OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

InTroducTIon To oFdM/oFdMA
requirements of Modern communication Systems channel Bandwidth and Fading Flat Fading and Frequency Selective Fading defining narrowband and Wideband channels coherence Bandwidth Multi-carrier Solution oFdM Basic Principles Sub carrier orthogonality doppler Shift in radio channels coherence Time cyclic Prefix/Guard Time Peak-to-Average Power ratio (PAPr) Single carrier – Frequency division Multiple Access (Sc-FdMA) LTE PHY Layer Parameters LTE Sub-carrier Spacing LTE Timing and Framing Frame Type 2, Tdd The resource Block comparison of resource Blocks, channel Size and Sampling rate LTE channels and channel Mapping LTE Logical channels LTE Transport channels LTE Physical channels 4 4 6 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 18 20 22 24 28 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

channel Mapping Mapping channels to the resource Block channel Mapping on a 10MHz channel uplink Mapping of Physical channels uplink Mapping of the control channel overall Picture of uL Mapping Physical channels and Modulation Schemes Synchronisation and reference Signals Primary and Secondary Synch Sequences PSS and SS in the Frame Structure reference Signals LTE reference Signals dL cell Specific rS dL uE Specific rS uL uE Specific rS demodulation reference Signals (dM rS) Sounding reference Signals (SrS) Modulation, channel coding and Link Adaptation channel coding HArQ (Hybrid Automatic request) reporting of uE Feedback Power control in LTE The user Plane and control Plane Protocols

46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 68 70 72 74 76 76 78 80 84 86 88 90 92

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these applications are moving swiftly in to the mobile domain. 4 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts inTRODuCTiOn TO OFDM/OFDMA Requirements of Modern Communication systems recent fixed and mobile broadband statistics suggest that the demand for data is increasing at an ever accelerating rate. The demand for high capacity makes the radio engineer look to the radio channel to find additional capacity. Services such as Facebook. Youtube and other Web 2. In recent years the bandwidth of the channel has grown significantly from 200KHz GSM to 5MHz uMTS/HSPA and the modulation and coding schemes have grown steadily more complex and efficient. Given the current bandwidth and complexity of systems like HSPA it would be difficult to gain more capacity by simply increasing the channel bandwidth without making the technology prohibitively complex.0 type applications have traditionally been accessed from fixed broadband connections. This puts pressure on the operators of mobile networks to ensure there is sufficient capacity for the existing voice traffic as well as all the new multimedia and social networking applications. however with the rising popularity of the smart phone.

Fig. 1 – Web 2.0 – A Driver for higher Communication speeds? © Informa Telecoms & Media 5 .

vehicles. The received signal is a summation of all these signals from different paths. the signals received from each path will add up at the receiver input The power of the received signal will vary as it is dependent upon the relationship between the phases of each received component. The frequency response is the representation in the frequency domain of the superposition of all these paths. This is generally known as fading If the transmitted channel is sufficiently narrow then all the frequency components transmitted in the channel will be attenuated by the same amount. This is where only a part of the overall transmitted spectrum suffers from the attenuation due to multipath fading. this is known as flat fading The principle problem with increasing the bandwidth of the channel to accommodate higher capacity is that the channel becomes increasingly likely to suffer from frequency selective fading. time shifted copies of the same signal. The transmission of the signal from the source to the destination is carried over multiple paths. whether the result is constructive or destructive addition of the phase values. It is apparent that any receiver will be subject to multiple. where the transmitted signals take place over different paths. and other obstacles which can reflect and scatter the transmitted signal.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Channel Bandwidth and Fading The figure opposite illustrates a typical urban environment through which radio signals propagate. 6 © Informa Telecoms & Media . With the multipath scenario. Flat Fading and Frequency selective Fading Each of these paths experiences a different doppler shift and degree of attenuation. The main reason for this is the existence of the buildings.

2 © Informa Telecoms & Media 7 .a) Typical Multipath Environment Transmitter Receiver b) Flat Fading Power Expected signal Actual signal Frequency c) Frequency selective Fading Power Expected signal Actual signal Frequency Fig.

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Defining narrowband and Wideband Channels
Whether a channel is determined to be wide or narrow band depends on the relative magnitude of the symbol time and the delay spread characteristic of the channel environment. Temporal distortion of the signal is an effect of the multipath environment causing the same symbol to be received multiple times over a period of time. The time differences are due to the differing propagation delays experienced on different paths. Typical delay spreads for indoor and outdoor environments are shown below. Indoor – 40nS – 20nS; 12m – 60m outdoor – 1uS – 20uS; 300m – 6Km A channel can be said to be narrow band when the symbol time (Ts) is significantly larger than any delay spread present (Td) narrow band – Ts > Td However if the delay spread is significantly larger than the symbol time then the channel may be considered wideband. Wideband – Td > Ts Following on from the discussion above, regarding flat and frequency selective fading, it can be said that a channel that is defined as wideband, it is more likely to suffer from frequency selective fading. consider now, that the symbol time is a function of the channel bandwidth. Ts = 1/Bw Therefore as the channel bandwidth increases the symbol time will decrease. e.g. Bw = 1MHz; Ts = 1uS Bw = 10MHz; Ts = 0.1uS It is more probable therefore that high capacity, high bandwidth radio channels will experience frequency selective fading.


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indoor Delay spread


RMs Delay spread
t0 t1


t2 t3

t4 t5

RMS delay spread


narrowband or WideBand?


Narrow band ~ Ts > Td Wideband ~ Td > Ts

Fig. 3
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Coherence Bandwidth
coherence bandwidth is a statistical measure of the range of frequencies over which the channel can be considered “flat” (i.e., a channel which passes all spectral components with approximately equal gain and linear phase). In other words, coherence bandwidth is the range of frequencies over which two frequency components have a strong potential for amplitude correlation. coherence bandwidth is a function of the delay spread environment and can be calculated using the following expression; Bc = 1 2πτrms

Where; τrms is the rms delay spread of the channel. The table below shows typical delay spreads for various environments and their coherence bandwidth. Knowing the coherence bandwidth for typical deployment environments allows an estimation of the probability that frequency selective fading will occur if the channel bandwidth of the system is know.

Hilly area urban Suburban open area Indoors

Typical rms Delay
3-10 μsec 1-3 μsec < 1 μsec < 200 nsec 10-50 nsec

Coherence Bandwidth
53KHz-16KHz 160KHz-53KHz > 160KHz > 795KHz 16MHz-3.2MHz


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.Coherence bandwidth is a statistical measure of the range of frequencies over which the channel can be considered “flat” (i. 4 – Coherence Bandwidth © Informa Telecoms & Media 11 .e.2MHz Bc = Environment Hilly area urban Suburban open area Indoors Typical rms Delay 3-10 μsec 1-3 μsec < 1 μsec < 200 nsec 10-50 nsec Fig. a channel which passes all spectral components with approximately equal gain and linear phase) 1 2πτrms Coherence Bandwidth 53KHz-16KHz 160KHz-53KHz > 160KHz > 795KHz 16MHz-3.

these multi-carrier systems need to exhibit good spectral efficiency. This means that the centre of the sub-carriers can be sampled. 12 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Multi-Carrier solution Given the problems outlined above the solution for today’s broadband wireless systems is to utilise multi-carrier systems known as oFdM (orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing) or oFdMA (orthogonal Frequency division Multiple Access). The lower bit rate on each sub-carrier results in a narrower radio channel that is resistant to the frequency selective fade. OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) However. Spacing the channels in this manner ensures that the centre of each carrier corresponds with a zero crossing point for each of the neighbouring sub-carriers. free from interference of the adjacent sub-carriers. each sub carrier must be placed close to its adjacent carrier with out causing interference. The channel spacing is 1/Ts where Ts is the symbol time of information modulated onto the carrier. FDM (Frequency Division Multiple Access) Multi-carrier systems split the high speed stream of serial baseband data in to lower speed parallel streams.

