RAM Advanse provides a method to define a rigid diaphragm by enforcing a set of constraint equations. member displacements are adjusted due to diaphragm rotation around Y according to the distance between member nodes and diaphragm mass center. This effect can be considered either at the analysis stage and/or at the code check stage.

even if lateral displacements are small. Beams. RAM Advanse used in previous versions the fictitious lateral load method to calculate the P-delta effect. The current implementation has some limitations. axial-bending interaction) so that they create additional flexural moments and then it leads to additional lateral displacements. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects). Iterative P-Delta Effects P-Delta effects at element level are accounted for through element geometric stiffness matrix.Chapter 9: Analysis Large P-Delta effect P-∆ moments are caused by axial force acting through the relative displacements of the ends of the member (figure below). Both P-delta moments combined are simply called the P-Delta effect. If this is the case. girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. These effects can be interpreted as the effect of axial force on element bending (i. The current implementation considers only axial-bending interaction but it does not consider other effects such as torsion-axial force interaction.bending interaction in members (1D element only). which may considerably increase the computation time.. P-∆ effect This effect is also called structure instability effect because increases the instability of the structure. They are summarized below: • It considers axial. The geometric stiffness matrix is calculated in each iteration and analysis is repeated until convergence (equilibrium) is achieved. one can disregard P-Delta effects. P-Delta effects can be ignored only when axial forces (tension or compression) are small and lateral displacements minor. The P-Delta effect generally decreases the structure and member stability. a second-order analysis requires several iterations to obtain the solution. P-Delta effect (also called P-Delta with axial-bending interaction) is a second order effect that causes a non-linearly behavior of the structure. P-Delta calculation methods As opposed to first-order analysis. torsionbending interaction etc. where a solution can be obtained in a direct way. and they usually carry low axial loads.e. In the current version the adopted method is more robust and it is detailed in the following Section. one can ignore P- 126 . It should be taken into account by the analysis.

P-Delta effect in load combinations When a first-order analysis is performed. the results for a combination can be found using superposition. the results for a combination cannot be calculated in the same way. load combinations are prepared before the analysis as opposed to ones created after the analysis in the first-order analysis. 127 . the rest of the loads will be calculated with the P-Delta effect and the dynamic load forces will be "added" to the result obtained in the P-Delta analysis. Note that it is referred to the figure given in Frame Element section.Chapter 9: Analysis Delta effects for these types of members. (4) where P. Dynamic analysis. The geometric stiffness matrix for a frame element is given in Eq. However. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problem if encountered during analysis. Therefore. it is advised to divide frame members into two or three sub-elements. 4. This is only possible due to the linear elastic analysis assumption. when a second-order analysis is performed. and P-Delta Second order analysis cannot consider dynamic loads. That is by simply adding together the results of each basic load case together multiplied by the respective combination factors. Therefore. The above procedure is generally referred to as large P-Delta. • • The P-Delta affect due to self-weight is always considered as if it were applied with equivalent forces at end nodes. No geometric stiffness matrix is calculated for shell elements. small P-Delta effects is accounted for. If one also wants to consider small PDelta effects. respectively. when they are present in the load combination. for load combinations P-Delta will be calculated in the analysis results using the same iterative method as was used with the load cases as described above. However. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for further explanation. L are axial force and member length. With this modeling approach.

it may require more iteration.Chapter 9: Analysis Option to disregard P-Delta effects in members with loads along their span The current implementation for P-Delta application is in such a way that it considers axial. one can disregard P-Delta effects for them. at each load step. a greater tolerance and may have more difficulties in the convergence. Two methods are available for the nonlinear analysis: The standard or full Newton Raphson method (NR) and the Modified Newton Rhapson method (MNR). but the iterative displacements are found using the original tangent matrix without updates. one can ignore P-Delta effects for these members. 128 .bending interaction in members (1D element only). If this is the case. This procedure could be faster than the first one. Note that this might also help to overcome some convergence problems during analysis. In the Modified Newton Raphson Method the load increments are applied using the tangent stiffness matrix too. girders or horizontal members are typical members where they are usually subjected to distributed loads or point loads. However. Beams. saving the time required for updating the tangent matrix. and they usually carry low axial loads. In both methods the total applied load is divided into a number of load steps. where the original calculated tangent matrix is similar to the final one. a tangent stiffness matrix of the structure that is used to iteratively search the equilibrium state. For some members if such interaction is not significant (or axial loads in these members are not big enough to create considerable P-Delta effects). Thus. It is usually used with nonlinear elements such as tension-only members or it is called for an analysis to include P-Delta effects. it is recommended only for big models with few non linear members. The standard method calculates. Nonlinear (Incremental\Iterative) Analysis RAM Advanse is capable of performing a nonlinear analysis.

In this case. one can increase the number of increments. In this case it is assumed that an equilibrium state is found.Chapter 9: Analysis Comparison of the two methods available for the non-linear analysis. Usually. The following is a summary of the features in this type of analysis: • The number of (load) increments is defined before starting the analysis. the solution is forced to converge within number of iteration per load increment. At the end of each increment. 129 . The load is applied incrementally and analysis is carried out until all loads are applied. • • To perform the P-Delta analyses select the Second-Order option when the structure is analyzed. It is always recommended to perform a preliminary linear analysis to check the model and to compare the results with the non-linear analysis. Again. equilibrium is checked in such a way that the difference between element resisting forces and externally applied loads is less than the pre-defined tolerance. If divergence is observed in analysis solution. this number can be increased if any difficulty is found in converging. The number of iterations can also be set prior to the analysis. this increases analysis time but it helps convergence with smaller number of load increments.

The general characteristics of the current implementation are summarized as follows: 130 .. 9 and 10) to find the lowest frequencies (i. 8.Chapter 9: Analysis Choose Perform second order analysis (P-Delta). It is assumed in the current implementation that constructed stiffness matrix is always positive definite and constructed mass matrix is a diagonal matrix. Enter the required parameters for the second order analysis.e. higher periods). The program utilizes a sub-space iteration technique (see References 7. In general for an efficient analysis the following values are recommended (default values): Number of increments = 1 Number of iterations per increment = 10 Convergence tolerance = 1E-5 Eigen Value Analysis The analysis engine is capable of finding Eigen values for a given system.

L. This is also called lumped mass approach.. If all the masses are not applied to master nodes and hence there are some other masses assigned to other nodes. 2000 [2] Strength of Material. Princeton. It is advised to increase the required number of Eigen values that may accelerate convergence characteristics in subspace. S..C. 445-457 [6] Ibrahimbegovic. John Wiley & Sons.. Vol. Computer and Structures. 1-4. E. pp.Chapter 9: Analysis • • Only diagonal mass matrix is allowed in the current implementation. The algorithm is optimized for sparse computation. the program statically condenses out all degrees of freedom without mass. and Young. No. R. The program internally sets a number of trial vectors. 1996 [8] Hughes.L.1. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. any mass should be defined at nodes or at master nodes. If all masses are lumped at master nodes (master nodes generally associated with rigid diaphragms). Therefore. No. 7. Vol. R. N. 1-9 [7] Bathe. R. • • • • • References [1] Matrix Structural Analysis.J. Timoshenko.. The program also applies Gram-Schmidt orthogonality technique to prevent converging to already converged solutions. Roark. "The Finite Element Methods: Linear and Static Dynamic Finite Element Analysis". this number is enough to converge in sub-space. (1991). 1955 [3] Formulas for Stress and Strain. L. Computers & Structures.. The program assigns 1. The program internally enforces spectrum slicing (Sturm sequence check) to make sure that found “n” Eigen values are the first “n” Eigen values in the solution queue. “A Unified Formulation for Triangular and Quadrilateral Flat Shell Finite Elements with Six Nodal Degrees of Freedom”. There are rare cases that the program is not able to converge. and Wilson. E. “A Robust Quadrilateral membrane Finite Element with Drilling Degrees of Freedom”. 1983 131 .L. pp. 5th Edition.. and Ziemian. This usually reduces the risks for having numerical problems related to DOFs without mass. which is larger than the number of requested Eigen values. Part 1.. (1988). (1990). W. 1975 [4] MacNeal. 28. 30. and Harder. 2nd Edition. K. 3rd Edition.J.0E-8 for degrees of freedom where no mass is defined. 75-84 [5] Ibrahimbegovic. “A Refined Four-noded Membrane Element with Rotational Degrees of Freedom”. McGraw-Hill.. McGuire. For most cases. "Finite Element Procedures". and Wilson. Inc.R.H. R. static condensation can be applied for Eigen solution... "An Eigensolution Strategy For Large Systems".D.L.. Van Nostrand. R. R.. 259-265. Vol..H. 16. In this case.. A. static condensation is not used.. A. This guaranties that the solution does not miss any Eigen values so that the lowest “n” Eigen values are always found. 1987 [9] Wilson. Thomas J. L. Gallagher.. Communications in Applied Numerical Methods. E. Vol. W. New York. Taylor.

Journal of Engineering mechanics Division. "Large Eigenvalue problems in Dynamic Analysis".J. Wilson. No.. Vol. ASCE. 98.Chapter 9: Analysis [10] Bathe. E.L. EM6. K. 1972 132 ..

T² M] Z=0 Where K is the stiffness matrix. The number of Modes to be calculated will depend on the following factors: • • The number of Modes specified by the user in the Analysis dialog window.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis RAM Advanse performs dynamic analysis using the method of modal superposition. It is given as a digitized response. In this process the following equation has to be solved: [K . periods and maximum accelerations The mass participation percentage that provides a measure of how important the Mode is in the calculation of the response of the structure. Each eigenvalue-eigenvector pair is called a natural vibration mode and they are calculated with a numeric method of iteration (see more details of the modal analysis in the Analysis Chapter). not on the loads. which is an excellent insight to the behavior of the structure.spectrum curve. The Mode frequencies. To perform a dynamic analysis it is necessary to first enter the corresponding masses in the respective nodes and a seismic response spectrum. and the determination of the Seismic forces and displacements due to the combination of modes for a given direction of acceleration. which represent the ground acceleration in an earthquake in a certain direction. The output of the modal analysis given by the program consists of the following: • • • • • • 133 . Modal Analysis The Modal Analysis consists of the calculation of the period. The list of the masses that are acting on the different nodes of the structure. Free vibration is only dependent on the rigidity of the structure and its masses. The type of Modal Analysis performed by the program is the Eigenvalue Analysis. The dynamic analysis can be subdivided into two parts. The number of mass degrees of freedom of the structure that considers both the translational and rotational masses. T is the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. M is the diagonal mass matrix and Z is the corresponding matrix of eigenvectors. The function is displayed in a graphical way. The modal shapes for each Mode. frequencies and the undamped free vibration mode shapes of the structure. the Modal Analysis which determines the free vibration behavior of the structure. This parameter is very useful for the determination of the accuracy of the Modal Analysis The total mass that is the sum of the masses in each degree of freedom that acts over the whole structure. The seismic response spectrum.

The sign of the results can impact the combination of dynamic loads with other types of loads that already have an associated sign. In this case the program performs a statistical measure of the likely maximum response of the structure for the given response spectrum. the member design will not be accurate if the moment diagram due to seismic loading does not reflect the true moment signs. forces and stresses for each vibration mode. forces and stresses calculated from the dynamic analysis. RAM Advanse offers two methods for performing this superposition: CQC Method CQC represents the Complete Quadratic Combination technique developed by Wilson. This includes member forces. Der Kiureghian and Bayo (1981) and is taken as the default method. RAM Advanse includes a method to assign signs to the displacements. For example when bending and axial loads are combined. They are printed for each load combination. considering a damping factor equal to zero. displacements and stresses. reactions. We can consider the case of a column in a building: 134 . It is very similar to the CQC method. Determination of the Dynamic Forces Seismic Dynamic Forces are the maximum forces (response) that occur on the structure as a result of a dynamic analysis utilizing a loading response spectrum. It considers the statistical coupling between closely spaced Modes caused by modal damping. SRSS Method It combines the results by taking the square root of the sum of their squares. It is quite conservative and therefore not commonly used. ABS Method It combines the results by taking the sum of absolute values. Therefore. Seismic results with sign Even though the response can be expected to vary within a positive and negative value range. Therefore the damping factor is not considered in this method. Advanse does this by taking the sign from the predominant modes acting on each member to determine the sign of the total seismic response. Therefore the damping factor must be greater than zero for this method.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis • The base reactions that are the total moments and reactions in global coordinates required by the supports to resist the inertia forces originated by the response spectrum loading. the results of the adopted methods are traditionally given as single positive results (this includes the displacements. each Mode frequencies and for the modal combination. Methods of Modal Superposition Modal superposition is performed in order to compute the maximum displacements. member forces and stresses).

As you can see. the user has to create load combinations in the two opposite directions. Entering Mass Modal shapes are automatically calculated when the structure contains a mass on at least one node. which are to contain mass. It is important to mention that when signs are going to be considered. the combination of loads will better reflect the real behavior of the structure. To enter mass. with the feature to calculate signs for the dynamic loads. for example in -X and +X direction.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Combination of dynamic loads with and without signs with other type of loads. Nevertheless. follow these steps: Select the nodes. 135 . the user must be aware that the signs are only estimated and must be used with caution. Mass can only be entered at the nodes.

Now the masses have been introduced. You can view the mass graphically by depressing .Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Enter in the value of the mass and then press (or press to copy the entire row). To perform the seismic analysis. proceed as follows: 136 . Choose the direction of the mass that you want to view graphically with It is important to note that there are two available tools to automatically generate masses for one or several floors considering members and shells. Available tools for automatic mass generation.in the Model Properties toolbar. They are located in the lower part of the worksheet. Seismic Loads The dynamic response spectra analysis requires the following data: Dynamic scale factor = Seismic acceleration/gravity constant. Refer to the context sensitive help for instructions related to their use. Damping constant (in percentage). Seismic Response spectrum.

as specified by the code that you are using. Enter the scale factor and direction of the earthquake force. sx = Seism in X (positive direction) or ez = Earthquake in Z. 137 . (This is only valid when the seismic is calculated with sign.The seismic direction should be 0 degrees for an earthquake in global X. In the opposite case the results for the seismic for X and -X or for Z and -Z will be the same). Note .Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a load case for seismic forces.g. 180 degrees for an earthquake in global -X. -90 degrees for an earthquake in global Z direction and +90 degrees for an earthquake in global -Z direction. E.

the response spectra curve shows on its vertical axis the maximum acceleration/gravity. To perform a seismic design. Construction details Warning! The program does not include the” tension only” option in the dynamic analysis. That is. Seismic loads: response spectrum and earthquake acceleration Just as with other loads (i. you should take into account the following: • Seismic loads. That is. This kind of dynamic analysis is the most convenient for seismic design because most seismic building codes include the response spectra to be used in the design of a building. This means that the seismic dynamic load is represented by a response spectra (it is also possible to represent other dynamic forces with a response spectra). Seismic load is represented by a response spectrum. and on it's horizontal axis the period of the structure. 138 . You can also load a saved response spectrum using the saved with the button. All elements are considered as carrying compression as well as tension in dynamic load cases. Load combinations where seismic load is included. The response spectrum can be button and later recovered with this button Seismic analysis As described previously RAM Advanse performs modal dynamic analyses.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Go to the Gen/Spectrum panel and enter the response spectrum specified by the code you are using for the design. Wind load). the response spectra. you need to determine the magnitude of the seismic forces.e. Notice that acceleration is normalized with respect to gravity.

It is important to note that the combinations that include both types of load cases will be analyzed in two parts. Modal superposition is done using the CQC. Kg. The summation of bending moments and other forces is not zero at the nodes when the option seismic results with signs is not used. Load combinations Once you have created a seismic load case in X. RAM Advanse offers an analysis option to automatically assign a sign to the calculated response based on the fundamental mode of response. This factor scales the response spectra. ABS or the SRSS method. 139 . Note that RAM Advanse allows the simultaneous analysis of load cases with second order effects and dynamic load cases (these are calculated with a first order analysis). Construction details It is important that you understand the behavior of structures subject to seismic loads and the design details that are required to provide a structure with the required ductility. Enter 1 (one) if the response spectra need not be scaled. Seismic aspects in RAM Advanse RAM Advanse performs modal analysis as follows: 2. or in Z.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Response spectra: acceleration/Gravity versus period of the structure. in order to obtain the respective units for the analysis. considering all the non-dynamic cases where the second order effects will be included. The first one. and a second one that will add all the dynamic cases calculated with a first order analysis. 5. 4. The RAM Advanse Reinforced Concrete Design modules handle many of these details included in Chapter 21 of the ACI -318 Code. This is because of step 3. Results from a dynamic response spectra analysis are always positive since they represent the maximum values of the structure vibration. Refer to your local concrete and building code for the pertinent detailing information. you should create the load combinations required by the code you are using. 3. Lb. Nodal mass is entered in Kip. Notice that RAM Advanse allows you to enter a Scale Factor. RAM Advanse will divide the mass load by gravity. Ton.

In a floor. Reactions are always positive when the option seismic results with signs are not used. select all the nodes of a floor and then assign them a floor number. RAM Advanse offers an option to obtain the seismic results with signs.Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis As opposed to wind load (left). Seismic dynamic analysis of buildings Dynamic analysis of buildings has some special considerations to be taken into account. All nodes in a floor (including the node with the masses) should be connected with a rigid floor diaphragm. The other nodes should not have mass. Note. 140 . Often a building contains a slab which increases the horizontal rigidity of a floor (perpendicular stiffness of the slab is taken as zero). To do this. To model this rigid diaphragm proceed as follows: • • • Create a node at the mass center of each floor Assign TX and TZ translational masses and RY rotational mass. However. These are the masses of the entire floor. This rigidity is represented by rigid floor diaphragm. only the mass center node should have a mass. bending moments are always positive in a typical dynamic load case (right).

141 .Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Create a node (master node) in the mass center of each floor. Assign TX. Select all the nodes in a floor Go to Nodes/Floor and press button to assign a floor number to the selected nodes. TZ. and RY floor masses to the master node.

Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis Assign all floor numbers.Notice that each floor should has a unique number in the structure. this number should not occur on any other floor. follow next steps: Press to activate modal shapes. Select desired modal shape Press 142 to see vibration. Analysis Then proceed to the analysis as usual: Perform analysis as usual Viewing mode shapes (Free vibration) To see the modal shapes of the building.. . That is to say. Note.

press button and in the Code Check toolbar To view stress created by vibration modes also depress Press buttons press . You can also press to see a static view of the structure with the deformed modal shape or you can to see the normalized displacements of the selected mode 143 .Chapter 10: Dynamic Seismic Analysis To see vibration modes with 3D sections depress (or press ) in the Rendering toolbar. and to see stress and vibration. To view 3D vibration. .

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The order of the sections in this list will determine the priority of each section to be considered for replacing the current section. Important. RAM Advanse will not optimize a structure if a group (or description) of members has different sections assigned within that group. 2) Sections that fail the code check will be changed to a section that passes the code check.To optimize a structure. To optimize. There are many optimization criteria that can be applied to these processes. first select all the members that should be included in the optimization.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code check After the analysis and design of a steel or wood structure has been checked graphically. Structure optimization has two purposes: 1) Oversized sections will be changed to another section (normally with lower weight) from a predefined group of sections that can adequately carry the imposed loads. 145 . members with the same description (same group) should have the same initial section. you can proceed to structure optimization. Execute Optimize structure. The criterion to be adopted will be defined with the list of sections to be considered (section collection).

Optionally. Therefore. Check all groups of members (descriptions) that you want to optimize. Warning. 1.In the optimization of wood members. In this case. Note. the user has to check that the assigned material is adequate for all sections of the collection and the type of loads of the members. . Assign the collection(s) to the desired groups of members. Choose the section collection to consider in the optimization.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Steps for the optimization of a structure. determine the maximum allowable deflection for each description together with the load combinations to be considered for the deflection check. you should analyze and design the structure again. Then select the operation to be performed: Optimize or Code check. 4. When optimization is finished. 5. select Optimize. See the Wood Design Chapter for more information. . RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. 3. 6. Then check the load conditions that members should resist.When sections are changed all analysis results will be lost. Check all approved changes and press OK. 2. 146 . and press OK. RAM Advanse will change the current sections to those suggested.

So you must perform the analysis-design cycle more than one time. it should be re-analyzed.Structure design is iterative. until you are satisfied with the sections used in the structure. 147 . Important. After the structure has been optimized. Notice that the program tells you the reason for the changes (strength or deflection). Verification or Code Check Verification or Code Check will suggest section changes for only those elements that fail the code check. Oversized elements are not modified. Normally this results in the reduction of the weight of oversized members to a lower weight section. analyze the structure again. and 2) Replaces elements that fail the code check by others that pass it. choose P-Delta analysis.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Check all changes that you agree with. Do not check changes that you don't want to perform. You should study the structure results and optimize the structure again. Optimization and code check Optimization Optimization performs two actions: 1) Adopts the first section of the selected section collection (list of sections) that fulfills the strength and deflection requirements. Then press OK for RAM Advanse to make the suggested changes. After optimization. . In this case.

depth.Optimization and Verification assign the same section to all the elements of a group of members (or description). That is. A search is done only among those sections. Sizes in a set can be sorted by weight by clicking on after the collection is defined. the sections in the collection have to be sorted by weight. Note that the sequence in which sections are considered is based on the order of the sections in the collection. How RAM Advanse chooses an optimum section The program chooses a section to replace the original only if it exists in the section collection. If an optimization based on the weight of the members is desired.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization basis The purpose of structure optimization is to find the optimum section that complies with your set of criteria (weight. . That is. cold-form steel and wood) can also co-exist. a collection with sections that belong to different material types (steel. The program will pick the first section in the list that resists the applied loads within the deflection limits. Important . RAM Advanse will assign the same section to all elements with the same description. Note. Different types of sections (i. etc) can exist in a single section collection. L.Remember that the Type of a section is defined by its name.e. a "W 10x20" section has "W" type. Elements with BEAM1 description will have a common section that may differ from COL1. I. after optimization. RAM Advanse will choose the section to replace from the section collection. C. "Tube 15" has "Tube" type 148 . For example the test1 collection shown below is acceptable.. furthermore. A section is assigned to each group of members. all elements with description COL1 will have the same section. width or any other criteria).

Once RAM Advanse gets the first section that meets these criteria it is selected for a possible change.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Optimization process For each group (description) of elements. 149 . RAM Advanse checks sections in the selected collection and selects those that pass the code check (strength and deflection) for all the selected load conditions and for all the selected elements that belong to the same group.

1. then it is left without modification. then RAM Advanse proceeds to the optimization explained above. However. Steps to include deflection check in the optimization.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Verification process The Verification process is similar to the Optimization process. Define the allowable deflections. Note that you can enter absolute values (a) or values in function of the members length (b). If the current section does not pass the code check. Select the load conditions to be considered. Enable the deflection check 2. The following procedure can be used to optimize your structure and at the same time limit deflections to allowable values. If the current section passes the code check. Structure deflections and deformations Optimization and verification processes may additionally check structure deflections or deformations (lateral deflections are considered with the same limit). (You may need to use service load conditions to perform this check). 150 . 3. checks are first made to see if the current section passes the code check.

151 . This deflection check is very important and it may be performed as part of the design process. Notice that you should work with physical members for deflection check because deflections are always calculated relative to the members end points. Optimization with other criteria There may be other factors to be considered in the optimization that are not included in the deflection or strength check.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Notes: • • • Some load conditions should only be used for deflection verification and others should only be used for code check. One possible way to include them is limiting the value for the stress ratio to a value different than one. It is the engineers' responsibility to ascertain if this is appropriate for the given structure. You can review the slopes graphically to see if they are within the given limits.

To correct this. or change the geometry or loads of the model. RAM Advanse will ignore them during the optimization or verification processes.Chapter 11: Steel and Wood Structure Optimization and Code Check Appropriate section not found In the event that you get the message "No section was found to resist imposed load” in the replace sections list. Optimization with default collection of sections If the user does not define a collection of section. it means that no section in the section collection passes the code check for the imposed load conditions or specified lengths. The optimization process will look for the lightest section that comply with the defined strength and deflections requirements. 152 . AISC and AISI sections When both AISC and AISI elements are present in a structure. add stronger sections to the section collection. Non-steel or wood members If the structure has frame members with sections that are not made of steel or wood. RAM Advanse can change one kind for the other. the optimization will consider the complete set of sections of the original adopted section.

The last group allows the user to print the forces and deflections. wood. weight or number of members. This window allows the engineer to choose which information will be printed. geometric data for the design. This window also allows you to choose the load conditions to be included in the output. including the points of inflection and envelopes. Loads Data This option allows printing all the information relative to node forces. The second group allows you to print all the information related to steel. self-weight multipliers for load conditions.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports For many of the output you are required to first analyze and design the structure. a window is displayed. etc. Groups of options in the Reports menu. first select the elements that you want to be included in the printout. etc. reinforced concrete. and then choose the type of output you want to see. 153 . Like all the other reports. only the information of the graphically selected members will be printed. The first one provides the ability to print all the data and results of the analyzed structure. RAM Advanse offers you a variety of printing options. distributed forces on members. The Reports menu is divided into four groups. Note: Before printing data or results. A description of the options in each group of the Reports menu is given next: Model Data This option allows you to print all the structure geometric information like coordinates of the nodes. The third group has lists of the structure’s members or connections with their section type and quantities. and connection design. These quantities are given in length. data of members. Analysis Results Before printing the reports. seismic loads.

Steel Design Before printing the report. 154 . press the key to obtain the printed report. a window is displayed. Window of Analysis Results Use the two options at the top right edge of each group of reports ( all reports of the group. etc. Note that for some print options additional information is required in the form of additional parameters like the number of stations along the member. ) to select or deselect Dynamic Analysis The dynamic response results are displayed in this report. It also gives the calculated accelerations for each vibration mode together with the percentage of mass participation. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design. For more details about the information given in each type of report. This report also includes a graphic of the seismic response spectrum.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Once all the information to be printed is set. or whether to group by elements. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures. group by conditions. The user must choose at least one static or dynamic load condition. All the data and results that can be obtained are shown in the graphic below.

In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. This window allows you to choose the code to be used. the type of stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing steel design reports. a window is displayed. 155 . Reinforced Concrete Design Before printing the report.

The report gives information relative to the design of beams and columns like forces acting on members.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to the printing of reinforced concrete design reports. The user can also have a detailed report for each connection in the detailing module for connections. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. etc. the connections grouped by tag. Window displayed prior to printing connection design reports. In this window the user can choose the code. a window is displayed. Wood Design Before printing the report. Connections Design Before printing the report. the stirrups and the load conditions to be considered in the design. This window allows you to choose between a concise and a detailed report. For more details about the information given in each type of report. It also allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if the report will include separation lines. a window is displayed. This window allows you to choose the scope of the report. see the Reports section in the Connections chapter. For more details about the information given in each type of report. use the respective detailing module. 156 . maximum. considering all the selected connections. For a more detailed design of reinforced concrete columns and beams. Each detailing module has a more detailed report where the user can introduce more information for a complete design. minimum and calculated reinforcement. Each option is a summary of the former one. type. see the Reports section in the Chapter devoted to the Design of Wood Members. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. spacing of stirrups. family or description.

b) Show on screen : to show the diagrams on a graphical window. List of Joints This option prints the list of connections assigned to the joints. List of Materials This option allows you to obtain a list of the selected materials with their respective quantities. Note that the envelopes will consider only the selected load conditions.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Window displayed prior to printing wood design reports. Diagrams This menu option has a sub-menu with three choices: Three choices to print/display the forces diagrams: a) Reports : to print a report. translations and rotations for each selected member and load condition. Also. Report The diagrams display axial. this window allows you 157 . These quantities can be expressed in length or weight. flexural and torsional forces as well as their respective envelopes. In this window the user can choose the kind of report to be printed and the load conditions to be considered in the design. shear. Parts List This command prints the list of parts for the currently selected members. and c) Export as Dxf : To export as DXF file. This list may be very useful for the detailing and to know if there are still joints without connections. Before printing the report window is displayed where the user can choose the diagrams to be printed.

the user will be able to see on the screen a preview of the report and continue with the printing. Once the type of diagrams and the load conditions are chosen. It is advisable to save the structure before executing this command and not to process more than approximately one hundred diagrams each time. which is very useful for reinforced concrete members. All the diagrams are referenced to the member local axes. That is to choose the particular members you want diagrams displayed for. Note that where more diagrams are included in a line. Warning! The large number of figures that can be generated when multiple members and load conditions are chosen in big structures may produce problems of memory and resources on the computer. You can choose the number of diagrams per printing line. It is advisable to perform a small print test to determine if the chosen number is adequate for the current paper size and printer. which varies between 1 and 6. The default value is 2. which is recommended for reports in a letter size with portrait orientation. they will be smaller.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports to select the option to show the points where the values of the diagrams are zero. Screen displayed before the diagram report. 158 .

The available member force options include the bending moments.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report of diagrams. torsional moments. axial forces. shear. Note that there is a track bar at the bottom of the window which allows you to chose any point along the member and get the numerical value of the diagram at that point. Display on the screen This option displays the member force diagrams for the member that was selected first on the screen. together with translation and rotation diagrams. The user can select the number of displayed diagrams per line. 159 . In the upper part of the displayed window the user will find two menus to chose the type of diagram and the load condition to display in the diagrams. It is important to note that the envelopes that are displayed with this option are calculated only from all the selected load combinations.

Note the track bar at the bottom of the window (at the left) which allows you to display the numerical values of the diagram at any point along the member. 160 . The type of diagrams is chosen from the menus at the top of the window.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Option to display the diagrams on the screen. The screen is very similar to the ones of the detailing modules. Option to export diagrams as a DXF file. Export diagrams to DXF files This option displays a screen very similar to that of the detailing modules and includes an option to export the drawing as a DXF file.

The window that appears is the standard Windows printer setup dialog. a screen similar to the one shown below will be displayed: Report screen The characteristics and components of the report screen are explained next. Press to set all the print configuration parameters. General commands for print report A description of all the buttons in the top bar of the screen report is given next. Press to print the current report. Standard window to setup the printer. Each time the user prints a report. Press CLOSE to close the report window. In this case the standard dialog window for printing will appear 161 . For more details refer to your Windows manual or to your printer’s manual.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports The reports have icons and information that are very useful.

and bring them back (using the Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V keys to copy and paste the selected blocks) to the RAM Advanse worksheets. 162 . to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. Press to copy a selected block (Ctrl+C) to the Clipboard to read it from another program like Excel. From Microsoft Word the user can make any modification desired to the report. to export the selected block to Microsoft Word. etc. Press to export the selected block to Microsoft Excel. Exported report to Microsoft Excel. WordPad. The program exports only the text without the font styles or graphics (without format). This button is very useful because the user can export the selected blocks of the report.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Standard dialog window for printing. Press to select the complete report. This is a very useful button because it Press includes the styles. modify them in Microsoft Excel. The program exports only the text without Press the font styles or graphics (without format). tabulations and graphics (with format).

Warning! The user must be aware that the transfer of a report to Microsoft Word or Excel might take some time. The program will automatically insert the logo in the predetermined location on the report page. Editing the Reportitle.txt) in a safe location before proceeding with any changes. Use this option to repeat the title block on the top of each page. Warning! When exporting a report. and the date and time of the printed report. replace the logo. Customizing the heading of a report The logo of RAM International is located at the top left of the report. Note that when this option is activated you will see the titles that will be repeated on the screen. the chosen units system. depending on the speed of the processor and the number of pages of the report. even graphics are exported. This will allow you to revert to the original file whenever necessary. Note that the drawing file is in a bitmap format and it can be edited in any drawing program. which is automatically obtained. 163 .Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Report exported to Microsoft Word.bmp file with your company logo. Later the user can read the report from WordPad or NotePad. It is advisable to make a back up of the original file (Reportitle. This requires that the user must have this software properly installed on their computer.bmp file in the BMPS folder. Note that the export is done with the original formatting intact.txt file that is located in the root directory of RAM Advanse (C:\RAMadvanseEng) can modify this and other data to show in the report title. RAM Advanse automatically runs the respective software (Word or Excel). This folder is located in the root directory\BMPS folder. This allows the user to export the file in a simple text format (TXT). Press to save the complete report as a text file (*.txt). To change the logo. Other information given in the report is the path of the file. This logo is found in the logo.

If you have a black and white printer. use the option to improve the quality of printings for black and white printers.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Reports of the detailing modules For more information about general commands. Printing Graphics The program has an option to print exactly what is seen on the screen. Option to print the current graphic on the screen. If you have a color printer. refer to General commands for print report For a complete description about detailing module reports. refer to the chapters of each module as required. the printout will be in gray tones. The user can change the print quality in the program configuration option. 164 . If you want to print in gray tones. the printout will be in the original colors.

Better qualities will require more resources of the system. Notice that you can save the graph to a file. 165 . The normal quality will give a standard print. In this case you should use the following option: Option to save the current graphic in BMP or JPG format. to change the print quality.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Go to Configuration/General/Print.

a comment. etc. Text Box. Remarks: If you experience printing problems (the computer freezes or the printing is too slow). This information can be a title. Install the last available driver for your graphics card and printer considering your current operating system. allows the user to enter any information that will be printed on the graphic output. This text box will be located below the graphic screen of RAM Advanse and will be printed along with the graphic. you can increment the quality. press the “Add text box” command that is explained next. Once you succeed in printing the graphic. you may experience small differences in the tones between your printed graph and the graph displayed in the screen. Text Box This option found in the File tab of the main menu. Additionally you can set the scale and the size (in bitmaps) of the graph. a description. 166 . take into account the following suggestions: • • • • Reduce the printing quality in RAM Advanse. Reduce the printing quality in your printer (see your printer manual). If the user wants to include a comment on the graphic. If you have a color printer.Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports A dialog window will appear were you should define the type of file BMP (Windows Bit Map) or JPG (JPEG graphic).

Chapter 12: Printing Graphics and Reports Note that graphs include always the description of stresses and their type when they are drawn. 167 .

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RAM Structural System . Importing and exporting sections and materials. 169 .2x file and later.).Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data This chapter describes how to import and export information from and to other programs. Note: If you have RAM SS version 8. and others which create DXF files) RAM Advanse Neutral: Special tex t file containing the complete structure data. These files have extension "DXF". RAM Advanse Neutral: exporting data to an ASCII text file. To export as a DXF file. etc. the nodes and frame members). SDNF: Exporting to steel detailing neutral file for detailing software. RAM Structural System .2x file and later. not just the currently visible or selected members on the RAM Advanse display. RAM BasePlate: Exporting data of the selected column for the base plate design in RAM BasePlate It is also possible to import or export information to the databases. This is very useful for transferring data between drawing programs and RAM Advanse. What are DXF files? DXF files (Drawing Exchange Files) are ASCII files (plain text) that contain almost all the information necessary to produce a drawing. for more details see Chapter 6. MicroStation. The following options are available: Importing • • • • DXF Importing from drawing software (MicroStation. Exporting as DXF files RAM Advanse can export the geometry (frame member lines) of a model to a DXF file.Lateral Model: To import only lateral members from a RAM Structural System version 7. Exporting • • • • DXF: exporting to drawing software (Autocad. DXF files DXF files allow you to interchange only the basic geometry (that is. Autocad. enter the name of the file and press OK.Full Model: To import all members from a RAM Structural System version 7.0 or later you will be able to import models only for your current version of RAM SS. Note that the dxf file is created from all the members of the model. select the command File/Export/DXF Model. including loads.

) are ignored. This includes: • • Nodal coordinates Frame members All other data (restraints. 170 . Creating a DXF file You have to perform the following steps: 1. Importing a DXF file RAM Advanse will import the basic geometry of a structure that was created in some other drawing software and exported in a DXF format file. loads. Draw lines to represent the frame members. etc. shells. but change everything to layer 0 (zero) before exporting. use command File/Export/ DXFModel… Note. which are the most time consuming data to enter. Draw using as many layers as you want. 2.RAM Advanse only exports the basic geometry to DXF files.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. This option is very useful since it allows you to easily create nodes and frame members. rigid offset. springs. hinges. draw the frame members of the structure using any available command but explode everything into LINES before exporting. Using your CAD software.

Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data 3. Other layer will not be considered during the drawing importation. . All the geometry must be in layer 0.It is only possible to import frame members. if RAM Advanse locates a line as illustrated in the picture below-left. Shells cannot be imported. those must be exploded to lines. Save the drawing as DXF file. Then select the desired file and press OK. 2. For good results: 1. If there are polylines. (a) Line as drawn (b) Nodes and elements as created by RAM Advanse RAM Advanse will automatically create joints when it is necessary. 171 . Note. circles and polygons. For instance. The graphic must be draw in simple lines. Select the command File/Import from/DXF. it will automatically insert a node and will create an additional element as illustrated by the right picture. Reading DXF files Make sure RAM Advanse is set to the correct units (the same length units of your drawing) before you import the DXF file. Execute command File/Import from/DXF to read the DXF file Important! RAM Advanse will automatically insert nodes at straight-line intersection points.

SDNF Files RAM Advanse can export the structural data as a SDNF file. Columns however will be imported as fixed top but not bottom. What are SDNF files? SDNF (Steel Detailing Neutral File) are ASCII (plain text) files that allow you to send the structural member data to steel detailing software. Xsteel) can read or create SDNF files. 172 .g. invoke the command File/Import from/RAM SS. Note that any member shapes used in the RAM Structural System.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data RAM Structural System Files RAM Advanse has the ability to import a RAM Structural System model (. The gravity loads can only be imported once the structure’s tributary loads have been calculated (by entering any of the design modules in the RAM Structural System). Sending data to a SDNF file To export data to a SDNF file. Member fixity and tributary gravity loads will also be imported. wherever a beam frames into another beam. All gravity beam and brace members will be imported with pin conditions at their ends. Lateral Only – This option will import only lateral members from the RAM SS model. the member types by description (optional) and press OK. enter the name of the file. the supporting beam will be broken in two and a node inserted. but not available in the RAM Advanse database.ram file). member properties (shapes. This is a standard format conceived to facilitate data interchange among analysis/design and detailing software. execute command File/Export/SDNF. This file can be read by steel detailing software that supports the SDNF format. Note that in RAM Advanse the intersection of any two members results in a node being created. fixity etc) and gravity loads can be imported. For example. The structural geometry. Many detailing programs (e. To import a RAM Structural System model. the desire units. will need to be manually added to RAM Advanse. Note that RAM Advanse has a maximum of 10 uniform loads and 10 concentrated loads per member per load case. Full Model –This option will import all lateral and gravity members.

You have to define the file name. select File/Export/SDNF A dialog window will appear. The "Type field" can only be COLUMN. otherwise. The "Piecemark field" contains the RA member description The "Revision level field" is reported always as "0" Length units: in the specified units 173 . BEAM or BRACE. if the member nodes are completely horizontal or vertical. the units and the member types. By default. You may change this in the dialog window. Some characteristics of the exported SDNF File: Member description first line: "Member number" "Cardinal point" field” "0 " "0 " “Type field” “Piecemark field” “Revision level The cardinal point number is according to the standards.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data To export. the member will be reported as a beam or column. Now you can read the file with any detailing software that supports the SDNF file. as a brace.

the axis where the loads are applied (RAM BasePlate currently does not analyze biaxial bending) and the template file with the initial anchor geometry. pipe or wide flange and may be of any size contained in the database. Notice that only the load cases are considered. The user has to select which moment will be considered: M33 if the strong axis option is selected or M22 if the weak axis option is selected. select the desired column and execute the command File/Export/RAM BasePlate. the Code for the load combinations. Within RAM BasePlate you have a Load Combination Generator that will generate the combinations according to the selected code. To design a base plate. the program will “remember” the template file that you have selected and you do not have to define it again. A dialog window will appear. Press OK and the column shape together with the load cases will be exported. The column can be a tube. RAM Base Plate will be executed and you will be able to proceed with the base plate design. It is important to remark that RAM BasePlate works only with a single moment in the strong or in the weak axis. Dialog window to export data for RAM BasePlate. Immediatelly. You have to define the loads to be considered. Notice also that if you have already exported data from a specific column.Chapter 13: Importing and Exporting Data Sending data to RAM BasePlate RAM Advanse has the ability to export the required data for the design of base plates. See RAM BasePlate documentation for further details. 174 .

Bending and torsion moments originated by out-of-plane loads. M33 or M22 with the corresponding transverse shear forces.Chapter 14: Shells Chapter 14: Shells Introduction In this chapter you will see how to enter shell elements. you will learn certain necessary concepts. 175 . Two types of loads can act over the shells: Bending and torsion moments originated by loads acting out of the plane of the shell: M11. The calculation method uses the force matrix and the general element adopted is rectangular with four nodes. and you will learn how to view the results numerically or graphically. It is also possible to have loads acting in the plane of the shells (membrane loads) that can be normal loads F11 and F33 and shear loads F13. The Shell Element The following assumptions are made regarding the shell element used in RAM Advanse: • • • Rectangular plates Elastic material. isotropic and homogeneous Strength developed by a combination of bending and membrane actions. In order to model with shells you should have a solid understanding of the finite element theory because it is very easy to make mistakes in the structural modeling or in misinterpreting the results. Adopted element of 4 nodes.

we will have 6 degrees of freedom. 176 . The numerical procedure always produces some amount of error. They are called the Gauss points: Gauss points of the element. The forces in the element are evaluated in the Gauss points using the local coordinate system and the values obtained are extrapolated to the nodes at the corners in global coordinate system. If both types of loads are considered. Forces in the nodes calculated for each element. the magnitude of which can be evaluated based on the differences in the forces for each common point of the shells.Chapter 14: Shells Membrane actions acting over the shell. The adopted elements are formulated based on a numeric integration of 8 points located in both faces of the shell.

Chapter 14: Shells Approximated error of the forces calculated in the nodes. This limitation is due to the definition of the local axes. This is just a special case of the rectangular element. 177 . It is recommended to avoid these elements. The correct order of the nodes for the triangular element is shown in the next figure. N3 or N1. The calculation and distribution of stresses in this element is not as accurate as a traditional four-node element. It is also possible to model a triangular element. N2. The behavior as a membrane is used when loads acting in the same plane of the shells originate the stresses in the shells. N4. which is only suggested for transition zones. Triangular element suggested only for transition zones. This feature is intended only to completely cover a non-rectangular area with the shells. N2. with three nodes lying on one line. Applications for the model There are many applications for the adopted element. The program will generate an error if the following three nodes of the shell are collinear: N1. These forces are parallel to the smallest dimension of the shell: Membrane behavior with forces acting in the plane of the shell.

178 .Chapter 14: Shells These types of loads occur frequently in shear walls with vertical and lateral forces: Example of a shear wall with a membrane effect. It is also possible to have shells in three dimensions with a curvilinear axis. Loads that originate bending in shells. Bending stresses frequently occur in floor slabs and mats: Example of slabs modeled with plates. Bending occurs when loads act perpendicular to the plate’s plane.

RAM Advanse offers the ability to calculate the required reinforcement for flexure (positive and negative relative to shell local axis orientation) for shells positioned in the X-Z plane. That is. Determination of the reinforcement needed in reinforced concrete slabs. first you need to select the nodes to which shells will be connected to. 179 .Chapter 14: Shells Shells with curvilinear axis. Generating shells The generation of shells is similar to the generation of frame members: that is. and then select the top row of nodes in the same direction. This option allows the user to verify the floor slabs and mat reinforcing requirements. Select the nodes in the order shown above. The generation of shells is best explained with an example: Above is a row of four plates to be generated. and then press a button to create the elements. first select the bottom row of nodes.

the rest of the elements may be generated automatically by controlling the degree of segmentation (meshing). Node selection should be done in the following order: in order to undo the generation of First select the bottom row of nodes in the order indicated. Next select the top row of nodes in the order indicated. The plates will be generated. 180 . If the plates have not been generated as you expected press plates and start over. Note – Be advised that the order of selection of nodes is very important to correctly generate the plates and to establish their local coordinates. Please notice that the top and bottom rows of nodes should be selected in the same direction. Take the time to check the local axis orientation of the shells. It is only necessary to define big physical units.Chapter 14: Shells Next go to Shells/Nodes panel and press . Output such as top and bottom reinforcing steel is all presented relative to the shells local axis orientation.

go to Shells/Description and press the button or write in the description and then press Entering Shell Thickness To enter the thickness of the plates.Chapter 14: Shells Irregular plate divided into smaller rectangular plates. the shells should be assigned a description immediately after you create them. select one of the groups of plates and then press Next. select the plates to be assigned a description. follow these steps: 181 . The process for assigning the description is similar to that of beams and is explained below. To do this. Description As with beams. First.

Physical members. by entering the segmentation (meshing) values in the worksheet as was explained in Chapter 3. press the following buttons of the Display options window. select the plates.To graphically view the description and thickness of the plates. you can use the quadratic generation ( ) or the tool to segment the shells ( but these options has not to be used with physical members. Defining the degree of segmentation (meshing) There are two ways to indicate the segmentation (meshing): One. Alternatively. by extra nodes at the sides of the basic elements already defined and two.Chapter 14: Shells First. type in the value of the thickness of the plates and press the button Note . 182 . Then. or ). The number of segments that will have each basic unit can be defined in the worksheet.

To avoid viewing the material names graphically.Chapter 14: Shells Assigning Materials To assign materials. Pressure on the Plates To enter pressure on the plates. go to Shells/Materials. follow these steps: First choose the corresponding load condition. and In the case of a reinforced concrete slab you will have to enter the mechanical cover too. Choose the material with the mouse and press the button The materials have now been assigned. 183 . follow these steps: Select the Shells Tab Next. lift up (deactivate) the buttons in the Model properties toolbar. Note .

it is necessary to mesh the shell into a reasonable number of sub-plates. Engineering knowledge and judgement plays a very important role in the structure idealization. then type in the value of the pressure and press Note . When subdividing a mesh.Chapter 14: Shells Select the plates. 184 . enter a pressure with the opposite sign. In the case of very coarse meshes. For example: first generate the shells that are illustrated in the graph (entering shells). subdividing is necessary in order to reduce errors and increase precision. and also enter their thickness (entering thickness) and then select them.If the pressure you see in the graph is opposite to what you want. Go to Shells/Load on shells. same shape finite elements should be employed. Model idealization and mesh subdividing is one of the most important steps in finite element modeling. A positive value coincides with the positive direction of the local axis 2. We strongly recommend you to read the available literature on this subject before you use shell elements in your structure. Segmentation (meshing) of Plates To obtain an acceptable precision in the analysis of shells.

