JULY 2010


Do Indians Understand Democracy?

US – Iran:
The two sides of the coin

Cloud Computing

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Do Indians Understand Democracy?............4
Mpemba Effect………………………………………………………………………..11

US – Iran: The two sides of the coin…………………….15
“A new beginning” – Speech by Barack Obama at Al-Azhar University Cairo……………………….25 Open letter to American citizens by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ……………………………………….37

Reserved India!...............................................................................42
Does paying taxes make you more Responsible towards the Nation?..............................................45
Cold War between US and China

What‟s in for India?..........................................................48
Toilets in Incredible India…………………………………………………………53 Cloud Computing………………………………………………………………………..58

Research papers @ ArXiv…………………………………..….……61
Question to Readers…………………………………………………………...…….66

Quote of the month
“Indian Government doesn‟t want to declare Naxalites as terrorists because they don‟t belong to a particular religion”
2 -Anonymous (found it in a public forum)

Without consuming anymore words. In few articles I have tried to pour my heart out and in some expressed my helplessness. started behaving like a normal guy and tried to accept the reality. circumstances changed me. But there is one thing common in all articles. This magazine is collection of observations I have made. you would find the articles intellectually stimulating and worth reading. In Urdu language. etc. please let me know via email. however my intension isn‟t hurt or offend anyone. At the same time. I hope. That gave birth to Sarfarosh. however. Mohammed Abubakr Hyderabad. I got to bring that aimless kid alive again and give him a cause to fight for. I would like to express my thanks for taking out time to read this magazine. They all are written with an intension to bring a change and spread India.Editorial Dear Readers. is this life? What the …! I realized. You can reach me at sarfarosh_the_magazine@live. I get nothing by hurting or offending anyone. let me give you some background on „who am I‟ and „why have I started this emagazine‟. I am thrilled to bring to you the first issue of this monthly e-magazine Sarfarosh. discover new scientific laws. I wasn‟t getting the girl too! That‟s when I decided. But on one fine day. trying to find a cause. invent superhero machines. If you find any such discrepancy. About three years back. First of all. if I have to say a truth and that would hurt people. I would be glad to rectify myself and would acknowledge your opinion in the next issue of Sarfarosh. I wasn‟t being me and to make things worse. I do understand that some of the articles might not go well and they might be offensive. As I wandered around. I wrote about everything I came across. I would repeat that truth again and again until those people accept and change. the word „Sarfarosh‟ means „a person ready to sacrifice his/her life for a noble cause‟. I wanted to change the world. I was an aimless kid with crazy ideas. sarfarosh_the_magazine@live. for all that I have done in last three years. Having said that. People around me referred that change as maturity. Regards. took up a job. there is also a possibility that some of my opinions might be incorrect and not 3 . Fell in love with a girl. a question popped up out of nowhere.

However. language and caste. Churchill is a Nobel laureate in literature and was widely considered as an intelligent man in Post-World War II era. They will have sweet tongues and silly hearts. And what is worse. we the people have become so weak and helpless before the corrupt and ruthless politicians? Why is our judiciary system so useless in punishing the criminals? The politicians who appear to be genuinely hardworking and honest don‟t get elected and the one who gets elected is often corrupt and rogue.Do Indians Understand DEMOCRACY? “Power will go to the hands of rascals. it kept coming back at me. They will fight amongst themselves for power and India will be lost in political squabbles” – Winston Churchill. I have often asked myself. rogues and freebooters. 15th August 1947. he went on to make such remark. Having known that Churchill never had a good opinion about Indians. yet. I don‟t know. sixty years later. his remark does seem to be true. he was upset about India getting liberated from Britain or maybe he had his reasons. Given his close proximity to Gandhi. May be. why is it all happening? Why is it that. Nehru and several other Indian leaders during pre-independence period. But somehow. the election agenda of most politicians is to divide people in the name of religion. in the 4 . I didn‟t pay much attention to his quote when I first read it. he should have considered India to be in safe hands. on the eve of Indian Independence. To quote an example. All Indian leaders will be of low caliber and men of straw.

now they were working for Queen of England. Even though. 18% other religions). I question. the power could either go to the King‟s closest kin or to the elite 10% of people. during last two thousand years. what were they? Were there any indications during pre-independence era itself that hinted that India would go in the hands of goons? Was there a flaw in Indian Independence fight against Britain that led to this situation in India? Was there any concrete reasoning based on which Churchill made that remark? After days of research and making countless hypotheses. nd Historically. Churchill had his reasons for have received as corruption to vote in favor of UPA. So. the population of India has always been on the higher side. who considered themselves as „upper caste‟ (72% backward caste Hindus. more than 90% of the people weren‟t eligible to be the next King. according to the caste systems prevailed in India. For some reason unknown. it is well known that. a young politician gave discriminating speeches against a particular minority religion and was elected with overwhelming majority. Even in case of assassination/death of a king. I arrived at some logical conclusions that indeed influenced Churchill in making such remark. making such a remark predicting about future of India. Such is the state of our nation and such is choice of our people. In the Hindi movie „Sarkar Raj‟. When British Empire threatened to take over regional kings in India. back in 1947. Also. Indian kings seldom had a large army to protect the land. the „lower-caste‟ people had no wealth. The rest of the people were considered as „lower-caste‟ and had no eligibility in either being or choosing the king. Indian sub-continent was always been under the rule of kings. opposition MPs showing the money they at all. at no point Indian kings thought 5 . there is a dialogue describing the nature of Indians. After he won the elections. This is because of the fact that the „lower-caste‟ people weren‟t allowed to be part of the army. for those 90% of the people. during the no-confidence vote in the Indian Parliament. The dialogues goes as „logon ko development nahi entertainment chahiye (people need entertainment but not development)‟. who followed a hereditary system of kingship.recently held Parliamentary elections. India has been prone to lot of foreign attacks. Moreover. weren‟t given equal human rights and lived in the worst living conditions. it didn‟t matter who the king was. he did no good to the people who voted for him and not surprisingly he doesn‟t attend the sessions in Indian Parliament. Earlier they worked for the regional kings. people of India had never experienced something called „democracy‟. They got discriminated by both Indian regional kings and the British. When British colonized India. There wasn‟t any drastic change in their living conditions. if On 22 July.

This is also reflected in caste system. Gandhi‟s fight against British was of different kind. according to which. A situation was created. Naturally. During the first general elections in India. That would be catastrophic to the „higher caste‟ people. majority of people in India prefer electing his son or daughter. Somewhere. his son or daughter takes over all his responsibilities. to be a parliamentarian became a sort of family business for the people elected earlier. Several regional kings and landlords exploited this emotional overflow and lack of awareness among people regarding „democracy‟. In fact. where it was more of emotional overflow than common sense. they would demand equality and power. several regional kings and landlords from the elite „upper caste‟ were elected to National Parliament and State Legislative Assemblies. This is also reflected in the fact that. It is to be noted that. no substantial attempts were made by Indian leaders to educate people about powers of democracy during British rule. And then. it offered assurance to regional kings and the upper caste people of India that.of expanding their army by recruiting low-caste people. someday they would do the same against them. irrespective of his/her caliber to lead people. majority of the people had no clear idea about democracy. As per the principles of Santana Dharma. It was the non-violent fight. there was no campaign or propaganda where people of India were told that they will be given equal rights in electing the government in post-independence. the regional kings and freedom fighters involved lower-caste people in the fight against British. The regional kings of India knew very well that. the same religious values exist in India and interchanging from one caste to another is strictly prohibited. if father belongs to a particular caste. if the lower-caste people of India can take-up arms to fight against British. unopposed in elections. even if they involve lower-caste people in this movement. they will never come to power. who contributed less than 10% of overall population. it implies that the son will inherit the same caste. after the death or retirement of father. When India got independence from British. a religion popularly known as „Hinduism‟. From the second elections onwards. once a Parliamentarian retires or expires. 6 . they preferred to sign peace treaties with British Empire. Even today. Instead. It was only after the intervention of Mahatma Gandhi. This wasn‟t surprising to majority of Indians as per their religious views.

It is common sense to note. 7 . Though these numbers are never made official. Moreover. Contrary to general belief.000 crore rupees. maintaining regional offices. extra volunteers. continue to believe that politics is a social service. vehicles and advertisement campaigns. even today. Soon. political parties also have to give money to people in return of votes. Most Indians. Majority of Indians doesn‟t even have a remote idea to contribute funds to political parties. but one can easily calculate. the budget is about 100 crore to 500 crore. the politicians started realizing that. whereas for a state wide party. where people contribute funds to the political parties of their choice so that political parties work towards people‟s benefit. political parties do not work in the interest of the people. landlords and freedom fighters establishing their political career as family business. how are the political parties affording such massive annual budgets? Also. let‟s think about election campaigns in India. To organize road shows. additional party offices in different localities.The first two decades of Indian politics saw several regional ex-kings. why do people have to give funds to political parties? For a while. In such a scenario. advertisements in print media and local TV channels. “…Democracy is a give and take relationship between people and political parties. Whenever elections are being held. This lack of awareness among people of India has forced politicians towards corruption. road side advertisement hoardings. when people don‟t contribute funds. where people contribute funds to the political parties of their choice so that they work towards people‟s benefit…” Some of you would ask. at some regions in India. being a politician in India isn‟t a profitable business. A political party not just consists of few hundred politicians but also consists of thousands of party workers and regional offices. democracy is a give and take relationship between people and political parties. This is the basic rule of democracy and politics. each major party of India spends about 10 crore rupees per constituency for campaigning. vehicles for campaigning and all other logistics come at a cost. arranging events and rallies. Have we ever think. survival of political parties became almost impossible. This budget is used for monthly salaries of party workers. Annual budget of a national political party in India ranges from 200 crore to 2. let‟s think from a political party‟s prospective.

800 (1. Without investing significant amount in advertising. political parties are forced to do (i) accept money from lobbyists or (ii) sale of election tickets to the highest bidder. A corrupt politician will not only earn lot of money for himself but will also be able to provide livelihood for thousands of party workers. When I say probability helps our survival I mean. imagine how hard it is for a young aspirant with a constructive agenda to enter politics. Also. According to recent media reports. For example. Not surprisingly. the progress rate has slowed down considerably. has to make this compromise because an honest politician won‟t be able to feed the thousands of party workers. which means 1. We are alive because the sheer probability helps our survival. If you look at the sheer labor force and intellectual capabilities of India. But because of corruption and lobbyists.2 billion people in India. there are like 1. development and growth of economy cannot be equated with better governance. even though a political party wants to give tickets to honest politicians.000 million rupees of Indian black money deposited in European banks. The second option before political parties is the „sale of election tickets‟ to the highest bidder. let‟s say. it isn‟t easy to reach the people. Lobbyists contribute funds to political parties with their set of demands which are often against the public interest. someone is willing to invest his/her personal money in election campaign. over 700. Think about this. But what about. it might kill about 200 people.999. as I 8 . it wouldn‟t take more than twenty years for the nation to become a developed country.2 billion – 200) people are still safe. In such a situation. the money used for lobbying is the unaccounted money (referred as black money). Politicians who are sure of „return of investment‟ purchase tickets from the political parties. Sometimes. where does all this lead? This leads to a nation with chaos and no value for life. The answer isn‟t difficult. Even for the sake of argument. which can potentially be used as lobbying for political parties. This is the logic of survival in India.199. One might ask. he/she can acquire a non-industrial land in his constituency at a cheaper rate. then how the money for annual budget and election campaign coming from? In order to afford annual budget and election campaigns. even if 10 terrorists open fire at people. then how the nation has progressed since independence. think about this. young aspirants who want to really work for the benefit of people? Why should they spend their personal money in election campaigns? So. what is the return for his/her investment? A mere fifty thousand rupees salary per month and few free air tickets? Anyone would invest his hard earned personal money only when he/she is sure about the return of investment. an industrialist might invest his personal money in election campaigns so that after winning.when political parties and politicians are driven by lobbyists and corruption.How the political parties are able to afford all these? When people of India are not contributing funds.

I have pointed out too many causes for my death and you might disagree with me. while trying to avoid a pot hole. 2. people are given two choices. You and I are alive because probability favors us as we weren‟t among those 100 people out of 1. Bring a constitutional law in India called „Death to the traitor (DoT)‟ law. I will die with food poisoning. In DoT elections. Let me explain what this „DoT‟ law is. my apartment will collapse due to a minor earth-quake. the representative is legally hanged under law. As per the law. Or maybe. Also let me clarify. 1. we need to do two important things. To avoid misuse and excessive expenditure. when people have right to elect political leaders as their representative. someone will kidnap me forcing my family to give away all their savings. either to „Save the Representative they have elected‟ or “Hang the Representative for betraying their trust‟.write this… some terrorist might be planning to plot a bomb …which will kill me tomorrow. I will get killed in a road accident. the only way we can change our country is by establishing the true democracy. Or maybe some hooligan will attack me because I don‟t speak a particular language or don‟t belong to particular religion. Or maybe I will get killed in some false police encounter. 9 . Start contributing funds towards political parties. Or maybe. people also have right to kill the representative who has betrayed their trust. This law is critical for the success of our nation and implementing the true form of democracy. then the representative continues his tenure. I will get buried under a bridge that collapsed due to the use of faulty material. if the people are totally dissatisfied with his work. And to establish true democracy in India. they can demand for a special election called „DoT Elections‟. Or maybe. If majority of the people vote for „Save the representative‟. just like one person cannot elect the representative. a single person cannot kill the representative. Or maybe. people are allowed to demand DoT elections only twice during five year tenure of the representative. But the truth is… this is happening with at least hundred Indians per day. because I wasn‟t born in a particular region. In democracy. Or maybe.2 billion picked each day. Or maybe I will lose a job. If majority of the people vote for „Hang the representative‟. during the tenure of an elected representative. Or maybe. I know. My friends. I will die with a contagious disease. All DoT elections should be held under the supervision of Indian President and Indian Army.

If you feel this solution has flaws or you have a better solution. 3. DoT law can only be implemented if Indian citizens are willing to contribute funds towards political parties. He/she will be aware at every point of time during his/her tenure I don‟t want to conclude this article. they have no right to punish the representative they have chosen. as it‟s just the beginning of a new idea… a new revolution. people have to write to the President of India. It gives more power to the people. This increases the powers of the President of India. they are answerable to the people. then they also have a right to take away his life for betraying their trust and causing harm to the nation. Ultimate power resides in the hands of people. whether he wants to continue the tenure or want to give chance to another person with fresh ideas. The advantages of DoT law are: 1. I am not saying this is the best solution to the problem. please email to me at sarfarosh_the_magazine@live. 4. If they can‟t give little money out of their pockets. But when they take out their hardearned money in support of their representative. 2. Every time DoT elections are held in any constituency. Each person contesting elections will feel the responsibility of taking the nation towards development. I will further elaborate my ideas around „DoT Law‟ and importance of funding political parties. each representative will rethink. After the successful completion of the tenure. 10 . I will be happy to listen from you. To demand the DoT elections. The existing scenario is that. This will help the nation in producing new leaders from time to time. 5. they can also end his life for betraying their trust. who was earlier a mere rubber stamp. It‟s the President of India with consultation with Governor of the State.Note. takes the decision to conduct DoT elections in a State or not. Future articles of „Sarfarosh‟. If they can elect a representative trusting his words. This is one of the solutions I found after lot of thinking and I believe if implemented properly it will transform the nation. it sends a message to the whole nation that Indians are not going to tolerate „corrupt politicians who do no good to the nation‟. Also. same political leaders occupy seats for 30-40 years till they die.