Traditionally spaced FDM Channels t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 Orthogonally spaced FDM Channels (sub-carriers) 1/Ts Fig. 5 © Informa Telecoms & Media 13 .

Where there are more sub-carriers the received signal must be sampled more frequently. 14 © Informa Telecoms & Media . In receiver the signal must be sampled with sufficient frequency to ensure all the composite frequency components are captured. The captured and sampled signal is transformed to the frequency domain by applying an FFT. The term FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) points or samples. the number of parallel data stream will depend on the bandwidth of the overall channel and the number of sub-carriers available to carry the data. The FFT symbol has a time equivalent to the baseband symbol time but is the composite of all the modulated sub-carriers. The incoming data stream is first converted from serial data to parallel data. Each of the parallel streams of data is then modulated on to each sub carrier which then undergoes an IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) which transforms the frequency domain signal into a tome domain signal. The complex time domain signal is then added to produce a composite and complex waveform.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts OFDM Basic principles The block diagram opposite shows the basic principle of an oFdM transmitter/receiver. hence the larger number of FFT points for higher bandwidth channels. This effectively separates the sub-carriers so they may be demodulated independently. refers to the number of samples that must take place during a singe FFT symbol.

6 – simple OFDM Block Diagram © Informa Telecoms & Media 15 .Fig.

allowing the uE to adjust and maintain its synchronisation with the enB. however the coherence time of the channel will provide an indication of how likely the received signals will be affected by doppler shift. disturbances in the time and frequency domain can reduced the orthogonality of the carriers resulting in an increase in BEr and generally poorer performance. This can also reduce the effect of doppler shift. The latter problem can be resolved by having the enB broadcast synchronisation signals on a regular basis. distortion in the frequency domain can come from doppler shift due to uE movement or from poor synchronisation of the uE sub systems to the system clock.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts sub Carrier Orthogonality Given the very tight spacing of the sub-carriers of the oFdM channel it is very important that the sub-carriers remain orthogonal from each other. 16 © Informa Telecoms & Media .

7 – sub Carrier Orthogonality © Informa Telecoms & Media 17 .Demodulated signal without frequency offset (zero ICI) Demodulated signal with frequency offset causing ICI Fig.

Find the coherence time for a radio channel operating at 2.28 x 10-3 seconds 18 © Informa Telecoms & Media .6 x 109 . The following expression may be used to determine the frequency offset due to doppler shift. 2. yielding poorer performance and higher BEr. √ e. The coherence time is a function of the amount of frequency offset present in the channel and is defined as. f is the frequency of operation v is the velocity of the receiver c is the speed of light Coherence Time An important performance attribute when considering the systems sensitivity to effects of frequency offset is the coherence time.6GHz and a mobile travelling at 140kph.33 Hz Tc = 2 √ 9 16π. c Where.8 3 x 108 fd = 329. particularly in oFdM systems.329. 3. The time over which a channel can be assumed to be constant. 9 Tc = 2 16π.332 fc = 1.fd2 Therefore a system that uses a symbol time which is less than the coherence time will not be distorted by the effects of doppler shift.υ fd = cosθ.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Doppler shift in Radio Channels Frequency offset is an important consideration. f.g. In oFdM systems it will also cause inter sub-carrier interference. The angle of arrival is 0o 140kph = 38 m/s fd = cosθ. In mobile radio systems the velocity of the uE will cause an apparent offset from the centre carrier of the radio channel.

8 © Informa Telecoms & Media 19 .Coherence Time The time over which a channel can be assumed to be constant Doppler shift in Radio Channels Fig.

This extension to the symbol is known as the cyclic prefix (cP) or guard time. The cP. The differing propagation duration for each of the multi-path components create inter-symbol interference (ISI).OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Cyclic prefix/Guard Time The multi-path environment through which the radio signals are transmitted create temporal distortions in the data carried by the radio channel. since the cP carries no actual information and is discarded at the receiver once the rF signal has been successfully digitised. 20 © Informa Telecoms & Media . All of the information important to the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is contained within the symbol time therefore it is critical that there is no distortion during this period. The inclusion of the guard period eliminates the effects of multi-path ISI at the expense of through put. The solution in oFdM systems is to extend the length of each symbol by a factor equivalent to the likely delay spread in the channel. the information must be protected from its effect. which appears at the beginning of each symbol and is actually a copy of the last part of that symbol. Inter-symbol interference in oFdM systems cannot be tolerated since it reduces the orthogonality between the sub-carriers and increases the BEr and reduces performance of the channel. Since the ISI cannot be eliminated from the channel.

9 © Informa Telecoms & Media 21 .3µS Cyclic prefix Operation CPA CPA Td A CPB A CPB B CPC B CPC C C Compete Sy mbol FF T Sampli ng T i me Fig.7µS T otal T ransmi tted Symbo l = 71.Creation of the Cyclic prefix T cp= 4.7µ S Symbo l = 66.

This resultant composite signal has implications for A to d convertor and rF amplifier design. This is illustrated in Figure 11. but will cause unwanted effects. resulting in lost packets. The dynamic range of the amplifier must be able to cope with the smallest and largest signal amplitudes – particularly the largest amplitude as it this that could cause over-driving of the amplifier. The resulting composite waveform displays large variations in amplitude caused by the combination of a number of individual signals.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts peak-to-Average power Ratio (pApR) oFdM does present some technical challenges. The effect is similar to that caused by the multipath environment – a resultant signal fluctuating in amplitude as a result of the combining of so many signals with discrete phase and amplitude differences. The FFT process will be degraded as it attempts to deal with frequency components that should not be there. 22 © Informa Telecoms & Media . over driving an amplifier causes non-linear behaviour resulting in the generation of harmonics and Intermodulation Products (IPs) which will reside within the wanted spectrum.

10 – peak to Average power (pApR) © Informa Telecoms & Media 23 .Symbol time 2 Symbol time 3 Symbol time 4 Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Carrier 3 Carrier 4 Composite signal Fig.

Sc-FdMA is well suited to the LTE uplink requirements. power consumption is a key consideration for uE terminals. it is sometimes called discrete Fourier transform spread oFdM or (dFT-SoFdM). Most important though is that the underlying waveform is essentially single-carrier. while Sc-FdMA transmits the four QPSK data symbols in series at four times the rate. As a result. one per subcarrier.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access (sC-FDMA) 3GPP has chosen Sc-FdMA for the uplink. the cP is inserted. 24 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The figure opposite compares the oFdMA and Sc-FdMA structures. For clarity this example uses only four (M) subcarriers over two symbol periods with the payload data represented by quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation. and it offers the same degree of multipath protection. an alternative to oFdM was sought for use in the LTE uplink. The most obvious difference between the two schemes is that oFdMA transmits the four QPSK data symbols in parallel. not surprisingly. data symbols in the time domain are converted to the frequency domain using a discrete Fourier transform (dFT). The high PAPr and related loss of efficiency associated with oFdMA are major concerns. and therefore the PAPr is lower. Finally. with each data symbol occupying M x 15 kHz bandwidth. then in the frequency domain they are mapped to the desired location in the overall channel bandwidth before being converted back to the time domain using an inverse FFT (IFFT). Because Sc-FdMA uses this technique. The basic transmitter and receiver architecture is very similar (nearly identical) to oFdMA.

