Training & Placement

Pondicherry Engineering College
Puducherry

Preparatory Material 1. Numerical Reasoning 2. Analytical Reasoning 3. Logical Reasoning 4. Verbal Reasoning

Training & Placement

1. Numerical Reasoning 1.1 Problems on Numbers
1.1.1. Concept: Numbers are broadly classified into Real and Imaginary Numbers. The Real Numbers consist of Integers, Whole Numbers and Natural Numbers. Integers are the set of all Non–Fractional Numbers lying between –∞ and ∞ i.e., –∞... –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, ∞. Natural Numbers are the set of all Non–Fractional Numbers from 1 to infinity i.e. 1, 2, 3, … ∞. Whole Numbers are the set of all Natural Numbers and Zero 0, 1, 2, … ∞. The Imaginary Numbers are generally written in the form of “a + bi”, where a and b are Real Numbers and „i‟ is the Imaginary Number and its value is –1. Operation on Complex Numbers is similar to that on Real Numbers. Let a + bi and c + di be two Complex Numbers. Then the various arithmetic operations are: Addition : (a + bi) + (c + di) = [(a + c) + (b + d) i] Example : (3 + 4i) + (4 – 3i) = [(4 + 3) + (4 – 3) i] = 7 + i Subtraction : (a + bi) – (c + di) = [(a – c) + (b – d) i] Example : (3 + 4i) – (4 – 3i) = [(3 – 4) + (4 – 3) i] = –1 + 7i Multiplication : (a + bi) * (c + di) = ac + adi + cbi+ bdi2 = (ac – bd) + (ad + bc) i Example : (3 + 4i) (4 – 3i) = (12 – (–12)) + (–9+16) i = 24 + 7i The Numbers that have two factors “Only and Exactly” – the number itself and 1 are all Prime Numbers. Natural Numbers greater than 1, which are not Prime, are known as Composite Numbers. A Common Factor of two or more numbers is a number which divides each of them exactly. For example, 4 is a Common Factor of 8 and 12. H.C.F. (Highest Common Factor) is the greatest number that divides each one of them exactly. For example, 6 is the Highest Common Factor of 12, 18 and 24. It is also called Greatest Common Divisor (G.C.D.) The Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.) of two or more given numbers is the least or lowest number which is exactly divisible by each of them. For example, consider the two numbers 12 and 18. Multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 … and Multiples of 18 are 18, 36, 54, 72, …. Common Multiples are 36 and 72. Therefore, Least Common Multiple of 12 and 18 is 36. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) is a sequence of numbers in which the difference between any two successive numbers is always constant. If the Ratio of any two successive terms is equal throughout the sequence, then the sequence is said to be in a Geometric Progression (G.P.)

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Training & Placement Tips: 1. To square any number ending with 5, let the number be „A5‟. (A5)2 = A (A + 1)25. Ex: 252 = (2 *(2 + 1)) 25 = 625. (A = 2, join 25 instead of multiplying). 2. A number is divisible by 3, if the Sum of the digits in the number is divisible by3. Ex: 3792 is divisible by 3 since 3+7+9+2 = 21, which is divisible by 3. 3. A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4 or both the last two digits are zero. Ex: The number 2616 is divisible by 4 since “16”, the number formed by the last two digits are divisible by 4. 4. A number is divisible by 6, if the number is even and Sum of its digits is divisible by 3. Ex: The number 4518 is divisible by 6 since it is even and Sum of its digits 4+5+1+8 = 18, is divisible by 3. 5. A number is divisible by 8, if the number formed by the last 3 digits is divisible by 8. Ex: The number 41784 is divisible by 8 as the number formed by the last 3 digits is Divisible by 8. 6. A number is divisible by 9 if the Sum of its digits is divisible by 9. Ex: The number 819 is divisible by 9 as the sum of the digits, 8+1+9 = 18, is divisible by 9 7. A number is divisible by 12 if it is divisible by both 3 and 4. Ex: The number 24 is divisible by 3 and 4 is also divisible by 12 8. In Comparison of Fractions, if the Denominators of the Fractions are same, the largest fraction is the one whose Numerator is the largest. Ex: 7/8 > 5/8 > 3/8. 9. If the Numerators of the Fractions are same, the largest fraction is the one whose Denominator is the smallest. Ex: 5/2 > 5/7 > 5/9. 10. If a Composite number C, which can be expressed as C = am * bn * cp….where a, b, c…are all Prime Factors and m, n, p are Positive Integers, the number of Factors is equal to (m + 1) (n + 1) (p + 1) … Pondicherry Engineering College 2

1.M. 3. Problem 1: 5.F. a = 102.C.C. L. a(rn – 1) if r >1 –––––––– r–1 6.C. = Product of the numbers L. Pondicherry Engineering College 3 Hence n = 150 . where a is the first term.M.C. the number of Factors = (6 + 1)* (2 + 1) = 21. to find the nth term Tn = a rn–1. and d is the difference.2. Tn = a + (n – 1) d.C. of Numerators) / (H.C. Formulae: 1.F. In A.C. 114…… 996 Tn = 996. To find the Sum of n numbers.F.C. and H. of Fractions = (L. of Denominators) 1.C. 108. of Denominators) H. = Product of the numbers H. of Fractions = (H. 11. Sn = n / 2 [2a + (n – 1) d] or Sn = n* (a + l)/2 4. to find the nth term.Training & Placement Ex: The total numbers of Factors of 576 can be found by writing 576 = (24 * 24) = (23 * 3) * (23 * 3) = (26 * 32) Therefore.P.M. In G. When the same number is divided by 18 what would be the Remainder? Solution: Dividend = (Divisor * Quotient) + Remainder = 342Q + 47 = 19 * 18Q + 18 * 2 + 11 = 18(19Q + 2) + 11 Remainder is 11.M * H. of Fractions: L.C.F. Dividend = (Quotient * Divisor) + Remainder 2.M.F. d = 6 996 = 102 + (n – 1) 6 Problem 2: A number when divided by 342 gives a Remainder 47.C.P.M. To find the L. of Numerators) / (L. Sum Sn = How many three digit numbers are divisible by 6 in all? Solution: Formula: Tn = a + (n – 1) d Three digit number divisible by 6 range from 102.F.C.

Pondicherry Engineering College 4 . The Denominator of a Fraction is 3 more than the Numerator.2. 1.2. If 4 is added to both the Numerator and the Denominator. Two numbers are such that the Ratio between them is 4:7. Find the Fraction.2. What is the Maximum number of Slices you can obtain by cutting a cake with only 4 cuts? 6. Find the number. Remainder when the same number is divided by 29? 2. the Fraction becomes 4/5. the Remainder is 454. Types of Ratios: Duplicate Ratio: The Ratio of the Squares of two numbers is called the Duplicate Ratio of those two numbers. If a and b are two numbers. the required number = 99999 – 454 = 99545.3. Problems to Solve: 1. 7. Find the numbers. 5. If the Ratio between first and second is 2:3 and that between second and third is 5:3. In a two-digit number. The Product of two numbers is 120 and the Sum of their Squares is 289. The Sum of the Squares of two numbers is 3341 and the difference of their Squares is 891. Find the numbers. Concept: Ratio is a comparison of two quantities. the Sum of the digits is 15. Find the Sum of the numbers. So. Find the Largest number. 9. It is a relationship between two quantities with respect to magnitude. find the second number. If each is increased by 4.2. The two quantities that are being compared are called terms. A certain number when divided by 899 gives a Remainder 63. Solution: The Greatest 5-digit number is 99999. If 9 is added to the number.Training & Placement Problem 3: Find the Greatest 5-digit number which is exactly divisible by 463. The Sum of three numbers is 136. the digits are reversed. 8. 4. the Ratio becomes 3:5. Dividing this number by 463.1. The first term is called Antecedent and the second term is called Consequent. Ratio and Proportion 1. 1. Ex: 32 / 42.1. The Sum of the Squares of three Consecutive Odd numbers is 251. the Ratio of a to b is a/b and is denoted by a : b. 10. How many numbers between 11 and 90 are divisible by 7? 3. What is the 1.

x is called the Third Proportional of a. then these numbers will be ax / (a + b) and bx / (a + b) respectively. then Product of Means = Product of Extremes If a : x :: x : b. If the Ratio of two numbers is a : b. 3. a. Here. If the Incomes of two Persons are in the Ratio of a : b and their Expenditures are in the Ratio of c : d. 4 / 5 and 5 / 7 are the given Ratios. If the Saving of each Person be Rs. If a / b = c / d. the new Ratio is called the Inverse Ratio of the first. Inverse Ratio: If the antecedent and consequent of a Ratio interchange their places. 12 / 35 is the compound Ratio. (bS (d – c)) / (ad – bc) 6. Ex: 3 / 5 is the Inverse Ratio of 5 / 3. b. two liquids A and B are in the Ratio of a : b. Tips: 1. If a : b = n1 : d1 and b : c = n2 : d2. then (3*4*5) / (5*5*7) i. (aS (d – c)) / (ad – bc) and Rs. then each term of the Ratio a / b and c / d is called a Proportional. Rs. Ex: If 3 / 5.e. If a : b :: b : x. If four quantities are in Proportion. The Equality of two Ratios is called Proportion. If two numbers are in the Ratio of a : b and the Sum of these numbers is x. we write 3 : 5 : : 4 : 10. S. b. then a : b : c = (n1*n2) : (d1*n2) : (d1 : d2) Pondicherry Engineering College 5 . 2. Compound Ratio: The Ratio of the Product of the antecedents to that of the consequents of two or more given Ratios is called the Compound Ratio. Ex: 3/4 is the Sub–Duplicate Ratio of 9 / 16. x is called the Mean or Second Proportional of a. then the Quantities of Liquids A and B in the Mixture will be ax / (a + b) litres and bx / (a + b) respectively. b. Ex: 3 / 5 = 4 / 10. 5. If a : b :: c : x. c are known as Means. then the numbers that should be added to each of the numbers in order to make this Ratio c : d is given by (ad – bc) / (c – d).Training & Placement Triplicate Ratio: The Ratio of the Cubes of two numbers is called the Triplicate Ratio of that numbers. then the number that should be subtracted from each of the numbers in order to make this Ratio c : d is given by (bc – ad) / (c – d). 4. If in a Mixture of „x‟ litres. then their Incomes are given by. Ex: 33 / 43 Sub–Duplicate Ratio: The Ratio of the Square roots of two numbers is called the Sub– Duplicate Ratio of two numbers. d are known as Extremes and b. c. x is called the Fourth Proportional of a. If the Ratio of two numbers is a : b.

Find the number that must be subtracted from the Ratio of 5 : 6 to make it equal to 2 : 3. If A : B = 3 : 2. 77.3. Solution: We have a : b = 5 : 6 and c : d = 2 : 3. Find the Ratio of the cost of One Banana to that of One Apple. Each Girl got 50 paise and each Boy 25 paise. If 1 / 3A = 1 / 4B = 1 / 5C. 500. the Ratio becomes 7 : 5. Annual Income of A and B is in the Ratio of 5 : 4 and their Annual Expenses bear a Ratio of 4 : 3. A. B: C = 5 : 4 and C : D = 3 : 7.Training & Placement Problem 1: Two numbers are in the Ratio of 4 : 5 and the Sum of these numbers is 27. 3. Find Share of B. Problems to Solve: 1. Rs.2. and x = 27. Five Bananas and Four Apples cost as much as Three Bananas and Seven Apples. 9x – 14 = 7 7x – 14 5 5(9x – 14) = 7(7x – 14) => 45x – 70 => 98 – 70 => x Problem 3: = = = 49x – 98 49x – 45x 7 Hence the numbers are 9x = 63 and 7x = 49. Solution: Let the numbers be 9x and 7x. B. Find the numbers. Solution: Here. If each of them saves Rs. b = 5. 4. C and D share a Property worth Rs. Pondicherry Engineering College 6 . Problem 2: Two numbers are in the Ratio 9 : 7.Find the two numbers. The required number = (bc – ad) / (c – d) = [(6*2) – (5*3)] / (2 – 3) = 3. a = 4. 500 at the end of the Year. 49 was divided among 150 children. How many Boys were there? 2.If 14 is subtracted from each. then find their Annual Income. then A: B: C =? 5. The first number = (a * x) / (a + b) = (4 * 27) / (4+ 5) = 12 The second number will be = 27 – 12 = 15. 1.

Training & Placement 6. A Man spends Rs 500 in buying 12 items of Tables and Chairs. The cost of one table is Rs. 50 and that of one chair is Rs. 40. What is the Ratio of the numbers of Chairs and Tables purchased? 7. An Alloy contains Copper and Zinc in the Ratio 7 : 3. If the alloy contains 10.5 kg Zinc, find the Quantity of Copper in the Alloy. 8. If Income of A, B and C are in the Ratio of 9 : 3 : 7 and Income of C exceeds the Income of B by Rs. 1200 then find the Income of A. 9. Find the Age of Amit and Puneet which are in the Ratio 2 : 3. After 12 years, their Ages will be in the Ratio 11 : 15. What is the age of Puneet? 10. Two numbers A and B are such that the Sum of 5% of A and 4% of B is 2/3 rd of the Sum of 6% of A and 8% of B. Find the Ratio of A : B.

1.3. Alligation or Mixture
1. 3.1. Concept: Alligation means “Linking”. It is a Rule to find the Ratio in which two or more Ingredients at their Respective Prices should be mixed to give a Mixture at a given Price. By using this Rule, we can also find the Mean or Average Price of a Mixture when the Prices of two or more Ingredients which may be mixed together and the Proportion in which they are mixed are given. Alligation Rule: Suppose, Rs. D per Unit be the Price of first ingredient (superior quality) mixed with another ingredient (cheaper quality) of Price Rs. C per unit to form a Mixture whose Mean Price is Rs. M per unit, then the two ingredients must be mixed in the Ratio: Quantity of Cheaper = C.P. (Cost Price) of Costlier – Mean Quantity of Costlier Mean – C.P. of Cheaper The two Ingredients are to be mixed in the Inverse Ratio of the Differences of their Prices and the Mean Price. The above Rule may be represented schematically as Cost of Cheaper Cost of Costlier C D

M

(D–M) Ratio = (D – M): (M – C)

(M–C)

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Training & Placement Problem 1: Sugar at Rs. 15 per kg is mixed with Sugar at Rs. 20 per kg in the Ratio 2 : 3. Find the Price per kg of the Mixture. Solution: c (Rs.15) d (Rs.20)

m (Rs.x)

d – m = 20 – x From the given data,

m – c = x – 15

20 – x = 2 . x – 15 3 x = 18 Price of the Mixture = Rs. 18 per kg.

Problem 2: A merchant has 100 kg of salt, part of which he sells at 7% Profit and the rest at 17% Profit. He Gains 10% on the whole. Find the Ratio. Solution: 7 17

10 (17 – 10) Ratio = (17 – 10): (10 – 7) Therefore, the Ratio is 7: 3. 1.3.2. Problems to Solve: 1. In what ratio is ghee worth of Rs. 30 per Kg and ghee worth of Rs. 45 per Kg be mixed so as to get the mixture worth of Rs. 40 per Kg? 2. How many kilograms of sugar costing Rs. 9 per kg must be mixed with 27 kg of sugar costing Rs. 7 per kg so that there may be a Gain of 10% by selling the Mixture at Rs. 9.24 per kg? 3. In what Ratio two varieties of Tea, one costing Rs. 27 per Kg and the other costing Rs. 32 per Kg should be blended to produce a blended variety of Tea worth Rs. 30 per Kg? How much should be the quantity of Second Variety of Tea, if the First Variety is 60 Kg? Pondicherry Engineering College 8 (10 – 7)

Training & Placement 4. How much Water is to be added to 14 litres of Milk worth Rs. 5.40 a litre so that the value of the Mixture may be Rs. 4.20 a litre? 5. In what Ratio must Water be added to Spirit to Gain 10% by selling it at the cost Price? 6. Two vessels A and B contain Milk and Water mixed in the Ratio 4 : 3 and 2 : 3. In what Ratio must these Mixtures be mixed to form a new Mixture containing half Milk and half Water? 7. In an Examination out of 480 students 85% of the Girls and 70% of the Boys passed. How many Boys appeared in the Examination if the total Pass Percentage was 75%? 8. Some amount out of Rs. 7000 was lent at 6% p.a. and the remaining at 4% p.a. If the Total Simple Interest from both the Fractions in 5 Years was Rs. 1600, find the Sum lent at 6% p.a. 9. Mira‟s Expenditure and Savings are in the Ratio 3 : 2. Her Income increases by 10%. Her Expenditure also increases by 12%. By what % does her saving increase? 10. The Average Weekly Salary of all Employees (Supervisors and Laborers) is Rs. 100. The Average Weekly Salary of all the supervisors is Rs.600 while the Average weekly Salary of all the laborers is Rs. 75. Find the number of supervisors in the factory if there are 840 laborers in it

1.4. Chain Rule
1.4.1. Concept: There are two Types of Variations 1) Direct Variation 2) Indirect Variation Direct Variation: Apples Cost (Rs.) 20 140 12 x If number of Apples is less, cost is also less. If the Variation of one thing, while increasing or decreasing, affects the other thing in the same way, then it is Direct Variation. 20 / 12 = 140 / x x = 140*12 20 = 84 Indirect Variation: Men 14 24 Days 8 x Pondicherry Engineering College

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24 14 = 8 x 24* x = 8* 14 x = 8 * 14 24 x = 14 3 Problem 1: If 11.25 22. In how many Days will 30 Persons working 6 Hours a day.25 x = 6 * 42.8 kg x Problem 2: = 39 Persons can repair a road in 12 Days.75 kg. what will be the weight of 6 m of the same rod? Solution: Length (m) weight (kg) 11. When one value increases.25 42. It is called Indirect Variation. the Days required for the Completion of the work will be less. working 5 Hours a day. x _ = 6 42.75 6 x Since it is a Direct Proportion. = = Pondicherry Engineering College 10 .Training & Placement If number of Men increase.25 m of a Uniform Iron Rod weighs 42.75 11. 75 11. complete the same work? Solution: Men Days Hours 39 30 12 x 5 6 More Hours less Days (Inverse Proportion) Less Men more Days (Inverse Proportion) x 12 x x = 5 * 39 6 30 (5 *39 * 12) / (6 * 30) 13 Days. then the other value decreases.

