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Heat Engine g

Heat Engine:
A machine which converts heat energy into mechanical energy (work) as a result of combustion

A process in which fuel combines with oxygen or air and liberates heat. As a result of combustion of hydrocarbons (of which the fuel consists of) CO2 and H2O are produced of), produced. These types of reactions are exothermic and significant amount of heat is evolved which increases temperature and pressure.

For Petrol: 2C8H18 +25O2 = 16CO2 + 18H2O + Heat For Diesel: 2C16H34 +49O2 = 32CO2 + 34H2O + Heat For Natural Gas: CH4 + O2 = CO2 + H2O + Heat General case: Hydrocarbons (Fuel) + O2 = C02 + H2O + Heat

Heat Engines
Internal Combustion engines

External combustion Engines

Reciprocating Boiler+ Piston type engine (Locomotive+ old tractors)

Rotary Boiler + Steam turbine (Power Plants)



Gas Turbine JPP, Air planes, Power plants

Wankel (some primeprime movers)



Two Stroke cycle Four Stroke cycle, Tractors, Cars, buses, etc Very rare, Motor cycles, CHP

Four Stroke cycle Cars, tractors, CHP

Two Stroke cycle (Very rare)


Heat H j rejection

Heat engine cycle

Heat addition


Internal combustion engines

It is a machine/prime mover which converts the reciprocating motion into rotary motion as a result of t ti lt f thermal expanion caused by combustible gases As the combustion takes p place inside the engine g cylinder, so the engine is called internal combustion engine

Components of Internal combustion Engines p g

The nucleus of all activity,bur but principally for receiving and burning the fuel

Receives power generated in the cylinder

Connecting Rod:
Transmits power to crankshaft and assists in changing to and fro motion to rotary motion of crankshaft

Receives power from the piston through p p g connecting rod and converts the reciprocating motion into rotary motion

Components of Internal combustion Engines

Cylinder head:
Covers the top of the cylinder and houses other components

Covers the bottom of the cylinder and h ld engine l b i i d holds i lubricating oil and il d other components

nlet and Exhaust valves:

Inlet receives fuel (petrol engine) or air (diesel engine) while exhaust releases b t gases. l burnt

Components of Internal combustion Engines

Camshaft: C h f
Operates the valves

Fly wheel:
Helps keep engine running, by its inertia during idle strokes (inlet, compression, g ( p exhaust)

Engine block g
Foudation block to which all the above components are directly or indirectly attached

Engine Terminology
Bore (d):
The internal diameter of the cylinder CV

Stroke (l):
The maximum length of travel of piston from one extreme position to other extreme position in onedirection l P.D d Piston Cylinder

Top dead cenre(TDC):

The position of the piston at the end of its travel when moving towards the cylinder head

Bottom Dead Centre (BDC):

The Th position of the pistonat the end of its travel iti f th i t t th d f it t l when movingtowards the crankcase Connecting rod

Piston displacement (PD):

The volume displaced or covered by the piston when it moves from TDC to BDC PD = d2/4*l crankshaft

Engine Terminology
Clearance volume (CV)
The space or volume between the top of the piston and the engine cylinder when the piston is at TDC. It is also called combustion chamber



P.D d


Total cylinder volume (TCV)

The volume designated by the sum of the piston displacement and the clearance volume l TCV = P.D + C.V


Compression ratio (CR)

The ratio of total cylinder volume to clearance volume C.R = TCV/CV Connecting rod

Engine Size
It is the product of diameter of piston and stroke of the engine crankshaft

Four Stroke( cycle) SI Engine

A four stroke cycle engine one which completes its cycle (suction, compression, power, exhaust) i f h ) in four stroke of the piston resulting two complete revolution (360*2 = 720) of k f h i li l l i 20) f crankshaft

Suction stroke
The piston moves from TDC to BDC. The inlet valve is opened to allow the fuel mixture to enter and fill the partial vacuum created by the movement of the piston. The exhaust valve remaim closed.