-1 -1.1 -1.-1 -1.1 1.1 Sequence of QPSK data symbols to be transmitted QPSK modulating data symbols Constant subcarrier power during each SC-FDMA symbol period V O sy FD m MA bo l V SC sy -FD m M bo A l 25 CP e m O sy FD m MA bo l Ti CP e SC sy -FD m M bo A l Ti m fc 15kHz Frequency fc 60kHz Frequency Data symbols occupy 15kHz for one OFDMA symbol period OFDMA Data symbols occupy M*15kHz for 1/M SC-FDMA symbol periods SC-FDMA Fig. 11 – single Carrier – FDMA © Informa Telecoms & Media .1 1.1 I -1.-1 1.1 1.-1 -1.-1 1.Q -1.-1 1.

To complete Sc-FdMA signal generation. 26 © Informa Telecoms & Media . the next step is to represent that symbol in the frequency domain using a dFT. The diagram opposite shows the stages in common with oFdM.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Sc-FdMA signal generation begins with a special pre-coding process. Performing an IdFT converts the frequency-shifted signal to the time domain and inserting the cP provides the fundamental robustness of oFdMA against multipath. using the four colour-coded QPSK data symbols from the previous diagram. the process creates one Sc-FdMA symbol in the time domain by computing the trajectory traced by moving from one QPSK data symbol to the next. which create a time-domain waveform of the QPSK data sub-symbols. This is done at M times the rate of the Sc-FdMA symbol such that one Sc-FdMA symbol contains M consecutive QPSK data symbols. once an IQ representation of one Sc-FdMA symbol has been created in the time domain. The diagram opposite shows the first steps. the process follows the same steps as for oFdMA.

-1 V(I) +1 V(I) +1 –1 –1 One SC-FDMA symbol period One SC-FDMA symbol period The sC-FDMA Block Diagram Unique to SC-FDMA Common with OFDMA M data bits in Map data to constellation Generate time domain waveform Perform M-point DFT (time to freq) Map symbols to subcarriers Perform N-point IFFT N>M Upconvert and transmit Time domain Frequency domain Time domain M data bits out De-map constellation to data Generate constellation Perform M-point IDFT (time to freq) De-map subcarriers to symbols Perform N-point DFT N>M Receive and downconvert Fig.-1 1. 12 © Informa Telecoms & Media 27 .Generating the sC-FDMA signal Q -1.1 I -1.1 1.

Given the deployment flexibility of LTE the range of channel conditions that it is expected to perform under is extremely wide and varied. cell sizes may also very from femto to large rural macro. 400MHz – 4GHz. The range of spectrum that LTE may be potentially deploy across is also very wide. consider the previous discussions on coherence bandwidth and resilience to doppler effects. LTE sub-Carrier spacing The sub-carrier spacing is 15KHz. 28 © Informa Telecoms & Media .4MHz to 20MHz. indoor and outdoor environments as well as coping with many different mobility conditions from stationary to high speed mobility up to 500Kph.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts LTE phY Layer parameters LTE is designed to meet many differing requirements including urban. the deployed system bandwidths that may be support also ranges from 1. selection of sub carrier spacing of 15KHz for LTE radio interface is a compromise based on the expected operational environment and expected levels of performance. suburban. The critical parameters required to support this diversity are the sub-carrier spacing and the cyclic prefix.

13 – LTE sub-Carrier spacing © Informa Telecoms & Media 29 .7µS = 15KHz Fig.Channel spacing = 1/Ts Ts = 66.7µS Fs = 1/66.

The figure opposite shows the type 1 frame. 2 slots make up one 1mS Sub-Frame. There a 10 sub-frames or 20 slots in one 10mS frame. Every element of time is some multiple of this value. the sub-frame is sometimes referred to as the transmission time interval (TTI) particularly by the higher layers. this is defined as 1/(15000*2408) = 32.56nS. This structure is used in the time domain to map the physical channels. note that the physical channels also require a frequency domain component for complete mapping. where 15000 is the bandwidth of the sub-carrier and 2048 is the maximum number of FFTs supported.5mS period of time which contains 7 symbols of 66. this is the timing structure used on the uplink and downlink of the Fdd (Frequency division duplex) channels. 30 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts LTE Timing and Framing The basic unit of time in LTE is Ts. or Frame Structure 1 (FS1). one slot is a 0.67 µS.

67µS Symbols Fig. Tf = 307200. Ts = 0. 14 – Frame Type 1 FDD © Informa Telecoms & Media 31 . Ts = 10 ms One slot.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19 One subframe 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 66.One radio frame. Tslot = 15360.

The frame has two different switch points i. the point at which a defined slot configuration begins to repeat. and sub-frame carries uplink only. However the structure of the sub-frames is different. these are at 5mS and 10mS. these are separated in the sub-frame by a guard period (GP). TDD The figure opposite shows the frame structure used on a Tdd (Time division duplex) channel. In addition there are 7 different frame configurations. These are referred to as the dwPTS (downlink Pilot Time Slot) and upPTS (uplink Pilot Time Slot).e.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Frame Type 2. In any of these configurations sub-frame 0 and 6 carry downlink information only. 32 © Informa Telecoms & Media . the overall frame length is 10mS and 10 sub-frames of 1mS each. It has similar overall timing i.e. The table opposite shows the frame configurations. In the FS2 the sub-frame allows both an uplink and downlink transmission/reception opportunity.

Configuration switch-point periodicity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 ms 5 ms 5 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms sub-frame number 0 d d d d d d d 1 S S S S S S S 2 u u u u u u u 3 u u d u u d u 4 u d d u d d u 5 d d d d d d d 6 S S S d d d S 7 u u u d d d u 8 u u d d d d u 9 u d d d d d d Fig. 15 – Frame Type 2 TDD © Informa Telecoms & Media 33 .

5MHz of spectrum. From the figure opposite it can bee seen that the rB occupies 12 x 15KHz = 180KHz of band width. 34 © Informa Telecoms & Media .67µS symbols). 7. 512 x 15KHz = 7.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts The Resource Block Mapping of channels takes place in the time and frequency domains in LTE. 7. In a 5MHz radio channel there will be 300 rB occupying 4. In the time domain the rB is one slot ( 7 x 66. The rB has a fixed size and is common to all channel bandwidths/FFT sizes.68MHz if the space occupied by 512 FFT points and is not the transmitted bandwidth.68MHz. In the frequency domain there are 12 x 15KHz sub-carriers.68MHz is also the sampling frequency required to recover information from the carrier to drive the FFT (time domain to frequency domain) in the receiver. The primary element that support the mapping process is the resource Block (rB). The number of FFTs required to process this is 512. 1 symbol and 1 sub-carrier is known as a resource element. assuming sub-carrier size of 15KHz.

1 slot Zeros NRB x Nsc = 300 (4.68 MHz) 35 Frequency RB .5 MHz) Zeros Time *5 MHz system with frame structure type 1 DL or UL symbol Resource block RB Nsc = 12 (180 kHz) Fig. 16 – Defining a Resource Block © Informa Telecoms & Media M = 512 (7.

multiplying the number of occupied sub-carriers by 15KHz will more accurately describe the transmission bandwidth of the various options. in the 5MHz channel the sampling rate of 7.68MHz would result in 3840 samples every 1mS. it is always a value of 2n and determines the number of steps of processes required to construct/de-construct the composite oFdMA signal. Since each rB contains 12 sub-carriers the number of occupied sub-carriers can be determined. The sampling rate and samples per slot are determined from the FFT number and the sub-carrier bandwidth. Channel size and sampling Rate The table opposite shows the number of rB required for channel bandwidths supported by LTE.g. E. it should be noted that the definition of channel bandwidth in this table refers to the nominal channel size defined by the spectrum regulating body. 36 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The IdFT/dFT (Inverse discreet Fourier Transform) describes the number of FFT points required to successfully recover information from the carrier.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Comparison of Resource Blocks. it is not necessarily the transmission bandwidth.