For little Mpemba. To his surprise. it got froze within his allotted slot. Next day. he prepared the ice-cream using mixture of milk and warm water. somewhere in Tanzania. the mixture of milk and warm water froze into ice-cream much faster than mixture of milk and cold water. He wondered. a secondary school had just one refrigerator and hundreds of students competed for getting a slot in refrigerator to make an icecream. Mpemba was able to prepare the icecream in much lesser duration than his friends. He kept the boiled water in the freezer instead of cold water and to his surprise. ice-cream was a craze but he was often left unsatisfied as the time-slot he used to get in refrigerator wasn‟t longer enough for ice-cream to be prepared. Soon. the news spread around the 11 .Mpemba Effect I n 1963. Now. Mpemba experimented with something totally unexpected. if he could figure out a way to freeze the water faster. On one fine day.

with due credit to Mpemba [1]. Physics community saw Mpemba effect with the eye of suspicion and mistrust. Osborne published a paper titled „Cool‟ in Journal of Physics Education. it takes lesser time to cool a colder body than a hotter body. if it is true. Since then. an English philosopher and advocate of scientific methods wrote in his book „Opus Majus‟ that 12 . using the ice like solder to fix their rods. When Mpemba insisted. which clearly stated the rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the difference in temperatures between the body and its surroundings. that is Mpemba‟s physics and not the universal physics‟. for it cools more quickly. However. a physics professor visited Mpemba‟s school. Osborne. How can the laws of physics be so wrong? And more notably. He asked “why water at 100C freezes faster than water at 35C? Dr. Thus so many people when they want to cool water quickly first stand it in the sun and the inhabitants of Pontus when they encamp on the ice to fish…. whenever Mpemba asked any question or made a mistake. criticisms didn‟t stop Mpemba from further experimenting. it would be worthwhile to publish the results. Sometime later. Osborne couldn‟t think of any possible scientific explanation to Mpemba‟s question. In simpler words it meant. out of curiosity. In 1969. Dr. Mpemba innocently asked the question that has haunted him from last six years. In 350 Soon Mpemba realized. Aristotle wrote “…If water has been previously heated. Dr. Dr. Osborne asked his lab assistant to conduct the experiment which Mpemba suggested. His curiosity grew with time. However. Lab assistant reported that. During his primary school. this contributes to the rapidity with which it freezes. At the end of his talk. Six years later in 1969. Osborne was quick to recognize the importance of the discovery but had no idea why it was occurring. why did it take so long for this phenomenon to be discovered? It was soon identified that Mpemba effect was known from the times of Aristotle but has been ignored. by no means his observations can be correct as per the accepted laws of theoretical physics. Roger Bacon. The physics teacher had no answer to it. he was still able to prove it experimentally. The results astonished him. He felt. physics teacher told him „All I can say is. And water that condenses in the air in warm districts and seasons gets hot quickly” In 13th Century. hot water froze first and the same result was obtained even after several attempts. Mpemba‟s obsession to understand the real reason behind his observations didn‟t go well with the physics teachers at his school. Dr. Mpemba didn‟t give up. it was criticized as „that is Mpemba‟s physics‟ or „that is Mpemba‟s mathematics‟. he came across something called „Newton‟s law of cooling‟. Mpemba asked his physics teacher for scientific explanation for warm water to freeze faster than cold water. pour hot water on their rods because it freezes quicker.

it is generally believed that hot water freezes more quickly than cold water in vessels. But there are few people who are capable of correctly doing these experiments. because those of its parts which can least cease to bend evaporate while it is being heated” After the publication by Descartes. but he does make one like it. then draw water from that fountain. in doing them poorly. namely. Descartes. But if hot water and cold are placed in two vessels. but that water that one has held for a long time over the fire freezes more quickly than the other. Fermat (another renowned mathematician) questioned Descartes whether he actually did the experiment or was he simply stating the rumor. the hot water freezes more quickly. Descartes replied “…I appreciate once again what you have written me that my reputation is at stake in my response to Mr. for the water level will go down visibly. and expose it to freezing cold air. . by which they have been deceived. one finds the complete opposite of what one should find” But for all these quotes from legendary figures. until the water reaches a certain level of coldness.“…Moreover.I dare to assure you that there is nothing incorrect. published in his work „Les Meteores‟. People attribute this to Aristotle in the second book of Meteorologics. and often. and particularly the one which you commented on of the hot water that freezes more quickly than cold. Thus the same cold which will have condensed or shrunk it in the beginning will rarefy it afterwards. quotes about faster freezing of hot water compared to cold water as “…We can see this by experiment. the cold will freeze more quickly. one must first have boiled the water. but he certainly does not make this statement. because I did these experiments myself. that if cold water and hot water are poured on a cold place. as upon ice. after which it will gradually swell and rise. just like enemies meeting each other. until it is completely frozen. and having tested it with a thermometer. where I said not hot and cold. Therefore all things must be verified by experience” In 1637 AD. and this is true. straight neck—with hot water. until it has the same degree of coolness as that in a fountain. because in order to correctly do this experiment. little by little. . how did Mpemba effect remained as a mystery all these years? Why didn‟t physics tried to understand the actual cause of Mpemba effect? According to certain researchers. a renowned mathematician. in which I assure you that there is not one single word that I would like to have changed. and put the two waters in the same quantity in same vases. then let it cool off. and the argument in support of this is advanced that contrary is excited by contrary. if we fill a beaker or some other such container having a long. But it is certain that cold water freezes more quickly for anyone who makes the experiment. And we can also see by experiment that water which has been kept hot for a long time freezes faster than any other sort. theory of heat transfer is so well established that scientists are skeptical about the claims and 13 . Fermat. the question still remains. For which.

I feel it is a disservice to physics. Darko V.chem-ph] 14 . 4. Recently. dissolved gasses. I am also deeply inspired by Mpemba. surroundings and super-cooling on water. we need to question because… answers can be found only when we question. Brownridge published his experimental results on Mpemba effect [2]. no author was able to confirm the exact reason. Katz. arXiv:1003. 514 (2006). arXiv:1005. Mpemba effect continues to reminds us that. if researchers don‟t carry out experiments just because something contradicts the existing theories. Kapor have suggested a modification of Newton‟s Law of cooling to explain Mpemba effect [3]. He also reminded us that. James D. "Cool".gen-ph] Monwhea Jeng. Kapor. it took 120 minutes for hot shows. it took 120 minutes for water to freeze compared to 195 minutes for cold water to freeze. J. Mpemba‟s could be due to impact of evaporation. “Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?”.refuse to even carry out advance experiments to understand Mpemba effect. convection. changing the experimental conditions slightly can produce opposite results. The adjacent graph. Being a passionate physicist. “A search for the Mpemba effect: When hot water freezes faster then cold water”. there has been renewed enthusiasm in unraveling the exact cause of Mpemba effect. 172-175 (1969). Brownridge. in recent times.pop-ph]. water at 76C to freeze compared to 195 minutes for water at 4C under experimental conditions. On 6th May 2010.1013v1 [physics. “A Modification of the Newton's Cooling Law and Mpemba Effect”. However. Vladan Pankovic. “When hot water freezes before cold”. such a trivial effect has no exact explanation in theoretical physics. arXiv:physics/0604224v1 [physics. Am. Figure from Brownridge‟s paper [2]: Cooling curves of hot water (red) taken from Brownridge paper and cold water (blue). Brownridge argues that. instead of blindly following the textbooks and teachers. According to several papers published in this regard. Phys. However. there is long way to go in theoretical physics. In the experiment. I. Osborne. 74. J. for his curiosity and persistent effort in understanding this phenomenon. References & Suggested Reading [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Mpemba.3185v1 [physics. Nonetheless. As a student of science. it surprises me that. Vladan Pankovic and Darko V. Physics Education vol.

However. it was just a ploy to wage a war to occupy the lucrative oil resources of Iraq. US desperately want to project Iran as a „threat‟ to world. In return. but Russian and Chinese governments have opposed to any sanctions that would affect Iranian economy. barring investment by Iranian citizens in nuclear energy sector outside Iran and ban of sales of weapons of any kind to Iran by any country. These sanctions include inspection of flights/ships moving in and out of Iran. As we now know. Iran would be eligible to receive about 265 pounds of 20% enriched uranium from other countries. Apparently. To make nuclear weapons. Obama administration has outright rejected the deal and has stuck to its pre-decided agenda on imposing UN economic sanctions on Iran. Though US government intended to push the sanctions further. uranium has to be enriched to 80-90%. Overall it appears that. Iran surprised US and its allies by striking a Nuclear Storage deal with Turkey and Brazil. the deal is very similar to the one proposed by US and France to Iran. Technically. On 9th June 2010. According to the deal. Though there are several clauses in the deal. under intense pressure from US. US 15 . this isn‟t a new thing.US – IRAN The two sides of the coin O n 17th May 2010. History is repeating itself.640 pounds of crude uranium to Turkey. Previously. the reaction from US about the deal has been severely discouraging. Iran will transfer 2. overall. US has projected Saddam‟s regime as a threat to the world and had accused Iraq of possessing „weapons of mass destruction‟. where it will be stored for duration of one year. UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iran. whereas „weapons of mass destruction‟ never existed. 20% enriched uranium can only be used for medical purposes such as treating cancer.

AngloPersian Oil Company was established to exploit Iranian energy resources. (Trivia: This company is now known as British Petroleum and has been in news recently for oil spill in Gulf of Mexico).is now projecting Iran as a „rogue country‟ and is accusing Iran of trying to develop nuclear weapons that would pose a threat to the world. however it was outright rejected. The production of refined oil began in year 1913 and continued for next 15 years. disease. In last couple of colonial British months. Does Iran pose a real threat to the world? Is this another ploy by US to take control over oil resources of Iran? Is there a diplomatic solution to this conflict? To answer all these questions. with 50-50 profit sharing deal with Saudi Government. BP is in news for oil spill in Mexican Gulf. In his famous speech on 21st June. and backwardness among our people. at the beginning of 20th century. With the oil revenues we could meet our entire budget and combat poverty. by means of which the internal affairs of our country have been influenced. Iran would receive only 16% of the profits made by APOC. Iran‟s new democratically Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh nationalized oil resources of Iran in 1951. In year 1950. Trivia: Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) is now Just like any other known as British Petroleum (BP). As the news reached Iran. They found large crude oil reserves in the deserts of Iran. Under the pressure from people. After 8 years of desert explorations in Middle-East. we would also eliminate corruption and intrigue. companies. The story starts a century ago. In this article. 1951. which forced the government to comply with the demands of Britain. Iran had no technical expertise to establish refineries indigenously. Another important consideration is that by the elimination of the power of the British company. In order to protect Iranian oil reserves. 16 . “Our long years of negotiations with foreign countries… have yielded no results this far. The odds were against the favor of Iran. in 1908 British geologists stuck gold. Starting from 1928. Mosaddegh quoted. Iranian government started renegotiation with Britain about the profit sharing and higher wages for refinery workers but the talks yielded no positive results. an American company established an oil refinery in Saudi Arabia. This discovery led to the establishment of first oil refinery in Middle-East called Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC). The ongoing US-Iran conflict raises concerns over prospects of another war in Middle-East. According to the deal imposed upon Iranian government. Iranian government proposed a similar deal before Britain. one needs to understand the root causes of US-Iran Conflict. Back then. I would like to provide some insights on relations between Iran and US since World War II and throw some light on American intervention in Middle-East. people started revolting against exploitation of Iranian resources by APOC.

it is utter invention…” This was a significant move by Iranian government for the benefit of its economy. Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini. he was arrested and exiled. For these efforts to establish democracy in Iran and bringing economic stablisation of Iran. Time Magazine chose Mosaddegh as 1951‟s „Man of the year‟. Iran will have achieved its economic and political independence. Britain and US co-arranged a coup to oust the democratically elected government in Iran. in the words on Winston Churchill was Iranian government was „increasingly turning towards communism‟. wrote books about revolting against tyranny and injustice and proposed an Islamic 17 . however it severely angered Britain. He did what he was told to do. Mosaddegh took measures to resurrect the economy and reduced the constitutional powers of Royal family in the matters of national policies.Once this tutelage has ceased. It wasn‟t surprising that soon after General Zahedi became Prime Minister of Iran. granted voting rights to women and established good foreign relations. on 19th August 1953. This is where the Iran-US conflict begins. While on exile. Subsequently. strengthened Iran-US relations. a threat to US during cold-war period. Just when Iran was recovering from the economic crisis. However. Britain threatened to take legal action against any country that purchases oil from Iran. he signed a deal with American and British Oil companies to carry out oil exploration in Iran and reestablished APOC. Prime Minister Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years and was later put under house arrest until his death in 1967. causing a severe economic crisis in Iran. As retaliation. This coup referred as „Operation Ajax‟ by Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was approved by US President Eisenhower and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Royal family and parliamentarians in Iran forced Mosaddegh to resign for bringing the country on the verge of economic collapse. a religious Shia leader publicly criticized Pahlavi‟s rule and American involvement in Iranian internal matters. with overwhelming public support Mosaddegh was again re-elected to power. recognized Israel as a nation and allowed US and British companies to take full control of oil reserves in Iran. Soon opposition against Pahlavi‟s autocratic rule started growing within Iran. The Iranian state prefers to take over the production of petroleum itself. The propaganda then. Khomeini preached about principles of Shia Islam. The nationalization law provides 25% of the net profits on oil be set aside to meet all the legitimate claims of the company for compensation… It has been asserted abroad that Iran intends to expel the foreign oil experts from the country and then shut down oil installations. Post 1953 coup. Pahlavi also improved the education system in Iran by establishing Universities. The company should do nothing else but return its property to the rightful owners. However. making the King Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi become the de facto leader of Iran. With the public support. for people of Iran. Pahlavi made several visits to US. US and Britain helped the Royal family of Iran regain all its powers. a puppet government was established which chose General Fazlollah Zahedi as Prime Minister of Iran. Post-coup. Not only is this allegation absurd. By 1952. Pahlavi was a puppet in the hands of US and Britain. In 1963.

