Recirculating, Water Reuse Systems

William Daniels

References
• Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations - SRAC Publication No. 451 • Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Management of Recirculating Systems SRAC Publication No. 452 • Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: A Review of Component Options SRAC Publication No. 453, revised 1999 • Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture SRAC Publication No. 454

O2

CO2 NH3 Solids

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Recirculating System Configuration
Biological Filter Secondary Clarifier/ Suspended Solids Disinfection

Pump

Culture Unit Culture System
Oxygenation/Aeration De-gasing Primary ClarifierSettleable Solids Removal

**Disinfection can be UV or Ozone. Ozone must be ‘deactivated’ prior to biofilter or culture tank

Culture Units
Circular tanks with central drain

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•Advantages
• • • • • self-cleaning (settleable solids) maintain water current with less water flow homogenous mixing of gases cheaper cost per unit area fish utilize tank space better

Rectangular tanks
Advantages • Easier to grade and harvest fish • Better use of available space

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Waste Solids Removal
Settleable solids – remove by gravity • sediment trap - internal • settling basin – external

Suspended solids
screen filtration expandable granular media

Broodstock Recirculating Systems-Gulf Shores, AL

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Broodstock Recirculating Systems-Gulf Shores, AL

Fine and dissolved solids
• Foam fractionation

Ammonia and Nitrite-Nitrogen Control Biological Filtration

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Biological Filtration
• Sources
– Fish metabolism

• Function
– Nitrification
• Oxidizes ammonia and nitrite to nitrate 1½ O2 nitrosomonas 1½ O2 nitrobacter

NH3

NO2-

NO3-

Biofilter Activation
• Biofilters are “living” systems • Must be ‘activated’, fed and maintained • Promotes beneficial bacteria • Activation procedures • Activation can occur in separate system & then added

Rotating Biological Contactor-RBC

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RBC

Trickling Filters.

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Fluidized Bed Filters

Bead Filters

Packed Tower Filters

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Hydroponics

Dissolved Gas Control
Aeration
Diffuser

Mechanical Aeration

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Packed Column Aerators

Oxygenation
1. numerous devices are available that maximize contact time between oxygen bubbles and the water to increase O2 absorption and/or atmospheric pressure to increase O2 saturation.

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Disinfection
Ultraviolet irradiation Ozonation

Heating
Solar Geothermal Wastewater heat Electric heaters

Water Movement
Electric pumps Electric air blowers (airlift pumps)

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Yields 20 to 50 kg/m2/crop

Advantages of Recirculating Systems

• •

Raise a large amount of fish in a small area with little water. A possible choice to raise fish where land is expensive and/or water is scarce. Can control effluent release. Control of the culture unit to harvest a uniform sized fish at a specific time with good flesh quality. Conserve heat used to heat water, grow fish year round. Grow fish near the market.

Disadvantages of Recirculating Systems
• High risk of losing the crop to disease, breakdown of the biological filter and mechanical failures. ( need backup power supply and pumps ) Cost of raising the fish is high. Hard to compete with fish raised in ponds, cages and raceways. Usually profitable only with a high value crop such as ornamental fishes.

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Recirculating System Configuration
Biological Filter Secondary Clarifier/ Suspended Solids Disinfection

Pump

Culture Unit Culture System
Oxygenation/Aeration De-gasing Primary ClarifierSettleable Solids Removal

**Disinfection can be UV or Ozone. Ozone must be ‘deactivated’ prior to biofilter or culture tank

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