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Fuel 84 (2005) 927937 www.fuelrst.


Investigations on fouling rate in convective bundles of coal-red boilers in relation to optimization of sootblower operation
Sylwester Kalisz*, Marek Pronobis
Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland Received 1 June 2004; received in revised form 15 December 2004; accepted 22 December 2004 Available online 25 January 2005

Abstract The article deals with results of full-scale investigations on fouling in convective bundles of chosen types of coal-red boilers. The boilers tested were: conventional pulverized-coal red two-pass boilers (two types), a single-pass subcritical (a tower shape) boiler and CFB boiler. Mechanisms of deposit formation and basics of deposit modeling are shortly discussed. An own approach to predict build-up of loose powdery sediments was developed on the basis of the results of full-scale measurements. The correlation for maximum fouling time was obtained by statistical processing of measurement data and is applied in optimization of sootblower system operation. The obtained correlation depends on the following variables: geometric properties of the bundle, y ash size distribution and basic parameters of the ue gasesall of them are easily accessible in boiler operation. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fouling; Deposition modeling; Sootblowing optimization

1. Introduction Nowadays, the calculations of convective heat transfer in boiler technology are conducted by empirical correlations obtained in standard conditions that seem to be considerably different from full-scale reality. Widely used, basic equation for convective heat transfer coefcient k can be presented as follows: k Z Jkt where: J thermal effectiveness number, kt convective heat transfer coefcient for ideal conditions, W/(m2 K). Thermal effectiveness number allows to incorporate into calculations some diverse factors affecting heat
* Corresponding author. Address: Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvagen 23, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel.: C46 8 205204; fax: C46 8 207681. E-mail address: (S. Kalisz). 0016-2361/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2004.12.010

transfer intensity. This is in comparison to ideal state of the heating surface, when convective heat transfer coefcient reaches its maximum value. The principal factors that inuence on J are: fouling on heat transfer surfaces, non-uniform ue gases ow distribution over convective bundles which are situated in ducts of signicant dimensions and complicated geometry, corrosion of tubing material. The inuence of fouling on overall heat transfer can be very serious and lead to 60% depreciation of normal k value. Existing methods [1] of incorporation of fouling into thermal calculations of boilers allow, for limited range of cases, to carry out calculations for maximum state of fouling which corresponds to lowest achievable values of heat transfer coefcient. In the case of coal-red boilers equipped with sootblower system such condition practically does not exist because cleaning action prevents convective bundle against serious fouling. Therefore, the bundle operates permanently between minimum and maximum thermal effectiveness number with respect to fouling.



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In some cases, sediments on heat transfer surfaces achieve so signicant sizes that the outage in boiler operation is needed in order to perform manual cleaning of heat exchangers and ue gas ducts. All these processes lead to undesirable increase of operating costs of boilers. Implementation of sootblowers lower the scale of fouling phenomena and associated operational costs but on the other hand, implementation of such system in existing boiler requires capital costs and additional costs linked to increased fatigue of the bundle as a result of erosion and stresses. With increasing popularity of sootblowing systems in p-f boilers and their obligatory application in CFB boilers it is obvious that optimization of cleaning is of great interest. The results presented in the article belong to the series of the R&D investigations carried out in the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery and targeted on fouling, slagging and optimization of sootblowing programs [2,3].

of sulphates and only slight amount of SiO2 and Al2O3. The composition of the deposits changes with time and they become stronger and harder. Within the range of ue gas temperatures from about 800 8C down to the dew-point, the tubes are covered with loose powdery deposits containing more than 50% SiO2 and over 20% Al2O3. The composition of these sediments is not essentially different from that of y ash. The effect of the temperature of the tube walls on the structure and features of the deposits may be ignored. Deposits on adjacent superheater and evaporator tubes, for which the wall temperature difference reaches 200 8C, are similar. Recently, in the work [4], there is a new concept for deposits classication based on their chemical composition and morphology. Typical shapes of deposits noticed on boiler heating surfaces are presented in Fig. 1. The convective bundles are, as a rule, covered with powdered sediments of shape B, C and D.