Identity for Iran. However. His popularity within people of Iran grew day-by-day. the hostage crisis created a severe anti-Iran sentiment among US and Allied powers. After lot of negotiations and refusals. But it all changed in 1978-79. (i) an apology for the US role in 1953 Coup in Iran. For the revolutionaries. Khomeini‟s sudden rise in Iran took US and Allied powers by total surprise. The monarchy was abolished and “Imperial Republic of Iran” became “Islamic Republic of Iran”. however not to an alarming extent to overthrow the Pahlavi‟s rule. (A digital copy of Algiers deal is available at 18 . the most severe blow to Iran-US relations came on 4th November 1979. Post Islamic revolution. According to the deal. Khomeini returned Iran from exile on 1st March 1979. refusing the first condition of an apology for 1953 coup. Pahlavi fled leaving the revolutionaries take control of Iran. new constitution of Iran was introduced. a sudden outburst of Islamic revolution in Iran took everyone across the world by surprise. when group of revolutionaries held 52 Americans working at US Consulate in Tehran as hostages. with the slogan „Neither East. which deserted all the trade relations with US and Allied powers established by Pahlavi. According to calculations of CIA and British intelligence agencies. Khomeini put four demands before US in return of release of hostages. US agreed on three conditions out of four proposed by Iranian Government. the initial revolts weren‟t strong enough to overthrow the government. the members of US consulate were agents of CIA who organized the coup in 1953. However. If losing the oil resources of Iran wasn‟t enough. On 16th January 1979. (ii) release of Iranian assets in banks of America (iii) withdraw any legal claims against Iran arising from the embassy seizure and (iv) promise not to interfere in internal matters of Iran in future. contrary to intelligence reports. by January 1979. a deal was stuck between US and Iran under the supervision of Algerian Government on 19th January 1980. Pahlavi‟s government was under severe threat by revolutionaries. nor West – Islamic Republic‟.

under the leadership of Saddam Hussein and weaponry support of US with Allied powers and financially supported for other Arab nations. Islamic rule in Iran was seen as a rise of Islamic power and popularity of Khomeini as a leader of Islam was fast increasing among people. Iraq attacked Iran. American and European businesses realized that wars and conflicts in Middle-East can be highly profitable if the cards are played wisely. The followers of Islam are divided into two main groups of thinking. all the Arab countries were ruled by Sunni Muslims. US along with several Arab nations conspired to fight a proxy war with Iran. Iraq used „chemical weapons‟ with the support of US.pdf) All the hostages were released on 20th January 1980 after being held in captivity for 444 days. In September 1980. which resulted in death of over hundred thousand citizens of Iran. American and European Businesses realized that  Whenever there is war in Middle-East. US along with the allied powers had an interesting experience in Middle-East. it economically benefited US and Allied Powers. Before a similar revolutionary Islamic movement catches up in surrounding US voted against the issuance of this statement. the overall economy of Middle-East collapses. international price of oil actually reduces. During the course of war. American Hostage crisis damaged the reputation of Iran and its political leadership internationally.5 million casualties In 1986.http://www. and an estimated cost of $1 trillion.parstimes. it was all about gaining control over oil resources but for the Arab nations it was ideological differences with Iran. The rise of Iran was seen as rise of Shia Islam. as the economy of Middle-East collapses. For US. except for Iran. Ironically. UN security council made a declaration that “members are profoundly concerned by the unanimous conclusion of the specialists that chemical weapons on many occasions have been used by Iraqi forces against Iranian troops and the members of the Council strongly condemn this continued use of chemical weapons in clear violation of the Geneva Protocol of 1925 which prohibits the use in war of chemical weapons". In neighboring Arab nations. This egoistic conflict played an important role in subsequent years. Contrary to propaganda. Though the war did collateral damage to both Iran and Iraq resulting in death of over 1. apparently ruled by puppet kings.5 million people and losses of $1 trillion. the Sunnis and the Shias. benefiting virtually every business in Europe and US 19 . Back then. As the Iran – Iraq war concluded. The war lasted for 8 years with over 1.

sipri.600 21. As they soon found out.200 Northrop Grumman 26. 5.720 4. Given that each war would cost.340 Almaz-Antei AM General 4.  If there is a conflict between two nations in Middle-East. out of which major amount is spent on research and development of weapons. so that whatever investment is done in the war.250 5. 900 EADS 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2008 arms sales ($ million) BAE Systems 32.350 8.520 19. Sl.540 13.240 9.850 4 580 2.880 Boeing 29. This way.000 5. it is strategic to fight a war against a country which has abundant natural resources.090 General Dynamics 22. it is much easier than they 20 . can be recovered post invasion or provide military services to the countries in resolving their conflicts through wars. 020 Finmeccanica L-3 Communications 12. a major portion of money that is flowing into Middle-East due to sale of oil resources can be reclaimed back as expenses for providing the arms and security American and European companies would gain major chunk of reconstruction projects post-war Annual defense budget of US is approximately $600 billion.420 5.420 Lockheed Martin 29.900 Company 2007 arms sales ($ million) 29.100 9. No.670 370 (The above table was obtained from ) Now the task before the businesses was to convince their respective governments to act according to the above points. 030 17.040 Navistar 3. It is estimated that nearly 50 million people in US directly or indirectly derive their livelihood working in companies that do research and manufacturing of weapons.350 KBR 5. not only the weapon companies (private contractors) would go bankrupt but also about 50 million people would lose their livelihood.760 6. US has to participate in a major war every 5 years.170 Rolls Royce 4.780 Raytheon 21.310 ITT Corporation 5. To continue the American economy as it is.860 29. 160 10. If there is no war. 760 Thales Group United Technologies 9. Allied Powers can provide arms and security to both the nations.020 3.730 Computer Sciences Corp.480 24.980 SAIC 7.710 Honeywell 5.400 30.850 11.780 2.

The same is true for almost all the European democracies. The obvious loophole in western democracy is that. US and NATO convinced Saudi Arabia. occupy one of these countries. Iran and North Korea. with the funding of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. However. In other words. The idea was simple. And as expected. North Korea was ruled out as China was 21 . The annual budget of two major political parties in US is nearly $9 billion and the budget of Presidential campaign is about $500 million. Kuwait and Jordon for establishing military bases in their region for their safety. when Iraq invaded Kuwait.thought. amidst Afghanistan war. in which he went on to define the possible options. In such a scenario. they convinced Saudi Arabia of possible threat from Iraq. The harsh truth is. political parties can be lobbied. it‟s not the people‟s government but rather a government supported by businesses. according to recent reports. It is ironic to note that. it‟s a namesake democracy. there are mineral resources worth $1 Trillion in Afghanistan). As we now see. Bush delivered a speech. In 1990. often referred as the most powerful man on the planet. the propaganda of Weapons of Mass destruction was further promoted. Bush‟s Axis of Evil consisted of Iraq. US saw it as an opportunity to sell its weaponry and military services. The business model of selling weaponry and security services was working fine until late 2001. The losses in Afghanistan had to be recovered and it didn‟t take long for the Oval office to come up with a recovery plan. nearly 80% of the annual budget of political parties is supported by lobbyists. Soon. Political parties attract donations from people only during elections campaigns and the money raised isn‟t sufficient enough for the campaign itself. which he termed as „Axis of Evil‟. who were accused of „developing weapons of mass destruction‟. is actually a puppet in the hands of businesses with regard to foreign policies. Invading Iran posed a threat to ongoing war with Taliban as it shares the common border with Afghanistan. exploit the natural resources and recover the investment done in Afghanistan. This war. businesses realized that the barren lands of Afghanistan had nothing to contribute to American economy. Among the three nations defined as „Axis of Evil‟. most of weapons used by Iraq during the war were actually sold by US itself during Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. After the end of first Gulf War. As the occupation of Afghanistan began. the businesses were successfully able to execute their plans in last two decades. President of America. often known as „first Gulf War‟ was funded by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Twin Tower attacks forced US to settle the score with Afghanistan. US waged a war against Iraq. the most convenient nation to attack was „Iraq‟. most countries in Middle-East saw it as an internal conflict between two Arab nations and were opposed to intervention of any outsider. (Contrary to my initial predictions. where a political leader is elected by the people but he/she works towards benefit of businesses rather than people. For the next one year. On 29th January 2002.

2. 4. 3. US resorted to UN economic sanctions on Iran to destabilize Iranian economy. it wasn‟t about a people or nation. With the experience of first gulf war. Leaving Saddam Hussein in possession of weapons of mass destruction for a few more months or years is not an option. As the businesses involved in the war gained experience. he can easily be projected as „modern day Hitler‟ before American people to garner public support towards the war. On 5th February 2003. which meant. Attempts were also made by Allied businesses to fund candidates who would act as their puppets. Also. which means there was only one option left. Polish and Australian army. Elections in Iran captured the headlines of nearly every newspaper in US.dead against the war.. The next big plan proposed by Allied Businesses was economic destabilization of Iran and occupation its oil resources. Given Saddam Hussein's history of aggression. not in a post-September 11 world”. several decisions were made. Saddam‟s government had hostile relations with every Arab country. With two unsuccessful attempts of occupying neighboring countries. it won‟t affect the US relations with other Arab nations. In last two years or so. that were against the will of people of US. given what we know of his terrorist associations and given his determination to exact revenge on those who oppose him. it is the only country within Middle-East that isn‟t controlled by US. During the Iraq war. Technically. In 2003. US Army had good understanding about strengths and weaknesses of Iraqi forces. which meant. No „weapons of mass destruction‟ were found. For businesses. it was all about making profits. Iraq was invaded by coalition forces consisting of US. Two years later. Iraq has the World‟s fourth largest oil reserves It didn‟t take along for the businesses and the puppet Bush Government to draft a plan for genocide in Iraq. should we take the risk that he will not someday use these weapons at a time and the place and in the manner of his choosing at a time when the world is in a much weaker position to respond? The United States will not and cannot run that risk to the American people. British. US Secretary of State Colin Powel lied to UN Security Council …“We know that Saddam Hussein is determined to keep his weapons of mass destruction. Saddam Hussein was hanged. they started being more ruthless. 22 . And if profits can be made exploiting the US tax payer‟s money. following points went against Iraq 1. Iraq war was highly profitable for the oil companies and defense contractors. so be it. When all attempts of sponsoring favorable candidates in Iranian elections didn‟t work out. Allied businesses have invested significant amount of money in projecting Iran as a „rogue country‟ in Western Media. Saddam was a known dictator and was cruel with people of Iraq. he's determined to make more.. Iran holds world‟s third largest oil resources and has had hostile relations with US since 1979.

000 United States 19.700.380.000.000.000 7.000 13.220.21% Ally Iran 136. 2008 est.000.670. 2008 est.000. leading to indirect control of nation‟s oil resources.000. why US wants to destabilize Iranian economy by imposing UN sanctions or for that matter willing to go on a war against Iran? How does that benefit American businesses? Destabilization of Iranian economy might lead to following (i) Economic crisis in Iran would lead to downfall of its government and quite possibly Khomeini‟s decline.000 India Germany 2.800.785.000.53% Occupied Iraq Kuwait 104.000.24% Hostile Nigeria 36.000 European Union 14. % Oil Relations with Reserves US 466.260.Now.000 4.980. Hence.000 8.000 19. 2009 est.45% Diplomatic Russia Libya 43.000 8. South Validity 2008 est.000 Japan 2. 2008 est. 2008 est. 2008 est.78% Ally Saudi Arabia Canada 178.25% Ally Emirates 79. Economic crisis in Iran would decrease its capability to afford the research and development of nuclear weapons.999.000. 2008 est.000 2.000 Saudi Arabia Canada 2.000.69% Diplomatic Oil .100.000 2.71% Ally 99.800. 2008 est. Reserves (bbl) (ii) Rank Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank Country/Region 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 23 .000 Korea.200.569.660.10% Hostile 115.390.380. opens chances of invading Iran.000.520.37% Hostile Venezuela United Arab 97.000 2.000 7.000 Russia 2.000 7.000. 2007 est. that brings to our another question. This would allow US and Allied powers to replace the existing government in Iran with puppets of their own.000.000 Brazil 2.000 China 4.consumption (bbl/day) World 85.000 3.000 10. 2008 est.500.175. 2008 est.000.

China has already done lot of investment in energy sector of Iran. it possesses no threat to the world. From economic point of view. other nations rather can‟t do much than coming to the table. rivalry between US and Iran is deeply rooted and will last until Iran successfully creates nuclear weapons. Even if Iran does have nuclear weapons and hasn‟t announced it. A nuclear powered Iran means   The threat of a direct war with US will be eliminated. It remains to be seen. So. Must read for those who are interested in World Politics) 24 . it would have announced to the world. without speculating. Once a nation acquires nuclear weapons and is ready to talk. Opens up doors for negotiation. the war against Iran won‟t be seen as a fight between two nations. given that Iran hasn‟t announced that they have successfully created nuclear weapons. in way. having seen the invasion of Iraq and sensing the threat from US. had Iran would have successfully created the nuclear weapons. US can‟t go on a war with a nuclear powered Iran as it would pose a severe threat to existence of Israel. China doesn‟t consider a nuclear powered Iran as a threat.On the other hand. there are other nations who are willing to. India and Pakistan are prime examples of it. the men in power are Shia and not to forget. That creates a huge portion of land being ruled by Shias! Anyhow. For now. for sure the rest of the countries in the world are powerful enough to wipe it off from the map. there is something that US has to be careful about. even if US and Europe decline to do trade with nuclear powered Iran. it is apparent that US has the upper hand. Unlike the Sunni-dominated Muslim countries who suffer from internal conflicts and ego clashes. power is being handed over to Shia in Iraq. Provides security to its oil resources. the economy of Iran won‟t be affected drastically. it makes no sense to assume the American version of the story. After that. I want to conclude that. Though a minority in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Iran has enough common sense to realize. Iran has silently pushed for enriching uranium to produce nuclear weapons. the nations will come to table to negotiate! (I have included the transcripts of Obama‟s speech at Cairo and Ahmadinejad‟s open letter to American citizens in this issue of „Sarfarosh‟. Shia Muslims are far more united and intellectually superior. However. so it would be business as usual. Except for a short period.   However. how the situation would unfold in next three years. if it uses nuclear weapons against any other nation.

you represent the harmony between tradition and progress. Together. I am also proud to carry with me the goodwill of the American people. I am grateful for your hospitality.Barack Obama Al-Azhar University. and a greeting of peace from Muslim communities in my country… Assalaamu-alaykum. Al-Azhar has stood as a beacon of Islamic learning. and to be hosted by two remarkable institutions. “A new beginning” Speech by President of United States of America 25 . and the hospitality of the people of Egypt. Cairo University has been a source of Egypt's advancement. and for over a century. For over a thousand years. Cairo 4th June 2009 I am honored to be in the timeless city of Cairo.

but also conflict and religious wars. As a boy. tension has been fed by colonialism that denied rights and opportunities to many speak the truth as best I can. the sweeping change brought by modernity and globalization led many Muslims to view the West as hostile to the traditions of Islam. But I am convinced that in order to move forward.that carried the light of learning through so many centuries. As the Holy Koran tells us. and who promote conflict rather than the cooperation that can help all of our people achieve justice and prosperity. but also to human rights. to respect one another.principles of justice and progress. The relationship between Islam and the West includes centuries of co-existence and cooperation. and need not be in competition. Violent extremists have exploited these tensions in a small but potent minority of Muslims. As a student of history. paving the way for Europe's Renaissance and 26 . Part of this conviction is rooted in my own experience. The attacks of September 11th. "Be conscious of God and speak always the truth. Instead. I spent several years in Indonesia and heard the call of the Azaan at the break of dawn and the fall of places like Al-Azhar University . humbled by the task before us. and to seek common ground. they overlap. nor can I answer in the time that I have all the complex questions that brought us to this point. I do so recognizing that change cannot happen overnight. I am a Christian. More recently.We meet at a time of tension between the United States and Muslims around the world tension rooted in historical forces that go beyond any current policy debate. tolerance and the dignity of all human beings. and a Cold War in which Muslim-majority countries were too often treated as proxies without regard to their own aspirations." That is what I will try to do . I worked in Chicago communities where many found dignity and peace in their Muslim faith. Moreover. No single speech can eradicate years of mistrust. This has bred more fear and mistrust. we will empower those who sow hatred rather than peace. one based upon mutual interest and mutual respect. There must be a sustained effort to listen to each other. and firm in my belief that the interests we share as human beings are far more powerful than the forces that drive us apart. we must say openly the things we hold in our hearts. but my father came from a Kenyan family that includes generations of Muslims. to learn from each other. This cycle of suspicion and discord must end. So long as our relationship is defined by our differences. It was Islam . I have come here to seek a new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world. and one based upon the truth that America and Islam are not exclusive. and share common principles . and that too often are said only behind closed doors. As a young man. 2001 and the continued efforts of these extremists to engage in violence against civilians has led some in my country to view Islam as inevitably hostile not only to America and Western countries. I also know civilization's debt to Islam.