In this. In how many Days will one cow eat one bag of husk? 8. 2100. what length of a similar wall can be built by 35 Men in 3 Days? 5. If 5 toys cost Rs. 40 cows eat 40 bags of husk in 40 Days. How many additional Men should be employed so that the work could be completed in time. in how many Hours can 15 Men do it? 3. If 6 Men working 8 Hours a day earn Rs. Partnership 1. then find the wages of 18 Men for 7 Days. 4. then how much will 9 Men working 6 Hours a day earn per week? 10. A contract is to be completed in 46 Days and 117 Men were asked to work 8 Hours a day. Pondicherry Engineering College 11 . If 45 Men can do a Piece of Work in 20 hrs. each man now working 9 Hours a day? 9. If 12 Men working 9 Hours a day can reap a field in 16 Days. how many Days will it take to complete a Piece of Work twice as large with 6 Men and 2 Boys working together for 8 Hours a day? 1. 234. 20 Men complete one–third of work in 20 Days. he is either paid some Salary or given a certain percent of Profit in addition. If 3 Men or 6 Boys can do a Piece of Work in 10 Days working 7 Hours a day.5.1. For his work. Compound Partnership is one in which the capitals of Partners are invested for different periods. Problems to Solve: 1. Sleeping Partner is one who invests the capital in the Business but does not actively participate in the conduction of Business. in how many Days will 18 Men reap the field working 8 Hours a day? 6.2. Simple Partnership is one in which the capital of each Partner is in the Business for same time. how much will 55 Toys cost? 2. a Partner can be a working Partner or Sleeping Partner. After 33 Days.4.840 per week. If 20 Men can build a wall of 56 meters long in 6 Days. Persons who have entered into Partnership with one another are individually called Partners and collectively called a Firm and the name under which their Business is carried on is called the Firm Name. Working Partner besides investing capital takes part in running the Business.Training & Placement 1. If the Wages of 9 Men for 14 Days is Rs. The Partnership may be Simple or Compound. How many more Men should be employed to finish the rest of the work in 25 more Days? 7. In a dairy farm. Concept: In Partnership two or more Persons carry on a Business and Share the Profits of the Business at an agreed Proportion. 4/7 of the work is completed.5.

2. C1 and Rs. If A invested Rs. y then the Share is in the Ratio A : B = (x * 12) : (y * 9).Training & Placement 1. they earn a Profit of Rs. C2. If at the end of the Year. P. 13500. Solution: Ratio Sona‟s Share Sweetha‟s Share Sumathy‟s Share Problem 2: Ramani started a Business investing Rs. Tips: 1. Rs. 9000. and the total Profit is Rs.5. 16500. If three Partners invested their capitals in a Business. then what will be the Share of Raj in the Profit? Solution: Ratio of their Share Raj‟s Share = = = = 9000*12: 8000*7 27 : 14 Rs. Find the respective Shares of Sona.2380. 55000 respectively.C1 and Rs. x and after 3 months B invested Rs. (6970*14 / 41) Rs. then Profit of A / Profit of B = (C1*t1) / (C2*t2) 2. 8000. Sweetha Sumathy if the annual Profit is Rs. If the Capitals of two Partners is Rs. If the timing of their investment is in the Ratio t1: t2: t3 and their Profits are in the Ratio P1 : P2 : P3. Raj joined with a capital of Rs. Pondicherry Engineering College 12 . = = = = 35000: 45000: 55000 40500 * 7 / 27 40500 * 9 / 27 40500*11 / 27 = = = = 7: 9: 11 Rs. then Shares of the Partners in the Profits are Rs. x and B invested Rs. Formulae: 1. Problem 1: Sona. Rs. Sumathy entered into a Partnership investing Rs. If Capitals of two Partners are Rs. 6970. ((C1 * P) / (C1 + C2)) and Rs. y then Ratio A : B = X : Y 2. 40500. ((C2 * P) / (C1 + C2)).C2 for the periods t1 and t2 respectively. After Five months. then the Ratio of their capitals invested is (P1 / t1) : (P2 / t2) : (P3 / t3). If A invested Rs. 2. 10500. Rs. 45000 and Rs.35000. Sweetha.

60000 respectively.3. Pondicherry Engineering College 13 . If at the end of the Year each of them gets Equal Amount as Profit. 40000 respectively in a Business. what would be B‟s Share in it? 4. 8000. 2000 and after 6 months again he withdraws Rs. Gupta and Bansal enter into a Partnership with their capitals in the Ratio 5 : 6. 4000.Training & Placement Problem 3: A and B start a Business with the amount of Rs. 80. After a Year. what is the Total Profit? 7. Gupta withdraws his capital. Problems to Solve: 1. Y and Z so that X‟s Share is Rs.15000 respectively. What will be their Share according to the Investment? Solution: A‟s investment = = = B‟s investment = = A: B = = A‟s Share B‟s Share = = (10000 * 3) + (8000 * 6) + (4000 * 3) 30000 + 48000 + 12000 Rs. 4600. 7000.5. 9000 and Rs. Rs. At the end of 8 months. At the end of the Year they get the Profit of Rs. 90000 15000 *12 Rs. After 6 months. 20 less than Z‟s Share. 12000. 70000 and B leaves x months before the end of the Year. find the value of x. 1. 2. A and B enter into a Partnership with Rs.10000 and Rs. C joins them after 6 months contributing Rs. 4667 1. A and B started a Business investing Rs. how much did Sanjay invest in the Business? 6. 50000 and Rs. A withdraws Rs. 120 is divided among X. B withdrew half of his investment. 20000. Find the amount of Profit each Partner A. 2333 Rs. find how long Bansal‟s Capital was used. If one Partner gets Rs. Rahul started a Business with a capital of Rs. 12100 which was divided in Proportion to investments made. What is Y‟s Share? 5. The net Profit for the Year was Rs. 20 more than Y‟s Share and Rs. Two Partners invest Rs. 50000 and Rs. 3. Rs. 12500 and Rs. Sanjay joined him with Investment of some Capital. After Six months. 8500 respectively in a Business. If they Share the Profit in the Ratio of 20 : 18 : 21.000 90000 : 180000 1:2 7000 * 1 / 3 7000 * 2 / 3 = = Rs. if the total Profit is Rs. If they receive the Profits in the Ratio of 5: 9. B and C will get if they invest Rs. After 3 months.300 more than the other in the Profit.

Area of a circle = r2 . where „r‟ is radius of the circle. where „a‟ is side of the Triangle. Area of Triangle = (s*(s – a)* (s – b)* (s – c)) where S = a + b + c . Area of the total surface = Area of the curved surface + Area of two circular ends. Altitude of Equilateral Triangle = Pondicherry Engineering College 15 . Diagonal of the Cube = a* 3 15.Training & Placement Pythagoras Theorem: In a Right Angled Triangle. 4 3 a.g. Area of the curved surface = Circumference of the base * height 17. Volume of cylinder = Area of the base * height 16. Area of a Parallelogram = b*h 11. where „a‟ is side of the Triangle. Area of Rhombus = ½* d1 * d2 where d1 and d2 are diagonals. Formulae: 1. Total surface area of Cube = 6 * a2 14. Area of Triangle = ½ * Base * Height 4. 12. Area of Square = (Side) * (Side) = (Side)2 Perimeter of Square = 4*(Side) 2. 19. Area of a Trapezium = [½ * (a + b) * h] Where a and b are parallel sides and h is the height. 13. Area of a Square inscribed in a Circle of Radius r is 2r and the side of the Square is 2 r.6. AC2 = AB2 + AC2 1. Volume of the Cube = (edge) 3 = a3. Volume of Cone = 1/3 * ( r2h) Where h is height and r is Radius of Base. Area of equilateral Triangle = 3 a2. a. Area of Rectangle = Length * Breadth Perimeter of Rectangle = 2 * (Length + Breadth) 3. The Area of Largest Triangle inscribed in a Semi Circle of Radius r is r2 . Circumference of the Circle = 2 r 9. 6. 2 5. 2 7. E.: In a Right–angled Triangle ABC Right angled at B. 21. the Square of the Hypotenuse is equal to the Sum of the Squares of the other two sides.2. 4 2 20. b and c are sides of the Triangle. 10. 8. 18. Area of the largest Circle that can be inscribed in a Square of side „a‟ is a2.

If the Length and Breadth of a room are l and b respectively. then the Ratio of their sides. 2. If one of its Diagonal is 34 cm. and a Carpet of Width „w‟ is used to cover the floor. 9.F (l. A Rectangular garden l m long and b m broad is surrounded by a path w m wide. 6. If the Ratio of the areas of two Squares be a : b. If the Length of a rectangle is increased by x%.48 Rs. its area changes by x*(2 + x/100) %.C. Problem 1: What is the Cost of planting the field in the form of the Triangle whose Base is 2.8 m and Height 3.100 * 4. then the volume of the figure will increase or decrease by (x + y + z + ((xy + yz + xyz) / 100) + xyz/100)% 10. If a Sphere of Radius R is melted to form smaller Spheres each of Radius r. Pondicherry Engineering College 16 . then the required Length of the Carpet is (l * b)/ w. 5.8 m2 4. 8.2 * 2. 448.48 m2 Rs. 7. 3.100 / m2? Solution: Area of Triangular field Cost Problem 2: Area of a Rhombus is 850 cm2. = = = = ½ * 3.m. cube. find the Length of the other Diagonal. then the number of small Spheres = Big Sphere‟s Volume / Small Sphere‟s Volume (R / r)3. b)). cylinder or cone are increased or decreased by x%. each will be in the Ratio a : b. If each of the defining dimensions or sides of any two–dimensional figure is changed by x%. 4. then its breadth will have to be decreased by (100x / (100 + x)) % in order to maintain the same area of rectangle. If the Length and Breadth of a room are l and b respectively. its diagonals also increase (or decrease) by x%. If the Length and the Breadth of a Rectangle are increased by x% and y% respectively. cuboid. then the Area of Rectangle will increase by (x + y + xy / 100) %.Training & Placement Tips: 1. Ratio of their Perimeters and the Ratio of their diagonals. If all the sides of a Quadrilateral are increased (or decreased) by x%. y% and z% respectively. The Area of the Path is given by 2w*(l + b + 2w) sq.2 m at the rate of Rs. If all three measuring dimensions of a sphere. then the least number of Square tiles required to cover the floor = (l*b) / (H.

6. Find the Length of its Diagonal. If it rolls forward covering 10 Revolutions. Find the Percentage increase in its area. 4.cm and its Height is 12 cm. The Diameter of a Wheel is 2 cm. find its area. 9.Training & Placement Solution: Area of a Rhombus 850 Therefore. 5.3.m. Find the Area of an Equilateral Triangle each of whose sides measure 6 cm. Pondicherry Engineering College 17 (x + y + (xy / 100)) % (10 + 20 + ((10*20) / 100)) % = 32 % = = 850 / 17 50 cm = = = ½ * d1 * d2 ½ * 34 * d2 17 * d2 . d2 Problem 3: The Radius and Height of a Cylinder are increased by 10% and 20% respectively. What is the Diameter of a Circle? 6. The Length and Breadth of a Rectangle are increased by 20% and 5% respectively. Find the Base of the Parallelogram. 8. Percentage increase in Surface Area is = = 1. Solution: Let the increase in Radius x be 10% and the increase in Height y be 20%. Find the Percentage increase in Surface Area. 7. How many tiles of 20 cm by 10 cm will be needed to cover the floor of a room 25 m long and 16 m wide? 3. The Area of the Parallelogram is 72 sq. Find the Area of a Trapezium having Parallel sides 65 m and 44 m and their separation being 20 m. A Rectangular Carpet has an Area of 120 sq. The Diameter of a Circle is 105 cm less than the Circumference. If the Base of an Isosceles Triangle is 10 cm and the Length of equal sides is 13 cm. 2. find the Distance traveled by it. and a Perimeter of 46 m. Problems to Solve: 1.

Probability has its origin in the problems dealing with games of chance such as gambling. Probability of Occurrence of an Event is always positive. Tips: 1. In Simple Events. P (A B) = P (A) + P (B) – P (A B). it is called Mutually Exclusive Event. 1. Concept: Probability is a concept which measures Uncertainties.1. then P (A B) is the Probability that either A or B or both the Events occur.7. The number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time (r <= n) is denoted by C (n. Events are generally denoted by capital letters. Independent Events P (A B) = P (A) *P (B) B) = P (A) + P (B). r) or nCr and is denoted as nCr = n! / (r! * (n – r)!) If A and B are two Events associated with sample space S. 1.A Copper Sphere of Diameter 18 cm is drawn into a Wire of Diameter 4 mm. coin tossing.7. Probability is the chance of occurring of a certain Event. P (E) = n(E) n(S) E – Event S – Sample space 2. Pondicherry Engineering College 18 . where P (A) is the Probability of Event A and P (B) is the Probability of Event B. because 3. P (E) + P (E1) = 1 2. Find the Length of the Wire. If the Events are Mutually Exclusive. Two Events A and B are said to be Independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the Probability of the occurrence of the other. then P (A P(A B) = 0 for Mutually Exclusive Events. In the case of Compound Events we consider the occurrence of two or more Events.Training & Placement 10. Events are said to be “Equally likely” if there is no reason to expect anyone in preference to other. If the occurrence of an event precludes or rules out the happening of all the other Events in the same experiment.7. It is expressed quantitatively. The possible outcomes of a trial are called Events. Probability 1. dice throwing and playing cards. P (A B) is the Probability that A and B occur simultaneously. we consider the Probability of happening or non happening of single events.2 Formulae: 1. 3.

Find the Probability that it is either a Heart or a Queen.3. If a Ball is drawn at random.7. P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) – P (A B) = (13 / 52) + (4 / 52) – 1 / 52 = 4 / 13. Problems to Solve: 1. P(B) = Getting a Queen Card. P(B) = 4 / 52. 2) (5. Two Dice are thrown. Required Probability. Find the Probability of getting an Odd number on one Dice and a multiple of three on the other Pondicherry Engineering College 19 . 4) (5. Problem 3: From a well shuffled pack of 52 Cards. (5. 6 Blue. Problem 1: If two Dice are thrown simultaneously. Probability of Occurrence of an impossible Event is 0.Training & Placement 4. A ball other than a black ball (2 + 6 = 8) can be drawn in 8C1 ways. Hence. and 3 Black balls. 6) Hence the Probability = 5 / 36. what is the Probability that the first Dice shows up 5 and the second Dice does not show up 5? Solution: We want only 5 on first Dice and any number other than 5 on the second Dice. Probability of Occurrence of an Event is from zero to one. the number of favorable cases are 5 viz. 3) (5. 1) (5. a Card is drawn at random. Problem 2: A bag contains 2 Green. P (A B) = 1 / 52. 5. what is the Probability that it is not a Black ball? Solution: One ball can be drawn out of the 11 balls from the bag in 11C1 ways. 1.. the Probability that the ball drawn is not black is 8C1 / 11C1 = 8 / 11. Solution: P(A) = Getting a Heart Card. P(A) = 13 / 52.

then Amount of Work done by A Amount of Work done by B Amount of Work done by C Also. then at a Uniform Rate of Working. Find the Probability that the total score is a Prime Number. A Card is drawn from pack of 100 Cards numbered 1 to 100.e. 5. the more number of Men involved. 4. i. D2 and D3 Days respectively. Find the Probability that both are White. Find the Probability of getting a total of 7 or 11 in a simultaneous throw of two Dice. 1. Time and Work 1.4.1.Training & Placement 2. Five Letters are placed at random in Five Addressed Envelopes. Find the chance that Head and Tail show alternatively.8. „A‟ will finish 1 / nth work in 1 day. 6. If „A‟ can do a Piece of Work in n Days. 7. The Probability that a man will be alive for 25 Years and hence is 0. A Coin is tossed Three times. Amount of Work done (A.3 and the Probability that his wife will be alive for 25 Years and hence is 0. A man and his wife appear for an interview for two vacancies for the same post.8. Concept: The Time required for the Completion and the number of Men engaged for a Project is Inversely Proportional to each other. If they have worked for D1. Find the Probability of drawing a number which is a Square. Two Dice are thrown. 9. 8. A. Find the Probability that all the Letters are not dispatched in the Right Envelopes. What is the Probability that only one of them is selected? 3. the lesser is the time required to finish a job. B and C can do a Piece of Work in T1. B and C together) = = = = = D1 / T1 D2 / T2 D3 / T3 D1 / T1 + D2 / T2 + D3 / T3 1 (if the work is complete) Pondicherry Engineering College 20 . T2 and T3 Days. Another bag contains 3 White and 5 Black balls. A Card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards. One bag contains 4 White and 2 Black balls. Find the Probability of getting a King of Club or a Queen of Heart. Find the Probability that 25 Years hence both will be alive. respectively. 10. The Probability of husband‟s selection is 1/7 and the Probability of wife‟s selection is 1/ 5. One ball is drawn from each bag.

working together but independently. Worker B takes 30 hrs to do the same job. then „c‟ Men and „d‟ Women can do the work in (n*a*b) / [(b*c) + (a*d)]. If A. can complete a Piece of Work in X Days. If A can complete a / b part of Work in X Days. What time will they require to do it working together? Solution: Part of the work done by A in one day = 1/6 Part of the work done by B in one day = 1 / 12 Part of the work done by A and B in one day = 1 / 6 + 1 / 12 = 1/4 Time required by A and B together to finish the work = 4 Days. B and C while working alone. 4. Y and Z Days respectively. Problem 1: Worker „A‟ takes 15 hrs to complete a job. If „a‟ Men and „b‟ Women can do a Piece of Work in „n‟ Days. if both Work together. A‟s 1 Hour‟s work B‟s 1 Hour‟s work (A + B)‟s 1 Hour‟s work Pondicherry Engineering College 21 .Training & Placement Tips: 1. working alone will complete the work in X*Y / (Y – X) Days. and B can do it in 12 Days. then B. 3. working together. If A can do a Piece of Work in „n‟ Days and B can do the same Piece of Work in „m‟ Days then Work will be done in [m*n / (m + n)]Days. to do the same job? Solution: = 1 / 15 = 1 / 30 = (1 / 15) + (1 / 30) = (2 + 1) / 30 = 1 / 10 Both A and B will finish the Work in 10 Days. 5. can complete a Work in X. Problem 2: A can do a Piece of Work in 6 Days. If A works Thrice that of B then Ratio of Work done by A and B is 3 : 1. 2. can complete the work in Y Days. If A. Two Persons A and B. then they will together complete the Work in X*Y*Z / (XY + YZ + ZX). 6. Working alone. then c / d part of the work will be done in (b*c*X) / (a*d) Days. How long should it take both A and B.

