\

=
'
. 100
(1)
R  cumulative content of mass retained on sieve [%]
e  base of natural logarithms, e = 2.718
d  diameter of holes of sieve [mm]
d' , n  parameter
RosinRammler equation can be reduced
n
d
d
e
R

.

\

=
' 100
(2)
e d n d n
R
log log log . log .
100
log log
'
+ =
(3)
In equation (3) by replacing the following expression
'
log . log log d n e B = (4)

50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
0 0.104 0.208 0.417 0.833 1.651 3.327
d, mm
p
a
r
t
i
a
l
c
o
n
t
e
n
t
,
g

50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
0.074 0.147 0.295 0.589 1.168 2.362 4.691
d, mm
p
a
r
t
i
a
l
c
o
n
t
e
n
t
,
g
a) Partial characteristics b) Histogram of partial characteristics
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5
d, mm
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
c
o
n
t
e
n
t
s
,
%
R  cumulative on sieve
D , cumulative trough a sieve
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0.01 0.1 1 10
d, mm (log d)
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
c
o
n
t
e
n
t
s
,
%
R cumulative on sieve
D, cumulative trough a sieve
1
10
100
0.01 0.1 1 10
d, mm (log d)
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
c
o
n
t
e
n
t
,
%
R D
a) Cumulative characteristics b) Semi logarithmic graph c) Logarithmic graph
Volume 2 No.7, JULY 2011 ISSN 20798407
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334
We gets the RosinRammler equation of straight
line in the coordinate system of log d, log log shown in
Figure 4.
With graphical method it is possible to determine
the value of n , d' parameters (Fig.5) where the choice of
representative points for line p is subjective choice. This is
the main reason for define algorithm to determine Rosin
Rammler equation using regression analysis  precision to
avoid subjective errors with graphical method.
Figure 4  Example of graph in a coordinate
Figure 5  Graphic principle for determining n, d'
parameters of RosinRammler equation [Error! Reference
source not found.]
2.1.2 GaudinSchuhmann equation
GaudinSchuhmann equation is the analytical
presentation of cumulative size distribution:
m
d
d
D


.

\

=
max
. 100 (5)
D  cumulative content of mass that passed through the
sieve [%]
d  diameter of holes of sieve [mm]
dmax  diameter of holes of sieve that passed 100% of
sample [mm]
GaudinSchuhmann equations can be reduced
max
log . log . 2 log d m d m D + = (6)
In equation (6) by replacing the following expression
max
log . 2 d m A = (7)
We get the GaudinSchuhmann equation of
straight line in the coordinate system of log d, log D
shown in Figure 6. The value of m parameters (Fig.7) is
possible to determine with graphical method where the
choice of representative points and angle for line is
subjective choice. To avoid subjective errors with
graphical method, we can define algorithm to determine
GaudinSchuhmann equation using regression analysis.
Figure 6  Example of graph in a coordinate system log d , log
D
3. REGRESSION ANALYSIS
3.1 Linear regression
A linear relationship y = ax + b is the simplest
mathematical model of the functional dependence of
related variables. The parameter a is called the regression
coefficient, while the parameter b represents the value of a
regression function when the independent variable equals
zero [4,6,9]. To determine this parameters, it is assumed
that the values of variable yi associated with the values of
the independent variable xi as follows:
(8)
 x1, x2, .... xn  measured values of
independent variables
 y1, y2, .... yn  measured values of
dependent variables
Numerical values of the dependent variable is
obtained when the equation (8) incorporate the measured
values of independent variables:
(9)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1
log d
l
o
g
D
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335
Differences between measured and theoretical
values of the dependent variable represent the deviation of
this mathematical model:
(10)
For a minor deviation, the calculated
values of the dependent variables are very close
to measured values and the proposed
mathematical model adequately demonstrates
the measured data.
According to this principle, model y = ax
+ b is the most accurate when the sum of
squared deviations is minimal:
 