built our tallest building. started businesses." And since our founding. "The United States has in itself no character of enmity against the laws. But that same principle must apply to Muslim perceptions of America.Thomas Jefferson . Just as Muslims do not fit a crude stereotype. So I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed. The dream of opportunity for all people has not come true for everyone in America. The first nation to recognize my country was Morocco.Enlightenment. our magnetic compass and tools of navigation. That is why there is a mosque in every state of our union.within our borders. elegant calligraphy and places of peaceful contemplation. and around the world. That experience guides my conviction that partnership between America and Islam must be based on what Islam is. too.S. taught at our Universities. that Islam has always been a part of America's story. Islam has demonstrated through words and deeds the possibilities of religious tolerance and racial equality. our understanding of how disease spreads and how it can be healed. freedom in America is indivisible from the freedom to practice one's religion. he took the oath to defend our Constitution using the same Holy Koran that one of our Founding Fathers . government has gone to court to protect the right of women and girls to wear the hijab. religion or tranquility of Muslims. and we have shed blood and struggled for centuries to give meaning to those words . our second President John Adams wrote. timeless poetry and cherished music. We were born out of revolution against an empire. and to punish those who would deny it. Islamic culture has given us majestic arches and soaring spires. and lit the Olympic Torch. excelled in our sports arenas. They have fought in our wars. our mastery of pens and printing.kept in his personal library. won Nobel Prizes.that includes nearly seven million American Muslims in our country today who enjoy incomes and education that are higher than average. And when the first Muslim-American was recently elected to Congress. and dedicated to a simple concept: E pluribus unum: "Out of many. one." Much has been made of the fact that an African-American with the name Barack Hussein Obama could be elected President. The United States has been one of the greatest sources of progress that the world has ever known. served in government. America is not the crude stereotype of a self-interested empire. Moreover. stood for civil rights. We were founded upon the ideal that all are created equal. not what it isn't. And throughout history. In signing the Treaty of Tripoli in 1796. And I consider it part of my responsibility as President of the United States to fight against negative stereotypes of Islam wherever they appear. but its promise exists for all who come to our shores . I know. drawn from every end of the Earth. and over 1. 27 .200 mosques within our borders. But my personal story is not so unique. That is why the U. It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra. American Muslims have enriched the United States. We are shaped by every culture.

relentlessly confront violent extremists who pose a grave threat to our security. we must not be prisoners of it. The victims were innocent men. Over seven years ago. This is the hope of all humanity. any world order that elevates one nation or group of people over another will inevitably fail. These are not opinions to be debated. These needs will be met only if we act boldly in the years ahead. We will. and our failure to meet them will hurt us all. And I believe that America holds within her the truth that regardless of race. I am aware that some question or justify the events of 9/11. all are at risk. So whatever we think of the past. That is what it means to share this world in the 21st century. For human history has often been a record of nations and tribes subjugating one another to serve their own interests. the risk of nuclear attack rises for all nations. religion. 28 . This is a difficult responsibility to embrace. to get an education and to work with dignity. our communities. women. prosperity is hurt everywhere. Given our interdependence. When one nation pursues a nuclear weapon.000 people on that day. however. That is the responsibility we have to one another as human beings. And when innocents in Bosnia and Darfur are slaughtered. we went because of necessity. and children. people are endangered across an ocean. Of course. progress must be shared. We did not go by choice. claimed credit for the attack.and never will be . Yet in this new age. the United States pursued al Qaeda and the Taliban with broad international support. and if we understand that the challenges we face are shared. The first issue that we have to confront is violent extremism in all of its forms. let me speak as clearly and plainly as I can about some specific issues that I believe we must finally confront together. That does not mean we should ignore sources of tension. and our God. Our problems must be dealt with through partnership. to love our families. But let us be clear: al Qaeda killed nearly 3. In Ankara. and even now states their determination to kill on a massive scale. or station in life. recognizing our common humanity is only the beginning of our task. And yet Al Qaeda chose to ruthlessly murder these people. And so in that spirit. Words alone cannot meet the needs of our live in peace and security. Because we reject the same thing that people of all faiths reject: the killing of innocent men. it suggests the opposite: we must face these tensions squarely. For we have learned from recent experience that when a financial system weakens in one country. these are facts to be dealt with. war with Islam. When a new flu infects one human being. and our need to work together. The situation in Afghanistan demonstrates America's goals.So let there be no doubt: Islam is a part of America. These things we share. that is a stain on our collective conscience. And it is my first duty as President to protect the American people. They have affiliates in many countries and are trying to expand their reach. When violent extremists operate in one stretch of mountains. women and children from America and many other nations who had done nothing to harm anybody. all of us share common aspirations . I made clear that America is not . such attitudes are self-defeating.

it led us to act contrary to our 29 . The Holy Koran teaches that whoever kills an innocent. The fear and anger that it provoked was understandable. And despite the costs involved. 9/11 was an enormous trauma to our country. and never as a patron. just as America can never tolerate violence by extremists. And finally. roads and businesses. It is costly and politically difficult to continue this conflict. We will help Iraq train its Security Forces and develop its economy.and to leave Iraq to Iraqis. And that is why we are providing more than $2. We would gladly bring every single one of our troops home if we could be confident that there were not violent extremists in Afghanistan and Pakistan. I also believe that events in Iraq have reminded America of the need to use diplomacy and build international consensus to resolve our problems whenever possible. But that is not yet the case. and to remove all our troops from Iraq by 2012. Iraq's sovereignty is its own. Indeed. Iraq was a war of choice that provoked strong differences in my country and around the world. Indeed. the progress of nations.8 billion to help Afghans develop their economy and deliver services that people depend upon. I have made it clear to the Iraqi people that we pursue no bases. It is agonizing for America to lose our young men and women. Unlike Afghanistan. But we will support a secure and united Iraq as a partner. They have killed in many countries. and no claim on their territory or resources. they have killed Muslims." Today. and whoever saves a person. it is as if he has killed all mankind. and teach us that the less we use our power the greater it will be. and hundreds of millions to help those who have been displaced. Although I believe that the Iraqi people are ultimately better off without the tyranny of Saddam Hussein. we must never alter our principles. [who are] determined to kill as many Americans as they possibly can. Their actions are irreconcilable with the rights of human beings.more than any other. That is why we will honor our agreement with Iraq's democratically-elected government to remove combat troops from Iraqi cities by July. Let me also address the issue of Iraq. America has a dual responsibility: to help Iraq forge a better future . we can recall the words of Thomas Jefferson. but in some cases. That is why we plan to invest $1. They have killed people of different faiths . it is as if he has saved all mankind. none of us should tolerate these extremists. That's why we're partnering with a coalition of forty-six countries. We seek no military bases there.5 billion each year over the next five years to partner with Pakistanis to build schools and hospitals. The enduring faith of over a billion people is so much bigger than the narrow hatred of a few. Islam is not part of the problem in combating violent extremism .Make no mistake. America's commitment will not weaken. we do not want to keep our troops in Afghanistan. who said: "I hope that our wisdom will grow with our power. That is why I ordered the removal of our combat brigades by next August. We also know that military power alone is not going to solve the problems in Afghanistan and is an important part of promoting peace. and with Islam.

For peace to come. For decades. and the recognition that the aspiration for a Jewish homeland is rooted in a tragic history that cannot be denied. Denying that fact is baseless. ignorant.or repeating vile stereotypes about Jews . The sooner the extremists are isolated and unwelcome in Muslim communities. On the other hand. and the world's interest. there has been a stalemate: two peoples with legitimate aspirations. Many wait in refugee camps in the West Bank.have suffered in pursuit of a homeland. It is easy to point fingers . This bond is deeply wrong. I have unequivocally prohibited the use of torture by the United States. and I have ordered the prison at Guantanamo Bay closed by early next year. Tomorrow. America's strong bonds with Israel are well known. For more than sixty years they have endured the pain of dislocation. opportunity. 30 .to live up to our responsibilities. Palestine's interest. The second major source of tension that we need to discuss is the situation between Israelis. Six million Jews were killed . Threatening Israel with destruction .large and small . Gaza. the sooner we will all be safer.for Palestinians to point to the displacement brought by Israel's founding.and all of us . and anti-Semitism in Europe culminated in an unprecedented Holocaust. the Jewish people were persecuted for centuries. Palestinians and the Arab world.that come with occupation. it is time for them . and hateful. which was part of a network of camps where Jews were enslaved. The obligations that the parties have agreed to under the Road Map are clear. and for Israelis to point to the constant hostility and attacks throughout its history from within its borders as well as beyond. tortured. I will visit Buchenwald. So America will defend itself respectful of the sovereignty of nations and the rule of law. That is why I intend to personally pursue this outcome with all the patience that the task requires. It is based upon cultural and historical ties.more than the entire Jewish population of Israel today. But if we see this conflict only from one side or the other. We are taking concrete actions to change course. So let there be no doubt: the situation for the Palestinian people is intolerable. each with a painful history that makes compromise elusive. And we will do so in partnership with Muslim communities which are also threatened.Muslims and Christians . They endure the daily humiliations . America will not turn our backs on the legitimate Palestinian aspiration for dignity. That is in Israel's interest. shot and gassed to death by the Third Reich. where Israelis and Palestinians each live in peace and security. then we will be blind to the truth: the only resolution is for the aspirations of both sides to be met through two states. and a state of their own. America's interest.ideals. Around the world. it is also undeniable that the Palestinian people . and neighboring lands for a life of peace and security that they have never been able to lead. and only serves to evoke in the minds of Israelis this most painful of memories while preventing the peace that the people of this region deserve.

This same story can be told by people from South Africa to South Asia. It is time for these settlements to stop. or to blow up old women on a bus. All of us have a responsibility to work for the day when the mothers of Israelis and Palestinians can see 31 . The Palestinian Authority must develop its capacity to govern. For centuries. Instead.Palestinians must abandon violence. Israelis must acknowledge that just as Israel's right to exist cannot be denied. That is not how moral authority is claimed. We cannot impose peace. it must be a cause for action to help the Palestinian people develop the institutions that will sustain their state. Now is the time for Palestinians to focus on what they can build. But it was not violence that won full and equal rights. and develop their society. from Eastern Europe to Indonesia. and say in public what we say in private to Israelis and Palestinians and Arabs. the Arab States must recognize that the Arab Peace Initiative was an important beginning. and recognize Israel's right to exist. Too many tears have flowed. to recognize Israel's legitimacy. recognize past agreements. and Israel must take concrete steps to enable such progress. and to unify the Palestinian people. To play a role in fulfilling Palestinian aspirations. with institutions that serve the needs of its people. neither does the continuing lack of opportunity in the West Bank. Progress in the daily lives of the Palestinian people must be part of a road to peace. that is how it is surrendered. Too much blood has been shed. Israel must also live up to its obligations to ensure that Palestinians can live. the continuing humanitarian crisis in Gaza does not serve Israel's security. many Israelis recognize the need for a Palestinian state. America will align our policies with those who pursue peace. And just as it devastates Palestinian families. This construction violates previous agreements and undermines efforts to achieve peace. It is time for us to act on what everyone knows to be true. black people in America suffered the lash of the whip as slaves and the humiliation of segregation. but not the end of their responsibilities. It was a peaceful and determined insistence upon the ideals at the center of America's founding. Hamas does have support among some Palestinians. many Muslims recognize that Israel will not go away. It is a sign of neither courage nor power to shoot rockets at sleeping children. Likewise. Finally. Resistance through violence and killing is wrong and does not succeed. The United States does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements. and to choose progress over a self-defeating focus on the past. but they also have responsibilities. The Arab-Israeli conflict should no longer be used to distract the people of Arab nations from other problems. At the same time. It's a story with a simple truth: that violence is a dead end. Hamas must put an end to violence. and work. neither can Palestine's. But privately.

The fourth issue that I will address is democracy. I know there has been controversy about the promotion of democracy in recent years. There will be many issues to discuss between our two countries. That does not lessen my commitment. The question. but rather what future it wants to build. is not what Iran is against.S. For many years. when the Holy Land of three great faiths is the place of peace that God intended it to be. So let me be clear: no system of government can or should be imposed upon one nation by any other. But it is clear to all concerned that when it comes to nuclear weapons. and it must be kept for all who fully abide by it. Each nation gives life to this principle in its own way. to governments that reflect the will of the people. now. That is why I strongly reaffirmed America's commitment to seek a world in which no nations hold nuclear weapons. The third source of tension is our shared interest in the rights and responsibilities of nations on nuclear weapons. Iran has played a role in acts of hostage-taking and violence against U. and much of this controversy is connected to the war in Iraq. when Moses. Jesus. That commitment is at the core of the Treaty.should have the right to access peaceful nuclear power if it complies with its responsibilities under the nuclear NonProliferation Treaty. and we are willing to move forward without preconditions on the basis of mutual respect. however.their children grow up without fear. Rather than remain trapped in the past. In the middle of the Cold War. the United States played a role in the overthrow of a democratically-elected Iranian government. America does not presume to know what is best for everyone. troops and civilians. And I am hopeful that all countries in the region can share in this goal. and there is indeed a tumultuous history between us. This issue has been a source of tension between the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran.including Iran . rectitude and resolve. and a place for all of the children of Abraham to mingle peacefully together as in the story of Isra. And any nation . I understand those who protest that some countries have weapons that others do not. No single nation should pick and choose which nations hold nuclear weapons. Iran has defined itself in part by its opposition to my country. when Jerusalem is a secure and lasting home for Jews and Christians and Muslims. but we will proceed with courage. It is about preventing a nuclear arms race in the Middle East that could lead this region and the world down a hugely dangerous path. we have reached a decisive point. I have made it clear to Iran's leaders and people that my country is prepared to move forward. Since the Islamic Revolution. This is not simply about America's interests. It will be hard to overcome decades of mistrust. But I do have an unyielding belief that all people yearn 32 . just as we would not presume to pick the outcome of a peaceful election. grounded in the traditions of its own people. This history is well known. and Mohammed (peace be upon them) joined in prayer.