In how many Days. If 1 man. Two Men undertake to do a Piece of Work for Rs. while 3 Men and 7 Women can complete it in 10 Days. then in how many Days can B do the same work? 10. A = 12. How long will they together take to complete the work? 5. A can do a Piece of Work in 8 Days. Problems to Solve: 1. in how many Days will they complete the work? 8. . in how many Days will the work get completed? 3. In how many Days will 10 Women complete it? 6. He works at it for 8 Days and then Y finishes it in 16 Days. If A and B Work Together. If all the 10 Men and 15 Women work together. A and B can finish a job in 12 Days while A. X can do a Piece of Work in 40 Days. A undertook to do it for Rs. 200. 320. A can do a piece of work in 9 Days. in how many Days can they complete the work? 2. A can do a Piece of Work in 30 Days while B can do it in 40 Days. 4 Men and 6 Women can complete a work in 8 Days. N = 14 C = 7 and D = 5. If B is 50% more efficient than A. One alone can do it in 6 Days and the other in 8 Days. A can finish a work in 18 Days and B can do the same work in 15 Days. A alone can finish the remaining work? 4.2.8. With the help of a Boy they finish it in 3 Days. 1 Woman and 1 child work together. 4 Women can complete the same work in 3 Days and 5 children can do it in 3 Days. In how many Days. B and C can finish it in 8 Days. What will be the Share of B? 9.Training & Placement Problem 3: 12 Men or 15 Women can do a work in 14 Days. B = 15. How long will it take for C alone to complete the work? 7. 10 Men can complete a Piece of Work in 15 Days and 15 Women can complete the same work in 12 Days. How much is the Share of the Boy? Pondicherry Engineering College 22 = = = n*a*b / [(b*c) + (a*d)] 14*12*15 / ((15*7) + (12*5)) 168 / 11 Days. Required Number of Days 1. With the help of B he finishes the work in 6 Days. B worked for 10 Days and left the job. 7 Men and 5 Women would complete the work? Solution: Here. 5 Men can complete a work in 2 Days.

If an outlet can empty the full Tank in Y Hours. If an inlet can completely fill the Tank in X Hours. the part of the Tank emptied in 1Hour is 1 / Y. Problem 1: A tap can fill a Tank in 6 Hours. Part filled in 1 Hour = 1/6 Part filled by the four taps in 1 Hour = (4* 1 / 6) =2 / 3 Remaining part (1 – 1 / 2) =1/2 2 / 3: 1 / 2 = 1: x or x = (1 / 2* 1* 3 / 2) = 3 / 4 hrs i. Pipes and Cisterns 1.9. Two Pipes A and B can fill a Cistern in X Hours and Y Hours. A Cistern has a leak which can empty it in X Hours. totally 3 Hours 45 minutes is the time taken to fill the Tank completely Pondicherry Engineering College 23 . Two Pipes A and B can fill a Cistern in X and Y Hours respectively while working alone.e. the part of the Tank filled in 1 Hour is 1 / X. If an outlet can empty the full Tank in Y Hours. 4. Inlet is a Pipe connected to a Tank or Cistern for filling it. the part of the Tank filled in 1 Hour is 1 / X. There is also an outlet C. net part of the Tank filled in 1Hour = 1 / X – 1 / Y. the Tank is full in Z Hours.9. If both inlet and outlet are open. Concept: Pipes are connected to a Tank or Cistern and are used to fill or empty the Tank.Training & Placement 1. respectively. If both the Pipes are opened together. 5. net part of the Tank filled in 1 Hour = 1 / X – 1 / Y. So. the part of the Tank emptied in 1 Hour is 1 / Y. What is the total time taken to fill the Tank completely? Solution: Time taken to fill the half Tank = 3 Hours. Outlet is a Pipe connected to a Tank or Cistern for emptying it. After half the Tank is filled three more similar taps are opened. A Pipe which allows Y litres of Water per Hour into the Cistern is turned on and now the Cistern is emptied in Z Hours.1. 6. Tips: 1. The capacity of the Cistern can be found as (X*Y*Z) / (Z – X) litres. The time taken by C to empty the full Tank is (X*Y*Z) / (XZ + YZ – XY) Hours. If all the three Pipes are opened together. All the four taps need 45 minutes more to fill the remaining Tank. then the time taken to fill the Cistern is (X*Y) / (X + Y) Hours. 2. 3. If an inlet can completely fill the empty Tank in X Hours. If inlet and outlet are open. The concept is similar to that of Time and work.

Find whether the Tank will be filled up or emptied first and in how many minutes? A Tap can fill a bath in 20 minutes and another tap can fill it in 30 minutes.Training & Placement Problem 2: 12 buckets of Water fill a Tank when the capacity of each Tank is 13. 4. Two Pipes A and B together can fill a Cistern in 24 min and 32 min respectively. Three Pipes A. 1/9 1 / 9 – 1/10 1 / 90 = = = = (12 x 13. 1. Problems to Solve: 1. When the bath should have been full.5) litres 162 litres 9 litres (162 / 9) = 18 2. in what time shall the leak empty it? Solution: Work done in 1 Hour by the leak and the filling Pipe Work done by the leak in 1 Hour = = = Hence the leak can empty it in 90 Hours. Both Pipes being open. Pondicherry Engineering College 24 . When must the first Pipe be turned off so that the Cistern may be filled in 10 more minutes? Three Pipes A. find the time taken to fill the Cistern.5 litres. If the Cistern is full. What time will the waste Pipe empty it? A Cistern can be filled by two Pipes in 20 and 30 minutes respectively.9. Find the time in which the Cistern can be filled by Pipe C. He then closes the waste Pipe and in another 4 minutes the bath is full. Amit opens both the taps simultaneously. After working together for 2 hrs. 3. Both Pipes are opened. he finds that the waste Pipe was open. How many buckets will be needed to fill the same Tank. B and C can fill a Cistern in 10. Find when the first Pipe must be turned off so that the Cistern may be just filled in 16 minutes. if the capacity of each bucket is 9 litres? Solution: Capacity of Tank Capacity of each bucket Number of buckets needed Problem 3: A Cistern is filled in 9 Hours and it takes 10 Hours when there is a leak in its bottom. 12 and 15 Hours respectively while working alone. 6. A Tap can fill a Tank in 25 minutes and another can empty it in 50 minutes. 5. C is closed and A and B fill the Cistern in 8 hrs. B and C can fill a Cistern in 6 hrs.2. If all the three Pipes are opened together.

Interest 1. 1.1. When the Tank is full.10. 105.5 each Year. The money paid back to B. An inlet Pipe fills Water at the rate of 6 litres a minute.2. How many litres does the Cistern hold? Two Pipes A and B separately fill a Tank in 6 hrs and 8 hrs respectively. Compound Interest (C. but 1½ hrs after the start the Pipe A is turned off. then A has to pay certain amount to B for the use of this money. One Pipe fills the reservoir 10 Hours faster than the other. in how many Hours the reservoir will be filled by A alone? 1. The total amount of money borrowed by A from B is called the Principal. A reservoir is provided by two Pipes A and B. at the end of one Year total amount will be Rs. where the interest for each period is added to the Principal before interest is calculated for the next period. At the end of second Year it will be Rs. Both the Pipes are opened together.I) 2.I) When the interest is payable on the principal only. The Interest is usually charged according to a specified term. This amount paid by A is called Interest. 9. which is expressed as some percent of the principal and is called the Rate of interest for fixed period of time. 10. Simple Interest on Rs. that is. which comprises of the Principal and the Interest is called the Amount. I – interest It can be written as R = (I x 100) / (P*N) Pondicherry Engineering College 25 . Simple Interest (S. Compound Interest is the method. A leak in the bottom of a Tank can empty the full Tank in 8 hrs. it is called Simple Interest. If both together fill the reservoir in 6 Hours. A can fill the reservoir 5 Hours faster than B. With this method. How many Hours does the faster Pipe take to fill the reservoir? 8.10.10. Concept: When a Person A borrows some money from another Person B. the inlet is opened and due to leak the Tank is empty in 12 Hours. N – Period – Rate of interest. Formulae: Simple Interest: Amount = P+I I = (P*N*R) / 100 Where P – Principal. How much time will it take to fill the Tank? If two Pipes function simultaneously. Interest can be of two types: 1. the reservoir will be filled in 12 Hours. the Principal grows as the interest is added to it.Training & Placement 7. 100 at 5% per annum will be Rs. 110 and so on. For example.

Rate of Interest for the whole Sum is R = (P1R1 + P2R2) / (P1 + P2). A. say R1. If a certain Sum of money P lent out at SI amounts to A1 in T1 Years and A2 in T2 Years. Pondicherry Engineering College 26 . Z = (n*a) + [(R*a) / (100*b)] * [n*(n–1) / 2] 6. Tips (Compound Interest): 8. then Amount = P*[1+ (R1/100)]* [1+ (R2/100)]* [1+ (R3/100)] Problem 1: Find the S.I and S. If a certain Sum of money becomes n times itself in T Years at a Simple Interest. If an amount P1 lent at Simple Interest rate of R1% per annum and another amount P2 at Simple Interest rate of R2% per annum. R2. second and third Year respectively.I and S. If a debt of Rs. 7. A. then the borrowed amount is given by. Example: Difference between C. If a certain Sum in T Years at R% per annum amounts to Rs.I for 3 Years C. When the Rates of Interest are different for different Years. the Sum will be P = ((100*A) / (100 + (R*T))) 2.(100*A) / ((100*T) + (R*T*(T – 1)) / 2) 3.I = P*[(R / 100)3 + 3 (R / 100)2] Tips (Simple Interest): 1. then the Rate of Interest per annum is R = 100*(n – 1) / T %. 4. If a certain Sum of money becomes n times itself in T Years at Simple Interest.Training & Placement Compound Interest: Amount A = P* (1 + R / 100) N CI = [Amount – Principal]. The annual payment that will discharge a debt of Rs. R3 per cent for first.I for 2 Years C.I on a Principal of Rs.I – S. A due in T Years at R% per annum is Annual payment = Rs. Z is paid in n number of installments and if the value of each installment is Rs.I – S.I = P*[R / 100] 2 Example: Difference between C. then P = (A1T2 – A2T1) / (T2 – T1).1000 at an Interest Rate of 4% per annum for a period of 4 Years. then the time T1 in which it will become m times itself is given by T1 = (m – 1)* T / (n – 1) 5.

I. T = 2 Years and R = 6% Therefore. 3000 from his friend Suresh at 15 per cent per annum for 3 Years. on Rs. Find the Interest and Money returned by Mahesh to Suresh. P = Rs. Amount.I. Solution: Here.8000 at the rate of 12% S. Pondicherry Engineering College 27 .1350.1000 4% 4 Years 1000*4*4 / 100 = Rs. Solution: Here. After 4 Years he returned the principal and interest. A Problems to Solve: 2.I. 5200 for 2 Years at 6% per annum. what will be the Principal Amount? Brinda borrowed Rs. P + I.3000 + Rs. I = = = = = = P*R*T / 100 3000*15*3 / 100 Rs. 624. If he returned Rs. Rs. Krishna received a loan at 13% per annum S. and lent the whole Sum to another Person at the rate of 15%.Training & Placement Solution: The formula for S.5 per month from Ramu.15625 for 3 Years is Rs.5000 at the rate of 8%? Find the rate percent. T = 3 Years Interest. She lets the hut to Ramu and receives the rent of Rs.1200 as S. What will be the Gain after 7 Years? In what time. A man borrowed Rs.I Problem 2: = = = = = PNR / 100 Rs. P = Rs. 6. Simple Interest = P*R*T/100 = 5200*6*2/100 = Rs.4350.12.1951? Mr. if the Compound Interest on Rs.1000 to build a hut. 9120. Problem 3: Mahesh borrowed Rs. 5.5200.1350 Rs.I Where P is principal R is rate of interest N is time period S.3000.160 Find the Simple Interest on Rs. She pays 5% Simple Interest. can we get Rs. In how many Years Brinda ought to clear off the debt? 3. 4. R = 15% per annum.

accrued on an amount of Rs. If the Average of First Five Results is 48 and that of the last five is 53. 405. If the S. 10. The Population of a certain village increases by 5% annually. Concept: The Average or Mean or Arithmetic Mean of a number of Quantities of the same kind is equal to their Sum divided by the number of those Quantities. the Average of 3.I. If rate percent be 10% p.a. He lent the whole Sum at 12% p. Sum of Quantities Average 2) Sum of quantities 3) Number of quantities = = Problem 1: The Average of 9 Results is 30.I. Rs. Formulae: 1) Average = Sum of Quantities Number of Quantities Average * Number of Quantities. 3757 is to be divided between A and B such that A‟s Share at the end of 7 Years may be equal to B‟s Share at the end of 9 Years.I.14 during June and Rs. 1. For example.11.1.15 during July. 15. The difference between the C.a on C. 11.I. Rs. What will be his Gain after 2 Years? 8.18000 in 2 Years was Rs. and the S. Find B‟s Share 11. 18. Solution: Fifth Result = = = (48 * 5 + 53 * 5 – 30 * 9) (240 + 265 – 270) 235 Problem 2: A man‟s Average daily Expenditure is Rs. 19 and 23 is [3 + 9 + 11 + 15 + 18 + 19 + 23] / 7 = 98 / 7 = 14.I. 9. 9. Find the Average daily Expenditure for the Three months. on a Sum of money at 5% p.8000 at 12% per annum on S. Average 1. What will be the population after 3 Years? 1. on the same Sum for the same period and at the same Rate? A man borrowed Rs.10 during May. Compound Interest. Find the Rate of Interest.11.11.1500 Find the C.I. Find the Fifth Result. for 3 Years is Rs.a. Pondicherry Engineering College 28 .Training & Placement 7. Its present population is 8000.2.

2. If the Average of First Five Observations is 58 and that of the last Five is 56. The Average Height of 30 Boys out of a class of 50 is 160 cm. 3. a Cricketer increases his Average score by 4. 800. The total Expenditure = = = = = (10 * 31+14 * 30+15 * 31) rupees (310 + 420 + 465) Rs. 5.Training & Placement Solution: As there are 31 Days in May.1200.3.13 approx. The Average of Ten numbers is 7. a car traveled half the distance at 80 miles per Hour and the other half at 100 miles per Hour. The Average Temperature from Monday to Thursday is 48o and from Tuesday to Friday is 52o. The Average of marks obtained by 120 candidates was 35. what was it on Friday? 8. The Average of 11 Observations is 60. find the Average Salary of the Clerks.1195 31 + 30 + 31 = 92 Rs. On an 800-mile trip. The Average Salary of a Staff of 18 Officers and 32 Clerks is Rs. In the Tenth Inning he scores 100 runs. If the Temperature on Monday is 42o. thereby increasing his Average by 8 runs. If the Average of the passed candidates was 39 and that of the failed candidates was 15. If the Average Height of the remaining Boys is 165 cm find the Average Height of the whole class (in cm).1195 / 92 = Rs.11. Pondicherry Engineering College 29 . What will be his Average score after the 19th Innings? 6. 30 Days in June and 31 in July. The Mean of 100 Observations was calculated as 40. 7. What was the Average Speed of the car? 10. Find the correct Mean. find the number of those Candidates who passed the Examination 9. It was found later on that one of the Observations was misread as 83 instead of 53. If each number is multiplied by 12 find the Average of new set of numbers. then Find the Sixth Observation. If the Average Salary of the Officers is Rs. The number of Days The Average daily Expenditure 1. Find his new Average. A Cricketer has a certain Average for 9 Innings. Problems to Solve: 1. 4. Having scored 98 runs in the 19th Innings.

can be performed in „n‟ different ways. which is independent of the first operation. following which a second operation can be performed in „n‟ different ways. Solution: The number of Permutations is 8P6 = = = n! / (n – r)! 8! / 2! 20160 30 n = n! / (n–r)! = n! / [r! (n–r)!] = nCn = 1 .12. then the two operations in succession can be performed in „n*m‟ ways. If an operation can be performed in „m‟ different ways and another operation. Tips: If „n‟ is Even then the greatest value of nCr is nCn/2. Permutations and Combinations 1. then either of the two operations can be performed in (m + n) ways.1. If „n‟ is Odd. The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time is denoted by nCr. then the Greatest value of nCr is nCn+1/2 or nCn–1/2. Formulae: n 1. 3. is denoted by the symbol nPr.12. Then.2. the number of Permutations of n different things. Concept: If an operation can be performed in „m‟ different ways. Each of the different arrangements which can be made by taking some or all of given number of things or objects at a time is called Permutation.12. Each of the different groups or selections which can be made by taking some or all of a number of things (irrespective of other) is called a Combination. Let r and n be positive integers such that 1 < r < n. Pr 2. taken r at a time. Factorial: The continued Product of first n natural numbers is called n! n! = 1*2*3*4*…… (n–1) * n 0! = 1 1. Problem 1: Find the number of Permutations and combinations which can be made by taking 6 items at a time from Eight given Distinct items without Repetition. nC1 = n Cr nCo Pondicherry Engineering College .Training & Placement 1.

If there are 12 Persons in a party. there are 10 letters composed of 4S‟s. If there are 6 periods in each working day of a school. 2T‟s.Training & Placement The number of Combinations is 8C6 = = = n! / r! (n – r)! 8! / 6! 2! 28 Problem 2: How many different Permutations can be made out of the letters of the word. Hence. in how many ways can one arrange 5 subjects such that each subject is allowed at least one period? Pondicherry Engineering College 31 . In how many ways they are made to sit in a row if the candidates in Mathematics cannot sit next to each other? 4. In How many of these B and H are never together? 8. the number of Permutations = 10! / 4! 2! 2! = 37800 Problems to Solve: 1 There are 15 buses running between Delhi and Mumbai. There are three different rings to be worn in four fingers with at the most one in each finger. How may different words can be formed with the letters of the word „BHARAT‟. and 1I. A select group of 4 is to be performed from 8 men 6 women in such a way that the group must have atleast one woman. There are 8 students appearing in an examination of which 3 have to appear in a Mathematics paper and the remaining 5 in different subjects. „ASSISTANTS‟ have taken all together? Solution: In this word. How many words. In how many different ways can the letters of the word „TRAINER‟ be arranged so that the vowels always come together? 6. In how many ways can a man go to Mumbai and return by a different bus? 2. and if each two of them shake hands with each other. can be formed from the letters of the word INVOLUTE? 7. In how many different ways can it be done? 9. how many handshakes happen in the party? 3. each of 3 vowels and 2 consonants. In how many different ways can the letters of the word „ALLAHABAD‟ be permuted? 5. 1N. 2A‟s. In how many ways can this be done? 10.