= =
= + =
n
i
n
i
i i i
b x a y b a f
1 1
2 2
) . ( ) , ( c (11)
The sum of squared deviations is
minimal if the conditions are met:
(12)
We get the system of two equations with
two unknowns a, b parameters for mathematical
model:
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
These equations can be simplified by
introducing the following expressions:
(17)
(18)
The parameters a, b of mathematical model is
now calculated:
(19)
(20)
In accordance with these principles of linear
regression, is defined and on Figure 8 is presented the
algorithm for determining the coefficients a, b of linear
regression (KOEF_A, KOEF_B) to be applied in
determining the RosinRammler and GaudinSchuhmann
equation.
=
=
n
i
i x
x S
1
=
=
n
i
i xx
x S
1
2
=
=
n
i
i y
y S
1
=
=
n
i
i i xy
y x S
1
.
2
.
x xx
S S n DE =
DE
S S S n
a
y x xy
. .
=
DE
S S S S
b
xy x y xx
. .
=
N
SX = 0, SY = 0, SXX = 0, SXY= 0, I = 1
I > N
NO
YES
END
DE = N * SXX  SX * SX
KOEF_A = ( N*SXY  SX*SY) / DE
KOEF_B = ( SXX*SY  SX*SXY ) / DE
KOEF_A, KOEF_B
SX = SX + XI
SY = SY + YI
SXX = SXX + XI * XI
SXY = SXY + XI * YI
I = I + 1
LINREG
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336
Figure 8  The algorithm for determining the coefficients of linear regression
3.2 The coefficient of determination and
correlation coefficient
The coefficient of determination is the ratio of the
total and interpreted deviation [7,10] and value of this
coefficient indicates the representativeness of the model:
model is more representative if the coefficient of
determination close to 1.
(21)
The correlation coefficient r measures the linear
correlation of paired measurement data (x1, y1), ..., (xn,
yn) and this values are always in the range from 1 to 1.
The value 1 or 1 indicates a perfect correlation and value
0 show that these are independent variables. On Figure 9
is presented the algorithm for determining the coefficient
of determination and correlation coefficient (DETER,
KOREL) to be applied for the RosinRammler and
GaudinSchuhmann equation obtained by linear
regression.
(22)
Figure 9  The algorithm for determining the coefficient of determination and correlation coefficient
3.3 Standard deviation, variance, coefficient
of variation for regression
Standard deviation of regression, shows the
average deviation of measured values of the dependent
variable from its regression value, expressed in the same
units of measurement as the dependent variable [11,12]
and calculated as the square root of variance for
regression:
(23)
N , KOEF_A ,
KOEF_B
I = 1 , SRED_Y = 0
SYR_YSR = 0 , SYI_YSR = 0
I > N
NO
YR
I
= KOEF_A * X
I
+ KOEF_B
SRED_Y = SRED_Y + Y
I
I = I + 1
YES
DETERMIN
SRED_Y = SRED_Y / N
I = 1
I > N
NO
SYR_YSR = SYR_YSR + (YR
I
 SRED_Y) ^
2
SYI_YSR = SYI_YSR + (Y
I
 SRED_Y) ^
2
I = I + 1
YES
DETER = SYR_YSR / SYI_YSR
KOREL = DETER ^
0.5
DETER, KOREL
END
=
.

.

