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Friday, April 3, 2009

Todays Objectives

Lagranges equations for systems with damping Double Pendulum Example Reminder: Modal analysis only applies to undamped systems. You can gure out modes with no damping, then add damping to see the actual response.

Note: this is a trick to get the damping correct, but technically this should just be thought of as an external force. We introduce a function R: Rayleighs dissipation function

1 R = 2 xT B x B is the damping matrix

d L dt ( xi )

L xi

R xi

= Qi

The third term is new. Substitute V = 1 xT Kx 2 T = 1 xT M x 2 1 T Bx R = 2x L=T V And you will get M x + B x + Kx = Q

Velocity of m1 : v1 = l1 1 2 + v2 ) 1 2 Velocity of m2 : v2 = (v2x 2y v2x = l1 1 cos(1 ) + l2 2 cos(2 ) 1 sin(1 ) + l2 2 sin(2 ) v2y = l1 Kinetic energy: 1 T = 2 m1 (l1 1 )2 + 1 m2 ((l1 1 cos(1 ) + l2 2 cos(2 ))2 + (l1 1 sin(1 ) + l2 2 sin(2 ))2 ) 2

Potential energy V = m1 gl1 (1 cos(1 )) + m2 g(l1 (1 cos(1 )) + l2 (1 cos(2 ))) The Lagrangian is: L=T V 1 2 2 2 2 L = 1 (m1 + m2 )l1 1 + 2 m2 l2 2 + m2 l1 l2 1 2 cos(1 2 ) + (m1 + m2 )gl1 cos(1 ) + m2 gl2 cos(2 ) 2 For 1 : L 2 2 = m1 l1 1 + m2 l1 1 + m2 l1 l2 2 cos(1 2 )

1

d dt

L 1

L 1

Thus, the dierential equation for 1 becomes: 2 2 (m1 + m2 )l1 1 + m2 l1 l2 2 cos(1 2 ) + m2 l1 l2 2 sin(1 2 ) + l1 g(m1 + m2 ) sin(1 ) = 0 Divide through by l1 and this simplies to: 2 (m1 + m2 )l1 1 + m2 l2 2 cos(1 2 ) + m2 l2 2 sin(1 2 ) + g(m1 + m2 ) sin(1 ) = 0 Similarly, for 2 : L 2 = m2 l2 2 + m2 l1 l2 1 cos(1 2 )

2

d dt L 2

L 2

= m2 l1 l2 1 2 sin(1 2 ) l2 m2 g sin 2

Thus, the dierential equation for 2 becomes: 2 2 m2 l2 2 + m2 l1 l2 1 cos(1 2 ) m2 l1 l2 1 sin(1 2 ) + l2 m2 g sin 2 = 0 Divide through by l2 and this simplies to: 2 m2 l2 2 + m2 l1 1 cos(1 2 ) m2 l1 1 sin(1 2 ) + m2 g sin 2 = 0 So, we have developed a very complicated set of coupled equations of motion from a very simple system! For the initial conditions 1 = and 2 = , you get the response below. If you perturbed these 2 initial conditions slightly, you would get a very dierent response. This is evidence of a chaotic system. If you linearized the equations or added damping, you would get a much more predictable response.

Note that this problem has no dissipation. However, it is straightforward to add this in using Rayleighs dissipation function.

Generating Equations of motion: Newtons Law DAlemberts Law Linearization: Energy Methods Taylor Series Expansion Lagranges Equation Types of systems: Translational (Mechanical) Rotational (Mechanical) Electrical Electromechanical Thermal Fluid Degrees of Freedom: 1 DOF Multiple DOF Continuous

Modeling Systems

Equations of Motion

Dynamic Systems

Order/Type: 1st order ODEs 2nd order ODEs 2nd order PDEs

System Behavior

Solutions x(t)

System Inputs: Homogeneous systems Forced Response Harmonic forcing Feedback Control Design Parameters: Stability Logarithmic Decrement Overshoot, Settling Time, etc.

Solution Methods: Time-Domain (assumed and integral) Laplace (with block diagrams)

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