100 but due to devaluation of the rupee it has risen to Rs. To convert a Fraction into a percent.13. The symbol % is often used for the term percent. It is the Abbreviation of the Latin phrase „per centum‟. Concept: The term Percent Means per Hundred or for every Hundred. 2. then B is more than A by [X / (100 – x) *100] % Problem 1: Find the Percentage Change in Area if the Length is increased by 20% and Breadth is decreased by 10% of a Rectangle. Find the Pass Percentage.Training & Placement 1. Problems to Solve: 1. A Fraction whose Denominator is 100 is called a Percentage and the Numerator of the Fraction is called rate percent. The term percent is sometimes abbreviated as p.c.13. A rise of 20% in the Price of rice compels a Person to buy 4 kg less for Rs. Tips: 1.1. 250. 2. What is the Percentage increase in its Price? Solution: Percentage Increase = = = [(Final Price – Initial Price) / Initial Price]*100% [(250 – 100) / 100]*100% 150 % 1. Pondicherry Engineering College 32 . 65% in Mathematics and 27% failed in both subjects. Solution: Increase in Length Decrease in Breath Percentage = = = = 20% –10% X + Y + (XY / 100) % 20 – 10 – (20*10 / 100) = 8% Problem 2: The Price of a Hindi book in 1987 was Rs. multiply by 100 and put % sign. Example: 5% = 5 / 100 5 parts out of every hundred parts. If A is x% more than B. Percentage 1.13. 80. Find the increased Price per kg. then B is less than A by [X / (100 + x) * 100] % 3.2. If A is x% less than B. In an Examination 75 % of the candidates passed in English.

2. A reduction of 20 percent in the Price of mangoes enables a man to buy 25 mangoes more for Rs. Allowing for 15% wastage and assuming that the paint is available in 2 kg cans.14. A reduction of 12. He was advised that he would require 25 kg of paint. find the percentage of students who are not adults. If her saving at the end of a month is Rs. At an election a candidate who gets 35% of the votes is defeated by a majority of 150 votes. 4. 7. find her Salary per month. it is called Still Water. 6. Concept: If a boat moves against the stream that is in the Opposite Direction of the stream. what would be the cost of paint purchased. 16? Swati spends 40% of her Salary on food. A house owner was having his house painted.Training & Placement 3. it is called Downstream. Find the original Price (in Rs) of the table. If a boat moves along the stream that is in the direction of the stream. 25% on house rent. The petrol Prices are reduced by 10%. 5. If Water of the river is moving. If 20% of the Boys and 25% of the Girls are adults. He gets 220 marks and fails by 11 marks. it is called Upstream. Find the total number of votes recorded.1. 8. Find by how much a user must increase the consumption of petrol so as not to decrease his expenditure on petrol. if one can costs Rs. it is called a Stream. A candidate must get 33% marks to pass. (c) Speed of the boat in still Water (d) Speed of the stream Pondicherry Engineering College 33 . The Boys and Girls in a college are in the Ratio 3:2. 40.1200.14. 15% on entertainment and 5% on conveyance. What is the maximum number of marks? 1. 1.14. Find the reduced Price of the basket containing 200 mangoes. 10. Formulae: If the speed of the boat be x kmph and the speed of the stream be y kmph then (a) Speed of the boat down stream (a) = ( X + Y) kmph (b) Speed of the boat upstream (b) = = = = ( X – Y) kmph (Downstream speed + upstream speed) 2 ½ (a + b). If the speed of the Water in the river is zero.5% in the Price of a dining table brought down its Price to Rs. 9. ½ (a – b). Boats and Streams 1. 4375.

find the Speed of the Stream. Find the man‟s speed in still Water and the speed of current. find the time taken to row a distance of 90 km down the Stream. A man rows 13 km upstream in 5 Hours and 28 km downstream in 5 Hours. A man rows upstream 12 km and downstream 28 km taking 5 hours each time. Solution: Upstream speed Down stream speed Speed in still Water = = = Problem 2: A man can row upstream at 8 kmph and downstream at 10 kmph. find the Speed in still Water. Find the velocity of Water. Find the Speed of the man in still Water. A man can row upstream at 12 kmph and downstream at 17 kmph. Problems to Solve: 1.5 kmph. 1.Training & Placement Problem 1: A man can row 2 / 7th of a kilometer upstream in 25 minutes and return in 10minutes. If the Speed of the Stream is 4 kmph. 5. 6. A man rows to a place at a distance of 10. He finds that he can row 4 km with the stream in the same time as 3 km against the stream. 7.5 km and comes back to the starting point.3. Find speed of the Stream.14. 3. 4. Solution: Speed in still Water = ½ (10 + 8) kmph = 9 kmph Speed of current = ½ (10 – 8) kmph = 1 kmph. 2. A man rows to a place 48 km far and comes back within 14 hours. A man can row a boat at 6 kmph in still Water. Find the total time taken by him. [(24 / 35) + (12 / 7)] / 2 [(84 / 35) x (1 / 2)] 1.2 kmph = = = [(2 / 7) / (25 / 60)] 24 / 35 kmph [(2 / 7) / (10 / 60)] =12 / 7 kmph Pondicherry Engineering College 34 . If a man can swim downstream at 8 kmph and upstream at 4 kmph. Find the Velocity of the Stream. The Speed of a boat in still Water is 9 kmph and the Speed of the Stream is 1.

If A goes from X to Y at s1 kmph. then the Average speed during the whole journey is given by. For converting kmph into m/sec multiply by 5/18 2.Training & Placement 8. Time Tips: 1. Also. and comes back from Y to X at s2 kmph. Concept: The terms „Time‟ and „Distance‟ are related to the speed of a moving object.15. by the time it takes to cover that distance. The Speed of an object is defined as the distance covered by it in a unit time of interval. a motor boat goes 10 km upstream and back again to the starting point in 55 min. If two Persons A and B start at the same time from two points P and Q towards each other and after crossing they take t1 and t2 Hours in reaching Q and P respectively then A‟s speed B‟s speed = t2 t1 = = = Speed * Time Distance Time Distance Speed 4. It is obtained by dividing the distance covered by the object. he can row 40 km upstream and 55 km downstream in 13 Hours.15.15.2. 10. 9. For converting m/sec to kmph multiply by 18/5. Average speed = [s1*s2*(d1 + d2)] / [(s1*d2) + (s2*d1)] 5. A man who can swim 48 m/min in still Water swims 200 m against the current and 200 m with the current. Find the speed of the motorboat in still Water. If a Person A covers a distance d1 km at s1 kmph and then d2 km at s2 kmph. In a stream running at 2 km/hr. 3. Find the rate of the current and speed of the man in still Water. Speed 3. Distance 2. 1. 1.1. Time and Distance 1. Average Speed = 2s1*s2 / (s1 + s2) Pondicherry Engineering College 35 . then the Average speed during the whole journey is given by. A man can row 30 km upstream and 44 km downstream in 10 hr. find the speed of the current in m per min. Formulae: 1. If the difference between these two times is 10 min.

and travels towards B at 60 km / hr. A train starts from A at 8 A.15. What is the total distance? Pondicherry Engineering College 36 54 kmph 15 m/sec 15 *30 450m Distance covered – Length of the Train 450 – 120 330m = = = 330 330 3 .M.78 = 9. and travels towards A at 75 kmph. 250m? Solution: Distance covered Speed Time = = = = = 280 + 250 530m 208*5 / 18 = 57. Problems to Solve: 1. Problem 3: Find the Length of the Bridge which a train 120 m long traveling at 54 kmph can cross in 30 seconds.78 m/sec Distance / Speed 530 / 57.3.17 Sec. Problem 2: The distance between two cities A and B is 330 km. If he takes T Hours in all.M.m. Solution: Speed of the Train = 54 * 5 / 18 = Distance covered in 30 seconds = = Length of the Bridge = = = 1. then the distance between A and B is = T*[s1*s2] / (s1 + s2) Problem 1: In how many seconds does a 280 m long train moving at 208 kmph cross a platform of length. If a Person goes certain distance (A to B) at a speed of s1 kmph and returns back at a speed of s2 kmph. Let the Trains be P and Q respectively Distance by P in „x‟ hrs + Distance by Q in (x –1) hrs 60x + 75 (x –1) x They meet at 11 A.M. Vikas can cover a certain Distance in 1 hr 24 min by covering two third of the distance at 4 kmph and the rest at 5 kmph. Another train starts from B at 9 A. At what time do they meet? Solution: The Trains may meet x Hours after 8 a.Training & Placement 6.

Age some Years hence. How many Hours will it take to cover a distance of 385 km? 10. 2. If a man runs at 3 m per sec. How many kilometers does he run in 1 Hour 40 min? 5. If 5 Years ago. with its speed increasing every Hour by 5 kmph.16. What is the distance of the school from his house? 3.16. There may be three situations:– 1. The former arrives half an Hour before the latter. what is the Average speed during the journey? 6. How far I have to walk? 4. Two Men start to walk together to a certain distance. I had to be at a certain place at a certain time and I found that I shall be 40 min too late. Concept: To solve these Problems. it is 36 kmph. he reaches 10 min late. Find their Present Ages. 1. if I walk 3 km an hr and 30 min too soon. Find the distance. if I walk 4 km an hr. if he walks at the rate of 3 kmph. Problems on Ages 1. A train running at the rate of 40 km an Hour meets a Person. Present age. Age some Years ago. the speed of the train is 45 kmph and including stoppages. Pondicherry Engineering College 37 . If it covers half the distance in 3/5th of the time. However.1. walking along the line in the opposite direction at the rate of 4 km an Hour and passes him in 5 sec. Problem 1: The Ages of two Persons differ by 10 Years.Training & Placement 2. Find the length of the train 7. The distance traveled in both the cases being the same. the elder one was 2 times as old as the younger one. A car starts with the initial speed of 40 kmph. he reaches the school 10 min earlier than the schedule time. What should be its speed to cover the remaining distance in the time left? 8. A man travels uphill with an Average speed of 24 kmph and comes down with an Average speed of 36 kmph. For how many minutes does the train stop per Hour? 9. Simple linear equations are to be framed and the solution can be obtained. If a Boy walks from his house to school at the rate of 4 kmph. one at 4 kmph and another at 3 kmph. the knowledge of linear equations is essential. Excluding stoppages. A bullock cart has to cover a distance of 80 km in 10 Hours. 3.

the Average is increased by 9 Years. Seven years hence the Sum of their united ages will be 83 years. find the Ratio of their ages after 3 years? 7. the elder one was twice as old as the younger. Problem 2: The Present Age of a mother is 4 Years more than Four Times the age of her Daughter. age of the Elder Person = (x + 10) Years 2(x–5) = (x + 10 – 5) 2x – 10 = x+5 x = 15 Hence. 15 Years ago. Six Years hence. Find the present age of elder 4. Find their present age? 5. If the age of the grandfather is included. The Ratio of Laxmis age to the age of her mother is 3:11. The difference of their ages is 24 years. Mohan‟s age was thrice as that of Rams. The Average age of five members of a family is 21 Years. One Year ago. Hence.16.2. Promila was four times as old as her daughter.Training & Placement Solution: Let the age of the Younger Person be x Years. find the age of X today Pondicherry Engineering College 38 . Then. Then. Problems to Solve: 1. In 6 Years time his age will exceed twice his son‟s age by 9 Years. The ages of Ram and Shyam differ by 16 years. Find the Ratio of their present ages 2. The difference between the ages of two Persons is 10 Years. Find the age of the grandfather 3. Three years ago. X‟s age was double of Y‟s. Promila‟s age will exceed her daughter‟s age by 9 Years. 1. mother‟s age will be 6 Years more than twice the age of the Daughter. Find the Ratio of the present ages of Promila and her daughter 6. Find the Present Age of the mother? Solution: Let the Daughter‟s present age be x Years. Four Years hence. One Year ago. a father was four times as old as his son. Mother‟s Present Age = (4x + 4) Years Four years hence (4x + 4 + 4) = 2(x + 4) + 6 4x + 8 = 2x + 14 x = 3. Mother‟s Present Age = (4x + 4) = (4*3 + 4) = 16 Years. their Present Ages are 15 Years and 25 Years. Six years ago.

P.50 and sells it for Rs. there is a Gain or Profit.P = Rs. The Product of their ages is 243.P. 8. The Ratio of father‟s ages to son‟s age is 3:1.Training & Placement 8.P. Solution: C. In 5 years. What will the Ratio of their ages be 3 years hence? 9.P = Rs.60 So.P.18.1. The Cost Price of an article is the Price at which an article has been purchased. = = A Girl buys an article for Rs. – C.10 / 17.P (P /C. 1.P.P. A baby having been born. It is abbreviated as S. Gain = Rs. The terms that describe Profit is Cost Price and Selling Price. = = = 7.P C. he will be 3 times her age.P.P)* 100 % (L /C.17.60 – 17.28% Pondicherry Engineering College 39 . 17. (18. C. If the cost Price of an article is greater than the selling Price. Narmatha‟s father is now four times her age.P. Formulae: 1.50)*100) % = 6. Concept: The aim of every Business is to earn Profit. Find her Gain percent.17. 4. 100 + P% [(100 – Loss %) /100] * C.P.P)* 100 % [100 + P%] * C.50 S. What is the age of the baby? 1. 5.P. the Average age of a family of 5 members was 17 Years.17.60. If the selling Price of an article is more than the cost Price. will he be twice her age? 10. The Selling Price of an article of an article is the Price at which an article has been sold. Three Years ago.1.P. 100 [ 100 ]* S. [100 / 100 – Loss%] * S. 18.P. 6. it is defined as Loss. Problem 1: S. 2.2. In How many years.50) = Rs. It is abbreviated as C. – S. Profit %( P %) = Loss % S.10 Gain% = ((1. the Average of the family is the same today. 3.17. Profit and Loss 1. Profit (P) Loss (L) = = S. C.

Training & Placement Problem 2: An Article is bought for Rs. 80 and sold at a Gain of 20%. What is Selling Price of the book? Solution: Gain = Rs. 5, so Gain % 1.17.3. Problems to Solve: 1. A Man bought 5 apples for Rs. 3 and sold each for Rs. 2. What did he Gain or Loss? 2. A man sold two pens at Rs.20 each. He sold one at a loss of 10% and the other at a Gain of 10%. Find his Goss or Gain %. 3. If Cost Price of 8 articles is equal to the selling Price of 10 articles. Find the Gain or Loss. 4. Vikas bought paper sheets for Rs. 7200 and spent Rs. 200 on transport. Paying Rs. 600, he made 330 boxes, which he sold at Rs. 28 each. Find his Profit percentage. 5. A sells a bicycle to B at a Profit of 20% and B sells it to C at a Profit of 25%. If C pays Rs.1500, What did A pay for it? 6. The profit earned after selling an article for Rs.625 is the same as loss incurred after selling the article for Rs. 435. What is the Loss percent? 7. A machine is sold at a Profit of 10%. Had it been sold for Rs. 80 less, there would have been a loss of 10%. Find the C.P of the machine. 8. A cloth merchant says that due to slump in the market, he sells the cloth at 10% loss but he uses a false metre scale and actually Gains 15%. Find the actual length of the scale. 9. If a Person makes a Profit of 10% on 1/4th of the quantity sold and a loss of 20% on the rest, then what is his Average percent Profit or Loss? 10. When a producer allows 36% commission on retail Price of his Product, he earns a Profit of 8.8%. What would be his Profit percent, if commission is reduced to 24%? = (5/20) * 100 =25%

1.18. Calendar
1.18.1. Concept: The Process of Finding the day of a given date depends upon the number of Odd Days present. The Days more than the complete number of weeks in a given period is called Odd Days. The Year (except century) which is divisible by 4 is called a Leap Year, where as century is a leap Year by itself when it is divisible by 400. Leap Year has 366 Days, i.e. 52 Weeks and 2 Odd Days. An Ordinary Year has 365 Days, i.e. 52 weeks and 1 Odd day. Pondicherry Engineering College 40

Training & Placement Tips: 1. A Century has 76 Ordinary Years and 24 Leap Years i.e. 76 + 48 Odd Days = 124 = 17 weeks and 5 Odd Days. 200 Years contain 3 Odd Days. 400 Years contain 1 Odd day. Since the order is Cyclic (i.e. every Century has 0, 1, 3 or 5 Odd Days) The First Day of a Century must either be Monday, Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday. Last Day of a Century cannot either be Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday. To find the Day of the Week on a particular date when reference date given: Find the net number of Odd Days for the period between the reference date and the given date. To find the Day of the Week on a Particular Date when no Reference Day is given: Count the net number of Odd Days on the given date and write the day corresponding to the Odd day.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

Odd Days: Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

=0 =1 =2 =3 =4 =5 =6

Month code: Ordinary Year has the Odd Days as follows January = 0 Odd Days February March =3 April May =1 June June =6 August September =5 October November =3 December

=3 =6 =4 =2 =0 =5

Month code for leap Year adds 1 with ordinary Year’s corresponding month code. Problem 1: 11th January 1997 was a Sunday. What day of the Week was on 7th January 2000?

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Training & Placement Solution: Total number of Days between 11th January 1997 and 7th January 2000 = (365 – 11 Days) in 1997 + (2*365 Days) in 1998 and 1999 + 7 Days in 2000. = (50weeks + 4 Odd Days) + 2*(52 weeks and 1 Odd day) + 0 Odd day = 6 Odd Days Hence, 7th January 2000 would be 6 Days ahead of Sunday, i.e. it was on Sunday. Problem 2: What Day of the Week was 5th June 1999? Solution: (A+B+C+D)-2, Take the Remainder 7 A = Divide the year by 7 and take the Remainder 1985/7, Remainder is 4 B = Divide the year by 4. Take the Quotient and divide it by 7. Take the Remainder. 1985/4 = 496; 496/7, Remainder is 6 C = Divide the Date by 7 and Take the Remainder. 2/7, Remainder is 2 D = Month Code June Code is 4 (4+6+2+4)-2 = (14-2)/7 = 5 7 th Hence, 5 June 1999 was Saturday. 1.18.2. Problems to Solve: 1. 2 nd July 1985 was Wednesday. What Day of the Week was 2nd July 1984? 2. India got Independence on 15th August 1947. What was the Day of the Week? 3. The First Republic Day of India was celebrated on 26th January 1950 What was the Day of the Week on that Date? 4. Smt. Indira Gandhi died on 31st October 1984.What was the Day of the Week? 5. What was the Day of the Week on 26th June, 2002?