\

=
.
n
i
i
y
y y
n
1
2
2
1
o
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337
Standard deviation of regression:
(24)
Coefficient of variation for regression is unnamed
number that is expressed in percentages, based on the
standard deviations of regression and the mean value of
the dependent variable.
(25)
In accordance with this, is defined and on Figure
10 is showed the algorithm for determining the standard
deviation, variance and coefficient of variation for
regression (RDEVIA, RVARIA, KVARIA) to be applied
for the RosinRammler equation obtained by linear
regression.
Figure 10  The algorithm for standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation for regression
4. ALGORITHM FOR ROSINRAMMLER
LINEAR REGRESSION
On Figures 11, 12 and 13 is presents the
algorithm for determining the RosinRammler equation
using linear regression. Firs step is to determine masses of
samples Wi in percentages which is calculated on masses
mi of size class. For this, is must calculated the total
weight of sample mSUMA as the sum of all partial class
fractions mi and then is performs the recalculation of the
masses of samples Wi in percentages. With this data, Ri is
calculated as the sum of the mass of samples Wi that
would be retained on the sieve diR.
Using converted original data, is calculated the
coefficients A, B for linear regression and values
D_PRIM, N_KOEF who representing the parameters d', n
of RosinRammler equation obtained by linear regression
method. After that is calculated the coefficient of
determination and correlation coefficient for this model
(equation), as well as standard deviation, variance and
coefficient of variation for regression.
2
^
y y
o o =
.
[%] , 100 .
_
y
V
y
y
.
.
=
o
N , KOEF_A ,
KOEF_B
I = 1
SRED_Y = 0, SRAZ_Y = 0
I > N
NO
YR
I
= KOEF_A * X
I
+ KOEF_B
SRAZ_Y = SRAZ_Y + (Y
I
 YR
I
) ^
2
SRED_Y = SRED_Y + Y
I
I = I + 1
YES
REGVARIA
SRED_Y = SRED_Y / N
RVARIA = SRAZ_Y / N
RDEVIA = RVARIA ^
0.5
KVARIA = 100* RDEVIA / SRED_Y
RVARIA, RDEVIA,
KVARIA
END
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201011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
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338
Figure 14  The algorithm for GaudinSchuhmann equation and statistical analysis of this model
ROSINRAMMLER
TOTAL_A
I = 1 , m
SUMA
= 0 ,
R
SUMA
= 0 , SX = 0 , SY = 0 ,
SXX = 0 , SXY= 0
I > TOTAL_A
NO
m
SUMA
= m
SUMA
+ MSIZE_A
I
I = I + 1
YES
I = 1
I > TOTAL_A
NO
W
I
= 100 * MSIZE_A
I
/ m
SUMA
I = I + 1
YES
I = 1
I > TOTAL_A
NO
R
SUMA
= R
SUMA
+ W
I
R
I
= R
SUMA
d
IR
= PSIZE_A
I
I = I + 1
NO
YES
RR1
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201011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
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339
Figure 15  The algorithm for GaudinSchuhmann equation and statistical analysis of this model
I
=
1
,
J
=
1
I
>
T
O
T
A
L
_
A
N
O
Y
E
S
d
I
D
=
0
L
O
G
D
E
=
L
O
G
(
d
I
D
)
D
I
=
0
N
O
Y
E
S
L
O
G
D
I
=
L
O
G
(
D
I
)
Y
J
=
L
O
G
D
I
X
J
=
L
O
G
D
E
J
=
J
+
1
N
O
Y
E
S
I
=
1
+
1
G
S
1
I
=
1
I
>
J
N
O
Y
E
S
D
E
=
J
*
S
X
X

S
X
*
S
X
K
O
E
F
_
A
=
(
J
*
S
X
Y

S
X
*
S
Y
)
/
D
E
K
O
E
F
_
B
=
(
S
X
X
*
S
Y

S
X
*
S
X
Y
)
/
D
E
S
X
=
S
X
+
X
I
S
Y
=
S
Y
+
Y
I
S
X
X
=
S
X
X
+
X
I
*
X
I
S
X
Y
=
S
X
Y
+
X
I
*
Y
I
I
=
I
+
1
M
_
K
O
E
F
=
K
O
E
F
_
A
L
O
G
D
M
A
X
=
(
2