That is the spirit we need today. where devout Christians worshiped freely in an overwhelmingly Muslim country. That is why I am committed to working with American Muslims to ensure that they can fulfill zakat. they are ruthless in suppressing the rights of others. and soul. We cannot disguise hostility towards any religion behind the pretence of liberalism. once in power.provided they govern with respect for all their people. in the United States. by dictating what clothes a Muslim woman should wear. Among some Muslims. We must always examine the ways in which we protect it. confidence in the rule of law and the equal administration of justice. but it is being challenged in many different ways. This last point is important because there are some who advocate for democracy only when they are out of power. Suppressing ideas never succeeds in making them go away. particularly in Iraq. Without these ingredients. The fifth issue that we must address together is religious freedom. Likewise. even if we disagree with them. I saw it firsthand as a child in Indonesia. People in every country should be free to choose and live their faith based upon the persuasion of the mind. the freedom to live as you choose. you must place the interests of your people and the legitimate workings of the political process above your party. America respects the right of all peaceful and law-abiding voices to be heard around the world. and that is why we will support them everywhere. For instance. and participate with a spirit of tolerance and compromise. We see it in the history of Andalusia and Cordoba during the Inquisition. And we will welcome all elected. rules on charitable giving have made it harder for Muslims to fulfill their religious obligation. successful and secure. Freedom of religion is central to the ability of peoples to live together. And fault lines must be closed among Muslims as well. not coercion. it is important for Western countries to avoid impeding Muslim citizens from practicing religion as they see fit . as the divisions between Sunni and Shia have led to tragic violence. there is a disturbing tendency to measure one's own faith by the rejection of another's. heart. The richness of religious diversity must be upheld . government of the people and by the people sets a single standard for all who hold power: you must maintain your power through consent.whether it is for Maronites in Lebanon or the Copts in Egypt. peaceful governments . There is no straight line to realize this promise. This tolerance is essential for religion to thrive. faith should bring us together. government that is transparent and doesn't steal from the people. elections alone do not make true democracy. No matter where it takes hold. they are human rights. That is why we are forging 33 . you must respect the rights of minorities. Islam has a proud tradition of tolerance. But this much is clear: governments that protect these rights are ultimately more stable. Those are not just American ideas. Indeed.for certain things: the ability to speak your mind and have a say in how you are governed.for instance.

That is why we welcome efforts like Saudi Arabian King Abdullah's Interfaith dialogue and Turkey's leadership in the Alliance of Civilizations.service projects in America that bring together Christians. and I respect those women who choose to live their lives in traditional roles. I know that for many. and most importantly our identities . In ancient times and in our times. Pakistan. But it should be their choice. the struggle for women's equality continues in many aspects of American life. In Turkey. we can turn dialogue into Interfaith service. we have seen Muslim-majority countries elect a woman to lead. but also huge disruptions and changing communities. and to help young women pursue employment through micro-financing that helps people live their and women . our families. The same is true for the astonishing progress within Muslim-majority countries from Kuala Lumpur to Dubai. Our daughters can contribute just as much to society as our sons. But I also know that human progress cannot be denied. Now let me be clear: issues of women's equality are by no means simply an issue for Islam. In all nations . but also offensive sexuality and mindless violence. I want to discuss economic development and opportunity. and Jews. Fear that because of modernity we will lose of control over our economic choices. Trade can bring new wealth and opportunities. Many Gulf States have enjoyed great wealth as a consequence of oil. but I do believe that a woman who is denied an education is denied equality. and our common prosperity will be advanced by allowing all humanity . nor can it be sustained while young people are out of work.whether it is combating malaria in Africa. or providing relief after a natural disaster. There need not be contradiction between development and tradition. Around the world. This is important because no development strategy can be based only upon what comes out of the ground. Countries like Japan and South Korea grew their economies while maintaining distinct cultures. Finally. Meanwhile. Bangladesh and Indonesia. our traditions. Muslims. so bridges between peoples lead to action . The sixth issue that I want to address is women's rights. Muslim communities have been at the forefront of innovation and reach their full potential. The Internet and television can bring knowledge and information. I reject the view of some in the West that a woman who chooses to cover her hair is somehow less equal. and some are beginning to 34 . the face of globalization is contradictory. and in countries around the world. I know there is debate about this issue. our politics.those things we most cherish about our communities. That is why the United States will partner with any Muslim-majority country to support expanded literacy for girls. And it is no coincidence that countries where women are well-educated are far more likely to be prosperous.this change can bring fear.including my own . I do not believe that women must make the same choices as men in order to be equal. and our faith.

And today I am announcing a new global effort with the Organization of the Islamic Conference to eradicate polio. we will launch a new fund to support technological development in Muslim-majority countries.focus it on broader development. digitize records. But if we choose to be bound by the past. And I want to particularly say this to young 35 . There is so much fear. We will open centers of scientific excellence in Africa.who question whether we can forge this new beginning. But all of us must recognize that education and innovation will be the currency of the 21st century. Americans are ready to join with citizens and governments. Some are eager to stoke the flames of division. On economic development. Those are mutual interests. a world where Israelis and Palestinians are each secure in a state of their own. and in too many Muslim communities there remains underinvestment in these areas. I am emphasizing such investments within my country.a world where extremists no longer threaten our people. community organizations.Muslim and non-Muslim . Some suggest that it isn't worth the effort . and appoint new Science Envoys to collaborate on programs that develop new sources of energy. Many more are simply skeptical that real change can occur. And we will also expand partnerships with Muslim communities to promote child and maternal health. and civilizations are doomed to clash. a world where governments serve their citizens. and to stand in the way of progress. invest in on-line learning for teachers and children around the world. so much mistrust. All these things must be done in partnership. On science and technology. On education. and nuclear energy is used for peaceful purposes. foundations and social entrepreneurs in the United States and Muslim communities around the world. we will create a new corps of business volunteers to partner with counterparts in Muslim-majority countries. and the rights of all God's children are respected. and businesses in Muslim communities around the world to help our people pursue a better life. And I will host a Summit on Entrepreneurship this year to identify how we can deepen ties between business leaders. the Middle East and Southeast Asia. so a teenager in Kansas can communicate instantly with a teenager in Cairo. religious leaders. But we have a responsibility to join together on behalf of the world we seek . and American troops have come home. like the one that brought my father to America. we will expand exchange programs. and to help transfer ideas to the marketplace so they can create jobs. The issues that I have described will not be easy to address. and increase scholarships. and grow new crops. while encouraging more Americans to study in Muslim communities. we now seek a broader engagement. we will never move forward.that we are fated to disagree. That is the world we seek. And we will match promising Muslim students with internships in America. I know there are many . and create a new online network. But we can only achieve it together. clean water. And while America in the past has focused on oil and gas in this part of the world. create green jobs.

We know that is God's vision. 36 . "O mankind! We have created you male and a find common ground. It is easier to start wars than to end them. and it's what brought me here today. It is easier to blame others than to look inward. to focus on the future we seek for our children.people of every faith. and we have made you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another. Now. Thank you. or Muslim or Jew. that must be our work here on Earth. that isn't Christian. The Holy Koran tells us. more than anyone. keeping in mind what has been written. It's a belief that pulsed in the cradle of civilization.a belief that isn't new. and that still beats in the heart of billions. in every country . It's a faith in other people.a sustained effort . or whether we commit ourselves to an effort . This truth transcends nations and peoples . There is also one rule that lies at the heart of every religion . to see what is different about someone than to find the things we share. We have the power to make the world we seek. for they shall be called sons of God. The question is whether we spend that time focused on what pushes us apart." The people of the world can live together in peace. but only if we have the courage to make a new beginning. All of us share this world for but a brief moment in have the ability to remake this world. But we should choose the right path. that isn't black or white or brown. And may God's peace be upon you." The Talmud tells us: "The whole of the Torah is for the purpose of promoting peace.that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us." The Holy Bible tells us. not just the easy path. "Blessed are the peacemakers. and to respect the dignity of all human beings.

the Merciful. Were the American people not God-fearing. 26th November 2006. and make us among his followers. coupled with the many wars and calamities caused by the US administration as well as the tragic consequences of US interference in other countries. Were we not faced with the activities of the US administration in this part of the world and the negative ramifications of those activities on the daily lives of our peoples. Almighty God. truth-loving. bestow upon humanity the perfect human being promised to all by You. Noble Americans. O. the Compassionate. and justice-seeking. while the US administration 37 President of Iran .Open letter to American citizens by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad In the name of God.

and both seek dignity. Noble Americans. and towards extending a helping hand to one another. We all detest darkness. In broad day-light. and defending the innocent and the weak against oppressors and bullies.actively conceals the truth and impedes any objective portrayal of current realities. And if we did not share a common responsibility to promote and protect freedom and human dignity and integrity. No day goes by without a new crime. there would have been little urgency to have a dialogue with you. firing machine guns at students in the streets and alleys. they are bombarding innocent defenseless civilians. sincerity and honesty. we should be cognizant that human values and our common human spirit. Our nation has always extended its hand of friendship to all other nations of the world. We all deplore injustice. Palestinian mothers. and subjecting their families to endless grief. the Zionist regime has driven millions of the inhabitants of Palestine out of their homes. and are painfully bereaved by the imprisonment. wounding and murder of their children. and are contributing positively to your society. Our people have been in contact with you over the past many years and have maintained these contacts despite the unnecessary restrictions of US authorities. We are all inclined towards the good. We. No people want to side with or 38 . Both greatly value and readily embrace the promotion of human ideals such as compassion. and has prevented the UN Security Council from condemning it. Many of these refugees have died in the Diaspora and in refugee camps. empathy. respect for the rights of human beings. lies and distortion. and are pained by the sufferings and afflictions in the world. While Divine providence has placed Iran and the United States geographically far apart. face similar challenges. are aggrieved by the ever-worsening pain and misery of the Palestinian people. have brought our two great nations of Iran and the United States closer together. Hundreds of thousands of my Iranian compatriots are living amongst you in friendship and peace. Who can deny such broken promises and grave injustices towards humanity by the US administration? Governments are there to serve their own people. As mentioned. What mother wouldn't? For 60 years. bulldozing houses. securing justice and equity. just like Iranian and American mothers. has emboldened it to continue its crimes. and seek and admire salvation. which proclaim the dignity and exalted worth of all human beings. Both our nations are God-fearing. deceit. You know well that the US administration has persistently provided blind and blanket support to the Zionist regime. enlightenment. the trampling of peoples' rights and the intimidation and humiliation of human beings. Persistent aggressions by the Zionists are making life more and more difficult for the rightful owners of the land of Palestine. in front of cameras and before the eyes of the world. like you. love their children. The pure human essence of the two great nations of Iran and the United States testify to the veracity of these statements. we have common concerns. particularly to those in need. truth-loving and justice-seeking. Then. Their children have spent their youth in these camps and are aging while still in the hope of returning to homeland. respect and perfection.

Judicial due process and fundamental rights are trampled upon. Although Saddam was overthrown and people are happy about his departure. God knows who these detainees actually are. displayed their discontent with the presence of their sons and daughters in a land thousands of miles away from US shores. Terrorism in Iraq has grown exponentially. Private phones are tapped. In Iraq. The US Government used the pretext of the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. and what terrible fate awaits them. to restore the infrastructure or to alleviate poverty. and tarnishes the US image and its credibility among nations. particularly the United Nations and its Security Council. But regrettably. nothing has been done to rebuild the ruins. sometimes beaten in the streets. The US administration has undermined the credibility of international organizations. the US administration disregards even its own public opinion and remains in the forefront of supporting the trampling of the rights of the Palestinian people. maimed or displaced. American soldiers often wonder why they have been sent to any oppressors. institution or council. Their mothers and relatives have. in fact. You are witnessing daily that under the pretext of "the war on terror." But every one knows that such behavior. separated from their families and loved ones. hundreds of thousands of Iraqis have been killed." civil liberties in the United States are being increasingly curtailed. the pain and suffering of the Iraqi people has persisted and has even been aggravated. Let's take a look at Iraq. suspects are arbitrarily arrested. Even the privacy of individuals is fast losing its meaning. Noble Americans. are operating under the command of the current US administration. exacerbates resentment and thereby spreads terrorism. You have certainly heard the sad stories of the Guantanamo and Abu-Ghraib prisons. The US administration attempts to justify them through its proclaimed "war on terror. But. on numerous occasions. A substantial number of them have been killed or wounded and their presence in Iraq has tarnished the image of the American people and government. or even shot to death. Since the commencement of the US military presence in Iraq. about one hundred and fifty thousand American soldiers. I do not intend to address all the challenges and calamities in this message. I have no doubt that the American people do not approve of this behavior and indeed deplore it. but later it became clear that that was just a lie and a deception. The US administration's illegal and immoral behavior is not even confined to outside its borders. 39 . I consider it extremely unlikely that you. With the presence of the US military in Iraq. the American people. offends global public opinion. You have heard that the US administration is kidnapping its presumed opponents from across the globe and arbitrarily holding them without trial or any international supervision in horrendous prisons that it has established in various parts of the world. consent to the billions of dollars of annual expenditure from your treasury for this military misadventure. The US administration does not accept accountability before any organization.

and countless Americans continue to live in poverty and homelessness. This will benefit everyone. But. it can remedy 40 . would it not be more beneficial to bring the US officers and soldiers home. destruction and the killing of hundreds of thousands of innocents? If that were possible. Now that you control an important branch of the US Government. instead of aggression and war? We all condemn terrorism. the American people are not satisfied with this behavior and they showed their discontent in the recent elections. then why has the problem not been resolved? The sad experience of invading Iraq is before us all.The legitimacy. stability. the right of Palestinians to live in their own homeland should be recognized so that millions of Palestinian refugees can return to their homes and the future of all of Palestine and its form of government be determined in a referendum. Legitimacy and influence reside in sound logic. My questions are the following:  Is there not a better approach to governance? Is it not possible to put wealth and power in the service of peace. you will also be held to account by the people and by history. I'd also like to say a word to the winners of the recent elections in the US: The United States has had many administrations. I hope that in the wake of the mid-term elections. the interest of these occupiers supersedes the interests of the American people and of the other nations of the world. many victims of Katrina continue to suffer. What has blind support for the Zionists by the US administration brought for the American people? It is regrettable that for the US administration. financial. cultural and media sectors?   I recommend that in a demonstration of respect for the American people and for humanity. The global position of the United States is in all probability weakened because the administration has continued to resort to force. and to mislead the American people about its policies and practices. power and influence of a government do not emanate from its arsenals of tanks. and to spend the astronomical US military expenditures in Iraq for the welfare and prosperity of the American people? As you know very well. If the US Government meets the current domestic and external challenges with an approach based on truth and Justice. prosperity and the happiness of all peoples through a commitment to justice and respect for the rights of all nations. missiles or nuclear weapons. quest for justice and compassion and empathy for all humanity. because its victims are the innocent. to conceal the truth. What have the Zionists done for the American people that the US administration considers itself obliged to blindly support these infamous aggressors? Is it not because they have imposed themselves on a substantial portion of the banking. and others that are neither remembered fondly by the American people nor by other nations. some who have left a positive legacy. Now that Iraq has a Constitution and an independent Assembly and Government. Undoubtedly. the administration of President Bush will have heard and will heed the message of the American people. fighter aircrafts. can terrorism be contained and eradicated through war.