Characteristics of the adopted example. performing two calculations with two different subdivisions. Another possibility for determining the precision obtained is to study the convergence of the results. It is a very simple example. This example will be used in several sections of this chapter and will be referred to as Shell1. The differences between the forces in the nodes calculated in contiguous shells are good parameters to determine the precision obtained with the subdivision of the plates. enter the number of segments of each plate. The slab is fixed in the four borders and it is a reinforced concrete slab.Chapter 14: Shells Select plates to be subdivided. Large differences in the results will indicate that a larger number of plates are needed to accurately model the structural behavior. to subdivide. The dimensions of the slab are: 30 ft x 15 ft and a uniform pressure is acting from top to bottom. The results obtained by tables are: 185 . Then. and there are tables with the solutions for the stresses and deflections following classic methods. It is important to mention that this precision diminishes at the borders. the case of a rectangular slab is presented. As an example.

in this case = 15 ft E = Deformation Modulus t = thickness of the shell p = applied uniform pressure µ = Poisson Coefficient Three different numbers of subdivisions are adopted: 2x4.90 -1. The results (*) obtained are: Description M11 on supports (Kip) M11 at midspan (Kip) M33 on supports (Kip) 186 Tables -3.35 8x16 -3.67 1.78 1.Chapter 14: Shells Main moments: on support Mxx = -0.084*p*l².010*p*l² Maximum deflection: ω = 0. at midspan Mxx = -0.041*p*l² Secondary moments: on support Mzz = -0.49 2.058*p*l². 4x8 and 8x16: Different subdivisions adopted for Shell1.88 -2.06 -2.85 -2.49 .030*p*l4/(E*t3) Where l = the least span.88 2.82 4x8 -3.61 2x4 -2. at midspan Mzz = 0.

00183 61 0.55 0.45 0.Chapter 14: Shells (Kip) M33 at midspan (Kip) Maximum deflection (ft) Maximum error (%) 0. RAM Advanse includes the option to determine the reinforcement area needed for flexure in reinforced concrete shells or slabs. considering the properties introduced in the materials section and the mechanical cover. These reports are provided by selecting menu Reports – Analysis Results.00472 0 12 4.6 Determination of the required reinforcement area for RC shells Within the options for printing results (see next section). The report options available are shown in the shell frame of the dialog shown in the next figure. The calculation is performed by unit length of the shell using the moments obtained in the elastic analysis. In the calculation the torsional moments and the membrane stresses are not considered. 187 . The method adopted is the Strength Design Method suggested by the ACI 318-99. Printing the results This section describes the reports provided for the RAM Advanse Shell element.00468 0 0.0047 0. Dialog window used for Print – Analysis Results options.45 0.46 0.

each node has two points where the stresses are calculated. σy = biaxial stresses referred to any coordinate system τ = Shear stress related to the former biaxial stresses All the calculated stresses consider bending and membrane forces. Von Mises: The uniaxial equivalent stress proposed by von Mises (used for the design of steel plates). It is calculated with the following expression: σe = (σ²x + σ²y . τ12.σx*σy + 3*τ²)1/2 where: σe = von Mises uniaxial equivalent stress σx. Note that both the top and bottom face are relative to the shell local axes. σ min: Total minimum stress. Ang σ: The angle of the main axes in relation to the local axes. σ33: In-plane normal stresses in the Axes 1 and 3 directions. τ max: Maximum transverse shear stress (average for both faces) Ang: τ: The angle of the maximum shear stress in relation to local axes. τ13: Transverse shear stress. The different stresses at each node are: σ11. The in-plane and out-of-plane forces determine the value of the stresses on both faces of a shell.Chapter 14: Shells Shell stresses In this report the shell stresses acting on each shell node are shown. The shell stresses are defined as the forces per unit area of the plate that act within the element to resist the applied loads. One located at the top face or +t/2 of the shell middle fiber and the other at the bottom face or-t/2 of the shell middle fiber. σ22: Transverse direct stress (it is always assumed equal to zero). Figure that shows the stresses in the local axes with the positive directions. τ13: The shear force along the edge. Thus. 188 . The main or principal stresses are: σ max: Total maximum stress in the plane formed by the plate.

F33: Normal membrane forces. 189 . V12. Fmin: Minimum axial force. Vmax: Maximum shear force (average) Ang V: The angle of the maximum shear force in relation to local axes.Chapter 14: Shells Example of a Shell Stresses Report Internal forces in nodes They are defined as the resultant forces and moments considering the stresses along the thickness of the shell per unit length. M13: Twisting moment. M11. M33: Bending moments around Axis 1 and Axis 3. V23: Transverse shear forces. Ang F: The angle of the main forces in relation to the local axes. M min: Minimum bending moment. M max: Maximum bending moment. The adopted sign convention is according to local axes. The main forces are: Fmax: Maximum axial force. These forces are: F11. Ang M: The angle of the main moments in relation to the local axes. F13: Membrane shear force.

This option is useful to verify the magnitude of each force that must be in equilibrium with the force of the contiguous shell.Chapter 14: Shells Adopted sign convention for internal forces in nodes. Sign convention for corner forces according to global axes. because it allows having the loads act on different sections of the wall. The convention adopted to display such forces is given in the following figure and it is related to the glocal axes. This option displays the maximum local forces acting for the chosen load combinations. The adopted sign convention is: 190 . It is very useful for design purposes. the precision of the number of plates applied to a specific problem is in direct relation to the equilibrium of these forces. As it was stated before. mainly in the design of shear walls. It is very useful in the design step. The option to get the envelope of corner forces is also included. Corner Forces The local corner forces are the internal forces that are acting on each node of the plate. Face forces This option shows the forces acting on each lateral face of the shells: Face forces with the adopted sign convention.

The list of parameters is: 191 . The reference axes are by default the local axes. the parameter name and range are displayed. M22. In a similar way as for the envelope of corner forces.Chapter 14: Shells • • • • Shear forces. There is also a submenu where you can find the list of parameters that can be displayed and several options to display the graphs. Axial force. F. This option provides the range of values of the face forces. A graphic can show many results at the same time in an easy. Selecting the desired elements and then pressing the following buttons activates this option: (Rendering toolbar) + (Analysis toolbar) When you activate this option an additional window appears where the units. V and S according to the former figure. according to local axis 2. Reinforced concrete design for plates This option provides the required reinforcement area per unit length. Warping moment. positive if the bottommost fiber is in tension and negative otherwise. Bending moments. M. considering the unitary bending moments obtained in the analysis. RAM Advanse allows printing the envelope of the face forces considering the selected load conditions. clear and concise manner. Graphic environment RAM Advanse offers the tools to display stresses and other results in a highly graphical manner. positive for tension and negative for compression. Optionally a rotated coordinate system can be adopted This option is very useful when the direction of reinforcement does not coincide with the local axes.

Mmax and Mmin. The selected shells are shown in white with this option. the normal and shear stresses in the local axes. . σ33 and τ13. the principal normal forces. • • • • • Stress contours for a membrane stresses example. -τ12 and τ23. Internal forces in nodes The internal forces that can be seen graphically are: • • • • 192 F11. Important! The stresses that are shown are always in the positive face (according to local axes).e. -σ11. the main or principal normal stresses. the normal forces and in-plane shear force related to the local axes. the bending and torsion unitary moments related to the local axes. F33 and F13. σ min. ) referring to the local axes. Stresses The stresses that can be seen graphically are: • -Von Mises stresses.Chapter 14: Shells Frame members (default) This option is used to view the stresses in the frame members (see the Examples Manual for more details). To see both faces enable the option to draw stresses on both sides of shells. M11. -τ max. For more details see the section Principal stresses in the section Printing results. M33 and M13. Fmax and Fmin. -σ max. They are the equivalent uniaxial stress proposed by von Mises and used in the design of steel plates. the principal bending moments. the transverse shear stresses in planes 1-2 and 2-3 respectively. the main or principal transverse shear stress (averaged from both sides) -It is also possible to see the different stresses related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i.

193 . In the former example (Shell1) it is very easy to see the main reinforcement needed at the top and the bottom of the slab.Chapter 14: Shells • • • V12 and V23. Vmax. Reinforcement in RC plates The required reinforcement for flexure can be displayed in function of the following parameters: • • Location of the reinforcement (at the top or bottom of the shell) Orientation of the reinforcement referring to the local or any rotated axes. Contours for a bending forces example. ) referring to the local axis 1. the transverse shear forces.e. The reinforcement needed in the bottom is concentrated in the midspan and the reinforcement needed in the top is concentrated in the fixed borders. the principal shear force (averaged) It is also possible to see the different forces and bending moments related to a coordinate system rotated a specified angle (i.

Chapter 14: Shells Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. 194 . Top and bottom main reinforcement in a slab fixed in the four sides. . The rotation of the axes is referred to the local axis 1. The required reinforcement can be oriented in relation to the local axes or any rotated coordinate system.

In the next figure the positive and the negative envelopes for the moment M11 are presented for the example Shell1. When the option Max is activated. Smooth The option uses an algorithm that averages the values obtained in contiguous shells. Envel and Max The options (Envel and Max) provide the envelope graph for the chosen parameter. Example of the effects of the option smooth. the positive envelope is displayed and when Max is deactivated the negative envelope is displayed. This action smoothes the contour lines displayed. Note that these options work only with load combinations.Chapter 14: Shells Reinforcement in rotated axes. The load combination used is c1=dl 195 .

Stresses on both sides of the shell RAM Advanse offers an option to display the stresses and the equivalent uniaxial stresses (von Mises stresses) on both sides of the shells. An example with von Mises stresses at both sides of the shell. In this case the user has to activate the shell thickness (in the Rendering toolbar) together with the button to show the stresses (in the Analysis toolbar).Chapter 14: Shells Positive and negative envelopes for the bending moment M11 in model Shell1. 196 .

replace the word TEST with the name of the section that you wish to create. create the macro for the section type.bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def. Insert the bitmap created in the former step. It is also possible to define how the main section properties will be calculated based on the cross section proportions (such as width. (For more details please refer to the LEO Chapter of this Manual) This chapter shows you how to create new section types (all the files to be created have to be stored in the def folder of the main RA directory): 1. 2) Create a new 100x100-pixel bitmap drawing that shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. Note that this file will serve as the Help context for the user when they enter the cross section data. 1)Create a new 16x16-pixel bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_16x16. The adopted macro language is very simple: It is called LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) and it is used for different applications within RAM Advanse. Create a new 16x16 pixels bitmap drawing. thickness). Let’s create a section type that will be called TEST. You can also add a remark. 3. These are included in the program with macros where their shape and geometrical parameters are defined. To do this. Create a htm file with any text editor able to save files in this format. height.bmp in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def Example of 16x16 bmp For other section types. This drawing should illustrate the new shape. Example of a 100x100 bmp. save it as TEST_100x100. Create a 100x100-bitmap drawing that clearly shows the dimensions and variables of the profile. such as the Paint program that comes with Windows. 2. Then.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros RAM Advanse has the ability to allow the user to create their own types of sections. Next. This drawing will be used for some reports too. 197 . use any drawing software that can handle BMP format. 4.

. If you want you can add some remarks. Enter the new name for the section type 198 .htm in the folder \RAM Advanse\Def 1. Execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections from the main menu. It advisable to copy a macro of an existing section type.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros 3) Open a htm editor like Microsoft Word™ supplied with Microsoft Windows and insert the drawing. Select a type of section similar to the new one and press and the LEO Editor will be opened with the new macro. which is similar to the new one. Create the macro for the new section type. Save it as Test.

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

LEO Editor with a macro for sections. Note that it is divided in three parts. The macros for sections have three parts. The first one is where the common properties or general parameters are defined. The second part defines the section variables or the input data for the section, for example the height, width, etc. Finally, the last part contains the subroutines that define the section. There we find the askUser function that defines the order and characteristics of the input data, the SectionShape function that defines the geometry of the section, and others. The next section of the manual details the characteristics of each part. The macro of each section type is stored in a basic text file with the extension .leo. located in the def folder of the main RA directory. Note that the macros of previous versions (before 6.0) with .def extension have been replaced. Warning- If this file contains errors, RAM Advanse will not necessarily give you an error message, and therefore the properties of the sections could be incorrect. The reason is that as in any programming language, only syntax errors are detected. The user is responsible for verifying that the section properties are correct.

Common parameters:
This part contains commands for the general definition of the section. For example, you have to include the following line: (To set In (inches) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='In' (To set Cm (centimeters) as the default unit for a shape, include the following line) UNIT='Cm' As you see, a command consists in this case in the assignation of a default value to a parameter. Note that if a string is assigned to the parameter, the string is between quotation marks. The most common commands are explained below:
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Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

Default Units
Command action: Assigns the default units to a shape (cm, in or mm). When you create a new section the specified unit will show by default. However, you'll be able to change it when creating the section, if desired. Syntax: UNIT=<unit> Allowable values for <Unit>: cm: Centimeters in: Inches mm: Milimeters

Section type
Command action: Instructs RAM Advanse which procedure should be used to calculate section properties. Syntax TYPE=<type> Allowable values for <type> LINEOPEN: shape is an open section composed by elements that are thin in comparison with its overall dimensions. Normally it is applicable to steel shapes such as L, I, W, S, T2L, etc. LINECLOSED: section is also composed of thin elements but they belong to a closed shape such as: square box, pipe, etc. SOLID: shape is solid. This is applicable to square solid bars, round bars, reinforced concrete sections, etc.

Shape
Command action: Describes the shape of the section. If the shape is 'I' or 'C', RA offers two methods for the calculation of Qmod2 (an exact and an approximated method) . For other shapes RA will calculate Qmod2 with the exact method. T sections have to be defined always with shape='T' in order to follow the code specifications for these shapes. Syntax SHAPE=<shape> <Shape> is a string of maximum 5 characters that describes briefly the form of the section. The adopted strings are: 'Built Box', 'C', 'Circle', 'Circular', 'Compound', 'I', 'L', 'Rectangular', 'Spaced', 'T', 'Z'

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Design code
Command action: Specifies the design code to be used with this shape. Syntax CODE=<code> Allowable values for <code> HOTROLLED: Section is made from hot rolled steel and will be designed with LRFD or codes, as applicable. COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with -LRFD codes, as applicable. BS_COLDFORMED: Section is made from cold-formed steel and will be designed with WOOD: Section is made of wood (lumber or glulam) and will be designed with RCONCRETE: Section is made of reinforced concrete and will be designed with as selected. -ASD, -

-ASD or Code

-ASD Code. or EH codes,

OTHER: Any other section or profile that does not belong to the categories explained above, such as aluminum.

Design formulation
Command action: For steel sections, RAM Advanse designs hot rolled or cold formed sections according to the design specification sections of the adopted Code. You should choose which specification RAM Advanse should use for this section. For wood sections, RAM Advanse has to know if it is lumber or glulam. This parameter is not required for AISI-cold formed sections. Note. - It is very important that you understand this instruction and its effects on the design of your new section template. Please see the chapters on Design of Steel Members (AISC or BS) for how the program has implemented the code provisions or the chapter devoted to wood design. Syntax FORMULATION=<formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> Allowable values for <formulation> are GEN, TUBE, IC, and L for steel sections and LUMBER or GLULAM for wood. Each one of these formulations represents a different approach, as stated by the AISC, BS or NDS codes. These approaches (or formulations) are: IC: Assign this formulation only to I (W, HP, S, UB, UC or Joists) and C shapes. This formulation is exactly as explained in AISC-F (AISC-ASD and AISC LRFD) This formulation applies to rolled or welded I or H cross sections (BS). TUBE: This formulation should be used with Tube and Pipes shapes.
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It is similar to the IC formulation but takes into account the large Warping constant of Tubes, closed shapes and it's high critical flexural-torsional bending moment.(AISC LRFD Specification for Steel Hollow Structural Sections). This formulation is intended for hot finished RHS or cold formed RHS L: This formulation should be used with L and T2L sections. It is explained in AISC-ASD and LRFD Specifications for Single-Angle Members. GEN: This formulation should be used with other shapes that do not belong to previous formulations. This formulation is similar to the IC formulation but does not use the flexural-torsional formulas suggested by the AISC. Instead, it uses more complicated and general formulas for the critical flexural-torsional bending moments (without simplifications), suggested by Galambos. T sections have a formulation=GEN and a shape='T'. The flexural-torsional strength of compound sections are calculated approximately with the method suggested by Galambos with a safety factor = 0.7. Ref: Galambos T. V., Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988. For wood members, the following formulations are available: LUMBER: This formulation should be used with rectangular and rounded sections. Spaced columns are also considered. This formulation is explained in Chapter 4 of the NDS-ASD Code. GLULAM: This formulation should be used only with rectangular sections. It is explained in Chapter 5 of the NDS-ASD Code.

Cbmax
Command action: It adopts maximum limits for Cb (Bending coefficient) This command sets a limit for the maximum value of Cb. The Code specifies to take Cb smaller than 2.3, which is the default value considered by the program. Syntax CBMAX=<value>

Connection
Command action: This command indicates if the connection between flange and web is continuous or intermittent (welded). If the shape is hot rolled then the connection is continuous. If the shape is welded then the connection is intermittent (built-up members). Syntax CONNECTION=<connection> Allowable values for <connection> CONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web is continuous
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NONCONTINUOUS: Connection between flanges and web isn't continuous

Category
Command Action: It is an additional classification that is used for reinforced concrete members. It helps to determine the type of members suitable for the section (it is only a descriptive property). Syntax: CATEGORY=<Category> Allowable values for <category> are BEAM, COLUMN and WALL

Commentary
Command action: To make any comment you want concerning the shape. The commentary does not have an affect on properties or the design. You would use this, for instance, if the shape has unequal legs, some unique shape, or any other unusual condition that you wish to communicate to the user. This commentary appears when the user creates new sections. Syntax COMMENTARY=<commentary> Allowable values for <commentary> Any pertinent commentary. All the previous commands can be illustrated with an example. Lets define an angle section type with the following data:

Geometrical data of the angle. The following command lines should be included: UNIT='In' TYPE='LineOpen' SHAPE='L' CODE='HOTROLLED' FORMULATION='L' CBMAX=1.5 //It will be calculated with the Single-angle Specifications //Cbmax=1.5 < the default value of 2.5 (Section 5.2.2 AISC-LRFD) //It is a laminated shape
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//Defines inches as the default unit //it is an open section //The shape is L, it is only a descriptive property of the shape

CONNECTION='Continuous'

Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros

COMMENTARY='(AISC L with unequal legs)'

Section variables
These commands specify the name, the default value and tags of the variables required for calculating section properties of the new section type. You should create as many variables as needed to define the shape dimensions. Syntax Name of the variable = default value [units] tag <string> Name of the variable. When possible, use a descriptive name with few characters. The first one should always be a letter (shouldn't be a number) following the general rules for variable names in LEO. For example: “a” “bf” “d2” “t” The tag is a text description of the variable. For instance, "Total height", "Width", "Web thickness", "Internal bending radius". Examples for variable definitions are: a = 0.0 [cm] tag 'Section height' bf = 1.0 [in] tag 'Flange thickness' Note that the default value has not to be necessarily zero. The units between brackets defines the units for the variable. In order to follow the different steel design codes for specific shapes, it is required to adopt unique names for certain variables. The shapes with specific variables are: Shapes with IC formulation (I, H or C shapes) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width r: radio (only for BS) k,k1 distances (only for AISC) Shapes with tube formulation Rectangular and/or square tubes: a: height b: width T: thickness
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Pipes D: diameter T: thickness Shapes with Gen formulation and shape=’T’ (only for BS) d: height, tf: flange thickness tw: web thickness bf: flange width Shapes with L formulation a: height b: width (only for unequal legs) T: thickness Other shapes do not have any restrictions. Following the example of the angle section, the required variables are: //section variables a = 0.0[in] tag 'Height' b = 0.0[in] tag 'Width' T = 0.0[in] tag 'Thickness' k = 0.0[in] tag 'Distance k'

Prop AskUser
This subroutine defines the data that will be required. In general two types of command lines are used: Declaration: Html(fileName as string) This shows the help context that will be used when the data is asked. Specify a htm file that has to be located in the Def folder of the main directory of the program. Declaration: Ask(ref data, caption as string) This requests information from the user> Syntax Prop AskUser() html(<FileName.htm>) ask(Variable name, <input line>) ...
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End Prop The variable has to be previously declared. The input line contains the text that will be associated with the requested variable Following with the example of the angle section, the required subroutine is: //user defined values Prop askUser() html('Test') ask(a, 'Height') ask(b, 'Width') //The help context that will be shown in the input data //First, the section height is asked //Then the section width

ask(T, 'Thickness') //and finally the thickness ask(k, 'Distance k') //This factor is only used for connections design End Prop

Prop Section Shape
The geometry of the section and some design properties are defined in this subroutine.

Node
Declaration: Node(id as integer, x as float, y as float) In order to define a new shape you should create nodes and then connect them with lines or elements. Command action: Creates a node that defines an edge of the section. Note. - The word "Node", as defined here, does not have any relation with the Node element of a structure. Syntax NODE (<Node number or identifier>, <X coordinate>, <Y coordinate>) The node is defined by an identifier and its coordinates. This command has to be repeated the required number of times to define all the edges of the desired section. The following lines have to be included for the example of the angle section:

Coordinates of the required nodes //Nodes Node(1, 0, 0)
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Node(2, -b+0.5*t, 0) Node(3, -b+0.5*t, a-0.5*t) The nodes that were defined are:

SetLine...EndLine
Declaration: SetLine(thickness as float, radius as simple) EndLine Command action: It allows to define the different elements of a section including the thickness and internal bent radius. Note that after starting this command, a variable number of lines can be adopted to include elements and their properties. The commands that are used within SetLine are: Rigid, Closed and Segment. Notice that at the end a line with the word EndLine indicates that the line definition has finished. Syntax SetLine(<variable for line thickness>, <variable for bent radius>) To define the line thickness, adopt any section variable as for example “t”. The bent radius has normally a value grater than zero for cold formed steel sections. The variable for the bent radius has also to be previously defined. If there is no bent radius, enter the a zero value “0”. Next, you will find the subroutine applied to the angle section example:

//lines SetLine(T, 0) //Other commands like rigid or closed are not included, they will be explained further in this chapter Segment(1, 2) Segment(2, 3) EndLine

Segment
Declaration:
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Segment(n1 as integer, n2 as integer) Command Action: It determines a line segment between two nodes (n1 and n2). This command has to be always within a SetLine. The actual values of rigid and closed will be assigned to the new segment Syntax: Segment(<Initial node identifier>, <final node identifier>) Two instruction lines are required for the angle section example:

Segment(1,2)

Segment(2,3) It is important to note that when defining the section, the start of the elements of an AISI closed section must be in a vertex; not in the middle of a length as shown in the next figures.

Correct and incorrect definitions of a tube section (AISI).

Rigid(ity)
Declaration: Rigid(value as integer) Command action: This command allows you to clearly specify what type of elements comprises a steel section profile. RAM Advanse requires this information for hot rolled steel shapes to determine if an element is Compact, Non-compact, or Slender, as AISC classifies them. When the AISC code check is performed, it is necessary to know if an element is stiffened, unstiffened, or an intermediate element such as a T web element.
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The program use this parameter to determine the class of an element (plastic, compact, noncompact or slender). This check is performed in hotrolled or coldformed steel shapes. If this command is ignored, RAM Advanse may consider an element to be stiffened or unstiffened. RAM Advanse will consider an element to be stiffened if each end of the element is connected to another element. Therefore, if only one other element is connected to the end of the element, it will be considered as being unstiffened.

When the RIGID command is omitted, RAM Advanse will consider the elements as illustrated in the figure. In the case of cold-formed steel sections, the program requires to define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Examples of rigid values to be adopted in AISI sections Syntax Rigid(<value>) This command should be inserted into the element creation command, as explained before: Notice that one rigid value may exist for several line segments with the same characteristics. Allowable Values for <rigid > The following rigid values represent the different possible elements of a shape (for more details, see the tables given in the steel design chapters): 1: Outstanding legs of pairs of angles in continuous contact: angles or plates projecting from rolled beams or columns 2: Stems of tees 3: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators 4: Flanges of square and rectangular box and hollow structural sections of uniform thickness, subject to bending or compression
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5: All other uniformly compressed stiffened elements i.e., supported along two edges. (Not applicable for BS) 6: Webs in combined flexural and axial compression 7: Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators. Compact limit= 65*sqrt(Fy) 8: Circular hollow sections, in axial compression, in flexure 9: Flanges of I-shaped rolled beams and channels in flexure 10: Unsupported width of cover plates perforated with a succession of access holes. (Not applicable for BS)

SetSolid
Declaration: SetSolid EndSolid Action command: This command defines the perimeter shape of a solid section. Between the reserved words SetSolid and EndSolid three or more Segment commands have to be included. The EndSolid finishes the definition of the solid section. Syntax SetSolid Segment(n1,n2) Segment(n2,n3) ....Segment(n3,n4) ... End Solid Important Notice that you should close the border. This means that if you start with node 1 you should also end with node 1 in a clockwise direction.

The commands for the definition of the previous figure are: //solids SetSolid Segment(1, 4)
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<Y coordinate of the final point>. <X coordinate of the final point>. 211 . n1 as integer. <number of spaces between bars in the line between the initial and final points>. //Bars Bars(s. y2 as float. y1 as float. Syntax BARS (<X coordinate of the initial point>. 3. x2 as float. n2 as integer) Action command: This command indicates the nodes that are considered joined when a single section is made up of more than one individual profile (like a W and C-section). setInitial as boolean) Bar(x as float. y as float) Command action: The command Bars allows you to specify the number of bars that will be drawn in 3D for reinforced concrete members. while the command Bar draws only one bar. s. b-s. s. <Y coordinate of the initial point>. <0 or 1 to determine if a bar will be drawn on the initial point>) BAR (<X coordinate of the bar>. 1) EndSolid Bars and Bar Declaration: Bars(x1 as float. <Y coordinate of the bar>) The following is an example of the application of this command for a rectangular reinforced concrete section: The commands to define the reinforcement of the section consider a coordinate system with its center on the bottom left corner of the section. 2) Segment(2. true) //Draw 3 spaces with 4 bars at the bottom part Bar(b-s.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(4. nroBars as integer. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top right corner Bar(s. h-s) //Draw one bar at the top left corner Join Declaration: Join(thickness as float. 3) Segment(3. Both commands are used normally after defining a solid section with SetSolid.

2) 212 .Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Syntax Join(<variable for join thickness>. Syntax Closed(<0 or 1>) Where 0: Is for open elements 1: Is for closed elements The application of the command can be illustrated with the following box section SetLine(t.0) . 3.e. a box or a tubular section). An example for this command can be found in the C&C section where it is used to join nodes 3 and 5 of the two shapes (groups of elements) with a thickness given by the tf2 variable in the following way: Example for the application of the Join command Join(tf2... It is used with the SetLine command. 5) //join nodes 3 and 5 with a thickness equal to tf2 Closed Declaration: Closed(value as boolean) Action command: This command allows you to indicate which elements are connected in a closed shape (i.<node of the second group of elements>) Note that the nodes to be joined must be very close. Closed(1) //The following segments will be considered part of a closed section Segment(1.<node of the first group of elements>.

To see the list of properties that may be edited or modified.7. The template is the TAPERED_I (three plate) section template.<rigid>.2) //Draws a line with thckness=t. Note that no web depth is entered as it assumed that the user will specify the beginning and end web-depth data in the worksheet. 0. <bent radius>.1. open segments between nodes 2 and 3 Prop Tapered properties Definition: Prop TaperedProperties(Depth as float) End Prop This optional subroutine is specially conceived for tapered members.0. See the Chapter for Creating Sections and Materials for further details.1) EndLine Line Declaration Line(thickness as float. open segments between nodes 1 and 2 Line(t.0. you can see the list of declarations in the LEO Editor. It overrides the calculation of the section properties with the actual depth. Only the redefined properties have to be specified. n2 as integer) Command action: This is an alternative command to create a segment connecting two nodes with a line including all the characteristics of the line as bent radius and rigidity in a single command. The user may use this subroutine to include special formulae or considerations in the section properties calculations.3) //Draws a line with thckness=t. without bent radius. radius as simple. rigid as integer. Therefore. without bent radius. n1 as integer.0. Syntax Line(<thickness>. the subroutine has to include the formulae for the calculation of all the different section properties as a function of the depth. <final node>) For the example of the angular section. Therefore.<initial node>.2. 213 .<closed>. rigid=7. the depth may have a fixed small value because the real depth will be defined during the execution of the program with the variables d0 and dL in the Data Panel/Member/Section. the following command lines are required: Line(t.7. rigid=7. close as integer. Note that a special built-up section template is provided with RAM Advanse to facilitate the creation of custom built-up steel tapered members. Prop PropertiesCalc This is another optional subroutine that allows a section to override calculated properties of the section and perform that calculation based on the equations of the subroutine.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Segment(2.4) Segment(4.3) Segment(3.

b = 2. For example. which differ with the adopted one because the program is calculating with a general procedure (for all types of sections) that give approximated values.Chapter 15: Creating New Types of Sections with Macros Select the option to view declarations to see the list of available section properties.912 in4. execute the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections and edit the STube macro. the torsional constant (Jtor) of a rectangular tube (Stube section) may be calculated with the following formula: Jtor = 2*t*a²*b²/(a+b) for b/t>10 To adopt this equation. Insert the following code: Prop PropertiesCalc adopted for the example Now.5x1_4 with a = 3.5 in.5 and t = 0.1875in The calculated Jtor = 4. you can test the calculation adopting section STube 3.5x2. 214 .785 in4 Notice that the original value for the former section was Jtor=3.

Create a new text file as explained next and save it as TEST. Let's suppose that we want to create a new template named TEST. the following steps should be done: 2. To create a Template. The best way to create a new template is to use and modify an existing one. Create a new 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_20x20. This chapter will explain how to create your own templates.tpl in the same RAM Advanse\Templates folder. 215 . Create a new bitmap drawing that represents the Template 3. It is advisable to take a look at the available templates located in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Create a new150x150 pixels bitmap drawing and save it as TEST_150x150. Create a new bitmap drawing of 20x20 pixels. In the example that follows we will create a template called TEST.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates RAM Advanse allows you to create your own structure Templates and incorporate them into the program. Create a text file that contains the Template definition All the Templates that come with your copy of RAM Advanse have been created as described in this chapter. 2.bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates 3. Proceed as follows: 1. 4. Create a new bitmap drawing of 150x150 pixels and save it as TEST_ 150x150. Save the 20x20 drawing with the name TEST_20x20. Create a larger bitmap drawing that shows dimensions and variables 4.bmp at the RAM Advanse\Templates folder.

Each command can take one or more lines. Syntax: 216 . The TEXT.When the *.To create the bitmap drawing. .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Create a new text file as indicated next and save it as TEST. Note. This description is seen when the template is invoked. For instance. RAM Advanse will not give any error message therefore the created structure may have errors.tpl file The *.TPL file defines how the structure will be created and it has a specific format that allows RAM Advanse to recognize it. two lines compose one command in this case: DESCRIPTION and the value of the description (Truss triangular type 1). VARIABLES Command action: Use this command to declare the variables required by the template to generate the structure.tpl in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. Following is an explanation of the most common commands: DESCRIPTION Command action: Insert a description or commentary about the template. Notice that this command requires 4 lines. Syntax: DESCRIPTION <description> Allowable values of <description>: A 25-40 characters commentary that indicates the purpose or use of the template. Most commands take more than one line. Warning.tpl file contains errors. use the Paint program from Windows or any other program that supports the BMP format. . to assign a description to the template (this is not the description of the elements but of the template). you should include the following lines: DESCRIPTION Truss triangular type 1 As you can see. The TPL file The TPL file is a text file with the required commands to define the creation of a structure.

The variables created using this command will appear in the dialog box that shows up when the template is executed. If possible. Example: “a” “bf” “d” Allowable values of <description>: A description of the variable. Example: 1 217 . Example: "Number of segments" "Height" Allowable values of <default value>: The default value of the variable. SELECT Command action: This command indicates how many nodes should be selected to use the template. If this command is left out. This is the value that RAM Advanse will assign in the event that the user omitted entering a value. Example: 2 0 desc1 Note. . This should have less than 20 characters and should give a clue about the meaning of the variable. Syntax: SELECT <number of nodes> Values of <number of nodes>: The number of nodes that the user must select before using the template. This is a very important command to validate the node selection.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates VAR <name> <description> <default value> Allowable values of <name>: Name of the variable. the structure generated by RAM Advanse may contain errors. don't use more than two characters and the first character should be a letter not a number.

Example: any integer value. not the absolute number of the nodes. Example: “Col1” "Beam1" "g1 "H1" desc1 Notice that you could assign a variable name instead of a constant value. In that way. Notice that this is selection order of the nodes. Values of <number of segments>: The number of segments (or frame members) of the line that is being created. The line can be segmented into a number of frame members. If there is already a line of members between the two nodes. 3 ns (ns-2)/2 Values of <n1>: The initial node of the line to be created. Syntax: LINE <description> <number of segments> <n1> <n2> Values for <description>: The description to be assigned to the members that will be created. Note that you can define also physical members if you consider only the two extreme nodes of a member.tpl template as an example). they will not be modified. Example: 218 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 2 3 4 5 LINE Command action: This command creates a line between two nodes selected by the user. the user is able to assign a description when the template is being executed.(See the Joist. After using the template the user may modify the member's descriptions. The members of the line are assigned with a description. variable or formula.

enter the next command: LINE G1 {frame members description} Ns {variable for number of segments} 1 {line starts at the 1st selected node} 2 {line ends at the 2nd selected node} DIAGONAL Command action: This command creates one or more diagonal members between two lines of members. it is not replaced. if 5 nodes were selected.e. Values of <n2> The final node of the line to be created.e. The diagonal elements can also be sub-divided. If there is any member between the nodes to be generated. You should notice that these numbers (n1 and n2) refer to the order of selection of the nodes. the 2nd selected node} Example: to create a line between the 1st and 2nd selected nodes. the 4th selected node} 2 {n2=final node of the line i.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 (first selected node) 2 (second selected node) 3 (third selected node) Up to the number of selected nodes. Therefore. as illustrated in the figure above of a triangular truss. n1 and n2 should be: 4 {n1=initial node of the line i. Syntax: DIAGONAL <description> <n1> <n2> 219 . for example. and you wish to create a line between the 4th and 2nd nodes.

<n2>. Please notice that the default description can be a variable previously defined. Description by default of diagonal members. 220 . two lines of elements. <n3>. and <n4> Normally. Values for <n1>. instead of a constant value.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates <n3> <n4> <number of segments> <initial offset 1-2> <initial offset 3-4> <final offset 1-2> <final offset 3-4> <step> <number of segments in each diagonal member> Values of <description> Any description to be assigned by default to the diagonal member. Two lines (defined by n1-n2 and n3-n4) delimit the diagonal elements. as illustrated in the next figure delimit the diagonal elements.

Line 2 is the line determined by n3-n4. Initial offset 3-4 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n3 node. 221 . where the diagonals should end. Final offset 1-2 is the offset related to the n2 node. Notice that this value should be zero or negative. Initial offset 1-2 is the offset of the diagonal related to the n1 node.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Line 1 is the line determined by n1-n2.

Note that this value should be zero or negative.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Final offset 3-4 is the offset related to the n4 node. where the diagonals should end. Each diagonal can be segmented into various pieces. TEMPLATE Command action: Executes a template like a subroutine. Notice that it should be 1 or greater.tpl template that is located at the folder RAM Advanse\Templates. An example of this command can be seen in the RoofTruss1. Syntax TEMPLATE <template> <number of selected nodes> <n1> <n2> … <nn> <parameters> 222 . Enter 1 or zero if you don't wish to segment the diagonal or the number of pieces if you want to segment. This is the step between one diagonal element and another.

the command will be as follows: TEMPLATE Trian1. Therefore. the template illustrated below is going to be created: 223 . Consequently. if you wish to select the 3rd and 4th nodes. The template to be executed should be located in the templates directory (RAM Advanse\templates).. You should notice that this is the selection order of the nodes. enter 3 4 Values of <parameters>: These are the parameters (variables values) required by the template to be called in the same order as they are present in the dialog box. Values of <n1. nn> This selects the desired nodes for the template that is being called up.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Values of <template> It is the name of the template to be executed.. which required 3 selected nodes and the number of segments.tpl {the template to be executed} 3 {number of nodes to be selected for Trian1 template } 3 {Select 1st node for Trian1 (this is the 3rd currently selected node) } 2 {Select 2nd node for Trian1 (this is the 2nd currently selected node) } 8 {Select 3rd node for Trian1 (this is the 8th currently selected node) } ns {first parameter required by Trian1: number of segments} Example 1: Creating a template In this example. Example: RoofTruss1 (with or without extension) Truss1 Values of <number of selected nodes> This is the number of nodes that should be selected in order to execute the template to be called up. if you need to call the Trian1 template. n2.

bmp in the folder RAM Advanse\Templates. Note that the order is arbitrary but not the number of nodes. Illustrative 20x20 pixels bitmap drawing. . we decide that the user should select 4 nodes in the illustrated order. Then save the drawing as example1_20x20. 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel bitmap drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. We'll allow the user to enter the number of segments and this value will be stored in the NS variable. The following are the steps required to create this template: 1) Create a 20x20-pixel bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format.The name of this template is example1. By default.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Arbitrarily. 224 . in bmp format. To do this you can use the Paint software that comes with Windows. we'll use the member descriptions illustrated above Note.

save the picture as example1_150x150. Then.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that will need to be provided by the end user.bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. The file will be as follows: {description or commentary about this template} DESCRIPTION Example 1 DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable to store the number of segments } VAR ns Number of segments 2 {4 nodes should be selected before using this template} SELECT 4 {Generation of the first and last vertical members. Note. .tpl is going to be created.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels. in bmp format. the example1. This file defines how the template will work. respectively} LINE g3 2 1 3 LINE g3 2 2 4 {Generation of the horizontal members } LINE g1 225 . 3) Create the TPL file Now.

Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates NS 1 2 LINE g2 NS 3 4 {Generation of the middle vertical members} DIAGONAL g3 1 2 3 4 ns 1 1 -1 -1 1 2 {Generation of the diagonal members} DIAGONAL g4 1 2 5 6 ns 0 1 -1 0 226 .

Notice that there are 8 nodes.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 1 0 DIAGONAL g4 5 6 3 4 ns 1 0 0 -1 1 0 Example 2: Creating a template In the following example we will create the template that is illustrated below: In this template we want the user to select the nodes as illustrated. 227 .

228 . Then save the drawing as example2_20x20.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Two variables are required to store the desired number of segments. By default. The roof beam descriptions will be entered by the user and stored in the descRoof variable. These values will be stored in the ns1 and ns2 variables. Illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing. 2) Create a detailed 150x150-pixel drawing The second step is to create a detailed 150x150 pixels drawing in BMP format. in bmp format.The name of this template is example2. The steps to create this template are as follows 1) Create a 20x20-bitmap drawing The first step is to create illustrative 20x20 pixels drawing of the template in bitmap (bmp) format. .bmp in the c:\RAM Advanse\Templates folder. the illustrated descriptions will be assigned by the template. Note.

bmp in the RAM Advanse\Templates folder. .tpl file that defines how the structure is going to be created.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Detailed drawing of 150x150 pixels.This drawing should clearly identify the selection order of the nodes and any variable that must be provided by the end user. The file contents are as follows: {description or commentary about the template} DESCRIPTION 3D example truss DIMENSION 2D-3D {variable required to input the number of segment 1} VAR Ns1 Number of segment1 2 {variable required to input the number of segment 2} VAR Ns2 Number of segment2 2 {variable where the description of the roof beams will be stored} VAR Desc1 Description 1 Roof1 {required number of selected nodes to execute this template } 229 . 3) Create the TPL file Create the example2. in bmp format. Note. save the picture as example2_150x150. Next.

tpl 4 1 2 3 4 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the rear truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 1 230 .tpl 4 5 6 7 8 ns1 {call the Truss2 template to generate the right side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.tpl 4 2 6 4 8 ns2 {call the Truss2 template to generate the left side truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates SELECT 8 {call the Truss2 template to generate the front truss} TEMPLATE Truss2.

tpl and run RAM Advanse to execute it.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates 5 3 7 ns2 {generation of the roof beams. 231 . Notice that it uses description to be entered by you} DIAGONAL Desc1 3 4 7 8 ns1 1 1 -1 -1 1 0 Now save this file as RAM Advanse\Templates\example2.

simply go to RAM Advanse and execute the templates dialog box. Go to Tools/Data Generation/Templates Or you can also go to Members/Connectivity and press 232 .Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates Using the Example 2 template To execute the template created by the previous example.

any newly created template appears automatically. 233 . RAM Advanse will automatically ask for the variables.Chapter 16: Creating Structure Templates As you can see. When the template is executed.

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In all cases the nodes of the members ends are required to be in a plane. following a clockwise or counter clockwise order of selection. The areas have to be fully enclosed by members . Generating the mass for a rigid diaphragm from applied surface loads. Generating deck or wall areas Deck or wall areas are used to generate the loads transmitted by surface loads. There are two options to generate load areas. In the case of a free border. all the enclosed areas will be considered: The tools for the generation of the load areas are located in the worksheet Areas/Nodes that conform the perimeter: 235 . These commands provide the engineer the capability of automatically: • • • Generating deck or wall areas (transmitted surface loads). These options are described in more detail below.Chapter 17: Building Structures Chapter 17: Building Structures RAM Advanse has several special commands to facilitate data entry for building structures. Generating wind loads for each rigid diaphragm floor level. The first require the selection of the surrounding beams and the second requires the selection of the nodes that define the deck area. the user should model an additional beam in order to fulfill the former requirement: When physical members surround the area.

Click the tool button and enter the direction of load distribution. Create deck/wall area at selected nodes (in a plane): The function of this tool is to generate a deck/wall element covering all the selected nodes in a clockwise or counter clockwise order. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-X direction or in the horizontal plane for inclined areas. The steps to generate the deck surface are: Select the desired load case. and setting the direction of load distribution in the horizontal Global-Z direction or in the vertical direction for inclined areas. 236 . Defining deck/wall areas spanning in Z / Vertical direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. Select the girders (members or physical members) that surround the deck area.Chapter 17: Building Structures This worksheet has the following tools: Defining deck/wall areas spanning in X / Horizontal direction: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members. and setting the direction of load distribution as a specific angle (clockwise) of the horizontal Global-X direction or of the horizontal plane for inclined areas. Press any of the following buttons: To create a deck spanning in the X direction. Note that the order of the nodes does not determine the orientation of the loads. The tool does not define the direction of the deck/wall. Defining deck/wall areas spanning at an angle relative to the X axis / Horizontal plane: The function of this tool is to generate area elements covering the selected surrounding members or physical members.

2. to generate a load area. You can use the option Tools/Deck area Selection in the main menu to easily select all the deck/wall areas or the group of deck/wall areas attached to the selected nodes. To create a deck spanning at an angle relative to the X-axis. If there are members in the middle of the load area (marked in blue).Chapter 17: Building Structures To create a deck spanning in the Z direction.. you will have to specify the deck direction If you have used the tool manually. they will be considered in the distribution of loads. In this case you have to go to Areas/Description and deck/wall spanning and then the following tools may be used: To assign direction for load distribution in global X direction/horizontal plane XZ. To assign direction for load distribution at an angle relative to global X axis/horizontal plane 237 . You can enter also any description manually. In the above example . The deck areas are not required to be generated one by one. To assign direction for load distribution in global Z direction/vertical plane. Notes: 1. the members that belong to the four deck areas were simultaneously selected. Go to Area/Description and deck/wall spanning. The generated deck area will be shown with the specified deck orientation (for load distribution purposes). Assign a description to the generated deck areas. Press the button and the program will automatically assign a new description.

To create rigid diaphragms proceed as follows. Rigid floor diaphragm Before generating a story wind load a rigid floor diaphragm should be created. ) or perpendicular to the area ( ). The generated loads are displayed in green and the other loads (defined directly by the user) are shown in red: Note: This command is applied over all deck areas. This happens because the program automatically executes the tool executed previously. The direction of the pressure may act downwards in the negative direction of the vertical axis (Yaxis. before the analysis.Chapter 17: Building Structures XZ. even if not all areas are selected. then go to deck Areas/Surface load in the worksheet and enter the pressure that is acting on the defined surface. This command is only applicable to rigid diaphragm stories. the generated loads (displayed on green) will still be displayed graphically until the user applies the tool again or until the user analyze the structure. 238 . even if it has been or has not been Generating Wind Load Lateral wind loads can be calculated from a pressure applied to the side of a building. You can select the areas that will have the same load. Select all the nodes of a floor. these are the nodes that will be constrained to displace as a rigid diaphragm. Notice that there is a tool to graphically see the loads that are generated on the beams. The final step is to define the magnitude and direction of the loads that will act on the previously defined deck areas. If a deck area is deleted.

Enter wind load cases (for example. All the selected nodes (nodes with the same floor number) will now be constrained to move together as in a rigid diaphragm. Generating wind loads For models that contain rigid diaphragms.Chapter 17: Building Structures Press the floor number button Or enter the floor number and press . WX=Wind in X and WZ=Wind in Z). lateral wind loads can be automatically calculated from an applied lateral pressure. 239 .