Compression stroke
The inlet valve is closed. The exhaust valve also remain closed. The piston moves from BDC to TDC compressing the fuel mixture into the clearance volume; thereby raising the temperature

Power S Stroke
When the piston approaches TDC during the compression stroke, a spark ignites the fuel mixture and expanding gases, drive the piston from TDC to BDC

Exhaust Stroke
The piston returns from BDC to TDC, sweeping the the burnt fuel/gases through the exhaust valve which has been opened, while the intake valve remain closed

Four Stroke(cycle)-SI Engine Stroke(cycle) SI

Four stroke cycle-SI Engine

For t F two stroke animation, browse the link t k i ti b th li k

Four stroke cycle-CI engines

In case of diesel engine, the same number of piston events take place as in 4-troke petrol engine but the method of igniting the fuel is 4 troke different. The following sequence of operation occurs

Intake /suction stroke

Only air is drawn into the cylinder

Compression Stroke
The i is Th air i compressed i t th cylinder which raised it t d into the li d hi h i d its temperature t very high

Power stroke
Just at the end of compression stroke, a fine spay of diesel is injected into the hot compessed air which ignites the fuel instantly and expanding gases, drive the piston for the power stroke.

Exhaust S k E h Stroke
Similar to that of petrol engine

Two stroke Engine g

This type of engines completes one cycle in only two strokes of the piston. There are no definite intake and exhaust valves but instead, there are openings or ports located in the cylinder wall which get covered and uncovered as the piston moves up and down the cylinder cylinder. When the piston moves from TDC to BDC, a fresh fuel mixture enters the intake port at the same time the burnt fuel escapes port, though the exhaust port which is also uncovered.Due to scavenging, some of the unburnt fuels also escapes with exhaust g gases, which not only reduce the thermal efficieny but also cause , y y environmental pollution. Now a days, these engines are rarely used The compression and power stroke are similar to those for four p p stroke engines. However to complete one revolution of the crankshaft, revolution of p , the piston, makes only two strokes which is equivalent to 2*180 = 360 or one revolution of the crankshaft.

Two stroke cycle engine

For two stroke animation, browse the link

Two stroke cycle engine

For two stroke animation, browse the link

Example 1: An engine has bore of 100 mm and stroke of 124 mm. If the compression ratio is 6. Calculate a- Pi t Displacement (PD) b Cl Piston Di l t (PD), b- Clearance volume (CV ) l c- Total Cylinder Volume (TCV) Solution Given data cylinder bore = diameter of piston(d) = 100 mm Stroke length (l) = 124 mm Compression Ration (CR) =6 (a) Diston Displacement(PD) We know that PD = (d2/4)*l ( ) = [(3.14)(100)2/4]*124 (b) Clearance volume (CV) TCV = PD + CV (di idi b CV) (dividing by CR = PD/CV + 1 PD = (CR-1)CV CV = PD/(CR -1) ( ) = 973,400 / (6-1) Cylinder Volume (TCV) TCV = PD + CV = 973400 + 194680 =?? = 973,400 mm3 = ?? Connecting rod = 194680 mm3 = ?? =1168080 mm3 crankshaft


P.D d



Example2: An engine has a bore of 91.44 mm and a stroke of 127 mm. Find the clearance volume (CV) when the compression ratio (CR) is 18.5 Solution S l ti Given data Cylinder bore (d) Stroke(l) Compression ration (CR) Clearance volume (CV) For F PD PD =( d2/4)*l = (3.14 (91.44)2/4 )*(127) ( ( ) )( ) 3 = 833,577 mm Connecting rod

CV 127 mm

= 91.44 mm = 127 mm = 18.5 =??

P.D d 91.44 mm



We know that P.D PD = (CR 1)CV (CRCV = PD/(CR-1) CV = 833,577/17.5 CV

= 50,490 mm3 , crankshaft

Example 3 An engine has clearance volume 53.763 cm3 and compression ratio 16 5 and stroke l i ti 16.5 d t k length 127 mm. th Calculate (a) Piston displacement ( ) (b) Bore Solution Given data Clearance volume (CV) ol me Compression ratio (CR) Stroke (l) () (a) We know that PD =(CR-1)CV PD = 15 5 * 53763 15.5 PD (b) PD d2 d


