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Feline Diseases

Oral: Stomatitis Etiology: Calicivirus think infectious Lymphocytic/plasmacytic involves gingivitis too Treatment: immune suppression directed: glucocorticoids, Dex, Pred (not responding??? think neoplasia: azothiaprine (bone marrow suppression, pancyto penia), leukuran: better for cats) antibiotics directed at anaerobes: clindamycin, clavamox, metronidazole last option: pull out all teeth!! Stomach: Vomiting cat. IBD foreign body (linear-look under the tongue! Get febrile and painful, bunched int estines with comma-shaped gas opacities, decreased abdominal detail (peritonitis ) on rads other causes of poor detail: pancreatitis, lack of fat, ascites neoplasia ulcers: Helicobater felis treatment: metronidazole, pepto, and H2 blocker o Secondary: renal failure, liver disease physoloptera (more common in dogs) or olullanis Small Intestine Foreign Body Lymphoma Lymphangectasia rare in cats Diarrhea, wt. loss, PANHYPOPROTEINEMIA!!!! (albumin is SEVERELY low!!! Other causes if normal globulin, do UA to R/O glomerular disease; in liver o Dz, liver enzymes will be off; vasculitis) FIP-coronavirus which replicates on the tips of the villi in monocytes. Young ca ts with minor g.i. signs in a multi-cat household. Only get FIP b/c viral mutation. Some cell-mediated response: effusive form ascites, pericardial, pleural Little response: granulomatous infiltrate in liver, kidney, eyes, nervous sys. Dx: titer is non-specific, now have ELISA FIP-specific but not that great yet HISTOPATH at necropsy or biopsy Effusion: HIGH protein CBC: dramatic increase in globulin Vaccine available but not considered part of core administration Pancreatitis more important in dog--acute onset of abd. pain, vomiting and diarrhe a Dx: TLI increased, but very early in disease, amylase and lipase aren t o Helpful b/c can be increased in kidney dz b/c excreted in urine Rads/US are best option Panleukopenia (Pancytopenia) canine parvovirus same clinical signs as dogs, Core vaccine is VERY effective!!! IBD o o o o Lymphocytic/plasmacytic most common in the cat Eosiniophilic dogs are very responsive to treatment, cats aren t could be Mast cell dz Granulomatous Etiologies Food allergy

Stress not real primary cause, usually intensifies pre-existing dz Medication Parasitic especially with eosinophilic Bacterial overgrowth/imbalance Treatment: Steroids, deworming, antibiotics

UPPER RESPIRATORY o Etiologies: Calicivirus: see oral ulcers also Herpes: rhinotracheitis Mycoplasma Chlamydia: see ocular involvement corneal ulcers, conjunctivitis Bordatella o Vaccines for calici and herpes are core, chlamydia vaccs isn t o Ex: a one year old cat with upper airway noise, dyspnea, inspiratory stridor(u pper resp) Nasopharyngeal polyps look for otitis, vestibular dz, etc; Treatment: surgery Cryptococcus: fungal dz which attacks nasal area Dx: histopath of g.i., cytology (big capsule when stained), ANTIGEN serologic te st Also affects skin and CNS Treatment: Intraconazole or fluconazole equal in efficacy Feline Asthma acute onset of dyspnea, prolonged expiration, and bronchoconstrictio n Treatment: against constriction dt cytokines: aminophylline(methylxanthine), o albuterol, and terbutaline(beta-2 agonist) against inflammation anti-inflammatory: corticosteriod against too much mucus:??? Heartworm Dz longer lifecycle in a cat(7mos) vs. dog(6mos b/4 adults) Signs: usually none! If thromboembolic dz, will see acute death Chronic intermittent vomiting Coughing, dyspnea Treatment: usually none if adults, which live 1-3yrs vs. in dogs, which live 5-7 Preventative ivermectin (a dose 4 times that of a dog), selamectin Steroids Feline Plague yersinia pestis ZOONOTIC 3 days of treatment with antibiotics before not zoonotic Popular in west and southwest, carried by fleas on rats and rodents Toxoplasma sporozoites shed to form oocysts for only ~1 week only in cat Signs: bradyzoites encyst in muscle primarily inflammatory response when Released: lungs, eye, CNS Can affect any species Dx: paired titer, muscle biopsy, IgM (humoral 1st responder) Treatment if high titer suspicious! high dose of clindamycin and pyrimethamine If pregnant client don t clean out litter box, have someone else do it daily Don t eat undercooked pork or garden. If have positive titer, that s good because sh e has already mounted a response to exposure ***Also review FUS, FLUTD, Renal Dz, Hyperthyroidism, Cushings, Hypothyroidism, Diabetes Mellitus. Liver Disease briefly!!!! Enzymes: ALT; not ALP high in growing animals, bones, cholestasis, steroids in dogs, late in gestation from placenta; AST from muscle too; GGT large animals, cholestasis, a little more sensitive but not real specific Signs: lethargic, depressed, vomiting chronic: R/O chronic renal failure and heartworms, hypersalivation: R/O hepatic encephalopathy Hepatic Lipidosis (most common), cholangiohepatitis, neoplasia Dx: US bile duct obstruction?? Hyperechoic with HL

FNA HL, Neoplasia (lymphoma) Treatment: LOTS OF FOOD if HL via a peg tube (over the 100 kCal/kg/day) Normal to high protein level in food if HL. Only reduce protein if hepatic encep halopathy decrease ammonia build up. Other HE treatments: Lactulose make pH more acidic, causes some diarrhea to rid body of high ammonia le vels more quickly Metronidazole, Neomycin aminoglycoside not absorbed well, so will act locally Cholangiohepatitis inflammation dt diet, bacteria, parasite **supprative infiltrate with neutrophils: ascending infection Treatment: ursodeoxy-cholate a hydrophlyllic bile acid which increases bile flow; Vit E