68 3840 10 50 600 1024 15.72 15360 Fig.84 1920 5 25 300 512 7. 17 – Table of Resource Block sizes and Channel Bandwidth © Informa Telecoms & Media 37 .channel bandwidth (MHz) number of resource blocks (nrB) number of occupied subcarriers IdFT(Tx)/dFT(rx) size Sample rate (MHz) Samples per shot 1.92 960 3 15 180 256 3.04 11520 20 100 1200 2048 30.36 7680 15 75 900 1536 23.4 6 72 128 1.

Logical. FFT size.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts LTE Channels and Channel Mapping Information. and logical channels that carry user traffic.e. 38 © Informa Telecoms & Media .e. they are principally defined by the type of information that they carry. physical Channels Physical channels are the actual implementation of the transport channels in the physical layer. Transport and Physical channels. The only exist in the physical layer and depend on the physical layer characteristics. etc. whether the data is protected from errors. i. Each channel is defined by a set of functions or attributes which determines the handling of the data over the radio interface. size of data packets. There are 3 basic types of channel defined. is transmitted through the protocol stack and over air using channels. There are logical channels that carry control data. Logical Channels Logical channels exist between the PdcP layer and MAc. channel bandwidth. i. The attributes of data transfer applied to the data in the transport channel is otherwise known as the transport format. Transport Channels Transport channels exist between the MAc layer and the Physical Layer and are define the manner in which the data will be transferred. both signalling and user. the type of channel coding. etc.

PDCCH. PDSCH. CCCH. MCH Physical channels Defined by actual physical layer characteristics. 18 – LTE Channels © Informa Telecoms & Media 39 . MCCH. PMCH. traffic.e. DL-SCH. control. e.Traffic channel Control channel MAC Logical channels Defined by Type of information i. PCH. interleaving. CRC. e.g. BCH.e. size of radio data packets.g.g. FFT size. PCCH. DCCH PHY Transport channels Defined by Transport attribute i. BCCH. PBCH… Fig. e. channel coding. bandwidth.

The control channels offered by MAc are: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information. for the transfer of user information. for one or several MTcHs. they are described below. Control Channels control channels are used for transfer of control plane information only. Information broadcast on this channel is shared by all the users in the cell. The traffic channels offered by MAc are: Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) A dedicated Traffic channel (dTcH) is a point-to-point channel. control channels and traffic channels. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a uE and the network. This channel is used for uEs having no rrc connection with the network. This channel is used when the network does not know the location cell of the uE. This channel is only used by uEs that receive MBMS. uEs having an rrc connection will exchange rrc and nAS signalling. This channel is only used by uEs that receive MBMS. The dTcH will also carry signalling from the application layers. cell configuration. the information broadcast relates to the operator identity. this may be SIP and rTSP signalling if the EPc supports IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) A point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transmitting traffic data from the network to the uE. access information etc Paging Control Channel (PCCH) A downlink channel that transfers paging information. Common Control Channel (CCCH) channel for transmitting control information between uEs and network. dedicated to one uE. Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) A point-to-multipoint downlink channel used for transmitting MBMS control information from the network to the uE. it should be noted that application level signalling (SIP messages from the IMS) is not handled by the dccH. Traffic Channels Traffic channels are used for the transfer of user plane information only. 40 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts LTE Logical Channels There are two types of logical channel. It would be used during the earliest phases of communication establishment.

LTE Logical Channels

Logical Control Channels

Logical Traf c Channels

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) • System Information Messages Paging Control Channel (PCCH) • Paging Messages, UE Location not known Common Control Channel (CCCH) • Early communication, no RRC connection Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) • Multicast control signalling Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) • Bi-Directional signalling, RRC connection, RRC and NAS Signalling

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) • Point-Point bi-directional channel, User data and application level signalling (SIP) Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) • Point-Multi-point channel supporting data transfer for the MMBS service

Fig. 19 – LTE Logical Channels
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE Transport Channels
Transport channels are classified in to uplink and downlink channels and are described below. Broadcast Channel (BCh) The BcH has a fixed and pre-defined transport format largely defined by the requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell since the information carried by this channel contains system information. Downlink shared Channel (DL-sCh) This channel will carry downlink signalling and traffic and may have to be broadcast in the entire cell, given the nature of the data in this channel it will also support for both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation with the option to support for uE discontinuous reception (drX) to enable uE power saving, Error control is supported in this channel by means of HArQ and dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power. Spectral efficiency can also be increased due to the possibility of using beamforming antenna techniques. The channel also supports MBMS transmissions. paging Channel (pCh) This channel is associated with the PccH and will carry paging message to uEs not currently connected to the network. The PcH supports discontinuous reception (drX) to enable uE power saving where the sleep cycle is indicated by the network to the uE. The PcH may also have to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell. The PcH is also mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for traffic/other control channels. Multicast Channel (MCh) The channel is associated with the multicast services from the upper layers and as such there is a requirement to broadcast both control and user data over the entire coverage area of the cell. It also support the Single Frequency network as semi-static resource allocation uplink shared Channel (uL-sCh) The uL_ScH carries common and dedicated signalling as well as dedicated traffic information. It supports the same features as the dL-ScH. Random Access Channel (RACh) The rAcH is a very specific transport channel, it carries limited control information during the very earliest stages of connection establishment. This a common uplink channel therefore there is the risk of collisions during uE transmission.


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LTE Transport Channels

Downlink Transport Channels

Uplink Transport Channels

Broadcast Channel (BCH) • xed, pre-de ned transport format; • broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell. Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) • HARQ; • dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power; • broadcast in the entire cell; • beamforming; • dynamic and semi-static resource allocation; • UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving; • MBMS transmission. Paging Channel (PCH) • UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving • broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell; • mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for traf c/other control channels. Multicast Channel (MCH) • broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell; • MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells; • support for semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a long cyclic

Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) • beamforming • dynamic link adaptation by varying the transmit power and potentially modulation and coding; • HARQ; • dynamic and semi-static resource allocation. Random Access Channel (RACH) • limited control information; • collision risk;

Fig. 20 – LTE Transport Channels
© Informa Telecoms & Media


physical downlink shared channel (pDsCh) carries the dL-ScH and PcH. cQI reports. there is minimal synchronisation from the uE perspective since the 40 ms timing is blindly detected. 44 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts LTE physical Channels The physical channels are the actual implementations of the transport channels on the radio interface. user data and application level signalling physical random access channel (pRACh) carries the random access preamble sent by the uE to initiate and rrc connection.e. physical downlink control channel (pDCCh) This channel informs the uE about the resource allocation of PcH and dL-ScH. Each subframe is assumed to be self-decodable. Mulitcast/Broadcast information physical uplink control channel (puCCh) This channel carries uplink control information such as Hybrid ArQ AcK/nAKs in response to downlink transmission. assuming sufficiently good channel conditions. physical hybrid ARQ indicator Channel (phiCh) carries Hybrid ArQ AcK/nAKs in response to uplink transmissions. i. i. there is no explicit signalling indicating 40 ms timing. physical uplink shared channel (pusCh) carries the uL-ScH. There are also physical signals which are sent on the downlink but are not given any channel designation. and Hybrid ArQ information related to dL-ScH and also carries the uplink scheduling grant. They only exist within the physical layer and are highly dependant on the actual capabilities of the physical layer itself. The physical channels are: physical broadcast channel (pBCh) The system information is transmitted cyclically within BcH transport block and mapped to four subframes over a 40 ms interval. carries Scheduling request (Sr) and. the BcH can be decoded from a single reception. • reference signals – one signal transmitted per downlink antenna port • Synchronisation signals – primary and secondary synchronisation signals. physical multicast channel (pMCh) carries the McH.e. physical control format indicator channel (pCFiCh) This channel informs the uE about the number of oFdM symbols used for the PdccHs and is transmitted in every subframe. they include.