2. Classication of the sediments 3. Experimental procedure Commonly accepted classication of mechanisms governing sediments build-up is restricted to two general concepts, i.e. slagging in respect to solidied deposits and fouling in respect to powdered ones. Furthermore, deposits are often classied into high, medium and low-temperature ones by virtue of their place of build-up inside the boiler. The chemical and physical properties of deposits depend to a large extent on the temperature of the ue gases. Investigations prove that the composition of high temperature deposits (ue gas temperatures from 1050 to 800 8C) differs greatly from the composition of the y ash. Hardened and sintered deposits contain more Fe2O3, increased amount Investigations on fouling rate in convection bundles of boilers were carried out for four types of bituminous coalred boilers. Classical two-pass pulverized coal ring boilers OP-380 and OP-650, one-pass (tower shape) subsupercritical boiler BP-1150 and circulating uidized bed (CFB) boiler OFz-230, all manufactured by Rafako [5], were investigated. The attention was paid on fouling rate only in convection pass of boilers where powdered sediments are observed. Such approach is justied when one takes into account the characteristic properties of the sediments, i.e. relatively high resistance coefcient

Fig. 1. Typical shapes of sediments: (A) solidied, high-temperature sediments; (B) powdered, two-sided tangential sediments; (C) one-sided tangential; (D) y ash bridge.

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The manholes nearby the convective bundles were equipped with special covers with inspection windows made with heat resistant glass (Fig. 2a). Additionally, the cover plate was provided with special opening with stop cap that enables periodical insertion of measuring rule. The tubes most visible to inspection openings were also supplied with sediments height indicator (Fig. 2b). All these measures were undertaken in view of serious problems of sampling of powdered specimens and were meant to secure the specimen against blast while pulling out from the duct that was reported by other investigators [7]. All these efforts were made in order to secure fouling rate measurement on site. The total time of investigations in some cases reached tens of hours, so that there was no intervention in normal boiler operation. During measurements, basic boiler operational data were acquired together with samples of coal and y ashes collected in the electrostatic precipitators or convection pass hoppers for further chemical analysis and screening evaluation.

4. Investigation results The locations within the boilers, where the samples were collected are shown in Table 1. Investigations were conducted at upper generating line of the tubes in the bundle, independent to the ue gas ow direction, until the build-up of sediments was completed. The results presented are only the heights of the sediment wedge built on the upper surface even though ash bridges were observed as a result of fouling. In Table 1, geometrical properties of investigated tube banks are represented as transverse/longitudinal pitches s1/s2 and tube diameter D. 4.1. Investigations of one-pass BP-1150 pulverized coal boiler The investigations were conducted on the levels as shown in Fig. 3a corresponding to the levels of sootblowers, beginning with the highest one. In this type of boiler, all heating surfaces are arranged in in-line

Fig. 2. Manhole cover plate with inspection windows and sediment height indicator.

(an order of magnitude greater than one observed for solidied sediments, therefore inuencing heat transfer performance) and high removability [6]both crucial for optimization of conventional sootblowers. An estimation of the required sootblowing frequency is determined based on observation of fouling rate.
Table 1 Locations of deposit sample in investigated boilers Boiler BP-1150 Surface ECO-economizer P1B-primary superheater M1-primary reheater P4-fourth superheater M2-secondary reheater SRH-primary reheater ECO-economizer SRH-steam reheater SSH-primary superheater

Arrangement In-line In-line In-line In-line In-line Staggered In-line In-line In-line

s1/s2a (mm) 89/75 89/75 178/100 356/75 356/71 240/50 63.5/50 85.7/76 150/75

Db (mm) 38 38 51 38 51 57 38 51 38

OP-650 OP-380 OFz-230

a b

Transverse/longitudinal pitch of tube bank, respectively. Outer diameter of the tube.


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4.2. Investigations of two-pass OP-650 pulverized coal boiler In this case, investigations were carried out on three two-pass pulverized coal boilers with steam output of 650 t/h. In order to compare investigation results, the same heating surface, namely rst stage of steam reheater (rst SRH), was chosen in convection pass of each boiler at the level of 36 m. Such boilers are not equipped with sootblowers, neither in the furnace nor in the convection pass, thus the investigated surface was to be cleaned manually. The maximum fouling state consisted of full y ash bridges and was observed after time exceeding 30 h, much longer than in BP-1150 boiler case. Fig. 4 depicts that for the three tested cases, the initial period of fouling is characterized by very similar rate. The experiment for the fouling rate till 60 h was performed only for SRH No. 3, and assumption is made that the fouling rate, as for initial period, would be the same for the other two cases within the whole build-up time. The height of the sediments reached 36 mm and is in fact the height of the completed sediments situated at the upstream side of the tubes. In comparison to the free distance between the surfaces of two following clean tubes (in this case 43 mm), the measured height proves that fouling process is very asymmetric. In general, regardless of the ue gas ow direction, for powdered sediments the wedges observed for upper tubes surface reached greater heights. Initially, the one sided tangential sediments were observed at upstream tube side and after certain