0 for a flat surface). Roberson Crowe. V = Wind velocity. The applied wind pressure is multiplied by the exposed area to generate a lateral wind load at each selected floor. 240 . Engineering Fluid Mechanics. To use this option.Chapter 17: Building Structures Select all the beams and columns of the floors against which wind will act. d = Density of Atmosphere (approximately 1. Press The next dialog that appears requires several pieces of data. Press Calculate Pressures to calculate automatically wind pressure in the X and Z directions.21 kg/m3). These include: Wind Pressure in X/Z: Based on the selected floors and columns RAM Advanse can calculate an exposed vertical surface associated with each floor. which should have already been created. Note that the force applied to a story is calculated as the pressure times the floor height (largest column length below a floor) times the projected width of the structure in the required direction (based on the nodes selected in each floor). enter the appropriate values in the Pressure Calculation frame. 1975) (Ref. Select the desired load case name from the drop down list box. The pressure will then be calculated using the following formula: Pressure = Cd*1/2*d*v2 Co. Houghton Mifflin Where: Cd = Coefficient of Drag (approximately 2. Pressure Calculation: If you want the program will calculate the wind pressure on the structure based on the wind speed and a structural shape drag coefficient. Load Case name: The lateral load that is calculated must be associated with a load case.

The program allows the engineer to create this node for each floor. then RAM Advanse can automatically calculate the center of mass and the translation / rotation story mass properties.Chapter 17: Building Structures Enter the required information and press OK. 241 . Wind story force is applied at this node. with the masses calculated in the following way: Translation masses Tx = Tz = dead load case * dead load factor + live load case * live load factor considering all the dead and live load forces on members and floor nodes. Generating masses for each floor To perform a dynamic analysis on a building structure with rigid diaphragms it is necessary to associate translation and rotation masses with the floor. The center of mass is the single point on the floor where the mass from all the elements and shells of a rigid floor can be considered to act without changing the results. dm: is the mass that is equivalent to the distribution of the linear or surface loads of the elements of the floor. These mass values are typically located at the center of mass of the floor. and wind forces parallel to Z axis are assigned to WZ = Wind in Z load case. If loads have been applied to individual nodes on a floor. The rotation mass is calculated with the following expression: Ry = integral (r²*dm) Where: r: distance from the mass center to the point where dm is acting. Notice that in this example wind force parallel to the X-axis is assigned to WX = Wind in X load case. The program will automatically create a node at the center of pressure of each floor.

This figure indicates that RAM Advanse should consider all the existing nodal dead load and half the nodal live load when calculating the mass properties for the floor. Refer to the previous section on wind load generation for how to create rigid diaphragms. rigid floor diaphragms should be created. Before using the command for the generation. 242 . Press Enter the required information and press OK.Chapter 17: Building Structures See the required steps for the generation of masses for each floor in the following paragraphs to know how the data is entered. Select all the beams and columns from desired floors.

or for Mass values in X. press or about Y-axis respectively and . Z 243 . .Chapter 17: Building Structures Nodes have been generated at the mass centers. To view the translation and rotation mass values.

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Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design After the analysis. To use these modules the engineer should provide an 245 . Design and Detailing Modules RAM Advanse has design and detailing modules for concrete members. United Kingdom: BS 5950 Code. For wood members. More details related to the design of each particular material may be found in each specific design chapter Go to Process/Design all of the main menu or pulse F10 to design the model. connections. The dependent module will allow you to obtain the immediate custom design of the different components that participate in your structure. This is evaluated with the strength ratio and design status. footings. With the former information the user can decide if it is necessary to perform further changes (i. It is important to define some design parameters before proceeding with the design. The strength ratio determines the condition of each member in relation to its strength (i.e. materials. These modules are divided into 2 groups: • • Dependent detailing modules: reinforced concrete beam. the program adopts the ASD (NDS) Code. reinforced concrete column. To design steel members with the BS Code you can adopt the UK nomenclature with the option located in Configuration/General/Nomenclature. if it is over or sub dimensioned) and the design status shows the overall condition of each element (OK or No Good). Warning: The design results will not be available for wood members analyzed with the LRFD Design Code option. You will find special options for each type of material. Independent detailing modules: retaining walls and continuous beams from the same menu. This information will be used only in the design procedures. The program offers the following possibilities: • • United States: ASD (AISI_AISC) or LRFD (AISI_AISC). the user can design the model to check the design conditions of each member of the structure.e. In this case the duration of each load condition has to be specified. it is required to define the code that will be used in the design. This procedure is performed for wood and steel materials while concrete is designed directly in the detailing modules. For steel members. wood and connections from the Detailing menu. etc). select other sections. wood members. retaining walls and continuous beams that will allow you to reduce your working time considerably.

and complete his or her design and detailing of any member. or with extension "RTW" or "RCB" to be used directly by the respective module. before invoking the detailing module. select the beams you want to detail in RAM Advanse and then invoke the beam detailing module as described below. to detail a reinforced concrete beam. In both cases. retaining walls and continuous beams. which form a continuous beam for example. in the case of the independent modules. wood members. The basic design is performed automatically after the building is analyzed. The design. or make an isolated analysis. the user should enter all the necessary data to obtain the new model before making the analysis and going to the design screen. This section describes how to invoke the design/detailing modules. in the case of the dependent modules. wood or steel structure requires the engineer to design and detail all the members in the structure. connections. the engineer can use any of the available modules for more advanced design and detailing to further manipulate his or her design and obtain details for DXF purposes. For example. RAM Advanse has provided several Design and Detailing modules to assist the engineer in the design and detailing of: concrete columns and beams. It can be saved with extension "AVW" and be used by RAM Advanse. is realized automatically to obtain the results in graphical form or report form. The independent modules will allow you to easily generate a new model from this application. 246 . refer to the particular member section in this manual. Invoking the Modules Dependent detailing modules Select those elements to be designed and detailed before invoking a dependent detailing module. It is advisable to consider each span as a physical member because all the tools of the detailer are designed with this consideration. isolated spread footings. These modules allow the engineer to take the results of the analysis performed in the main application. Analyze a concrete structure. how the design/detailing modules are organized and how to navigate within the modules. Select the line of beams containing the members to be detailed. For more detailed information on the content and display for each individual design/detailing module.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. the same as in the other modules. Introduction The design of any reinforced concrete. Note that the beams must be in a continuous line. and the results can be displayed graphically or in a report form. To use the module. Analyze the structure and select the members in RAM Advanse.

in the Selection toolbar. To in select all the columns in a column stack. the engineer can select the lowest column and press the Selection toolbar. starting at the lowest column. Invoke the Detailing/Reinforced concrete beam command as illustrated. select an end member and press in the Selection toolbar. Columns are selected and the detailer is invoked in a similar manner. When selecting columns in a stack the engineer should start at the lowest column and select the columns sequentially upwards.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules To select all the beams in a line. 247 . Select all the members that belong to the column line to be detailed. and press The column module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Reinforced concrete columns menu item.

The footing module is invoked by selecting the Detailing – Footings menu item. you won’t have to select the elements in RAM Advanse since you will be able to generate a new model inside of this module directly. If more than one node is selected the loads for each node will be transferred into the module. Select Detailing/Footings as indicated. 248 . Only one type of footing can be designed at a time. but the forces used to control the design are taken from all the nodes selected before invoking the detailer. Select all the nodes that are to have a common footing. Independent detailing modules To use an independent detailing module. the engineer can select one or more foundation nodes.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Invoke the Columns module For footings.

column or footing. The material data of this screen is maintained between sequential calling of the module. Select Detailing/Continuous Beam as illustrated. the selected nodes do not contain geometric information so the footing dimensions are not read from the model. you will be ready to introduce your model. This screen has two different formats for entering data depending on the module: • The first screen has a table as illustrated in the figure • The second screen has a path with drop-down options as shown below 249 . In this screen geometric. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when a dependent module is invoked. material and load data are entered or modified as required. Once you enter the module. but it is not necessarily associated with any particular beam. In the case of the footings. The screen has default values when an independent module is invoked.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Select Detailing/Retaining wall as illustrated. Organization of the Modules Every detailing module works in the same way. Each module has four screens that can be accessed by pressing the following buttons: Data editing screen.

Detailing screen. Additionally. The engineer can typically locate information here on the design results. Configuration screen. These options may be enabled depending on the detailing module. This data is saved between different module calls and should be used typically to establish office standards for design and detailing of the various member types. Zoom out. This screen displays the generated details that can be exported to a CAD program. These diagrams can be simple when a single stress is graphed as moment Mu or merged as moment Mu vs phi*Mn. This screen is used to establish the design and detailing criteria that RAM Advanse uses to determine the appropriate design and details. These results are shown in a tabular form or in a graphical form according to the detailing module. press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. This extra screen is used to print a report with all the data and design results. the user will be able to edit design values through a spreadsheet on the left side. Zoom To zoom.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Design screen. according to the detailing module. the engineer can print a report . This screen displays design and analysis results as stresses and/or resistance. See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. All options of the different screens are described next. Zoom fence. To change material properties or geometry to achieve a satisfactory design. Depending on the detailing module. Navigation and Data Entry Each module presents similar navigation and movement characteristics. the engineer should switch to the data screen as described previously. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. 250 .

251 . Activate and inactivate edges movement. This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. and save it. the engineer can use the wheel to zoom in or out in a similar Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). Press . Print graphics Print current graphic. This option is enabled when the button appears in the bar. use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. DXF files Some modules have the option to export graphics to DXF. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. Click with the right mouse button on the point to be centered on the screen. name the file. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. Hint: If a mouse wheel is available way as in the main RA screen. .Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Fit in window.

Press ESC to cancel data editing. Data Entry Several screens allow the engineer to modify values.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules The screen will redraw with the clicked point at the center of the window. All editable values appear in red color. Note that in some cases the red texts have the display option through a drop-down as shown below. 252 . Hint: If there are problems in selecting a value for editing. Click with the left mouse button on the red text. Click on the value (left-mouse button) to make it editable as shown in the figure below. zoom in on the value. Enter the information and then press Enter or click out of the edit box.

By adding the unit to the entered number. 253 . Some Design and Detailing screens also have editable data (text in red) used to choose display options.Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Click the mouse on the red text. Units for the entered data can be specified during data entry as illustrated in the figures below. the value will be automatically converted to the current unit system. Acceptable values and units. Remark: The defined units groups of variables of the main program are not valid in the detailing modules. The user can enter data in a unit that is different from the currently selected global unit.

0 Yellow. the user is able to immediately see the analysis and design results of the member. All the modules also have a graphic indicator for the strength verification and deflection called Traffic light. design parameters and results will be printed in a Report. Once the data has been input. This indicator prevents the user from having to repeatedly go to the Report to see if the member fulfills all the code verifications. when the member fails in the strength verification and the ratio is >1. detailing or report screen).Chapter 18: Design and Detailing Modules Results and verifications In the design and detailing screens. 254 . indicating the design status of the member according to 3 colors: • • • Red. All the input data. See chapter Printing Graphics and Reports for more information related to reports. the Traffic light is automatically enabled (when the user goes to design. Green. when the member fulfills the strength verifications but not some other parameter such as deflection or slenderness. when the member fulfills all the code verifications.

Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures This chapter describes the general options available in RAM Advanse for the design of steel members. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is deflection. The user is required to provide several design parameters before proceeding with the analysis of the model. It is important to verify load types if they belong to a limit state. The program does not automatically consider if a load is a wind or seismic load when performing a design. and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. Manual of Steel Construction – LRFD (3rd Edition . British Standard BS 5950-1:2000.serviceability and ultimate. The following codes are implemented in the current release of RAM Advanse: • • • • AISC-ASD. The ASD codes allow wind and earthquake loads to be reduced and allowable stresses to be magnified by a factor of one third (1/3). the AISC Specifications (American Institute of Steel Construction) for hot rolled sections and the AISI Specifications (American Iron and Steel Institute) for cold-formed sections are used while the BS 5950 is adopted for the UK. which was popular in the past. Within the US. AISI –ASD-LRFD Cold Formed Steel Manual – (1996 Edition). The LRFD method will require specification of factored loads for limit states. See the result output sections of this chapter for more information. The user may specify load conditions used for the optimization process and those that will be considered in the output report. Two major categories of limit state are recognized . The program allows the user to choose between two countries: US and UK. Design is then performed automatically and the results are shown graphically or in a text form. The BS 5950 Code is a Limit State Design method that requires the use of factored loads similar to the American AISC LRFD method. No increase is considered on the allowable stresses in ASD design.2001). Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote. the user will need to specify service or nominal load conditions. Loads The user will need to ensure that all loads are applied correctly and that required load combinations have been generated. AISC-LRFD. Manual of Steel Construction – ASD (9th Edition -1989). The design philosophy embodied in the former concept includes the consideration of the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use. For the ASD method. The user may not exclude any of the created load conditions. This 255 . The Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method. which has been developed more recently. Two methods are available for performing steel member design in the US.

the program checks the type of material (hot-rolled or coldformed steel) and associates the appropriate design code.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures increase has to be reflected in the load factors of the ASD load combination (see load combination AISC-ASD-LoadCombosStrength.4. Section 2. Note that new sections may be created and added to the list of available sections as described in Chapter “Creating Sections and Materials”. The local 3 axis is also called the x-x axis or strong axis.txt). Sections Use the procedure illustrated in the following figure to assign steel section sizes to members. For more information on the design of steel members in accordance with a specific code see the chapters “Design of AISC Hot 256 .4. The user is responsible to include in the load conditions the notional horizontal forces specified in BS 5950. Selection of the design code When a section is assigned to a member. Selecting a steel section to the members. while the local 2 axis is also called the y-y axis or weak axis.2. Illustrative figure of the local axes of a section. For detailed information on defining new sections see the Chapter “Creating New Types of Section with Macros”.

Note that in section definition (*. located in Configuration/databases/Sections of the main menu. and the member is then designed on the basis of the geometric axes (local axes) bending. As examples of this naming convention. aisiAAB. to define a member laterally restrained for torsion. AISC or BS codes. It is important to remark that sections with CODE=HOTROLLED may be designed with either AISC or BS. rigid offsets or the cardinal points have to be specified in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the correct position. Because of this. RAM Advanse presents a new option. there are cases where the local axis does not coincide with the principal axis. Also note that in total asymmetric sections the longitudinal axis does not coincide with the centroid of the section. Coordinate system used in design Normally the coordinate system adopted in design is coincident with the local axis.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Rolled Steel Members”. for example with L or Z shapes. 257 . respectively. the program assumes the principal axes are coincident with the local axes. Option to determine the reference axis to be used in design for laterally restrained members for torsion along their length. “Design of AISI Cold Formed Steel Members” and “Design of BS Steel members”. It is customary though to only name hot-rolled sections based on their shape and size (W12x…). For these situations it is important to define which coordinate system will be used. etc. ‘COLDFORMED’ and ‘BS_COLDFORMED’ implicitly results in the use of the AISI. which at the same time coincides with the principal axis. For these cases. the variable ‘CODE’ assigned with either “HOTROLLED’. it is recommended that the naming convention adopted for section specification files reflect the implicitly used code as was done with the default sections in the database. When this option is enabled. However.leo) files. AISI sections (cold-formed) could be named aisiAAA.

See the next section for additional information. Braced Against Sidesway Flag The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. The tool buttons located below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. If the user is going to adopt specific values for former coefficients then it is not necessary to add a value for the variable. Braced3 refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 3 axis. effective length factors and unbraced lengths. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis. 258 . Likewise. Valid values are 0 and 1. Valid values are 0 and 1. Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to running analysis and design. Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame.AISI) or m (BS) coefficients. In the same way. To enter required design parameters select the Members/General Design Parameters and the Members/Steel Design Parameters tabs. The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) and the Cm (AISC.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In total asymmetric sections like the L shape. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. sway (unbraced) or non-sway (braced). Examples of some of the design parameters that may be specified are frame bracing. the Assistant or refer to the Examples Manual. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. the user has to use the axis location tool or to adopt rigid offsets in order to locate the longitudinal axis in the right position. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse’s context sensitive Help system.

the K factor is a function of the end conditions of the member.0.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Effective Length (K) Factors The axial buckling capacity of a member is a function of the member length and the fixity of its ends.2 (BS 5950-1:2000) for the sway buckling mode in the BS Code. Note that there are two toolbar buttons available to assist you in calculating the K factors based on the nomogram proposed by Jackson and Moreland as suggested by the AISC code for unbraced structures or the nomogram of Figure E. K Factors K33. In any case. Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for the desired members (mainly vertical members and columns) It is important to verify that columns have been rotated to their correct position before applying the command to automatically calculate the K factors.0 for design. The effective length is used to determine the member’s capacity to carry axial load. Refer to the appropriate design code for additional information. and are entered in the Members tab in the General Design Parameters worksheet. Press the button and the K coefficients will be calculated automatically. (Kx or Kmajor) and K22 (Ky or Kminor). By default K values are 1. RAM Advanse will assume K=1.0 (zero) value. The K factor. multiplied by the true unbraced length of the element gives its effective length. Note that members pinned top and bottom are always assigned K=1. are used for the 1-2 and 1-3 planes. For more details see the Help Context. If the user decides to rotate the columns afterwards. the adjoining members and whether it is braced against joint translation in the direction under consideration. If the K column contains a 0. the K factors will have to be recalculated. 259 .0. These values are entered in the Members/General Design Parameters spreadsheet. respectively.

These values represent the unbraced lengths between lateral supports to be considered in design. Where a single member is divided into multiple sub-members for analysis reasons. Mn (AISC-LRFD. Similarly. Refer to Chapter F (AISC) or the flow charts at the end of the AISC or AISI chapters for more information. Axial unbraced length of the member (L) The L22 and L33 parameters represent the axial unbraced length of the member in the 3-3 (strong) and 2-2 (weak) axis respectively. the program will take the distance between nodes as the unbraced length. RAM Advanse will use the unbraced length as the distance between member nodes if a value of 0. These parameters are used in the calculation of the bending allowable stress Fb (AISC-ASD. Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending AROUND axis 3-3 (also called major axis L or Lux). AISI-LRFD Methods).Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Warning! This tool is not applicable or appropriate for web tapered members. AISI-ASD Methods) or in the calculation of the nominal moment. If necessary. Lbpos. Lbneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports. When this parameter has a zero value. Press the buttons and to see the K values graphically. L22 is the unbraced length AROUND axis 2-2 (also called minor axis L or Luy). Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. the true unbraced length for axial capacity calculations should be provided for each of the sub-members. The values for L22 and L33 may be entered directly into the spreadsheet. the unbraced length between lateral supports may be introduced (L33and L22). 260 .0 is entered.

0 to all selected members. 0. When any Lb is zero (0). RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element. Cb Coefficients Cb coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis. an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i. Cm22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). Likewise.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures LBpos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and LBneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. Please notice that if models from older RA versions are calculated. Cm coefficients will then be calculated automatically. The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment. Enter the Lb value when it is different from the length of the frame member. based on the elements end moments. A spreadsheet value of 0. In this case the user has to define the right values for Lbneg. If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member. the members will have only values for Lbpos. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one. Note that Cm33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) in the spreadsheet or press the button to clear the values in order to let the program calculate them. The ‘Cm’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. 261 . Cm coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). Cm Coefficients Cm coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Chapter H in the AISC or AISI Codes or the flow charts at the end of the chapters devoted to steel design).0 in the spreadsheet then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. If the Cb value is 0. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the adopted code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations).001in).e.

The program uses the appropriate distance for each load case or combination depending on what flange the compression is caused by the correspondent bending moment. m Coefficients “m” coefficients are end moment coefficients used in the interaction formulae to modify the actual bending moments of the frame members (see Tables 18 and 26 of the BS or the flow charts at the end of the chapter devoted to BS steel design). If the flange of the section is fastened or restrained along the member. When any Le is zero (0). These parameters are used in the calculation of the moment capacity Mx (BS5950). m22 is the coefficient for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis m or my).3.0 will result in m being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination with the formulae given by the BS code (see the flowcharts for a detailed description of the calculations). the user should consider this effect in the Le values. Leneg lengths The flexural-torsional buckling of an element subject to bending moment depends on the distance between lateral supports.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Refer to the appropriate steel design code for additional information.1cm). Enter the Le value when it is different from the length of the frame member. (Table 13 BS 5950-1:2000) Lepos is the unbraced length of the flange on the positive side of local axis 2 and Leneg is the unbraced length of the flange in the negative side of local axis 2. Please note that for destablizing loads. The values can be entered directly by the user in the spreadsheet. Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length member.0 in the spreadsheet 262 . Refer to Section 4.e. These coefficients depend on the type of frame (braced or unbraced) and on the moments at each extreme of the member (which change with each load condition). The ‘m’ tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. 0. RAM Advanse will assume that the length between end nodes is equal to the respective length for this element.0 to all selected members. A spreadsheet value of 0. Cb coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition. The program assumes that the extremes of the member in the model coincide with the extremes of the physical one. Cb must be calculate manually or take a value of one. Enter the distances between the lateral supports of both flanges for each frame member in the steel design parameters’ spreadsheet. mLT Coefficients mLT coefficients represent the equivalent uniform moment and are used when calculating the unbraced bending capacity of a section for the strong axis. an arbitrary small value should be entered for this variable (i. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. If the mLT value is 0.0 to all selected members and the coefficients will then be calculated automatically. Note that m33 represents bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis m or mx). Likewise.5 or the flow charts at the end of the steel design chapter for more information. Lepos.

The results are shown in the AISC or BS comprehensive report. Select the option Process/Optimize structure from the main menu to run optimization. Selecting the ‘Optimize’ option will result in the program selecting the lightest member section which meets all code requirements. See the following sections for more details on the output of results. Either of two types of optimizations may be selected. and then replacing all under and over sized members with this selection. In the case of hot rolled steel members. for all the members. select the option Process/Design all. Before the design. The user can verify design in accordance with the chosen code. by the adopted code. torsion is considered without the effect of warping in a simplified form.0 to all selected members. For more details related to torsion see the following chapters. Design and optimization The design of members is performed by an iterative procedure. based on the elements end moments. which verifies if the chosen section fills all the strength requirements.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures then RAM Advanse will calculate this coefficient for each load condition. LRFD or BS). If the LRFD or BS method is selected. Optimization may be performed once initial verification results are available. if a group of possible sections is selected instead of a single section. This allows for the optimization of sections too. 263 . Selecting ‘Code check’ will cause the program to change a member section assignment only if it fails the applicable code check. Torsion Torsion is not considered in the design of cold-formed sections ( code). To verify if members comply with a given code. The tool button at the bottom of the window is available to assign the value 0. Refer to the BS steel design code for additional information. See the LRFD method in the AISC or AISI chapters or the BS Chapter for more details. the user has to choose the desired design method from the dialog window (ASD . it is suggested that a second order analysis be used in order to take into account their effects in the calculated forces on the members. mLT coefficients will then be calculated automatically by the program for each load condition.

The type of optimization has been selected as ‘Optimize’ (4). See the Connections Chapter for more details. optimization results may not converge in a unique section selection. Because of this. You can control the deflections. too(3). and which causes a new change in sections. RAM Advanse will then change all the selected sections to the new ones.K. Check those section changes that you want and then press the O. Warning! All the results from the analysis and design are lost when sections are changed. A new analysis and design of the structure is required after the change of sections The optimization process is iterative because the change of sections causes a change in the distribution of stresses in the members. This section describes these options. Output of results There are several options available to display analysis and design results to the screen or in report form. In the example shown. Please refer to the chapter devoted to the Steel Structure Optimization and Code Check for more details. button. RAM Advanse will present a list of suggested changes. After the optimization is performed. 264 . and results will alternate between optimizations.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Select the group of members (descriptions) (1) that are going to be optimized and also the load conditions to consider(2). all the descriptions and load combinations have been selected.The section collection has been selected (5) and the OK button is then pressed to start the optimization process. Steel Connections The program has incorporated a new module for the design and verification of steel connections (only available for AISC members). in some cases.

Design Status: There are cases where members have enough strength to resist the applied forces but other conditions given by the code. The colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition. such as the limit slenderness ratio (kl/r>200). select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. • Maximum stress ratio: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Screen output The user has different options to see the results Code Check toolbar with different options for the presentation of design results. To select the members within a given range. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. Stress ratio fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to between 0. The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. fail. Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Code Check buttons bar.0. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. the range of colors is recalculated. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. 265 . This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range.0 and >1. The following lists the main options available for display of results to the screen. Note that when a different group of members is selected. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options.

Thus a specific member will maintain its color independently of the other members selected with it. To select and view only the members within a certain range of stresses select the stresses that you are interested in and then press the button Press the . If the button is pressed together with the previous one. such as the slenderness of the member. The colors represent the nine different ranges of stresses. press the and buttons. The labels represent the results for the current load condition. members with very low stresses and members working very close to their strength capacity. The other colors represent the interaction range value for the current load condition. the interaction values together with the governing load condition will be displayed for each selected member. combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Stress ratio fixed scale All the selected members will be colored with one of the nine available colors when the button of the Code Check tool bar is pressed. In this case. taking into account the full load combinations (not just the current load condition). The option available with the button will show if a member complies with all the requirements of the code. The ranges do not change when different members are selected. the result will include the name of the governing load condition for each member. This option is ideal for identifying members that do not comply with the strength requirements. Reports are generated by selecting the desired members and then the option Reports – Steel design from the menu. 266 . Other aspects. The reports are grouped into three types. If the user selects one of the two following buttons .Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. which are defined as shown in the legend. should be verified as well. To verify the same results. Members with interaction values greater than one will be colored in red. which include options for extensive or concise. Reports Different types of reports are available for displaying the results obtained after running a design with a given code. Pressing together with shows the selected members with the color range determined from considering the full set of load combinations (not only the current load condition). The name of the governing load is pressed. button to show the interaction values of each member for the current load condition. only the members with an ‘OK’ status or with a ‘no good’ status will be displayed from the selected group of members respectively. Design Status In same cases the verifications of stresses are not enough to verify the correctness of a member.

the type of report is selected together along with the load conditions to be considered in the design. This means that when more than one member falls under the same description. The window allows exclusion of any load condition. Group by member – each load case This report provides one line of summary information for each member and load condition. However. The report presents the results for the critical member in the group. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. Group by description – controlling load case This report organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. Group by description – each load case This report also organizes the results as a function of the description of the selected members. the results obtained are related only to the critical member for each load condition. Note that in a report there are no indications of the eliminated (non-selected) load conditions. it shows all the results for each selected load condition.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures In the dialog window. only the controlling member in the group (having the critical load) will be considered. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each 267 . The results correspond to the controlling member in each group for each load condition. The report is organized in sections divided by the members of each group. A brief description of each type of report is included in the following paragraphs. This means that when more than one member has the same description. Comprehensive AISC member design This report provides full results for each selected member.

Concise AISC member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member (approximately one page). bending. 268 .50. The last column at the end of the different stations (0. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. The report includes the results for shear. and 100%) has the a “max” label and contains the results for the station of the critical bending strength ratio. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member. Concise BS member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the BS (approximately one page). The report includes the results for shear.25.50. Concise AISI member design This report considers only an abridged review of the results for each selected member designed by the AISI code (approximately one page).75.Chapter 19: General Design of Steel Structures load condition. Comprehensive BS member design This report provides full results for each selected member designed by the BS. The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. The verification of stresses due to pure torsion is also considered. torsion and the interaction for the controlling load case of each member. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition. The last column at the end of the different stations (0. The report includes detailed information and several descriptions. The code check is performed in several stations along the member for each load condition. Comprehensive AISI member design This report provides full results for each cold-formed steel member designed by the AISI code. The report includes the results for shear.25. and bending stresses for the controlling load case of each member.75.

and Load and Resistance Factors Design (LRFD).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Chapter 20: Design of Hot Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) This module allows the design of hot rolled steel members in accordance to the AISC Codes. include the letters aisi. 269 . the name of the cold formed sections which do not conform to the current method. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the following American Institute of Steel Construction design codes: • • Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition) Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor design (3rd Edition) Determination of a member with an AISC section The determination of a member with an AISC section is done when assigning a hot rolled section and after selecting the AISC code before executing the design after the analysis. adopting the alternative designs of Allowable Stress Design (ASD). while the hot rolled sections have a name that reflects only the shape. Example of an AISC section assignation for a member. Normally. Note that all the AISC standard sections should not start with the letters aisc.

See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details. section E for compression. These assumptions cause differences in the results between the general and particular formulae. in which calculation details are presented in section F for bending. In the LEO files (files with *. SetSolid. in addition to their 270 . etc.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) The ASD or LRFD design methods have to be selected before executing the design. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section. the allowable stress design (ASD) or the load and resistance factor design (LRFD). sections. I. Because of this. as described further on. besides the section geometry.EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements.leo extension) you can find the following data and/or specific commands used in the AISC design. In this case. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C. The election of the method is done before performing the analysis. In spite of the possibility of using one general formulation. as will be shown later. CODE=HOTROLLED This value for CODE defines that the section is of hot rolled steel and that it will be designed with the AISC Code. based mainly on the shape of the section. applied to the known W. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable. C and similar shapes. this was submitted to a series of simplifications and modifications depending on the particular shape of the section for a more direct application. which can be adopted. Yet. FORMULATION=<formulation> The AISC Code has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice. there are two methods to choose from..

including circular sections and rectangular tubes. thickness (t). The proposed equations allow the estimation of the P-Delta (capital letter) as well as the P-delta (small letter) effect. Refer to Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. L This formulation is for L shaped sections. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a). These sections are designed according to a special specification for single angle members located in the code Appendix. See the flowcharts for each method for more details. Theodore V. so the user must determine how the P-delta effect will be considered. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos. To do this. USA. John Wiley & Sons. Referring to the parameters Cm and Cb. The code gives an indirect way to consider the second order effect by the magnification of the bending moments obtained from an elastic analysis. Galambos. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a). In this way. 1968. GEN Comprises the general formulation. flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) and the parameters k and k1 for the connections design. Prentice Hall. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. 1988. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles. This is the methodology implemented to design WT sections in RAM Advanse.. 271 . USA. Structural Members and Frames. the user can select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel Design Parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. which is very similar to the IC formulation. but includes the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos: Equation (3.80) for the calculation of the critical moment of the LRFD method. New York. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect).Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) respective appendices. the user can incorporate a magnification factor in his or her load combinations to consider both effects. Second order analysis It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). TUBE This option is applied only to LINECLOSED sections. flange width (bf). No special parameters are required. the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d). Theodore V. The user does have the option to give a user defined value to the Cm and Cb parameter. Both effects should be considered when designing. Equation (3. width (b).145) for the elastic critical stress of the ASD method. these are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. and section B regarding the design requirements for each code. When the IC formulation is adopted.

the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. Because of this. • • • • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable. the program displays an error message. The adopted RIGID variable for each element of a section determines the slender limits and whether an element will be considered as stiffened or unstiffened (see the table given further on). then the program considers two options: stiffened or unstiffened. The element is considered stiffened if both ends are connected. if this is not the case. 272 . Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. The width b of an element of the section is considered between centerlines. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. and is considered unstiffened if only one end is connected.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements • The moment of inertia about 33 axis (usually called strong axis) must be equal or bigger than the moment of inertia about 22 axis (usually called weak axis). The program does not consider hybrid sections (sections which elements have different yield stresses). If the user does not give a value for the RIGID variable.

Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) 273 .

For the Cm calculation of each member.05Fa). the program is considering this limit for all types of tension members. When determining the shear stress for I or C shapes. There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used. When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially. Based on section B7 of the code.e. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified on sections F1 to F3 of the AISC Code.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section D1 of the code (AISC-ASD-89). Although this limit is only for built-up members. a limiting value of 300 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to tension. i. • Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • • Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. . the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding. For more details see the flowchart given below. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. A section is considered to have a compression flange that is solid and approximately rectangular in cross section and that has an area not less than the tension flange (equation F18 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. Based on section D2 of the code. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. Due to sign conventions. • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section E2 of the code.05*Fa. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. The shear stress is given in section F4 of the code. only gross section checks are performed. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • 274 A member is considered in compression when fa > 0. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. a limiting value of 200 is adopted for the slenderness ratio Kl/r when the member is subject to compression (fa>0. The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: • • A member is considered to be loaded through the shear center (equation F1-5 of the code is applicable only if this condition is fulfilled). which is the default value adopted by the program. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.

. AISC Inc.1 to 4. The restrictions and assumptions adopted for torsional analysis are the following: • Warping is not considered in members subject to torsion. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending Biaxial shear and torsion (equation 4.4 of the “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members” Guide (Paul A. Carter. AISC Inc. 1997). “Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members”. The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. See the flowcharts for more details. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centerlines of the elements confining the section. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of sections H1 and H2 of the code.. Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. Seaburg. Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion are given in sections 4. For open sections. Steel Design Guide Series 9. Charles J. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered. Therefore torsion is not considered in the interaction equations. Seaburg. not considering warping. Steel Design Guide Series 9.9* not considering warping) *Paul A. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section). Charles J. 275 . 1997 LRFD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for this part are: Assumptions and restrictions for elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness. Carter.

Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*. 276 . (See the table below) • Considerations made by the program when the user doesn’t give values to the RIGID variable. Because of this. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. This applies mainly to sections with different flanges. The program does not consider the influence of hc (twice the distance from the centroid to the inside face of the compression flange less the corner radius) when calculating the limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact elements (λr).leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters and whether the element will be considered stiffened or unstiffened.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • There are no special considerations for built up members.

277 . The type of union is not considered in the design and in the estimation of the net area. Holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the calculation of the effective section are not considered. Columns and other compression members The compression member analysis follows the steps given in chapter E of the code.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Members in tension The calculation of members in tension is given in chapter D of the code (see the flowcharts at the end of the chapter) and the conditions are: • • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members. The adopted assumptions and restrictions are: • • A member is considered to be in compression when Pu > 0.05*Pn*φ. The program has adopted a slenderness limit Kl/r for members in tension of 300 (Sections B7 and D2 of the code).

• • Tapered members The design of tapered members is restricted to AISC sections. M33). When the transverse loads applied to the member are negligible compared with the ones acting axially.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • • The slenderness limit Kl/r for members in compression is 200 (Section B7 of the norm) and is only considered if the axial stress is over 5% of the capacity of the section. The shear and flexural design follows the criteria given in Appendix F. The additional assumptions adopted for tapered members are: • • 278 The member shall have at least one axis of symmetry (2-axis). For the Cm calculation of each member. the design is very similar to the one for prismatic members. local buckling and lateral torsional buckling as specified in section C3 of the code. which shall be perpendicular to the plane of bending (3-axis. The program assumes a compressive residual stress in flange of 10 ksi for rolled shapes and 16. When determining the shear stress of I or C shapes. The flanges shall be of equal and constant area. non-compact and slender. The classification is made considering the critical element of the section.5 ksi for welded (built-up) members. The compression design follows mainly the criteria given in Appendix E of the code. the program will assume that the member is not transversely loaded along its length. which is the default value adopted by the program. the ratio M1/M2 is considered to be positive when the member is bent in single curvature and negative when bent in double curvature. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • • There are three categories of sections for local buckling: compact. Although the flexural-torsional buckling of many common shapes is not mandatory to be checked because it normally does not control the capacity of the member. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding. the user can choose between the use of the shear modulus Qmod or a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t as used in the AISC-ASD Manuals. It is important to note that in the particular case when the member is bent in triple curvature. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor Kγ for compression members. It uses the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. the program will not recognize this situation and will consider the ratio M1/M2 as positive due to the same signs of the moments at both ends of the member. The reason is that there may be cases as columns with relatively thin elements and/or short lengths where the flexural-torsional buckling is critical. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter. Due to sign conventions. The user can find this option when the dimensions of a section are defined in Configuration/Databases/Section. . the program always performs this verification. section F1 for bending and section F2 for shear. Transverse stiffeners are not considered for the determination of shear stress for deep girders. In general.

when designing the member. The shear strength is determined without modifications to the normal procedure for prismatic members. and the prismatic cross sectional properties of the segment of the member under consideration. It is not calculated by the program and can be obtained using the charts developed by Lee et al (1972) with some restraint modifiers that are included in the AISC Code. considering the section properties of the section at the station.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) • • The depth shall vary linearly from d0 (node J) to dL (node K). An adequate effective length factor must be given taking into account the tapered member. The bending strength is calculated assuming the full member length (or the user entered length). This factor is introduced in the design-parameters-tab of the worksheet as a K value. while the program is obtaining the interaction equations for each station of the tapered member. the code suggests a simplified and conservative method to check only the smallest section for compression and the largest section for bending. bending and axial loads in each segment are considered with respect to the cross sectional properties of that segment. The user should know that. The maximum shear. • • • • 279 .

Outside diameter of tubular member. Computed shear stress. Yield stress of steel. Critical stress. fa: Fb: fb: Fcr: Fe: Fe': Computed axial stress. Ftor: Permitted torsion stress. modified to account for effective width Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members and dependent upon Cmmin: Cv: D: d: Minimum Cm coefficient (given by the user). Effective length factor for a prismatic member. I33p: Moment of inertia of a cross section about the principal axis.. Fa: Axial compressive stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of bending moment. Ratio of "critical" web stress to the shear yield stress of web material. Error: Variable that has the error messages of a member design. Fob: Elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Fv: fv: Fy: h: Permitted shear stress. Compression element width. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. Section depth. Computed bending stress. Clear distance between flanges. I22. Moment of inertia of a cross section about 22 and 33 local axis. Cc': Column slenderness ratio dividing elastic and inelastic buckling. Euler stress for a prismatic member divided by factor of security. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2) Maximun Cb coefficient (given by the user). I33: K: 280 II22p. Elastic buckling stress. Area of compression flange. Flange width of rolled beam. Bending stress permitted in a prismatic member in the absence of axial force.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-ASD Flowcharts A: Af: b: bf: Bratio: Cb: Cbmax: Gross-sectional area. . Bending coefficient.

Moment at k end of the member. Elastic buckling moment. Maximum bending moment in the unbraced beam segment. Reduction factor. Web thickness. rT: Radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web Se: SF: Sf: Effective section modulus. Shear modulus. Radius of gyration. Maximum allowed interaction ratio (given by the user). Extreme fiber bending moment. Torsion modulus. Tormod: 281 . Flange thickness. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Moment at j end of the member. Normal force. Lb: Lc: M1: M2: Mcr: Me: Mj: Mk: My: P: Qa: Laterally unsupported length of the compression flange of a flexural member. t: tf: tw: V: Thickness of an element.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) kv: Shear buckling coefficient. Elastic section modulus. Maximum unbraced length of the compression flange. Initial yield bending moment. Shear force. l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. Maxratio Mmax: Qmod: Qs: r: Axial stress reduction factor. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a Sratio: section. Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Ratio of effective profile area of an axially loaded member to its total profile area.

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l: For beams: distance between cross sections braced against twist or lateral displacement of the compression flange. Elastic buckling stress. Critical stress. Cm: Coefficient applied to bending term in interaction equation for prismatic members an dependent upon column curvature caused by applied moments.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) AISC-LRFD Flowcharts AISC-LRFD-2001 DESIGN OF HOT ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS α Bratio: Cb: Magnification factor. Required shear stress. Effective length factor for a prismatic member. E: Error: Fcr: Fe: fun: fuv: Fy: K: Modulus of elasticity of steel (E=29000 ksi) Variable that has the error messages of a member design. dependent upon moment gradient (M1/M2). Required normal stress. For columns: actual unbraced length of a member. Bending coefficient. λc: 298 Column slenderness parameter. Yield stress of steel. Result of the interaction of axial and flexural load combination. .

Nominal flexural strength. Elastic section modulus. Larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced beam segment. about 33 axis. Smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam column. Radius of gyration. Nominal flexural strength due to lateral torsional buckling. Elastic buckling moment. Absolute value of moment at quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. Required flexural strength. Required flexural strength. Required axial strength (tension or compression). Limiting slenderness parameter for noncompact element.Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) λe: λp: λr: Lb: flange. Result of the interaction of the combined shear and torsional loads in a section. Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. Effective section modulus about strong axis. Distance between points braced against lateral displacement of the compression Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic flexural strength. about 22 axis. Resistance factors (b: bending. about 22 axis. Nominal shear strength. Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element. Absolute value of moment at centerline of the unbraced beam segment. Limiting buckling moment. Nominal flexural strength due to local buckling. Lp: Lr: M1: M2: Ma: Mb: Mc: Mcr: Mmax: Mn33: Mn22: MnLatT: MnLoc: Mp: Mr: Mu33: Mu22: φ: Pn: Pu: Q: Qa: Qs: r: Se: Sf: σe33. t: torsion). Nominal flexural strength. 299 . σe22: Sratio: Vn: Equivalent slenderness parameter. Absolute value of moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. c: compression. v: shear. Reduction factor for slender unstiffened compression elements. Nominal axial strength (tension or compression). about 33 axis. Full reduction factor for slender compression elements. Coefficients for the calculation of Fe and Me. Plastic bending moment. Reduction factor for slender stiffened compression elements.

Nominal shear strength about 3 axis. Required shear strength about 2 axis. Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. 300 .Chapter 20: Design of Hot-Rolled Steel Members (AISC-ASD-LRFD) Vn2: Vn3: Vu2: Vu3: xo. Plastic section modulus. yo: Z Nominal shear strength about 2 axis. Required shear strength about 3 axis.

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Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)
This module is used to the design of cold-formed steel members in accordance with the AISI Specifications. The AISI Code has an integrated treatment for two design methods, the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design method (LRFD). The code adopted is: • The 1996 Edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-formed Steel Structural Members (American Iron and Steel Institute).

Selection of the section for a cold-formed steel member
When an AISI section is selected for a member, it is automatically defined as a cold formed steel member and will be designed in accordance with the AISI Code.

Example of the selection of an AISI section for a member. It is suggested that all the AISI sections start with the letters aisi, for example aisiBox, aisiC, etc. In this way the user will recognize them very easily. In the macros for sections , very important data are considered, which will be needed to properly perform an AISI design, apart from the geometry of the section:

CODE=COLDFORMED
This option defines that the section belongs to a cold-formed steel member, which will be designed with the AISI code.

TYPE
This command defines if the section is open or closed. The values that may be assigned are:
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Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

LINEOPEN This word is used to define an open section as in the case of I and C-sections. The geometry will define if an element is stiffened or unstiffened. If the element is connected at both ends it will be considered a stiffened element; unstiffened otherwise. LINECLOSED It shows that the section is closed as in the case of a tubular or box section. In this case all the elements of the section are considered stiffened. RIGID This command specifies the type of elements that comprises the AISI section. The user can define if the element is a lip (2), a flange with an edge stiffener (1) or any other element (0) for the calculation of the effective widths of elements.

Refer to the chapter “Creating Section Types” for more details relating to this subject. Important! Tapered members are not considered in the design of cold-formed sections

2nd order analysis
A second order analysis is recommended as the magnification of design moments to account for second order effects is not explicitly addressed in the cold-form design code. Although the code does not specifically mention this aspect, the second order analysis can be considered in the same way as is described in Chapter C of the AISC-LRFD code. The Cm and Cb parameters are calculated in the same manner for the first or second order analysis. The user may assign, however, any value for these parameters, to consider the type of analysis in accordance to his or her criteria. This can be accomplished by selecting all the desired members, choosing the option Members/Steel Design parameters from the spreadsheet and entering the correct values for the parameters as explained in the Chapter devoted to the General Design of Steel Structures.

Technical notes
Certain assumptions and simplifications have been incorporated in the AISI design module.

Assumptions and restrictions for elements
The following assumptions have been adopted in relation to the elements and parts of a given section. (Section B of the Code)

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Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96)

All considered elements are straight-line elements. In other words, they can be represented with a length and a thickness. At the edges or corners of the section where circular elements may be needed, they are approximated as a set of two straight lines as it is illustrated in the following figure:

Example of a section divided into linear elements to approximate a curved section. • The elements with intermediate stiffeners as the one shown in the following figure are divided in linear elements in a similar way as described in the former paragraph, without taking into account special considerations for the calculation of the effective lengths as prescribed in B4.1 or B5 of the Code.

Example of a section with a multiple stiffened element not considered in a special way for the calculation of the effective widths. • The ratios width/thickness of the elements are not verified in accordance to the limits specified in B1.1 of the Code. The user is responsible to verify that all those requirements are fulfilled for the adopted sections in the model. Sections with reinforced webs are not considered in a special way in the calculations.

Tension members
The calculation of tension members is given in section C2 of the Code (see also the flow chart at the end of this chapter). The adopted assumptions are: • • The net area is estimated as a function of the gross section applying a reduction factor. The influences of the type of connections used are not considered.

Flexural members
In the design of flexural members, the program takes into account the flexural strength based on the initiation of yielding, the lateral buckling strength and the local buckling specified in section C3 of the Code. The flow charts at the end of this chapter give more details of the different procedures adopted. The assumptions and restrictions adopted are:

313

the torsional strength of the sections is very low and is normally neglected. No holes in the effective length region of the member are considered. . the restrictions at the ends of each member are verified together with the type of supports to which the member is connected. • • • Web crippling strength due to concentrated loads and reactions are not considered in the calculations (Section C3.4 of the Code). Due to the sign convention adopted. the ratio M1/M2 is positive when the member is deformed in a simple curvature and negative otherwise. This option is established when the type of section is defined. Compression members The calculation for compression members follows the specifications given in section C4 of the Code.Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • A point symmetric section (such as the Z-section) is treated as a non-symmetrical section about both axes • In the shear calculations. the user may choose if the shear strength for I or C Shapes will be calculated with the exact shear modulus Qmod or with a simplified value equivalent to 1/h/t. which is used in most of the examples of the AISI Manual. Note that due to the small thickness of most of these sections. Torsion is not considered in this type of member. When the transverse loads are very small in relation to the forces acting axially.05*Pn/Ω for the ASD method. In the calculation of the Cm coefficient.05*Pn*φ for the LRFD method and P > 0. The adopted hypothesis and restrictions are: • • 314 A member is considered a compression member when Pu > 0. the program will assume that the member has no transverse loads. Selection of the Qmod that will be adopted in the calculation of the shear strength for I or C shapes. The details of the calculations are given in the flow charts at the end of this chapter.

