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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
by Edward R. Rosset
Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Diseno Irunes
© Editorial Stanley
Apdo. 207-20302IRUN-SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 0412 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 email@example.com www.gentedellibro.com ISBN: 84-7873-282-9 Dep. Leg.: Bl- 8804-03 First edition / Primera edicion 1992 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1995 Reprinted / Reimpresion 1998 Reprinted / Reimpresion 2000 Third edition /Tercera edicion 2003 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta Berekintza
.Neither/nor am I 92 40 Some and something in offers and requests 41 Infinitive of Purpose 42 Conditional Structures 43 Structures with get 94 96 98 102 44 Still. any 8 To Have (Past tense) . at 16 Prepositions of time: for.So do I .Hospital /the hospital 7 Some. at 15 Prepositions of time: on. in. since.how 31 Can . for. already.could .Omission of articles 6 School/the school .to be able 74 76 32 Be with ages and measurements _ _ 78 33 Comparative and superlative adjectives: comparison 80 4 A/an -the 5 The.predicatives 13 Interrogative and negative sentences in present 14 Prepositions of place: on. like? _ 82 35 Present perfect tense: for and since 36 Verbs with two objects 37 Question words as subjects 38 Reported or Indirect Speech 84 86 88 90 10 Personal pronouns as subjects and objects 20 11 Possessives: possessive 's and s' _ 24 12 Adjectives: Attributes .what . look like. what is .there are 2 4 6 30 What a/an .clauses 27 Demonstratives: this/these. since.would you like? 26 When . an. yet. in. during 104 45 Questions tags 46 Passive voice 47 Interrogative pronouns 48 Relative pronouns Appendix 106 108 110 112 115 23 Adverbs of frequency and degree _ 54 24 The past simple tense 25 Like . that/those 28 Both and all 29 Say and tell 58 62 64 66 68 72 . a .To Be (Past tense) 9 The plural of nouns 8 10 12 14 16 18 34 Good at.. from 17 Prepositions of distance and descriptions 18 The present continuous 19 The simple present tense 20 "Going to" form 21 The future simple 22 The imperative 26 28 30 36 38 40 42 44 46 50 52 39 So am I .INDEX 1 The present of BE 2 The present of HAVE 3 There is . during.
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 by Edward R. Rosset .
thank you How do you do? Hola Buenos dfas Buenas tardes Buenas tardes (a partir de las seis) Buenas noches (se usa para despedirse) Adios ^Como estas? ^Como esta usted? Muy bien. gracias Tanto gusto (solo para presentarse) Recuerde El pronombre "I" siempre se escribe con mayuscula. neutros. no dos). Recuerde You se puede traducir por tu o usted (en singular). vosotras y ustedes (en plural). Negative I am not/I'm not You are not/you're not/you aren't He is not/he's not/he isn't She is not/she's not/she isn't It is not/it's not/it isn't We are not/we're not/we aren't You are not/you're not/you aren't They are not/they're not/they aren't Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they? 2 STANLEY . Los objetos y los animates son. En ingles hay que poner siempre el sujeto en todas ias frases (pero solo un sujeto.UNIT 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The present of Be Affirmative I am/I'm You are/you're He is/he's She is/she's It is/it's We are/we're You are/you're They are/they're Saludos Hello/Hallo Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good night Goodbye How are you? Very well. por regla general. You tambien signified vosotros.
Mr Jones?" boys. 9. they big. a white dog. 1. green houses. It green. How are you? fine. in the garden. What 10. Escriba estas frases con el verbo contraido. At breakfast: "Good 3. 1. 2. They are tall boys 1. here. 3. Mr Johnson. very nice gardens. "This is Mr Jones. David and Jane in the sitting-room?" "No. John. here." 8. They are here. Example: You are a man. Good 6. "Boys. . They are not here. The dog and the cat 12. a very big door. in the a very tall man. 3 STANLEY . It the house very big? No. You are not at home. You're a man. It is 3 o'clock. 4. It is a nice house.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. not very big. She is not a girl. They the gardens nice? Yes. at home. 7. Rellene las frases con el saludo apropiado. where white. This dog 2. Peter. 3. I am going home. a girl. Hello." "How 2. interesting books. The dog 11. The boys are tall. it those people doing? eating the meat. and how are ? you do. thank you. He not small. Mr Brown 5. The door 8. The tables 6. "Are you going home." 13. It is 11 p. Mr Jones?" "Yes. " . It is 7pm. I 5.m." 2. they you?" "We in the garden. Example: How are you? Very well. 4. " kitchen. very big tables. at home here. a girl. they tall. They these books interesting? Yes. . Good 7. 4. Example: The house is very nice. The houses 3. En este ejercicio hay que poner el verbo be en la forma correcta.