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2. The Minute Hand moves 12 times as fast as the Hour Hand. Clocks 1. Problem 2: How many times do the Hands of a Clock Coincide in a Day? Solution: The Hands of a Clock Coincide 11 times in every 12 Hours The Hands Coincide 22 times in a Day. Problem 1: Find the Angle between the Minute Hand and Hour Hand of a Clock at 07:20.1. Solution: Angle between the two hands at 7: 20 = 30h – (11m / 2) = 30x7 – (11*20 / 2) = 100 Degrees. 1. the Hour hand covers 5 minute spaces while the minute hand covers 60 minute spaces. 2 2 Tips: 1. where h denotes Hour and m denotes Minutes. The Clock gains or loses in a Day by [(720 / 11) – M]*(60*24 / M) minutes. In an Hour. If the Minute Hand of a Clock overtakes the Hour Hand at intervals of M minutes of correct time. Formulae: To find the Angle between the hands = 30 h – 11m or 11m – 30 h. In every Hour both the hands coincide once.Training & Placement 1. the minute hand gains 55 minute spaces over the Hour hand. 4. Thus in One Hour or 60 minutes. The Two Hands of the Clock will be at Right Angles between H and (H + 1) o‟ Clock at (5H 15)12 / 11 Minutes past H o‟ Clock.19.19. The Two Hands of the Clock will be together between H and (H + 1) o „clock at (60H / 11) minutes past H o‟clock. In every Hour the hands are twice at Right angles. The Hour hand (or short hand) indicates time in Hours and the Minute Hand (or the long hand) indicates time in Minutes.2. Concept: The Circumference of a Dial of a Clock is divided into 60 Equal Parts called Minute Spaces. 3.19. The Clock has two hands – the Hour Hand and the Minute Hand. Pondicherry Engineering College 43 .

It is also known as Syllogism.1 Concept: Deduction Means reducing two statements into one or three statements into one. Do not jump from one statement to the other before completely understanding the statements. Problems to Solve: 1. the approach for solving analytical reasoning questions varies from question to question as analytical reasoning questions are of different types. Do not make unnecessary assumptions. Find the Angle between the Hour Hand and the Minute Hand of a Clock when the time is 3. 2. Analytical Reasoning Concept: As it is very much evident from the word „analytical‟ itself that this type of reasoning is based on the analysis of the statements which are there in the question. i. Syllogism is a noun which means a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from two statements. 5.30 and 6 o‟clock will the hands of a Watch be 90 ? How much does a Watch Lose per day.25? At what Time between 4 and 5 o‟clock will the Hands of a Watch Point in Opposite Directions? At what Time between 9 and 10 o‟clock will the hands of a Watch be together? At what time between 5. This method consists of a standard approach which must be followed in all the analytical reasoning questions (based on the need). There are two ways of solving analytical reasoning questions. 2. Deductive Reasoning. In more clear terms Syllogism is a mediate deductive inference in which two propositions are given in such an order that they jointly or collectively imply the third. Deduction 2.The other approach is based on the specific type of the questions.19. 3.e.1. Tips for Solving Analytical Reasoning questions: 1.3. Read the statements very thoroughly and repeatedly to clearly understand the meaning (known or unknown) which they carry. Thus Syllogism can be defined Pondicherry Engineering College 44 . preferably. 3. Use notations. 4. if its hands coincide every 64 Minutes? 2. 6. 5. 4. or Tree. Organize the information given in the question in the form of suitable Tables..1. Mark the keywords which are present in the statements. 2.Training & Placement 1. Maps. The first way is the one which consists of the general method for solving any type of analytical reasoning questions. symbols and abbreviations wherever required.

Training & Placement as „a form of reasoning in which the conclusion establishes a relation between two terms on the basis of both terms being related to the same third term as derived in the premises. The child is a human being. 1. If the statement starts with. Universal Negative: If the statement starts with „NO‟ it is Universal Negative.‟ For example. No –––– Universal Statement Some. The child is mortal. Therefore. Many–––– Particular Statement No. All human beings are mortal. All. Not–––– Negative Statement Universal Affirmative: If the statement starts with „ALL‟ or „NO‟ it is Universal Affirmative. 2. with both subject (children) and the predicate (mortal). i. 3. Pondicherry Engineering College 45 √ √ X X X –UNDISTRIBUTED Predicate X √ X √ . Types: The types of deduction are: Deduction in two statements and Deduction in three statements. √ –DISTRIBUTED Subject Universal Affirmative Universal Negative Particular Affirmative Particular Negative Rules for Deductions:  The middle term must be distributed at least once.  Two statements should have only Three Distinct terms. Particular Affirmative: If the statement starts with „SOME‟ or „MANY‟ it is Particular Affirmative. Particular Negative: If the statement starts with „SOME‟ or „MANY‟ and if the statement has the word „Not‟ it is Particular Negative. If the statement starts with „ALL‟ and if the statement has the word „Not‟ it is Universal Negative..e. in a Syllogism two premises are necessary to arrive at a conclusion. The conclusion is reached through the medium of a middle term. „human being‟.

Two Conclusions. All pots are jacks Solution: Statement 1: Universal affirmative Subject (pens) – Distributed Predicate (pots) – Undistributed Statement 2: Universal affirmative Subject (pots) – Distributed Predicate (jacks) – Undistributed Conclusion: “All pens are jacks” 2. All Some Some All No No Some No Some. Two Conclusions.1. One Conclusion. – – – – Some Many No Conclu. One Conclusion. All All All No No No Conclu. All horses are fruits Some boxes are trees Some trees are horses 3. the Conclusion would be Negative. 2 Conclusion Universal Affirmative Universal Negative Particular Affirmative Particular Negative Problem 1: All pens are pots. Not Stat. All dogs are Parrots No train is dog Some buses are trains Pondicherry Engineering College 46 . the Conclusion would be Particular If one Statement is Negative. 1 Stat.2 Problems to Solve 1.Training & Placement      The Middle term should not come in the conclusion If both the statements are „Particular‟ there would be No Conclusion If both the statements are „Negative‟ there would be No Conclusion. All bats are keys All locks are keys No keys are doors 2. If one Statement is Particular.

D. A is immediately to the left of C. No magazines are caps All caps are cameras 10.2 Linear Sequencing 2. i.e. Concept: Arranging the items in a linear fashion is called Linear Sequencing.Training & Placement 4. Who must sit in the middle seat of the row? Solution: First draw linear arrangement as given below. Some dogs are cats None of the cats are cows 7. E takes 2 seats: i. arranging it in single row manner. Shyam is bachelor All bachelors are intelligent 8. because the remaining conditions are based on this direct condition.e. C. C is at the extreme right. Some fools are professionals All engineers are fools 6. C is at the extreme right end of the row. There may be 4–5 questions asked from a single linear pattern given. E and D sit immediately next to each other. i. __ E __ A C or E __ __ A C D sits next to E. The direct condition should be found first and then the question can be solved.1. All sports are enthusiastic Cricket is not a sport 9. i.2. B. __ __ __ __ C A is to the immediate left of C. __ __ __ A C E does not sit next to A. So occupy 1 or 2 seat i. Problem 1: There are five Persons (A. All poles are Guns Some Boats are not Poles 2.e. and E) in a room who are seated in a single row in the following manner: A does not sit immediately next to E. Some guns are Pistols All Pistols are Bombs All Crackers are Pistols 5.e. either DEBAC or BEDAC E takes 1 seat: EDBAC Hence Middle Seat: B or D ––––– Pondicherry Engineering College 47 .e.

If Sociology and English.2. In a pile of reading material. Bedford and Fargo were displayed in a row. Maruthi car was between Ambassador and Bedford. Problems to Solve: 1. H. I. Fiat. seven cars of seven different companies such as Cadillac. story books. Which of the following groups of friends are sitting to the right of G? a. Fargo was fourth to the right of Fiat. Eleven Students A. D is to the immediate left of F. dramas and comics. F. which book will be between Psychology and Sociology? a) Accountancy b) Psychology c) Hindi d) Economics 4. Economics. J and K are sitting in the first row of the class facing the teacher. Sociology. lying on the table one above the other. C. who is second to the right of C.2. J is the immediate neighbor of A and B is third to the left of G. In a Car Exhibition. English. I. If there be a novel at the top and the number of Books is 40. Which of the following was the correct position for the Mercedes? a) Immediate right of Cardilac b) Immediate left of Bedford c) Between Bedford and Fargo d) Fourth to the right of Maruthi II. every story–book has a comic next to it and there Is no story–book next to a novel. which was third to the left of Ambassador Car. Economics is immediately above Psychology but not in the middle. G. Fiat. Who is sitting in the middle of the row? II.Training & Placement 2. Which cars are on the either side of the Cardilac cars? a) Ambassador and Maruthi b) Maruthi and Fiat c) Fiat and Mercedes d) none of these 3. Economics is in–between which of the following books? a) Accountancy and Education c) English and Psychology b) Psychology and Hindi d) Psychology and Sociology II. ICHD 2. Maruthi. Hindi. Accountancy and Hindi and Education and Psychology interchange their positions. who is at one end. Education and Accountancy. IBJA d. CHDE b. A is second to the right of E. CHDF c. was at one end. B. what would be the order of the books in the pile? Pondicherry Engineering College 48 . There are seven books one each on Psychology. Mercedes. I. E. Accountancy is immediately below Education which is immediately below Sociology. D. H is to the immediate left of D and third to the right of I. facing the east such that: Cadillac car was to the immediate right of Fargo. Hindi is immediately below psychology. Every novel has a drama next to it. there are novels. Ambassador. Sociology is on top of all the books. I.

N has equal number of people on either side of him. D. H2 is to the right of H4. C. E. Five Persons L. H. then with whom should he exchange the seat? How many Persons are there between R and Q? 10. H5 in a row H1 is to the right of H2 & H5 is to the left of H3 and right of H1. Nine Persons A. B. D. E & F) in a Team who are seated in a linear manner. H4. There are two places in between B and E. M is to the right of L. There are 5 houses – H1. viewing from front. How many arrangements are possible? If C takes the 2nd spot and E shifts the place to B How many people are sitting in between E and D? 9. E is to the immediate right of H. One who finishes first gives it to C & one who reads last had taken it from A. M is to the left of P. Whom did B pass the novel to? Who read the novel last? 8. F. then who sits to the immediate right of Q? If Q wants to sit to the immediate left of N. 5 people A. N is to the right of O. N. M. If G sits to the immediate left of D then who will sit in the centre seat of the row? If F sits between C and I. F. There are 6 Persons (A. then in how many ways altogether can all of them be seated in the row? Which of the following is at one end of the row? 11. M. D sits in one extreme of the row. H3. A yellow bus is standing to the right of green. M is to the immediate left of N and there are exactly three Persons between M and S. E is not between B and D. E has not read it first or lastly two people read between B & A. N. D. Who is sitting second from your right side? Pondicherry Engineering College 49 . O. C. C. L is to the right of N. I sit together. I are seated in a row. Orange bus stands at ________ Position from right. O.Training & Placement a) NSCD b) NDSC c) CSDN d) DNCS 5. C. If the seven Persons sit facing forward. P. H2. The seats are numbered from 1–9 from left to right as per the following restrictions. G. B. B sits in the fourth seat from the left end and D sits in the third seat from right end. A sits in between E and D. and E read a novel. An orange bus is to the left of blue bus & Green bus stands between the red and yellow buses. Which bus stands at the centre? Yellow bus stands to the left of _____? 7. and P are sitting in a line. R & S are 7 Persons who are sitting in a row. B. The buses stand in a row. Which is to the house in the middle? 6. One of the 2 buses at the extreme end is red and the other blue. and R is to the immediate right of P. Q. O sits to the immediate left of S.

1. Lockers 3 and 4 are in the second row from top arranged from right to left and so do 5 and 6. S. Problems to Solve 1) On the shelf are placed six volumes side by side labeled A.2.1. Which locker is allocated to employee Q? 3. Problem 1: P. Concept: The question will consist of at least two different variables. A. There will be more than one question per passage. Double Lineup 2. T has locker just above that of Q which is just above that of R whereas W locker is in bottom row.3.3. C and D are law reports while the rest are gazetteers Which is the red colored new law report volume? Which two old gazetteers have blue covers? Pondicherry Engineering College 50 . D. B and E have blue covers while the rest have red covers. W are 8 employees allocated with eight different lockers numbered 1–8. 2. 3 volumes C. D and F are new volumes while the rest are old volumes. Q.Training & Placement Identify the Persons sitting on the extremities. How many arrangements are possible? 4. Lockers 1 and 2 in top row from left to right and lockers 7 and 8 in bottom row from left to right. B. The lockers are arranged in four rows with two lockers in each row. Fitting the data in the table results in Left 1 4 6 7 Right 2 3 5 8 P S/U S/U W 1) 2) 3) 4) T Q R V Employee Q is allocated locker 3 There are 2 arrangements possible W would take the top row and P would take the bottom row If S is given locker 4 there is only 1 solution possible. R. U. V.3. C. P has been given locker 1 while v has been allocated locker 8. Draw the table? 2. If W and P are interchanged what does the table look like? 5. T. We have to form a table. E and F. 2. If S is given locker 4 how many solutions are possible? Solution: 4 Rows and 4 Columns are given.

Lakhan and Kishan are a doctor. A works neither in post office P nor in S. Radha is married to the Engineer. C works neither in post office Q nor in R but D works in T and A works in Q. Lokesh. while B works neither in post office T nor in U.Training & Placement 2) P. T & U and each one wears company sponsored different coloured tie such as Blue. A plays Carrom and he has black car.Q. C does not play TT & Hockey and owns neither blue nor yellow car. Black. E and F workers. Each owns a different colored car Yellow. E has white car and plays Baseball. C.S. Hitesh does not work in company R. Purple & Red though not necessarily in the same order. Teacher‟s wife teaches in St. B cannot have W. The day Ram and Lakhan saw the film “Sita aur Gita”. They are married to Radha. Q. C & D) sit and have dinner in a room. What are the different arrangements possible? 4) There were 6 friends A. TT and Polo. Every one is good in one of the following Games. Bangalore. D. X. Y & Z). B. In each of which one is a post man out of A. Baseball. White. Ram and Gita are having a love affair secretly. Nilesh. Each of their wives is working. Sita and Gita not in that order. Who plays Volley ball? Which colored car F owns? 5) 6 friends Ramesh. Carrom. Dinesh. Ramesh wears Pink tie and works in Company Q. The various dishes provided are (W. B. D plays Polo and has yellow car.R. Company T does not Sponsor Purple or Yellow colored tie and Lokesh works in Company P. S. R. Each of them has one dish each as follows. a teacher and an engineer. Shaliesh works in company U and neither Nilesh nor Dinesh works in company S. Shaliesh & Hitesh work in different companies namely P. The one wearing Blue tie works in Company S and the one wearing Green tie works in Company P. Which Colour Tie is sponsored by company R? Which of the following Colour Company Person combination is correct? a) Green – R – Nilesh b) Blue – S – Lokesh c) Red – T – Dinesh d) Yellow – R – Shaliesh Which of the following is true? a) Company U sponsored Green tie c) Nilesh works in T b) Shailesh wears Red tie d) Red Colour is sponsored by T 6) Among Ram. Pink. Kishans wife is an artist and regularly holds exhibitions at Venkatappa art gallery. E & F. D. C has Z. Volleyball. B. If A has Y. Green. Green. Yellow. B does not play TT and has red car. No postman works in two post offices. If B works in post office P and C does not work in post office U then E works in (a) S (b) U (c) R (d) R or U 3) 4 people (A. Nilesh does not work in Company T and purple colour tie is not sponsored by Company R. C. Sita and Gita saw the film Ram Lakhan. Joseph‟s Convent. Pondicherry Engineering College 51 .T and U are 6 post offices. Blue and Red. Hockey.

Mr. Dinesh plays cricket. Both the Maths students play Football. can also speak French. Mr. B e) any of the other three executives. W must be placed in which window? If U is placed in window no. A can speak Spanish and Hindi Mr. One Product is to be put in one window. If X is placed in window no. A or Mr. D wish to converse ? a) Only Mr. D. E d) Mr. Six Products – U. E. Moreover U cannot be immediately to the left or immediately to the right of V. Pondicherry Engineering College 52 . D & A are metropolitan. Mr. W. All the friends play two games each and study one subject each. B. 2.4. a native Indian. A & E are is of historic significance. Rahul is a student of Physics.C converses in English and Hindi. B c) Only Mr. There are six display windows number 1. Z cannot be in window number 6. I like the following 5 Places in India A. Which of the following can act as an interpreter when Mr.3. Dinesh and Sunil study Maths. B. E is a peaceful city. V. D speaks French and understands Spanish quite well. Rahul and Atul. A b) Only Mr. C and Mr. 10. Y and Z – are display windows of a shop.3. Who is the Doctor? a) Ram b) Lakhan c) Kishan d) Can‟t Say Who is Ram‟s wife? a) Gita b) Sita c) Radha d) Data insufficient Who is the Artist? a) Gita b) Sita c) Radha d) Can‟t Say Who is Radha‟s Husband? a) Ram b) Lakhan c) Kishan d) Can‟t Say Who is married to the teacher? a) Radha b) Sita c) Gita d) Can‟t Say Who is the Engineer? a) Ram b) Lakhan c) Kishan d) Data Insufficient 7.5 and 6. immediately to the right of X which Product must be placed in window no. B and E have Seashores. C.3. Sunil. Which city has seashore and historic significance? Which city is both a metropolitan and has seashore? Which city is not peaceful but has historic significance? 8. W must be immediately to the left of X. One of them studies Commerce and plays Golf and Table tennis.5? There are four friends Dinesh. Five executives of CHOGM hold a conference in Delhi. X. E because of the following Characteristics.Training & Placement Sita is a good cook and one can find her recipes in every issue of Women‟s Era magazine. The Physics student plays Football and Badminton. Who is the student of commerce? Who does not play Football? Who plays cricket? Who studies Maths and plays Cricket? 9. B understands Spanish and English Mr.

choose the least common language: a) English and Spanish b) English and French c) Hindi and Spanish d) English and Tamil e) French and Spanish 2. not equal to will come into play.4. less than. Pondicherry Engineering College 53 . M. N. L. Neither M nor N is the tallest. Hence: K is the tallest. Ordering 2. L. O and P are 6 Men. O is as tall as P but taller than M. Remaining: K L O Statement 3: L is shorter than K So. use ordering method according to the condition. N. L is taller than P but shorter than K. A and Mr. rank etc. Elimination: If the Problem contains only one variable. E b) Mr. E Of the languages spoken at this conference. Which is the tallest? Solution: The Persons are K. M. O and P. O is not. height.4. A and Mr. according to the condition. Types: Ordering: If More than one Variable is given in the problem. B and Mr. then use elimination or ordering method. C d) Mr. Here the terms like greater than. B c) Mr. D e) Mr. The questions will be based on the Person‟s weight. Statement 1: Neither M nor N are tallest So. Concept: Items are to be arranged based on the conditions given.1. Remaining: K O Statement 4: O is as tall as P. Problem: K. Remaining: K L O P Statement 2: L is taller than P So. Since P Eliminated. B and Mr. age.Training & Placement Which of them can not converse without an interpreter? a) Mr. A and Mr.