= 53 763 53. = 53,763 mm3 = 16.5 = 127mm


P.D d



= 833,326 mm3

Connecting rod

= (d2 /4).l = (4*PD)/(*l) = (4*833326)/(3.14*127) = 8358 mm2 = 91.42 mm


Example 4: Calculate CV, CR and engine capacity of a 4cylinder tractor engine when total volume of one cylinder is 1027.33 1027 33 cm3. Bore and stroke are 98 4 and 127 mm 98.4 respectivily. Solution Given data Total cylinder volume(TCV) Bore (d) Stroke (l) (a) We know that PD = d2 / 4 *(l) = (3.14* (98.4)2/4)(127) = 965,303 mm3 Clearanve volime (CV) = CV = TCV PD PD = 1027.33 -965.303 Compression ratio (CR) (CR-1)CV = PD CR -1 = 965303/62028 CR = 15.56 +1 Engine capacity = PD *No Of cylinders No. = 965302*4 = 3861,208 mm3

One cylinder Other cylinder are identical CV

= 1027.33 cm3 = 1027330 mm3 = 98 4 mm 98.4 = 127 mm

P.D d


Piston =?? = 62.027 mm3 = ?? = 16.56 = ?? crankshaft =3861.208 CC Connecting rod

Operation of multi cylinder engines multi-cylinder

Why multi cylinder engines are used ??
For a single cylinder engine, there is one power stroke in two revolutions of the fly wheel. wheel In this way the movement of the way, cylinder is not smooth and quite. So, in order to make the engine running smooth, multi cylinder engines are used

Firing order
It the the order inwhich the power stroke in each cylinder takes place

Firing interval(FI)
It the interval between succesive power strokes in different cylinders of engines FI = Angle turned during one cycle / No. of cylinders For 4-cylinder 4-stroke engine FI = 720/4 = 180 Crankshaft

Firing order- 4 and 6 cylinder engine

Crankshaft angle Cylinder 1 Cylinder 2 Cylinder 3 Cylinder 4 Firing Order 1 Firing Order 2

For 4 cylinder Engine 4-cylinder

Firing interval Firing order 1 Firing order 2 = 720/4 = 180 = 1,3,4,2 = 1,2,4,3

180 360 540 720





1 3 4 2

1 2 4 3


For 6-cylinder Engine

Firing interval Firing Order 1 Firing order 2 =720/6 =120 =1,5,3, 6,2,4 =1,4, 2, 6,3,5 2,5 3,4 120 120 120

General gas equation g q

Boyle`s law
Temperature remaining constant, volume of a given mass of a gas is inversly proportional to it t its pressure Mathematically PV = constant if and only if T = constant

Charle`s law
Pressure remaining constant, volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to absolute temperature V/T = Constant if P = Constant

General gas equation G l ti

Combining Boyles law and Charles law, we get PV/T = constant P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 = ..... Also PV = mRT Where P = Pascal, V = m3, m = kg

R = J / kg.K


Units of Heat
Calorie (Cal) It is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperatre of one gram of water through 1C I kCal = 1000 Calories (1 kg through 1C) British Thermal U it (BTU) B iti h Th l Unit It is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound (lb) of water through 1F 1F Centigrade heat unit (CHU) It is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temeperature of gy q p one pound of water through 1C Joule It is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1/4.187 gram of water through 1C I kJoule(kJ) = 1000 Joules

Work and Power

Work Product of force into displacement; Work = force*displacement ( p p (F*d) ) Joule When a force of one Newton is acted upon a body and p p y produces a displacement of one meter. Then it is called one joule work 1 joule = 1N.m; and 1 kiloJoule (kJ) = 1 KN.m Other units of work are erg and foot pound Power It is the unit of power. Power =Work/time Watts (W) atts ( ) The rate of workdone @1Joule/sec kiloWatts (kW) is the rate of workdone @ 1kJ/sec Other units are horse power. 1 horsepower = 33000 ft-lb/min or 550 ft-lb/sec

Laws of thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics
Heat and work are mutually convertable

Second Law of thermodynamics

Heat flows from a hotbody to a cold body unaided but it is impossible for the heat to flow from a cold body to hot body ith t the id f t h t b d without th aid of external work l k

The Pressure-Volume diagram (PV-Diagram) (PV Diagram)

Graphical representation of p pressure and volume of a g or gas vapor From figure Workdone =W Force F =F Pressure =P Cross-sectional area =A Then, Then w know that W= F*d (But as we know P =F/A) W = (P A) d (P*A)*d W = P*(A*d) W = P*V Area under the curve on PV diagram Work done by gas

Pres ssure (P)


Work done = Area under the curve

Volume (V)


W = V PdV........Eq(1)