Fig. 3. Fouling build-up versus time in convection pass of tower shape (one pass) BP-1150 boiler.

conguration. Firstly, investigated areas of separated level were cleaned by means of sootblowers and the estimation of the cleaning results was performed. Then, the measurement of fouling rate, i.e. deposit growth within time, was carried out while the rest of levels were blown in normal regime in order to maintain required steam superheat. It was noticed that the build-up of the main mass of sediments took place at the down stream side of the tubes (one sided tangential) while at the end of the process a little wedge at the upstream side was observed. It must be stressed that the upstream side of the tubes in one-pass boilers is the lower surface while in convective pass of twopass boilers the situation is quite opposite. Fig. 3b shows the results of build-up in investigated boiler with zoning for separated heating surfaces.

Fig. 4. Fouling rate on the surface of steam reheater (SRH) of OP-650 p-f boiler.

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4.3. Investigations of two-pass OP-380 pulverized coal boiler Next tests were performed at the heating surfaces of the OP-380 p-f boiler on the both sides of convection duct at the level of 27 m (Fig. 6). On the right side of the duct, the experiments were carried out at the surface of the steam reheater (SRH) with its tubes arranged in parallel direction to the inspection manhole and therefore providing the possibility to use all measurement techniques for sediments height estimation, i.e. sediments height indicators and measuring rule. During tests, the two sided tangential sediments of 12 mm were observed and many y ash bridges were noticed. The gap between neighboring tubes was 25 mm (for the in-line mode). On the left side of the ue gas duct, the experiments were conducted at the tubes of economizer (ECO) which at the level of 27 m is placed in separate bypass duct. This system was initially designed in order to control the superheat level in such a manner that ue gas may be bypassed around steam reheater to lower maximum steam temperatures. Its present-day operation is limited only to boiler start-up.

Fig. 5. Asymmetric shape of sediments for OP-650s rst stage of steam reheatertwo sided tangential sediments with thicker layer at upstream side of tube.

period of time the sediments developed themselves into two sided tangential and nally some y ash bridges were noticed at the surfaces being investigated (Fig. 5).

Fig. 6. Lengthwise and crosswise cut of convective pass of OP-380 boiler.


S. Kalisz, M. Pronobis / Fuel 84 (2005) 927937 Table 2 Velocity and temperature of the ue gases in by-pass convection duct of the OP-380 p-f boiler Dampers status Surface: economizer, side: left, tube diameter: DZ38 mm, pitches: s1Z63.5 mm, s2Z50 mm w (m/s) Closed Open for 20% Open for 50% Open for 100% 3.8 5.4 8.2 9.3 t (8C) 400 590 640 680 112 112 111 112 Power unit output (MWe)

Fig. 7. Fouling rate at the surfaces of economizer (ECO) and steam reheater (SRH) for OP-380 p-f coal-red boiler.

The loops of economizer are built in a specic way with a very narrow gap between two neighboring tubes, i.e. the longitudinal pitch is characterized by very small value of only 12 mm. Additionally, ECO loops are oriented perpendicular to the inspection manhole thus excluding the usage of height indicator and measuring rule. Fouling growth could be only observed by means of inspection widows. The results for both sides are shown in Fig. 7. Full ash bridges for ECO were observed after extremely short period of time approximately 1012 h both due to the narrow gap between tubes and the minimum but constant ue gas ow in bypass duct. One must be concerned that during normal boiler operation bypass dampers are nominally closed but a small leakages occur and the ue gas ow exists to some extent. Such small ows of ue gases are characterized by low erosion inclination resulting in fairly high fouling rate. Bypass duct gave the great opportunity for testing the inuence of ue gas velocity on fouling rate. As it was mentioned, bypass dampers are closed during normal boiler operation and the data presented in Fig. 7 reect this situation. But there still existed the chance to control the ue gas ow through bypass duct. In order to obtain permissible range of ue gas velocity, a series of measurements with different dampers orientation in bypass duct were performed. Measurements were done by means of cylinder three-signal water-cooled probe with section of suction pyrometer. The total length of the probe was 3.5 m while the measuring length was approximately 3 m. Results of the measurements are presented in Table 2. It can be clearly seen that dampers characteristic is very abrupt proving that even relatively small dampers opening, results in strong response in ue gas ow and thus velocity.