L. Arti has Rs. but ½ of B5‟s weight. K. 5 more than Dolly. A is shorter than E but taller than F. B4 is twice of B3. C. They are ranked in the order of their heights from tallest to shortest and in the order of cleverness from cleverest to dullest.4. H is six months younger to Sita while B is three months younger to A. B. Chetan and Dolly have Rs. Manju is younger than Sita and older than Jugal. but not as clever as J and L. B2. but not as tall as C.3 d) None of these Who has the second highest amount? a) Arti b) Chetan c) Dolly d) Banti 2. whereas M is the cleverest of all but shorter than J. Chetan has half as much money as Dolly. K is taller than N. Who among them is the Tallest? Who is the third tallest from the top when arranged in descending order? Who among them is the lightest? 3. B was 2 months old. E. F is heavier than D. B3. C. Saksha is younger than Beena and older than Heena. B and C are shorter than F but heavier than A. B1 is twice as much as B2. Pondicherry Engineering College 54 . B2 is 4½ times heavier than B3. Raksha is younger than Saksha and older than Sita. M.6 c) 13. I have 5 balls B1. Arti and Banti together have as much money as Chetan and Dolly. A belongs to the age group of five while H belongs to the age group of six. 100 with them. Problems to Solve 1. D is elder to A but is shorter in the Group. and is taller to D and E. A.2. Banti. No two Persons got the same ranks in any parameters.03 b) 11. J. D. Heena is older than Raksha. While L is shorter than M but taller than K. C is younger to A. B is elder to E. when Sheila was born. A is taller to D. A. but younger to E. D and E are five friends. Anju is younger than Manju and older than Sanju. and F are six students in a class. B5 is less than B1 but more than B3 in weight. B. L is not as clever as J. E is shorter than D but taller than F. Which of the following pair is elder to D? a) BA b) BC c) BE d) EA e) None of these If another friend F is taller than C how many of them will be between F and E according to height? a) None b) one c) two d) three e) None of these 5.Training & Placement 2. Find which is lightest. D is heavier than B and taller than C. and N are five Boys in a class. Who is the third tallest? How many people are shorter than K? If L is the third cleverest then who is the dullest? 6. Who among them is the oldest? 7. B4 & B5 all of different weights. Arti has more money than Banti. Four People Arti. How much does Banti have? a) 12. 4. Jugal is younger than Sanju and older than Mughal.

Lalit is Older than Neelesh and Kabir. Kunal. draw the shape like Square. R. Anuj is little shorter than Kunal and little taller than Sachin? Who is the Shortest? Who is the second tallest? 9. Mohit. A weighs twice as much as B B weighs four and a half times as much as C C weighs half as much as D D weighs half as much as E E weighs less than A but more than C Which is the lightest in weight? Arrange the articles in descending order of their weights. Seating Arrangement 2. 3. Mohan is older than Raju but not as old as Lalit. Among 5 friends. C. Mughal in age? a) Manju b) Sita c) Anju d) Raksha 8. etc.Two different arrangements are possible.Training & Placement Who is the Youngest? a) Anju b) Sanju c) Jugal d) Mughal Who precedes Sanju.1. Problem 1: P. Jugal. Mohit is the tallest. 2. Pondicherry Engineering College 55 . There are five friends – Sachin.5. Mostly it is in the form of a circle. P sits two tables to the left of R and Q sits two tables to the right of R. How many different arrangements are possible? 3. Based on the question. 10. We have to draw the Shape which is given in the question and arrange them according to the conditions given. Concept: It is the manner in which the people are seated in Place. Sachin is Shorter than Kunal but taller than Rohan. A Blacksmith has five iron articles A. Neelesh is younger than Raju but not the youngest. If S is not sitting between Q and R then who is sitting between Q and S? Solution: 1. D and E. each having a different weight. If S is between Q and R then the arrangement is QSRTP. Anuj and Rohan.Either P is sitting when viewed anticlockwise or T and R when viewed clockwise. Triangle. Who is the fourth in the descending order of age? 2. S and T are 5 people who sit at a round table. If S is in between Q and R what is the arrangement? 2. B. 1. Q.5.

Who is immediate right of S? 9. Q is second to the left of R. R. Six Persons A. R. F. Who is third to the left of T? Pondicherry Engineering College 56 . N. T has two seats in between himself and U. C. 6. E is to the right of A but on the left of C. B and F always like to sit opposite each other.Training & Placement 2. B. A is between E and D. T is the second to the left of Q who is second to the left of W. B. Eight friends A. whose right hand neighbor is G. B. S. G and H are sitting in a circle facing the centre. A group of eight members sit in a circle. D. Since A does not like C. E and F are standing in a circle. What is the formation like? How many possibilities are there? 3. is not the neighbor of R. F is to the left of D. E is to the left of D. who is the neighbor of M. E and F are seated in a closed circle facing the centre. P. E and F sit at a round table with the following conditions given how does the arrangement look like: A sits opposite to E. E and F sit around a table for dinner. C. D is between A and F and is opposite to G. E.5. D. Find the member who is diagonally opposite to A. V and W are sitting around a circle facing the center. B enjoys having H to his left and F to his right. 6 people A. Who is third to the left of D? 5. 4. B is to the right of D. B. S. P. Who is to the left of B? 7. Q. Problems to Solve: 1. N is second to the left of S . R and S are sitting in a circle and playing cards. B. he doesn't sit either opposite or beside C. A is to the right of B and E is to left of C and right of A. B is between F and C. R is third to the right of V who is second to the right of P. T. Q. T and U are seated in a circle with P opposite to S. V is sitting between S and W. Q. B is sitting between G and D. C. D. Which of the houses is in the middle? a) A b) B c) D e) E 2. If 6 people A.2. C. D. H is third to the left of B and second to the right of A. F is between E and A. N who is the neighbor of P. M. There are five different houses A to E in a row. U is to the immediate left of P. C is between A and B. Six friends A. C. D sits to the immediate left of A and B sits two places to the right of A. If D is adjacent to F then who is adjacent to C? (a) E and B (b) D and A (c) D and B (d) none 10. D. L. P. Who is between A and F? 8. C is sitting between A & G and B & E are not sitting opposite to each other.

If S selects C then J does not select L. U should be present in the team.  Y & C can be together  A& X are always together  C & D cannot be together but C & B are always together. Y and Z. M. Dilip & Imran. Boys are Amit. W. Chaitanya. (given) P can‟t be selected If B selects Y then S cannot select C. If L is selected then P cannot be selected. A team of 5 is to be selected for a Basketball tournament. D and Girls are X. B. and L. Concept: Selecting a part out of whole.6. U. Y and X come together. Bhel. If S selects L and B selects Y then S cannot select? Solution: S selects L. Selections 2. Y. B. Y cannot come with W. Rani. B selects Y. Four Students are to be selected from T. Pondicherry Engineering College 57 . Write the condition in a shortcut like. A and C will not be selecteed which Means B ≠ A. Kiran and Sonia. L is selected P cannot be selected. V cannot be a part of the team.2. Infer from the statements without Assumptions. V. If T is selected then Z cannot be there.6. Z. C. H. A and B together Means A = B If A come and B will not come Means A ≠ B If B is selected.6. If A is selected who are the remaining members? If B is selected who are the remaining members? Who is the Person who will be always there in the team? 3. Problems to Solve: 1. The good players among.Training & Placement 2. If B selects Y then S cannot select C and if J selects P then S selects H and L. S have to select 3 subjects out of 6 subjects P. Select the item from the whole according to the condition and start to solve from the direct condition. Among Girls are Priti. C. The selection criteria are such that Amit and Sonia have to be together. C Problem: Three students J. In a class of 7 members they are going to select 4 members 2 from Boys and 2 from Girls. X. Y.1. The Boys are A. (given) So C can‟t be selected Answer: P and C 2. Find the number of possibilities If T comes in the team who are its members? 2.

S. who would be the others? Now let two members be Girls and Dilip is one of the members too. D and E. H.  Debaters A & B can‟t work together. there will be no female teacher. which other debaters must be in the team as well? If Y & Z are selected. D who are juniors. If P is selected the remaining members are: a) ACDS b) RBAB c) CDAQ d) QRBA 6. Q. C. It is also necessary that all the debaters be able to work with one another. R. The selection of the team is based on the following conditions:  P does not go along with R  Q and R work together  If B is selected. all the following teams are Possible except? a) A B G M N O P b) A B H M O P Q c) A B H M R P Q Pondicherry Engineering College 58 . O. C and D. which of the debaters must be in the team with them? 5. From amongst five doctors A. B. The school requires that they should be two seniors and two seniors in the team. Of these A. In a college a new football team was formed consisting of five members. three female teachers and two engineers. B. then the who would be the members of the team ? 4. Y & Z who are seniors and A.  Debaters Y & A can‟t work together. O. there will be no female doctor. Q and R some teams are to be selected. P and Q are females and the rest are males. S is not selected  C and D are always together. the team who will be the members of the team? Now if one of the members is Rani. similarly we cannot have Rani with Bhel or Dilip with Kiran. one engineer and four teachers. The formation of teams is subjected to the following conditions:  Wherever there is a male doctor. who are the members the team will consist of? If debater A is in the team.Training & Placement Priti however cannot be with Rani.  Debaters Z & C can‟t work together. four engineers G. In senior team the members are P. K and L and six teachers M. H. There are candidates of equal ability X.who are the members of the team ? a) A B O P Q G H b) C D K L O P Q c) C D O P Q G H d) D E G H O P Q If the team consists of two doctors. 3 from Junior and 2 from Senior. N. B. If the team consists of two doctors. and however Chaithanya and Imran have to be together. in junior team the members are A. C. B.  Wherever there is a male engineer. P. If two of the members have to be Boys. If debater B is selected and debater Y is rejected. City high school must put together a debating team consisting of four debaters.  There should not be more than two male teachers in any team. G.

all the following teams are possible except : a) A B G H O Q b) A B G H P Q c) A B K L P Q d) O P G H A B 7. N.  C cannot be put with Q. B. Y. C and D work together  If H is selected then A cannot be selected.Training & Placement d) A B K N R P Q If the team consists of two doctors. S and T and four Girls A. P. A school decided to go for NSS camp for a week. There was a need of five member team of 3 Managers and 2 Executives. two female teachers. Some criteria for selection are:  P and D have to be together. O. Six member team of 3 Girls and 3 Boys were to be selected with the conditions as  A and B cannot be together  M and P cannot be together  P and B go together  D and E go together  M and N go together Pondicherry Engineering College 59 . D.  S and B cannot go together. Boys team consists of A. Q. Z) were to be selected with the following conditions:  A and C work together  X and Y work together but X does not work with Z  H does not work with X. B. E and Girls team consists of M. C and D. R. If B is selected then who are the remaining Persons? 9. A team of five is to be selected from amongst five Boys P. E) and Executives (W.  A cannot be put with C. X. these criteria are applicable to all the questions below: If the two of the members have to be Boys. the other members of the team are? e) A D P S f) BDPS g) B D R T h) D P R T 8. B. D.  R and T have to be together. Unless otherwise stated. A Company wanted to start a new project. C. The managers (A. who will be the members of the team? a) P Q D A B b) P S D B C c) Q S D C B d) R T D A B If R be one of the members. C. and two engineers.

E is father of C.How many males and females are present? Solution:  Denotes Female  Denotes Male I. E and 5 Girls L. This process is known as logic. O. M. Concept: Deals with Hierarchical structure of a family. E.Training & Placement 10. This particular way of relationship between the elements. B is F‟s daughter–in–law. objects or subjects leads our mind towards the formation of thoughts which are expressed in language. These three attributes are often termed as „reasoning‟. Logical Reasoning Concept: Logic: Our mind always seeks a rational explanation of the objects which we come in to contact with our day-to-day life. D is A‟s only grand child.1. It is also called as Blood relation problem. So logic can be defined as the science of thought. D.1. P were to be selected for a competition. The perception and conception of the objects or elements become knowledge for us if our mind conceives them in a systematic order so that certain relationships can be established between the objects or elements. D. B. and F who are related to each other. C. A has only 2 children F and C. 3. In a class there are 5 Boys A. The selected team consists of 3 Boys and 2 Girls with the conditions as: From Boys side B and Girls side M should be selected  A does not go with B  A and E go together  If B is not selected then L is selected  M does not go with O  N and P do not go together How many arrangements are possible? 3. Problem 1: There are six members in a family A. Reasoning is the function of the mind passing from known to unknown by establishing a systematic relationship between the elements. Family Tree 3. one male and one female. B. B is F‟s daughter-in-law F Father/Mother-in-law B Daughter-in-law 60 Pondicherry Engineering College . Why and How its validity can be judged. Reasoning: When a thought is associated with the three attributes of What.Who is the grand mother of D? 2. C is D‟s only uncle. N. Knowledge of a subject is said to be systematic and scientific when the different parts of knowledge are related together in a particular way to make a system. Then.1. C. 1.

A has only 2 children F&C. E is the father of C B A x E C F D x B Daughter-in-law 1. C is D‟s only uncle A C C ? IV. 2. D is A‟s only grand daughter A ? D III. Pondicherry Engineering College 61 . A is the grand mother of D. one male and one female A C F D B V.Training & Placement II. There are 3 males and 3 females in the family.

What is the relationship between the man and the Girl? Out of A. a) Find which are the brothers? b) Who is E‟s husband? Mohan is son of Arun‟s father‟s sister. C is married. who is S‟s uncle? A man was going with a Girl. Prakash is son of Rekha who is mother of Vikki and grandmother of Arun. D has no brothers but is the father of A (male) and grandfather of F. C is sister of F. d) Data Inadequate d) None Looking at a portrait of a man. D. N is of the same sex as Q. E and F. How is F related to B? Vivek is the father of M and Q. E is brother of F. how many males are there d) Who is the daughter–in–law of Vivek ? e) If N is Vivek‟s sister. Sanjay said. 9. B. A has two sons – E and C. B is Brother of D. 10. 3. Brothers and sisters I have none. Purab is father of Neha and grandfather of Mona. “His mother is the wife of my father‟s son. 8. have two children S and R who are of the same sex as W. Somebody asked his relationship with the Girl. We have 2 fathers. He replied. R and L are of different sexes. B is brother of E‟s husband. L is the spouse of one of his child. Problems to Solve: 1. „Her mother is the only daughter of my mother–in– law‟. C.” At whose portrait was Sanjay looking? If B‟s mother was A‟s mother‟s daughter. How is F related to E? 7. Rekha is Purab‟s wife. “the son of the only brother of his father‟s wife”.Training & Placement 3. How was A related to B? Introducing a lady. D is sister of E. a man said. 4. What is the man to the lady? F‟s grandfather is A. Anil introduces Rohit as. 3 brothers. N and his/her spouse W. How is Mohan related to Rekha? a) Grandson b) Son c) Nephew How is Vikki „s wife related to Neha? a) Sister b) Niece c) Sister in law 6. “My paternal uncle is the paternal uncle of her paternal uncles”. 5.2.1. 2. M is the son and Q is the daughter. one mother and 1 daughter. How is Rohit related to Anil? Pondicherry Engineering College 62 . a) Who is the father of S and R? b) Whose spouse is L? c) If all the above characters belong to one family.

then how. Hence.1. certain code values are assigned to a word or a group of words and the original words should be found out. Concept: Coding is a method of transmitting a message from one place to another. If in a certain language TEACHER is coded as VGCEJGT. how would „DULLARD‟ be coded in that code? 2. P Q R. Gaps in between 3. i. Codes 3. if we note it we find that the code is two alphabets preceding the original word. In a certain code. The answer is “ZTSSNMNHX”. Tree format Problem 1: The term FIRE is coded as DGPC. in first.2. fifth. In these types of questions. C D E (Gaps in Between arrangement) So SNOW can be coded as QLMU. G H I. Decoding is the ability to decipher a certain code. Reversed order 2.2. „ASTROLOGY‟ would be written in this code? Solution: In this Code. third. The arrangement can be any one of the following: 1. That is D E F.e. seventh and ninth place letters have been coded to their preceding letters and the remaining ones have next letters as code. It is easy to decode if we are able to find the format of arrangement. +1 and–1 format 4. Problem 2: If NUMERICAL is written as MVLFQJBBK. Problems to Solve: 1. 3. the letters in Odd place.2. TRIPPLE is written as SQHOOKD How would DISPOSE be written in that code? Pondicherry Engineering College 63 .2.Training & Placement 3. then how will SNOW be coded as? Solution: The term FIRE is coded as DGPC. Codes may be numerical or alphabets.

Based on them the decisions are made. window is called flower. If in a certain language. green is called air.N. rain is called green. In a certain code RIPPLE is written as 613382 and LIFE as 8192. then on what would a man sleep? 9. Condition 1: If A occurs then B also will occur.1. If room is called bed. flower is called cooler.O. How should PILLER be written in that code? 6. CALCUTTA is coded as GEPGYXXE.3. Concept: Conditions are given based on which the actions take place. Condition 3: If A has not occurred then B will occur.P a group of 6 is to be selected based on the following conditions: O and P have to be together C cannot go with O Pondicherry Engineering College 64 .Training & Placement 3. How is 23549 written in that code? 8. PALE is written as 2134 and EARTH as 41590. blue is called Water.M. bed is called window. How would HOUSE be written in that code language? 5.D.F and 5 Girls L. There are four basic conditions. If cloud is called white. Condition 2: If A occurs then B will not occur. In a certain code COMPUTER is written as RFUVQNPC How would MEDICINE be is coded as 4. Based on these conditions the groups are formed.3.E. Condition 4: If A has not occurred then B also will not occur. How will PEARL be written in that code? 7. If in a certain language CARROM is written as BZQQNL. In a certain code. white is called rain.B. air is called blue. Which word would be coded as FSQFCE? 3.C. Where will the bird fly? 10. In a certain code 15789 is written as EGKPT and 2346 is written as ALUR. Problem 1: From a group of 6 Boys A. Conditionality and Grouping 3.