But if the approach remains the same. although the recent elections. who are God-fearing and followers of Divine religions. in reality point to the failure of the current administration's policies. Justice and Truth will prevail and all nations will live a true life in a climate replete with love. It is possible to sincerely serve and promote common human values. and others have no part in His choice. and honesty and compassion. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad President of the Islamic Republic of Iran 29 November 2006 41 . To sum up: It is possible to govern based on an approach that is distinctly different from one of coercion. force and injustice." (28:67-68) I pray to the Almighty to bless the Iranian and American nations and indeed all nations of the world with dignity and success. The promises of the Almighty and His prophets will certainly be realized. the path of return to faith and spirituality is open and unimpeded. It is possible to lead the world towards the aspired perfection by adhering to unity. morality and spirituality and drawing upon the teachings of the Divine Prophets. have faith and do good may receive Salvation. the authorities and the powerful should not choose irreversible paths. threats. monotheism. Then. The US governing establishment. creates and chooses as He will. compassion and fraternity. will overcome every difficulty. will play an instrumental role in the establishment of justice and spirituality throughout the world. rather than reflecting a victory. These issues had been extensively dealt with in my letter to President Bush earlier this year. imposition or war. As all prophets have taught us. alone. Today. it would not be unexpected that the American people would similarly reject the new electoral winners. injustice and transgression will eventually bring about decline and demise.some of the past afflictions and alleviate some of the global resentment and hatred of America. It is possible to provide welfare and prosperity without tension. Glorified is God and Exalted above any partners they ascribe to Him. What I stated represents some of my anxieties and concerns. the American people. the American people. I am confident that you. We should all heed the Divine Word of the Holy Qur'an: "But those who repent. Your Lord.

the nation would witness war for the rights of „lower-caste people‟ and the power would go away from the hands of elite 42 . He openly criticized the „way of life‟ of people. raised his voice against customs of untouchability and demanded power for „Dalits‟. Ambedkar was one man who had guts to criticize even Gandhi in public and get away with it. For many of them. the power still remains with the same class of people. Ambedkar was allowed to propagate his agenda. He once quoted „Don‟t call Gandhi a saint. almost all throughout the history. Dr. as a civilization has had a long history. all it needed was one capable leader from „lower caste‟ to start a civil war that would break the nation into pieces. It became increasingly evident before the people that. When everything else fails. why can‟t another leader from a particular caste incite the people of his/her caste to demand a separate nation? Such a rebellion can take the nation apart. never expressed. If Dr. Though. their „caste‟ gives them a sense of identity of being part of a particular community. The situation was such that. Gandhi will resort to intrigue‟. Ambedkar made his intension clear in his book The Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origins of Untouchability. What else can be said of a civilization which has produced a mass of people. at no point in the history there has been a notable rebellion against caste system by the people. Also. who are treated as an entity beyond human intercourse and whose mere touch is enough to cause pollution?‟.Reserved India! India. This historic blunder eventually resulted in what we now refer as „caste system‟. Moreover. It was this sense of identity among people based on their caste that posed a threat to India being as a single nation post 1947. Top politicians in India were intelligent enough to sense the gravity of the situation. Its proper name would be infamy. More than 90% of the people in India were considered as „lower-caste‟ and weren‟t given equal human rights. in which he quotes „…the Hindu Civilization is a diabolical contrivance to suppress and enslave humanity. albeit in a different form. Dr. there have been historic wonders and blunders. it would be safe to say. Dr. The fear was evident but was unspoken in open. most Indians have got adapted to „caste system‟. independence was only for „namesake‟. He is a seasoned politician.. majority of the people including future Prime Minister who controlled the power belonged to the elite „upper caste‟. Given the fact that. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was one such leader. this question lingered the best minds of India while defining the Constitution of India. who represented the educated voice of „lower caste‟ people of India. Like any other civilization. One grave defect in Indian history is the division of people based on their profession and imposing a hereditary system that forces the offspring to continue his/her father‟s profession whether he/she likes it or not.. If Jinnah can incite a group of people of his faith to fight for a separate nation. As India was on the verge of receiving independence from Britain.

Ambedkar the Union Law Minister and Chairmen to draft the Indian constitution.few. Ambedkar felt. With the new classification. he wanted to abolish the caste system in India however. he soon realized. if caste system is abolished. He drafted the constitution such that it allowed up to 50% of the public jobs and admissions to universities reserved for the people from backward castes. he can do all he wants to make the laws in favor of lower-caste people. he would have been considered the „Nelson Mandela‟ of India and probably would have been the first Prime Minister of India with Dalit background. I say this especially because Indian constitution could have easily defined reservations to „backward people‟ instead of „backward caste‟. Had Dr. Ambedkar knew the repercussions of „reservations‟ but for him. then he cannot demand for special privileges for „lower-caste people‟ for the years of discrimination. Dr. Ambedkar had several challenges before him. But Dr. In all his technical work 43 . Dr. Obviously. it was easy for him to defend special privileges for backward castes. it was the safest way he could safeguard the rights of backward classes and project himself in good light. The point to be noted here is. Instead. which would have also helped in abolishing „caste system‟ in India. Indian National Congress demonstrated its political acumen by making Dr. he accepted the post of Union Law minister and drafted the Indian constitution. Dr. Just when the doubts were being raised. He called the upper-castes as forward castes and lower castes as backward castes. the ball was in the hands of Dr. today. Ambedkar took the idea of reservations (the idea of reservations for certain castes existed in some parts of India since 1900) one step further. That‟s when he came up with the idea of classification of castes in terms of economic positions. He is the one now who is drafting the laws of the nation. Ambedkar was not the member of Indian National Congress (INC) and had contested elections against INC during 1946 elections. Now. The foremost being. Ambedkar. Ambedkar not accepted the government post and fought for the rights of suppressed classes of people. How can the elite upper class (caste) remain in power and yet give assurance to lower-class that there is a future ahead of them? Something had to be done before it becomes too late. it is easier for him to justify reservations for backward castes than backward people. Dr.

towards Indian constitution. perhaps. how long will it continue? I humbly request all those people who aren‟t „backward‟ anymore and yet continue to take advantage of reservations. Dr. you will realize that „you need not force your children to be of your same caste‟. I bet more than 50% people who claimed to be following Hinduism doesn‟t know their religion‟s actual name). it is ethically wrong to take advantage of reservation system. Ambedkar made sure that . the precise reason why he was granted the position of Union Law Minister of India even though he wasn‟t from Indian National Congress. It still remainsit is the reservations that have kept our nation as a single entity in last sixty years. the time has given opportunity to everyone to follow their religion in proper sense. that‟s the only way going forward. It‟s time for the followers to read their scriptures and follow their religion in true sense. Also. As politically correct as I may sound. the problem is. all he did was. In such a scenario. From the scriptures of Santana Dharma (that‟s the actual name of Hinduism. if you are not economically backward. the founder of Infosys and a potential candidate for President of India once remarked „We have become. It sounds all good for Narayan Murthy to give such quotation but no politician or people‟s leader in India is dare enough to put forward the unspoken truth before people. no one has dared to remove the concept of reservations in Indian constitution. Ambedkar failed to realize. internet chats and media. Dr. I have read. Narayan Murthy. In the end I want to say. For last sixty years. The task is to create a path for development within the framework of reservation system. Now. to think about two things: (i) (ii) No religion discriminates people and it‟s the people who are culprits. 44 . You are free to choose any religion that gives you equal human rights or not follow any religion at all. „reservations‟ is not the actual problem. solved the thorn for INC. the only nation in the world where people fight to be called backward rather than forward‟.there is no uprising against the forward classes. Constitution of India grants you the right to choose any religion you want. the nation will break apart. A Hindu can be a true Hindu without being part of any caste. And when you truly start following the religion. it clearly states every human being is equal before God. what best we can do for the development of nation? The answer is simple. instead politicians have only strengthened it by using it for political gains. who controlled the power. If you still find yourself suppressed by caste system then you have the right to free yourself from it. In the end. Remove the reservations. Flaws of „reservation system‟ have been openly discussed in public forums. With „reservation system‟ placed.

I found that only 8% of Indians pay taxes. 45 . Few days later. A month later. now I have financially contributed to the development of the nation. transport systems. we are part of a nation which has about 1 billion people who haven‟t contributed even a paisa from their pocket towards the development of the nation. the feeling was more about being responsible towards development of the nation. For them. irrigation projects. So. majority of these non-tax payers do not realize from where the government gets money to construct roads. What is even worse. for the first time. I remember. There is so much of poverty. it wasn‟t just that one particular lady politician. I walked on the roads of my city (Hyderabad) with a sense of feeling that. It made me wonder. When I heard the news. I took up my first full time job. a handsome amount was deposited into my bank account as my first month salary. they jump to vote in his/her favor. leaving about 92% (~1 billion people) who are either not eligible to pay taxes or found a way to escape taxes. unemployment and lack of health care in India. do these politicians care for people‟s money? How can people just remain silent when their hard earning money is being wasted? After a bit of analysis.Does paying TAXES make you ? more responsible towards nation Soon after graduation. it‟s just government money. some screwed up lady politician in India wanted to build her statues with public money. my instant reaction was „… whose money you are using for building your pathetic looking statues?‟ I guess. It wasn‟t about how much I have contributed. almost every tax payer had a similar reaction. Several other politicians have abused the tax payer‟s money in India and it‟s a very common thing. and yet precious tax payers money in being wasted in constructing statues! I soon realized. etc. I found that a portion of my salary has been deducted as income tax. And when some political leader announces that he/she would give free electricity or gold. illiteracy.

001 – 8.001 – 5.00. there seems to be a „disconnect‟ between people who are paying taxes and the people who aren‟t.000 (1. automatically we can change the attitude of the nation.000 for women and senior citizens respectfully) definitely reduces the burden on low-earning citizens. Not taxing the individuals who earn less than Rs. After giving a lot of thought.000 and Rs.00. let‟s first understand. The task before each one of us is.00. A small tweaking to the above tax system can dramatically change the attitude of people. But at the same time.000 (for women) Up to 2. Keeping this in mind.00. Proposed Income tax for future Up to 1.00. any individual earning less than Rs.000 (for resident individual of 65 years or above) 1. Following are the advantages of making the tax mandatory 1.60.90. this would be a critical move towards the progress of the nation.000 (for women) Up to 2. by making every earning individual pay taxes. in terms of numbers. to bring a change in the attitude of people. It brings a sense of responsibility among every citizen.00.60. I propose the following change in the tax system.000 (Rs.40.40.001 – 5.60. 1.000 5.60.000 Up to 1. 2. Before we look at the proposed actionable plan.60.60.000 annually need not pay taxes.60. 1.000 8.00.000 Up to 1.40. This task cannot be successfully achieved just via educational campaigns.90. A nominal tax of 1% should be collected from every individual who is earning less than Rs. 1.000 5.90.000 8. especially for the individuals who are struggling to meet their ends. how income tax is being collected from earning individuals in India Income tax for financial year 2010-11 Up to 1.000 for women and senior citizens respectfully). However.000 (for resident individual of 65 years or above) 1.000 and 2.001 upwards Rate (%) 1 10 20 30 The new proposed tax structure does one dramatic change. It makes sure that every citizen who is earning should pay tax to the nation. I do understand this is a burden on everyone. I have come to a conclusion that.40.Clearly. it is also resulting in lack-of-responsibility among majority of people.90.001 upwards Rate (%) NIL 10 20 30 As per the current rules.00. It would automatically create an environment where people would protect the public property and 46 .001 – 8.1.

Can you get it done within a year? If not. As long as they are not directly being affected. they think they are asking for a favor. Currently. they are begging for a favor from the politician. irrespective of how much we earn. The part of the problem is. Also. he/she always goes with folded hands.protest against any wastage of money by government. It will bring a sense of satisfaction among people that they have contributed towards development of the nation. the government and elected representatives has to show the corresponding progress to the people. 47 . I want my village to have better drainage systems. this feeling is missing among 92% of the Indians. 3. they don‟t hold public servants accountable. Given that. It will change the public service system in India. as if. you have every right to demand. I wish to see a lady from a village walking up to Rahul Gandhi and saying „…I give a damn about whether you sleep at a hut for a night or not. there is one behavioral characteristic of Indians that needs to be changed. This induces a feeling of demanding accountability from government and elected representatives. zero electricity cuts and proper roads. they don‟t care about demanding accountability from government. For every paisa collected via taxes. 2. everyone has financially contributed. And that courage would only come. We need to change this mentality. Public servants believe that they are being paid by Government and since 92% of the people haven‟t directly contributed money to the government. when all of us pay taxes to the nation. This mindset would automatically change when there is a mandatory tax system in India. it inherently creates a feeling among citizens to ask for accountability and progress. As they have directly paid an amount to the government in form of taxes. A politician is doing a job and as a citizen of India. people would demand efficient use of funds and approach politicians with self-respect. when people in India approach a politician. when they ask for a particular thing (ex: relief fund) from a politician. public servants are directly accountable to the people. because majority of people in India haven‟t contributed taxes. But with mandatory tax system. Generally. you better not visit this place again‟.

Barack Obama visited China to enhance the bilateral ties and to discuss issues such as economy. 48 . That‟s where. the talks took a turn. Chinese President Hu Jintao quoted “…I underlined to President Obama that given our differences in national conditions.Cold War between US and China What‟s in for India? On 16th November 2009. Over the years. China isn‟t interested in protecting American interests and it doesn‟t have to. as the talks proceeded. it is only normal that our two sides may disagree on some issues… What is important is to respect and accommodate each other's core interests and major concerns”. imposing economic sanctions on Iran can only hurt the Chinese economy. At the end of the talks. China has significantly invested in Iran‟s energy sector and it has never perceived Iran as a potential nuclear threat. In such a scenario. trade and climate. It was obviously clear that. Obama reminded China about its responsibility as global power and put forward American interests such as economic sanctions on Iran for not abiding to nuclear nonproliferation treaty. However.

On the other side. Chinese government has opposed the involvement of US in China-Taiwan issue and has criticized American government for sale of weapons. 114 advanced Patriot air defense missiles. a pair of Osprey mine-hunting ships and dozens of advanced communications systems. both the nations have reacted bitterly on different platforms. Recently. but with the US. China has warned US against meeting Dalai Lama. Chinese President quoted “We oppose all countries engaging in mutual finger-pointing or taking strong measures to force other nations to appreciate their currencies”.As the talks concluded. ignoring the diplomatic ties with Chinese government. referring that appreciation of currency depends on domestic markets. Over the years. However. Responding to US criticism. Obama administration has also criticized Chinese government for keeping its currency (Yuan) undervalued to gain unfair advantage in international markets. Taiwan has procured weapons and obtained military training from US. In last six months or so. China has outright rejected the claims. Obama administration announced a weapons deal with Taiwan worth $6. Though Washington doesn‟t officially recognize Taiwan as a sovereign nation. who is 49 . several issues have caused public dispute between both the governments. looking at international balance of payments and foreign exchange market supply and demand. Since then. China has harshly criticized this move by US and has threatened of economic sanctions. As we now know. At Copenhagen Summit back in December 2009. US government has also pushed Chinese government to act against North Korean aggression in North-Pacific.4 billion which includes 60 Black Hawk helicopters. Foreign minister of China stated “…at the moment. but it has been its strong ally since formation of Taiwan Relations act back in 1979. it was evident that each nation‟s interests were in conflict with each other." People‟s Republic of China (PRC) recognizes Taiwan (Republic of China) as its internal territory and doesn‟t recognize the government of Taiwan. US made every attempt to put international pressure on China to reduce its carbon emissions. this was just the beginning. Apart from Taiwan and Yuan issue. In January 2010. the level of the Yuan is close to reasonable and balanced…”. stating that “…the responsibility for the serious disruption in US-China ties does not lie with the Chinese side. China continues to remain an ally of North Korea and has declined to take any actions in favor of US.