Subsequent to velocity measurements, for similar power unit output, the fouling rate was estimated for two extreme dampers position resulting in maximum and minimum achievable velocity of the ue gases in the bypass duct. Results are presented in Fig. 8. Fig. 8 shows that by almost doubling the ue gas velocity (from approximately 4 to 89 m/s), the fouling rate is halved (from approximately 2 to 1 mm/h). This behavior proves high sensitivity of the loose powdery sediments build-up on ue gas velocity and is in agreement with considerations presented elsewhere [8]. It can be expected that ue gas velocity affects fouling in twofold way. There is a certain range of velocity for which sediments are like to grow followed by other velocity range for which the erosion forces prevail, fouling stops and even already built sediments are destroyed. The minimum gas speed for a heat exchanger at which particulate fouling is avoided was investigated lately in Ref. [9]. Fouling experiments have been done with particles of different sizes and different materials running under different gas speeds. It was found that as the ow speed in the heat exchanger increases, the thickness and the surface area of the fouling layer deposited over the heat exchanger tube are reduced. It was reported

Fig. 8. Fouling rate for two extreme ue gas velocities in bypass duct of OP380 p-f boiler.

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that the critical ow velocity for spherical copper particles required to roll a copper particle of 10 mm is 10.5 m/s while for 50 mm particle is only 4.5/s. Existence of limiting ow speed above which fouling is avoided is related to the critical ow velocity required to roll a particle resting on a surface Its absolute value is determined by velocity that corresponds to the particle size most likely to stick on the heat exchanger tube. 4.4. Investigations of circulating uidized bed boiler OFz-230 Fly ashes of circulating uidized bed (CFB) boilers differ from conventional p-f boilers. Different chemical composition and other particle-size distribution inuence their ability to build sediments. The investigations were conducted simultaneously at both sides of convection pass of OFz-230 CFB boiler on the heating surface of the rst stage of steam superheater (SSH) at the level of 35.3 m. Tube bank arrangement was in-line. Boiler is equipped with a system of sootblowers and in all cases the measurements were started after full cleaning cycle. During investigation, no cleaning action was performed. Measurements were performed twice. Firstly, the efforts were put on initial stage of fouling and sampling was maintained at 1/2 h frequency. Much higher fouling rate in comparison to ordinary p-f boiler was observed during that stage. Sediments height of 23 mm was achieved right after 1 h of experiment. Second trial was planned to estimate the total time of fouling when equilibrium is reached and there is no progress in fouling height. Such equilibrium state of sediments was observed after approximately 16 h (see Fig. 9). Very rapid

fouling rate on already cleaned tubes, at the rate of 0.5 mm per 5 min, were noticed in CFB boiler. This proves that CFB boilers have high fouling rate. During investigations, onesided tangential sediments were observed with only a few zones of y ash bridges. The height of sediments stayed even on both sides of the convection duct. 4.5. Chemical composition of coal, y ash and y ash particle size distribution Samples of y ash and coal were collected during all trials for further analysis. Fly ash samples originated from two sourcesfrom electrical precipitator hoppers or directly from convection duct hoppers. The composition of coal burned in the experimental period is shown in Table 3. It can be seen that characteristic properties of the coals sampled from boilers being investigated do not show any distinct differences. Relatively, the worst coal is burned in the case of CFB boiler. The analyses of y ash samples are shown in Table 4. For characterization purposes the X-ray uorescence (XRF) method was used, that provides bulk deposit composition as elemental oxides. The y ash of OP-380 boiler is enriched in calcium due to presence of New Integrated Desulphurization (NID) which is semi-dry DeSOx installation in bag lter units. The y ash with the particles diameter lesser than 30 mm mostly inuence the intensity of fouling rate of powdered sediments and therefore y ash samples were also analyzed by means of screening procedure. Obtained results are presented in Fig. 10 as remaining Rx on the sieve with mesh diameter x in the form of function RxZf(x)in so-called RosinRammler coordinates. Fig. 10 shows that the nest y ash particles were characteristic for both BP-1150 and OP-380 p-f boilers and consequently the polydispersion numbers (dened as a slope factor of lines) which describe the variety of available particle diameters were similar. It is also noticeable that wide range of particle diametersranging from as small particles as 25 mm and as big as 200 mmcould be observed for each p-f boiler.
Table 3 Analysis data of bituminous coals LHV (kJ/kg) BP-1150, sample #1 BP-1150, sample #2 BP-1150, sample #3 OP-650, sample #1 OP-650, sample #2 OP-650, sample #3 OP-380, sample #1 OP-380, sample #2 OFz-230, sample #1 OFz-230, sample #2 22,289 20,645 20,979 24,357 24,427 22,098 22,131 22,658 18,179 18,234 Ash (%) 21.0 21.7 20.6 17.2 18.4 24.2 20.1 21.1 29.9 20.2 Water (%) 10.1 11.4 11.1 7.1 6.5 7.8 9.7 8.7 11.5 18.3 Sulphur (%) 1.04 0.90 0.91 0.68 0.69 0.82 0.98 0.91 1.2 Volatiles (%, daf) 35.4 39.4 39.9