The strength for combined bending and shear is also considered with the equations given in Section C3. Tubular members The Code has a special section devoted to cylindrical tubular members (Section C6). It is also important to note that the definition of sections for rectangular tubular members must be started in one corner of the section and not at the middle of one element as it is shown in the next figure. (Section C4. 315 .4). Combined compressive axial load and bending. Combined axial load and bending The combination of stresses is considered with the interaction equations given in Section C5 of the Code: Combined tensile axial load and bending.Chapter 21: Design of Cold-Formed Steel Members (AISI-96) • The program does not consider the provisions applicable to C-or Z-sections concentrically loaded along their longitudinal axis. This aspect is also considered in the program and it is detailed in the flow charts. which considers special requirements for bending and axial compression loads.3 of the Code. In cases where this is desired it is suggested that you adopt the local axis as the design axis (check Laterally Restrained for Torsion in the Section dialog) and a Lb length that reflects the distance between fasteners. Correct and incorrect definitions of the different points of a rectangular tubular section. (See the chapter on the General Design of Steel Structures). with the flange attached to deck or sheathing through fasteners.

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etc. 331 . In both cases.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RA allows the design of hot rolled and cold formed steel members in accordance to the BS. CODE=HOTROLLED or CODE=BS_COLDFORMED These values for CODE define that the section is of hot rolled steel or cold formed steel. TYPE=LINECLOSED Indicates that the section is closed like the case of a box or cylindrical section. In these files you can find the following data and/or specific commands. I. TYPE=LINEOPEN Indicates that the section is open for the case of C.. In this case. SetSolid. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Types for more details.leo extension). besides the section geometry. the local buckling of the flange or the web won’t be considered in the stress evaluation of the section. adopting the Ultimate Limit State method of Design (or Load and Resistance Factor). it may be designed with the BS. sections.EndSolid This option defines that the section is solid and has no elements. as described further on. This chapter describes the design of steel members according to the British Standard: • BS 5950-1:2000 Determination of a member with a BS section The determination of a member with a BS section is done before the design: Setting the steel design to BS A section that may be designed with the BS is defined in the LEO files (files with *. The stiffness of each element is defined with the RIGID variable.

2DL+1.2LL±1. When the IC formulation is adopted. the general formulae for buckling given by Galambos (1968) was adopted and “calibrated” to the values obtained for the known sections and formulae given by the BS. based mainly on the shape of the section.4. wind load (WIND) and earthquake (EQ): 1.. The following parameters have to be defined for square or rectangular tubes : height (a). C and similar shapes.0DL±1.4DL 1.2WIND 1. width (b).4WIND 1. New York.4EQ 1. which can be adopted.4DL + 1. applied to the known I. Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures 4th Edition. With some supplements and suggestions given in: Galambos. GEN Comprises a general formulation.4WIND 1.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) FORMULATION=<formulation> The BS has various formulations or groups of formulae for flexural-compression design.0DL±1.6LL 1. Load Combinations According to the BS5950 Code. H. 1988. live load (LL). the following load combinations may be included if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). Theodore V. square or rectangular tubes.2DL+1. USA. Prentice Hall. L This formulation is for L shaped sections. Theodore V.2LL±1. John Wiley & Sons. in which calculation details are included in the Code.4DL±1. USA. thickness (t) and for circular tubes: diameter (D). Galambos. RAM Advanse offers the possibility to choose the formulation to be adopted for each type of section. 1968. thickness (t). flange thickness (tf) and web thickness (tw) TUBE This option is applied only to circular. No special parameters are required. Although the BS do not specify a general case. Table 2.4DL±1. The parameters to be included are: angle height (a). Structural Members and Frames. The possible choices are: IC It is the most popular choice.4EQ 1. angle thickness (t) and angle width (b) for unequal angles.2EQ 332 . flange width (bf). the shape has to include the following parameters: height (d). Section 2. These sections are designed according to the special specifications for single angle members or similar shapes.

It is important to note that the program only performs a second order analysis due to lateral translation of the structure (P-Delta capital letter effect). 333 . Referring to the parameters m and mLT. see Chapter 1. not considering the member’s own deformation (P-delta small letter effect).1 (BS). L or T sections. If this factor is less than 10. select the desired members and go to the Data Panel/Members/Steel design parameters as explained in the chapter on General Design of Steel Structures. The program does not consider the special considerations for I or H sections with unequal flanges.2 ).Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) You can automatically generate the required load combinations with the option Loads/Generate Loads Combinations and selecting the file: BS5950LoadCombosStrength. (See the table below) The width of an element of a section is considered between centrelines and is corrected to the actual value for common shapes like I. H. For more information. To do this. Members with different yield strengths (hybrid sections) are not considered. H. or box sections) were calculated with a py value 20 N/mm² below that obtained from Section 3. Depending upon the analysis requirements a P-Delta analysis may be specified. the user must have a clear vision of the forces that will be applied to the member. they are calculated in the same way for both a second and a first order analysis. The user has the option to give a defined value for both parameters. which may be calculated with the horizontal deflections on each floor due to the factored applied loads with an elastic analysis. The RIGID variable assigned to each element of the section in the LEO file (*. C. To evaluate the need for a second order analysis. All the elements of a section have the same yield strength (homogenous section).txt. the user must be very careful because some values are valid only when the element is in compression or in bending. Because of this. Automatic generation of load combinations. • • Warning! When assigning a RIGID value for an element of a section. Technical notes Assumptions and restrictions for sections and elements The following assumptions for the elements of a section are adopted: • • • • • Code checking is done using only the forces and moments at specific sections (stations) of the members. Built up members (welded I. All the elements are considered to be lineal with a width that is equal to the distance between its ends and with a constant thickness.4.leo) determines the kind of element required for the calculation of the limiting slenderness parameters. then the structure is sway sensitive and a second order analysis must be carried out. Second order analysis Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design.1. Members with such sections may be approximately calculated with a GEN formulation. the code requires a check for sway stability with the determination of the critical load factor (λcr) (Section 2.

There are no special considerations regarding to the kind of connections used Prismatic members in axial tension are due to forces acting through the centroidal axes. Class 3 (semi-compact) or class 4 (slender).2. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises bending and lateral-torsional buckling as specified on sections 4.3 of the BS. For more details see the flowchart given below. See the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) RAM Advanse checks the sections according to the following table in order to classify them for the calculation of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure: Sections are classified as either Class 1 (plastic). The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Only the gross area is considered for tension members.2 to 4. The shear capacity calculations are specified in section 4.6 of the BS. Class 2 (compact). The adopted restrictions and assumptions are: 334 . Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 4.3.

4.2. the program adopts a shear area (Av) equal to 0.3 of the Code. Both parameters are entered in the spreadsheet Members/Steel Design Parameters Lv and Cnx Type parameters are located in the Members/Steel design parameters spreadsheet The following table relates the Cnx type values with the connection types of Table 25 of the Code.10.7.7.9/Qmod.10.3) and the member is considered to be loaded through the shear centre When determining the shear stress for the shapes.7 of the code.2.7.2. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: • • • A member is considered in compression when the stress at both extreme fibres are in compression. For the m coefficients calculation of each member.5. channels or T-sections are treated with the criteria given in Sections 4.2. holes in flanges and/or webs that can affect the effective section calculation are not considered. otherwise the member is considered in bending or tension. For any other section.4 with the definition of two parameters: Lv and Cnx type.5. Compression members composed of angles. RAM Advanse uses the general equations given in Tables 18 and 26 of the Code where Mmax and M24 are calculated considering intervals of 5% of L. the program use a simplified value given by Section 4. Lv is the length measured between interconnecting bolts and Cnx type is related to the connection types defined in Table 25 of the Code.2) and high shear (Section 4.10.3. The adopted steps are shown in the flowcharts at the end of the chapter.5 of the code. a verification of the restraints and type of supports is done. The coexisting shear is considered in two groups.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) • • • The moment capacity of a section are based on the design strength and section modulus of the section as specified in Section 4. 335 . low shear (Section 4.2. End connections. 4. • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 4. Transverse stiffeners are not considered for deep girder design.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 336 .

The program allows the use of Annex G directives for the design of members with one flange laterally restrained. torsion. but they are more suited to a plastic analysis and are restricted for specific shapes. go to the Members/Steel design parameters Spreadsheet and set Restr. This criterion may be conservative for I or channel section members. 337 . Tor Mod=tmax/Jtor where tmax=the maximum thickness of the elements and Jtor = torsional constant of the cross section. The cross section properties at each station are used with the same procedures of an equivalent member with a prismatic cross section. Jtor is a simplified value equivalent to the sum of (b*t^3)/3 for each element of the cross section. This occurs mainly in thin walled closed sections. a simplified method is proposed with the following restrictions and assumptions: • The torsional loading is mostly resisted by uniform torsion. whose torsional rigidities are very large or in members with small warping rigidities as angle and tee sections. The design is very similar to the one for prismatic members.0 according to Annex B2. Warping is not considered. A two-flange haunched member may be divided in two members. There are some methods proposed. not considering warping. Ao is the boundary area limited by the centrelines of the elements confining the section. a tapered member with varying depth and a constant member.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Members subject to torsion Considerations for members subject to torsion were not included in the Code. For open sections. As an alternative to those methods. assuming that the flange thickness is constant. To enable this option. Von Mises interaction check is adopted to evaluate the maximum stress due to shear forces. axial and bending • The torsion stress determination requires the torsion modulus (Tor Mod) which has a simplified value of 1/(2*tmin*Ao) for closed sections and a value of tmax/Jtor for open sections. The user has the responsibility to enter the right effective length factor for compression members and the equivalent uniform moment factor (equal to 1. Tapered members Only sections that vary their depth may be designed. Flange=1 for the desired members.5).

Flange Flag parameter allows to use Annex G for members with one flange laterally restrained.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) The Restr. 338 .

compact=2.mx.M2.my: Mmax: Maximum moment in the member M1.Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) BS 5950 Flowcharts BS 5950-1:2000 DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS Aeff: Effective cross-sectional area Area: Area Av: d: Fv: E: K: L: Mb: Mc: Shear area Depth of section Shear force Modulus of elasticity of steel Effective length factor Span Buckling resistance moment Moment capacity Equivalent uniform moment factors Class: Classification of sections in plastic=1.M5: Moment at 0.50. semi-compact=3 or slender=4 mLT.M4.75 and 100% of L Pc: pc: PE: py: Pv: qw: r: S: Seff: Sv: Sx: Sy: t: Vb: Z: Compression resistance Compressive strength (π²*E/λ²) Design strength of steel Shear capacity of a member Shear buckling strength Radius of gyration Plastic modulus Effective plastic modulus Plastic modulus of the shear area Plastic modulus about the major axis Plastic modulus about the minor axis Thickness Shear buckling resistance of a web Section modulus Vcrit: min(Vb.Pv) Zeff: Effective section modulus 339 .M3.m.25.

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) Zx: Zy: α: ε: λ: Section modulus about the major axis Section modulus about the minor axis Robertson constant (Annex C2) Constant SQRT(275/py) Slenderness λLO: Limiting equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λLT: Equivalent slenderness (lateral-torsional buckling) λw: λ0 SQRT(0.6*py/qe) Limiting slenderness (axial compression) 340 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 341 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 342 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 343 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 344 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 345 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 346 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 347 .

Chapter 22: Design of Steel Members (BS 5950) 348 .

8 10mm=1. The next lines contain a series of reinforcing bars to be considered.375 #4=0.. Refer to the next chapter on the Design/Detailing module for more information on filtering loads when viewing the results. A pair of examples is given next: cm 6mm=0. This file sets the names and diameters of the reinforcing bars used in the verification and design of reinforced concrete elements. Loads The application of appropriate loads and the generation of the required load combinations are the responsibility of the engineer. columns and footings in accordance with the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. All applicable loads and load combinations should be applied to the structure as illustrated in the Examples Manual. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse.) by editing the bars.500 349 .0 .txt file which is located in the Base folder of the main directory of RAM Advanse. The ACI design post processing is performed automatically when the building is analyzed. in #3=0. This external file format is as follows: The first line of the text file contains the units in which the bar diameters are found. sorted by size. Bar size series It is important to note that the user can modify the diameters of the bars to be considered as well as their designation (#3 etc.Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced concrete design Chapter 23: ACI Reinforced Concrete Design This chapter describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail concrete beams. For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke one of three designer/detailing modules as described in the following chapters. The format is: name. and the results can be displayed graphically or in report form.6 8mm=0. Concrete design is performed for all load combinations. The units can be inches (in) or centimeters (cm). The user is not able to turn off any individual load case or combination when performing the design in the main program. However. the engineer does have the ability to filter the design in the designer/detailer module to obtain results for any individual load condition (case or combination). followed by the equal sign (=) with the value of the diameter in the specified units.

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This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. If you need to create a new section. As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. as illustrated below: 351 . To assign a reinforced concrete beam to a member select a RC Beam section as illustrated in the figure below. Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). you should select the appropriate Section Type for Beams or Columns.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete beam design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. Identifying Concrete Beams RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns.

Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. the model should be analyzed appropriately. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Creating new sections.0 is entered. 352 . For example.0 is used in the analysis. The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code. a value of 1. Valid values are 0. Analysis Before proceeding with a beam design. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. Note that if 0.0 to 1. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below.35*Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams.0.

35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected beams. The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes in the column section).4. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for beam design.13. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI 10. Technical Notes The beam design in RAM Advanse incorporates the requirements of: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. The toolbar button can be used to automatically enter the 0. A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis. 353 .

Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer. the engineer can specify which load conditions to consider for design. beam design is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog.5 are implemented.7 are fully implemented. No deep member design is considered. the position of the reinforcing is as specified when the section was created.1xLength). this should be checked by the engineer. In the main program the following additional limits exist Flexural Design The flexural design of concrete beams is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. For T and L shape beams (RC Beam Detailer Only) the full flange width provided by the user is considered for calculating the compressive stress block under positive moments. Note that no checks are performed on the validity of the flange width provided.2. The main 354 .4) are not considered. Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. The following items are checked in the design of the reinforced concrete beams.75 #ρb (ACI 10. shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. Where the compressive stress encroaches on the web of the T or L section the beam is designed to account for the reduction in the width of the compression zone. but the limits of distance between lateral supports (ACI 10. The appropriate moment frame is specified as ordinary. the flanges of the beam are ignored. At each section. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0. • • • • Flexure Shear Torsion Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design. The minimum flexural reinforcing requirements of ACI 10. the location of bars can be adjusted as described later. In the Reinforced concrete detailing module.3. The design assumptions of ACI 10.7. In the main program. Note that the distribution of flexural reinforcing provisions (ACI 10.3) compression reinforcing will be added.6) are implemented with Equation (10-5). For the summary output in the main program flexure. the beam is designed for the envelope (max positive and negative) moments from all the appropriate load conditions.2. In the Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beam Detailer. intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer. For negative moments. No deflection limits are checked. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General In the main program. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in the RAM Advanse implementation of the ACI318 with respect to beam members: • • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution. Only rectangular beams are designed (no T or L beams).

1 21. 2 21.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design program always assumes an ordinary moment frame.10. Dimension limits engineers responsibility Implemented 21.2.3 Flexural Frame Members Dimensiona l Limits Not Applicable As indicated below Assume zero axial loads. In the RC Beam Detailer the controlling shear at a distance of d (effective depth) from the face of a column may be 355 .2 Flexural Requiremen axial loads ts 21. which does not require any additional provisions.3.3.1 21.10.10 Reinforcing Limits and Prescriptive Reinforcing Requiremen As indicated below ts for Moderate Risk: Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Assume zero 21. The following items describe the implementation of the flexural requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediate moment frames Special moment frames Engineer Engineer 21.2. The design shear force is that produced by the envelope of all selected load combinations.3.2.4 Prescriptive Implemented Reinforcing Shear Design The shear design of concrete beams is according to the provisions of Chapter 11 of ACI.4/ Limits on responsibility Responsibility 5 Concrete and Reinforcing Strength 21.

Vertical stirrups (closed or open hoops) are designed in accordance with ACI 11.3.7. Finally. This strength is evaluated according to the shear forces related to the probable flexural moment (Mpr). taking into account the factored static load during the earthquake. The design shear force (Ve) is determined from Section 21. Special Seismic requirements are implemented in the RC Beam Detailer.2. No reduction in the factored torsion is considered per 11.3.2. The following items describe the implementation of the shear requirements for intermediate or special moment frames: ACI Description Intermediat e moment frames Not Applicable Special moment frames Implemented Design shear based on member 21. the minimum area of stirrups is per ACI 11.6. The torsion capacity of a section is limited per Equation (11-18) (ACI 11. assuming the ends of the member to be fully hinged. the shear strength of the sections will be reduced according to Equation (11-13) (ACI 11. With high torsion.2. The capacity of a rectangular concrete section Equation (11-3) (ACI 11. The moment frame type is specified as ordinary. Torsion is only considered where the design torsion exceeds a lower limit as specified by ACI 11.3).4. Minimum and maximum allowable shear stirrups are provided per ACI 11.9.6.6.3.6. which is calculated according to Section 21.3.6.3 refers to the requirement of designing the member for the maximum shear that the beam can be subject to.2 Implemente Not d Applicable Vc is considered according to Mpr.6.3.6. Where significant torsion is present.2. the user should define the load corresponding load combination to such case.4.6.5. Note that RAM Advanse check the limits on concrete strength per 11.3. Additional longitudinal steel is calculated per 11.3.2 of the Code.1 21.3. member torsion design can result in additional steel for both the longitudinal and the shear reinforcing of a member.5 and 11.4.1) and it is assumed that all the torque is resisted by stirrups (the nominal torsional moment strength provided by concrete is zero).1. the concrete capacity is sometimes ignored for resisting shear.6. the maximum between Vu and Ve is considered within a 2d length for the shear design.10.1).5.10.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design used as the design shear (ACI 11. For ordinary moment frames no additional provisions are implemented.1 and 21.1. intermediate or special in the data screen of the detailer.1.5.3. It is the responsibility of the designer to check that there are no other places critical for shear.1) is calculated considering an ordinary moment frame in the reinforced concrete beam detailer and in the main program (reinforced concrete design output).4.3. The nominal torsion resisted with the provided stirrups is calculated per 11. 356 .3(a bending ) capacity 21.4. For this. For special moment frames.5 when required. Torsion Design When necessary. No axial load assumed Vc is Transverse Reinforcement considered in frame members The provisions of 21.1.

3 . size and spacing of reinforcement comes from prescriptive code requirements. These requirements often control the number. RAM Advanse should offer significant assistance in achieving compliance with the many detailing requirements.2 Description Distribution of flexural reinforcing Spacing limits for shear reinforcing Maximum spacing of torsion reinforcement Development of deformed bars in tension Development of deformed bars comp. The following is a summary of detailing provisions: ACI 10.3 12.3.4 12.5. Engineer responsibility Engineer responsibility Splices of reinforcement in Implemented tension Splices of reinforcement in Not compression Implemented Transverse reinforcement Hoops at lap locations Implemented Engineer responsibility 357 Special moment frames 21.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Detailing Requirements A substantial influence over the number.3.14 12. Development of negative moment reinforcing.6 12.3. Development of bundled bars Development of standard hooks tension Comment Implemented Implemented Implemented Implemented except for 12. This section identifies those detailing provisions implemented by RAM Advanse in the Reinforced Concrete Beam Detailer.3.4 12.2 21.2. length and placing of reinforcing within a concrete section.4 11.6 11.5.12 12.10 12.11 12.2.6.5 12. Note that it is the engineers responsibility to confirm that the reinforcing is in agreement with all the provisions of the local concrete building code.16 Development flexural bars Implemented – General Development of positive moment reinforcing.5 Not Implemented Not Implemented Implemented except 12.

Significantly.Reinforced concrete design From the displayed dialog (See figure below).10. select the desired concrete design code and the two sizes of stirrups that you want the program to consider. Summary Report of Beam Design RAM Advanse provides a summary output for concrete beam design. Execute command Reports .Reinforced Concrete Design command as illustrated below. more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section. Note that output is relatively wide. The output consists of two lines for each member. In the main program the engineers can obtain a design summary report and they can view the reinforcing in their concrete members. Reports and Screen Output Two forms of concrete design output are available to the engineer in RAM Advanse main program. 358 .Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Intermediate moment frames 21. first select the beams to obtain output for and then press the Reports .4.2 Transverse reinforcement Implemented Note that the program gives most of the data to easily evaluate the requirements not covered directly by the program. To view the output of a reinforced concrete design.

and right ‘zones’. A. Other forces and sections are ignored.P. and torsion. Beam design output. The previous output is described below Beam Num The beam number to match the number of the beam selected in the model. The area shown under the A.right.right column is the area of steel required from the K end of the section for the distance shown under I. If a beam should be designed for biaxial bending it should be specified as a column section.cent. The beam design is performed assuming an ordinary moment frame with no special seismic provisions implemented. The report that appears is described below.left column. shear in axis 2. central.left.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Select OK and the report will be generated for all selected members. In the RC Beam Detailer the engineer can change this to examine the impact of some of the seismic provisions.left column is the steel area required from end J of the member for the distance shown in the I. A.right This is the required top and bottom area of reinforcement for the left. Beams with rectangular sections are designed only for bending moment about axis 3.P. The area of steel in the 359 . A. The area shown in the A.

P. the "Right" is the K node.left and I.P.0 in this case. 360 . and I. The central zone is delimited by the I.left away from end J to a distance I.right away from end K. The "Left" is the J node.right points. below for more information on the inflection points.0 away from J end of beam (i. bar area may be controlled by the required compression reinforcing.right are 0. See the explanation for I. That is.P.P. the steel shown in the A. they represent the J and K end of the member respectively.P.P. point and the K node.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design A. as indicated by RAM Advanse Inflection points of the bending moment envelop.e.cent zone is the area of steel required from the distance I. right end of beam). Based on the above description the I. The required reinforcement areas are provided in three zones: • • • The left zone is delimited by the J node and the left inflection point (I.0 away from K end of beam (i.right are the distances of the inflection points from the ends of the beam.P.left. The inflection points reported are the largest distances from all the load conditions considered.P. I. it has the J node at the left and the K node at the right Left and right. or bottom. I.P. The design moment shown in the output is the maximum moment for all load conditions in the various zones.left. The areas are given for top and bottom reinforcement. Where no inflection point occurs along a beam the reinforcing indicated for the center ‘zone’ (A.P.left and I. Note that where left and right are referred to.P.e.P. Important! When you display a beam. Cent) applies to the entire length of the beam.cent is required from 0. left end of beam) to 0.right I. The right zone is delimited by the right I.P. left). When compression reinforcing is required the top.

The shear reinforcing will also be adjusted to resist the applied torsion. Note again that no seismic provisions are considered in this design. the spacing between stirrups shall be less than 15 times the longitudinal bar diameter. 361 .I. as shown in figure (a). as illustrated in the figure (b). whereas the >[]< symbol indicates compression reinforcing is required. the center half and the last 25% of the beam. SKIN When torsion must be considered in the design this value reflects the additional longitudinal reinforcing area that must be distributed in the section (equivalent to Al/3 in the beam-detailing module).) if detailing a beam using these results. The [] is an indicator of torsion in the section. A [] symbol shows that stirrups should be closed. When closed stirrups are required for longitudinal compression bars. TYPE The Type indicates what kind of stirrup is required. The spacing of the stirrups is based on the shear demand and the torsion demand on the section.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Reinforcement bar zones in a beam The cut-off points should be calculated by the engineer (beyond the P. The stirrup separation is given for three lengths along the member: the first 25%. U indicates that stirrups can be open. Stirrup spacing This is the maximum allowable stirrup separation for each zone.

even if this moment occurred somewhere other than the center of the beam. T is the maximum torsion moment. Length The length of the beam. The Mmax and Mmin values shown reflect the moment that the steel was designed for. This moment is the maximum moment for all load conditions and it is the value used to design the critical reinforcing. A more detailed output of the reinforcing can be obtained in the detailer described next. Mmax/min. Note. Open stirrups are assumed to only carry shear forces parallel to axis 2. 362 . Screen Display of Reinforcement To obtain a schematic layout of your beam and column bars select the concrete members and select the button of the Model properties toolbar. V. when no inflection point exists the A. and T Mmax and Mmin show the maximum and minimum values of bending moments about axis 3.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design (a) Closed stirrups ([]) (b) Open stirrups (U) An open stirrup should be placed as shown in the figure. The display will indicate the correct layout of the longitudinal bars in the currently selected members.cent (normally top steel) will contain the area of reinforcing required over the full length of the member. These are the true location of reinforcing bars in those sections selected. V is the maximum shear force parallel to axis 2.

As in all the detailing modules for reinforced concrete. materials and reinforcement and the program verifies the condition of the beam for the specified loads. As this module is most likely to be used to generate structural drawings. the engineer should enter the true dimensions. Data Screen The initial screen that appears in the detailer is the data screen. the design is faced as a trial and error process. This screen allows you to modify materials. This module is invoked by selecting one or more reinforced concrete beams located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete Beam from the menu bar. 363 . This screen allows you to modify the dimensions that were used in the analysis to match actual conditions.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the concrete beam design/detailing module to design and detail a reinforced concrete member. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. The toolbar button allows the engineer to select which load conditions the detailer will consider for design. where the user input the geometry. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. The four areas outlined above are described in detail below. sections and geometry of the structure to match real world conditions. Sometimes dimensional modifications are made in the analysis phase to model more accurately the true structural behavior. it appears as shown in the following figure.

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design

Item A

Selects the moment frame type. Moment frame: [Ordinary/Intermediat See the notes above on the design and detailing e/Special]: implications of this action. Clear Cover: Distance from edge of section to outer edge of stirrups.

Modulus of elasticity, Concrete and reinforcing f’c, Fy, Specific material properties. Weight: Static load case during It is the design static earthquake gravitational load that simultaneously acts during the earthquake (only for Intermediate and Special moment frames)

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Item B

Note that this column can be moved relative to the axis used in the analysis program. By clicking on the word Center (Figure on the left) and changing it to Left, the column is now located to the left of the gridline (Figure on the right). In addition, by selecting the 2ft dimension of the column (left figure) it can be modified (see 2.5ft dimension on the right figure). Remember that all text in red can be modified. Item C

By selecting the word Rectangular (left figure), the section can be changed to a T or L section as shown in the right hand figure. To change a dimension click on the text and edit appropriately. Once the section geometry is finalized, the design screen can be viewed.

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Item D the spreadsheet

The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement, and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. It is active in the Data Screen, Design screen and in the Detailing Screen. The spreadsheet is divided in three pages, the first one called Bars has the data to define the longitudinal reinforcement, the second one, Stirrups, has the information required to define the stirrups and the last one, Sections, the location of the cross sections. Bars The data needed to define the longitudinal reinforcement are:

Group: Bar:

The group number of a set of bars with a specific geometry. The bar size designation. Top: Flag that determines if the reinforcement goes on the top (1) or at the bottom (0) of the beam. Level: Flag used to define if the reinforcement will be continuous (0) or discontinuous (1). Axis1: The axis from which the start point of the group of bars is measured. Dist1: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the start point relative to the Axis1. Hook1: Flag that determines if the bars start with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Qnty: The number of bars.

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Axis2: The axis from which the end point of the group of bars is measured. Dist2: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the end point relative to Axis2. Hook2: Stirrups: The data required for the definition of the stirrups are: Flag that determines if the bars end with (1) or without (0) a standard hook.

Stirrup: Bar:

The group of stirrups.

Span: Span number where the group of stirrups will be located. The bar size designation. The spacing between stirrups. # spa: The number of spaces in the group. This parameter indirectly defines the number of stirrups. # of legs: The number of vertical stirrup legs to resist shear. Closed: Sections: The engineer can stipulate at which location/s along the beam they wish to obtain a cross-section. Flag that determines if the stirrup is closed hoop (1). Spacing:

The cross section locations are defined with the following parameters: Axis: The axis from which the location of the cross section is to be measured. Dist: The distance (positive to the right or negative to the left) of the cross section relative to the specified axis. Typically, it will not be necessary to enter each bar individually into the beam. There are several tools that you can use to automatically determine the required reinforcement. Enter reinforcement:

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Displays a dialog window to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement of the beam. All the parameters are defined by the user. Suggest reinforcement: RAM Advanse suggests longitudinal and transverse reinforcement based on the bar size designation entered by the user in a dialog window. The reinforcing calculated is based only on the member forces at the columns and beam mid-spans. Enter continuous reinforcement: This tool is used to define the continuous longitudinal reinforcement of the beam, either top or the bottom. These bars will run the full length of the beam. Enter top reinforcement at axes: This tool is used to define the top discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement that will be defined at the supports. Enter bottom reinforcement: This tool is used to define the discontinuous longitudinal reinforcement at the bottom in the mid-span region of the beams. Splice bars at (% of L): This tool is used to define the location of the required bar splices of longitudinal reinforcement. Bars will be spliced at the specified distance if they are longer than the maximum bar length. This tool will only work for spans that are less than 75% of the maximum bar length. Enter 0% if you want the splices located at the span supports or enter 50% if you want the splices located at midspan. The user should always check the generated bars. Note that only the bars that need splices will be affected. The spliced bars will still be treated as single bars for selection. The splice length considered in this tool is for class B splices where the maximum percent of reinforcement spliced within required lap length is 100. The user can reduce manually the lap length for class A splices. Enter stirrups: This tool is used to define the transverse reinforcement along the spans of the beam.

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Design Screen

The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design data. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam. Note that two diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time, thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (demand) curve. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the load condition selected. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition.

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Warning! It is the engineers responsibility to review the required steel with respect to the provided steel to confirm that sufficient capacity is provided by the bars shown. This is best viewed in the design screen and the report of the RC Beam Detailer where the design against the nominal moments or the design shear forces against the nominal shear forces can be visually displayed. In some circumstances, the area of required steel may exceed the provided. This will most often happen at the end of a member where there is not sufficient length to develop the bars that are required for moments at the face of the column-beam joint. Item A The figure below is for the design moments in the beam. Note that the maximum negative moment is located at the face of the column that coincides with the start point of the diagram. The diagrams are always displayed from face to face of columns. Measurements are shown from the face-of-column to the controlling inflection points. Note that the envelope diagrams consider only the selected load conditions.

By clicking on the title of the diagram (in red), the user has the option of changing the diagram to any of the following:

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The Deflection, Moments, Shear, and Torsional moments are all dependent on the currently selected load condition. The other options are displayed and calculated for the selected load conditions. It is particularly important to view the envelope for design bending moments and the nominal bending moments. The last diagram illustrates the increase of section capacity over the development length of the longitudinal bars. As such the engineer can determine whether the strength of the beam is enough to resist the design moments over any length of the beam (particularly in the development zone of the bars). Item B the Spreadsheet The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Detailing Screen

The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the beam. Both longitudinal and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. Note that the user can only define the

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reinforcement and the localization of the cross sections in the figure, but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside RAM Advanse. Item A

To display the reinforcing takeoff and lengths, click on the word Detailing and select ‘List’. Note that the fine control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet. To edit one or certain groups of bars, they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected, they are shown in blue and the bars not selected in light gray:

Item B
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The spreadsheet is identical to that explained in the data screen. Note. - If you click on a group of bars on the screen they will be selected and listed in the spreadsheet on the left of the screen. These bars can then be manipulated as required.

Configuration Screen

This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. The items considered are described in the table below. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99. The only option available for the moment. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear, torsion and detailing. Affects the development length of bars
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of bars. The ratio of reinforcement Rho Ratio between maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho. ACI 10.3.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8.4.1 of the Code.

Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars. The user shall between consider section 7.6 of the Code. reinforcement Round bar length to Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch, foot etc.

Estimated distance This is the distance, which is added to the clear cover (see of clear cover to bar group centroid data screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. Delta X for each solution The increment at which design checks are performed. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment, shear) along the beam. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. This option allows the user to manipulate the spacing of the

Horizontal tick spacing for text
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spacing for text

tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. Applies the specification given in section 11.1.3.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. A normal value is 40 ft.

Reduce Vu near column face

Maximum bar length

Report of reinforced concrete beams
By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen, the report screen of reinforced concrete beams will be displayed. The screen is shown next:

Report screen of reinforced concrete beams. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report, see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The report of reinforced concrete beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. At the top the general information that are common to all the selected members of the beam is displayed. This section is followed by the data that is particular to each member of the beam. In the general information section, the user can find the loading conditions, the moment frame and the properties of the materials.

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Each member is divided in 10 equal lengths and thus 11 stations are considered in the verification of the bar layout. Example of the flexural verification diagram. etc. In the specific data section for each member of the beam the user can find the geometry. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. the initial spacing of stirrups. The results are divided in two sections. the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. 376 . In this way. One particular feature is the graphic layout of the bar pattern with the position and number of each group of bars. namely a flexural and a shear/torsion section. the reinforcement and some design parameters such as the clear cover. All diagrams are drawn from face-of-column to face-of-column. Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. The status of the different stations are graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design General information displayed in the report of reinforced concrete beams. Example of the graphic layout presented for the adopted reinforcement of the beam.

6. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. In this case. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station.Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design Note that the report indicates the spacing of bars required to meet cracking controls of the beam as specified in ACI 10. the purpose is to get members with shear strength greater than the maximum probable bending capacity of the member. 377 . The actual spacing of the bars as currently laid out is also indicated. in order to avoid a brittle failure of the member.4. This spacing is calculated considering the dimensions of the following figure: The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. Most of the seismic considerations given on chapter 21 of the Code are taken into account (see previous section for exceptions).

Chapter 24: Reinforced Concrete Beam Design ACI 318-99 Beam Design Flowcharts 378 .

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This is done by assigning the appropriate section to the various elements. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. To assign a concrete section to a member.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns This section describes the provisions of the reinforced concrete column design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. As such members must be identified as either a beam or a column if they are to be appropriately designed. Assigning concrete sections to the members If you want to create a new section. Identifying the columns for design RAM Advanse performs different designs on beams and columns. you should select a Template for beams or columns as it is illustrated in the next figure: 391 . ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). Note that the columns can be rectangular or circular in shape. Each Reinforced Concrete Section is implicitly either a Beam or Column section. and new sections (and materials) can be created as described in the Chapter on Creating Sections and Materials. select the members graphically and proceed as shown in the figure below.

but rather the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral load. The tool buttons below the spreadsheet can be used to set the braced flag automatically for all the currently selected members. 392 . Likewise. These include the sidesway flag. Column Design Parameters Several design parameters should be input during the modeling phase. Acceptable values are 0 and 1. This setting has nothing to do with the member-unbraced length.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The creation of new sections is described in more detail in Chapter of Creating Sections and Materials. The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). as is described in the detailer section. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘minor axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. The Braced2 refers to the member being braced against sidesway in (parallel to) the 2 axis. The engineer will be able to modify some of these parameters from within the column detailer. The parameters are considered in the design as described in the Technical Notes Section. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the strong axis of the member. the effective length factor and the member axial unbraced length. Braced Against Sidesway Flag To enter the required design parameters select the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab.

Effective Length (K) Factor The effective length (K) factor for each column should be entered. A spreadsheet value of 0.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Determine if each member is part of a sway frame (braced=0) or non-sway (braced=1) frame. Likewise. Cm22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis Cm or Cmy). The K value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet. As discussed in the technical section this value is important when considering whether slenderness should be considered in the design of the column. K22 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis K or Ky). Calculate or enter the effective length factors (K) for columns. as they affect the calculated K.0 will always result in a K of 1. Likewise. The engineer can use the toolbar button to set the Cm value to 0. this value is important when calculating the member local-stability moment-magnifier (Lamda ns). A spreadsheet value of 0.0 will result in Cm being calculated based on the actual moments of each load combination. Note that if using the nomograph the sidesway (braced2 and braced3) flags should be set first. Note that Cm33 is for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis Cm or Cmx). alternatively the engineer can use the toolbar buttons below the spreadsheet to automatically calculate the K factors from a nomograph. 393 . As discussed in the technical section. Note that K33 is the effective length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis K or Kx). Local Member Stability (Cm) Factor The local member stability (Cm) Factor can be entered for each column.0 being used in the program. The Cm value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the Reinforced Concrete Design toolbar button under the members design tab.0 for all currently selected members.

These values represent the unbraced length between lateral supports that the program will consider in the design. A spreadsheet value of 0. The L22 and L33 value can be entered directly by the engineer in the spreadsheet in the General Design Parameters toolbar button under the members design tab. you can enter the unsupported lengths between lateral supports (L33 and L22). 394 . L22 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 2-2 axis (often called minor axis L or Luy). However. If necessary. Analysis Before proceeding with column design. It is suggested that all user design parameters be applied in the model prior to invoking the detailer. Important: All of the design parameters described above can be modified in the detailer. Note that L33 is the unbraced length for bending ABOUT the 3-3 axis (often called major axis L or Lux). The analysis should consider the reduction in moment of inertia (cracked section factor) prescribed by the design code.0 will result in L being calculated based on the distance between the nodes of the member. Likewise. the model should be analyzed appropriately. note that the Cb and Lb columns in the spreadsheet are not used in concrete design. Also. and where applicable a second order analysis should be performed as described below. A zero value means that it is equal to the member length between nodes. modifications made in the detailer will not be reflected back in the model.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cm) Unbraced Member Length (L) The engineer can modify the unbraced length for axial load capacity (and slenderness) calculations.

Assign the suggested inertia reduction factors (cracked section factors) for beams and columns. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Cracked Section Factors To accurately analyze a concrete structure it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to the beams and column of the model. a value of 1. the results obtained from doing so should not differ significantly from that of a first order analysis. ACI Technical Notes The column design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 395 . Acceptable values are 0. The toolbar buttons can be used to automatically enter values of 0. the ACI318-99 section 10-11 recommends 0.7 (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) for the currently selected members. The second order analysis is recommended as no moment magnification is performed in the design stage (Refer to the technical notes section). A second order P-Delta analysis should be performed before entering the column detailer module. While technically there is no need to perform a second order analysis for a structure braced against sidesway.4). For example.0.0 is used in the analysis.0 to 1. Second Order Analysis To analyze the structure and perform concrete design it is necessary to perform a second order analysis. Note that if 0.13.35 and 0.0 is entered. This is particularly important in the calculation of sway frames according to ACI318-99 (10. The values can be entered directly into the Ig factor column in the spreadsheet as shown in the figure below.7 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for columns.

• Slenderness effects The Code specifies that the slenderness effects in columns should be considered by performing either section 10.13) due to the deformation of the whole structure. φ = 0.2 is implemented in the program. The strain of concrete is proportional to the distance to the neutral axis.10. The stress-strain diagram for the steel is elasto-plastic. the calculation is done in a similar way with the specified strength of the concrete. of the ACI. P-∆ is addressed through the end moment magnification factor (ACI-99 10.10.12). The stress in the reinforcement is calculated based on the strain of the centroid of each reinforcement bar. The P-( effect is addressed through the local moment magnification (ACI-99 Section 10.003 The compression force of the concrete is calculated using the equivalent rectangular block of forces proposed by Whitney. whichever is smaller. to zero. the cracking effect and other global non-linear factors. For intermediate cases. then it remains constant. • If the reinforcement is less than 1% (the minimum suggested reinforcement ratio). All the moments are in reference to the geometric centroid of the section. displaying a warning message.3.9 in axial tension. integrating the compression area. 10.10.1 is a non-elastic fully second order analysis that is not available in Ram-Advanse and therefore. φ shall be permitted to be increased linearly to 0.7 in axial compression. which means that the stress of the steel has a linear variation up to the yielding point. 396 . The nominal strength of a section is calculated with the following strength reduction factors: φ = 0.90 as φ*Pn decreases from 10*fc’*Ag or φ*Pb. or axial tension with flexure.10. The strength reduction factors used are in accordance with 9. not considering the reinforcement. Design of longitudinal reinforcement The longitudinal reinforcement is designed to resist both biaxial bending and axial loads. This method divides the second order effect into two parts: a structure second order effect (P-∆) and a member local stability effect (p-().Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement E = 29000 ksi. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for column design. or axial compression with flexure. Maximum concrete strain εmax = 0. 10.2 of the Code.1 or 10. The tension strength of the concrete is neglected. The following assumptions have been made: • • • • • • • • • Strength Design Theory.

taking into account the inertia reduction factors suggested in 10. The P-( is not considered in the analysis (even second order) and is therefore approximated following the procedure described in ACI-99 10. The user has the responsibility to decide if the columns belong to a sway or non-sway frame.1.1 can be helpful to decide whether the members of the frame should be considered braced against sidesway. The criterion stated in 10.11. The flow charts attached to the end of this chapter indicate the algorithm used to consider the slenderness effects. For sway frames this procedure is performed if equation 10-20 is exceeded. the cracked section factors should be modified by (1 + βd) as described in the ACI-99. Thus it is assumed that an elastic second order analysis has been performed.10. This procedure is used on braced frame members if ACI-99 equation 10-8 is exceeded.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Important: The Code states that columns with k*lu/r >100 need to be designed according to 10.11. This is not currently performed in the program and only a warning will be issued. The P-∆ effects for columns subject to sidesway are automatically obtained from the analysis results.1.4. The moments M1 and M2 at the ends of the column are therefore obtained directly from the analysis without performing ACI-99 Equations (10-16) and (10-17). 397 .12. If the user wants to consider sustained lateral loads.

If Pu > Plim then the capacity of the column will be reduced to the Plim value. As illustrated in the attached flowcharts. Details of how the shear design is performed are given in the attached flow charts.1. the required reinforcement area (As) is calculated using an exact determination of the axial-moment (P-M) interaction limits of the column design. The program also checks if the adopted reinforcement area is within the maximum and minimum allowed reinforcement limits prescribed by the code or set by the user. The demand or capacity ratio for the current load is defined as the ratio between the distances o-s and o-c of the interaction diagram. This procedure uses the true (full) section properties. if subject to axial tension. Note that phi is defined for Mu and Pu values. This methodology used to determine the true P-M limits involves a trial and adjustment procedure for establishing moment equilibrium.1. The demand or capacity ratio is defined as the ratio between the current loads acting on the column divided by the strength reduction factor (phi) and the nominal capacity (axial or bending moments) that are illustrated in the following figure. calculated with the interaction function. The program considers the maximum factored shear forces (Vu). The governing condition for bending is defined as the condition with the highest demand ratio. but torsion is neglected in the design of the stirrups (option to suggest reinforcement). which vary in the order of 20% in relation to the ones. RAM Advanse assumes that the interaction equation varies linearly between the condition with pure tension load and the condition with pure bending. The shear forces in both axes are considered. is taken according to Equation (11-8).Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Bending design Having determined the magnified moments (the required design moments). This may produce smaller Mn values. It calculates also the nominal moments of the section with the adopted reinforcement and determines if the section is able to resist the imposed moments. and the rebar pattern entered by the user in the Data Screen. which are located a distance d from the face support of the column according to 11. The nominal shear strength of the column. Interaction diagram of a column.3. In the calculation of the nominal moment with tension forces. 398 . Shear design Shear design is performed according to Chapter 11 of the Code. this involves both shifting and rotating the neutral axis to obtain equilibrium.

Significantly more output is available in the Detailing module discussed in the next section. bending moment about axis 3 (major axis). F axial. and he or she can view the reinforcing in their concrete members. while in the detailing module.5 of the code for special moment frames. This will provide a single line of output as shown below for all the rectangular and circular concrete columns currently selected. In the main program the engineer can obtain a text summary design output. are. Col Numb. the axial force. It is the column number in the model. negative means compression. the exact reinforcement distribution and geometry are taken into account in the calculations.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Special provisions for seismic design The user can specify the type of moment frame for each design (see the Detailer section): • • • Ordinary moment frame where no special considerations are taken into account.10. M22 These are the forces corresponding to the governing load condition.4. This section of the code specifies that the shear design has to be performed based on the flexural resistance of columns. A positive axial force means tension. Intermediate moment frame where structures with intermediate seismic performance are considered.Reinforced Concrete Design menu item. M33. the engineer can view a text summary of column output for the currently selected columns by clicking on the Reports . and M22. 399 . This is because in the main program output. This version of the program considers all the requirements given in section 21. . F axial. M33. respectively. Special moment frame where structures with high seismic performance are included.4. An example of this output is shown in the figure below. and the column headings of the table are described below: Important: some differences may appear between the results obtained with Reports/Reinforced concrete design and Detailing /Concrete columns.4 for special moment frames.5 for intermediate moment frames and according to 21. The length (Lo) measured from the joint face and the maximum tie spacing for this length (So) is calculated according to 21. the reinforcement distribution is not known and an assumed distribution is considered. and bending moment about axis 2 (minor axis) for the load condition that gives the greatest reinforcement area. Refer to the list of load combinations shown at the top of the output. The attached flow charts show the details of the sections that are considered in the verification. Output Two forms of concrete columns design output are available to the engineer in the program. Load Load is the number of the load condition that resulted in the largest area of reinforcing. Report Output After an analysis.

Screen Display of Reinforcement In columns the position of the reinforcement bars is very important. Refer to the column design/detailing module for consideration of shear demand on the design. 400 . min This is the minimum reinforcement area required by the design code.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns A. Important: Tie separation does not consider the shear demand on the column. only the detailing code requirements. The column should at a minimum use the larger of A. required This is the computed required longitudinal reinforcement area. Shear and torsion demand are not considered in this separation. An error message will appear if the required steel is larger than the maximum reinforcement area that is allowed by the code. Text summary of reinforced concrete column design Length This is the length of the column. A. To view the position of the reinforcement (as shown in the figure below) select the desired columns graphically and press from the toolbar. Circular sections are not considered in this report. Tie Spacing This is the maximum separation allowed between stirrups due to geometric considerations and code prescriptive detailing requirements. Note however that the area should never be less than the minimum reinforcement area required by the code. but do not reflect any detailing changes made in the concrete detailing module. A. BxH The width and depth of the adopted rectangular section for each member. max This is the maximum area of steel allowed in this section. Reqd and A. Min. The reinforcement shown represents the true location of the reinforcing bars that were required for the design.

401 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Screen display of the reinforcing in the column and beams.

