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Project Name: Business Description
Project Code: KE-01
Process: Business Description
No. of Pages: 15
Version No. 01
Date: February 2011
Contact Person : Berges Santok Distribution: In-house Writers, Knowledge Associates & QC Editors
Prepared By: Dibyendu Roychowdhury Project Supervisor
Reviewed & Approved By: Vidyut Kumar Ta Project Manager
AMENDMENT SHEET Sr. No Date New PI Reason For amendments version No
Associated Press Stylebook .
U. Mount Vernon. ∙ DO NOT use periods with uppercase acronyms. An abbreviation is not an acronym. You can use these acronyms in all reference.A.R. Use periods in acronyms of the names of countries and cities and in special situations where an allcap acronym replaces a common noun (as in D. UNESCO ∙ But use periods in most two-letter acronyms: U.. But in general. N.Abbreviation A few universally recognized abbreviations are accepted in some circumstances.Y. WWU. Principles: Some General Principles: ∙ Abbreviate Saint before a city or institution. Mount Sinai Hospital... but see stylebook (online) for Sault Ste. Fort Lauderdale. for district attorney)..N.C. . acronyms should be used sparingly. B.A. CIA. Some others are acceptable depending on the context.S. Marie. Paul Mount Bachelor. B. FBI. unless you are certain the reader knows what they stand for. U. ∙ DO NOT abbreviate Fort or Mount. Fort Bragg.K. Cases: Special Cases Following is the list of the acronyms which you don't need to spell out. Louis. Saint John (the spelling for the city in New Brunswick). I. avoid alphabet soup.. Like abbreviations. Do not use abbreviations that readers would not quickly recognize. St.A. St. Acronym An acronym is a word formed from the first letter or letters of a series of words: laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation).
Acronym 3-D ATM CD DVD DSL FBI FM GPS ISO JPEG/JPG MRI NASCAR NBA NCAA NFL NHL RAM ROM RSS VCD VIP Stands For three dimensional automated teller machine compact disc digital video disc digital subscriber line Federal Bureau of Investigation frequency modulation global positioning system International Organization for Standardization Joint Photographic Experts Group magnetic resonance imaging National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing National Basketball Association National Collegiate Athletic Association National Football League National Hockey League random access memory read-only memory really simple syndication videocassette recorder very important person Apostrophes Use apostrophes when referencing academic degrees. etc. Do not use apostrophes in the following constructions: 1870s. 30s.. unless a specific degree is being referenced. 20s. . . The rule is an exception to AP’s “spell out one through nine" rule for numerals. Example: The girl is 7 years old. a master's. Master of Science. Age Always use figures.. in the early 1930s. Bachelor of Arts. 1990s. - bachelor's degree. 40s. unless the age is the first word of a sentence. the law is 8 years old. Do not use apostrophes when writing the plural of an abbreviation. etc..
restrict capitalization to: • Formal titles used directly in front of someone's name.S. The phrase "a Fortune 500 company" is an appositive and must be set off by commas. Use lowercase for the forces of other nations: the French army. the city needs to develop a traffic plan. . mayor. the U. For example: "According to Mayor Joe Smith. because many foreign nations do not use army as the proper name. forces: the U. designs and markets consumer electronics. the Navy.S.∙ Use hyphens for ages expressed as adjectives before a noun or as substitutes for a noun. Army regulations. Army Capitalize when referring to U. Navy regulations. Navy. Army. Appositive Phrase An appositive phrase comes after a noun and describes the noun. but the boy is 5 years old. Same for: the U. Marine. the Army. computer software and personal computers. The woman is in her 30s (no apostrophe). Example: Apple Inc. This approach has been adopted for consistency.. the Marine Capitalization Generally. Examples: A 5-year-old boy." But note the lack of capitalization in "According to the mayor.S.S. the city needs to develop a traffic plan. the city needs to develop a traffic plan" and in "According to Joe Smith. a Fortune 500 company.