Fig. 9. Fouling rate on steam superheater (SSH) tubes of OFz-230 CFB boiler.


S. Kalisz, M. Pronobis / Fuel 84 (2005) 927937

OFz-230 sample#3 EP OFz-230 sample#2 conv. pass OFz-230 sample#1 conv. pass OP-380 sample#3 NIDa OP-380 sample#2 NIDa OP-380 sample#1 NIDa 44.83 24.16 5.93 10.64 2.34 1.03 2.34 6.72 0.9 0.31 38.4 19.95 4.58 18.8 2.16 0.65 2.11 11.82 0.64 0.27 37.76 19.44 3.83 21.42 2.3 0.5 2.12 11.13 0.61 0.31 43.76 18.95 7.07 10.52 3.53 0.73 2.14 8.83 0.75 0.12 0.14 0.20 41.06 18.02 7.21 13.24 3.35 0.56 1.80 10.78 0.66 0.13 0.20 44.3 21.28 8.14 10.55 2.89 0.76 2.15 8.25 0.8 0.15

New Integrated Desulphurizationsemi-dry desulphurization method applied in bag lter (y ash is calcied).

OP-650 sample#4 EP

Fig. 10. RosinRammler distribution of y ash particles (mean values for each boiler type, EP-y ashes collected in the electrostatic precipitator).

51.97 29.04 7.05 1.96 2.14 0.41 3.18 0.53 1.20 0.37 0.11 0.10

Table 4 Chemical composition of y ash collected from electric precipitator (EP) or convective pass hopper

OP-650 sample#2 EP

OP-650 sample#1 EP

51.19 24.96 8.17 3.40 2.58 0.61 2.73 0.81 1.11 0.37 0.12 0.11 0.10

Higher polydispersion numbers of y ashes from CFB boiler testify for their improved dimensional homogeneity especially in the range of particles lesser than 120 mm. The amount ofy ash collected from convection dust hopper is only approximately 5% of overall y ash mass and is characterized by more coarse particles without any traces of particles greater than 150 mm. The lack of coarse particles was characteristic for CFB y ash and is responsible for its weak erosion propensity.

OP-650 sample#3 EP 50.39 28.04 6.84 2.37 2.30 0.38 2.83 0.63 1.19 0.34 0.12 0.10

50.73 28.40 6.30 2.17 2.23 0.44 3.01 0.61 1.22 0.42 0.20 0.11

5. Modeling of fouling Modeling of fouling is mostly performed by taking into account the following range of input data: mineralogy, chemical composition and grain-size distribution of coal, boiler design and its working parameters, chemical composition and particle-size distribution of y ash, fouling rate, sediments remove ability. The fouling build-up process is controlled by two inverse phenomena:

BP-1150 sample#3 EP BP-1150 sample#2 EP BP-1150 sample#1 EP Ash analysis (wt%)

47.59 28.23 7.70 3.97 3.17 0.88 3.09 0.99 1.09 0.51

47.39 28.70 8.21 4.66 3.33 1.02 3.02 1.03 1.13 0.55

47.99 28.36 8.47 4.31 3.26 1.03 2.90 1.0 1.12 0.62

SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O SO3 TiO2 P2O5 BaO Mn3O4 SrO