Physical random access channel (PRACH) • Carries the random access preamble.LTE Physical Channels Downlink Physical Channels Uplink Physical Channels Physical broadcast channel (PBCH) • BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes within a 40 ms • blindly detected. 21 – LTE physical Channels © Informa Telecoms & Media 45 .broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell. Multicast Channel (MCH) . • also for traf c/other control channels. Physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH) • Informs the UE about the number of OFDM symbols used for the PDCCHs. there is no explicit signalling indicating 40 ms timing. • Carries Scheduling Request (SR).support for semi-static resource allocation e. . • Transmitted in every subframe.g. Physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) • Carries the UL-SCH. Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) • Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs Physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) • Carries the DL-SCH and PCH. • the BCH can be decoded from a single reception. . and Hybrid ARQ information related to DL-SCH. Fig. • Carries CQI reports. • Carries the uplink scheduling grant.MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells. Physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) • resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH. Physical multicast channel (PMCH) • Carries the MCH. with a time frame of a long cyclic Physical uplink control channel (PUCCH) • Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs .

whilst the logical channels carry specific types of information. PcFIcH. In the case of the BccH logical channel. PHIcH. therefore the channel is not mapped to a logical channel. PdccH. they can be mapped to common transport channels and in the case of the multicast control and traffic channels different transport channels can be used to carry the data. 46 © Informa Telecoms & Media . Mapping system information to the dL_ScH allows some flexibility and additional capacity for less time dependant information. these carry information related to the coding of the physical blocks and HArQ mechanism. once an rrc connection has been granted the rAcH is no longer used. It can be noted that. it will be noted that both the BcH and dL-ScH may be used to carry the system information. transport and physical channels. Examples include PuccH.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Channel Mapping The diagram opposite shows the possible mapping of channels between logical. Some physical channels do not carry information above the physical layer therefore have no transport channel equivalents. critical system information messages such as those that carry scheduling information and need to be transmitted on a regular basis are transmitted as a fixed format message via the BcH and PBcH. This depends on the type of system information being transmitted. The rAcH channel carries only the access preamble and has no instance above the MAc layer.

Logical PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH Transport PCH BCH UL-SCH DL-SCH MCH RACH PUCCH PCFICH PDCCH PHICH PBCH PUSCH PDSCH PMCH Physical PRACH Fig. 22 – Logical to Transport Channel Mapping © Informa Telecoms & Media 47 .

48 © Informa Telecoms & Media . S-ScH is transmitted again in sub-frame 5.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Mapping Channels to the Resource Block The figure opposite shows the process of mapping the downlink control and shared channels to a resource block. The PBcH is transmitted with 40mS periodicity. note the PdccH occurs in the first few symbols of each sub-frame. the number of symbols is signalled by the PHFIcH. This means that primary and secondary synchronisation signals are retransmitted every 5mS. Also note the arrangement of the primary and secondary synchronisation signals and the PBcH. When this information is mapped to the 10mS frame it can be seen that the P-ScH. S-ScH and PBcH are transmitted in sub-frame 1 and the P-ScH. The synchronisation and reference signals are also included.

23 – Mapping of Downlink Control and sCh physical Channels to a Resource Block © Informa Telecoms & Media 49 .Fig.

The synch and broadcast data is located in the centre of the band to aid the uE cell search process.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Channel Mapping on a 10Mhz Channel The figure opposite shows the downlink mapping on a 10MHz channel. 50 © Informa Telecoms & Media .

24 – Detailed physical Channel Mapping for 5Mhz Channel © Informa Telecoms & Media 51 .One radio frame = 10 ms One subframe = 1 ms Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Slot 19 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 RB Ant 0/Ant 1 reference • channel estimation • channel quality measurement 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 PDCCH • DL scheduling decision • UL scheduling grants • ACK/NACK information P-/S-SCH • cell search • frequency and timing acquisition PBCH • broadcasting channel • cell specific information 595 596 597 598 599 600 Fig.

52 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts uplink Mapping of physical Channels The uplink channels are mapped in a similar fashion to the downlink. The mapping of the uplink shared channel is shown in the figure opposite. note the presence of the uplink reference signal in symbol 3 of every slot. the biggest difference here being the absence of sub-carriers since Sc-FdMA is used the resource block contains 7 time domain symbols (1 slot) and a single Sc-FdMA channel.

Fig. 25 – Mapping of uL shared Channel to Resource Block and Frame © Informa Telecoms & Media 53 .

54 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts uplink Mapping of the Control Channel The figure opposite shows the mapping arrangement for the PuccH and its reference signals. The PrAcH channel is also mapped into this sub-frame format although its presence and location must be signalled by the network.

Fig. 26 – Mapping of uL Control Channel to Resource Block © Informa Telecoms & Media 55 .

56 © Informa Telecoms & Media .OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Overall picture of uL Mapping The figure opposite shows the general arrangement for mapping uplink control and shared channels over time and frequency domains.

Time Frequency n PUSCH n PUCCH n Demodulation reference signal (for PUSCH) n Demodulation reference signal for PUCCH format 0 & 1 Fig. 27 – Detailed Mapping of uL Data and Control Channels © Informa Telecoms & Media 57 .

data’s main requirement is one of speed and spectral efficiency. Most applications benefit from high data transfer rates and the network benefits from high spectral efficiency. therefore the highest order modulation scheme would generally be selected. Physical layer signalling has the primary requirement of reliability therefore the modulation schemes supported by the signalling channels are low level “robust” schemes. 64QAM.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts physical Channels and Modulation schemes There are generally 3 different types of information transmitted over the radio link. signalling. P-ScH and S-ScH all transmit complex data sequences. instead. The rS. complex signals which imply a channel condition or position in complex sequence generation are transmitted. The special signals don’t transmit explicit information. The signals are used by the uE and the enB to determine channel conditions for MIMo processing and network synchronisation. QPSK is the modulation scheme used in most cases although the PuccH has the option of using BPSK in circumstance where interference is very high. data and special reference signals. however there are times when interference is high and the high order schemes cannot be maintained. therefore the shared channels also support 16QAM and QPSK. 58 © Informa Telecoms & Media .

AcK/nAcK Payload defines number of PdccH oFdMA symbols per sub-frame (up to 4) carries HArQ AcK/nAcK uL channels PrAcH PuccH PuScH Full name Physical random access channel Physical uplink control channel Physical uplink shared channel purpose call setup Scheduling.The physical Layer Channels of LTE DL channels PBcH PMcH PdccH PdScH PcFIcH PHIcH Full name Physical broadcast channel Physical multicast channel Physical downlink control channel Physical downlink shared channel Physical control format indicator channel Physical hybrid ArQ indicator channel purpose carries cell-specific information carries the McH transport channel Scheduling. Exact sequence derived from cell Id (one of 3 x 168 = 504) pseudo random sequences) S-ScH* Secondary synchronisation signal rS reference signal (pilot) uL signals rS Full name reference signal (demodulation and sounding) purpose used for synchronisation to the uE and uL channel estimation Fig. carries the remainder of the cell Id (one of 168 binary sequences) used for dL channel estimation. carries part of the cell Id (one of three orthogonal sequences) used for cell search and identification by the uE. AcK/nAcK Payload The physical Layer signals of LTE DL signals P-ScH* Full name Primary synchronisation signal purpose used for cell search and identification by the uE. 28 © Informa Telecoms & Media 59 .

in addition this information can impart cell identification.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts synchronisation and Reference signals synch sequence and Cell search A uE entering a cell for the fist time must discover the time and frequency parameters that are required to successfully communicate with the enB. carrier frequency synchronisation. 2. to set the correct FFT window position. which is needed to reduce or eliminate the effect of frequency errors arising from the mismatch of local oscillator to the transmitter and receiver. 60 © Informa Telecoms & Media . also other frequency distortions arising from temperature drift. The requirements for synchronisation can be decomposed into three main functions. Symbol timing acquisition. 3. where the correct symbol start position is identified. Synchronisation signals are broadcast from the enB on a frequent basis that enable the time domain and frequency domain parameters to be read by the uE. neighbour cell) once connected to the system. The uE is required to perform cell search either initially when entering the system after switch on and identifying a new cell (i.e. It is also necessary to have the sampling clock synchronised. ageing and doppler effects. 1. In other words the uE must synchronise with the enB.