journalism. Capitalize earth only when using it in association with the names of other astronomical bodies that are capitalized. • DO NOT capitalize prepositions. but not contained in quotes." Names of months. Saturn. Mars." or "The inscription was in Latin. Names of buildings: "The meeting will be held in Peck Hall. Do not hyphenate when used as a noun. “ The Man Who Came to Dinner”.) o o o o Names of people. and so forth are not capitalized. east and west are not capitalized unless you're using the word to refer to a geographic region Like this: I think the West is beautiful.. or articles in titles of books. I grew up in the South.• Proper nouns. “For Whom the Bell Tolls” Red Hot Chili Peppers." Note that while "French" and "Latin" can be academic subjects. Bands are capitalized. except when they begin the title. like biology. He attended a prestigious Northeastern college. The planets are Mercury. o • • First word of a sentence. stars and groups of stars. chemistry. such as: o The name or names of an organization: "The City Council awarded the contract to Jones Brothers Contracting Services. Venus. Earth. The blaze destroyed the east side of the warehouse. Names of languages: "He is learning French. Directions. Uranus… The sun warms the earth. Pink Floyd Century ∙ Spell out numbers less than 10. philosophy. Jupiter. always in lowercase Example: the first century. . conjunctions. (Note that generic references like "the company" are not capitalized. But: The robbers fled west on Main Street. • Capitalize the names of the planets. Led Zeppelin. Jason Smith. the 20th century ∙ Hyphenate when used with another word to form an adjective. Directions Note that compass points like north. south. etc. said the company is pleased to have won the contract and will begin the work next week. The North won the Civil War. most academic subjects. a spokesman for Jones Brothers.
follow the spelling and capitalization preferred by the company: eBay Ltd. WRONG: It serves eggs. not Yahoo!. even if it is included in the formal name. ABC Company is a wholesale seafood retailer. plus signs or asterisks that form contrived spellings that might distract or confuse a reader. EToys R Us. not SUBWAY. Do not use symbols such as exclamation points. not IKEA.. toast. Subway. E-Trade. AMPERSAND (&): Do not use in place of “and” unless the ampersand is part of an organization’s formal name. Others should be uppercase and lowercase. (no comma before “and”) Company Name Generally. or Ltd. and bacon. not USA TODAY. Do not use all-capital-letter names unless the letters are individually pronounced: BMW. ." The comma separates the introductory phrase." • Comma in a series: DO NOT use the comma before the conjunction (and/or) in a series of things. For example: "Established in 1930.. not Toys "R" Us. “ABC Company is a wholesale seafood retailer. USA Today. People started using the Internet in the 20th century. not E*Trade. toast and bacon.The Internet is a 20th-century phenomenon. Do not use a comma before Inc. RIGHT: It serves eggs. . Ikea. Use Yahoo. Here are some of the more common comma issues: • introductory Comma after an introductory phrase or clause: Place a comma between any introductory phrase or clause and the rest of the sentence. Comma Figuring out how to use commas properly is tricky. "Established in 1930" from the rest of the sentence.
The guidelines." "Time After Time. dictionaries. Examples: Examples "The Star-Spangled Banner. eB constructions: Avoid awkward constructions Do not follow an organization's full name with an acronym in parentheses or set off by dashes. gazetteers. including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. An exception to this is reviews of musical performances. and the titles of lectures. generally refer to the work in the language it was sung in. ∙ Translate a foreign title into English unless a work is generally known by its foreign name. musical compositions in Slavic languages are always referred to in their English translations." "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. movie titles. a. computer game titles. opera titles. addidas. directories. eBay ddidas. play titles. handbooks and similar publications. speeches and works of art." "The Mary Tyler Moore Show." "Gone With the Wind. poem titles. However. followed by a block of examples: ∙ Capitalize the principal words. so as to differentiate for the reader." . encyclopedias. In addition to catalogs. WRONG: International Audio Visual (IAV) is a wholesale supplier of sound equipment. radio and television program titles. ∙ Capitalize an article – the." "Of Mice and Men. album and song titles." the NBC-TV "Today" program." "For Whom the Bell Tolls. this category includes almanacs. ∙ Put quotation marks around the names of all such works except the Bible and books that are primarily catalogs of reference material. the "CBS Evening News. Composition Titles Apply the guidelines listed here to book titles. an – or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. RIGHT: International Audio Visual is a wholesale supplier of sound equipment. Do not use quotation marks around such software titles as WordPerfect or Windows.Use the lowercase unless it is part of the company's formal name. In those instances.