Thermodynamics processes
Constant volume Process

W = V PdV........Eq(1) q

For constant volume process V1 = V2

Pre essure


It means Change in volume dV = 0 Put in Eq.(1) We get W=0

1 Volume

Thermodynamics processes
Costant pressure Process

W = V PdV ........Eq(1)

As pressure is constant It means P=C Volume changes from V1 to V2 (variable). Then W = P (V2 V1 ) (

Pres ssure



Thermodynamics processes
Costant Temperature Process OR Isothermal process
T2 Heat

W = V PdV ........Eq (1)



Pres ssure

For constant temperature p p process P1V1 = P2V2 = PV = constant(C) Or P = C/V Substitute C/V in Eq. (1)

W = V (C / V )dV


=C (lnV2 lnV1) =C ln V2/V1 = P1V1 C ln rv (Where rv is volume ratio)


Thermodynamics processes
General law PVn = Constant
T2 Heat

W = V PdV ........Eq(1)

P1V1n =P2 V2n = PVn = C Ort P= C /Vn Put this value in equation (1)

1 Pres ssure PVn = Constant

W = V (C / V n ) dV

W = C V (V ) dV

2 Volume

V n+1 W = C n + 1



Thermodynamics processes

V 2 n+1 V 1 n+1 W = C n +1
n+1 n+1 CV 2 CV 1 W = n +1
n n +1 n n +1 P 2V 2 V 2 P1V 1 V 1 W = n +1


Pres ssure

1 PVn = Constant 2

P 2V 2 P1V 1 W = n +1

P1V 1 P 2V 2 W = n 1

Thermodynamics processes
Recersible adiabatic Process
PV = Constant For reversible adiabatic process =14 1.4 (for i ) (f air) = Cp /Cv Replaving n by in the following equation

P1V 1 P 2V 2 W = n 1
P1V 1 P 2V 2 W = 1

Pres ssure

2 Volume

This is the Thi i th equation for reversible adiabatic process ti f ibl di b ti

Law of conservation of Energy gy

Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, however it may be changed from one form to another In thermodynamics Total heat supplied = Work done + increase in internal energy (Internal Energy (U=Cv ( T2- T1) is the rise in energy due to rise in temperature and Cv & Cp are specific heat at constant volume & pressure, = Cp / Cv) Mathematically Q=W+U Sign convension work is done by gases on piston work is done by piston on gases heat absrbed by the system heat rejected from the system internal energy h i i t l has increaed d internal energy has decreased

= +W =-W = +Q =-Q = +U U =-U

+Q +W +U -Q -W W

Thermodynamics processes
Costant volume Process OR Isochoric process Workdone W=0
Pres ssure


Internal Energy U =Cv(T2-T1) Heat absorbed Q = U= Cv(T2-T1)

1 Volume

Thermodynamics processes
Costant pressure Process OR Isobaric process Workdone W = P(V2-V1)
Pre essure

Internal Energy U =cv(T2-T1) Heat absorbed Q=W+U = P(V2-V1) + cv(T2-T1) =Cp(T2-T1)



Thermodynamics processes
Costant Temperature Process OR Isothermal process Workdone W = P1V1ln(V2/V1) ( Internal Energy U =0 Heat absorbed Q = W = P1V1ln(V2/V1)
Pre essure 1 T2 Heat


Thermodynamics processes
General law PVn = Constant Workdone W = P1V1ln(V2/V1) Internal Energy U =Cv ( T2-T1) Heat absorbed Q =P1V1l (V2/V1) C ( T2-T1) P ln(V )+ Cv T
Heat T2

Pres ssure


Thermodynamics processes
Reversible adiabatic process OR Constant Entropy process Workdone W = (P1V1-P2V2)/(n-1)
Pres ssure

Internal Energy U =Cv(T2-T1) Heat absorbed Q =W+U 0=W+U W = -U -U = W U

2 Volume

Thermodynamics processes
Irreversible adiabatic process OR Constant enthalpy process enthalp OR Throttling
When a gas a allowed to expand from an aperture of minute dimension such as a narrow throat or a partially opened valve The process is valve. called irreversible adiabatic .It can not be reversed as the frictional reheating between the fluid and the walls of the container.Due to this re heating, re-heating, it is also called as constant enthalpy process (Enthalpy = total heat)