Symbol timing acquisition Carrier frequency synchronisation Synchronised sampling clock Fig. 2. 29 – synchronisation Requirements © Informa Telecoms & Media 61 .1. 3.

the Primary Synch Signal (PSS) and the Secondary Synch Signal (SSS) The PSS enables the uE to detect the slot timing and also provides a physical layer identity for the cell. The SSS provides the radio frame timing. 62 © Informa Telecoms & Media . information broadcast will deliver other important cell parameters allowing the uE to modify its behaviour according to the selected cell. the cell Id. If the cell search is for initial entry in to the system the uE will detect PSS followed by SSS then go on to find and decode the Broadcast information in the cell.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts primary and secondary synch sequences There are 2 synch signals transmitted from the enB. If the uE has already entered the network the detection of adjacent cell PSS and SSS will be followed by the detection and measurement of the neighbour cell signal strength and quality. cyclic Prefix (cP) detection and an ndication of Tdd or Fdd.

30 – synch sequences and synch Activity © Informa Telecoms & Media 63 .PSS Detection Slot Timing PHY Layer ID Initial synchronisation SSS Detection Radio Frame Timing Cell ID CP Length Detection TDD/FDD Detection New cell identification RS Detection Measure and Report… Signal Quality Signal Strength PBCH Decode PBCH Timing Detection System Information Access RS Detection Measure and Report… Signal Quality Signal Strength Fig.

64 © Informa Telecoms & Media . Allowing the uE to obtain slot boundary timing independently of cP length. In the Tdd frame the PSS is located in the third symbol of the 3rd and 13th slots of the radio frame. However the actual structure of the PSS and SSS as applied to the frame is slightly different depending on whether the frame is Tdd of Fdd and whether the long or short cP is used.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts pss and ss in the Frame structure The structure of the PSS and SSS is shown in the figure opposite. The Fdd frame locates the PSS and SSS in the last 2 symbols of the 1st and 11th slots of the radio frame. In both the Tdd and Fdd frame structure the PSS and SSS are transmitted periodically. twice in every 10mS frame. the SSS is transmitted 3 symbols earlier.

pss and sss Frame and slot structure in Time Domain in the FDD Case 10 ms radio frame 2 3 4 5 7 8 SSS 9 10 PSS 1 ms subframe 0.5 ms 1 slot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Normal CP Extended CP Fig. 31 © Informa Telecoms & Media 65 .5 ms 1 slot 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 5 7 6 Normal CP Extended CP pss and sss Frame and slot structure in Time Domain in the TDD Case 10 ms radio frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SSS 9 10 PSS 1 ms subframe 0.

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts 66 © Informa Telecoms & Media .

31 © Informa Telecoms & Media 67 .pss and sss Frame structure in Frequency and Time Domain for an FDD Cell 10 ms radio frame 6 RB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SSS PSS RS Unused RE 1 ms subframe Fig.

reference Signals (rS) through the channel at specific time and frequency intervals. 68 © Informa Telecoms & Media . exploiting the correlation properties of the channel or using blind estimation. so called.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Reference signals Any information transmitted in to a radio channel will experience attenuation and distortion of the information as well as the additive accumulation of noise and ISI caused by the multipath radio environment. Therefore any information transmitted from A – B will require some decoding or equalisation to be applied to it. LTE uses a coherent detection method by passing. non-coherent detection relies on some prior knowledge of a parametric model of the channel. The detection processes can either be coherent or non-coherent. which reduces the spectral efficiency of the channel. This advantage of this detection process is the simplicity of implementation at the expense of overhead data. coherent processes use explicit knowledge of the channel measured from known information passed through the channel. Whilst these techniques may be more spectral efficient they are generally complex to implement.

distortion. ISI. H Attenuation. fading B Fig. 32 – using Reference signals in the Channel © Informa Telecoms & Media 69 .Noise A Channel.

• There are also rS that are specific signals transmitted which are only used for the Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency network. demodulation rS (dM rS) which are used to take channel estimates for coherent demodulation and Sounding rS (SrS) which are not directly associated with uL data or control. • uE specific rS. 70 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The SrS is used primarily for channel quality determination to enable frequency-selective scheduling on the uplink. these are available to al the uEs in a cell to perform basic channel estimation functions. The uL and dL structures are different. In the uL there are 2 different types of uL rS. embedded in the data structure for uL and dL for specific uE. • cell specific rS or common rS.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts LTE Reference signals There are a number of different reference signals used in LTE.

33 – General Arrangement of Rs in the LTE RB © Informa Telecoms & Media 71 .R0 R0 Frequency R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 Time Fig.

The rS are distributed every 3rd sub-carrier (over 2 symbols). 72 © Informa Telecoms & Media . to reduce the time-frequency collisions that may occur in a frequency re-used system.5mS) in the time domain. The LTE dL has been designed to work with multiple antennas. LTE is designed to work up to 500Kph. therefore the expected frequency variations may be resolved. The rS its self is a pseudo random sequence from a length – 31 Gold sequence with different initialisation values depending on the type of rS. assuming 2GHz spectrum the maximum doppler shift would be ~950Hz. The position of the rS in the time and frequency domains is carefully chosen to ensure there is no overlap between the antenna ports. The rMS delay spread is assumed to be no worse that 991nS therefore the coherence bandwidth for 90% and 50% of the rMS spread expected is somewhere between 20KHz and 200KHz. according to the nyquist sampling theorem the signal should be sampled with an interval no less than twice the inverse of the frequency shift. Therefore there should be at least 2 rS per slot (where a slot in 0. The separation of the rS in the frequency domain is related to the amount of delay spread present in the channel.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts DL Cell specific Rs The figure opposite shows how the reference signals are arrange in the frequency and time domain. therefore there are different rS patterns for each antenna ports that may be in use. The rS can also carry one of 501 different cell identities and each rS has a cell specific frequency shift applied to it. This allows the receiver to take up to 4 separate dL channel estimates. The actual separation of the rS in the time domain is determined from the maximum doppler spread expected in the channel.

R0 R0 R1 R1 Frequency R0 R0 R1 R1 R0 R0 R1 R1 R0 R0 R1 R1 Antenna port (0) (a) Time Antenna port (1) • Pattern of RS Depends on the Antenna Port used • Time and Freq separation determined from Doppler and Delay Spread • RS is formed from a length-31 Gold sequence Fig. 34 – DL Rs Freq-Time Locations for 2 port Tx Antenna © Informa Telecoms & Media 73 .