50 . more funding will be available for research. Slowly and steadily. Educated labor would demand higher wages. -George Bush. India provides educated and industrial labor to several US and Chinese companies at low wages. Not applicable. India would independently develop nuclear energy facilities to meet its civilian energy needs. India is dependent on US and its allies for providing weaponry technology. India has come a long way in developing not just its diplomatic relations with countries across the world but also as a major provider of low cost human resources to all developed nations. Indian nuclear technology will pose a security threat to surrounding nations. Possibility of Global companies being financed and controlled by Indians. India will not be able to produce educated labor force. there is no degradation in Indian economy. US Reaction to recent economic prosperity in India “Apparent improvement in the diets of people in India and China and consequent food export caps is among the causes of the current global food crisis” .seeking to gather support for liberation of Tibet. as of now India is one of the largest exporters of raw materials to China and US. India will not be able to afford weapons purchase from US. it is safe to assume that cold war between US and China has begun. in a way Economically Developed India India would be rather supplying furnished goods than raw materials. India has been highly strategic to economies of US and China.Condoleezza Rice. Number of patents filed by Indians is considerably less compared to US and China. Former US President India. Number of patents. It isn‟t rocket science to understand neither developed India nor economically degraded India is of any use to US and China. resulting in drastic increase in patents filed by Economically Backward India Backward economy would create internal conflicts in India affecting the continuous supply of raw materials at lower cost. In recent times. India is dependent on US for nuclear fuel supply and technology for civilian energy needs. Abundant availability of cheap labor in India and undemanding approach of Indians has attracted attention of the capitalists across the word. Former US Secretary of State “Prosperity in countries like India is good but it triggers increased demand for better nutrition which in turn leads to higher food prices”. With better economy. It is critical for the sustenance economies of US and China to make sure that India remains under-developed as it is but at the same time. Considering the overall situation. India would indigenously develop weapons for its national security.

Hence. 2. This should continue until a situation is reached where US and Chinese economies are absolutely dependent on Indian labor force. With degrading economy. This would result in global increase in food prices. India should advance its strategic relations with under developed countries where natural resources are available along with investing in exploration of resources. too much dependence on oil imports is going to be catastrophic to nation‟s economy. Indians would be eating nutritious food on par with Americans. 4. India would join the US and China in exploration of natural resources available in underdeveloped countries. Indians. hence increasing the global food prices by importing food. An average American eats five times more nutritious food than average Indian. US. 3. this is an absolute necessity. Unless India is interested in invading oilrich countries. Not applicable. India should slowly start reducing exports of crude minerals and should industrialize wherever possible. This should be done without triggering a confrontation with US and China.determines the technological advances made by the nation. This is a test for political and intellectual acumen of India. 51 . Cold war between US and China creates an exciting opportunity for India to create its own identity. Price of oil in global market is already being dictated by wars and foreign policies of nations. However. resulting in more competition for natural resources. it should provide a fair revenue sharing model to the under-developed countries. India should continue to provide stable economic conditions for American and Chinese companies to invest in India. From the long term prospective. US and China are strategically partnering with under-developed countries for exploration of natural resources. Following opportunities stand ahead of India 1. India should reduce its dependence on global oil market and create a sustenance model with alternate fuels. India cannot afford to do the same mistake that US and China are currently doing. Strategic relations with US and China remain as critical as ever. China and India would compete for every new technology. Indians will not be able to produce food for themselves.

India is its longterm ally.  Military base within India would give assurance to US that. as Pakistan has been known as an American ally. It remains to be seen. how India responds to the challenges of Cold war and emerge as a global power. To retain peace in Kashmir valley. Control over Kashmir valley has been a disputed issue between India. US would force Pakistan not to divert funds towards creating unrest in Kashmir valley. It all depends on whether Indian government acts bravely and wisely. Overall. this is an interesting situation. The deal would be win-win for both the countries as it would  It would be strategic for US to have a military base in Kashmir as it shares the border with mainland China. India should negotiate deal with US.  And most importantly. This budget can now be used for development of Kashmir valley. 1972) and India-China LoC.  With US military base in Kashmir.5. India can significantly reduce down its military budget that was being spent in Kashmir valley. 52 . according to which UN peace keeping force would be deployed in Kashmir valley. China has made the first move by signing the Nuclear Deal with Pakistan and fact that India hasn‟t been able to put any pressure on China from stopping such agreement itself indicates the weakness of Indian government.  Given the presence of its military base in Kashmir. Already. Indian government should make the best use of this opportunity else India will be exploited by both American and Chinese government for their own benefits. China and Pakistan. It is well known that Pakistan is diverting the funds received from US for promoting unrest and militancy in Kashmir valley. US would establish a military base in Kashmir and US-India would jointly participate in mineral exploration in Kashmir valley. Attacks by Pakistan militants in Kashmir valley will now be seen as attacks on US military base. the deal would lead to peace in Kashmir valley and can result in rehabilitation of Kashmiri Pandits. India has been spending major chunk of its annual budget for military deployment at Ind0-Pak border (LoC. Cold war between China and US gives an opportunity for India to resolve the Kashmir control crisis. nuclear deal with Pakistan is far more strategic to China. On a side note.

Toilets in Incredible! India
In India, unhygienic and dirty public toilets are found everywhere. People have got habituated to uncivilized toilet manners and don‟t intend to change. Even if you educate them about the health risks posed by unclean public toilets, they hardly pay attention. Sometimes I fear that a major contagious disease might spread in India, killing several million people. Maybe after that catastrophe, the fear of death would change people in amending their uncivilized and unclean way of life. During my engineering, I visited twenty four engineering colleges across India for presenting research papers and at least at eighteen colleges, when asked about the feedback for the event, I told „please improve the cleanliness of toilets‟. But what can college management do? They can‟t teach engineering students about the public manners on how to use toilets, that‟s supposed to be taught by the parents when they were quite young. And how can parents teach their kids about „how to use toilets‟, when they themselves don‟t know about it! So, eventually, the reality is, we have grown-ups in India, who shit around and dirt the nation. As they say, great civilizations are known by the living habits of people. How can we even claim to be a great civilization when majority of us aren‟t civilized enough to perform the most basic human act in a clean way? In rural India, situation is much worse than I can describe. Majority of the people in rural India do not feel the necessity of constructing toilets in their homes. Sometimes I wonder at the hypocrisy of people in rural areas, on one side they do not want their women to go outside of their home for employment or education but they are OK with their women going outside in the woods for nature calls. This is the heights of hypocrisy and idiocy among people. The fact is that, these problems have remained in India from hundreds of years and we never spoke it openly. For the outside world, we have always projected the image of a civilized nation with thousands of years of history, whereas, whatever that civilization that once prevailed has all vanished, what is left over is the meanness and lack of sense among people. Some of you might argue that, it could be because of the financial situation of these families but I strongly disagree. Recently, in the state of Haryana, according to a survey, 70% of the households had Television sets whereas only 40% had toilets. What does that mean? The survey speaks for itself. It is not because of financial problems… it‟s because


of the intent and lack of civilized nature. I bet if a survey is conducted across India, the results would be similar The problem of unclean toilets in India isn‟t just limited to public toilets. Roughly, the problem is 1. More than 600 million people in India do not have access to clean toilets. 2. Majority of the people in India do not have civilized toilet manners. This acute lack of civilized sense can be noticed at their way of using public toilets at railway stations, restaurants, airports, etc. 3. Even in the absence of public toilets, people do not hesitate to go about their business on roadside walls, beaches and open areas. To add further to the shame, they even encourage their kids to do the same.

Our respect before the outside world is day by day diminishing. Unfortunately, a lot of damage to the image of our nation is already done. In last few decades, millions of tourists who visited India have already noticed our pathetic toilet habits. A traveller from England quotes on a public travel forum “…there are riverbanks, beaches, railway lines and fields. The only public toilet I‟ve used in India was in Mysore, I found myself peeing on a dead dog. Restaurants are an option, but it‟s usually best to wait till you get back to your hotel”. In a discussion forum, another traveller to India quotes, “why do Indians not clean the toilets? Ok, I can understand a public toilet which needs to be cleaned by some government employee who found a way to sneak off ... But in the restaurants, airplanes, trains etc.? Harpic and brushes are available, disinfectants are, and these little sponges with the green side to scrub - so why? Or rather: why not? Why is the need for cleanliness and fresh smells missing from the Indian idea of an acceptable life? I've always been wondering about it and after many years in India still haven't figured it out. Is it only about costs? To the one who can satisfyingly answer me this question I will ship a toilet brush!” Another tourist pointed out an interesting observation, which I couldn‟t resist sharing with you. He says “Worst airport

toilet award should go to the newly renovated Delhi airport toilets. You can find shit (fresh n steaming), dirt, mud water, urine or any combination of these on the toilet seat. What you won‟t find is a toilet with usable seat” and he goes on to say “I don‟t think it‟s a good idea to have 80% toilets with western style seats when 95% of India uses squats and there are more than 50% Indians at the airport of capital city of India” Recently, Jack Sim, founder of World Toilet Organization (WTO) quoted “if you don‟t have good toilets to welcome tourists, they don‟t come and won‟t go to all your beautiful sites” with reference to 2010 Commonwealth games. It is evidently clear, our unclean toilet manners are not just affecting our tourism industry but also reducing our reputation as a civilized society. A loss in tourism industry is temporary but loss of reputation will leave a permanent scar on our image as a nation. Also, let‟s not forget the potential risk of a health hazard that can be caused by unclean toilets. In this situation, the only thing that we can do is, bring a change. And change can only be brought with solutions that are economically feasible, achievable within a short period of time and acceptable to people. Generally in India, defensive campaigns are used to bring awareness among people. We need to realize that defensive campaigns about health hazards posed by unclean toilets don‟t work and even if they work, the results are too slow to be noticed within a lifetime. Government and NGOs have always been afraid of people‟s reaction to an offensive campaign. Time has come for an offensive campaign to change the attitude of the people. It‟s time for us to tell the truth to the people, it doesn‟t matter if it hurts them. As I suggest few offensive approaches, I want to be very clear about one thing, my goal is developed and civilized India. If I have to temporarily hurt the people to achieve that task, I would do it wholeheartedly. Ultimately, every Indian‟s happiness lies in India being a developed and civilized nation. Having said that, let‟s discuss some of the offensive approaches we can adopt to bring a change 1. Majority of the men in rural areas are very protective about women. It‟s an inherent feeling, existing from centuries among Indian men. Also, more than 90% of Indian households are financially supported by men and often they see themselves as „head of the family‟ and „protector‟ of women. A campaign should target this feeling. “How can a man allow his mother or wife or daughter or sister

55% of India doesn‟t have drainage systems. Men and families saw it as a question of reputation in the society. he has no right to consider himself as „head of the family‟”. It didn‟t take long for the campaign to hurt the men‟s ego. I strongly feel it will work. I would recommend people to put their demands before the MP. 5. Ideally. To overcome this problem. there aren‟t any public toilets. This campaign should now be taken to national level. several NGOs have started „no toilet. Though this idea sounds uncivilized. it‟s what I call as „stand and deliver protest‟. it‟s only in theory. Almost all the primary schools across India teach the students regarding the health hazards posed by unclean toilets. 4. no bride‟ campaign. lack of drainage system halts their plan. Sometimes. Had these funds been properly channeled. each elected Member of Parliament (MP) gets 20 million rupees from Local Area Development fund. However. if the MP doesn‟t oblige. I have a very offensive but yet a peaceful solution. it becomes necessary to teach a lesson to uncivilized people in an uncivilized way. even though people want to construct toilets in their homes. however. My guess is that. irrespective of whether he is elected from urban or rural area.2. if he can‟t. the truth is even after two thousand years. the idea is. a very rare offensive campaign in India. people can do „stand and deliver protest‟. Though the archeological evidence suggests that drainage systems in India were built as early 2nd century BC. It‟s a joint responsibility of parents and school management to provide clean toilets to their 56 . In Haryana. It‟s pity that over the years governments and people haven‟t done anything in this regard. resulting in instant results. as many men as possible should assemble every day at Legislative Assembly /Secretariat/MLA‟s house/MP‟s house (which ever nearer) and urinate on the walls of Legislative assembly/MP‟s house until government shows results in improving the drainage systems. 3. every locality in India should have had properly maintained public toilets. In all the urban areas of India there is shortage of public toilets and in rural areas. to go outside for a basic need? How shameful it is for the family? Providing a toilet in every home is the responsibility of a man. Sometimes. Basically. A home without a toilet isn‟t a home and no bride should marry a groom who can‟t provide her a home. by now. more than 70% of the schools in India don‟t have clean toilets. Every year.

we can change and we can be a civilized nation. that‟s how we were and are. that‟s the reason. such protest would make every educated Indian to think about his/her toilet manners. The idea here is that. The biggest challenge of all is changing the uncivilized manners of educated people across the nation. if few civilized among us can volunteer to visit different schools and somehow tell the kids. Now. In April-May 2009. there are millions of parents in India who aren‟t civilized themselves and when their kids grow-up with uncivilized manners.children. the question of being offensive for the sake of respect doesn‟t arise. 57 . Let me give you a little context on how I arrived at this idea. I guess. Fortunately or unfortunately. 6. how uncivilized and careless their parents and school management are. We. We are living in a capitalistic world. As cunning it might sound. The rest of the things will fall in place automatically. The idea is slightly complicated but executable. If a campaign in held outside India (say. it would dramatically change the mindset of kids. These people have a tendency of assuming that they are super civilized and they are supposed to be respected. they should have used a condom. Among all the reasons. It‟s just that. According to the news report. it won‟t take long for Indian media to make it a national issue. Having said that. my heart says. we have to collectively do something that would make the kids civilized irrespective of whether parents are civilized or not. when several racial attacks on Indians were reported in Australia. Australia) against the uncivilized toilet manners of Indians which is provoking racism. I was in Canberra on a business visit. one particular reason was public toilet manners of Indians. where kids are parent‟s problem and if they can‟t take care of their kids. we need to start realizing our flaws and work on rectifying them. they become a problem to the society. Indians in Australia do not flush toilets. do not clean the toilet seat after they finish their business and carelessly flick water at people while washing their faces at public wash basins. The above suggested offensive measures might never see the light of the day. Realization of defects and urge towards perfection is a critical for the development of nation. they should act in a responsibly by teaching civil manners to their kids. the Indians weren‟t offensive to British when they treated us like slaves. A well-planned campaign should target this inflated ego and respect of educated people in India. now that they have given birth to a child. One particular Australian news channel reported several reasons on why Indians are being discriminated in Australia. But I don‟t know why.

most of the software giants have realized that. This is due to increasing costs of reliable software. every internet application can be considered as an example of „cloud computing‟. 58 . Yahoo Mail & Messenger. Gmail. small companies (both IT and non-IT) are unable to afford and maintain IT infrastructure for their online applications. etc. Hotmail. it has existed. In recent times. are all examples of cloud computing. electricity and high speed LAN connection. The word „cloud‟ is being used here to refer „internet‟ and the term „cloud computing‟ means „computing services delivered via internet‟. Before I elaborate further about cloud computing. Ever since internet came into existence. Facebook. IT folks have a habit of adding fancy words to their computer vocabulary.Cloud Computing The latest buzz word in IT world is „cloud computing‟ and it‟s been hailed as the paradigm shift for the industry. here IT infrastructure refers to the datacenter. let me clarify for those who aren‟t familiar with IT industry. then. „Cloud computing‟ is neither a new invention nor something unknown to IT industry. As you know. apparently „cloud computing‟ happens to be the latest. Note. it‟s just that we know it with other names. In fact. maintenance and administration costs along with additional costs such as space. You might ask. why is it being considered as the next big thing? The answer has to do with something called „marketing‟. „cloud computing‟ hasn‟t got to do anything with either „clouds‟ or a new form of „computing‟. not to be confused with physical client computers.