_ (a) particle deposition (ux M dep ) caused primarily by inertial forces, thermo/electrophoresis and vapor deposition and

S. Kalisz, M. Pronobis / Fuel 84 (2005) 927937


_ (b) particle detaching (ux M det ) caused by tangential stresses induced by gas phase ow and erosion stresses. Thus, the ux of particles depositing on exposed area A can be described by the following equation _ _ 1 dm M dep M det Z K A dt A A (2)

(in hours) is proposed in present work. Statistics has been utilized to estimate the parameters of equation in the following form tmax Z f x1 ; x2 ; .; xn (5)

Development of deposition within time can be described by various relationships [10]. Often probabilistic approach is utilized in order to estimate collision efciency and sticking probability [1113]. However, the most justied approach for particulate fouling resulting in loose powdery deposits in boilers seems to be the asymptotic function to correlate fouling data that show falling rate asymptotic behavior [14,15]. In classic work [16], for constant, i.e. not retarded rate of fouling, detaching was assumed as _ M det Z bm (3)

where xi are the process parameters measured during fullscale investigations described in Section 4. Correlation in the form of Eq. (5) is proposed for optimization of sootblower system operation. Based on authors own experience and collected data it was assumed that the properties and dimensions of deposits, and consequently the maximum fouling time, are only functions of: 1. relative tube spacing s1Zs1/D and s2Zs2/D, 2. relative tube diameter D/Db, 3. relative mean velocity of the ue gas in the tube bundle w/wb, 4. relative ash particle-size distribution R 0.03/R0.03b, (R0.03percentage of particles bigger than 30 mm, %), 5. relative mean temperature of the ue gas in the tube bundle T/Tb, 6. chemical constitution of the y ash represented as B/A (base-to-acid ratio) cm. With this assumption in mind and through statistical processing of the measurement results, the following correlation for maximum fouling timerestricted to only a few independent variableswas developed:  tmax Z 9:01sK1:723 2 w wb 0:744  R0:03 R0:03b 0:319  T Tb 0:249 h (6) The basic values have been chosen as: DbZ32 mm, wbZ1 m/s, R0.03bZ24.5% and TbZ373 K. The correlation coefcient was 0.8937 for the following range of parameters s2Z0.881.97, w/wbZ3.88.5, R0.03/R0.03bZ 12.45, T/TbZ1.683.05. In the course of variant calculations, the number of variables was reduced to only four with strongest inuence on the nal result. It can be stated that the inuence of ue gas velocity and longitudinal pitch of the tube bank on the total fouling time tmax is of primary importance. Less inuence can be associated with particle size distribution of the y ash and ue gas temperature. It must be stressed here that the obtained equation is, within the range of its validity, with good conformity with investigations concerning inuence of ue gas velocity on overall fouling rate as described in Section 4.3. The inuence of fouling on heat transfer can be calculated by means of thermal effectiveness number J for various forms of deposits and their properties. However, it is necessary to know the shape, sizes and properties of deposits. In fact, these values can hardly be predicted and must be investigated. To avoid problems, a simplied

where b is the detach frequency, sK1 Inserting Eq. (3) into Eq. (2) and integrating within (0, 0) and (t, m) one gets so-called KernSeaton equation m Z M1 K eKbt (4)

which describes the mass of the sediments (or characteristic dimensionfor example height; also thermal effectiveness number J) reached after time interval t by asymptotic deposition. It is also assumed that the stream of depositing _ particles (ux M dep ) is constant within depositing time. In Eq. (4), parameter M indices maximal mass of the sediments reached after sufcient period of time has passed (theoretically after tZN). Nevertheless, due to lack of reliable estimation of the inuence parameters it is difcult to use Eq. (4) practically. They should be estimated for real conditions noticed in boiler convection ducts by taking into consideration complicated ow patterns, temperature distributions (thermodiffusion) and ue gases composition. As the result of these factors of inuence, despite of many investigations, there is a lack of method for practical fouling calculation. Literature models, similar to the Eq. (4), allow to describe dependence in the form of mdepositZf(t) in order to gain intermediate fouling state after time t. It is obvious that asymptotic form of such models does not allow to calculate total fouling time directly as it is by an assumption an innite time. In course of full-scale experiments conducted so far such models do not meet the reality where maximum fouling time tmax is precisely specied and nite. It is particularly obvious in case of y ash bridges, which do not enlarge themselves after forming. Similar rapid retardation in fouling rate for other shapes of sediments resulting in reaching tmax is also observed in many cases of practical interest in pulverized coal combustion systems. Regarding the considerations presented above a different principle for estimation of maximum time of fouling