Where beam-forming antennas are used the channel response for different uEs will be different there for the use of Eu specific rS is very useful.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts DL uE specific Rs rS which are specific to uE may also be used. 74 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The mode is configured by higher layer rrc signalling. The position of the uE specific rS in the rB is shown in the diagram opposite. where a single beam is formed to transmit data to the uE. they are embedded in the resource Blocks (rB) which are transmitted to a specific uE. More accurately they occur in the rB to which the PdScH is mapped for uE which are configured to operate in this mode. uE specific rS may be used to enable the application of beam-forming antennas. the location of the rS in the frequency and time domain is chosen so as not to collide with the cell specific rS.

R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 Frequency R5 R5 Time • Specific to a UE • Used to assist DL Beam-forming • UE RS position orthogonal to cell specific RS Fig. 35 – uE specific DL Rs positions © Informa Telecoms & Media 75 .

The dM rS appear on the uL channel in the 4th symbol of each allocated slot and span the entire allocated bandwidth. Primarily used to derive the channel estimate for coherent demodulation • Sounding rS (SrS) used to determine the uL channel quality and derive the frequency selective scheduling on the uL Demodulation Reference signals (DM Rs) The uL rS are once again based on the Zadoff-chu sequences. Within a base-sequence there are 12 possible orthogonal (good cross correlation) time shifted versions of the sequence. the uplink (uL) specifies the use of reference signals to enable the coherent detection of the channel. Where MIMo is used in the channel then further means are required to separate the uE transmissions. A cell will be allocated on of the 30 base sequences and the BS will allocate one of the 12 possible time shifts to the uEs. In a non-MIMo case the same time-shifted sequence could be used for all uEs since there transmissions are separated in the frequency and time domains. There are two types of rS: • demodulation rS (dM rS) associated with transmission of data on the PuScH and control data on the PuccH. The rS can be used to support channel estimation.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts uL uE specific Rs As with the downlink (dL). This is true for allocations of PuScH and PuccH. There are 30 base-sequences available whose length is determined by the number of rBs allocated to a uE. In this case the uEs sharing the MIMo channel will be allocated different time shifted sequences from the same base-sequence in the cell. timing estimation and direction-of-arrival estimation for downlink beam-forming. power control. channel quality estimation for uL scheduling. similar to those used in the PSS and SSS. 76 © Informa Telecoms & Media .

36 © Informa Telecoms & Media PUSCH DMRS DMRS 77 .DM Rs sequence Generation and Allocation Cell allocation ZC Seq Group U29 ZC Seq Group U29 ZC Seq Group U29 ZC Seq U12 UE allocation ZC Seq U0 ZC Seq U1 ZC Seq U2 ZC Seq Group U29 Mapping DM Rs to the physical Channels PUSCH PUSCH PUSCH Frequency Resource block 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Symbol Time Fig.

20. The structure of the SrS signal is such that it can allow allocations of SrS sounding that overlap in the frequency domain. depending on specific control data sent to the uE. initial McS. 78 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The SrS occupies the last symbol of the sub-frame.5. timing advance and frequency selective allocations for the first sub-frame slot. and may occupy a bandwidth greater than that used by the data transmission. initial power control.10.g.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts sounding Reference signals (sRs) The SrS have nothing to do with the specific transmission of data they allow the channel quality to be estimated and enables frequency selective scheduling.80.160 or 320mS. This is necessary to allow frequency selective scheduling between uEs. E. The transmission of the SrS may be aperiodic where a specific request is made for SrS or periodic. In addition the measured information may be used to enhance power control. where the period may be any value 2. or to support various start up functions for uE with new uL allocations.40.

37 – Allocation of pusCh showing sRs Location © Informa Telecoms & Media SRS 6 79 .PUSCH PUSCH 4 5 DMRS Frequency Resource block 0 1 2 3 Symbol 2nd slot of a sub-frame Time Fig.

Channel Coding and Link Adaptation The LTE radio interface supports several modulation and coding schemes and allows the schemes to be adapted according to the quality of the radio link. methods such as power control can be used to adapt the power output to keep link quality and therefore the link rate constant. The LTE radio link is developed primarily for the transmission of packet data therefore the link rate is allowed to rise and fall as the quality of the link rises and falls. 16QAM and 64QAM with various code rates depending on the quality of the channel. For constant bit rate services such as voice.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Modulation. 80 © Informa Telecoms & Media . LTE supports QPSK.

r = ½ QPSK. r = �∕� QPSK. r = �∕� 16QAM. r = �∕� 64QAM. 38 © Informa Telecoms & Media 81 . r = ½ 64QAM. r = ½ 16QAM. r = �∕� 64QAM. r = 4∕5 16QAM.Modulation schemes supported by LTE QPSK 2 bits/Baud 16QAM 4 bits/Baud 64QAM 6 bits/Baud Typical snR performance of LTE Modulation and Coding Typical SNR Performance of LTE Modulation and Coding BLER 10-1 10-2 0 5 10 SNR 15 20 25 QPSK. r = 4∕5 64QAM. r = �∕� 16QAM. r = �∕� QPSK. r = 4∕5 Fig.

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts 82 © Informa Telecoms & Media .

48 0.75 0.3 0.93 Efficiency (information bits per symbol) – 0.44 0.5547 Fig.3770 0.1523 0.85 0.7305 3.12 0.1152 5. 38 © Informa Telecoms & Media 83 .37 0.55 0.Modulation and Coding Rate with spectral Efficiency CQi index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Modulation no transmission QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM Approximate code rate – 0.4766 1.6016 0.8770 1.65 0.6 0.076 0.9023 4.59 0.9141 2.4063 2.1758 1.3223 3.45 0.19 0.5234 5.2344 0.

segmentation code block segmentation is applied to dL-ScH. This function performs appropriate puncturing according to the AMc parameters. data that are turbo encoded). coding schemes being studied by 3GPP include: • • • • • • duo-binary turbo codes Inter-block permutation turbo code (IBPTc) rate-compatible/quasi cyclic LdPc code (rc/QcLdPc) concatenated zigzag LdPc code Turbo single parity check (SPc) low-density parity check (LdPc) code Shortened turbo code by insertion of temporary bits Rate Matching rate matching is applied on a code-block basis to dL-ScH. PcH. and McH transport blocks and 16-bit crc applied to BcH and dcI code blocks. Encoding A Turbo code is applied to dL-ScH. an improvement in rF performance. and reduction in equipment costs. PcH. convolutional code is applied to BcH and dcI data (single code block). channel coding used over the LTE air interface is based on the uTrAn release 6 turbo-coding schemes. McH. PcH. Extension of maximum code block size removal of tail All the above objectives are in pursuit of a reduction in overhead. Figure 39 is a schematic diagram of the above processes. and McH data to be carried over a downlink physical channel is scrambled prior to modulation. BcH. and dcI data. other schemes are under consideration with the main drivers being • • • • • Improvement in power efficiency (low Eb/no) Lower complexity decoder in the uE code rates lower than 1/3. 84 © Informa Telecoms & Media . and McH transport blocks (i.. PcH. with an additional 24-bit crc computed on each code-block (in cases where segmentation produces more than one code-block).OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Channel Coding Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) A crc coding process is applied to each Transport Block (TB) – 24-bit crc applied to dLScH.e.

PCFICH. 39 – Channel Coding process in LTE © Informa Telecoms & Media 85 . Signals. Ref.UE… UE1 TB2 PDSCH Transport block (TB) processing TB CRC Codeblock (CB) Segmentation #CB #CB CB CRC Turbo encoder (internal interleaver) #CB Subblock interleaver Subblock interleaver Subblock interleaver #CB • Rate matching • HARQ functionality Layer Mapping Scrambling Modulation # layers Precoding TB1 No. P-SCH. S-SCH. PDCCH. PMCH Fig. of antennas RF Front-End CP Insertion IFFT Resource Element Mapper (Subframe builder) PBCH. PHICH.