Examples: The team scored in the first quarter. Hyphenation is also common with adjective-noun compound modifiers: realworld example and left-handed catch. socio-economic. Names of most websites and apps are capitalized without quotes: Facebook. Encyclopaedia Britannica. a bluish green. Where the adjective-noun phrase would be plural standing alone. etc. secondly. second. Many combinations that are hyphenated before a noun are not hyphenated when they occur after a noun. a bluish-green dress. Compound Modifiers When two or more words that express a single concept precedes a noun. third. Second Edition. Compound modifiers can extend to three or more words: ice-cream-flavored candy. Second. Exception: "FarmVille" and similar computer game apps are in quotes. thirdly. it usually becomes singular and hyphenated when modifying another noun: four days becomes four-day week. Mexican-American. a well-known man. a full-time job. TwoTwo-Thought Compounds Examples: serio-comic. was attractive on her. etc.. First. instead of firstly. Third Use first. The dress. use hyphens to link all the words in the compound. .Works orks: Reference Works Jane's All the World's Aircraft. Compound Proper Nouns & Adjectives ∙ Use a hyphen to designate dual heritage: Italian-American. Foursquare. Examples: a first-quarter touchdown. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language.
un-American. Height. anti-French. pro-Negro Exception: transatlantic ∙ Use the hyphen for clarity in compound modifiers. ratios. The company manufactures large.Fractions Spell out and hyphenate amounts less than 1 (four.and mid-size cars. ∙ Use a hyphen to separate figures in odds. Express as numerals when the amount is more than 1 (6 ½ inches). Hyphen ∙ Use hyphen to separate a prefix from a proper noun. . the word needs only to appear at the end of the series. a fully equipped facility. but try to avoid mixing fractions and decimals in the same document). a privately held company. Hyphenate only when used as adjectives before nouns. Readers can modify the word that follows. scores and some fractions. 6-foot shark. feet. and inches. He is a 6-foot-7-inch basketball player.to 20-year prison sentence. 320-foot wingspan Hyphens: Suspended Hyphens: When a series of modifiers all end with the same word. Use numerals for amounts larger than one (and convert to decimals when possible. Example: 28-year-old woman. Web-based application ∙ No hyphen is required with very and –ly words. Width Use numerals and spell out words such as yards. He received a 10. He is 6 feet 7 inches tall.fifths).
sums of money. when they begin sentences. Kindergarten and prekindergarten are not considered grades. rephrase the sentence if long numbers are awkward. Examples: The school enrolls students in grades 9 through 12. time of day. speeds. But spell out the numbers.5 million. spell out all numbers under 10. The school offers classes for students in kindergarten through grade five. degrees of temperature. I need $7 billion. scores. days of month. not: 1 ½ million. proportions. dimensions and serial numbers.) Numeral Use figures for all numbers above nine. Example: The cooperative serves more than 1 million members.51 million people $256 billion Decimals are preferred where practical (1. no matter how large. both grades are written in numeric form to maintain consistency. .Grades Grades one through nine are spelled out and 10+ are written in numeric form. Millions & Billions Use figures with million or billion. time of races. house numerals. Exception: Exception: ∙ Use figures for ages. Example: 7. The school teaches children in grades 6 through 12. votes. years. Do not go beyond two decimal places. If one grade is below 10 and one is above. Examples: The school enrolls students in grades seven through nine. so they should not be included in the list as grades. percentages.