S. Kalisz, M. Pronobis / Fuel 84 (2005) 927937 Table 5 Mean thermal effectiveness number for different sootblowing frequency Sootblowing frequency No action (Jmin) Each 0.125tmax 0.25tmax 0.33tmax 0.44tmax 0.5tmax 0.67tmax tmax 1.33 tmax Mean thermal effectiveness number, Jm 0.5 0.89 0.81 0.77 0.73 0.72 0.68 0.63 0.59 0.6 0.93 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.71 0.67 0.7 0.95 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.86 0.83 0.79 0.76 0.8 0.97 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.88 0.86 0.85

method of characterizing the effect of fouling on heat transfer was proposed in Ref. [17] and is based on the same set of independent variables like in case of Eq. (6). As described in Ref. [17], the thermal effectiveness number can be expressed by the equation  0:056     w R0:03 0:09 T K0:138 K0:394 J Z 0:46sK0:111 cm 2 wb Tb R0:03b (7) in the case of staggered tube banks. For in-line tube banks, the thermal effectiveness number may be expressed by means of the equation:  K0:104  0:185 w 0:106 K0:044 D J Z 0:25s1 s2 Db wb (8)  0:432  K0:135 R0:03 T K0:314 ! cm Tb R0:03b where cm Z Fe2 O3 C CaO C MgO C Na2 O C K2 O SiO2 C Al2 O3 C TiO2 (9)

The results for series of sootblowing time intervals tzZ 0.125tmax, 0.25tmax, 0.33tmax, 0.44tmax, 0.5tmax, 0.67tmax, tmax and 1.33tmax are given in Table 5.

7. Conclusions 1. Prediction of time after which deposit layer reaches its maximum height and loose powdery fouling stops in coal-red boilers is proposed to be performed by the following equation  0:744     R0:03 0:319 T 0:249 K1:723 w tmax Z9:01s2 h wb Tb R0:03b Formula is based on statistical processing of the data collected in full-scale tests and depends on variables easy to estimate, even in an engineering practice. The following variables are subject to consideration: geometric properties of the bundle arrangement, y ash properties and ue gas properties. Obtained formula can be utilized in sootblower system optimization. In this way, economically and technically justied sootblowing frequency may be estimated. 2. To maximize the sediments build-up time and decrease sootblowing frequency, it is advised to consider tube bank arrangement of relatively low longitudinal pitch. High ue gas velocities and rather coarse particle size distribution (coarse grinding quality) are also of primary importance. On the other hand, all these measures lead to increased risk of y ash erosion over a tube bank and therefore possible overall effects must be carefully investigated prior implementation.

Both equations are valid for unsintered (or only slightly sintered) powdered deposits within the range of ue gas temperatures over dew point to about 900 8C. Consequently Eqs. (6)(8) create a set of complementary formulas which may be directly used in optimization of sootblowing system operation.

6. Implementation of obtained results in sootblowing optimization The mean value of thermal effectiveness number between two successive sootblowing actions (time interval tz) can be obtained from:  t z  J Jmin dt Jmin (10) Jm t 0 tz where Jm and Jmin are the mean and minimum (observed for maximum fouling time) values of thermal effectiveness number, respectively. Estimation of time dependant values of mean thermal effectiveness number consists of collection of fouling growth governing data, calculations of J on the basis of empirical correlations (7) or (8) and subsequent evaluation of dimensionless dependence in the form of J/JminZ f(t/tmax). The minimum value of thermal effectiveness number Jmin is reached, when no sootblowing takes place and the maximum fouling is obtained. Right after the sootblowing action, with the assumption that all deposits are removed, thermal effectiveness number value JZ1. Here tmax is time interval characteristic for complete rebuild of already blown deposits (Eq. (6)).

Acknowledgements Authors would like to acknowledge nancial support of State Committee for Scientic Research (KBN), Poland within Grant No. 8T10B01317. Experimental part of the work took place in PKE SASouthern Power Group as well as in Opole Power Plant. Their infrastructural and personnel support is deeply acknowledged.

S. Kalisz, M. Pronobis / Fuel 84 (2005) 927937


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