K
O
E
F
_
B
)
/
K
O
E
F
_
A
D
_
M
A
X
=
1
0
^
L
O
G
D
M
A
X
G
S
2
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201011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
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340
Figure 16  The algorithm for GaudinSchuhmann equation and statistical analysis of this model
I
=
1
,
S
R
E
D
_
Y
=
0
S
Y
R
_
Y
S
R
=
0
,
S
Y
I
_
Y
S
R
=
0
I
>
J
N
O
Y
R
I
=
K
O
E
F
_
A
*
X
I
+
K
O
E
F
_
B
S
R
E
D
_
Y
=
S
R
E
D
_
Y
+
Y
I
I
=
I
+
1
Y
E
S
I
>
J
N
O
Y
R
I
=
K
O
E
F
_
A
*
X
I
+
K
O
E
F
_
B
S
R
A
Z
_
Y
=
S
R
A
Z
_
Y
+
(
Y
I

Y
R
I
)
^
2
I
=
I
+
1
Y
E
S
R
V
A
R
I
A
=
S
R
A
Z
_
Y
/
J
R
D
E
V
I
A
=
R
V
A
R
I
A
^
0
.
5
K
V
A
R
I
A
=
1
0
0
*
R
D
E
V
I
A
/
S
R
E
D
_
Y
M
_
K
O
E
F
,
D
_
M
A
X
,
D
E
T
E
R
,
K
O
R
E
L
,
R
V
A
R
I
A
,
R
D
E
V
I
A
,
K
V
A
R
I
A
E
N
D
D
E
T
E
R
=
S
Y
R
_
Y
S
R
/
S
Y
I
_
Y
S
R
K
O
R
E
L
=
D
E
T
E
R
^
0
.
5
I
=
1
,
S
R
A
Z
_
Y
=
0
S
R
E
D
_
Y
=
S
R
E
D
_
Y
/
J
I
=
1
I
>
J
N
O
S
Y
R
_
Y
S
R
=
S
Y
R
_
Y
S
R
+
(
Y
R
I

S
R
E
D
_
Y
)
^
2
S
Y
I
_
Y
S
R
=
S
Y
I
_
Y
S
R
+
(
Y
I

S
R
E
D
_
Y
)
^
2
I
=
I
+
1
Y
E
S
G
S
2
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341
CONCLUSION
This paper show the algorithms for determine the
RosinRammler and GaudinSchuhmann equation of
particle size distribution using regresion analysis that
author of this paper used as starting point in the
construction of "UniModBase" information system [13,
14, 15].
In this information system (Fig.17  21) the
statistical analysis and modeling for results have been
simplified for using and "hiden" from users. With entered
data, preparation of all required reports is automated and
always available for future analysis and theoretical
considerations.
On this way is solving the practical problems of
analytical presentation of grain size analysis and remove
the subjective error in determining the parameters of this
model using graphical method.
Figure 17  Insert new analysis in "UniMod Base" information system
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201011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
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342
Figure 18  Graphical presentation of grain size distribution in "UniMod Base" information system
Figure 19  RosinRammler graphical presentation maked with "UniMod Base" information system
Figure 20  GaudinSchuhmann graphical presentation maked with "UniMod Base" information system
Volume 2 No.7, JULY 2011 ISSN 20798407
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201011 CIS Journal. All rights reserved.
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343
Figure 21  Statistical analysis and RosinRammler equation with "UniMod Base" information system
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Organizacionih Nauka, Beograd, 2007.
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INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE RESULTS IN
MINERAL PROCESSING, International Journal of
Reviews in Computing, Volume 1, p.6166,
December, 2009.
[14] S. Puica, Z. Nikoli, and V. eki,
INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MODELING THE
GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION, Journal of
Theoretical and Applied Information Tecnology,
Volume 23 No.1, p.715, January, 2011.
[15] S. Puica, Z. Nikoli, and V. eki,
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FOR MODELLING OF GRAIN SIZE
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Volume 27 No.2, p.105118, May, 2011.
AUTHOR PROFILES
M.Sc. SAA PUICA graduated at the Technical Faculty
in Bor 1993 on the Department of Mineral Processing.
Since 1995 until today, he is professionally engaged in
developing business information systems. He completed
master's thesis in 1999 at the Technical Faculty in Bor. On
the FIM in Krusevac, 2010 he started doctoral dissertation
in the field of information systems, which is in the final
phase.