2 1 Percent Generally.) . He said 50 percent of the membership was there. 1999 was a very good year. 16 percent Don't use the "%" symbol.6 percent. (For example." 1 percent. multi-industry. ∙ Fractions standing alone are spelled out: One-fourth of the students ∙ Avoid successive numerals in a single expression: 15 six-inch boards Use as an abbreviation with a numeral to indicate rank: No. 1. Prefixes Use a hyphen only if: • The prefix ends with the same vowel that begins the word (For example: preexist. or between 12 and 15 percent. For amounts less than 1 percent. re-examine. anti-American. do not write it out. Cooperate and coordinate are exceptions to this rule) • The word that follows the prefix is capitalized. range: For a range: 12 to 15 percent. AP Style says to use a figure followed by the word "percent. No. precede the decimal with a zero: The cost of living rose 0.∙ Exception: When starting a sentence with a year." It takes a singular verb when standing alone or when a singular word follows: The teacher said 60 percent was a failing grade. Spell out the percentage if it begins a sentence: "Twentyeight percent of the department's budget had been spent on travel to conventions across the nation. It takes a plural verb when a plural word follows: He said 50 percent of the members were there.
co-worker). sub-subparagraph). however. speeches. No hyphen when used with common nouns. usually takes a hyphen when used with proper nouns (pantheism. pro-labor). “The Hanging Tree. no hyphen when indicating out of (ex- president. Use hyphen when indicating unusual size or extent. Newsweek. so it’s best to consult Merriam Webster dictionary. Use a hyphen when forming a word that indicates occupation or status (co- chairman.” “Mona Lisa” ∙ DO NOT use them with newspapers or magazines. songs. No hyphen afterward when used to create a noun (afterthought). cooperate. Punctuation guidelines for some of the quirkier prefixes follow: allAfterCo- Use a hyphen afterward (all-star). . Otherwise. no hyphen (coordinate. Quotation ∙ Use quotation marks with titles of books. coefficient). excommunicate). Omit the word to when numerals precede the word ratio (a 3-2 ratio). poems. Use hyphen to make words expressing support (pro. extraordinary). films.” “Gone with the Wind.choice.” “Thriller. no hyphen. do use hyphen when used to create and adjective (after-lunch nap). Prefixes rarely follow fixed rules. subjects or lectures. New York Times Ratio Use numerals and hyphens when expressing ratios (a ratio of 3-to-2). pan-Asian).• The word has two prefixes. plays. no hyphen when indicating outside of (extra-large. otherwise. magazine articles. ExExtraPanProUse hyphen when indicating former. works of art. (For example.
Here are punctuation guidelines for some of the most commonly used suffixes: -fold -less -like -size No hyphen (threefold. put another comma after the state name. eggs and toast. Suffixes Suffixes Like prefixes. They're spelled out no matter what because they're not part of the contiguous United States. semicolons should be used to separate them. Memphis. Based in Detroit. pancakes.. semicolons should be used. jobless).Semicolon • Use semicolon to separate items in a series of things if the things involve commas. No hyphen (fearless. No hyphen unless the l would be tripled (businesslike. and it’s best to check the dictionary. syrup and sausage. Don't. sixfold). put a comma between a city name and a state name. cream cheese and juice. if cities with state designations are mixed with stand-alone cities. New York City. Hyphenate (medium-size)... o Example: ABC Company maintains locations in St.. If the sentence continues after the state name. Tenn. however. and Evansville. and bagels. "His favorite breakfast foods include ham. Ind. Also. bell-like). the company specializes in." • Whenever listing multiple cities in different states. suffixes are quirky. Also. Mich. . For example. abbreviate Alaska and Hawaii. State Names Abbreviate state names that: • • • Appear with a city name AND have more than five letters. Louis.
or set of standards. But website would be in lowercase as it is a location on the World Wide Web that maintains one or more pages at a specific address. Web page and Web feed. The Web is not the same as the Internet. Web Web is a short form of World Wide Web.m. Do not capitalize anything but the region when using shortened forms of time zones (Mountain time). but is a subset. webcast and webmaster. But as a short form and in terms with separate words. EST). exist on the Internet. other applications. Central Daylight Time. Same: webcam. the Web. Acronyms are acceptable when used with a specific clock reading (3 p. such as e-mail. it is a service. Example: The website offers several Web Web-based applications and tools. that enables the publishing of multimedia documents on the Internet.Time Zones Capitalize when using the full name of a time zone: Eastern Standard Time. .
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