Data Screen The first screen viewed in the detailer is the data screen. The engineer can use this reinforcing or can modify it as desired. The module will provide suggested reinforcing when the module is invoked. section geometry. and also the ability to produce column detailing for design documents. This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. The user can modify these as illustrated below. design parameters and load data can all be modified.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Concrete Column Design/Detailing Module This section describes the options available in the column detailer to design columns subject to axial forces and bending moments. 402 . Note that the section and load data has all been read in from the modeled structure. On entry into the designer/detailer the program will provide reinforcing in the cross sections. Note that the first tie spacing Sini has to be < So/2. From this screen the material properties. The engineer should provide an appropriate model and design parameters before implementing an analysis in RAM Advanse. Following a successful analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design of their concrete columns. Refer to Chapter of Reinforced Concrete Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within the concrete design/detailing modules. The data screen. The engineer can then invoke the designer/detailing module by selecting one or more columns located in a straight line and selecting Detailing/Reinforced Concrete columns from the menu bar.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Note that when section data is modified in this screen it is copied up the column line. The screen can be subdivided in four areas outlined above. They only exist for that invocation of the detailing module. Therefore. changes do not have to be made to each column up the column line. it is important to begin the column modifications from the lowest level and work up. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design. However. These are described in detail below. The data screen can be divided into four areas as described below. if properties change up the column. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in this screen. The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button. Important: Changes to the physical model made in the designer/detailer are NOT transferred back to the model in RAM Advanse. Item A 403 .

404 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns General parameters for the whole column line.

01.003) Block stress The reduction factor for the depth of Profile. The moment frame type affects the maximum reinforcement ratio. fy. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. the spacing between ties and the bar splices. Note that ACI-99 (10. t ratio The maximum Rho that the section can Maximum reinforcemen obtain before it fails code prescribed limits. The Code Minimum reinforcemen suggests 0. eu The maximum allowed strain in the concrete (0. Type of splices: [Tangential/ Offset/ Bearing] Used to calculate the spacing between bars in the splice zones.85) 1 405 .0. f’c. Refer to ACI-99 12.15.60 For sway-frames: the ratio of the maximum factored sustained shear within a story to the maximum factored shear in that story. unit weight: Beta D: Classification according to ACI-31899. Clear cover to longitudinal bars (not to transverse reinforcement).1). Suggested and default value: 0. The minimum specified Rho. normally equal to 0.06 for special moment frames (ACI-99 21.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Moment frame [Ordinary/ Intermediate/ Special]: Clear Cover Modulus of elasticity.08 for ordinary or intermediate moment frames and 0.4. See figure below.1. Beta the equivalent block stress in the concrete (0.3. For non-sway frames: the ratio of the maximum factored axial sustained load to the maximum factored axial load associated for the same load combination.9.1) t ratio: suggests a Rho of 0.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Tangential lap splices Item B Offset lap splices Bearing lap splices Types of splices considered by the program Geometric characteristics of the column can be set in this area. Column elevation Move the column position in relation to the axis 406 . Refer to the following diagrams for what information can be changed.

The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column. Beam dimensions are NOT automatically read in from the structural model. Item C Section information is modified in this area. 407 . The floor names can be changed but they are not saved between invocations of the designer/detailer module.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Modify the height between floors starting from the lowest level Modify the beam dimensions starting from the lowest level.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Member section information. The engineer can modify any data related to the dimensions and reinforcement of the column. 408 . These are not transferred back to the original analytical model. Zoom fence on a particular column Select the column type (circular or rectangular).

Enter the dimensions. If it is highlighted in yellow it means that it is larger than Max Rho/2. Typically a tension splice should be assumed. This option tells the program if the splices are to be tension or compression splices.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns There are two types of sections available: Rectangular and Circular. The actual reinforcement ratio is displayed for reference: If the value is highlighted in red it means that the actual reinforcement ratio is less than Min Rho or larger than Max Rho. the diameter of the bars and number of bars. Remember to start from the lowest level if you want to have data automatically copied up. 409 . Enter Yes if none of the load combinations results in any of the bars going into tension.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The user can input the initial spacing of the first tie. This spacing is applied to the top as well as to the bottom of the column.5. Enter the desired tie spacing.2) is also displayed for reference. The entry will be highlighted in yellow if it is larger than the maximum spacing.10. The maximum code prescribed (allowed) tie spacing for column detailing (per 7. 410 . Note how the program considers the initial spacing when there are beams with different heights. Initial spacing of ties (Sini).

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Enter the number of legs in each direction for the transverse reinforcement. The spacing between longitudinal bars is shown as reference to help the user in the selection of the number of cross ties required for transverse reinforcement. Item D 411 . However. over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. the spacing between bars is shown and the user can perform this verification by inspection.10. measured from joint face along the axis of the column. Lo is the minimum length. In the case of intermediate or special moment frames. Note that the program does not verify the ACI-99 code specification (7.5) requiring that at least alternate longitudinal bars must be braced and that no bar must be more than 6 in from a braced bar. the user is required to specify Lo and So.

Effective length factors for bending about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) A factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram. Refer to the sheet below and the Technical Notes section for the impact of these parameters on the design. Any changes made here will not be reflected back in the model when the detailer is closed.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Forces and data related to the slenderness of the column. These parameters are read from the model for each column. ] 412 . Lu: Unsupported length for bending about axes 33 (major axis bending) and 22 (minor axis bending). The engineer can modify the data required for the design of slender columns. If Cm = 0 the program will automatically calculate the appropriate value suggested by the Code based on end moments for each load combination. K: Cm Sway Enter Yes for sway frames and No for non[Yes/No sway frames.

only in the structural analysis. 413 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ] Ic/Ig It is not used in the design. It is provided as a reminder of the value used during the analysis for this column.

including the slenderness effects.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Design Screen The second button on the toolbar is the design button. This value represents the maximum of the area required for strength purposes and that .6. The Status is shown in green when it is O. Bar clear The clear spacing between bars in the spacing in splice zone. The Code specifies that this value shall not be less than the smaller of splices 1.5in (ACI-99 7.K and in red otherwise. Item A The design results of the column. This button displays the design results.5 times the bar diameter or 1. Ac: Splice length Area of the concrete section The required splice length. The text in parenthesis indicates whether a tension or compression splice was specified. Design screen.3) As required 414 The maximum required area of steel.

12) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section.5). Euler’s critical load for a slender column (ACI-99 10. 10. Ig* refers to the cracked section moment of inertia used in the analysis. Sway K Klu/r Pc Ig Item B Item B shows the proportion of the mobilized strength of the column for each load combination. Negative loads are in compression and positive loads are in 415 . Pu Axial load of the controlling load combination. Ratio between the required reinforcement ratio and the provided reinforcement ratio. and does not consider the minimum Rho limit from the data screen.13. K is the effective length factor. This value is shown in red when it is larger than one.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns prescribed by the code as a minimum allowed (Rho min). The value must be equal or less than one to be acceptable. lu is the unsupported length and r is the radius of gyration of the cross section. Asreq/Aspro Ratio between the required v reinforcement area and the provided area. ACI-99 10. Rho required is the As required divided by the member area.2. This variable show if the frame was specified as a sway frame (Yes) or as a non-sway frame (No) Effective length factor about axes 33 (Kx) and 22 (Ky) This value is used to determine if frame columns are permitted to ignore slenderness effects (P-(.12. The As required is based purely on the area of steel required to meet demand. As provided Rho req/Rho prov Provided reinforcement area.

Refer to the technical notes section for more information. Remark: The additional moment magnification required to account for structural lateral load drift is implicit through the mandatory second order (PDelta) analysis. Cm22 These show the calculated or the engineer specified values. dns33. 416 . Cm33. Mc22 Factored bending moments used for design. Phi Strength reduction factor calculated for the critical station of the considered load combination. These consider the slenderness of the column when necessary Mc = Mu*dns. Mc33.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns tension. dns22 Moment magnification factor to reflect the effect of member curvature between ends of a compression member. This is based on the member end moments if not specified by the engineer.

over which transverse reinforcement must be provided with a minimum spacing of So. So given by the user. It will be shown in red if it is larger than the calculated Sini.4.K. measured from joint face along the axis of the column. Calculated S The maximum spacing allowed for ties. For circular columns the resultant Vu is shown. This spacing should be equal or less than the allowed spacing. Provided Sini Calculated Sini Provided So (*) Calculated So (*) Provided Lo (*) Calculated Lo (*) Initial tie spacing given by the user. Initial tie spacing calculated as being required by the program. It will be shown in red if it is smaller than Allowed Lo Minimum length.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Item C Shear design. Provided S The spacing provided by the engineer. The Status is shown in green when it is O. Lo given by the user.4.4 Factored shear force for the controlling load condition. ACI 21. It is only required for intermediate or special moment frames. It will be shown in red if it is greater than the calculated So Maximum allowed spacing of transverse reinforcement for intermediate or special moment frames in the Lo zone. The program calculates the maximum spacing required to resist shear and considers the code prescribed limits on reinforcement spacing. 417 Vu .

Nominal shear strength (concrete + reinforcement) Vs Vn 418 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Vc Nominal shear strength provided by concrete for the controlling load condition. Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.

W. To access to this screen press the button 419 . “Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake and Wind Forces” PCA Publications. 1995 ISBN 0-89312-098-7 (page 369)].. A. Configuration Screen This screen allows the user to establish standards and control over the design and details calculated by the program. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. As such it is the number of bars in the middle of the column that show in the elevation. S. A column with 4 vertical bars on all sides will still only show two vertical bars in the elevation view [Ghosh. and the elevation with the reinforcing bars that are required per the previous screen design.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the typical section of the column for each floor. These are saved between invocations of the module. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. Note that the user can change the axis that the elevation is viewed from by selecting the appropriate axis in the data screen. Note that the common practice in detailing dictates that the elevation is drawn through the middle part of the column. K. Domel A. Fanella D. and not the exterior bars.

Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module and should be set before the detailing is viewed. 420 .Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Configuration screen. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete columns. the report screen of reinforced concrete columns will be displayed. Concrete Type Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. Used for rounding down the spacing between ties Used to round-up the length of splices Epoxy Coated Round spacing to closest Round splices to closest Report of reinforced concrete columns By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report. Affects the development length of bars. Refer to the table below.

This is followed by specific information on each column. the type of moment frame and the properties of the materials. the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33. the reinforcement. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed. Information specific to a column in the column line. the design parameters and the forces at both ends of the column corresponding to the selected loading conditions.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns The top section of the report contains data that is common to all the selected members. The fs/fy ratio for the critical bar in tension is also included to compare the basic limits of the interaction diagram with the value obtained for the point: 421 . the user can find the loading conditions. In this version of RAM Advanse. In the specific data section for each column. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. In the general data section. the user can find the geometry. General data displayed in the report of reinforced concrete columns.

Sini and the length Lo are shown in the report (for a detailed description of these variables.Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns Basic limits with known fs/fy ratios that may be compared with the fs/fy ratio obtained for the current load acting on the column. Report screen with all the information regarding shear design. 422 . which will determine the governing loading condition for the biaxial compression design. see the table in the Design Screen section of this chapter). All the seismic considerations given on Chapter 21 of the Code are considered. Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the biaxial compression design. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. The biggest capacity ratio will be the one. So. All the tie spacing like S.

Chapter 25: Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns ACI 318-99 Column Design Flowcharts 423 .

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) located at The first button calculates the minimum dimensions of the base to accomplish with the soil allowable stress. Design Steps Soil-footing-structure modeling Before proceeding with footing design. The base and depth dimensions should be defined separately. These verifications are realized in the design and detailing module. Adopted dimensions The next step is determining the basic dimensions for the footing geometry.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This section describes the provisions of the isolated. The input data for modeling is described in: Foundation Spring Modeling Tools. refer to appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction – Theory at the end of this chapter. or where the dynamic properties of the structure are influenced by soil-structure interaction. For more details about the basic concepts for soil-footing-structure modeling and how to use this tool. They can be calculated with 2 buttons ( the top of the detailing module screen. Verifications The check of the overall stability against sliding. The currently implemented American Concrete Institute Code is: • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. with the recommended methods by RAM Advanse to model the soil-structure interaction and their implications in footing design: adopted dimensions and verifications. overturning and soil bearing capacity is the last step. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999). together with the design of the required longitudinal reinforcement. and make an approximation to the depth based on service loads with an overall load factor of 1. the model should be analyzed appropriately. Technical Notes The footing design in RAM Advanse incorporates the latest requirements of: 441 . A soil-structure analysis should consider appropriate soil springs for all the situations that include eccentric columns (columns that are not located at the center of a footing). The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the applied shear forces without reinforcement. The analysis should consider the soil-structure interaction where appropriate. reinforced concrete footing-design code as implemented by RAM Advanse. according to isolate footing to use.6 (This factor may be changed).

Loads In accordance to Chapter 15 of the Code.50 Overturning at the bottom edge of the footing (point O) 442 . If this soil is permanent (i. according to the applicable code. Pp = passive earth pressure H Horizontal load acting on the foundation. When calculating the soil pressures the weight of the footing and fill is considered. that is. The engineer can consider some or all load combinations when performing the design. see design/detail module).Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing • The 1999 American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Service load conditions can also be used to verify soil stresses and settlements (Item B of the Design Screen. The footing is assumed to be infinitely rigid. However. see design/detail module). Fr = base friction and adhesion. overturning and soil bearing capacity Any isolated shallow foundation must have stability against: Sliding: produced by the lateral forces acting on the footing base. Analysis A numerical method is adopted to find the stress distribution in the soil.67 For cohesion = 0. Overall stability against sliding. the soil stress distribution below the footing is assumed to be linear. the footings should be designed to resist the factored loads and induced reactions (Item A of the Design Screen. covered by pavement or a sidewalk) it may be included to produce the passive pressure. For estimating the passive pressure and the soil bearing capacity the following reduction coefficients are suggested (and used as default values): For friction angle = 0. which can be represented by the modulus of subgrade reaction (ks). Any passive earth pressure developed by the soil in front of the foundation will help against the slide forward. SFsliding=(Fr+Pp)/H Where: SFsliding= Safety factor against sliding. All load combinations (factored and service) need to be generated by the engineer.e. Due to the numerical integration method used values such as soil pressures may differ by up to 3% from the exact solutions. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999) This section describes how these provisions are implemented in RAM Advanse for footing design. only the applied loads are considered when performing design of the footing. This method considers the soil as an elastic material.

Bearing capacity failure or allowable bearing pressure Please consider that the allowable soil pressure for a footing takes into account both bearing capacity and settlements. Eccentricity and inclined loading correction factors may not be used simultaneously and the factors not used are unity. inclined loading. which affects the effective soil unit weight and pressures. Wc=weight of the foundation. However. It is not advisable to have the eccentricity of the resultant out of the central middle third of the foundation (kern) because this can produce differential settlement that tilts the foundation. Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. The differences are mainly in the correction factors. Free downloadable on /www. 1995 2) USA Corps of Engineers. M = overturning moment and x distance to the overturning edge. Any method for obtaining the bearing capacity is just an estimate and can be adopted depending on the engineers’ judgement or familiarity with the method. Ws=weight of the soil over the foundation. for a better approximation. Mc Graw Hill.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals 443 .army. etc). P Vertical load.Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905). 1992. For more information on the bearing capacity equations the user is referred to the following references 1) Bowles.usace. and foundation depth. Sometimes the allowable bearing pressure is already furnished to the user and can be considered directly. Meyerhof or Vesic (this option considers the loads acting on the footing and the specific conditions of their surroundings as ground slope. Additionally the depth of water table is taken into account. Only a uniform soil layer is considered. New York. he or she could use the included option to calculate the bearing capacity of shallow foundations with the equations proposed by Hansen. These three components are affected by correction factors due to foundation shape. the soil cohesion and the lateral pressure. Engineering and Design .. The bearing capacity calculation considers the wedge weight. if the engineer has enough soil information. load eccentricity. freatic level.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Overturning about the footing base involves taking the moment summation about point O. SFoverturning=(Wc+Ws+P)*x/M Where SFoverturning=Safety factor against overturning. Joseph E.

is not performed in RAM Advanse Foundation Spring Modeling Tools Once the user knows how these Code provisions are implemented for footing design. Although both development lengths (in tension and compression) are listed in the report. a) The maximum factored moment is calculated at critical sections located at the faces of the column assuming a concrete column. Important.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Design The strength design is performed considering both bending and shear. 444 .2 specifies a concentration of longitudinal reinforcing in a center band for rectangular footings. to resist uplift of a footing. Refer to the attached flowcharts and ACI318-99 for details of the design procedure implemented. it is recommendable to follow the procedure below for the Soil-footing-structure modeling (step 1) in foundation design. The figure notes below describe the location of critical sections used for design. ACI-99 section 15.4. b) the critical section used to consider punching shear at the perimeter columns is located at a distance d/2 from the column face.4. Both one and two-way shear is considered in the design. only one is considered to check if there is enough space. The length of dowels is calculated considering the splice length and the minimum development length necessary inside the footing taking into account the compression or tension in the bars. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement is always distributed uniformly across the entire width of the footing. The ‘column’ dimensions should be adjusted appropriately to consider a steel base plate. The development length in the footing is in accordance with Chapter 12 of the Code and the critical sections are the same as the ones adopted for bending. otherwise a standard hook is adopted. Top-of-footing (tension) reinforcing. When the dowels are only in compression (Splices in compression=Yes). this provision is only considered by the program for centered footings. the development length should be straight. a) One-way shear strength is verified taking a critical section at a distance d from the face of the column.

at the end of this chapter.Modulus of Subgrade Reaction: Select the type of soil that most closely matches that of your site. This selection is used to establish the footing modulus of sub-grade reaction. Dialog used to generate soil springs to model the Soil-Structure interaction. The basic concepts to use this tool are described in Appendix A. Select the radio button that best reflects the position of your column. By selecting ‘Use’ and entering a value. First.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The program has a special tool to help you with input data for footing modeling and determining the spring constants required to model the soil-structure interaction correctly. Column Position: To automatically calculate rigid offset lengths the program currently allows nine different column positions on the footing. to activate this functionality select the support nodes where the footing/s are to be located. Press the indicated button to model footings for the currently selected nodes The following dialog will appear. Soil Type . any modulus value can be entered. Spring Method: 445 . Press the footing button shown below to model the footing-soil springs.

P. σ 2 = N/(B*L) + 6*Mzz/(B2*L). tan θ = θ. one translation spring (kt) and two rotation springs (krxx. The two methods. pp. Kr assumes that the ks value is uniform throughout the area below the footing. thus krzz = ks*L*B3/12. direct and Taylor. kip/ft2/ft). The derivation of kr is as follows: Parameters affecting the rotation and the calculation of the spring constants.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing The footing is modeled with three springs. Vertical spring constant: kt = ks * B* L For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (δ2 .6*Mzz/(B2*L). Finally krzz = kt*B2/12 Taylor Method Taylor. ks = σ / δ Considering a conventional analysis of rigid footings the soil pressure can be computed from principles of mechanics of materials for combined bending and axial stresses: σ1 = N/(B*L) . W. There are two methods available to calculate the appropriate spring constants. From the definition of modulus of subgrade reaction. are described below. krzz). [Eqn II] Substituting Eqns II into Eqn I we get : θ = 12*Mzz/ks/(B3*L) And krzz = Mzz/θ.221-229 446 . Direct Method kt = ks * B* L krxx = ks*B*L3/12 krzz = ks*L*B3/12 Where ks is the modulus of subgrade reaction (Force/Area per Length Settlement e. On SMFE. Proc.g.δ1) / B Considering that θ is a small angle. (1967) “Design of Spread Footings For Earthquake Loadings”.δ1) / B [Eqn I] Stress in soil at edge of footing is moment/section modulus of footing = M*(B/2)/(L*B*B*B/12) = 6*M/(B2*L). so θ = (δ2 . 5th Australia-New Zealand Conference. Note that to clear the footing springs and rigid offset from an existing footing select the ‘Remove Springs’ option in this frame.

Taylor as referenced above. To invoke the Design/Detailing module select one or several nodes that will have the same footing. the program automatically calculates the required spring constants and rigid offsets to the geometric center of the footing. Using this modeling technique the engineer can easily implement and model a combined (strap) type footing as illustrated below. and taking into account the Vesic´s proposal relating ks with Es: ks = Es / (B*(1. This is all done in the Design/Detailing module. Analysis reactions are therefore calculated in the geometric center of the footing.µ2)). With the data provided. steps 2 and 3 (Adopted dimensions and verifications). W. For the rotation about axis zz: tan θ = (1-µ2)*Mzz*Iθ / (Es*B2*L) Where µ is the Poisson’s ratio. Thereby taking into account the effect of the footings’ vertical and rotational stiffness on the behavior of the structure. Data Screen Press the button to view the data screen that is the initial screen that appears in the detailer: 447 . tan θ = θ. Most of the soil parameters are incorporated into the modulus of subgrade reactions so that this is the only parameter entered by the user. future invocations of this dialog with the same node selected will not necessarily result in the correct data being displayed in the dialog. Considering that θ is a small angle. (a) Eccentric footing with a strap beam (b) Model to use in the analysis. go to the menu and select Detailing/Footings. the data is not transferred into the design/detailing module. Concrete Footing Design/Detailing Module Following a successful modeling and analysis the engineer has the ability to perform the design and detailing of their concrete footings. Es is the stress-strain modulus and Iθ is an influence factor which can be expressed as Iθ = 16 / (π*(1+0. RAM Advanse does not store this information with the node. This method calculates a rotational stiffness based on the soil properties and footing dimensions. thus krzz = ks*L*B3/Iθ Finally krzz = kt*B2/Iθ Although you provide the program with fundamental data on the footing and soil. Therefore.22*B/L)) for rigid footings. We get: θ = Iθ*Mzz / (B3*L) And krzz = Mzz / θ.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This method does not assume uniform soil stiffness below the footing but rather is based on studies performed by P. Furthermore. Refer to chapter of Detailing Modules for information about how to invoke and navigate within the design/detailing modules.

The dimensions will be calculated on this screen as described below. This screen allows you to modify material and load data. 448 . The three areas outlined above are described in detail below. as these values are currently not saved with the footing node. The footing dimensions are not read in from the model.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Data screen that allows you to change the material and loads on the footing. Note that the depressed button on the toolbar is that of the data screen. In this screen you can modify the column dimensions that were read in from the model.

unit weight Footing bar sizes (xx. This ill allo o to specif 449 Modulus of elasticity. Concrete and reinforcing material properties. This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. Reinforcement of the column. zz) Column tie bar size and tie spacing Show dowels[Yes/No] .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Item A General data Clear Cover Distance from edge of section to the outer edge of the longitudinal reinforcement. Fy. Size of reinforcement according to the standard bar designation (ACI-318) for bending about X axis (xx) and bending about Zaxis (zz). If this option is activated a column cross-section will appear. f’c.

This is used to calculate the length of the dowels. Enter Yes if you want to include the shear force (transmitted by the column) multiplied by the depth of the foundation in the bending moment acting on the footing base. it is NOT read in from the selected footing node. Even if this value was specified when generating a soilspring. Design moment [Yes/No] Design code Soil Data Modulus of subgrade reaction: Typically this value should be the same value used in the analysis. Enter No if some load combination cause tension in the dowels. Splices in compression [Yes/No] Enter Yes if the dowels are in compression for all the load combination used in the design. In this case. The calculated dowel lengths will also be shown in the detailing screen. ACI 31899.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing This will allow you to specify column reinforcement/dowel information. Enter No if you have the Soil unit weight (wet) Calculate soil bearing capacity 450 . It is used for the calculation of the bearing capacity and the soil weight over the foundation Enter Yes to calculate the soil bearing capacity using the soil data. The version of the adopted standard used in the design procedure. See the design flow chart included at the end of this chapter in order to understand the assumptions made by the program. The soil unit weight over the freatic level. It is used to calculate the vertical displacement and rotation of the footing.

451 .Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing allowable soil stress as datum considering the maximum allowed settlements Allowable soil stress Reference stress to be compared with the maximum soil stress of the different service load conditions Cohesion Interparticle attraction that measures the shear strength of cohesive soils Parameter that measures the shear strength of granular soils Ground slope to be considered in the bearing capacity Soil unit weight below water level Friction angle Slope of ground from base Saturated unit weight Depth of water level Depth of water level from ground level Item B Geometric characteristics of the footing. Input of the column geometry.

Thus n1c2=+1n1DL+1n1LL is interpreted as follows: n1c2 = Node 1 Combination 2 +1n1DL = 1. The loads read in from the analysis can be seen in the table (as illustrated above) together with their values. For footings with the columns located at the center of the footing these forces represent the column 452 .0 x Node 1 DL +1n1LL = 1. Note that n1 is node number 1. The detailing module does not automatically transfer the dimensions and geometry footing from the main program. Only bending moments. The depth of the footing base below ground is used to compute the weight of the fill.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Enter the actual dimensions of the column. The last option allows specifying the position of the column in relation to the center of the footing. the different load combinations for each selected node are displayed in the order that they were selected. n2 is node number 2 etc.0 x Node 1 LL This module assumes that the forces shown are always for the geometric center of the footing. One important feature to input here is the footing type that define the position of the column in relation to the footing base: There are 10 options to define the position of the column relative to the footing base. shear forces and bending moments. Item C Input of the load combinations to use in design: axial forces. shear and axial forces are retrieved from the analysis performed in RAM Advanse. Note that if several support nodes are selected prior to entering the design module.

The user can select which load cases and combinations are used in the design by selecting the button.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing forces. This screen is used to display the capacity of the footing. If no rigid offset was considered in the analysis (and the column is offset) then these forces must be transformed manually (the engineer must change the values) to the center of the footing prior to viewing the design screen. select the appropriate service load combinations and check the bearing pressures in the design screen. Design Screen Press the button to view the design results. To perform footing design. The second button calculates the minimum depth of the footing to resist the shear force without requiring any reinforcement.. select the appropriate factored load combinations and proceed to the design screen. as shown in the figure.6 (changeable). The adopting dimensions for the footing: base and depth are realized on this screen using simply 2 buttons at the top of this screen bar. Note. calculates the minimum dimensions of the base considering that the maximum The first button soil stresses should be less than the allowable stress. Note that the results are presented in two areas shown in the next figure. Adopting footing dimensions Both dimensions will be calculated separately. 453 . value that the user should define before applying the tool for the footing design. If you are only interested in checking soil pressures. All checked load conditions in the displayed dialog are considered in the design.Base dimension calculation is performed with the allowable soil stress. For footings where the column is located away from the footing center these represent the reaction forces at the end of the rigid offset. The depth is approximately taking into account the required depth to resist service loads with a load factor of 1.

Due to the adopted numerical method.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Two main areas in the design screen. The nomenclature of the ACI-318 has been adopted. Item A The first area is devoted to providing general information and the results of one-way shear. the calculated values of Mu and Vu can differ between 0 to 2% in relation to the exact solutions. Some parameters are clarified in the following figures: 454 . punching shear and bending design of the footing. Design of the capacity of the footing for the controlling load combinations.

development length for standard hooks be adopted in tension bars. Axial force. Item B 455 . Both lengths are shown in the report. bending moments and shear forces acting on a footing The user can check if the footing complies with all the requirements of the Code with all the results and information given in this screen. development length for straight bars to be adopted in compression bars Length Ldh. The verification will be done only with one of them depending on de enable flag.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Development lengths for straight bars and standard hooks. As shown in the graphic the development length of dowels could be: Length Ld.

sliding and bearing capacity are given for the current load condition if the option to calculate the bearing capacity is enabled. It is also possible to verify if there is a zone with zero stress which means that the soil resultant (the cross in the figure) is outside the kern limit of the base. Detailing Screen Press the button to view the detailing screen. In the graphic area of the screen the user can see the soil stresses and the footing elastic settlements.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Elastic settlement. the engineer will still be able to view this screen. The dowels are also displayed when the option Show Dowels is selected in the data screen. Caution! Even in the case of an unsuccessful design (i. If a rotation spring was calculated (and used in the analysis). Safety factors and total soil pressure due to the active load condition. it is not valid for these load conditions where the footing is not in full contact with the footing (zero stress zones). the design status is no-good in the design screen). It displays the footing in plan and elevation with the reinforcing bars shown. Note also that the safety factors against overturning. Note that for the footing design the soil weight is not considered. The bars shown reflect the design from the previous screen. The user can choose any service load condition and compare the obtained stresses with the allowable soil pressures.e. 456 . which include the effect of the weight of the footing and fill. These stresses are total stresses.

Configuration Screen Press the button to view the Configuration Screen. The user cannot directly manipulate this figure. Note that no top-of-footing steel is provided. they will be displayed only in the x-direction.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Detailing screen exportable as DXF file. The engineer will need to do this if uplift exists on the edge of a footing and soil or other load is supported above the footing. 457 . It allows the user to establish some standards for design and also to have control over the reinforcing design. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside of RAM Advanse. If the reinforcing bars of the footing need hooks. Note that data changed on this screen is saved for subsequent entries into this detailing module.

Used in the calculation of development length of bars. The upper limit for bar spacing. The code specifies that it must not exceed 3 times the thickness of the slab or 18in (7. all the longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch etc.5) Epoxy Coated Maximum Rho/Rho balanced Maximum bar spacing Consider the soil Enter Yes when the soil over the foundation is permanent. Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for cohesion 458 .75 is suggested by ACI.6. Per the applicable code the percentage of the balanced steel allowed for design before compression reinforcing is required. Round spacing to closest Concrete type The spacing between bars can be rounded down to the closest increment specified. So for example.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Round bar Longitudinal bar lengths can be length to closest rounded up to the increment specified. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear and development lengths. Enter No if over the it is uncertain if the soil over the foundation foundation will be always present. Typically a value of 0.

which is useful to 459 . The data is followed by the results. Suggested value 0. Hansen or Vesic. The selection will depend on engineering judgement. The top section of the report contains the data (loads. The maximum elastic deformation of the soil and the base area in compression are printed. the report screen of reinforced concrete footings will be displayed. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The screen is shown next: Report screen of reinforced concrete footings.5 Reduction factor Reduction coefficient for friction for friction angle angle used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. which are divided in three parts. The mean and maximum compression of the soil are printed with the controlling load case. For a detailed explanation of the buttons in this report. This is followed by the reinforcement details adopted for the footing.67 Ultimate soil This option defines the formulae to bearing capacity be used in the calculation of the soil after bearing capacity. Report of reinforced concrete footings By pressing the button on the Design/detailing screen. soil and geometry) of the footing that is common to all the selected nodes. Suggested value 0. The first one is devoted to the soil-foundation interaction. material.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing for cohesion used in the estimation of passive pressures and soil bearing capacity. These values shall be compared with the allowable compression of the soil. too. This part is particularly useful when the footing is checked in service conditions. The available options are Meyerhof.

the values of the nominal moments around 3-3 and 2-2 axis (Mn33. Mn22) multiplied by the strength reduction factor (φ) are displayed. 460 . If the soil bearing capacity was calculated. The ratio Mc/(φ*Mn) is also displayed: The biggest capacity ratio will be the one that will determine the governing loading condition for bending. RAM Advanse automatically handles two typical footing situations.Theory The model may need to consider the interaction between footings and the structure.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing evaluate the footing behavior. The next group of results is devoted to bending. Appendix A: Soil Structure Interaction . Column Located at Center of Footing Consider the following column-footing system Typical footing with the column located at the center of the foundation. The report also displays all the information with respect to the shear design. Ratio that determines the governing loading condition in the footing design. the safety factors against sliding. Besides the provided and required steel area for bending. the typical case of a column located at the center of a footing and the less common case of a column located around the edge of a footing. overturning moment and bearing capacity will also be printed.

is small. b) Soil stresses. Note that the rotation of a typical footing. then the column forces may be overly conservative. This phenomenon can be modeled by using adequate translation and rotation springs. Therefore. 461 . but the lateral displacement will likely be underestimated. Note that the footing rotates due to the differential soil deformation. with a column located at its center and subject to mainly axial load. a) Actual footing rotation. This is also true for the case of a pinned column located at the footing center. and that often a simplified model can be used in which rotation and vertical translation are neglected. a more accurate modeling technique needs to consider the soil-structure interaction. This models the elasticity of the soil. If the engineer assumes that the column is fixed against rotation for analysis purposes. The footing is modeled using translation and rotation springs. In this case the effect of soil on the vertical translation and the rotation of the footing.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing If the column is continuous with the footing. Pinned columns (such as steel columns located at footing center) typically do not subject the footing to moment load and as such it is typically not necessary to implement a soil spring in this instance. then when subject to lateral load the actual footing rotates (see (a) in figure below) and this modifies the column bending moment and the distribution of the soil stress (see (b) in figure).

Note that this calculation is only valid if the entire footing remains in contact with the soil for all load combinations. but should be evaluated for each model independently. In the next section we will describe how the program can automatically calculate a rotation spring constant. If during the design of the footings it appears that this assumption has been violated the engineer is responsible for adjusting the spring stiffness to model the soil-structure interaction appropriately. This may require changing the spring stiffness for each individual load combination. Comparison between the fixed support model and the spring model. Obviously this is not trivial and it is recommended that uplift be avoided whenever possible. The rotation of the footing is neglected. The differences between moments are small in this example. The following figures show the differences between two models in a typical example (units of kip-ft).Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Simplified model (fixed support). Notice that the simplified model (fixed support) should only be used if the stiffness of the footing and soil is high compared to the bending stiffness of the column. 462 .

2) Perform analysis. 3) Design the footings (See the section on the Design and Detailing module) 463 . The modeling sequence can thus be summarized as follows: 1) Create the model with springs. b) Fixed support is valid when footing rotation is negligible.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Limitations: a) Rotation spring constant is valid only if footing base is in full contact with the soil.

The axial force (N) causes a moment of magnitude N*d The axial force causes a strong moment of (N*d) Similarly to the footings with columns at their centers. For pinned columns the entire axial and moment load must be resisted by the footing. The example has only axial load in the column.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) Acceptable model when foundation stiffness is large relative to the columns. 464 . The column takes a portion of the moment and the moment acting on the footing is somewhat less than N*d. The column is continuous (fixed) to the footing. Eccentric Footings (Columns located at edge of the footing) To illustrate the impact of footing rotation on eccentric footings consider the following columnfooting system: Column footing system to be used for illustration of modeling concepts. eccentric footings rotate because of the applied bending moment. particularly when a column is subject to a significant moment. b) Required model when footing stiffness affects analytical results. If the column is continuous with the footing then this rotation modifies the column moments and the distribution of soil stresses.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing a) The actual behavior of the footing. b) The column may take a significant portion of the bending moments c) The moment on the footing is less than the full N*d (x is always less than 1. In the instance where no rigid offset is present the column will not resist any bending moment. a) Inadequate spring model b) Inadequate fixed support model. To model this situation appropriately it is recommended that a rigid offset is provided from the column to the footing centroid. This is the assumption made in the design of the footings in RAM Advanse. In this case the distribution of the soil stresses does 465 . This modeling technique is illustrated in the following figure. Therefore. This rigid offset is appropriate when the footing is assumed to act as a rigid member (bending in the footing is ignored in the analysis). In the model where a rigid offset is present the column will have a non-zero bending moment and the soil stress will vary linearly below the footing. the reaction-resultant of the footing will have to coincide with the action line of the axial force N.0). Ignoring the rotation of the footing will often neglect the increased bending moment in the column and the moment reduction of the footing. the model should incorporate the load eccentricity and footing rotation in the analysis. The soil spring properties can then be calculated with respect to the footing centroid. The footing is modeled using a rigid offset to the geometric center of the footing and the respective translation and rotation springs. When modeling an eccentric footing a simplified fixed support should not be used as this ignores the additional moment present in the columns as illustrated below. Also. when appropriate.

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing not agree with the actual behavior of the column-footing system as illustrated in the next figure. 466 . This is obviously true for a concrete column but may not be true for a steel column with a pinned base.

3) Design the footings. the correct procedure to design an eccentric footing. Therefore. the translation and the rotation springs.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Bending moment in column and soil stresses for a) the adequate spring model for concrete columnfooting and b) for the invalid concrete column-footing model. Appendix B: ACI 318-99 Footing Design Flowcharts The following flow charts are presented to inform the user the details of the design considerations that have been included in the program or the ones omitted for the design of isolated spread footings. Note the rigid offsets in the eccentric footings. b) Model of the footings to adopt for analysis. The suggested method of modeling different type of footings. 467 . a) Example of a structure with different types of footings. with a column fixed to the footing is as follows: 1) Model the footing with springs including rigid offset. 2) Analyze the structure.

* Pressure in the soil is considered with a planar variation. * Clear spacing of bars being developed or spliced should not be less than 2db and clear cover should not be less than db.7)) L: footing length lc: column height (for rectangular sections) (lc=D for circular sections) lwc: Boolean variable (true for lightweight concrete. * No shear reinforcement is considered. i.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing Material: Reinforced Concrete Elements: footings Code: ACI 318-99 Assumptions remarks: * Minimum reinforcement is always used. Data: B: footing width bc: column width (for rectangular sections) (bw=D for circular sections) c: free cover for longitudinal reinforcement D: diameter of the column (for circular sections) db: diameter of footing bars dbc: minimum diameter of column longitudinal bars dbs: diameter of ties (at least #3 for #10 or smaller and #4 otherwise (7. * Axial loads. shear forces and bending moments entered by the user or read in from the analysis are assumed to occur in the geometrical center of the footing.1)) ebs: f´c: Boolean constant (ebt=true if the column is tied) specified compressive strength of concrete fy: specified yield strength of reinforcement k: coefficient of subgrade reaction of soil hf: height of the footing slab (> 10 in. (15.Muz: factored bending moments acting in the footing P: service axial load in the footing 468 .e. * Soil under the footing is considered elastic and homogeneous. the footing is considered to be infinitely rigid.Mz: Mmax: service bending moments acting in the footing maximum factored bending moment of the different load combinations Mux.10. false for normal concrete) Mx.5.

Vuzz: φ: strength reduction factor (0..85 for shear.qmin. Vuzz..90 for bending) γc: concrete unit weight γs: unit weight of the soil over the footing Calculation of initial variables: Ab1: Area of one-bar dd: maximum allowed straight development length Output results: Asxx. 0.2.Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing pos: position of the column (1. Vczz. Nbzz: area of reinforcement needed in both directions (about axes x minimum dowel development length for the column reinforcement factored bending moments in the critical sections of the footing number of bars needed in both directions qmax. Aszz: and z) ldbc Muxx. Vuxz: nominal shear strength factored shear forces in the critical sections of the footing 469 .qav: total service stresses in the soil sxx.Vzz: service shear forces in the footing Vmax: maximum factored shear force of the different load combinations factored shear forces in the footing Vuxx.9) Pu:factored axial load in the footing Vxx. Vcxz: Vuxx. szz: spacing between bars in both directions Vcxx. Muzz: Nbxx..

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 470 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 471 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 472 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 473 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 474 .

Chapter 26: Footing Design and Detailing 475 .

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The required data may be entered in two ways as follows: • • Design parameter worksheets Wood Detailing Module. wood members must be grouped by “Description”. adopting the Allowable Stress Design method (ASD).American Forest & Paper Association American Wood Council. The Wood Detailing module is an independent module (changes are lost when the module is closed and do not get saved into the model). See the result output section of this chapter for more information. The Wood Detailing module will be described later in this Chapter. While no load condition may be excluded from the analysis. Wood members are designed according to the following American design Code: • National Design Specification . it is possible to specify load conditions used for the optimization process and output report. Design parameters such as species.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) This section describes the options available in RAM Advanse to design and detail wood members using the add-on design and detailing modules. Required Data: Loads Loads and load combinations must be properly generated. grade. Determination of the wood member data To use the Wood Design module. moisture conditions. The Design parameters worksheet is fully integrated in RAM Advanse and will be described next. Normally. names of sections reflect their shapes and materials. Member Section A member is automatically considered a “Wood Member” when a wood section is assigned to it. are specified for each group. This module includes design check of wood members in accordance to the NDS Code.1997 Edition . etc. 477 .

The following sections are installed with the program: • Standard Dressed (S4S) Sawn Lumber These sections include boards. 478 . RAM Advanse is installed with a library of standard wood sections. In this file the specific commands used for Wood Design can be entered as follows: CODE ‘WOOD’ //This reserved word indicates that it is a wood section and it will be designed with the NDS-ASD Code. It is also possible to define new rectangular. rounded and spaced-column wood sections. • Glulam Table 1C (Section Properties of Western Species) and Table 1D (Section Properties of Southern Pine) of the same Supplement are adopted. SHAPE ‘Rectangular’. These wood sections are grouped in folders. rectangular sections given in Table 1B of the NDS Supplement.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Example of a wood section assignation for a member. The type of wood section is defined with the section macros (files with the section type followed with the leo extension). dimension lumber and timber. ‘Circular’ or ‘Spaced’ //Indicates the type of section.

Glulam group Glued-Laminated Timber. dimension lumber or timber). MSR or MEL lumber. select the Configuration/Data bases/Materials option. Includes sawn lumber (timber or dimension lumber). positive or negative bending moments) and size of members (i. To edit or create a new wood material. 479 .e.e.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) FORMULATION ‘Lumber’ or ‘Glulam’ //Only rectangular glulam sections are considered. The desired wood material can be assigned to each group of members as defined by the member description: First select the desired wood material (1) and then use one of the two available tool buttons (2) to assign the material to one or several wood members. See the Chapter devoted to Creating Section Templates for more details (specially the notes preceded by ) Wood materials Wood design has two formulations or groups to be considered as materials for design: • • Lumber group. loads (i. It is the engineer’s responsibility to assign the right material considering the type (beam or column).

Following is the list of these species: 480 . where the main properties of the material are entered or modified: Edit or Enter the wood design properties. A dialog window will appear.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Then. select the desired material or the New option to define a new material. The required data for materials are: Species Included are the most common species for The United States and Canada.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lumber: Aspen Beech-Birch-Hickory Cotton Wood Douglas Fir-Larch Douglas Fir-Larch (North) Douglas Fir-South Eastern Hemlock-Balsam Fir Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack Eastern Soft Woods Eastern White Pine Hem-Fir Hem-Fir (North) Mixed Maple Mixed Oak Northern Red Oak Northern Species Northern White Cedar Red Maple Red Oak Red Wood Spruce-Pine-Fir Spruce-Pine-Fir (South) Western Cedars Western Woods White Oak Yellow Poplar Southern Pine Southern Pine-Dry Southern Pine-Green Mixed Southern Pine Balsam Fir Coast Sitka Spruce Eastern Hemlock 481 .

2.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack (N) Eastern Spruce Mountain Hemlock Northern Pine Ponderosa Pine Red Pine Sitka Spruce Western Cedars (North) Western Hemlock Western Hemlock (North) Western White Pine Glulam: Hem-Fir Douglas Fir-Larch Southern Pine Grades The grades (stress grading criteria) adopted are the most commonly used: Select Structural No. open grain Dense Select Structural Non-Dense Select Structural No.1 & Btr Clear Structural Select Structural. open grain No. open grain No.3.3 Stud Construction Standard Utility No.2 No.1 Dense 482 . open grain No.1.1 No.

2 Dense No. which are MSR (Machine Stress Rated Lumber) MEL (Machine Evaluated Lumber) Combination Symbol Properties of glued laminated timber members are defined by the Combination Symbol.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) No. The following combination symbols are installed with the program: 16F-V2 16F-V3 16F-V5 16F-V6 16F-V7 20F-V2 20F-V3 20F-V4 20F-V7 20F-V8 20F-V9 22F-V3 22F-V8 24F-V2 24F-V4 24F-V8 16F-E2 16F-E3 16F-E6 16F-E7 483 .1 Non-Dense No.2 Non-Dense No.3 and Stud Dense Structural 86 Dense Structural 72 Dense Structural 65 Clear Heart Structural Two special groups are attached to the grades.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 20F-E2 20F-E3 20F-E6 20F-E7 22F-E1 22F-E2 22F-E4 22F-E5 22F-E6 24F-E10 24F-E11 24F-E13 24F-E14 24F-E15 24F-E18 20F-V5 22F-V1 22F-V2 22F-V4 22F-V5 24F-V1 24F-V3 24F-V5 26F-V1 26F-V2 26F-V3 26F-V4 16F-E1 20F-E1 22F-E3 24F-E1 24F-E2 24F-E4 28F-E1 484 .

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 28F-E2 30F-E1 30F-E2 Members stressed primarily in axial tension or compression are also considered. 485 .

However. The following table contains the values used for various conditions considering the minor and major axes: Node 1 Node 2 Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Pinned Fixed Free Braced K-value yes yes no yes no no 0.2 1. fixed or free even if it is inclined.80 1. Unbraced Lengths (L33. If K has its default value of (0). Note that the adjoining framing members will be always neglected.0 2. A tool has been included in the program to automatically calculate the effective length factors for wood ( K33 and K22). and the relative rigidity of the member and the contiguous members connected to it (E*I/L). the user has always to check the calculated values considering that they are only approximations. L22): 486 .Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design Parameters Member design parameters must be specified prior to performing analysis and design. The tool will recognize automatically if a member end is pinned. General design parameter spreadsheet Effective Length Factors (K22. For more information on the creation of members see RAM Advanse's context sensitive Help system.0.1 2. the program will assume a value of K=1. These parameters are a function of the type of structure (braced or unbraced). K33): K22 and K33 are the effective length factors for bending about axis 2-2 (minor) and 3-3 (major).65 0.4 Pinned Pinned Pinned Fixed Any other configuration not included in the table will be assigned a value of 1. This tool takes into account the buckling length coefficients based on NDS Appendix G.

for analysis. Valid values are 0 and 1. The value of the variable directly affects the calculation of the effective length factors (K) by the available tool. If. Le=1. Braced Against Sidesway Flag: The braced flag indicates whether the member should be considered braced against sidesway (value = 1) or unbraced against sidesway (value = 0). Wet (1) for over 16%. the physical member has been subdivided. The NDS Specification indicates this value to be: Sawn lumber: Dry (0) for 19% or less. Wood design parameter spreadsheet Effective span length of bending member (Le): This unbraced length is the length used for the determination of the slenderness ratio (Rb) and the general beam stability factor (CL). where lu = laterally unsupported span length of bending member and d = depth of member Wet/Dry Service Conditions: This parameter defines the moisture conditions for which design values or adjustment factors (Ct and CM) will be calculated.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) These distances are measured between centers of gravity of the bracing members in the 1-2 (weak) (L22 for bending about 2-2) axis and the 1-3 (strong) (L33 for bending about 3-3) axis respectively.84*lu when lu/d>14. Likewise. but rather with the ability of the ends of the member to translate with respect to each other when subject to lateral loads. Temperature Conditions: Three levels of service temperatures are defined: 487 .3 and Le=1. Glulam: Dry (1) for 16% or less.3. It is the length of the face of the member that is in compression for any load condition.63*lu+3*d when 7<=lu/d<=14. The default value is (0) and the program will consider the general formulae given for single span or cantilever bending members with any loading conditions: Le=2. The NDS Code suggests different values for cantilever and single span beams depending on the type of load (Table 3.3. Braced3 refers to being braced against sidesway in the ‘weak axis’ or parallel to the 3 axis. Rigid end zones are assumed to reduce the length of the members. The tool may be used to automatically calculate the values for these cases. And wet (1) for over 19%. the values of these parameters should reflect the real length of the member. This setting has nothing to do with the memberunbraced length.3 of the Code).06*lu when lu/d<7. If L22 or L33=0. the program will assume the length L between nodes. For multiple span applications the engineer should enter the appropriate values in the worksheet. Braced2 is often referred to as being braced against sidesway in the ‘strong axis’ of the member. The Braced2 label refers to the member being braced against sidesway parallel to the 2 axis.