In senior team the members are A.R. Therefore M is selected. C. So B is rejected. X.3. Problems to Solve: 1. In junior team the members are P.2. Q. C and D. Six member team of 3 Girls and 3 Boys was to be selected with the conditions as:  P and Q cannot be together  W and Z cannot be together  Z and Q go together  S and T go together  W and X go together 3. and F and Five Girls P. E. D. S. Z. T and Girls‟ team consists of W.Q. D is not selected  R and S are always together. In a college a new football team was formed consisting of five members. Y. O and P D and A cannot be there. how many arrangements are possible? 2. N.Training & Placement A and D have to be together D cannot go with L C and M have to be together Band N have to be together B and E cannot be together If the team consists of four Girls the members of the team are: i) BELNOP ii) EFLNOP iii) BFLNOP If the team consist of 5 Boys and 1 Girl that Girl would be: i) L ii) M iii) N iv) O Solution: O and P will be there so C cannot be there as well as M. 3. The Girls are L. 3 from Junior and 2 from Senior. The selection of the team is based on the following conditions:  A does not go along with C  B and C work together  If Q is selected. So choice is (iii) BFLNOP If B is selected 2 Girls M and N have to be selected. B. Boys‟ team consists of P. From among 6 Boys A. R. Q. A school decided to go for NSS camp for a week. B.S and T a team of six is to be selected under the following conditions:  A and D have to be together  C cannot go with S  S and T have to be together  B cannot be teamed with E Pondicherry Engineering College 65 . R. S. If A is selected the remaining members are: (a) PRSD (b) CBPR (c) RSPB (d) BCQP If B and C are selected.

J.  B and C can‟t sit in the same car in which D is sitting  F will sit in the car of four people only along with A and E but certainly not with G. O. There are only two cars and following are the conditions  One car can accommodate maximum five and minimum four students. The selected team consist of 3 Boys and 2 Girls with the conditions as. B. In a class. C.  A will sit in the same car in which D is sitting and H is not in the same car. E and 5 Girls L. F. D. E. G and H are planning to enjoy car racing. M. N. From Boys side B and Girls side M should be selected  A does not go with B  A and E go together  If B is not selected then L is selected  M does not go with O  N and P do not go together How many arrangements are possible? 6. H. G and Z team consist of 5 members B. then find the members of the team? 4. who are the other two students sitting in the same car? (a) B and C (b) C and D (c) B and D (d) E and B (e) None of these If E and A are sitting in the same car. D. If H and G are sitting in the same car. Eight students A. which of the following statements is true? (a) Five students are sitting in the same car (b) B is sitting in the same car (c) F is not sitting in the same car (d) G is not sitting in the same car (e) None of these Which of the following statement is superfluous for the above seating arrangements? (a) Only (i) (b) Only (ii) (c) Only (iii) Pondicherry Engineering College 66 . 5 Boys A. C. B. F. The conditions given were:  A and E go together but cannot go with B  D and F go together but cannot play with H  H and J go together but cannot play with E  E does not play with D 5. D. C. Team X consist of 4 members A. A college selection committee sat to finalize Cricket Team of five members 2 from team X and 3 from team Z. and P were to be selected for a competition. E.Training & Placement  D cannot go with P  B and R have to be together  C and Q have to be together If four members have to be Girls.

B. S. R and S Some criteria for selection are:  A and S have to be together. U (e) T. R.  If R is to be operated on a day. only three of the program sets must be the ones that were operated on the previous day. S. T. On any one day. S. U. R. T. which of the following cannot be the second program in that sequence? (a) S (b) T (c) U (d) W If the program sets R and W are to be operated on the first day. U (e) P. five out of the eight problem sets P. V. A team of five is to be selected from amongst five Boys C. S (b) U. R.  D and Q cannot go together. R. V 8. T. Q. T. U Which of the following is true of any day‟s valid program set operation? (a) P cannot be operated at third place (b) Q cannot be operated at third place (c) R cannot be operated at fourth place (d) T cannot be operated at third place (e) U cannot be operated at fourth place If R is operated at third place in a sequence. T.  P cannot be put with R. V (b) Q. S. Which of the following could be the set of programs to be operated on the first day of a month? (a) V. W (c) T. which of the following could be the other programs on that day? (a) P.  The last program to be operated on any day must be either S or U. Q. R. except for the first day of a month. V and W are to be operated daily. S. V (d) T. S (d) Q. Pondicherry Engineering College 67 A. S. V (c) Q. At an Electronic Data Processing Unit. Q. . The program operating must also satisfy the following conditions:  If Program P is to be operated on a day. D and E and four Girls P. V. U. V must be one of the programs to be operated after R. V. Q. S. V cannot be operated on that day. T must be one of the programs to be operated after Q.  If Q is to be operated on a day.Training & Placement (d) Only (IV) (e) None of these 7.

there will be no female doctor. O. the members of the team are? (a) (b) (c) (d) ABOPQGH CDKLOPQ CDOPQGH DEGHOPQ If the team consists of two doctors. there will be no female teacher. the other members of the team are? e) P S A D f) Q S A D g) Q S C E h) S A C E If two of the members are Girls and D is one of the members. these criteria are applicable to all the questions below: If the two of the members have to be Boys. some teams are to be selected. the members of the team other than D are? i) P Q B C j) P Q C E k) P S A B l) P S C E If A and C are members. the team will consist of? a) A B S P Q b) A D S Q R c) B D S R Q d) C E S P Q If R be one of the members. three female teachers and two engineers. Of these A. From amongst five doctors A.  Wherever there is a male engineer. C. B. H. P.  R cannot be put with B. O. B. H. the other members of the team cannot be? m) B E S n) D E S o) E S P p) P Q E 9. G. K and L and six teachers M.Training & Placement  C and E have to be together. The formation of teams is subject to the following conditions:  Wherever there is a male doctor. four engineers G. N. If the team consists of two doctors. Q and R.  There shall not be more than two male teachers in any team. P and Q are females and the rest are males. all the following teams are possible except: (a) ABGMNOP Pondicherry Engineering College 68 . Unless otherwise stated. one engineer and four teachers. D and E.

3 Pondicherry Engineering College 69 .Training & Placement (b) (c) (d) ABHMOPQ ABHMRPQ ABKNRPQ If the team consists of two doctors. 2. all the following teams are possible except : (a) (b) (c) (d) ABGHOQ ABGHPQ ABKLPQ OPGHAB If the team consists of three doctors. two engineers and two teachers. who could be the members of the team? (a) (b) (c) (d) ABCKLMR BCDKLNR CDEKLMN CDEKLPR If the team consists of two doctors. two female teachers. H or both  H occurs if E occurs  G occurs if F occurs If B occurs which must occur? a) D b) D & G c) G & H d) F & G e) J If J occurs which must have occurred? a) E b) either B or C c) both E. A causes B or C. but not both  F occurs only if B occurs  D occurs if B or C occurs  E occurs only C occurs  J occurs only if E or F occurs  D causes G. and two engineers. 1) D 2) A 3) E a) 1 only b) 2 only c) 1 & 2 d) 2 & 3 e) 1. F above d) Both B and C e) None of the Which may occur as a result of cause not Mentioned. all the following teams are possible except? (a) (b) (c) (d) ABGHOP ABGHMN CEKLNR CDKLOP 10. two male engineers and two teachers.

C.5. 0. 92 So the solution is 72 = 49. S. _. ___ ? 8. U. V. R. 13. 1.5. Problem 1: Fill in the series 1.2. Ascending 2. G. __ ? ___ ? 4. 9. 1. 1. Solution: As given in the problem it consists of Squares of digits with a digit left in between It is 12. 17. 22. Concept: Series involves the numbers or letters that are arranged in a particular sequence. The sequence can be any of the following. F. 121. In which direction is he from the starting point? a) South b) North–east c) South–East d) He is at the starting point Pondicherry Engineering College 70 . Gap 4.5. 52. J. Series 3. Problem 1: „A‟ starts from his office and walks 3 km towards north. 9. __ ? 6. 225. 45. Z. 16. ?. 9. 4. W.__ ? 3.5. 81. D. He then turns right and walks 2 km and then turns right and walks 5 km. 5.4.5. 6.Training & Placement 3. 4. 32. 25. He then turns right and walks 2 km and then again turns right and walks 2 km. Squares and cubes 5. 25.1. X. 13. Descending 3. __? 5. 24. __? 9. The best way of solving these questions is to follow the instructions given in the question carefully and make a diagram accordingly with the help of which the question can be solved. M 3. Y.1. +/– order series. A. Concept: These problems test our sense of Direction. 1. A.4. Problems to Solve: 1. 6. 29. 1.5. ___ ? 7. 3. T. 2. H. Q. M. __? __? 2. _. 361. __ ? 10. 33. Direction Sense 3.4.

2. She then turned to the left and walking for about 25 metres. Hence. Then again turned to his right and walked 15 km. Next he turned to his left and walked 5 km.. She was finally moving in the direction DE i. South-west. Turning to the right at an angle of 450 . she turned to the right at an angle of 450. Arman walked towards east for a distance of 5 km. Finally. 3. She then turned left again and moved 80 m upto D. moved 75 m upto B. turned left again and walked 80 metres. One day Kannan left home and cycled 10 km southwards. turned left and walked 25 m upto C. In which direction was she moving finally? a) North-east b) North-west c) South d) South-east e) South-west Solution: Deepa started from A. the answer is (e). Rajesh is standing to the west of Amir and north of Ruchir and Sathish is to the west of Ruchir and south of Salman. In which direction is Sathish with reference to Amir? 3.e. In which direction is he now with reference to his starting point? 2.Training & Placement 3 5 5 Solution: He is at the starting point.5. Problems to Solve: 1. How many kilometers will he have to cycle to reach his home straight? Pondicherry Engineering College 71 . turned towards right and walked for a distance of 10 km. Problem 2: Deepa moved a distance of 75 metres towards the north. turned right and cycled 5 km and turned right and cycled 10 km and turned left and cycled 10 km.

Further. After moving a distance of 20 m. Ram started walking towards South. He then turns towards East and walks 15 m. A man leaves for his office from his house. I walk from my back door 100 m. he turns towards South and walks 10 m. How far is he from his original position? 3. In which direction is I from the starting point? 10. then turn right and go 8 km. Which direction is he facing now? 6. and then I turn left and go 8 km. In which direction is he from the starting point? 7. A walks southwards then right. He again turns left and walks 20 m.Training & Placement 4. He then turns left and walks 40 m. Statement Logics 3. Types: 1) statement– conclusions 2) statement– assumptions 3) statement– arguments Conclusions In each questions there is a statement and two conclusions. then left and then right.1. At what distance am I from the starting point now? 8. Concept: The ability of Analysis and interpretation of data logically is tested in these problems. If A is to the South of B and C is to the east of B. He took a right turn after walking 10 metres. a) If conclusion 1 follows b) If conclusion 2 follows c) If neither 1 nor 2 follows d) Both 1 and 2 follows Example: Statement: Quality has a Price tag. India is allocating lot of funds for education. conclusions and give answers. Then I turn left and go 5 km. I go 5 km east. He again took a left turn walking 20 metres. he moves 20 m after turning to the right. What is the straight distance in meters between his initial and final positions? 5. Then he walks 35 m towards the West and further 5 m towards the North. Logically apply the Pondicherry Engineering College 72 .6. Gaurav walks 20 m towards North. He walks towards East. then right and walk 100m and turn left and walk 50 m and reach a point X.6. in what direction is A with respect to C? 9. The Door of my house faces East.

We should decide which of the arguments is strong Give answer: a) If only 1 is strong b) If only 2 is strong c) If neither 1 or 2 is strong d) If both 1 and 2 is strong Answer (a) Example: Should Private sector be permitted to operate telephone services? Arguments: 1) Yes. Check the data and answer. It is risky to put them in private hands Assumptions Each question contains 1 statement and 2 assumptions.Training & Placement Conclusions: 1) Quality of education in India would improve soon 2) Funding alone can enhance Quality of education Arguments Each question given below has 1 statement and two arguments. Give answer: a) If only 1 implicit b) If only 2 implicit c) Both 1 and 2 implicit d) Neither 1 nor 2 implicit Answer: Example: Statement: The pen is mightier than the sword Assumptions: 1) The pen is made up of stronger metal than the sword 2) The power of the mind is much stronger than brute physical power Answer: (1) (a) Pondicherry Engineering College 73 . they are operated in advanced western countries 2) No.

since it will encourage favoritism among teachers. Go ahead. II) Then Price of the Product must be reasonable. 3.Training & Placement 3.6.2. Statements: Vegetable Prices are soaring in the Market Conclusions: I) Vegetables are becoming a rare commodity II) People cannot eat Vegetable Statement Argument a) If only 1 is strong b) If only 2 is strong c) If either 1 or 2 is strong d) If neither 1 nor 2 is strong e) If both 1 and 2 is strong 5. Conclusions: I) The Products must be good in quality. Problems to Solve: Statement Conclusion a) Only conclusion I follow b) Only conclusion II follows c) Either I or II follows d) If neither I nor II follows e) If both I and II follows 1. Statement: Morning walks are good for health. 6. It will help in eliminating tensions among the nations Pondicherry Engineering College 74 . II) To escape from problems you should have solutions 4. Statement: The Best way to escape from a problem is to solve it Conclusion: I) Your life will be dull if you don‟t face a problem. Statements: Should there be world Government? Argument: 1) Yes. Statement: Company X has marketed the Product. 2. purchase it if Price and quality are your considerations. No. 7. Yes. II) Evening walks are harmful. it will enable the teachers to have a better control over the Students. 2) Yes. Statements: Should there be internal assessment in colleges? Argument: 1. 2. Statements: Should military service be made compulsory in our country? Argument: 1) No. Conclusion: I) all healthy people go for morning walks. It is against the policy of non violence. Every citizen should protect his country.

Statements: Double your money in five months – An advertisement. influence their friends and colleagues and create a rich social life for themselves.Training & Placement 2) No. Assumption: 1) The candidate doesn‟t read newspaper. Then only the developed countries will dominate the Government Statement Assumption a) If only 1 implicit b) If only 2 implicit c) Either 1 or 2 implicit d) Neither 1 nor 2 implicit e) Both 1 and 2 implicit 8. 10. People who study and use a language are mainly interested in how they can do things with the language. The aim is to find how well candidates do understand the grammatical rules and their usages. Grammar puts together the patterns of the languages. Verbal Ability falls under following categories: Pondicherry Engineering College 75 . Statements: To keep myself up to date . Assumption: 1) The Assurance is not genuine. Statements: I cannot contact you on phone.Acquiring a simple. They are only interested in the grammatical structure of the language as a means of getting things done. 2) Recent news is broadcasted only on radio 9. how well they do comprehend the idea conveyed in the given passage and how well candidates can express the given idea. I always listen to 9. The questions in English Language are designed to test candidate‟s understanding of English and its usage. direct and forceful knowledge in writing and reading calls for constant practice.00 pm news on radio– candidate tells the interview board. A student must understand that English is not a tough language. 2) People want their money to grow. But this notion is far from truth. how they can make meanings. Verbal Reasoning Concept: It is the general notion that English is a foreign language and so it is very difficult. Verbal Ability is to understand the prose and to work with specialized and Technical Vocabulary. get attention to their problems and interests. Assumption: 1) Telephone facility is not available. A language is a practical medium of expression of our ideas and thoughts. 2) Now a Days it is difficult to contact on phone 4.

FRACTIOUS a) Complaisant b) Genial c) Sagacious d) Accommodating 7. ILLUSORY a) True b) Elusive c) Real d) Factual 8.1. PROVIDENTIAL a) Ill–starred b) Unfortunate c) Unlucky d) Simulation Pondicherry Engineering College 77 . BUCOLIC a) Urban b) City like c) Slovenly d) Polished 3.2 Questions to Practice: 1. EMOLUMENT a) Penalty b) Punishment c) Monument d) Retribution 6.Training & Placement 4. DEPRECATE a) Praise b) Approve c) Eulogize d) Depreciate 5. ABATE a) Aggravate b) Amplify c) Enlarge d) Enhance 2. CATACLYSM a) Steadfastness b) Privilege c) Benefit d) Blessing 4.

2. VENAL a) Honourable b) Likeable c) Incorruptible d) Patriotic 4.Training & Placement 9. piercing.2 Synonyms: 4. Example: ASTUTE a) Sheer b) Noisy c) Astral d) Unusual e) Clever Astute: (smart. intelligent) Answer – Clever 4.2 Questions to Practice: 1. Odd. shrewd) Sheer: (pure. intelligent. „Shut‟ and „Close‟ are synonyms. complete) Noisy: (loud.1 Concept: The word „Synonym‟ means a word or phrase with the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the same language. For example.) Astral: (planetary. lunar) Unusual: (strange. TURBULENT a) Quiet b) Quiescent c) Calm d) Truculent 10. absolute. FILCH a) Pretend b) Dirty c) Embarrass d) Steal e) Honour Pondicherry Engineering College 78 . VARIEGATE a) Set type b) Multi–colour c) Differ d) Reject e) Reply in Kind 2. bright. curious) Clever: (smart.2.

ADVERSITY a) Opponent b) Hardship c) Opening d) Public announcement e) Agency 8. GARRULOUS Pondicherry Engineering College 79 . DISCONCERT a) Sing in harmony b) Pretend c) Cancel Program d) Confuse e) Interrupt 10. UNEQUALED a) Outstanding b) Different c) Praised d) Resentment e) Miserliness 7. INFINITE a) Verbal b) Indefinite c) Endless d) Strange e) Vague 4. FRUGALITY a) Extravagance b) Ripening c) Thrift d) Miserliness e) recurrent 6. FASTIDIOUS a) Speedy b) Precise c) Squeamish d) Hungry e) Slow 9.Training & Placement 3. DEMISE a) Residence b) Dismissal c) Accident d) Act e) Death 5.

Sex 14.Training & Placement a) b) c) d) e) Laconic Strangling Ecstatic Frozen Wordy 4. Worker and article created 11. Familiarize yourself with common analogy types. Action & its significance 10.3.3 Questions to Answer: Pondicherry Engineering College 80 . mortar 4. Definition 2.3 Analogy 4. If there is more than one answer. Class and members 4.2 Analogy Types 1. Cannon Means gun so Artillery is the place to keep gun. Worker and action 13.3. Antonyms 5. Synonyms 6.3.1 Concept: Analogy questions ask you to determine the relationship between the two words in a pair and then to recognize a similar or parallel relationship between the members of a different pair of words. Worker and tool 12. 4. Function 8. look for a narrower approach Consider secondary Meaning as well primary Meaning. Part to Whole 7. Defining Characteristic 3. Symbol Example Book: Library:: Cannon: a) Artillery b) Powder c) Shell d) War Solution: Library is the place to keep books. The relationship between the words in the original pair will always be specific and precise. Tactics: State the relationship between the capitalized words in a clear sentence. Manner 9.