Google. Microsoft‟s cloud computing model is referred as „Microsoft Azure‟. hiring a curator. several software giants such as Microsoft. Amazon. service provider allocates servers (computational resources) to the subscriber in the data center. security and legal compliance of servers rests with Microsoft. Here‟s how it works. VMware and IBM. reliability. For example. VMWare. while taking the entire responsibility of maintaining servers with latest software. A company subscribing to Azure need not own IT infrastructure to host their application. subscribers pay to the service providers. you along with your friends want to play Cricket. Google. companies don‟t pay for the IT infrastructure per se. Similarly. It‟s just common sense to rent a cricket ground for playing cricket and pay for the time-duration you use. However. you would need a cricket kit and a cricket ground. hire a curator and create a cricket pitch or just rent a slot in a nearby cricket ground? Unless you have lot of money. IT infrastructure renting is slightly different. Company engages a service provider to host their web based application. If you still don‟t understand the model. The responsibility of maintaining the IT infrastructure. all it needs to do is… specify Microsoft about their IT infrastructure needs and Microsoft would be providing the same. Depending on the request. for a company (IT and non-IT) to host 59 . as they just have to take care about their application rather than all their IT infrastructure needs. data security and energy needs.As a solution to this crisis. let me give you another example. you can purchase a cricket kit as it is affordable but what about a cricket ground? Would you purchase a land. and creating a cricket pitch for playing cricket doesn‟t make sense. etc. Here. This gives a good deal to subscribing companies. Let‟s say. they pay for the processing capabilities of IT infrastructure. Similar models have been proposed by Amazon. Also. Depending on the usage of the servers. IBM. Logistically. purchasing a land. unlike traditional renting of physical assets. Of course. software upgrades. Azure allows companies to host their applications on Microsoft datacenters on pay-per-use basis. have proposed the idea of renting IT infrastructure to companies on pay per use basis. the subscriber is provided with the flexibility to reduce or increase the servers on the fly.

hosting their applications on the rented datacenters make the companies dependent on service providers. playing cricket on rented ground makes the game dependent on the pitch conditions. Each service provider of cloud computing model will have its own limitations and the subscribers have to comply with those limitations. Just like. who want to host web based applications to purchase and maintain IT infrastructure. In the end.its applications over internet. I want to say. 60 . it‟s just common sense to take IT infrastructure on rent for hosting their applications and pay for the processing capabilities they want. Why wasn‟t this idea of renting IT infrastructure thought earlier? The answer to all these questions has to do with „dependence‟. you might question. cloud computing (or whatever other name we used to refer it) is here to stay and there is nothing too special about it. it will be beneficial to everyone. Another reason that I see has played an important role in delaying the entry of cloud services in the industry is „data security‟. If implemented properly. why isn‟t this option available right from the beginning? It makes no sense for nonIT companies. If you look at the cloud computing scenario. What if the sensitive information stored on IT infrastructure owned by service provider gets compromised? Does the service provider give the guarantee of data security? These questions often play a major role in deciding on whether a company has to subscribe for cloud computing services or not.

Andrew Lutomirski. B. Title: Authors: Abstract: Quantum money from knots Edward Farhi. no one else can copy the state. I would be posting abstracts of papers from ArXiv. Mota. The present accepted and old-fashioned photosynthesis mechanism model suffers from few drawbacks and an important issue is the absence of driving force for negative and positive charges separation. and anyone (with a quantum computer) can verify that the state came from the mint. http://arxiv. The word „ArXiv‟ is pronounced as “archive”. David Gosset. which I had great time reading. Gomes Photosynthesis first step mechanism concerns the sunlight absorption and both negative and positive charges separation.5127 Full paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: Can the photosynthesis first step quantum mechanism be explained? Marco Sacilotti. It is currently being maintained by Cornell University however it does have mirrors sponsored by various universities across the world. Recent and important photosynthesis literature claims that this mechanism is quantum mechanics controlled. O. however without presenting qualitative or quantitative scientifically based mechanism. computer science.Research papers @ Ar Xiv ArXiv (http://arxiv. Anderson S. The only energetic configuration that allows charges separation under illumination is the 61 . We present a concrete quantum money scheme based on superpositions of diagrams that encode oriented links with the same Alexander polynomial. biology and statistics. Peter Shor Quantum money is a cryptographic protocol in which a mint can produce a quantum state. We expect our scheme to be secure against computationally bounded adversaries. Avinatan Hassidim. Frederico Dias Nunes. Claudia C. is an online repository for scientific research papers published in the fields of physics. such as the staggered energy band gap line-up in semiconductors. Euclides Almeida. Here. where the “X” is considered as Greek letter „Chi‟. This article presents a new qualitative model for this first step mechanism in natural catalytic systems such as photosynthesis in green leaves. The model uses a concept of semiconductor band gap engineering. To explain the primary mechanism in natural photosynthesis the proposal is the following: incident light is absorbed inside the leaves causing charges separation.

while the BE distribution conforms to it exactly whatever the temperature is. i. Bo-Qiang Ma The occurrence of the nonzero leftmost digit.5600 62 Full paper: . In this paper. The arguments mentioned below show why we cannot explain the photosynthesis first step mechanism. and therefore the alternative model is presented.0660 On the (Im)possibility of Preserving Utility and Privacy in Personalized Social Recommendations Ashwin Machanavajjhala.. We explain why (e-. and show that good private social recommendations are feasible only for a few users in the social network or for a lenient setting of privacy parameters. http://arxiv. and find that the BG and FD distributions both fluctuate slightly in a periodic manner around the Benford distribution with respect to the temperature of the system. We also propose two recommendation algorithms that satisfy differential privacy. h+) interacting charges can be separated by using an energy staggered configuration.personalized recommendations of ads.1337 The Significant Digit Law in Statistical Physics Full paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: Lijing Shao.. we quantify the loss in utility when existing recommendation algorithms are modified to satisfy a strong notion of privacy called differential privacy. the Fermi-Dirac (FD) distribution. We propose lower bounds on the minimum loss in utility for any recommendation algorithm that is differentially private.. but instead. Thus the Benford's law seems to present a general pattern for physical statistics and might be even more fundamental and profound in nature. the green light of plants can be seen as related to the spent energy for charges 1. Green colour being mostly an emission and not a reflection as currently presented. are discussed. http://arxiv. i. of numbers from many real world sources is not uniformly distributed as one might naively expect. based on the presently accepted model. We investigate three kinds of widely used physical statistics. the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) distribution. under illumination. http://arxiv. the nature favors smaller ones according to a logarithmic distribution. and the Bose-Einstein (BE) distribution. Aleksandra Korolova. both analytically and experimentally. 9. can be made without disclosing sensitive links between users. . and even new social and product connections based on one's social interactions. we study whether "social recommendations".org/abs/1005. Atish Das Sarma With the recent surge of social networks like Facebook. analyze their performance in comparison to the lower bound. Following this model.. or recommendations that utilize a user's social network.e. Furthermore. named Benford's law.Full paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: staggered one between two materials or molecules. 2.. new forms of recommendations have become possible -. especially the mantissa distribution of data sets. various elegant properties of Benford's law. More precisely.e.

Objective: The aim of this research is to propose a mechanism. But until now no mechanism proposed has satisfactorily explained this phenomenon. Hector Perez-de-Tejada The super-rotation phenomenon in the atmosphere on Venus has been known since the late 60's. This model gives an approximation to a wide variety of higher plant leaf shapes. http://arxiv. we expect an experimental verification. As a further application. The model can be extended to more complex leaf types. The steady state solution of the Heisenberg equation of density operator leads to the microscopic force-velocity relation. until now never considered. this microscopic force-velocity relation is coincide with Hill's empirical relation. Young The innumerable shapes of plant leaves present a challenge to the explanatory power of biophysical which governs the growth rate of leaf tissue in two dimensions and hence the outline of the leaf. The myosin motor molecule are viewed as giant quantum particles distributed regularly along a chain. The growth of leaf lobes is governed by the position of leaf veins. This mechanism involves the transfer of the trans-terminator ionospheric flow momentum to the lower atmosphere via pressure waves generated in the cryosphere of Venus. both quantum two-level and three-level model are applied to explain the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. For the quick release of fibre. This paper presents a simple model of leaf shape based on a growth algorithm.3120 Full paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: Superrotation on Venus: Driven By Waves Generated By Dissipation of the Transterminator Flow Hector Javier A model is needed that can produce these shapes with a small set of parameters. The mechanism proposed presents a source of energy sufficiently strong to allow the transfer of energy despite 63 .4388 Full paper: Title: Author: Abstract: One dimensional chain of quantum coherent molecule motors as a model for muscle fibre Tieyan Si A quantum chain model of muscle fibre is proposed to derive the classical force-velocity relation and tension transients.Title: Author: Abstract: Growth-Algorithm Model of Leaf Shape David A. which could drive the atmosphere of Venus in its super-rotation. New possible tension transient that does not appear in the existed experimental data is produced by this quantum model. The variation of leaf shapes found in closely related plants is discussed in terms of variability in the growth algorithms. Most of the experimental tension transients find their correspondence in the theoretical output of this quantum model. The quantum three-level model fits particularly well with the tension transients of water bug Lethocerus Maximus. Deni Tanibe Zenteno-Gomez. http://arxiv.

3488 The impact of a large object with Jupiter in July 2009 A. J. large impact on Jupiter at a planetocentric latitude of 55^{\circ} Results: The calculated power for the transterminator flow is 8.03-2. R. indicate that the impactor was most probably an icy body with a size of 0. Method: The energy flow which transports the transterminator flow and the energy lost by the viscosity in the super-rotating atmosphere were calculated. Simon-Miller. Hueso. These amplitudes imply that at the altitude of the clouds on the night side there must be a constant sound of 83 dB. Gomez-Forrellad. Janet Anders. spanning 4. Finally. where the high-altitude aerosols are more reflective than Jupiter's primary cloud. This and the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) impacts on Jupiter in 1994 are the only planetary-scale impacts ever observed. the amplitude that the waves should have to be able to obtain the momentum necessary to induce super-rotation was calculated. Perez-Hoyos. Chodas On 2009 July 19. is 10-4 m for waves of 1 Hz and 10-8 m for waves of 104 Hz. could be best performed in 890-nm and K (2.4 x 106 years. such as the current one. http://arxiv. Comparison of the initial aerosol cloud debris properties.2312 Abstract: Full Paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: The relevance of continuous variable entanglement in DNA Elisabeth Rieper. Sánchez-Lavega. and dynamical calculations of pre-impact orbit. Ortiz. The search for unpredicted impacts. The 2009 impact had an entry trajectory opposite and with a lower incidence angle than that of I. Therefore.5-1 km. The calculated viscous dissipation of the super-rotating flow is 1. If the superrotation of Venus were to stop. with the continuous injection of 1. A. H. J.48x1010 W. Wesley. de Pater. L. A. The collision rate of events of this magnitude may be five to ten times more frequent than previously thought. Vlatko Vedral We consider a chain of harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. http://arxiv.800 km east-west and 2. Puetter. P.4 x 109 W. We apply our model to DNA. M. the actual super-rotation would appear again in 1. Legarreta.36 {\mu}m) filters in strong gaseous absorption. By comparing our model with 64 . Fletcher. Orton. Both results were compared to establish if there is sufficient energy in the trans-terminator flow to drive the superrotation. N. necessary to deposit the power dissipated by the viscous forces. Also an experimental model was made presenting some similarities with the process described.4x109 W. we observed a single. S. L. E. J. García-Melendo. R. The amplitude of the waves generated in the cryosphere. G. there is sufficient energy in the trans-terminator flow to maintain super-rotation. with those produced by the SL9 fragments.500 km north-south. Hammel. Yanamandra-Fisher. P.Full paper: Title: Authors: dissipation. C. The binding energies between entangled and classically correlated states are compared.

org/pdf/1006. This paper develops a preliminary version of such a communication system focusing on the release of either one or two molecules into a fluid medium with drift. We find that the surface magnetic field from these processes is less then ~0. Also. Nicolas Baddour. molecular communication has been proposed as a viable scheme to communicate between nanosized devices separated by a very short distance.3578v3 Full Paper: That‟s about it. Mark Prouty. Andrew W. Adve. Eckford Inspired by biological communication systems. Furthermore. http://arxiv.technologyreview. Here. Dmitry Budker We report what we believe is the first experimental limit placed on plant biomagnetism with a sensitive I would highly recommend reading a review of these research papers published at www. an online magazine published by MIT. if you like to share a review of any research paper or details about the paper you have published.3959v1 Search for plant biomagnetism with a sensitive atomic magnetometer Eric Corsini. James Higbie. molecules are released by the transmitter into the medium. Raviraj S. optimized degree distributions are provided.4053v1 Molecular Communication Using Brownian Motion with Drift Full Paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: Sachin Kadloor. We analyze the mutual information between transmitter and the receiver when information is encoded in the time of release of the molecule. Simplifying assumptions are required in order to calculate the mutual information.6 Measurements with an atomic magnetometer were performed on the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) inflorescence known for its fast bio-chemical processes while blooming. Brian 65 . Brian Lester. and theoretical results are provided to show that these calculations are upper bounds on the true mutual information. Paul Licht. http://arxiv. which suggest transmission strategies for a variety of drift velocities.Full Paper: Title: Authors: Abstract: numerical simulations we conclude that entanglement may play a crucial role in explaining the stability of the DNA double helix. write at sarfarosh_the_magazine@live. which are then sensed by the receiver.

66 .Question to Readers of Sarfarosh Below is the map of Kashmir region. Do you think India should accept Line of control (LOC) as international boundary or recapture the area occupied by Pakistan and China? Send your answers to „Sarfarosh‟ at

67 http://sarfaroshthemagazine. please let us know at All copyrighted pictures would be removed .com.Some of the photographs/pictures used in Sarfarosh are taken from sources on Internet.spaces. If you find any picture violating any copyrights. These sources claimed that these pictures can be freely copied and distributed.

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