3. For temperatures above 150°F. The selected level will affect the Temperature Factor (Ct) calculations. 488 . This assumption is on the conservative side and the maximum difference in relation to the exact value of the calculated Cv is in the order of 10%. the prolonged heating can cause a permanent loss of strength therefore it is not considered by the program. the program will assume a value of Li=L. This parameter is the repetitive member factor (Cr) applied to dimension lumber.4. Length of the bending member between points of zero moment (Li): This distance should be entered only for glulam members. It is the length of the beam between points of zero moments and it is used for the calculation of the Volume Factor (Cv). which are in contact or spaced not more than 24" on centers and meet the conditions specified in Section 4. If Li has its default value (0). of the Code. etc.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) T<100°F (38°C) 100°F(38°C)<T<=125°F(52°C) 125°F<T<=150°F(66°C) Most cases will fall within the first level. truss chords. Repetitive Member: This flag can be applied to joists.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Data for the model design Before analyzing the structure. the code and the load duration of each load condition to be considered in the design has to be specified. 489 . the shortest duration of the different loads should be selected. The following load duration categories are available: Load Duration Permanent Ten years Two months Seven Days Ten Minutes Impact Typical Design Loads Dead Load Occupancy Live Load Snow Load Construction Load Wind/Earthquake Load Impact Load For load combinations.

It allows you to choose the load conditions to be considered in the design and if separation lines will be printed in the report: Reports dialog window. 490 . Results can be displayed graphically or in text form. Reports Select Reports/Wood Design to print the wood reports.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Design post processing inside RAM Advanse The basic design post processing is performed automatically after analysis. Selecting Reports/Wood Design displays a dialog box with options for a concise or detailed report.

Results may be displayed on screen in the following ways: • Free scale: This option shows the members in colors representing the different ranges of stresses. Design Status: This option will graphically present members passing and failing code specific checks. These colors represent 9 different ranges of stresses. Colors represent the stress values for the selected load condition. the range of colors is recalculated. for the current load condition or for the governing load condition. 491 . The range value to color mapping is shown in a legend at one side of the window. Maximum stress ratio Selected members will be colored with one of the nine assigned stress ratio colors when the button is pressed in the Tool buttons bar. Press and to see the ranges considering the whole set of load combinations and not only the current load condition. This may change the color of any specific member to coincide with the new scale and color range as calculated for that group. Note that when a different group of members is selected. The range is scaled between zero and the maximum value divided by 10 for each range. Ranges are calculated by determining the maximum value of the stress ratio for all elements. Fixed scale: This option shows the members in colors that represent the different ranges of the interaction values normalized to the range between 0.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Screen output There are several options to graphically verify the adequacy of wood members. select the desired stress range with the mouse and press the button. and dividing this maximum value into 9 equal ranges. This option is used mainly to detect the critical members within a group. Code check display Options.0. To select the members within a given range. • • The user may choose to see a selected group of members for each of the described options.0 and >1.

combination and its interaction value will be displayed if the button Important! Wood structures can be optimized. please see Chapter 11 for further details related to the optimization. thus the adopted modulus of elasticity (from tables) have a 10% reduction to consider the shear deflection. Wood Detailing Module For more advanced design and detailing the engineer can invoke the detailing module to further manipulate the design and obtain details for a specific member.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) You can select and view the members with stresses inside a certain range. Deflection control The structural analysis provides the basis for determining the deflections of wood members. The program considers only the bending deformation. The user can check the deflection using the option Print/Analysis results/Local deflections. The name of the governing load is pressed. Therefore. Select only the member that is to be designed and detailed before invoking the detailing module. Select the desired member. See the Optimization Chapter in this manual for more details. or pressing the Display option Note that you can include the deflection check in the optimization process. Note that for optimization.5 of the NDS Code). the deflection control is simplified to the determination of the calculated elastic deformation which the user should compare to the allowable deflection determined by the local building Code or the specific requirements of the member. Press the button to see the interaction values of the members. The usual practice in wood members is to calculate the long-term deflection as a multiple of the permanent load elastic deflection (See Section 3. the option Print/Forces diagrams/Show on screen/ Translations in 2. 492 . it is suggested to avoid mixing different types of sections in the collections such as dimension lumber with timber.

Notice that you have status traffic lights at the bottom right of the window. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases as it allows the user to apply special modifications to calculated parameters. as illustrated. Notice also that there are options that can only be calculated or modified in this detailing module such as bearing strength verifications. The user can easily recognize all data that has been transferred from the main program. After editing or entering data. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. by the preceding icon. 493 . Typical cases of these modifications are the reduction of applied shear forces near supports. etc. if the green light is on. When the yellow light is on. Wood Detailing Dialog Window to enter/edit the data for the code check of the member. the detailed report may be printed.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) And invoke the Detailing/Wood command. etc. material and load data is entered or modified in this screen as required. Important: Notice that the changes that are performed within the detailer will not be saved. the member design status is OK. The load and geometric data are typically read in from the main program when the module is invoked. modification of adjustment factors for a specific member. Hint: You can also double click the desired member to open directly the Wood Detailing Dialog Window. If the red light is on. Please see the context sensitive help for further information. A dialog window will appear with a context sensitive help at the right side Geometric. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the member are no good. override of the adjustment factors.

2. 4C. This factor is calculated internally by the program to account for the buckling of axially loaded members according to Section 3. This factor is calculated only for glulam members following Section 5.7. Size Factors (CF) applied only for visually graded sawn lumber and round timber.1 of the Code.3. 6. 16% for glulam members). Table 2. 11. It is always assumed that local axis 2 is perpendicular to grain direction for sawn lumber and to wide faces of laminations for glulam The adjustment factors are calculated in separate procedures (Wood Design macro) considering all cases specified by the Code. A default value of 1. torsion and axial loads.0 is adopted. 5A and 5B are considered in the verifications. Table 2. Column Stability Factor (Cp). Incising Factor (Ci) for structural sawn lumber incised to increase penetration of preservatives. 5.3. Shear Stress Factor (CH). 5A.3 of the Code 9. A value of 1. Repetitive member Factor (Cr) applied only to dimension lumber. Flat Use Factor (Cfu). rounded and spaced sections. 494 • • The following adjustment factors are included: . These factors indicate whether the member has sustained exposure to high moisture (19% for solid sawn. This factor has to be specified by the user. Volume Factor (Cv). The CD factor must be entered for each load combination since the CD factor will change based on the types of loads that are applied in each load combination. 4B. 3. 8. See the tables in the NDS supplement for information on other CH factors. and 5B. This general procedure considers a member subjected to flexure and shear on both principal axes. This factor is used for loads applied in the axis 3-3. The factors specified for Tables 4A.11.15 is adopted for these cases. Beam Stability Factor (CL).4 and Appendix C of the Code are implemented. The factors specified for Tables 4B and 4D are considered in the verifications.3. 7. . 4B.3 of the Code. This factor is calculated only for lumber following Section 3. This factor is available in the Wood Detailer and included in the Detailer Reports. 4D. 1. Temperature Factors (Ct) for members that will experience sustained exposure to elevated temperatures. it is not included on reports printed directly from the main program. Note that the adopted CD factor for a load combination should be for the load with the shortest load duration in that load combination.3. Load duration factor (CD) according to Table 2. 4.2 and Appendix B for typical loads.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) ASD technical notes The assumptions and simplifications adopted for wood member design are as follows: • A unified verification procedure has been adopted for rectangular. 4C. Wet Service Factors (Cm) based on the moisture service conditions specified in Tables 4A. 10.

4 of the Code. size. Beams and other flexural members The flexural calculation comprises yielding and lateral stability as specified on section 3. It has to be performed by the user with the available tools of RAM Advanse and considering the adequate modulus of elasticity affected by service conditions. Tension members The calculation of tension members is given in section 3.e. Fire retardant treatment factors. Adjustment factors affect the allowable stress of members and are a function of the species. The program does not consider the effect of fire. There are no special considerations regarding the type of connections used. The shear stress requirements are given in section 3. i. Notice that you can include it in the optimization process. Bearing area factor is not considered in minimum bearing length calculations. Therefore. the user may apply the appropriate reduction by using the Wood Detailer.4. Shear stress is normally not a failure mode in wood flexural members.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) The program does not consider the following adjustment factors 1. Loads are considered applied at the top of bending members and side loads on orthogonal faces (biaxial bending).6 of the NDS Code. service conditions. The form factor (Cf).4. When shear stresses are significant. grade. The requirements of Section 3.4 of the NDS Code for notched bending members are included in the program.3 of the NDS Code. which is only used for the adjustment of tabulated bending design values of equivalent rectangular sections in manual calculations. The assumptions and simplifications adopted are the following: • • Prismatic members in axial tension. • • • • Columns and other compression members This part follows the criteria given on section 3. The user can enter notch dimensions (width and length) and location (up or down) in the spreadsheet area. type of load. Adopted shear design equations are those specified in Section 3.2 of the Code. only gross section checks are performed. Shear stresses on both principal axes are checked independently. Curvature factor (glulam) used in curved members. Following is the list of adopted restrictions and assumptions: • Deflection control is not checked in the wood design module. the refinement of calculating the reduction of the shear force within a distance from support equal to the depth is conservatively not considered. etc. The restrictions and assumptions adopted are: 495 . The members are assumed with a concentric axial load. 4. Bearing Area Factor 2. 3.8 of the code (NDS-ASD-97).

However. Two eccentricities are used as follows: e1: measured parallel to wide face e2: parallel to narrow face • A special type of columns is considered in addition to the simple solid wood columns. It is important to mention that due to uncertainties in allowable torsional stresses.4. The following cases are considered: Axial compression and biaxial bending Axial tension and biaxial bending 496 . According to this Section.Fv3/3) This equation is only applicable to rectangular members. Condition 'a' is defined when the shear block centroid is within L/20 from the column end.4 of the NDS Code. Spaced Columns are formed of two individual members with their longitudinal axes parallel. This special type is commonly known as Spaced Columns.2 of the NDS Code. two end conditions related to end fixity are possible. Eccentricity from rigid offsets is included in the analysis of wood members.4. Condition 'b' occurs when this distance is between L/20 and L/10 (L is the distance between lateral supports). it is advisable to avoid torsion whenever possible.1 and 15. Combined stresses Combined stresses are considered using the interaction equations of Section 15. The hypothesis adopted for this type of columns are described in Section 15. Faherty & Williamson (1999) recommend one equation for this case which is adopted by the program: fs=T*(3*a+1.8*b)/(8*SQR(a)*SQR(b)) where fs is the torsional stress at midpoint of long side T is the applied torque a is the longest side dimension divided by 2 b is the shortest side dimension divided by 2 The capacity of the section is given by fs/F where F is the allowable torsional stress assumed equal to the minimum shear allowable stress divided by three: F=min(Fv2/3. separated at the ends and middle points of their length by shear blocks.2 of the NDS Code.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) • • Members in compression with side loads are checked with the general equations 15. Members subject to torsion The Code has no special consideration for wood members loaded in such a manner as to induce torsional stresses.

List of the required constants. Several subroutines form the wood design macro. 497 . for example. which at the same time have only small variations in relation to the adopted Standard. The following code groups are found in the macro: 1. The macro may be edited using the following option of the main menu: Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design. 2. Constant definitions. Subroutine for the calculation of the Duration Factors (CDCalculation). (See more details and an application example in Chapter 28. Here. Leo Editor with the Wood Design macro.25 to 1. The LEO Editor will be called with the wood design macro. Each of them is used to define a specific adjustment factor or design parameter. it will call the subroutine passing in the required parameters.33 as it is required by several local codes. However. the west-coast user can modify the duration factor for seven days from 1. Each time that the program calculates these parameters.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Wood design macro for adjustment factors The program comes already with a default design macro for wood that determines how the adjustment factors will be calculated according to the adopted NDS Code and it is not necessary to modify it in order to design wood members. Programming in LEO) The adopted programming language is quite simple and the user may modify quickly the macro according to his/her own design criteria or local codes. the user may edit or modify it to consider particular design factors adjusted to local codes.

5. Subroutine for the calculation of the Temperature factors (CalcCT). Subroutine for the calculation of the size factors (CalcCF). b. 4. 7. Note that first all the required data are defined as d.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 3. The calculated values are checked against the expected ones. Subroutine for the calculation of the maximum physical length. Subroutine for the calculation of the volume factor (CalcCv). 9. Fb=1[ksi] Fc=1[ksi] //Test CDCalculation CDtest=0.11 of the Code. Subroutine for the calculation of the flat use factor (Calcfu). line-by-line. Then the test variables are initialized and finally the calculation subroutines are called.CDtest) //Test LmaxCalculation 498 .4 of the Code. 8. According to the type of wood. 10.3. The entire code can be executed or it can be debugged.3. 3=Plywood Species='southern pine' Grade ='no.0[in] //member height b=2.0 CDCalculation(Duration. Subroutine for the wet service factors (CalcCM). the maximum member length may be defined. etc. material. 1' IncisedWood=true //Flag to show if the member is incised RepetitiveMember=true //Flag to show if the member is part of joists IsColumn=false Wet=true //Flag to show if it is a column //Wet/dry conditions Temperature = '100f<t<=125f' //Exposition to temperature Li=20[ft] //Custom length between inflection points. The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2. 2=Glulam. Subroutine for the calculation of the incising factors (CalcCi).0[in] //member width Material=Lumber //Material 1=Lumber. Subroutine for the calculation of the repetitive member factor (CalcCr). The original subroutine follows the criteria given in Table 2. verifying the intermediate results. Note that to test the different subroutines you can use an additional code that assigns the required data and calls the different subroutines. An example of a test code is the following. // values for tests Duration=0 d=4. 6. This length will be shown on the report.

0 CalcCr(b. TestCt1. TestCfu) //Test CalcCv TestCv=0.0[ft] LmaxCalculation (d. Li.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) Lmaxtest=0.Lmaxtest) //Test CalcCi TestCiE=0.0 TestCFFby=0.0 TestCt2=0.0 TestCMFcp=0. Wet.0 TestCMFc=0. Material.Material.0 TestCMFv=0.0 499 . IsColumn.Material. TestCr) //Test CalcCM TestCMFb=0.TestCiE. Material.TestCiFbtc.0 CalcCi(IncisedWood. TestCFFc.b.0 CalcCT(Temperature. Grade.0 CalcCF (d.0 TestCiFvpc=0. RepetitiveMember.0 TestCFE=0. TestCv) //Test CalcCr TestCr=0. Species.TestCiFvpc) //Test CalcCt TestCt1=0. Species. TestCFFb. b.0 TestCiFbtc=0. Material.0 TestCFFc=0. b. TestCFFt. TestCFE) //Test CalcCfu TestCfu=0. TestCt2) //Test CalcCF TestCFFb=0. b.0 TestCME=0.0 TestCFFt=0.0 CalcCfu(d. Material.0 CalcCv(d. TestCFFby.

American Forest and Paper Association. Breyer.Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) TestCMFt=0. Donald E. TestCMFcp. Fc. TestCFFb. Material. McGraw Hill. AFPA. Commentary on the National Design Specification for Wood Construction. TestCFFc. TestCMFt) References 1. Inc. TestCMFc. 1999. Wet. 500 . 1997. 2. 3. TestCME. 1997 Edition. Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook. National Design Specification for Wood Construction. McGraw Hill. Fb. .. TestCMFv.. Keith F & Williamson. 4.. Design of Wood Structures. AFPA. Thomas G. 1993. American Forest and Paper Association. TestCMFb. 1997. Third Edition. Third Edition.0 CalcCM(b. Faherty. Inc.

Chapter 27: Wood Design (NDS-ASD) 501 .

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However. there needs to be a database of connection templates from which to assign to your structure. Each connection can also have “intelligence” that allows it to customize itself to its environment (member sizes. It includes the information related to the Connection Family (beam-to-column flange. RAM Connection installs with an extensive pre-defined database of connection templates. automatically utilizing member dimensions and forces in the connection designs. bracing. Following this section we will describe in more detail some of the features of RAM Connection. Connection Assignment/Optimization. moment. office standards etc. as well as the number of bolts. including how to customize this toolbar. splice or combined).) using a macro language called LEO. size of bolts. they (the connections) can easily be redesigned.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Chapter 28: Steel Connections RAM Connection allows the engineer to rapidly design. In this chapter we first define what is considered to be a “Connection” within the context of RAM Connection. It is recommended that the structure be analyzed with final member sizes specified before connections are assigned to joints. We then proceed to directly show you How To Use RAM Connection. It is recommended that you read at least the first two sections of this chapter to help you understand how the connection module works. To get you productive on RAM Connection we will proceed directly to the section on How To Use RAM Connection. At the end of this chapter the list of the main references used in the development of the program is given where the user can find more information. joint forces. 503 . For this section we will use the installed connection database and the default Connection toolbar. Both member forces and sizes are utilized to design the connections. This “intelligence” allows the connection to modify itself as changes in its members and forces occur. beam-girder. geometry and material of the connecting pieces etc. the type of connection (shear. welds. The connection module is completely integrated into RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. How to find technical information about a specific connection? When you are entering or reviewing the different parameters of a connection you can go to the help context where you will find a detailed description of the data and checks that are performed for each connection type. if member sizes and forces change after the connections are designed. Connection Output and how to Customize your Environment and connection designs. optimize or verify connections of a structural model. What is a Connection? RAM Connection defines a Single Connection as all the parameters that completely define the quantities and dimensions of the pieces that make up a connection. Connections are designed and verified according to AISC-ASD 9th edition and LRFD 2nd edition steel manuals. etc). Before a connection can actually exist on your structure however. All connection templates are defined in the Connection database that is accessible from the Configuration menu. beam-to-column web. Following the How To Use section we describe in more detail the features of RAM Connection including the Connection Database.

The inversion of this axis (downwards) will lead in some cases to incorrect connections or the inversion of results i. This allows for each connection to be designed for its own forces and geometry. This assignment procedure permits the optimization of assigned connections by placing the connections in order of increasing strength the optimum connection for the applied forces will be selected. moment or bracing connections) can be grouped together. However. providing the most efficient use of material. top plate will be bottom plate. It may be preferable to initially design all connections individually. If you have a RAM Connection License and the program is not active in RAM Advanse please see the Installation Manual. Designing Connections Important Note: The connection design and the inclination angles are based on the assumption that the beam local axis 2 is coincident with the global positive Y Axis (upwards). from a user customizable list of connections. Remark: All grouped connections will have the same description. The connections can be designed in a group or one by one. and then use some of the available connection selection tools to determine how you would like to group your connections. or beam-to-girder etc. No consideration is given to any other joint force or connection design. it is also set up to allow you to get productive without requiring significant work on your part. Therefore. As you gain experience with RAM Connection you can customize the behavior to better suit your business practice.) and same type (shear. Only connections of the same family (beam-to-column flange. joints with different size members or material may produce slightly different connections. The engineer has control as to which joints are to be grouped together. even though some connections could be different due to the macro.Chapter 28: Steel Connections How to Use RAM Connection? RAM Connection is designed to give you extensive flexibility in the way you design and manage your connections. The use and customization of the Connection Toolbar will be explained in detail in the following sections. plate sizes etc. The assignment procedure (from the connection toolbar) consists of having the program select the first connection template. which satisfies the joint forces and geometric conditions. For all the joints with identical member sizes the resulting connections will be identical (same bolts number. Designing connections in a group allows you to minimize the number of unique connection designs on a structure. Grouped Connections Grouped connections are connections on several different joints that are to be designed with the same connection template. In general. As the connections typically have some ability to adapt to the geometry of the connecting pieces. The engineer can still find out which connections end up being identical even when they were designed individually. Individual Connections Individual connections are designed for the forces and member sizes at a specific joint.). the assignment lists should be created keeping in mind that the list order will determine which connection is selected at a particular location. 504 . connections are typically designed either in groups or individually.e.

The load conditions to be used in the design of the connection can also be selected in this window. turn the Panels toolbar on from View/Toolbars). 2) To automatically design connections the engineer should display the connection toolbar. To display the connection toolbar select the Connection toolbar button (if it is not visible. To establish connection design criteria click on the menu command Configuration/ Connections and choose the Design Configuration option.0. The default and typical value is 1. All load conditions are selected by default. Dialog window to configure the connections design The user may choose the maximum allowable strength ratio that will be used in the design of connections. it will affect also the code check and the determination of the status of the connection. 505 .0 will affect not only the design. This will cause the connection toolbar to show on the right edge of the screen. It is important to note that a value other than 1.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 1) Before connections are designed the engineer should configure the Connection Design criteria.

One option is to use the menu command Tools/Select Joints to select joints from a common family out of the currently selected members. 506 . If you selected to group connections (in the previous step) all selected joints of the same family type will be grouped (one design for all joints with same member sizes and inclination angles).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar displayed at right edge of screen. There are many tools available to assist you in selecting joints. or deselect it if you want all the selected joints grouped for design. 3) Select the design state button to indicate the upcoming design will be performed individually (each connection is based only on its own forces). so the selection is important. Depress state button to design the connections individually 4) Select the members and nodes you would like connections designed for.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint selection options.column splice joints Continuous beam over column joints Column – beam – braces joints Continuous beam – braces joints Vertical X-braces joints Elements to select Beam + node Beam + node Beam + node (Right) Beam + node (Bottom) Column + node Column + node Column + node Beam + node Braces + node Note that for the case of brackets. Select the members and nodes for which connections are to be designed. you should select the related beam (usually a cantilever beam) and column. 5) Select the smart connections group button if this was not the active group button (Smart Connections and Basic Connections will be discussed in more detail in the Connection Database 507 . The beam will be used to pass the loads to the bracket. The following table shows the elements that should be selected for each type of joint: Joint type Beam – column flange joints Beam – column web joints Beam – girder joints Beam – beam splice joints Column. Another option is to manually select each joint.

and a tag (set on the connection pad or in the macro) that contains the designed features of each connection (the plate size. The use of the tag will be explained later. You will notice that the second column of buttons is updated with the connections available to be assigned for this group button. beam to column web. etc) of the joint and will apply the corresponding templates. bolted end plate (2). shear connection is selected to assign Press the Double Angle ( 508 ) button .) that is to be assigned for the selected joints. etc. beam to girder. 6) From the connection toolbar select the connection (shear plate (1). choose one of the assignment buttons as the shear plate (1) or the bolted end plate (2). if the double angle.Chapter 28: Steel Connections section). For example. Press the Smart Connection group button to display the smart connection assignment buttons. See the toolbar section for more information. If assigned by group. it will also be given the template name used in its generation. bolt dimensions etc). From smart connection group (3). The program will automatically determine the family (beam to column flange. each connection will automatically be given a description (assignment button's name) that identifies the design group.

directly welded for the gusset to beam connections. CA for the gusset to column connection. Naming Convention The following connection naming convention has been adopted: <Connection Type – Connection Family -Connection Characteristic – Design Parameter> Smart Connection example: DA BCF Weld support Bolt beam Basic Connection example: Connection types CA = Shear angle(s) SP = Shear single plate EP = Shear end plate SS = Stiffened seated connection US = Unstiffened seated connection TEE = Shear tee TP = Through plate (only HSS supports) BP = Bent plate(s) DW = Directly welded moment connection EEP = Extended end plate FP = Flange plates MA = moment angles MT = Moment tees CP = Cap plate 4A = Four angles beam splice PBr = Plate bracket TBr = Tee bracket Remark: Bracing connections will have combined connection types. i. 509 DA_BCF_L 3x3x1/4_3B3/4 . etc.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The double angle shear connection will automatically be designed at the selected joints.e.

Column flange BCW = Beam . 7) You can combine shear connections with moment connections when the combination is possible. 510 . For example press the buttons (Double Angle) and then the (Flange Plate) to get the combined connection of a flange plated moment connection with a double angle shear.Girder BS = Beam splice CS = Column splice CC = Continuous beam over column CBB = Column.Column web BG = Beam . Any supplemental verification required is the responsibility of the engineer. Connection characteristics bolted = all-bolted connection welded = all-welded connection Bolt support = bolted to support Weld support = welded to support Bolt beam = bolted to the beam Weld beam = welded to the beam n = number of bolts l = connector length Press the button to graphically display the number and template's name of the selected connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection families BCF = Beam . all the capacity values calculated to evaluate the strength ratio and the status of the connections are included. This will be shown on the screen on the joint as follows: Shear and moment connection assigned to a joint. beams and braces CVR = Chevron braces VXB = Vertical X braces Remark: In the detailed connection reports.

Notice that the true dimensional characteristics of the connections are shown (plate length. no other connection is allowed in the same plane. If you want to consider the envelope of all load conditions. Connection capacity and status for the envelope of all load conditions To draw connections in extruded (3D) form. These positions are assuming that the direction of the local beam axis 2 is vertical upwards. the shear connection is drawn under the line of the beam and the moment connection is drawn above the beam line.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that when the connections are drawn in low-resolution (wire) mode. ) or the shrink Three-dimensional view of a double-angle shear connection. Bracing connection assigned to a joint button of the toolbar. In this case the low-resolution connection draw will be placed over the related node. The only condition is to adopt a maximum number of one brace per quadrant. press the extruded shape button ( extruded shape button ( ). The bracing connection has all the options to combine any arrangement of beams and braces. If a bracing connection is adopted. etc). press the button. A shear connection displaying its capacity ratio and status for the current load condition Note that the capacity ratio may be different for the different selected connections because the loads acting on them are different but the connections are identical. The 8) To view the results of the connection designs on the screen press the capacity ratio and status of the current load condition will be displayed for all selected connections. 9) To view the designs Double-Click on the connection to view the Connection Pad 511 . bolts.

. turn it on from Configuration/ Connections/ Show "Loads specification for report" dialog box. More information on the connection pad is found in the following sections of this chapter. the program will show the dialog box Loads specification for report that will ask you if you want to consider the forces envelope or all the load conditions forces separately in the connection Pad. it uses a conservative envelope of forces for each design set of joints of the group. To do so select the required connection and then press on the toolbar and go to Detailing/Connections. 512 . If the forces dialog is inactive. When a group connection is designed.. in the Loads specification for report dialog. select the option Envelope forces. option in the main menu.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Before the connection pad is displayed. Connection Pad to edit and check connections. 10) To view a detailed design report select the 11) To view the connection geometry report select the button button 12) A detailed or summary report for connection groups is available by selecting all the desired connections and selecting the Reports/Connections design. for more details see the Design Criteria section later.. If you want to see the design envelope of forces. it can be displayed for each design set of joints...

etc. As you can see getting connection designs is quick and easy. tag. 13) If you modify a member size. however. there is significant flexibility in exactly how connections are assigned and designed. The command will act on the selected connections and will preserve the previously defined groups and connection types. you will need to redesign your connections by clicking on the redesign button in the connection toolbar. Notes: 513 . or 14) To select all connections in a single group. Note that for grouped connections the redesign will be based on the description of the connections (connections with the same description are grouped). all connections that are designed individually are given the same color (white). press the button properties toolbar. structure geometry or loads. click on one connection in the group and click click to color all the groups individually (up to 9 unique groups can be colored. You can generate a report organized by family. Hint: To enable or disable the display of the descriptions. description. Notice also that you can have a list of the joints and their connections with the option Reports//List of joints… It is very useful to know the joints that need to be designed and the ones that have already assigned connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections reports dialog window. connection type. in the Model . The following sections describe in more detail the features that were used above.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections • If the strength ratio is less than the limit specified by the engineer. (for the • • • • Some shear connections such as the TEE. In this case the capacity verifications are not valid anymore and the calculation assumptions are incorrect Besides the geometry verification and members compatibility made by the program. so that the connection could still be OK. The list of the connections that allow inclination angles are as follows: Connection CA Family Horizontal BCF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Clip (shear) BCW Angle/s BG SP Shear Plate BCF BCW BG 514 Inclination angles Vertical Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Both Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes . A useful tool for this purpose is the that allows the selection of all structure connections that are O. the engineer should verify that the applied connections are able to transfer all the forces between members. The 3D and 2D graphics can be used as a tool to verify the connections appropriateness. respectively. (because of some geometric requirement is not satisfied or the members compatibility does not comply). it is strongly recommended to verify the design status of the resultant connections. TP and SS does not allow axial forces. the engineer should verify that the geometry of the designed connections is appropriate. In this particular case and in all cases in general. When the beam axial load is taken into account for shear connections the program also verifies the flexural and prying action capacities of some connection elements. either horizontal and/or vertical. After connections assignment or after the re-design of groups of connections. or N.K. BP.G. and it is activated after pressing either status display button current load case) or (for the load envelope). the connection drawing could be incorrect. The user could specify special copes in these cases and may independently verify some additional connection capacities. but the connection drawings will clearly show this incompatibility. US. the connection calculations required to guarantee the required ductility prescribed by the code are the responsibility of the engineer. Inclination angles of members (Skew and Slope) Many of the connections allow beam inclination angles. This may lead to the use of thicker plates or the reduction of bolt gages when the connection macro is a design macro. therefore. In these cases the program does not display any error message.G. but the status of the connection is N. An example of such a situation is when the beam flange width is wider than the column internal space in a BCW connection or when there are beams with depths larger than the girder depths they frame into.

End Plate FP Flange Plate BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BCF BCF BCW BCF BCW BG BS CS MA Moment Angles MT Moment BCF BCF Direct Weld BCW No No No 515 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections BS CS EP End Plate SS Stiffened Shr US BCF BCW BG BCF BCW BCF No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No Unstiffened BCW Shr TEE Shear Tee TP Through Plate BP Bent Plate DW EEP Ext.

CVR. 516 . Slope angle for BCF and BCW families. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). Bracing connections VXB braces The CA connection has a 15º skew limit imposed by the code. The inclination angles are considered as follows: Skew angle for BCF and BCW families. Counterclockwise angles are considered positive. Remark: For a correct calculation and graphic representation of the connections. Each BP template connection has the skew angle limits specified in the connection pad. the beam local axis 2 must be coincident with the global Y positive axis (upwards).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Tee CP Cap Plate 4A Four Angles Splice PBr Plate Bracket TBr Tee Bracket CBB Bracing connections CVR beams CBB. No No No BCF No No No BCW No No No BS No No No CC No No No No Yes (20°-70°) No The skew angle in degrees is defined over a horizontal plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis.

When a connection should be assigned with an angle larger than this limit. The maximum angle at which a connection will automatically be considered a beam-column web as opposed to a beam-column flange connection must be defined. For braces: Remarks: • The components of the beam forces (moment. It is the engineer responsibility to verify in each case the additional required capacity verifications due to the inclination angles.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The slope angle in degrees is defined over a vertical plane defined between the local axis of the support and the beam longitudinal axis. Upward angles are considered positive. axial. When only slope angle exists. When skew and slope angles exist. it is treated as if only the slope angle would exist. The worksheet tools should be applied over an existing connection. When only a skew angle exists. the beam forces are conservatively assumed to remain the same. shear) transmitted to the support vary according to the inclination angles. it is considered as rectangular joint. They 517 • . it can be assigned either with the worksheet tools or by changing the members’ geometry temporarily to assign the connection. the beam forces are decomposed over the support axis. that is to say. Its default value is 0º (rectangular joint). This limit is currently assumed to be 44º from the support face (BCF) or from the support side (BCW).

Members with bigger vertical inclination angles are not considered for the connection assignment.BCW BCF.BCW BCF. so you will have a BCF connection with a skew angle greater than 44º.BCW BCF. it will consider it as a sloped beam.BCW bolted bolted welded welded Characteristics to support 518 . If this flag is enabled the program will assume that the member is a brace. /welded welded The following connections allow circular HSS supports: Connection SP TP Family to beam BCF.BCW BCF. BCW bolted/welded bolted bolted bolted/welded bolted/welded bolted/welded welded welded bolted/welded welded welded welded welded welded welded welded bolted (to HSS) welded(to Doubler) welded Characteristics to support CBB Bolted (CA. The following connections allow square or rectangular HSS supports: Connection CA SP TP TEE US SS DW EEP FP (or diaphragm plate) Bracing Family to beam BCF.BCW BCF.BCW BCF. SP). • To differentiate between sloped beams and diagonals.BCW BCF. Otherwise (default option) .Chapter 28: Steel Connections could apply even a BCF connection over a BCW connection. • HSS Section Supports The connections that accept HSS section supports include some specific and other modified capacity verifications in reference to I shape supports. the user should identify the braces with the option located in the worksheet Members\Nodes and Description\Braces. The maximum slope angle allowed for members is 30º.BCW BCF.BCW BCF.

and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial). and may have a tag if it has been specified in the connection pad or in the macro. as the macro code specifies so. but it still has a relation with the macro. It should be noted that the resultant connections of Smart Connections buttons. if the macro is modified after the assignment. the re-design will execute the modified macro. but the model connection itself is stored with the structure and is not linked to the template after assignment. might have differences in the resisting elements (number of bolts. it will be assigned. 519 . the connections will receive also as a description the name of the assignment button. Each connection button in the connections toolbar (either from the Smart Connections or Basic Connections group) is associated with a list of one or more connection templates. Either the assignment method is by group or individually.G. or ratio>max ratio defined by the user). When an assignment button is applied to the model. size and thickness of some pieces) between assignment joint sets. and the program will display a message if the assignment has not been successful. The user has to be aware that the design may not always be successful. so. For moment connections this criterion may not always be conservative. In this way the design is covering the worst possible combination of forces in a conservative way. The user should always check the obtained results to correct or reject the assigned connections that are not acceptable (status = N. The following drawing shows schematically how the selected model joints are grouped when assigning connections by group.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Design Criteria It is important for the user to know exactly how the design process is performed.see the joint grouping graphic below). These differences are expressed in the tag defined in the same macro. Note that the order of the list will give the hierarchy and preference for the connection assignment. When assigning by group. If no connection meets all the requirements. the resultant connections receive the name of the template used for design. If the assignment was by group. therefore. the resultant connections are based on one of the specified connection templates. and the connection template is assigned (after joints are selected) the program will check the templates in the order of the list. the last checked connection in the list would be assigned even if it does not satisfy the force or geometric conditions for all the joint sets. for these connections the program is considering four different combination of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial. As soon as it finds a connection template that complies with the strength requirements and geometrical conditions of all the appropriate joint sets (joints of the same family with identical geometry and inclination angles . Any database connection template may be included in the list of an assignment button.

and minimum moment with maximum and minimum axial load). and it is assumed to be taken by a moment connection when the beam moment value is relevant. and in this case. Joint loads as the M22 bending moment and torsional moment are not considered nor checked in any way during connection design and calculation. In this way the design is conservatively covering the worst possible combination of forces. as the connection is symmetric. are only those shown in the connection pad. accept positive and negative shear loads (reported always as positive values). other connections such as SS or US do not allow negative shear loads. The beam axial force is not taken into account in the shear connections. The design of the shear connections by group considers the load envelope of all the joints on a given assignment set. the beam loads are decomposed over the support axis. particularly when the axial load and slope angle are relevant. The design of the moment connections by group considers the four different combinations of forces (maximum moment with maximum and minimum axial load. the design loads are the result of the most adverse load combination. The joint loads considered for connection design. The load envelope ratio for shear and moment connections could be bigger than the worst load condition stress ratio due to the envelope calculation method. As it was stated in the "Inclination angles of members" section.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Joint grouping when the connections are assigned by group. Some shear connections such as the SP. However. 520 . taking into account only the slope angle.

defining the template lists that will be included in each assignment button.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The next flowchart describes schematically the design procedure that is followed when the connections are designed in groups: Thus the connections design configuration should be executed in two parts: • • The definition of the templates to be used which may or may not include design macros (LEO). The configuration of the different assignment buttons of the toolbar. Remarks: 521 .

Beam . • • In the next sections the parts of the program that can be customized will be explained. Chevron braces (CVR) 9. command as illustrated below: 522 . as it is assumed that the required moment connection will take the axial force. The Connection Template Database RAM Connection ships with an extensive collection of pre-defined connections templates. Consider that the macro (LEO file) can also modify the connection variables.Column Flange (BCF) 2. RAM Connection currently offers engineers the following families of connections. such connections will be displayed with a zero ratio and N. beams and braces (CBB) 8. will only take the shear force and not the axial force. Beam Splice (BS) 5. If after the connection assignation a variable is modified. Column.G. Column Splice (CS) 6. each connection is given one of these designations: 1. remove or modify connections from this provided list of connections. Continuous beam over column (CC) 7. Vertical X braces (VXB) To view all the connection templates that are installed on your computer select the Configuration/Databases/Connections. In the connections reports. etc. Beam .. For example.Column Web (BCW) 3.. The bracing connections where the geometry is imposed (it is not automatically calculated) and/or a load is specified in one connector may generate moments in the gusset-to-column or gusset-to beam connections. Beam – Girder (BG) 4.Chapter 28: Steel Connections • The shear connections assigned to joints where the moment is bigger than a minimum value. status. Single plates or clip angles are not allowed to deal with moments and an error message will be displayed in this case. These moments should be transmitted only by directly welded connections. Database Organization Each connection in the database is categorized according to the family to which it belongs. The connection assignation will be effective only in the joints where the range check of the connection variables is fulfilled. the range for the skew and slope angles. the connection is invalidated and it does not allow reporting data or results and it is not displayed. member section types. The engineer is free to add. and it is out of the valid range.

Moment or Bracing) and type (Shear plate.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Go to Databases/Connections The window that is displayed is the connection-database window. It does not calculate the quantity or dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts. plates etc) to resist the applied forces. the engineer can also create folders where the bracing. The connection templates that are installed with RAM Connection are grouped in two main groups (Smart and Basic connections) and subdivided according to function (Shear. plate sizes etc) to resist the applied forces. However. only for moment and shear connections). end plate etc). 523 . Within each folder is a list of single connection templates. Basic Connection: A connection template that can automatically adjust the geometry (position or dimensions) of the connection pieces to fit the connection members. Two templates with the same name are not allowed. moment and bracing connections separate. even in different folders. It is the engineer’s prerogative how to group templates within a folder. welds. This classification keeps the shear. The folder name should be used as an organizational tool to assist you in grouping connections according to your own practice. moment and shear connection templates are in one folder and even in one connection template (combined connection template. Each connection template in the database can be considered a ‘Basic’ or a ‘Smart’ connection according to the design routines programmed in the macro. Smart Connection: A connection template that can automatically calculate the quantity and dimensions of the connecting pieces (bolts.

However. In fact. each with its own bolt dimension (5/8. 7/8) then put all these connection templates in the list of the appropriate assignment button (see customizing the toolbar) and the first one that works for the selected joint group will be assigned. If a smart connection template does not design the connection the way you would typically like. Note that the items that are optimized in each template are listed. Once again it should be noticed that this organizational structure (separating the smart connection templates from the other connection templates) is not significant in terms of how RAM Connection works. the default Smart DA does not design your bolts size. ¾. if an item is not listed then there is a default value associated with the connection that you can modify as required to suit your requirements: 524 . others may be designed according to geometry. it will make it easier to locate the connections you want to consider for design. The following smart connection templates are included in the program. For example. It is very important to note that in the case of Smart Connections. before creating your own connection database think about how you want to organize the data. but each of these connections contains the intelligence (in its LEO code) to design some of its own properties based on the forces (this is the characteristic that makes them ‘Smart’) and members to which it is assigned. you may create copies of the smart connection with variations on the parameter that you want designed. these are the connection templates assigned to the default connection toolbar that was used in the previous ‘How To’ section. while some of the connection parameters are designed based on the required forces.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The smart connections folders contain a single connection for each family and connection type. To handle this situation create 3 copies of the smart connection template(using the database command Copy the selected object ). the default size is ¾ inch and if the bolts fail they will not be increased in size. The ‘Basic’ connections contain a simple macro that adjusts the dimensions and location of the connection pieces according to the joint members.

BCW. weld size to support welds sizes. weld size to beam for bolted connections and plate size and welds sizes for welded connections tee size. BG shear tee connections Smart SS Smart US Smart DW Smart FP BCF. top and bottom plate sizes bolts sizes. weld size to support number of bolts. pf . BCW. weld size for welded connections and angle size number of bolts and angle size number of bolts. BG welded flange plate connections BCF extended end plate connections BCF bolted moment angle CBB 525 . single plate angle connections BS single plate angle connections BCF. weld size and connector size angle size bolts rows or weld size extended plate size for BCW connections bolts rows. BG directly welded connections BCF. SSP. plate size. plate size number of bolts.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Type of connections (Folder name) Smart DA Family and Description Optimization of the following parameters number of bolts for bolted connections. distances between bolts. BG double angle connections Smart DA Beam splice Smart SP Smart SP Beam splice Smart EP BS double angle bolted connections BCF. type SST. plate size. BCW. BCW unstiffened seated connections BCF. BG. number of bolts for bolted and weld size for welded connections bolts rows . SS2L BCF. BG end plate connections Smart ST BCF. BG bolted flange plate connections Smart FP Smart EEP Smart MA Smart CBB BCF. top and bottom plate thickness. BCW. BCW. bolts spacing. bolts and element thicknesses BCF. BCW stiffened seated connections. BCW. plate size bolt rows and angle size Welds.

.. Remark: The folders where the Connection Database. The following window will appear: 526 . Proceed to the database from Configuration/Databases/Connections. place the cursor in the folder where you want to insert the template. select the option Configuration/General. The connection template name thus reflects the relevant characteristics of the connection. For details please see the dialog help context. the LEO files and the Toolbar are located could be configured. by choosing any required directory. To add a new folder for your connection templates proceed as follows. Press New group button (top of the toolbar) Enter a name for the New folder where you are going to define your connections. Directories configuration Defining Connection Templates The steps to define a connection template and add them to the connection database are discussed next.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Basic connection templates are organized in different folders with the following naming convention: Basic + {Connections type initials} + {connection family} + {connection characteristics}.. Note: if you want to enter a new connection template in an existing folder. Press New item to define a new connection template.. even a network directory. The program will not allow you to enter a template unless there are available folders (groups) already defined and selected. To do this.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Enter a descriptive name for the template connection. Select family. A combined connection is comprised of both a shear and a moment connection. Shear Connection and Moment Connection for a combined connection template. the extended end plate connection is considered a combined connection. and press OK. A simple connection template is comprised of either a shear or a moment connection. For example. Then choose if you want to define a simple or a combined connection template. 527 . The name is used to identify the template and has to be unique in the whole database.

Chevron braces 9. shear web plates are available only in “Beam Splice” or “Column Splice” families.g. Moment or Gusset) will be displayed. beam-to-column-flange. 528 . Beam . Column Splice 6. and for combined connections both connection lists will be displayed (2a and 2b). Vertical X braces (2) Connection Type: For simple connections only the correspondent list (Shear. etc). The 9 available families in the list are: 1. Beam .Girder 4. The drop down list will contain all the available connections depending on the selected family. Beam . Beam Splice 5.: beam-to-girder. Continuous beam over column 7.Column Web 3. The corresponding connection pad with the default data will be displayed. Column.Column Flange 2. beams and braces 8. for example.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Or Select the family and the connection type for a simple connection (1) Family: describes the type of connected members (e. (3) OK: To finish the connection template definition press the OK button.

or size of plates etc. Note: To create a copy of a connection template. place the cursor at the connection that you want to copy and press the You also have the following tools to manage the database: Create a new template folder Create a new template Edit the current template Delete the current template or folder (with all its templates) Rename the current template or folder Move the current folder or template one position up Move the current folder or template one position down Export to the clipboard all the templates of the current folder Import the templates from the clipboard Order alphabetically all folders Order alphabetically all connections of the selected folder If you want to create multiple connection templates that are similar except for one or few parameters (number of bolts. you can use the Copy button. 1) Select the folder you want copied to Excel. The off-white background and DATABASE window title indicate we are creating a connection template for the database. To do this. 529 button as shown below: .) then it may be preferable to use the ability to generate connections in Excel™ as illustrated below.Chapter 28: Steel Connections After pressing the OK button the connection pad is displayed.

press the button “Copy to clipboard”. Each template data corresponds to one table row. Open Excel and paste the information in a worksheet In Excel you will see the templates and its variables names. REMEMBER to name the connections uniquely (maintain the folder name at the beginning of the name). 530 . 4) Then select ALL the information and copy the data to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) 5) In RAM Connection paste the connection templates into the database by pressing the indicated paste button. 3) In Excel modify the desired data.Chapter 28: Steel Connections 2) As illustrated above.