CROWN: ROYAL (a) Throne (b) Wrap (c) Pen (d) Crucifix 6. EXPLOSION: DESTRUCTION (a) Talk (b) Girl (c) Success (d) Engagement 2. CURTAIN: DRAPERY (a) Cockroach (b) Bed sheet (c) Pillow (d) Mat 4. TEXTILE: MILL (a)Eggs ` (b)Coal (c)Food (d)Brick : : : : Exaggeration Woman Failure Marriage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Function Ticket Scale Article Insect Bed Cushion Floor Height Detection Revolution Picture Regal Ermine Author Religion Bag Eyelid Glass Nose Painting Prose Book Journal Reliability Defiance Administration Pessimism Hen Mine Agriculture Kiln 81 Pondicherry Engineering College . REVOLVER: HOLSTER (a) Book (b) Eye (c) Juice (d) Nostril 7. TRAITOR: DISLOYALTY (a) Executioner (b) Rebel (c) Manager (d) Hope 9. SYMPHONY: MUSIC (a) Mural (b) Ode (c) Preface (d) Editorial 8. AGENDA: MEETING (a) Program (b) Performance (c) Map (d) Foot note 3. BALANCE: WEIGH (a) Airplane (b) Radar (c) Satellite (d) Television 5.Training & Placement 1.

in a convoluted manner C.4. sentence structures and length. MODESTY: ARROGANCE (a) (b) (c) (d) Passion Practice Cause Debility : : : : Emotion Perfection Purpose Strength 4. D. Style: Ideas maybe expressed in different manners. Eclectic. gerunds etc. Vocabulary: Use of words like nonplussed. Example: Economy – restrain Toy – Dally B. rhythm. Grammatical complexity : They include entire range of grammatical possibilities. Harbingers. ornately on sparely. poetically or prosaically formally or informally etc. somber etc. prepositional phrases.1 Concept: It tests your a) b) Ability to use vocabulary Ability to recognize logical consistency among the elements in a sentence What makes Sentence Completion difficult is A. playful. An author‟s style depends on such details as word choice.e. Sentence Completion 4. ironic. Thought extenders – Continue the idea Thought contrasters – Reverse the idea Signal Words: Additionally Also And As well Besides Further more Although But Despite nevertheless In spite of On the contrary Pondicherry Engineering College 82 .4. imagery repetition.Training & Placement 10. skeptical. Tone: Writer‟s attitude towards the subject matter i. Use of clauses.

not always used ________ and frequently misinterpreted and _________. one of the nation‟s most influential researchers in the field of genetics reported on experiments that were never carried out and published deliberately ________ scientific papers on his nonexistent work. Organized (d) Innovatively ……. several manufacturers now make biodegradable forms of plastic. In a revolutionary development in technology.. In one shocking instance of _______ research. for example. Look at all possible answers. Measurement is.. (a) Mistakenly …. selfless) 4. gradually ________ when exposed to sunlight. subject to error. In double blank. Break down complex sentences into simpler components. Impartial 2.. like any other human Endeavour. (a) Comprehensive…. Watch for single words that link one part of the sentence to another. go through the answer. (a) Harden (b) Astagnate Pondicherry Engineering College 83 . Avaricious (Greediness) “Altruistic” (unselfish.2 Questions to Answer: 1. Check whether the Metaphor controls the choice of words. authoritative (e) Erroneous ……. refined (e) Properly …….4.Training & Placement More over Still Too While Likewise Which Tactics: Read the sentence and think of a word that makes sense. Example: Because experience had convinced her that he was both self–seeking and avaricious. testing the first word in each choice. some plastic six–pack rings. she rejected the likelihood that his donation had been ______. decided (b) erratically …… analyzed (c) Systematically ……. abstract (b) theoretical …… challenging (c) fraudulent …… deceptive (d) Derivative ……. a) Redundant b) Frivolous c) Inexpensive d) Ephemeral e) Altruistic Solution: The sentence presents simple case of cause and effect.. Opposite of self seeking (selfishness). a complex activity. misunderstood 3..

but during certain conditions the storm may _________. thought to be _______ the consumer. During the widespread fuel shortage. can claim humanity‟s longest continuous _______ of natural events. Job failure Means being fired off a job. Normally an individual thunderstorm lasts about 45 minutes. who began systematic astronomical and weather observations shortly after the ancient Egyptians. the Price of gasoline was so _______ that suppliers were generally. (a) Refinance (b) Documentation (c) Maintenance (d) Domination 6. the study panel recommends that the federal government shift its inspection emphasis from cursory bird–bird visual checks to a more _______ random sampling for bacterial and chemical contamination. An institution concerned about its reputation is at the mercy of its members. (a) Reform (b) Discredit (c) Coerce (d) Intimidate 7. and because of this. (a) Rigorous (b) Perfunctory (c) Symbolic (d) Discreet (e) Dubious 5. The Chinese.Training & Placement (c) (d) (e) Inflate Propagate Decompose 4. were assiduous record–keepers. or leaving _______ to protect yourself because you had very strong evidence that one of the first two was _______ (a) Voluntarily…impending (b) Abruptly…significant (c) Knowingly…operative (d) Eventually…intentional 8. for as long as four Hours. (a) Reactive…shielding (b) Stable…blackmailing (c) Excessive…gouging (d) Depressed…cheating 9. To alleviate the problem of contaminated chicken. because the misdeeds of individuals are often used to _______ the institutions of which they are a part. (a) Wane (b) Moderate Pondicherry Engineering College 84 . becoming ever more severe. being asked to resign.

5 Spotting Errors 4. He had ordered you/ to paint it green/ but you painted/ the blue house.1 Concept: Grammatical errors form the most probable errors in error-spotting exercises.5. A B C D E 6. Perhaps because something in us instinctively distrusts such displays of natural fluency.Training & Placement (c) (d) (e) Persist Vacillate Disperse 10. Little money/ that he was left behind after/ the marriage of his daughter/ was not A B C Sufficient for a big family like his. some readers approach John Updike‟s fiction with __________. more we want/ in this way/ there is no end to human desires/ No error. / No error. None of the two Boys / who were / present there / came to his help. A B C D 4. / No error. Mistakes in preposition and tenses are more common Examples: 1) The car is / almost / the same / like mine.2 Questions to Answer: 1.5. D E Pondicherry Engineering College 85 . When I arrived / on the station / I saw a man who had robbed me / because he A B C thought I carried the King‟s wallet. More we get. / No error D E 5. A B C D E 3. Ans: as mine 2) The weather / feels / as / spring Ans: like spring 4. (a) Indifference (b) Suspicion (c) Veneration (d) Recklessness (e) Bewilderment 4. Ashoka the Great / was regarded one/ of the greatest emperor the/ world has ever A B C D Produced / No error E 2./ No error.

Nobody in their senses/ would have/ uttered/ such silly remarks/ No error. (a) (b) (c) (d) Mary thought that the test was a piece of cake.6. A B C D E 9. „Catch in the act‟ means „Finding someone doing something wrong or bad. 3.1 Concept: A Group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words are idioms. Test was about eating a cake. He wants to get rid of the responsibility.6.‟ Example: The manager‟s bark is worse than his bite a) He shouts b) He punishes c) His action is worse than his speech d) His speech is worse than action Solution: The manager‟s bark is worse than his bite d) His speech is worse than action Questions to Answer: 1. Idioms 4. Pondicherry Engineering College 86 . I‟m trying to sell off these books. During our winter break. I have read several plays of Shakespeare/ who was one of / the greatest dramatists/ A B C the world has ever produced/ No error. D E 10. She ate cake before the test. A B C D E 8. I will not carry the books. She was thinking of eating a cake. my friends and I hit the slopes. (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. He has paid for the books. (a) Hit each other. A B C D E 4. He wished me/ to dine with him that evening/ but which/ I declined/ No error. The books are heavy.Training & Placement 7. The task was relatively easy. No less than/ four thousand people/ lost their lives/ in the earthquake/ no error. For example. I don‟t want them on my hands any longer.

(d) The case was easy to solve. In spite of many different jobs he had to do. Drink soup before exam. Fall into the soup Get into trouble. but lost his nerve and turned back. (a) (b) (c) (d) I haven‟t studied at all for the exam tomorrow. The Police found the case a tough nut to crack. (a) (b) (c) (d) My father insisted that I put my nose to the grindstone next semester. Throughout the Summer. Hit my nose if I fail Work really hard Grind the stone Copy during the exam 7. (d) Hit the mountains. (a) Throwing stones and playing. (c) Hit in the eye with a ball. Happy Overwhelmed Forgetful Smart 10. (b) The case was difficult to solve.Training & Placement (b) Went snow–skiing (c) Fell in the slopes. (a) (b) (c) (d) 9. (c) Police found some nuts in the crime scene. I lived a stone‟s throw from a popular beach. (a) Got scared (b) Fell down (c) Falls down from the rock (d) His nerve was cut. 6. (b) People threw stones at his house. Pondicherry Engineering College 87 . He had climbed almost to the top of the rock. 5. I‟m really going to be in soup. (a) Police could not crack nuts. (d) He is searching the ball. 8. Prepare soup Sandy is often too bogged down with her studies to spend time with her friends. Jack always managed to keep his eye On the ball (a) He is a cricket player (b) Being focused. (c) Stones were piled on the beach (d) Lived near the beach. 4.

while that related and persuasive lobby. enlightened British liberals looked forward to the day when India would stand on its own feet. they felt was all the greater because British foreign policy still remained a stronghold of the aristocracy. Reading Comprehension 4.Training & Placement 4. many politicians were conscious of saddling Britain with a heavy burden. the British officer class. Any argument which gives ideas similar to the Supporting Argument strengthens it. “The Change in the Public Mood is Noticeable”. 3. Thus when the British government took over responsibility for India from the East India Company in 1858. 2.7. The danger. If we don‟t assume it. In the first seventy years of the nineteenth century. For example if we say. also had a vested interest in imperial expansion. It took the humiliation of the Boer war to teach the British government what it would cost to hold an empire by force. What is the assumption of the Passage? Which of the statements weakens the Argument? Which of the statements strengthens the Argument? Whether a Particular statement can be deduced from the passage or not. To think imperially was to think in terms of restrictive and protective measures. in defiance of the revealed truths of classical economics. However. The Questions are generally of the following types: 1. it is said to be a deduction. would place faith accomplishment before the country and commit blunders of incalculable consequence. it assumes that “There has been a Change in the Public Mood”. Example: The emotional appeal of imperialism never completely stilled the British conscience.7.1 Concept: Questions on reasoning comprehension resemble questions set on English Comprehension. Even in the heyday of colonialism British radicals continued to protest that self-proclaimed imperialists however honorable their motives. 4. the supreme tactician of the Indian Pondicherry Engineering College 88 . Which statement Weakens or Strengthens the Argument? Any Statement that goes Contrary to the assumption or to the Supporting Argument weakens it. the statement becomes incorrect. However this fact did not escape Gandhi. What is a Deduction? If we can infer a statement either by correlating information or by discovering an implication. The only difference is that questions are designed to evaluate the Reasoning Power of the candidates. What is an Assumption? Many statements are made by presuming something to be true. liberal thinkers throughout the nineteenth century argued that democracy was incompatible with the maintenance of authoritarian rule over foreign peoples.

1. Furthermore. namely.2 Question to Answer: Read the following passage and pick up correct answers for each of the questions which follow: Pondicherry Engineering College 89 . the Indian nationalist leaders were able to exploit the aversion of the British liberal conscience to methods used by the local colonial rulers in combating Indian non co-operation. What according to you would be the most suitable title for this passage? (a) British imperialism and India (b) British liberals attitude towards imperialism (c) Role of mahatma Gandhi in Indian freedom movement (d) The emotional appeal of British imperialism (e) British as a colonial power. that Britain could not long continue to rule India expect with the co-operation of many sections of its population. Annie Besant (b) The enlightened British liberals themselves (c) Lokmanya Balgangadhar Tilak (d) Mahatama Gandhi (e) None of these Answer : ( D) 4. What according to the author was the attitude of the British liberals towards the British imperialist and colonial policy? (a) One of active co-operation (b) One of only verbal co-operation (c) One of total indifference (d) One of repeated protests (e) One of disagreement Answer : ( D) 3. What does the term authoritarian rule mean? (a) Rule of the dictionary of law (b) Dictatorial rule of an aristocrat un-accomplished by the rule of law (c) Arbitrary exercise of power by officials (d) Rule having stability (e) None of these Answer : ( B) 2. Who was the supreme tactician of the Indian liberation movement? (a) Mrs. the foundation of British authority in India would crumble.7.Training & Placement liberation movement. Once that cooperation was withdrawn. He saw what some perceptive British thinkers had much earlier recognized. Answer : ( D) 4.

artistry of Means. 3. and the middle quality a virtue or an excellence.Training & Placement Passage 1: A standard comprises characteristics attached to an aspect of a process or Product by which it can be evaluated. but the achievement of experience in the fully developed man. (d) Attributable to the efforts of various informed Persons. (b) Accomplished by the Person who is best informed about the functions (c) The responsibility of the people who are to apply them. is the life of reasons – the specific growth and power of man. So between cowardice and rashness is courage: between stinginess and extravagance is liberality. leavened with the knowledge and information which are currently available . Standards must not only be correct. barring certain physical prerequisites. symmetry of desire . Pondicherry Engineering College 90 . but they must also be workable in the sense that their usefulness is not nullified by external conditions. nor the gift of innocent intent. When they are formulated. 1. If they are not acceptable. it is not the possession of the simple man.Standards which do not meet certain basic requirements become a hindrance rather than an aid to progress. or rather excellence . a processing standard that requires the use of materials that cannot be procured is most likely to be (a) Incomplete (b) Unworkable (c) Inaccurate (d) Unacceptable 2. but represent the thoughts and ideas of a group. when standards call for finer tolerances than those essential to the conduct of successful Production operations the effect of the standards on the improvement of Production operations. According to the above paragraph. the construction of standards to which the performance of job duties should conform is most often. Yet there is a road to it. although they may posses all the other essential characteristics. standards are not usually the Product of a single Person. Standards should also be acceptable to the people who use them. a guide to excellence. which may save many detours and delays: it is the middle way the golden Mean.will depend on clear judgment . According to the above paragraph. According to the above paragraph. they cannot be considered to be satisfactory. Virtue. between sloth and greed is ambition. Which one of the following is the most suitable title for the above paragraph? (a) The evaluation of formulated standard (b) The attributes of satisfactory standards (c) The adoption of acceptable standards (d) The use of process or Product standards. (a) Work of people responsible for seeing that the duties are properly performed. self control. Passage 2: The chief condition of happiness. (a) Negative (b) Negligible (c) Nullified (d) Beneficial 4. accurate. Standardization is the development and adoption of standards. The qualities of character can be arranged in triads in each of which they first and the last qualities will be extremes and vices. and practice in requiring no more and no less than what is needed for satisfactory results.

A desirable social order is one that delivers us from avoidable evils. What is the main idea of passing? (a) The qualities of character are there – extremes and middle (b) In some respects ethics and mathematics resemble (c) Happiness can be achieved by following the middle path (d) None of these 2. between moroseness and buffoonery is good humour between quarrelsomeness and flattery is friendship. Which of the following is not the middle path of different qualities? (a) Liberality (b) Ambition (c) Friendship (d) Secrecy 5. between Hamlets‟ indecisiveness and Quixote‟s impulsiveness is self control „Right‟. in ethics or contact is not different from right in mathematics or engineering . (b) Middle path avoids delay in achieving excellence. corrupted by too much passive and irresponsible obedience. Who of the following is not the writer of either Hamlet or Don Quixote? (a) Ben Johnson (b) Shakespeare (c) Cervantes (d) None of these 6. and of a large class of subjects. and where there is not at least the considerable degree of non attachment in activity. Which of the following is the most suitable title for the passage? (a) Qualities of Character (b) Chief Condition of happiness (c) Golden Mean (d) None of these Passage 3: To a greater or lesser degree all the civilized communities of the modern world are made up of a small class of rulers. The author has not said: (a) The middle path between humility and pride is modesty. right in ethics means that works to get the best results. A bad social order is one that Pondicherry Engineering College 91 . which is the distinguishing mark of the ideally excellent human being. it Means correct and fit what works best to get the best results. the ideal society of the Profits cannot be realized.Training & Placement between humility and pride is modesty. between secrecy and loquacity is honesty. 4. 1. What is the implied Meaning of the passage? (a) Happiness depends upon physical and mental qualities (b) Self control is necessary (c) Excellence should be achieved (d) Rational approach lies in following the middle path 3. Participation in a social order of this kind makes it very difficult for individuals to achieve that non attachment in the midst of activity. (c) Courage is the middle path of indecisiveness and impulsiveness (d) None of the above. corrupted by too much power.

(b) Subjects indulge in obedience (c) Bad social order leads to temptations (d) None of these. Our present Business is to discover what large scale charges are best calculated to deliver us from the evils of too much power and off too much passive and irresponsible obedience. would never rise. In order to create the proper contexts for economic reform. we must change our machinery of government. (d) Economics is necessary. such reforms are either fruitless or actually fruitful evil.Training & Placement leads us into temptation which. Who do you think the writer is? (a) Capitalist (c) Anarchist 5. our methods of public administration. (b) Power is of no significance. (c) Changes in society are natural. The main idea of the passage is (a) Ideal society is one which is free from evils. so dear to advance thinkers are not in themselves Sufficient to produce desirable changes in the character of the society and of the individuals composing it unless carried out by the right sort of Means and in the right sort of governmental administrative and educational context. 2. (d) Reforms are necessary for freeing us from power and obedience. 3. The author does not say (a) By participating in this kind of society one cannot remain non–attached. Pondicherry Engineering College 92 . if matters were more sensibly arranged. (b) Socialist (d) None of these. What is the inference that one derives? (a) Changes in the character of society are necessary (b) Ideal society is envisage by Profits (c) It is the mark of ideally excellent human beings (d) None of these. (b) Man‟s participation is necessary (c) No–attachment is the distinguishing mark. The passage implies (a) Power and obedience corrupt the society. our system of education and our metaphysical and ethical beliefs 1. It has been shown that the economic reforms. 4.