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts hARQ (hybrid Automatic Request) HArQ is commonly used in emerging communication systems to provide a high reliability over wireless channels. which are also known as HArQ Type-I and HArQ Type-II (or Type-III). Then the transmitter resends the same packet again so that the receiver combines the previously received packet with the new packet. 86 © Informa Telecoms & Media . In the Ir scheme instead of resending the same packet. the transmitters in general add more redundancy than the previous packet and recreate a different packet delivering the same information. HArQ is essentially a combination of Automatic request (Arc) and Forward Error correction (FEc) techniques. In the chase combining scheme the receiver sends a retransmission to the transmitter if the initial packet fails to be successfully decoded. respectively. Among two different types of HArQ are chase combining and incremental redundancy (Ir). The receiver needs to keep the previous erroneous packet (packet with bad crc) in the memory and combine it with the newly received packet for achieving a higher coding gain.

DL-SCH support HARQ • 1 Bit HARQ Field Downlink • Asynchronous • ACK/NACK on PUCCH and PUSCH uplink • Synchronous • ACK/NACK on PHICH Fig. 40 – LTE hARQ © Informa Telecoms & Media 87 .normal ARQ Operation CRC Data #2 CRC Data #1 CRC Data #1 ARQ data #1 CRC Data #1 x Discard data hybrid-ARQ Operation CRC Data #2 CRC Data #1 CRC Data #1 ARQ data #1 CRC Data #1 x Buffer data CRC Data #1 buffered CRC Data #1 combined • UL-SCH.

The full set of sub-bands would cover the entire system bandwidth. Aperiodic reporting is triggered by a cQI request contained in the uplink scheduling grant. The report signal quality is not a direct indication of the SInr in the channel. This method of reporting allows any advanced signal processing and channel decoding techniques to be employed. multiple PMI reports may be needed. so that the resulting transport block error rate would not exceed 10%. Thus to cover the full bandwidth. a cQI per code word needs to be reported. The reporting may be periodic or aperiodic and is configured by the radio network. The PMI value refers to the codebook table. The reports are derived from the downlink signal quality based o the downlink reference signals. 16 combinations of modulation scheme and coding rate are specified as possible cQI values. 88 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The uE may report different types of cQI. The uE would send the report on PuScH. PMI reports are needed for closed loop spatial multiplexing. The reporting may consist of the following elements: cQI(channel quality indicator) is an indication of the downlink mobile radio channel quality as experienced by this uE. The network configures the number of resource blocks that are represented by a PMI report. the uE is proposing to the enB an optimum modulation scheme and coding rate to use for a given radio link quality. the uE may evaluate a “sub-band cQI” value per sub-band of a certain number of resource blocks which is configured by higher layers. PuccH is used if no PuScH is available. PMI(precoding matrix indicator) is an indication of the optimum precoding matrix to be used in the base station for a given radio condition. In the case of periodic reporting. Essentially. rI(rank indication) is the number of useful transmission layers when spatial multiplexing is used. In case of spatial multiplexing. A so-called “wideband cQI” refers to the complete system bandwidth. instead the chanel Quality Indicator (cQI) refers to the highest level of modulation and coding it can decode with an error rate not exceeding 10%. For transmit diversity the rank is equal to 1.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts Reporting of uE Feedback The uE can be configured to report the quality of the channel to assist the enB with selecting the most appropriate modulation and coding scheme. multi-user MIMo and closed-loop rank 1 precoding MIMo modes. Alternatively.

MU-MIMO. Closed loop rank 1 Ri – Rank indication • Number of useful transmission layers for spatial multiplexing • TX diversity Rank is 1 • Periodic or aperiodic • CQI request on DL – UE reports on PUSCH • UE reports on PUCCH if no PUSCH available Fig. 41 – Channel Reporting © Informa Telecoms & Media 89 .CQi – Channel Quality indicator • • • • DL channel quality as experienced by UE UE proposes optimum modulation and coding scheme Wideband CQI – complete system bandwidth Sub-band CQI – number or resource blocks pMi – precoding Matrix indicator • Indicates optimum precoding matrix • Refers to codebook table • Closed loop.

The system for LTE power control is shown on the opposite page. the radio link pathloss and a power control command from the network. Some parameters such as the power control command are dynamic and can by modified on a regular basis. 90 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The reason for power control systems is to reduce the power emissions from devices and therefore reduce the overall interference across the network.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts power Control in LTE Like many mobile radio systems LTE supports dynamic or adaptive power control. The uE will read this information from the system information blocks or in dedicated messages during connection setup. Many of the parameters are determined by the upper layers and signalled during resource allocation. The scheme basically involves parameters that are determined by the current occupied bandwidth. network determined components for the cell and uE.

42 – power Control in LTE © Informa Telecoms & Media 91 .8. 0. 1 depending on certain configurations PL is the downlink pathloss estimate calculated in the UE ∆TF is related to the Transport Block Size (TBS) and the number of resource elements where δPUSCH is a UE specific correction value.PMAX is the maximum allowed power that depends on the UE power class MPUSCH(i) is the bandwidth of the PUSCH resource assignment expressed in number of resource blocks valid for subframe i PO_PUSCH(j) = PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) + PO_UE_PUSCH(j) where PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) is a 8-bit cell specific signalled from higher layers PO_UE_PUSCH(j) is a 4-bit UE specific component PPUSCH(i) = min {PMAX.6.7. 0.5. 0. 0.4. also referred to as a TPC command ƒ(i) = ƒ(i–1) + δPUSCH(i–KPUSCH) Fig. 0.9. 0. 10log10 (MPUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH(j) + α(j).PL + ∆TF(i) +ƒ(i)} α(j) = 0.

MAC Layer The MAc layer is primarily responsible for ensuring user data is mapped to the correct channels for transmission on the physical layer. rLc supports 3 modes of data transfer acknowledged mode. and vice versa. sequencing. and duplicate packet detection for handover when rLc operates in acknowledged mode. These protocols will originate and terminate in the enB and uE PDCP Layer The PdcP will receive user data from the nAS and forward it to the rLc layer. transport format selection and padding. priority handling and scheduling. and transparent mode (AM. TM). The rLc layer will receive data user data from the PdcP and forward it for scheduled transmission to the MAc layer and vice versa. un-acknowledged mode. It also provides retransmission. header de/compression and timer based packet discard are some of the other functions that this layer provides. uM. this process is known as logical to physical channel mapping. Packet data convergence Protocol (PdcP). sequenced delivery of upper layer information (not during handover) and duplicate detection. 92 © Informa Telecoms & Media . The MAc layer can also report traffic volume measurements to upper layers. RLC Layer The principal function of rLc is to provide a layer 2 datalink-like function. Each transfer mode will be selected depending on the required QoS of the upper later services. HArQ error correction.OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts The user plane and Control plane protocols The user plane Figure 43 show the user Plane protocols. This layer can provide ArQ based error detection/correction. segmentation and reassembly of packets. radio Link control (rLc) and Medium Access control (MAc). ciphering. other functions include multiplexing/de-multiplexing of information from multiple radio bearers.

213 PHY Procedures 36.212 Multiplexing and Channel Coding 36.211 PHY Channel and Modulation 36.323 PDCP Protocol Speci cation PDCP-control Radio bearers RLC 36.331 RRC Protocol Speci cation PDCP-user 36.User plane APPs Control plane NAS (ESM.321 MAC Protocol Speci cation Transport channels 36. EMM) TCP/UDP IP RRC 36.214 Measurements PHY Physical channels Fig.322 RLC Protocol Speci cation Logical channels MAC 36. 43 – LTE protocol stack © Informa Telecoms & Media 93 .201 PHY General 36.

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