In the case of bolts and welds. bolts and welds RAM Connection already comes with the most common types of bolts. materials. materials and sections. Note: The process to import several connection templates may take some time. go to the desired field and click on the right part of the combo box to access to the item database. In the case of materials and sections of members. the user can edit or define new items in a very similar way as connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The new connection templates will be imported. Databases for sections. 531 . they are extracted from the main program (RAM Advanse or RAM SS). See the main program manual for further details. In the connection pad of any template or model connection. welds.

edit and manage the database. It is located on the right side of the screen and it is comprised of different sections or groups of buttons classified according to their function. A new pad with the data related to the selected item will appear when you edit or create a new item. Connection Toolbar The connection toolbar helps in the design and management of connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections A dialog window will appear with the list of available items and the tool buttons to create. 532 . To display the connection toolbar press the button on the Panels toolbar.

Group 5 Connection group buttons: Select one to show all the connection assignment buttons (Group 6) in the group.1. Group 6 Connection assignment buttons: List of assignment buttons included in the selected button group (Group 5). Here the frequently used commands for the selection of connections are assigned to the following buttons: To select equal connections (all connection parameters as bolts. welds. You can click with the left button of the mouse over each desired connection. To select multiple connections. Each button can have one or more connection templates associated with it that will be assigned to the appropriate selected joints. grouping) or results. so the user has to first select the elements where the desired command will be applied. inclination angles. etc. Group 3 Design and Assignment settings: Assignment and design options Group 4 User group button: By default each assignment button in this group contains a connection set used for optimization in versions prior to v5. press Shift while clicking with the mouse on each connection. Group1: Selection options (connections and joints) This first group of the connection toolbar is devoted for the selection of connections. You can click on the desired connection or you can drag around it with the mouse. are identical) To select all connections of the model To deselect all connections To select all connections with the same tag (same designed elements) The program offers many graphical ways for selecting model connections. The toolbar follows the general rule of 'select and apply'.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar groups Group 1 Selection buttons: Buttons to assist the user in selecting or displaying connections Group 2 Result Display buttons: Buttons to display connection properties (name. members. 533 .

the members and node that make up the joint need to be selected. Note that all the connections that have exactly the same properties. You can find several options for the selection of joints in Tools/Select joints option. Press to select all connections that are identical (in every parameter of the connection pad). in this way a change can be made to multiple connections at one time. will be selected. select an instance of the desired connection and press connections in the model that share the same description will be selected. You can select groups of connections too.Chapter 28: Steel Connections You can make a fence over the desired connections clicking and dragging the mouse from one corner to the other. even if they have different descriptions and template names. 534 . This tool is normally used to select the connections to be detailed after with the command Detailing/Connections… When using the connections detailer the Connection Pad will consider all equal (selected) connections. Available options for the connection selection If you want to select connections by description (remember that a design group has the same in the Selection toolbar. select an instance of the desired connection and go to Tools/Connection Selection and choose the desired option. All description). Selecting joints: Before assigning a connection to a joint.

This tool is very useful if you want to change or modify the design of a group of connections. with special characteristics as a determined range of beam heights and end conditions.. displays the tag of the selected connections. displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the current load condition. The related members and nodes will be highlighted in the model. Note: The beam local axis 2 is supposed vertical.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Available options for the joints selection. Other orientation would lead to nonsense connections. 535 . displays the strength ratio and status of the selected connections for the load envelope. which allows the selection of joints of a particular family. Special selection of joints. Another important option for joints selection is the command Select connection nodes and members in Tools/Connection Selection. Notice that you have a Special selection. Group2: Result display options The second group is devoted for the display tools: colors the selected connections by description. option. Notice that you can limit the selection by beam depth and beam end conditions. displays graphically the number and template name of the selected connections.. Then you can erase the connections of the selected joints and/or proceed with a new design by pressing any assignment button of the connection toolbar.

In this case the program will redesign all the selected 536 . and the user wants to find all the connections that have similar designs so as to assist in determining an appropriate grouping of connections. Note also that connections with the same tag could have different connection data as for example the members sections. certain parameters are designed by the LEO Macro (plate thickness. To select connections by status. you have to first display the status and capacity ratio of the connections using the (current load condition) or (envelope of load conditions) buttons of the connection toolbar . This tool is useful when connections are designed individually. including the maximum allowable strength ratio and load conditions to be considered. Note that the tag text that is displayed is defined in the LEO code with the command Tag = 'string to be displayed' or in the Connection Pad. This will enable the to select all the OK connections or press buttons at the top of the graphic screen. bolts. to define the design criteria to be adopted. to assign the same description to the selected connections. but all must have been designed with the same assignment button. For basic connections this button will show the connection template name.) connections. they are automatically given a description consisting of the assign button name plus a sequential number. Display of the connection number and the template name (for smart connections). This tool is very useful when the model is re-analyzed due to changes in model geometry.Chapter 28: Steel Connections When a smart connection template is assigned. so the text to be displayed may be modified by the user. to redesign connections. Press the button to display graphically the number and template name of the selected connections. Press the to select all the not good (N. Note that when the connections were designed by group. welds etc). The same description can be given to several connections to group them for design purposes to ensure the same designs during assignment. loads or member sections. Group3: Design and Assignment settings The third group of buttons is used in the design of connections. The available buttons are: to specify if connection design on selected joints will be made by group (button lifted) or individually (button depressed). The user can get quick visual feedback of the designed parameters by pressing the button which displays a line summary (tag) with the value of the designed parameters on the selected connections.G. For details see the How to Use RAM Connection? section at the beginning of this chapter. Press to select all smart connections with the same designed elements (expressed in the tag).

the user has to select absolutely all the connections of the original design groups. Customizing the connection toolbar It is important that the connection toolbar be configured according to your practice and preferences. Remember that the template position determines the order in which these templates will be attempted.. 2. This command performs the following actions in each design group: 1. option. If the connections descriptions (groups). Groups4. the user might get results different from the original design. Selection of their joints. 3. Deletion of the current connections. this command is equivalent to re-assign the original template (run the macro). moment and bracing connections in different groups or smart connections and basic connections in different groups. 537 . Warning! To maintain the original design criteria. The engineer may choose to configure the shear. Remark: For individually designed connections. Application of the original design button. go to the main menu. the available assignment buttons on the toolbar (group 6 of the connection toolbar) will change to reflect the group selected. To configure the connections toolbar. the assignment buttons of each group button. This command is equivalent to reassigning the connections to the joints in their original groups (same description). even if loads or members have not been changed. The configuration of the toolbar determines the group buttons. or the list of templates of the assignment buttons were modified after the assignation..5: Groups of Connection Assignment Buttons The user can create its own groups of connection assignment buttons (see Customizing the toolbar next). The connections toolbar configuration window will appear with the current configuration of the toolbar. the templates macros.Chapter 28: Steel Connections connections considering the new loads and/or geometry of the model. and select Configuration/Connections /Customize Toolbar. and the list of connection templates that will be associated with each assignment buttons. which is equivalent to applying each template on the button list. By selecting one of the group buttons.

The toolbar root folder corresponds to the connection toolbar Group 4 (See the connection toolbar groups at the beginning of this section). any assignment button placed in root folder will always appear on the toolbar Group 4. You will be asked for the name of the new Dialog window asking the name of the new group. place the cursor on the group where you want the new button to be placed. 538 . on the right (2) you will find the group buttons (with the assignment buttons inside) and finally in the middle (3). To create a new assignment button.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection toolbar configuration window. button. You can create a new group button with the group. irrespective of which ‘group’ of assignment buttons is selected. On the left pane of the window (1). you have all the available database connection templates. therefore. you have the tools to configure the toolbar.

Press the button to include the current template in the button list (2).Chapter 28: Steel Connections For example locate a new assignment button in the recently created group. and to move the or erase a button or a template Notice that all buttons that are created have by default the same bitmap. Then go to the list of available connections of the database and choose the templates for the button (1). If you want to sort the templates use the buttons selected template up or down. Note that if you have selected a folder of the database. all the connection templates of the folder will be assigned to the button keeping the same order as the database (3). It is very important to specify the order of the templates within a list because this order will be used for the assignment. Select the connection templates you want associated with the button “ My Button” in the group “My Group”. Then press the button and enter the name of the new button. The user can define the bitmap to be associated for each button with the tool 539 . You can also insert a separator between buttons with the tool with the tool .

You have several ready-to-use choices in the SmartConn folder. Connection Worksheet The data of the currently selected connections is displayed in the connection worksheet. the connections will always be designed individually no matter if the design individually button in the toolbar is depressed or not. The connections worksheet is displayed by pressing the Conn tab. Notice that you can draw your own bmp´s with any drawing application like Microsoft Paint. connections can be assigned using the worksheet. Assigning connections to the model using the worksheet Once connections templates have been created in the database. A single connection.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The bitmap has to be a bmp file of 22x22 pixels. 540 . unlike other model connections. has not been assigned by an assignment button. It is also possible to use the connection worksheet to assign "single" connections or delete connections. Note that if assigned from the worksheet.

Assign selected connection template to model Select members and nodes where you want the connection designed. In the worksheet database area select the desired connection template to be assigned. This is because the redesign button (in the connections toolbar) does not display warning messages for these connections when they are inadequate (NG). The steps to assign single connections to a model are shown below.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note: It is recommended to interact and verify the status of the single connections in the model separately from the other model connections. You can select several members and nodes at once. Press the button to assign the template connection. There is also a way to replace existing connections that is explained below down. 541 .

Therefore. If the user is going to assign a Beam to Girder connection. Trying to do so will have no effect and it will be ignored (no message is displayed). in 542 . otherwise the Beam to Girder connection will not be assigned.Chapter 28: Steel Connections The single connections are assigned. Therefore. the girder must be defined in RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System as a physical member. Otherwise. This command will only assign connections where it is possible. For example. one of the main functions of the assign button the worksheet is to test and assign recently created templates. you can select indiscriminately a large group of members and nodes and the connection will only be applied where that connection is possible. When a new connection template is created it can be directly assigned to a joint with the assign button of the worksheet. the connection toolbar has to be configured to consider the new template in an assignment button. you cannot assign a column splice connection on a beam to girder joint.

they can also be deleted with the worksheet tool the end of the worksheet. To delete a connection of the model select it and press . It is recommended to only change the description when two or more identical groups/connections need to be grouped together and designed as one new group. or when several identical model connections are selected and the detailing command is invoked from the main menu. buttons to This tool is very useful to replace existing connections with other connections of the same family. . However the engineer should be aware that the description for these connections is used to identify the design groups and will be used also for the redesign of connections (redesign tool of the connections toolbar). It is accessed when any template of the database is edited. The connection pad has the following areas: 543 .Chapter 28: Steel Connections Replace (all) the current selected connection (s) This option allows you to replace one or all the model connections currently selected and displayed in the connection spreadsheet. Note that it is not possible to assign a template from another family. because the user only needs to select the connections and not the members and the nodes.. If only connections have been selected. or many model connections with the connections detailer. Connection Pad The connection Pad is required for the creation of templates for the database and also to review/edit a model connection. Another method to assign the same description (CNX1.. when the user double clicks a model connection. This button will delete only the selected connections even if members. Assign connection description It is possible to modify or assign the descriptions of your model connections. Press one of the replace one or all of the selected model connections respectively. even if connections with lower value labels are deleted. To assign the same description to the currently selected connections you may copy them to the clipboard (Ctrl+C) and then paste them to all the desired connections (Ctrl+V). Deleting model connections. button at Note: The connection label (identification number) once assigned to a model connection does not change. shells and nodes are also selected. CNX2. Alternatively the engineer can type any description label into the spreadsheet description column. CNXn) to the currently selected connections (recommended only for single connections) is to apply the assign description button from the worksheet or connections toolbar. In the worksheet select the desired connection template to replace..

any change in this data will not be permanent. English and SI. The following connection data should be provided: Units system. When creating a template ( icon). LEO file.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connection pad. and the all the specific data required in Shear. Notes: All data with the icon (when editing model connections) is passed to the connection pad directly from RAM Advanse or RAM Structural System. as they are updated every time a report or graphical presentation is required. only shear load is allowed. the joint loads are passed to the connection automatically. The loads can be entered in a worksheet that enables only certain loads according to the selected connection i. Used to display information about the specific item selected in the properties area. Used to display the entered data in 3D or 2D. 544 . 2) Drawing area. 1) Properties area. as they will be modified for each model joint.. Moment or connections. Used to enter connection information. The available codes are ASD and LRFD. Remember also that the LEO file (macro) offers the engineer the possibility to program the template to automatically calculate some of the connection properties. This feature will be explained in detail below and in the LEO Chapter. Tag. Code. Note that when editing model connections. Loads. 3) Help area. 1: Properties area In this section the user enters all the necessary data to define the connection template (or reviews/modifies the properties of the selected model connections). these data are not required. in a bracket plate connection. When editing a model connection.e. The available units systems are Metric.

For example (If the current units system is English): Entering “1. If you are creating a connection template in the database through the connection pad. the default units would be m. which could be different from the current units system. inches or mm. according to the current units system. the default units when editing the property will be cm. if big units would have been used (as meters or feet). m. Press to view the 3D model of the joint or press to view the 2D drawing of the joint at the bottom part of the window. 2: Drawing area In this part of the Connection Pad a true 3D or 2D visual representation of the selected connection is shown.1 ft” in Setback means 0. the currently shown units will be considered for the value. as required.5” in Setback means 1. (as edge distances. If you enter a property value with small units. The following length units are displayed according to the unit system selected. You may also enter a value with its own units. this will not change the units of the property (in this case a length measure will not be changed to a force measure). it is filled with the default connection properties values. on the other hand. Note: All the connection properties with units. for example. plate length. a dimension in centimeters for example. enter the information for one or for both options. 545 . English: in. Also.5 kip” for a length. m. feet or m.1 feet (the default unit becomes “ft”). in this case the program will transform the entered value to the current units system. Notice that the current units of each property are shown beside their value. select ASD and provide all the connection data.5 inches Entering “0. then change to LRFD and enter the data that is different or is not required in the ASD code. If you want to enter information for both codes.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Templates could be used with either ASD or LRFD code. you should assign your required sections and materials. Notice that you can only see one representation at a time. Although this is accepted. the resulting value may not be the expected. the first time the connection pad is displayed. Notice that the program will allow you to enter. Metric: cm.) will show their value and will be edited according to the current units system. ft. etc. Consider that this modification is applied only to the template or model connection currently being modified. If you want to see it drawn with some specific member sections (and materials) or if you want to get preliminary or test reports. If you enter a value without units. “1. SI: mm. Choose the unit system of your preference to enter and display the connection data.

Chapter 28: Steel Connections 3D view of a Single Plate BCF. To zoom. The following buttons are used to zoom and rotate the view of the connection: Connection pad tools to zoom and rotate the connection 3D representation. press one of the following buttons: Zoom in. 2D Drawing with different views and the option to export as a DXF file. You may view the connection transparent (3D view). Connection pad tools for the 2D views. 546 .

Zoom fence. you may do this with a right-click over the center of the drawing. the engineer can use the wheel to rotate. Notice that the new positions are not saved and this should be done prior to printing or exporting the drawing. make the drawing area active. Print graphics Print current graphic. Press . This button allows you to print the graphics of the screen directly. use the mouse wheel. 547 . Press this button to return the currently displayed structure to the full window space image. 3: Help area In this section of the Connection Pad the help information related to the selected data in the Properties area is displayed: Click the button to return to the previous explanation of the help window. The graphic will be available to open with any CAD program. Font Size Increase the font size for the graphic in the screen. in the screen plane. If a mouse wheel is available . Fit in window. First. use the Ctrl-Shift-mouse wheel combination. Panning To pan (move the drawing across the screen). zoom in or out. in the plane perpendicular to the screen. DXF files This module has the option to export graphics to DXF. To rotate vertically.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Zoom out. and save it. Reduce the font size for the graphic in the screen. Press this button and drag a fence around the area you want to zoom in on. You can reposition the dim lines when this option is enabled. Activate and inactivate graphic layers. To rotate horizontally. To rotate vertically. use the right mouse button to click on the location you want to be centered on the screen. To zoom. name the file. use the Shift-mouse wheel combination. Activate and inactivate edges movement. use the Ctrl-mouse wheel combination.

Click this button to prevent from saving all the data that has been entered or modified in the Connection Pad. if the green light is on. LEO Code (macros) The macro files for connections may be created to be used for a variety of conditions with formulae to calculate some connection data per user’s specifications. Push this button to display the Drawing area (2D view).Chapter 28: Steel Connections Click the button to print the current explanation of the help window. Edit the desired connection template and in the Connection Pad choose the LEO file that you want to adopt for the connection clicking the right side of the LEO file entrance box to display the LEO window. You can select the macro file that will be adopted for each connection template. Push this button to display the Help area. it shows that the status and strength ratio of the connection are no good. Pull the button to hide it. Push this button to display the Drawing area (3D view). Pull it to hide the Help area. When the yellow light is on. 548 . Notice that you have a status traffic light at the bottom right of the toolbar. the connection design status is OK. Click this button to see the connection data report. Click this button to see the model connection results report. the strength ratio is OK but there is a design requirement not fulfilled and finally. If the red light is on. Pull the button to hide it. The Connection Pad also has a toolbar in the bottom part of the window. which has different functions: Toolbar of the Connection Pad (when editing a model connection) Click this button to save all the data entered or modified in the Connection Pad.

Therefore. the Single Plate – BCW (beam-column web) cannot share the same LEO file with the Single Plate . For example. Note: When redesigning model connections.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Window to select and manage the LEO file (macros) Note that only the available LEO files for the specific type of connection that is being edited will be displayed. it can Edit LEO File Command of the Connection Pad. For example.BCF (beam-column flange) connection. if the LEO files referenced by the connections have been modified. The LEO Code can always be edited or changed to suit the specific design procedures of the user or the user’s company. where you can enter formulae. you may get different results based on the modifications made to the LEO file. The LEO window will be LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2). select an all bolted double angle shear connection template beam to column flange family (DA BCF All Bolted Connection in the Smart DA Database folder) and edit the following macro: DA BCF BOLT. The user can create a new LEO file with the be edited with the displayed: New File Command. LEO code is executed. Once the file is created. Notice that the following parameters are designed in the macro: Number of bolts on both sides of the angles (to the beam and to the support) Angle thickness 549 .

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Note that the remaining parameters (i. In this case. bolt spacing. the bolt size. materials. In this example. • Macro main design procedure. Heading of the design procedure. Each user can customize this part of the LEO code to reflect the preferred design criteria and the angle sizes and bolt diameters to be considered in the design. which defines the adopted design variables of the connection. Main hypothesis or conditions required for the macro. Please review the LEO Chapter together with the given examples for further applications.e. The LEO Code determines the parameters that will be designed: In the example you can find the following parts in the LEO code: 1. etc) are constant and are defined in the template. the angles have to be bolted to the support and to the beam. 550 . where the used code is indicated: 2. Note that the LEO Code is very flexible and allows considering any design criteria. the angle thickness and the number of bolts will be calculated according to the required loads.

(not good). at the bottom of the report. The results report provides all the connection capacity values for each load condition or for the load envelope depending on the option selected in the dialog Loads specification for report before the pad was opened. To obtain model connection reports for a group of connections. the status of the connection will change to N. The second section of the report checks that the critical dimensions are within allowable code prescribed ranges or geometrical requirements. the status of the connection will reflect it. this check will indicate if a plate exceeds the support width) in which case a warning message will also be reported. You can press: or . invalidating the connection.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Connections Reports You can obtain connection reports from the Connection Pad or from the program main menu. RAM Connection also offers the possibility to have detailed or summary reports of several connections. To obtain data or results reports from the Connection Pad. The third section shows the different capacity checks that are performed comparing the calculated capacity of the connection with the connection required force. Finally. The data report provides the full description of the connection(s) considering the geometry and characteristics of the members and connection elements. At the beginning of the report there is a list of the load conditions considered. the most critical strength ratio and the status of the connection are reported. If any capacity is not sufficient. select the desired connections and go to Reports/Connections design… 551 . If a dimension is out of range.G. There is also a geometric verification to see the compatibility of the connection with the members (for example. or creating/editing a connection template in the database. either you are reviewing/editing a model connection or a group of identical model connections (Detailing connections).

Chapter 28: Steel Connections Select the type of report. H. 1994. Volume II . L. 2nd Edition. The detailed report always considers the connections load envelope of the selected load conditions. Design Loads for Seated-beam in LRFD. 552 . AISC. Engineering Journal. by type. and R. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Extended End-Plate Moment Connections. Load and Resistance Factor Design. You can specify if the connections will be grouped by tag. Manual of Steel Construction. 2001. and Sputo Thomas. 1994. AISC. 1990. 2nd Edition. while the rest of reports are a review of the design that include the strength ratio and status considering the selected load conditions. by family. Manual of Steel Construction. so. The Connectors report is a summary of all the connectors with their main characteristics (note that the connections are grouped according to the listed parameters. 3rd Edition. References The used references are: AISC. Steel Design Guide Series 4. Garret. Ellifritt Duane S. April. Brockenbrough. 1986. Manual of Steel Construction.Connections. Note that you have an option to report a list of joints.. JR. summary or detailed. Design Criteria for Stiffened Seated Connections to Column Webs. New Orleans. Murray Thomas M. within the connections of a group there could be differences in the parameters not listed). by description or connectors. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 1998 J. AISC. AISC. Proceedings of NSCC Sponsored by AISC. 1-3.

The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Connections. American Institute of Steel Construction. J.E. Thornton. Henderson. Proceedings of the 1991 National Steel Construction Conference. McGraw Hill. Chicago. Donald R.22. 1997. pp. Loescher Michael.A Design Guide.Hollow Structural Sections Connections Manual.. 1999 Sherman. 2003. Dowswell Bo. University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee.Connections and Trusses . The Design of Shear Tabs with Tubular Columns. Master of Engineering Project.Chapter 28: Steel Connections Akbar R. Joseph M. Structural Design Solutions. Ales. AISC . J. IL. Hollow Structural Section .1. Sherman. 1990. R. Handbook of Structural Steel Connection Design and Details. 1999.1-1. AISC. 1991.A.. 1997. Bull Moose Tube Company. Packer. LLC.. Bull Moose Tube HSS Connections Manual. Connection Design for Steel Structures (Lecture Notes). M Ales. D. and J. Tamboli. William A. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. 553 .

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The data input is performed through drop-down windows or multiple options in the pad. sliding and soil pressures). 2) Verification and Detailing Once the wall is defined. Similar to the other design modules. the aim of this one is to obtain a fully functional and economic retaining wall according to the code practice and the office standards of the engineer. geometry. The report or the Design Screen will show the different diagrams and strengths of the elements of the wall according to the adopted codes (ACI 318 or MSJ). once the geometry is totally defined. hypothesis and methods adopted.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Chapter 29: Retaining Walls This chapter describes the options available in the module for the design and detailing of retaining walls. All data entries as the material properties. You can review the Chapter related to the general characteristics of the detailing modules for more details about their management and organization. Design steps 1) Data introduction The user has to enter the required data related to the geometry and characteristics of the desired wall before performing the analysis and design of the wall. 3) Optimization The optimization process can be achieved in two phases by two tool buttons: 1) suggest geometry to comply with global stability requirements starting from the given retained height and loads and 2) suggest reinforcement. Terminology The following names have been adopted for the different parts or elements of a wall: • • • • Toe Heel Stem Key 555 . Technical notes Warning! It is suggested to read carefully this notes before using the module because they summarize the scope. which is performed in the detailing window. and design parameters may be modified at any moment before and after the analysis. The report shows additionally the results of the global verifications (overturning. you can proceed with the analysis and verifications.

Graphical input of wall loads and geometry Context sensitive help Backfill with multiple horizontal soil layers (up to 5 layers) Sloped backfill (only positive slopes are allowed) Surcharge (on both sides of the wall) Options to define cantilever. General The general characteristics of the module are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analysis and design of reinforced or unreinforced concrete or masonry retaining walls . at rest pressures) 556 . Different parts of a retaining wall. EFP (Equivalent Fluid Method). unreinforced concrete or masonry materials (only for stem blocks) are allowed Axial loads on the stem are considered (with or without eccentricity) Wind lateral pressures Includes moment and shear diagrams Influence of adjacent footings Different theories for calculating lateral soil pressures (Rankine. gravity or restrained retaining walls (with a lateral restraint and pinned or fixed base) Tapered stems or stems with several blocks of uniform thickness Hydrostatic water pressure (no seepage) Reinforced concrete.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls The front face corresponds to the side of the toe and the posterior face to the heel and backfill side. Coulomb.

the program has different options for their calculation (see configuration window). stem lateral loads and sloped backfill. ACI 31899 (ACI 1999). In concrete retaining walls the axial loads are not considered in the design. Building Code Requirements for Masonry structures. adjacent footing loads. Loads The module works with surcharges on both sides of the wall.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • • • • Seismic load (with the Mononobe-Okabe method considering a single homogeneous backfill layer without cohesion). stem axial loads. ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02 reported by MSJC.04*H for cohesive soils. The strength capacities table presented for masonry. This method does not consider the wall –soil friction.01*H to 0. Earth pressures Considering that lateral earth pressures are the most significant load in a retaining wall. This implies to have an amount of lateral translation in the order of 0.001*H to 0.004*H for granular soils and 0. Rankine Method: It is used for walls that are allowed to have a lateral displacement big enough to produce an active earth pressure. Stem axial loads Axial loads at the stem are always considered for the global stability of the wall and in the design of masonry stem blocks. Wall tilt calculations (deflections) DXF export of the main graphics Option to save and retrieve data and results Detailed report Limitations The features not covered by the module are: • • • • Alternate retaining walls or counterfort and buttressed reinforced concrete walls Walls modeled with springs (possible for next version) Shear reinforcement Restrained walls can not have multiple restraints (multi-level basement walls) Design Codes The currently implemented codes for retaining wall design are: • • American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. 557 . Only positive eccentricities are allowed for axial loads (from the center line to the left) because this is critical for global stability checks. includes the maximum allowable axial load and the strength ratio taking into account the compression and flexure interaction.

where φ is the friction angle. several references do not recommend it because it does not take into account the soil properties. to avoid the presence of water on backfills due to economic reasons. Although the presence of water is considered by the program it is suggested. Bowles (1995) gave some suggestions depending on the soil types. Backfill with cohesive soils: Although this type of backfills are not recommended. The user can. Drains or any other technical alternative may be used to solve this problem. the program is able to consider the cohesion of the soil layers of the backfill. Although this method is common. At rest pressure: This option is used mostly for restrained walls or walls where the lateral displacements are negligible. β is the slope angle of the backfill. In this case the lateral at-rest soil coefficient (Ko) is adopted. define any appropriated value for this parameter. Effect of water in earth pressures: The presence of water is considered as an hydrostatic pressure without considering any seepage for the calculation of the destabilizing pressures. however. Equivalent Fluid Pressure (EFP): This method assumes that the soil behaves as a fluid with an equivalent unit weight related to the lateral earth pressure coefficient multiplied by the soil unit weight (pressure per unit depth).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Coulomb Method: It is used with the same considerations of the Rankine method. This option is found in the configuration window. The only difference is that it considers the wall-soil friction (δ). The program considers a default value equal to (1-sin φ)*(1+sin β). 558 . whenever is possible. The section adopted for this verification is coincident with the back face of the stem instead of the vertical section at the end of the heel: Lateral earth pressures and their horizontal distances to point O. In this case it is suggested to neglect the tension zone for the active soil pressures where cracks may be formed in the soil-wall interface. It is important to remark that lateral earth pressure calculations for the global stability of the wall do not consider the heel of the wall (see next figure). In this case the water level should be defined and it has to coincide with any interface between soil layers. The reason is that any soil beneath the water level will have a different unit weight (saturated) than a similar soil located over the water level.

which has a distance shown in the former figure. It is important to note that the Boussinesq method requires the value of the Poisson constant and it will have a big influence on the calculated pressures. an equivalent lateral soil pressure coefficient will be calculated and the inclination angle of the resultant force will be coincident with the backfill slope similarly to the Rankine method. Resisting pressures: There are three options to consider the resisting pressures in the case of the overturning check: Do not consider any pressure. the value of this property has to be selected carefully considering that it will be taken constant for all soil layers independently of the number of adopted soil layers. If the EFP method is used. Bowles (1997) gives different suggestions for this value. sliding or soil pressure checks. 1997). The height that will be adopted for the resisting earth pressures will be equal to the depth of the foundation base minus the undermining depth. strip footings. Water level is not considered for the resisting forces being on the safe side. concentrated loads). Adjacent footings: The program offers different options to consider the influence of adjacent footings (rectangular footings.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Use of vertical component for stability checks: The program allows to choose if the vertical component of earth pressures will be considered for overturning. The different options are available in the configuration window. The two available methods for the calculation of the lateral pressures are Spangler (1956) and Boussinesq (suggested by Bowles. lineal loads. Therefore. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. This will depend only on the engineering judgment. The program will automatically calculate the lateral pressures of the adjacent footing and will add them to the lateral earth pressures. Both methods are based on the Theory of Elasticity. The decision will depend on the engineering judgment. This depth is also defined in the configuration window. It is important to note that the location of the vertical component will be normally at the heel edge for all earth pressure calculation methods on exception of the Coulomb method. 559 .

Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Lateral earth pressures due to adjacent footing load Weight: It will be calculated based on the unit weights of the different materials of the wall. The method uses the ratio of the horizontal earthquake acceleration component and the acceleration due to gravity (kh). These are normalizing factors for construction of smoothed elastic response spectra for ground motions of normal duration.1 to 0. The precision will be limited to the calculated pressures at those points. It considers the calculation of the increased earth pressures (in walls that may yield laterally) and the inertial forces of the wall due to self-weight. the wet soil unit weight will be adopted for all layers over the water level and the submerged unit weight (saturated unit weight minus water unit weight) for the rest of the layers. no water table and no liquefaction possibility. It is important to remark that the obtained diagram is closer to the real soil diagram because it has no abrupt changes. Effect of calculation points over the theoretical pressure diagram.2SQR(Av)/Aa/Delta)0. the obtained pressure diagram (red line) and the theoretical pressure diagram (gray) for three soil stratum.25 Where Aa. The method is limited only for cohesion-less material. Precision of the lateral earth forces calculation: The pressures will be calculated on a maximum of 20 equally distant points.05 to 0. The following figure describes the effect of the calculation points (black squares). 560 . For the backfill. covering the whole height of the wall.40) or can be calculated as: kh=Aa*(0. Seismic Load The program may consider seismic loads using an extension of the Coulomb´s active earth pressure theory using the Mononobe-Okabe equation including the modifications of Seed and Whitman. The EPV is proportional to spectral ordinates at a period of about 1 sec.5 sec. It consists in the calculation of the coefficient for combined active and earthquake forces (Kae). The EPA is proportional to spectral ordinates for periods in the range of 0. This value is normally tabulated (common values are in the range of 0. Av are Effective peak acceleration and effective peak velocity They are dimensionless coefficients representing the Effective Peak Acceleration (EPA) and the Effective Peak Velocity (EPV).

Delta is the maximum lateral displacement during the earthquake. the program will consider the element as a plain concrete member. The shear strength is determined according to Section 22. Design of components of the wall The different elements of the wall (stem blocks.4. The equation used for Kae is: Where: φ is the friction angle. When Kae is calculated.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Both factors (Aa and Av) are given by the Applied Technology Council or the local building codes like the BOCA seismic maps for most regions in the United States. it is assumed that ∆Pae acts at 0. kv is the vertical seismic component. More details of this method may be found in Das (1995). The program allows to set different materials for stem blocks: reinforced concrete. toe. Load factor combinations for concrete design: They are used for the design of the different (reinforced) concrete elements of the wall. Allowable stress design combinations for masonry design: Note that only the combinations of this set will be considered in the masonry design. The flexure strength is defined with the tension strength given in Section 22. Load Combinations The module has up to three groups of load combinations: Service Combinations: They are used for global checks and for the deflections calculation. Finally. α is the internal slope angle of the stem (related to the horizontal plane). heel or key) may have reinforcement and should always be checked for flexure and shear. The adopted method for the design of this material is the limit states design. ∆Pae=Pae-Pa. Their names start with “R”. The program assumes kv=0. β is the slope angle. Chapter 22 of the ACI-318 specifications will be adopted.5. plain concrete or masonry. Their names start with “A”. 561 . Their names start with “S”. In this case.6*H. δ is the soil-wall friction angle and θ is defined as the arctan (kh/(1-kv)).5. while for the foundation base only concrete materials are allowed. It is important to know that the combinations may be automatically generated with the load combination generator.2 of the Code. Unreinforced Concrete Design If no reinforcement is defined. The rest of the design considerations are similar to the ones adopted for concrete design. the active force per unit width of the wall including the seismic effect (Pae) is calculated and the seismic force (∆Pae) is obtained by subtracting Pa to Pae.

The wall is calculated as a slab in one direction.7 are fully implemented.3) compression reinforcing will be added. The option is available in the configuration window.1 of the code. In the event that the area of reinforcing required for flexural design exceeds the allowed limit of 0.75ρb (ACI 10. The program does not consider stirrups or any other shear reinforcement.1. flexure. For the summary output in the main program. particularly the use of the equivalent rectangular stress distribution. This is established according to Section 11. The critical sections for shear may coincide with the flexure sections or they me be localized at a distance d (effective depth) from the face of support.2.3.1xLength) The following figure illustrates the critical sections that are normally adopted to check the different wall components for flexure. The development lengths are calculated according to Chapter 12 of the code and the critical sections are the same as the ones considered for flexure.3. It does not consider either any special consideration for the reinforcement in seismic areas. This can be avoided if the engineer increases the dimensions of the section or increases the concrete strength sufficiently.2. The program does not consider any extra reinforcement to resist axial loads (in tension or compression). Critical sections for flexure design The shear design of the different reinforced concrete elements is performed according to Chapter 11 of the ACI code.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the different elements of reinforced concrete has the following characteristics: The flexural design is based on the simplified rectangular stress assumption as described in ACI 10. The program checks the strength along the whole length of each element considering that the reinforcement may change due to cut offs and it is performed for all load cases and combinations selected from the print reinforced concrete design dialog. 562 .7. shear and torsion design is performed at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. The design assumptions of ACI 10.

10. which at the same time are used for determining the allowable axial load. Retaining Wall Design/Detailing Module This section describes the available options in the retaining wall design/detailing module. k = ratio of the depth of the compressive stress block to the total depth from compression face to the reinforcing steel (d). b= width of the member effective in compression.5-40 is a concrete masonry unit with f’m = 1500 psi and FS = 20000 psi that corresponds to a grade 40 steel. As in many other detailing modules. The masonry below the neutral axis is assumed cracked. An allowable axial load (Pa) is calculated. The resisting moments for masonry and reinforcement (Mrm and Mrs respectively) are calculated together with the corresponding stresses (fb and fs): Mrs = Fs*As*j*d Mrm = Fb*k*j*b*d² Where Fs = allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement. where Fv is the allowable shear stress. The user is responsible to adopt a correct value for the thickness according to the nominal thickness of the masonry available in the market. The program data base includes a small set of masonry materials that have the following nomenclature: BM XX-YY or CM XX-YY Where B= concrete masonry units. This value depends strictly on the masonry geometry and normally has a fixed value. The smaller of the resisting moments is the allowable moment. For example. Ma = min(Mrm.1.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Reinforced Masonry Design The design of the masonry stem blocks are performed with the following specification: 2002 version of the Building Code Requirements for Masonry reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee. materials and reinforcement (if required) and the program will check the condition of the wall for any 563 . The reinforcement development length and the splices are calculated according to Section 2. The allowable shear force (Va) is calculated as: Va = Fv*b*d. The net thickness is normally given by the supplier and depends on the type of grout (full or partial). The basic equations assume that the plane sections remain plane after bending. shear and flexure design is performed according to Section 2. Only rectangular sections are considered. where the user enters the geometry. Mrs). Fb = allowable compressive stress due to flexure only. the modulus of elasticity is constant. The adopted method is the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and therefore. BM 1. The flexure design is performed with a transformed section. and completely bonded reinforcement. C = clay masonry units. The axial. ACI 530-02. together with an allowable shear stress (Fv) and an allowable compression stress due to flexure (Fb). This parameter together with the net thickness is used for the calculation of the net area and net inertia. XX = specified compression strength in ksi and YY is the grade of the reinforcement steel in ksi. the program will request a special load combination group for the design of these special elements. the design is a trial and error process. masonry does not resist tension forces. No special consideration is adopted for seismic loads. j = ratio of the distance between centroid of flexural compressive forces and centroid of tensile forces to the distance d. Another parameter that must be selected with caution is the reinforcement spacing.3 of the Code. stresses are proportional to strains.

In the data screen 3 different areas may be distinguished: 564 . This module is independent of the main program (no data from the main model is used ) and it is called selecting the command Detailing/Retaining Walls… from the main menu. Calling the retaining wall module from the main menu. Data Screen The first screen that is accessed after calling the module is the data screen that is used for the introduction of geometrical data. materials or loads. In this way the user may optimize the design of the wall. Initial screen of the module: Data Screen.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls applied load cases. This screen allows you to easily modify or define the dimensions and loads of the wall.

as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or edit this value. in red text. The help window (C). shows the information about the selected current item in the property window (A). 565 . The user can modify all the properties. Help (C) The property window (A). Graphic (B) 5. Some options will only appear for certain options or loads. through this window. represents the whole information entered in the property window like geometry and assigned loads. The graphic window (B).Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Data screen with 3 different windows 3. Properties (A) 4. is used for introducing all the necessary information related to the retaining wall. this window may change as data are being entering.

After entering all the data. you can see the design or detailing screen. 566 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Every item in the Pad is included in the help context. which involves an automatic calculation of the wall.

those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: 567 .Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design Screen Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the Design Screen. The user can view the combined diagrams too. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time. thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required strength) curve and the capacity (actual strength) curve. This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the retaining wall.

The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. Traffic Lights 568 . the green light indicates that the design status of the wall is OK.e. A special option is available that allows to simultaneously check the diagrams for all elements of the wall. Notice the existence of a “traffic lights” in the top right corner. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition. This is an indicator of the design status where: the red light indicates that the relationship between stresses is greater than one or the global stability checks are no good. This helps in getting a global picture of the strength status. The yellow light indicates that the adopted reinforcement arrangement is no good (i. thus it fails.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Combined bending moment and simple shear diagram Note that at the top left corner you can select the element of the wall that will be considered for displaying the diagrams. Finally. the reinforcement extends out of the wall).

The following window will be displayed where the desired bar sizes for the different bar groups are introduced. 569 . Notice that there are three ways to define the reinforcement in a retaining wall: • Using the Suggest Reinforcement Button . A CAD file will be created and may be edited with any drafting software.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars adopted for the retaining wall. Both longitudinal and transverse reinforcements are shown on this screen. Note that the user can export the figure by pressing the DXF button.

The following data are required for each group: bar size. • Using the Define Continuous or Discontinuous Reinforcement buttons ( . ).It is important to define also the free covers to be adopted for the different wall elements with the button . This method allows to define any type of reinforcement. spacing. Remark. axis of reference. the required reinforcement for the whole wall will be automatically designed. The program will show a dialog window to define the bar sizes together with bar spacings. This option do not include the required reinforcement for masonry stem blocks or reinforced concrete keys. Note that when you enter the first value of a new group of reinforcement.. The reinforcement of these elements should be defined with the other choices after the use of the present tool. distance to the end point and flags to define if the ends are hooked or not. 570 . • Independently on how have you defined your reinforcement. The program will automatically calculate the required bar lengths to cover the geometry and conditions of the wall.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls When you press the OK button. distance to the start point. you can edit the values in the worksheet to control exactly the lengths and positions of the different bar groups. This option is used when a particular reinforcement bar group has to be introduced (with a defined spacing between bars). which may be edited according to the required characteristics of the new group. Using the worksheet. the rest of the parameters will adopt initial default values. Note also that this tool will erase any previously defined reinforcement of any element of the wall.

The worksheet is used to define the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Configuration Screen Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some calculation methods and office standards for design. and to have control over the reinforcement design. but it does not need to be modified for subsequent walls.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Worksheet for defining the bar groups. The items considered are described in the table below. These criteria should all be set before the detailing is viewed. The first one is used for longitudinal bars and the second one for transverse bars. It is found in the Detailing Screen and it has two tabs. Option Active pressures calculation Description It determines the calculation method used for the 571 . Note that changed data on this screen are saved with the model and the defined options may be set as defaults for subsequent new walls with the option Set these values as default. All the required data for each bar type are included.

More details related to these methods may be found in Bowles (1997) and Das (1995). If Yes. Meyerhof or Vesic. Coulomb. consider an active pressure or consider a passive pressure. It is recommended a value equal to 3.0.5 and 2. It is used in cohesive soils and the tension zone may or may not be neglected. It will not allow a foundation base depth smaller than the undermining depth. Calculation method for soil bearing pressures Consider active pressure vertical component for overturning Consider active pressure vertical component for sliding Consider active pressure vertical component for soil pressures Allowable safety factor for overturning Allowable safety factor for sliding Allowable safety factor for bearing capacity Frost depth Undermining depth 572 . The Boussinesq method need the Poisson coefficient for the backfill and the SpanglerJarquio method is only available for strip foundations.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls method calculation of lateral earth pressures. water level. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the sliding check. The program offers four methods: Rankine. etc. An error will be displayed if the overturning safety factor is less that the given value. It is recommended a value between 1. If Yes.5 and 2. Equivalent Fluid Pressures (EFP) and at-rest pressures (Ko). the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the soil pressures check. These methods consider the acting loads in the wall and the specific surrounding conditions as the backfill slope angle. Calculation method for lateral pressures due to adjacent footings Two options are available. Note that the option to calculate the bearing capacity should be enabled. Consider tension zone for the active earth pressures Consider resisting pressure for Three options are available: Not consider any resisting overturning pressure.0. If Yes. The bearing capacity may be calculated with the equations given by Hansen. An error will be displayed if the soil bearing safety factor is less that the given value. the vertical component of the active pressure will be included in the overturning check. It is recommended a value between 1.0. Lower depths of the foundation base in relation to this depth are not allowed. The program will not consider the resisting pressures of the soils over the undermining depth for global verifications. An error will be displayed if the sliding safety factor is less that the given value.

loads and reinforcement) 573 .6 of the Code.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the vertical reinforcement ratio. which is added to the clear cover to determine the distance from the edge of wall (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel (bar diameter*0. Longitudinal bar lengths can be adjusted up to the closest increment specified.1. This is the distance. The ratio of reinforcement Rho provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced Rho.75 Section 14. rigid offsets. the load combos will not be generated. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for their final design. the load combos will not be generated.5).3. In the report you will find: • A summary of the data (geometry. Load Factors combinations Maximum ratio allowed between Rho / Rho balanced Minimum vertical reinforcement ratio Minimum horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio Minimum spacing between longitudinal bars Round bar length to Estimated distance to mechanical center Reduce Vu near support face View as RAM Advanse Model This option allows to see the wall as a standard RAM Advanse Model. refer to Chapter 1 of this Manual. The user may access to this window to see the acting loads. ACI 10.3 (ACI-318) should be considered to define a lower value for the horizontal and transverse reinforcement ratio. Fore more details about the available commands. the results of the analysis and the results of the design. If no file is selected.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.3. The user shall consider section 7. A general tool bar is available with different buttons to see different data or analysis results in a similar way as in RA. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch. If no file is selected. Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of load factors combinations.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. It is the free horizontal distance between bars. Applies the specification given in section 11. force diagrams and any other data or result over each wall element. foot etc. Section 14. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report where you can find the input data. materials.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Service load combinations Name of the default template file for the automatic generation of service load combinations.

Chapter 29: Retaining Walls • • A summary of the global verifications. The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report. In this section and depending on the material. and the report will be displayed. Finally. etc. and the safety factors for the global checks of each service load combination. soil properties. see the Report section of the chapter of Printing Graphics and Reports. The report of retaining walls displays all the detailed information of the wall. destabilizing forces. The screen is shown To enter to the report. the user will find different design parameters. A summary of design results for flexure and shear considering the envelopes at evenly spaced stations along each element (0. but for reinforced concrete and masonry the results are presented in tables and graphically as shown below: 574 . the report presents the design results for each member of the wall. loads. Then the user will find the results of the global checks that include resisting forces. press the button next: Report screen. The results presentation depends on the material.1xLength) of the wall for reinforced concrete or masonry. materials. as geometry. At the top the general information of the wall is displayed.

A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. In this way. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a concrete stem The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. For masonry design the results are presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 575 . the user can evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear forces envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station.

.". the resistant moments in the table are the admissible according to the adopted design code (allowable stress ASD). 3rth Edition. Boston.usace. Mc Graw Hill. "Principles of Foundation Eng. in a similar manner as concrete blocks. References • • • • Bowles. Free downloadable on /www.army. The user should note that in this case. 1992. PWS. Free downloadable on /www. the table shows the admissible shear force (Va). Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition. For shear. Das.. 1989.Chapter 29: Retaining Walls Design results for a masonry stem The program perform verifications for masonry blocks (such as bending moment or shear force). 1995 576 . Engineering and Design – Retaining and Flood Walls (EM 1110-22502). Joseph E. USA Corps of Engineers. 1995 USA Corps of Engineers. Engineering and Design .Bearing Capacity (EM 1110-1-1905).mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals.army. New York.usace. Braja M.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-manuals.

the model should be analyzed completely. The available codes for this module are: AISC and BS for steel. the unbraced length Lb and the bending coefficient Cb for steel beams. see the relative chapters exclusive to each material. sections. and detailing for continuous beams. reinforced concrete. For more details about these and other parameters. The analysis should consider a moment of inertia reduction (factor Ig) only for reinforced concrete. This section will describe all the available options in the module such as input geometry. materials. detailing. analyze. the code verifications are the next step where it calculates the longitudinal reinforcement for reinforced concrete beams only. and different coefficients and design parameters for wood beams. designing. cold formed steel. design. This module will allow you to model. ACI for concrete and AISI for cold formed steel. loads . All input data like material properties. It is a useful tool dedicated to provide the user all the tools necessary for inputting data. The module supports steel. NDS for wood. or wood members submitted to shear and bending. This input is done through drop-down windows in the case of multiple options or by keypad for singular options. The verifications are completed in the design and detailing module that will be explained further ahead. and design any continuous beam under a variety loads. sections. analysis. geometry and other design parameters can be modified at any time during the analysis. prescribed by the design code. and sections in a practical and simple manner. 4) Optimization The last step is the optimization of sections that can be completed for steel and wood beams only. 2) Analysis/Design/Detailing Before proceeding with a beam design.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The Continuous Beam module allows the user to easily and quickly model a continuous beam independently of the main program. 3) Verifications Depending on the selected material and design code. and obtaining results through a specific report for continuous beams. Optimization involves reducing oversized sections an optimal section (normally a lighter section) 577 . materials. Design steps 1) Entering Data The user should enter all the necessary data to obtain a new model before doing the analysis and going to the design screen.

Technical Notes General The design of beams accounts for all load conditions. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. • • • • AISI – ASD-LRFD. they will be changed to larger sections that pass the code check. AISC-LRFD. Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor Design (3rd Edition 2001). • • • Flexure Shear Detailing Requirements (RC Beam Detailer Only) Important! No axial load or out-of-plane loading is considered in the design. or for sections that fail the code check. Torsion is not considered. Manual of Steel Construction – Allowable Stress Design (9th Edition -1989). reinforced concrete and wood beams. For a better orientation. by selecting the load case or load combination required in the bar Condition in the design screen. the engineer can use the main portion of the program. National Design Specification. The following items are checked in the design of steel. Design Codes The following codes are considered in the present version: • AISC-ASD. For more details. No deep member design is considered. see the following conceptual map: 578 .American Wood Council (Edition – 1997). see the optimization chapter of the Manual. American Forest & Paper Association . NDS. The user can see it. Limitations The following limitations currently exist in this program with respect to the analysis and design beams: • • • • No axial load is considered in the design. Cold-formed Steel Design Manual – Load and Resistance Factor Design (Edition .1996). ACI. If this is required. Only in plane bending (about local axis 3-3 of member) is considered. The user should specify the code that will be used for the design according to the material that will be used. British Code BS 5950-1:2000. ACI 318-99 (ACI 1999).Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams from a predefined group of sections.

where n is the number of spans of the continuous beam. we will have the following generated load patterns: Load SK1 SK2 SK3 SK4 SK5 SK6 SK7 SK8 SK9 SK10 Span1 (*) + + + + + Span2 + + + + + Span3 + + + + + Span4 + + + + + Span5 (*) + + + + + (-) Negative load (downward) . For example. 579 . in a 5 span continuous beam (*). (*) The beam may have the two extreme spans as cantilevers. The load conditions that will be generated are 2*n. Dead loads are applied permanently and thus are not subjected to distribution. Note that it uses the conjunction OR for live load. Percentage: This determines the fraction of the live load (between 0 and 100%) that will be effectively distributed. the engineer needs to generate load combinations and choose the files which included skip loading.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis Pattern loading This is a special tool of the module that allows the generation of different load conditions considering pattern loading. The tool works only with live loads. To define skip loading. The generated loads will be named starting with “SK”.

Enter the 0. see Chapter F (AISC-ASD or LRFD) in the steel manual. Valid values are 0. Note that only the load combinations of this group will be considered in the design. Mn. You may automatically generate all the required combinations with the load combination generator. Unbraced length Lb The unbraced length of the compression flange of the section is needed for the lateral torsional flexural buckling capacity calculation of steel members. some beam parameters that the user must keep in mind for input data are described. For more information about these and other parameters. Important! • The Inertia reduction factor Ig for reinforced concrete will be considered constant for all the spans of the beam.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams If the program uses a zero (0) instead of (+) or (-). 580 .35 Ig (gross moment of inertia) for beams. Load combinations There are two groups of load combinations: Service Load Combinations that are used for deflection control. a value of 1.0 is used in the analysis. in ASD (AISC. This value can be entered directly into the Inertia reduction factor Ig option in the design data as shown in the figure below. These parameters are used for the calculation of the allowable bending stress. Depending on the material and Code. Design parameters Next.35 value (as recommended by ACI 318 – 99) to consider the cracked section in the analysis.0. These factors reduce the moment of inertia of the members during the analysis. it means that the upward or downward loads are zero.0 is entered. Note that if 0. refer to specific chapters of each material. For more information. AISI) or for the nominal moment strength. in LRFD (AISC. For example.0 to 1. Fb. These names start with “S”. The number of combinations depends on the Skip loading option. Recommended factors should be taken from the local concrete design or building code. the ACI318-99 (Section 10-11) recommends 0. AISI). If LB=0 the program will adopt LB=L (distance between nodes). These names start with “D”. it is common to assign a ‘cracked section factor’ to beams and columns. ultimate limit states combinations or unfactored load combinations may be selected. Cracked Section Factors To analyze a concrete structure accurately. Design Load Combinations that are used for the design of the different beam spans.

Refer to the chapter for Detailing Modules for more details on invoking and navigating within these modules. the program will calculate the value according to the Code. the module has a detailed help for each option. AISI). refer to the Examples Manual of Continuous Beam. Then the program verifies the beam condition for the specification loads. This module is invoked by selecting Detailing/Continuous Beam from the menu bar of the main program. the user enters the necessary data for the analysis in the spreadsheet such as geometry. calculated parameter.. the coefficient Cb should be calculated manually or the user must assume a value equal to 1. The automatic calculation is recommended. The detailing module can be very useful for special cases since it allows the user to modify a special. Typical cases of these modifications are: “force shear reduction near column face”. the user can refer to previous chapters corresponding to the material the user wants to design. Design/Detailing Module Beam Entering data for a Continuous Beam The layout of Continuous Beam allows the user to optimize his time while inputting data through drop-down windows in cases where multiple options are found. loads. For detailed information about the input data. If the automatic calculation is adopted. Note.. The value depends on the structure type (braced or unbraced) and the moments at the ends of the spans(according to each load condition). Detailing Requirements To obtain detailed information for the provisions adopted by the program for the detailing of reinforced concrete beams. and general design data. according to the material.. As in all the detailing modules. Bending coefficient Cb This bending coefficient is used in steel design and it depends on the moment gradient (AISC-ASD. 581 . LRFD. Important! When the unbraced length is different from the length of the member. type of restrictions.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams It should be noted that the unbraced length Lb can in some cases be greater than the total length of the beam (distance between nodes). and design code to be employees... If this is the case. For that.With the purpose of facilitating the user the navigation and input data. “factors of inertia”. refer to the chapter “Reinforced Concrete Beam Design” in the Manual. the program allows you to introduce these values but it is the responsibility of the user to adopt the correct value and to use an appropriate approach for it. Design All the considerations and detailed information about the design procedure. are presented in this Manual.

Continuous Beam is a design/detailing independent module that allows you to generate a new model from this application.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Passing data of the main program Contrary to the dependent modules that were explained in the detailing module chapter. section. hinged and spring. loads in the analysis plane and restrictions. geometry. pinned. materials. save it with an “AVW” extension. In this screen.. The restrictions follow the next priority and excluding order in case of existing more than one restriction for each node: fixed. sections. and design parameters. the module will assume for the model a pinned restriction and the user will change it according to requirements. the user can modify the material properties. not in the main program. The user should only consider that the first selected beam will be the reference for the results location in one or other direction. Some examples are shown below: What the user should not do Once the user has selected the elements correctly. The model can also be saved with an “RCB” extension and use it directly in Continuous Beam. To pass data of the main program. for example selecting alternate members. Note that all beam data and the assigned loads have been entered and generated in the module. which will consider the following data of the main model: geometry. 582 . and use it in RAM Advanse. including other elements or excluding spans. Data Screen The first screen displayed after entering the module is the data screen. he is ready to enter to the module.. considering that the selection order of the elements that compose his beam is not relevant.The program will show an error message when the user selects members that do not belong to a continuous beam. the user should select from the main program the members he wants to analyze. When there are connected members. Note.

Properties (A) 2. the engineer should be careful to enter the exact dimensions. Graphic (B) 3. The Data screen has 3 different windows as shown below: Data Screen for a continuous beam with 3 different windows 1. loads. 583 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Initial screen in the module: Data Screen This screen allows you to modify dimensions. If this model is to be used to generate structural drawings. and any other option in a easily way and every time that the user wants. Help (C) The property window (A) is used for introducing all the necessary information about the beam. This advantage allows you to model more exactly the beam behavior. Some options will appear only for certain matericals due to the design code requirements for that material. This window will be change interactively as data is being entered.

The help window (C) shows the information about the currently selected item in the property window (A).Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The graphic window (B) represents the summary of information that is entered in the property window. The user can modify all the properties in red text as indicated below: Click on the red text of the property that you want to modify and select another from the drop-down window or type a new value. After completing the modeling. such as thegeometry and assigned loads. you can now view the design screen: 584 . Every item has an applicable help section.

Those show both curves in one graphic as shown below: Combine the demand and capacity curves for bending moment and simple shear into one diagram.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design Screen The second button next to the data button can be pressed to view the design screen. thus allowing a comparison between the demand (required) curve and the capacity (supplied) curve. The yellow light indicates that the ratio between stresses is satisfactory. This traffic light is an indicator of design status where the red light indicates that the ratio of demand to capacity is greater than one and thus fails. such as deflection. The moment or shear diagrams are displayed for the currently selected load condition. the green light indicates that the status of design of the member is is satisfactory for all strength and service requirements. Notice the existence of a Traffic light in the top right corner. Note that two simple diagrams can be viewed on the screen at the same time. but another requirement. Traffic light. is not satisfactory. Some of the diagrams that can be displayed are dependent on the selected load condition. Finally. The user can view combined diagrams too. 585 . This screen is used to display the demand and capacity diagrams for the beam.

The Width of supports is constant. Note.The Width of supports of the beam is constant and defined by the user in the Data Screen as shown below. Note that the user can only define the reinforcement and the locations of the cross sections in the figure.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Detailing Screen The detailing screen displays the reinforcing bars designed for the beam. Both longitudinal reinforcing and vertical stirrups are shown on this screen. The cross section represents the reinforcing required at the desired points along each span. but by selecting the DXF button a CAD file can be created and manipulated outside Continuous Beam. Window A: 586 ..

they have to be selected by the mouse and their parameters will be shown in the spreadsheet. Note that only the selected groups are shown in the spreadsheet. When only some of the groups are selected.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The reinforcing can be entered through the Suggested reinforcing option in the data screen or through the Detailing screen. To edit a single bar or certain groups of bars. they are shown in blue and the bars not selected are shown in light gray as shown below: Window B (spreadsheet) 587 . Note that control of bar lengths and positions can be achieved through the spreadsheet.

called Stirrups. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. and the last one. The spreadsheet is divided into three pages: the first one. For detailed information about this screen. is used to define the stirrups. called Sections. Configuration Screen This screen allows the engineer to establish some standards for design and to have control over the reinforcing design. refer to the chapter Reinforced Concrete Beam Design – Concrete Beam Design/Detailing Module. Note that data changed on this screen are saved for subsequent entries into the detailing module. It is active only in the Detailing Screen for this module. the second one. is used to define the longitudinal reinforcement. called Bars. Note.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams The spreadsheet is used to enter the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement. 588 . and to define the location at which cross sections will be drawn. is used to define the location of the cross sections.

6 of the Code.75 Moment redistribution Performs a redistribution of the negative moments calculated at supports following the maximum allowed percentage established in section 8. 589 . The only option available at this time. The user shall between consider section 7. Note that no automatic adjustments are made to this value by RAM Advanse even if more than one row of reinforcing is required. ACI 10. The items considered are described in the table below.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams These criteria should be set before the detailing is viewed but need not be modified for subsequent beam details unless required. foot etc. The engineer should confirm that this dimension is acceptable for his or her final design.3. Normal weight or lightweight affects shear. Option Design Code Concrete Type Description ACI-318-99.1 of the Code. Epoxy Coated Ratio between The ratio of reinforcement Rho maximum Rho and provided shall not exceed a certain fraction of the balanced balanced Rho Rho. reinforcement Round bar length Longitudinal bar lengths can be to adjusted up to the closest increment specified.4. Affects the development length of bars. Estimated distance This is the distance that is added of clear cover to to the clear cover (see data bar group centroid screen) to determine the distance from the edge of beam (tension fiber) to the center of the longitudinal steel. Thus all your longitudinal bars can be given to the nearest inch. torsion and detailing. Minimum distance It is the free horizontal distance between bars.3 specifies that this factor should be 0.

. – This option is enabled only for reinforced concrete. the results of the analysis. the original section can be replaced with another that resists the imposed loads. and the results of the design.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Delta X for each The increment at which design solution checks are performed.1 x Length) for reinforced concrete only. Horizontal tick This option allows the user to spacing for text manipulate the spacing of the tick marks on the horizontal axis of the graphics displayed on the design screen. In the report you will find: • • A summary of analysis results performed for all the load combinations at different stations spaced at equal distances along the beam. Maximum length bar It is the maximum length allowed for single bars without splices. In other words. A summary of design results for flexure and shear performed for the most critical state or combination at evenly spaced stations along the beam (0. refer to the corresponding chapter of this Manual. The engineer can change this value to obtain an appropriate design. Fore more details about commands and procedures for section optimization.1 of the Code to reduce the design shear forces at sections located less that a distance d from face supports. Reports and Screen Output This detailing module allows you to generate a report that will summarize the input data. Reduce Vu near Applies the specification given column face in section 11. Optimization screen Optimization is valid only for steel and wood members. This option allows the engineer to change the existing sections with sections that are recommended (based on explicit criteria) from a collection of sections. Note. Note that this increment may affect the design depending on beam length and the point of maximum force (moment and shear) along the beam.1.3. A normal value is 40 ft. 590 .

In this section. member forces and deflections. press the button shown next: on any screen and the report will be displayed. the user can find the loading conditions and a graphic display of loads . At the top. number of spans. material. see the Report section of the chapter for Printing Graphics and Reports. General information. the general information for all the sections of the beam is displayed such as sections. The report of beams displays all the detailed information of the beam. Then the user will find analysis results for the total length of the beam. 591 . etc.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams To enter the report. The screen is Report screen of continuous beams.such as reactions. For a detailed explanation of the commands used in this report.

The presentation of results depends on the material. In this section. Afterward. Envelopes of bending moment M33. Finally. and depending on the material.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Analysis results. the user will find design parameters. the report presents the envelopes of bending moment M33 and shear V2 and the deflections. The design results are divided in two sections: one for flexural verification and the other for shear verification. the report presents the design results for each section of the beam. thus for example: steel design results are presented in tables as shown below: 592 .

Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a steel beam. There are two possible options: • “OK” when the element fulfills all the bending moment and shear code verifications. • "ratio > 1" when the element fails one or more code verifications. In this case. For reinforced concrete. the design results will be presented in tables and with graphics as shown in the figure below: 593 . the report will present a Status verification for each span of the beam.

Example of the flexural verification diagram. This allows the user to evaluate the flexural design of the beam at a glance. If the strength at some station is not enough to resist the applied moments. A description of the main variables and the adopted nomenclature is explained in the notes section of the report. The status of the different stations is showed graphically with a diagram that compares the design shear force envelope with the nominal shear strength of each station. The status of the different stations is graphically shown in a special diagram that shows the design moments envelope and the nominal moment capacity (multiplied by the φ factor) simultaneously. The report also displays all the information required to design shear and torsion reinforcement. the design results will be presented in tables as shown in the figure below: 594 . Note the areas with insufficient strength are highlighted in red. this part of the diagram is displayed in red. All diagrams are drawn from column face to column face.Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for a reinforced concrete beam. For wood.

595 .Chapter 30: Design and Detailing of Continuous Beams Design results for wood beam As seen before. the program displays code verifications for results such as bending moment and shear force as shown in the Status verification.

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data types. size of bolts. etc). To avoid the need for an extensive connection’s database. If however you are comfortable with some basic programming tasks. Basic example of a macro Before describing LEO commands. plate thickness. 597 . This will allow you to code office standard or user experience ‘rules’ into the connection designs. In the example a shear-end-plate connection will be adjusted to the beam and column sizes. It is not required that the users know this information to use RAM Advanse or RAM Connection. for example. weld length.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Chapter 31: Programming in LEO (Language for Engineering Objects) This chapter is intended for users that want to know more in depth the details of the macro language. an extensive list of connections would be required. To accommodate all the variations of connections (number of bolts. and structured statements. etc. wood design or section types (only for RAM Advanse) to meet office or other standards then this chapter will describe how to do that. Language for Engineering Objects (LEO) is a language embedded into the program where you can enter simple formulas or more significantly more complicated procedures to customize your connections. and would like to customize the connection design. girders) sizes. Or you can even code how to design the connection parts including items such as number of bolts. braces and support (columns. you can customize the connection geometry according to the member’s sizes to which the connection connects. different connections will be required based on the member geometry and loads. variables. RAM Advanse allows you to customize your connections using LEO. Macros for connections Since connections can be assigned to different beam. an example of connection customization with LEO will be illustrated. The following sections describe the different applications and the last sections describe in detail the different available commands. With LEO.

Customizing geometry First. double click on the connection or go to the menu Configuration/Databases\Connections.. we will customize the vertical location of the end plate considering the beam size. Once the file is created. End Plate To locate the shear plate at a distance equal to (beam depth)/4 below the top of the beam. The file window is activated with the LEO File option in the connection pad. and open a specific connection. etc. Some examples are detailed further on and the user is also referred to the pre-defined macros of each connection type. the following actions should be done: Set the plate position on beam = Upper Set the distance to beam top = (Beam Depth)/4 Entering the commands First.. More elaborated macros include. To do this. Create a new LEO file with the New LEO File Command inside the file window. (See the Connections Chapter for more information). open the connection pad. The 598 .Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Connection pad of the connection to be customized. the calculation of the number of bolts based on the required capacity. include for example. it can be edited with the LEO window will be displayed: Edit LEO File Command from the Pad.

you can enter the LEO code and debug it. In the editor. To find the variable names. Now. To find the variable name.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO A LEO window with the Data panel (1) and the LEO Editor (2) is opened. you can select the desired property from a list. Note that the order is identical to the connection pad. To enter the formula to locate the end plate at beam-depth/4 from beam top do the following: Place the cursor in the LEO window where you want to copy the variable name. select the desired property in the list and press the OK button. Press in the LEO window to see the list of parameters. the required parameters should be defined using the appropriate variable names . 599 .

600 . Using the same procedure. Or you can press step (one line) at a time. Press the OK button. The LEO name of the property has been copied to the editor. To do this. the cursor is kept at the last line. 2= Center and 3= Bottom) After entering the formulas. you can press macro and the cursor is placed at the last executed line. press and then press again one of the above buttons. Notice that once the code is running. To re-run the code. write the following formulas (“//” are comments) Write the formulas indicated in the figure (for the PosC property. 1= Upper. you can run the macro. For the example select the one that defines the position on the beam. and to run the to run one Notice that the Help Context of the Leo Editor has a brief description of the different tools for writing and debugging your macros.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Then press this button to see the list of variables Select the desired varible in the list.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Notice that the distance to beam top has changed as illustrated in the figure. Press OK in the LEO window to save the code that you entered. Note. If you exit the LEO window with “Cancel”, the code that you entered is not saved. If you want the end plate located at a constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam, you can enter the following instructions:

Constant distance (3 inches) from the bottom face of the top flange of the beam to the end-plate

Notice that values should always have their corresponding units between brackets. Important: variables entered by the user in the macro should always have their corresponding units. If a value without units is used in later mathematical operations with variables that have units, the mathematical operations will not be valid, yielding unexpected and corrupted results, and this could even modify the units of the variables in the connection pad.

Connection Design
LEO allows the users to design the connections according to their requirements or rules. With LEO the user have access to all data, including geometry, loads and connection capacities. The load data include the maximum connection forces or moments. The capacities variables include all the calculated capacities as bolt shear, bolt bearing, etc. You can see all the available variables by selecting the declarations’ option in the main LEO window:

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You can expand each group to see the list of variables with their descriptions:

Select the name and press CTRL+C to copy the name of any variable to the clipboard. To paste the name in the LEO Editor, press CTRL+V The use of these variables allows the implementation of simple design rules as angle selection, definition of diameter and number of bolts, and much more. The capacities are initially with zero values. To set them with the actual values, the "Calculate" property should be executed, which besides calculating the connection capacities modifies the stress ratio and the status connection variables. If during the connection design, some relevant data for capacity has been modified, as number of bolts, weld length, etc., the special procedure Calculate should be called after the modifications, to get the updated capacities, ratio and status values. Assigning a status message to the connection. The status connection variable is a string that contains the current connection status (OK or N.G.). The user can assign his or her own message to the status variable (recommended no more than 10 characters). For example, if the connection does not satisfy some geometric condition and the user wants to assign an error message, he/she should change the status value as follows: Status = 'Ang > 5in' Note.- The changes in status variable will not be visible in the connection report but will be visible during the graphical results presentation and through the summary report in RAM Advanse (accessed by Reports menu\ Connections design ... option). Bolted connection design example: The following is a design example of an Angles(s) shear connection. To follow the design procedure, please copy the code to an Angle(s) connection and execute it step by step.
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prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 3x3x3_8' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop selectBolt(tw as float) = '1/2" A325 N' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = '7/8" A325 N' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = '1" A325 N' exit End If
End prop

prop doDesign //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) SupportPlateBoltsBolt = selectBolt(tw) BeamPlateBoltsBolt = SupportPlateBoltsBolt //call calculation of capacities
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calculate //store the initial number of bolts nbolts1 = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //No of bolts due to shear on beam BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(2,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BAngleBoltCapacity1+0.99)
//No. of bolts due to bearing on beam

BeamPlateBoltsNrow = max(BeamPlateBoltsNrow,nbolts1*Loads_V2/BeamBearing1+0.99) SupportPlateBoltsNrow = BeamPlateBoltsNrow //length of the angle Length = BeamSidePlateLev*2+(BeamPlateBoltsNrow1)*BeamPlateBoltsSpaV //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesign //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

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Welded connection design example The design of welded connections and bolted connections are similar. The basic idea for welded connections is to find a resistance by unit weld length to calculate after the required weld length to support the maximum load. It should be noted that due to the weld eccentricity, the weld capacity has no direct and proportional relation with its length. The following code shows an Angle(s) shear connection design according to the weld capacity. prop selectAngle(tw as float) = 'L 1-1_2x1-1_2x3_16' if tw > 0.5[in] then result = 'L 2-1_2x2-1_2x1_2' exit End If if tw > 0.8[in] then result = 'L 3x3x7_8' exit End If End prop prop doDesignWeld //if there is no load, don't design if not LoadsExist then exit End If //select angles and bolts tw = max(BeamSection_Tw,SupportSection_tf) Angle = selectAngle(tw) //select welding size BeamPlateWeldsWeldD = nearestBot(Angle_Thickness/[in]*16,1) SupportPlateWeldsWeldD = BeamPlateWeldsWeldD //call calculation of capacities length = 3[in] status = '' ratio = 0 calculate
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//length of the angle at the beam side weldlength = (length + 2*angle_width) weldstress = BAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthB = max(3[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress2*angle_width,1[in])) //length of the angle at the support side weldlength = length weldstress = SAngleWeldCapacity1 / weldlength lengthS = max(2[in],nearestTop(loads_V2/weldstress,1[in])) //length of the angle length = max(lengthS,lengthB) //calculate the stress ratio and status again if length > BeamSection_d-2*beamSection_tw then status = 'Error' else calculate End If end prop doDesignWeld //design connection //calculate ratio and status //return status

Wood Design macro (only for RAM Advanse)
Another application of macros within RAM Advanse is the wood design. This allows you to customize the design with local codes. You can edit or change the wood design macro to define mainly the way how the strength factors will be calculated. Use the option Configuration/LEO Macros/Wood Design

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Path to call the LEO Editor for Wood Design

LEO Editor for Wood Design. The LEO Editor will be opened with the macro for wood design. The macro is formed by several subroutines, which are described in the Wood Design Chapter. Lets look at an example of wood design customization with LEO. We will customize the Load Duration factors to adjust to the US West Cost practice.

In the LEO Editor click on the CD Calculation Property to expand it

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CD Calculation Property expanded As you can notice the CD factor for a Load duration of seven days is 1.25. It has to be edited to 1.33.

CD Duration Factor modified from 1.25 to 1.33 Now you have to check that the macro is working properly. To do this you need a test code that calls the modified subroutine.

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Test code at the end of the macro. Now that the desired formulae are entered, you are ready to run the test code. But first put a break in the following line.

Define a break. Go to the desired line and press the Now, you can press break point. to view the data panel and

button. to run the code. The macro will stop at the

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The execution of the macro is stopped at the break point. This is indicated with the red arrow. Press Press run one step at a time. to debug inside the subroutine

When you pass with the debugger the edited line of the CD Calculation subroutine, the factor adopts the desired value of 1.33. To re-run the code, press and then press again one of the above buttons. After verifying that your macro is working properly, you can erase the test code and save the macro. Now the wood design will consider the changes. As you have seen, it is very easy to perform changes to the subroutines and customize them.

Macros to define section types
Another application of macros is the definition of section types. The characteristics and calculation of the section properties are defined in the macro related to each section type. The different available macros can be edited or modified with the option: Configuration/LEO Macros/Sections. The special commands and variables that are used are described in Chapter 15.

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LEO Commands
In this section you will find the descriptions of the available LEO commands: +, –, *, /, ^, Div, Mod, (& / &+) Max, Min Trunc Round Abs Sqrt Sqr Sin, Cos Int Frac NearestRound NearestTop NearestBot =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, == Arithmetic operators: Addition, subtraction, multiplication, real division, power, integer division, remainder obtained by dividing its operands, concatenation. Compare two values and return the larger one and the smaller one. Truncates a real number to an integer. Rounds a real-type value to an integer-type value (nearest whole number). Returns the absolute value of the argument. Returns the square root of the argument. Returns the square of the argument. Returns the sine and cosine of the argument. Returns the integer part of a real number. Returns the fractional part of a real number. NearestRound, NearestTop, NearestBot (Value as float, Near as float) as float. Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near" Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equalto, greater-than-or-equal-to, absolute equality.

&=, &<>, &<, &>, Relational operators for strings: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than&<=, &>=, &== or-equal-to, greater-than-or-equal-to, casesensitive equality. Trim UpperCase Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to uppercase. Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text, but with all letters converted to lowercase. Boolean operators: Conjunction, disjunction, exclusive disjunction, negation.
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and, or, xor, not

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO

Pi

Returns 3.141592

Lets illustrate some applications of the former commands. =, <>, <, >, <=, >= Relational operators: Equality, inequality, less-than, greater-than, less-than-or-equal-to, greater-thanor-equal-to Note.- All this operators have a 1E-8 tolerance. // examples to illustrate the tolerance for the relational operators Cmp1 = (1.000000001 = 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 = 1.000000001) Cmp3 = (1.00000001 = 1.0) Cmp4 = '015' < '1' //units conversion takes place before comparison Cmp5 = 2.2[cm] >= 2.2[in]
//if dimensions differ, only the values are compared

Cmp6 = 9[in] > 5[ton/cm2] Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = false Cmp5 (Boolean) = false Cmp6 (Boolean) = true == Relational operator: Absolute equality Unlike "=" operator, the absolute equality makes the comparison without any tolerance over Float and Simple operands. Cmp1 = (1.000000001 == 1.0) Cmp2 = (1.000000001 == 1.000000001)
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0) Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false &=. (&+ / &) Arithmetic operators: Addition (integer . less-than-or-equal-to. &<. less-than.This operators are not casesensitive. Note. greater-than-or-equal-to. String) temp = 0.2[ft] &<= '2. &>.00000001 == 1.real.. Examples: Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &= 'RAM Advanse' Cmp3 = '015' &> '1' Cmp4 = 2.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Cmp3 = (1. &>= Relational operators for strings: Equality. &<=. greater-than.9 613 . inequality. &<>. This operator is case-sensitive Cmp1 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'ram advanse' Cmp2 = 'RAM Advanse' &== 'RAM Advanse' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = false Cmp2 (Boolean) = true +.2[in]' Results: Cmp1 (Boolean) = true Cmp2 (Boolean) = true Cmp3 (Boolean) = false Cmp4 (Boolean) = true &== Relational operator for strings: Absolute equality.

56..5 & 6...' UpperCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text.The "&+. but with all letters converted to uppercase.1811 in st6 (Single) = 83.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st1 = 'Value : ' & Pi + 4 st2 = 5. st = uppercase('Change to UpperCase') Results: st (String) = 'CHANGE TO UPPERCASE' LowerCase Returns a copy of the string argument with the same text.7 st3 (String) = Width is : 2 in st4 (Float) = 3..7 st3 = 'Width is : ' & 2[in] st4 = 2[in] + 3[cm] st5 = '2 in' + '3 cm' st6 = '83' + temp Results: st1 (String) = Value : 7.9 Note. Trim Removes leading and trailing spaces and control characters from the given string Remove spaces .. but with all letters converted to lowercase. ' temp = ' st1 = temp st2 = Trim(temp) Results: st1 (String) = ' Remove spaces .141 st2 (String) = 5.. &" operators could be used indistinctly.1811 in st5 (Float) = 3. st2 (String) = 'Remove spaces .. 614 ' .

Min Compares two values and returns the larger one and the smaller one.1 Result: res (Integer) = 6 Mod Arithmetic operator: Returns the remainder obtained by dividing its operands. 11) //units conversion takes place before comparison res2 = max(2[in]. the operator uses its integer part. If an operand is real.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO st = lowercase('Change to LowerCase') Results: st (String) = 'change to lowercase' Div Arithmetic operator: Integer division res = 26 div 4.3 615 . res1 = max(4. 7.1 Result: res (Integer) = 2 Max. only the values are compared res5 = max(6. 3[cm]) res3 = min('2 in'. (x mod y = x – (x div y) * y) res = 26 mod 4. 5[ton/cm2]) Results: res1 (Integer) = 11 res2 (Float) = 2 in res3 (Float) = 3 cm res4 (Float) = 3 cm res5 (Float) = 7. '3 cm') //if dimensions differ. '3 cm') res4 = min(2[in].3[cm]) res6 = min(9[in].

Near as float) as float. 0. NearestBot : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near". NearestTop. (1/16)[in]) 616 ( 2.2 ft res2 (Float) = 26 cm res3 (Float) = 25 cm res4 (Float) = 25 cm . upward or downward.4[cm]..1[ft].4[cm]. the "Value" parameter units will be used.44[in]. 1[cm]) .Different units: res1 = NearestTop(3[cm]. upward."Near" without explicit units. 1[cm]) (25. res3 = NearestTop(2. res1 = NearestTop(2.Equal units: res1 = NearestTop res2 = NearestTop res3 = NearestBot Results: res1 (Float) = 2. . nearestBot (Value as float. NearestRound: Rounded to the nearest multiple of "Near". NearestTop : Truncates to nearest multiple of "Near". Rounds "Value" to a multiple of "Near". Results: res1 (Float) = 2 in res2 (Float) = 14 cm res3 (Float) = 26 in Note.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res6 (Float) = 5 NearestRo und NearestTo p NearestBot NearestRound.4[cm].5[in]. 1[cm]) res4 = NearestRound(25.1[ft]. 1[cm]) 1[in]) 1[in]) res2 = NearestTop(5. .2[ft]) (25. downward. If this parameter has no units.The results will be shown in the current unit system.

5 in res3 (Float) = 2.5 Results: i (Integer) = 0 s (String) = '' sp1 (Single) = 0. Simple. Examples: //without initial value var i as integer var s as string var sp1 as simple //assigning an initial value var b as boolean = true var sf as string = 'initial value' var sp2 as simple = 0.5 Note. "false" to a boolean.0" to a float (float type will be explained further down).For variables without initial value. This is the complete form to make a declaration. "0.0 b (Boolean) = true sf (String) = 'initial value' sp2 (Single) = 0.5 in res2 (Float) = 2. 1/16) res3 = NearestTop(2. '' (empty) to a string.5[in]. String Integer values Double precision True or False 255 characters Variables declaration: Explicit form.5 cm Data types and variables Integer. 617 ..Chapter 31: Programming in LEO res2 = NearestTop(2.5[cm]. 1/16) Results: res1 (Float) = 2. and "0.0" to a simple. Boolean. LEO assigns them the following values: "0" to an integer.

In the short form. This is the shortest declaration form. The data type is taken from the assigned value that could be an initial value or another variable.2 Results: b (Boolean) = false s (String) = '' f (Single) = 1.0 //simple (the decimal symbol should be included. an initial value could also be assigned. 618 //string //assigning variables and properties //string . Examples: b i = true = 5 //boolean //integer sp = 0. Examples: b as boolean s as string f as simple = 1.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Short form.2 By assigning an initial value. Dimension: The measurable properties (force. otherwise it will be taken as integer) s1 = 'hi!' //string //expressions are allowed as initial values s2 = 1 & 2 s3 = s2 Results: b (Boolean) = true i (Integer) = 5 sp (Single) =0. rotation. it consists only of an assignment. the "var" command is omitted and only the name of the variable is declared.0 s1 (String) = hi! s2 (String) = 12 s3 (String) = 12 Float It is a Simple data type with Dimension and Unit. length.

Unit: This is the unit used to express the dimension. time) or a combination of them.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO temperature. Examples: //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Length var f1 as float = 2[in] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f2 as float = 12. Examples: f1 = 5[kip] / 2[in2] f2 = 2[kip] * 3[ft] 619 . It is possible to evaluate expressions of float variables with different dimensions and/or units.82 ksi f3 (Float) = 28. As long as there is consistency in the dimensions of the variables. Dimension: Length) f2 (Float) = 12.82[kip/in2] //Units: Ton-cm //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f3 = 2[ton/cm2] //Units: Kip-in //Dimension: Force/Length^2 f4 = 2[ksi] //Units: Kip-ft //Dimension: Force*Length f5 = 6[kip*ft] Results: f1 (Float) = 2 in (units: Kip-in.4468 ksi f4 (Float) = 2 ksi f5 (Float) = 6 Kip*ft Operations with Float variables. it will treat the variables only as numbers and the result will have no units. LEO will adopt one unit system to calculate the whole expression. otherwise.

75 ksi Moment (Float) = 6 Kip*in 620 .Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Length = 2[in] Area = sqr(Length) Force = 3[kip] Pressure = Force / Area Moment = Force * Length Results: f1 (Float) f2 (Float) Area (Float) Force (Float) = 2.5 ksi = 6 Kip*ft = 2 in = 4 in2 = 3 kip Length (Float) Pressure (Float) = 0.

If COND is True. select and click an item LEO inserts the whole structure of the selected statement. then "User Code" is executed. and include its code inside the statement structure. IF THEN statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code" End If where COND returns a Boolean value. then "User Code 1" is executed. If COND is True. FOR 1(x=0 to N do) statements This statement requires the user to specify explicitly the number of iterations that wants the loop to go through The syntax is: For I = 0 To N-1 "User Code" End For 621 . The user should only replace the "COND" word with the statement condition. LEO has the following structured statements: To insert a statement in the editor.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Structured statements. otherwise "User Code 2" is executed. otherwise it is not. IF THEN ELSE statements The syntax is: If COND Then "User Code 1" Else "User Code 2" End If where COND returns a Boolean value.

When Exp2 returns False the statement terminates Examples: //long expression form For I = 0.I:=I+1. used when the conditional and step expressions are over the counter "I" For I = 0. +1) statements The syntax is: Exp1 is the counter "I" initialization. (I<5)and(j>10). The FOR1 statement executes "User Code" repeatedly. Exp2 is the conditional expression that returns a Boolean value. < 5. When "I" reaches the same value as "N-1".Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where N is the number of iterations. FOR 2(i=0. "User Code" is executed once more and the FOR1 statement terminates. + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //the step +1 could also be omitted For I = 0. incrementing the counter "I" after each iteration. < 5 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //more than one variables in the expressions J = 15 For I = 0. I < 5. and Exp3 is the step. I := I + 1 res = 'Iteration ' & I End For //short expression form.j:=j-1 res = 'Iteration ' & I & J End for WHILE statements The syntax is: While COND "User Code" End while 622 . <N . incrementing "I" after each iteration. FOR2statement executes "User Code" repeatedly.

623 . The while statement executes its constituent "User Code" repeatedly. As long as COND returns True. execution continues. testing COND before each iteration.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO where COND returns a Boolean value.

The while statement executes "User Code 1". They also could be used as variables in expressions for assignments or 624 . PROP READ statements (Property) Properties or Subroutines are self-contained statement blocks that can be called from different locations in the code. they could expand or collapse.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO WHILE TRUE / BREAK statements The syntax is: While true do "User Code 1" If COND Then //exit while break End If "User Code 2" End while where COND returns a Boolean value. i. execution continues. The syntax is: Group //COMMENT "User Code" End Group Example: To collapse this group press To expand press Note.It is also possible to expand or collapse a Group pressing "Ctrl + Left click" or "Ctrl + Enter" over the title or the text inside the title.e. As long as COND returns False. testing COND in each iteration. "User Code 2" repeatedly. Note that "User Code 1" is always executed at least once. GROUP statements This tool allows the code organization into pieces that behave like folders..

in the case it will behave as a function.. This feature is explained in next paragraphs The syntax is: Prop NAME( ) = EXP End Prop Example: The property "Max3" finds the maximum of its three float parameters.f2 as float) as float = x End Prop //property type "as float" could be omitted Prop Max3(f1 as float. the "Max3" property will now find the maximum value of its two float parameters and its initial float value.f2) result = max(result.f1) result = max(result. For example. Prop Max3(f1 as float.f3 as float) as float result = max(f1. should specify its name. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. number and type of parameters. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property.f2 as float.f2 as float) = 2.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO operations. returning its value also as a float. When the user declares a property.3[in] End Prop //initialized by an expression 625 . and. This means that the properties behave as functions. returning a value and/or receiving values as parameters. the type of its return value. which is stored in the result variable.3[in] result = max(result.f3) End Prop Note.f2 as float) as float=2. To keep the change on parameters permanently.f2) End Prop //initialized by a variable Prop Max3(f1 as float. the result is also float. //initialized by a value Prop Max3(f1 as float. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference. Properties could also have assigned an initial value that could also be an expression. This could be used as any other variable inside the property."result" is the variable that stores the property return value.

if the property is declared with parameters. and returns a true value if the two previous calculations are greater than zero. the property assumes that it is equal to the first parameter. If the second parameter has been omitted.f3 as float=0. A parameter list is a sequence of parameter declarations separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses.4[in]) Calling properties: When you call a property. the execution passes from the point where the call is made to the body of the property. LEO takes their default values.f3 as float) as float=max(f1. area as float volume as float Prop Area_Volume(f1 as float. And if the third parameter is omitted. Example: The "Area_Volume" property calculates an area with its first two parameters. i as integer) //default values (tw as float = 5[in]. and in some cases by the = symbol and a default value.f2) if f3 > result then result = f3 End if End Prop Parameters: Most property headers include a parameter list.f2 as float. in which case. resulting in a zero volume. Examples: (tw as float. th as float.f2 as float=f1. a volume with the third. the property takes a zero value. the property call should pass them in the correspondent order and type property’s parameter list. th = 3. The user could omit some or all of property's parameters in a call. Each declaration is followed by a type identifier.0[in]) as boolean = False area = f1*f2 volume = f1*f2*f3 if (area > 0)and(volume > 0) then result = True End If End Prop Call with all the parameters: a = 2[in] 626 .Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop Max3(f1 as float. You can make the call using the property’s declared name. Expressions could also be used as parameters.

c) Results: area (Float) = 7 in2 volume (Float) = 21 in3 Call with some parameters. which could be read with the "Set" operator.2[in].5[in]..b. The property has not been assigned to any variable c = 3[in] Area_Volume(3. #f3:=c) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 16 in3 PROP READ/WRITE statements (Property) The properties have another functionality when they receive a value as if they were variables. are stored in an internal property variable called "Value".g. The syntax is: 627 . The values assigned to the properties in this way.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO b = 3[in] c = 4[in] res = Area_Volume(a. #f1:=a.c) Results: area (Float) = 6 in2 volume (Float) = 24 in3 res (Boolean) = True Call with only some parameters: a = 2[in] res = Area_Volume(a) Results: area (Float) = 4 in2 volume (Float) = 0 in3 res (Boolean) = False Property call with values as parameters.This type of call requires no specific parameter order because the "#" sign indicates the parameter (e. Remark. to pass "a" to the f1 parameter) a = 2[in] c = 4[in] Area_Volume(#f1:=a.

Chapter 31: Programming in LEO Prop NAME( ) = EXP Set End Prop Example: RootSqr property: Prop RootSqr(x as float) as float result = sqrt(x) Set res = sqr(Value) End Prop This property. returns the square root of the argument: x = 81 res1 = RootSqr(x) Results: x (Integer) = 81 res1 (Float) = 9 628 . when used to behave as a function.

if it is assigned a value to the property. This concept allows to generate very general properties that can be reused in many different simply and easy ways in the future We can generate. for example. the parameters should be declared as parameters by reference.. Parameters by reference.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO But. To keep the change on parameters permanently. An important feature in LEO is that the reference parameters are pointers. ref condFalse) = cond If cond then condTrue Else condFalse 629 . ref condTrue. that means that any change in their values takes effect only inside the property. the properties ifThen and ifElse which are statements that due to their structure take several code lines. The parameters are treated as internal variables to the property. Example: Prop getUppercase(ref s as string) s = uppercase(s) //returns in s End prop the uppercase of “s” Properties as parameters by reference. This type of declaration is made simply by adding the "REF" word before the usual parameter declaration. the "res" variable" receives the square of the assigned value as it is defined in the Set statement of the property: x = 81 RootSqr(x) = 9 Results: x (Integer) = 81 res (Float) = 81 Notes. this reference could be called as many times as required inside the main property. In this case we will write them only once and we are going to reuse them with only one line.The "res" variable should be declared before the property. ref condTrue) = cond If cond then condTrue End if End prop Prop ifElse(cond as boolean. The argument of the property has no change in this case. And if the reference is a property or an expression. Prop ifThen(cond as boolean.

The reference to expressions is a powerful concept not able to be found in other languages. message('x is zero')) Results: Res (String) = 'x is zero' 2) x = -3.message('x is positive'). prop bisect(ref y as simple. ref counter as integer) //x and dx should be initialized properly to: //x: the first value to be tested //dx: the initial value of dx and sign to assure that zero will be found 630 . it is suggested to the user to load and execute it step by step. ref dx as simple. ref x as simple. The next code shows the use of a property as a reference parameter and illustrates how to use the reference property to be called many times during the execution of the main property.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End if End prop We can reuse it in the following manner: 1) res as string Prop message(s as string) res = s End Prop x = 0 ifThen(x = 0. ref isDone as boolean. this concept allows a major code reutilization. message('x is negative')) Result: Res (String) = 'x is negative' Example2: The main property finds the solution of any equation or function (included in the reference property) using the bisection method.3 ifElse(x > 0. For a better understanding of the following property.

0 dx = 0.0 prop y(x as simple) = x*x-5*x-3 //equation to be solved 631 .5 count1 = 0 res = 0.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO //initial values x1 = x y1 = y x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y dx0 = dx counter = 0 while not isDone do //change dx sign if y1 * y2 <= 0 then dx = .dx / 2.0 end if //calc new values x1 = x2 y1 = y2 x = x + dx x2 = x y2 = y counter = counter + 1 //loop counter end while End prop x = 0.

count1) //solve equation and store last y(x) result in Res Additional commands for LEO Editor LEO Editor is a simple editor that allows the user to expand or collapse objects or subroutines. The reference expression is evaluated (property y(x) is calculated) and the assignment executed (Res receives the y(x) value) every time the reference expression is called. abs(dx)<0.001 or count1>30. LEO Editor allows to expand and collapse objects and subroutines (generically called titles). the assignments.". separated from the expression by a ". abs(dx)<0.res.res //this expression could be used as reference parameter (it includes the reference variable after the expression) The following property call is valid in LEO. dx. the reference property y(x) is calculated each time the bisect main property requires a new Y value. Also. x. The different tools and options are described in the Help Context of the Editor. This feature is an enhancement of the previously explained LEO capacity to use properties as reference parameters. In this way. However there are additional useful commands that are accessible by keyboard combinations: Ctrl+A 632 Selects all the line where the cursor is located . the user can have an overview of his objects and subroutines but also can quickly get into the detail of each one easily.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO End prop bisect(y(x).001 or count1>30. x.001. When Assigning expressions to be used as reference parameters.count1) //solve a linear equation It is also possible to use expressions as (2*x+5) directly as reference parameters. Assigning expressions as parameters by reference. abs(dx)<0. unlikeusual LEO code where the assignments use the "=" operand. x = -10 dx = 1 count1 = 0 bisect(2*x+5. The following are examples of expressions assignment: Res := y(x) //this expression is not valid as reference parameter Res:=y(x).count1) //solve equation It should be noted that the isDone condition is calculated each time it is required (each time it is called) inside the property. bisect(res:=y(x). should be done using the ":=" operand. The expression variable to be used as reference parameter should also be declared after the assignment.dx. the reference expression result is the Res value as it has been declared after the ". x." in the main property call. dx.

Ctrl-Del ALT + left click ALT + Ctrl + left CTRL + Enter CTRL+left click 633 . Put the cursor at the title or at the text inside a title and press Ctrl+Enter to toggle between collapsed/expanded. Increases and decreases indent of the selected lines. Copy the selected text to the clipboard Paste the text in the clipboard at the cursor location. If the line is a collapsed title. etc). Inserts the correspondent statement End (End if. Collapses / expands a title. Copies the line where the cursor is to the line where the click is done. Press Ctrl and Left click over the title or the text inside the title. If more than one line wants to be copied. Moves to the click line the line where the cursor is located. If a title is collapsed. End For. select them previously. To expand or collapse a title (subroutine or object). the entire title and contents is deleted. If more than one line wants to be moved. end Prop. Deletes the line where the cursor is located.Chapter 31: Programming in LEO located Ctrl-T Ctrl+Ins / Ctrl+C Shift+Ins / Ctrl+V Ctrl+E TAB / Shift+TAB Delete word contiguous to cursor. select them previously. the operation is performed to all the text inside the title as well.

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