You have a bath / a shower / a nap.• Sin embargo. I don't usually have anything to eat in the morning. etc." actividades diferentes. 4 STANLEY . cuando el verbo have se puede de reemplazar por eat o drink.Does he have a car? / Has he got a car? • En estos cases no se puede usar haven't got. entonces la forma negativa e interrogativa solo take. drink. have a wash! "Do you have breakfast in the morning?" "No. etc. I plemento para referirse a un gran numero de have. I have breakfast / lunch / dinner. spend. etc: I have tea at five o'clock. aunque muy comun. se puede hacer de una manera: He has coffee for breakfast. take. Have a look at this book! Jim. Es completamente opcional. en otros por reemplazar por otro verbo: eat." • Se suele ahadir got al verbo have en presente." "Does she have a holiday?" "No. receive. no se anade en respuestas cortas o en las "coletillas": • Cuando el verbo have significa "tener" la interrogacion y negation se pueden hacer de dos formas: Do you have many brothers? / Have you got many brothers? . El significado depende de la expresion: en algunos cases have se pue. • Notese tambien que en la forma afirmativa no se anade "got". • El verbo TO HAVE puede ir seguido de un com"Have you got an ice-cream?" 'Yes. Es decir. she doesn't have a holiday. Sin embargo. se anade la palabra "got" sin que por ello se altere el significado. The boys have a swim every day in summer. She has a shower every day.UNIT 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The present of Have Affirmative I have/I've You have/you've He has/he's She has/she's It has/it's We have/we've You have/you've They have/they've Negative I have not/haven't/don't have You have not/haven't/don't have He has not/hasn't/doesn't have She has not/hasn't/doesn't have It has not/hasn't/doesn't have We have not/haven't/ don't have You have not/haven't/don't have They have not/haven't/don't have Interrogative Have l?/Do I have? Have you?/Do you have? Has he?/Does he have? Has she?/Does she have? Has it?/Does it have? Have we?/Do we have? Have you?/Do you have? Have they?/Do they have? • A veces se dice "I have got" o "I've got".
The dog hasn't got a little house in the garden. 11. 12. He has a glass of wine with his dinner. Have a look at this book! 18. Ponga estas frases en forma negativa. She has a good husband. Example: Have you got a dog? Do you have a dog? 1. 2. Have you got a sister in New York? 6. My father has a cup of coffee after lunch every day. We have a meal in a restaurant. 19. We have a good time on Saturday nights. 2. . 4. They don't have dinner at seven. 7. 5 STANLEY . We have a quarrel every day. . 7. The children don't have time to play. 16. 15. I have a shower every day. 1. We have coffee after lunch. 10. . 6. She hasn't got a friend at school. 3. I have an intelligent dog. 9. Example: They have dinner at 7. We have a walk every evening. 5. . 14. 5. Have a rest! 13. They have a day off very often. They have a house in the country. We haven't got a new car 4. She often has a glass of wine. They have dinner early. She has a bath in the evening. Has Jimmy got a cat? 3. . En este ejercicio tiene que poner las frases en la otra forma de interrogacion o negacion.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. We have trouble understanding him. 17. Does Mr Smith have a large house? 2. . 8. We have many difficulties.
• There is se puede contraer a There's siempre que la frase continue: There's a tall man in the sitting-room. usamos esta estructura cuando nos referimos a algo que no conocemos todavfa: • En forma interrogativa se cambia el orden. There is not." "Are there any lamps on the wall?" "Yes. There's a little dog in the garden. Is there a dog? Yes. tiene dos formas: there is. "hay". there is!" "Is there anybody in the house?" "No. es decir. cuando la frase es singular. There are some children playing in the park. There is a woman." (aren't) "Are there any glasses on the table?" "No. there is not" (isn't) "Is there any water in the glass?" "Yes. there are not." "Are there many cats in the house?" "No. there is!" "Is there any time?" "No. there are not." (aren't) 6 STANLEY . there are. Is there? • La negacion se pone en tercer lugar.UNIT 3 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 There is . • Por regla general. la negacion se pone en tercer lugar: There are not many people at the concert today. there is not!" (isn't) • Usamos there are cuando la frase es plural: There are many houses in this street. Ejemplos de frases en plural "Are there many trees in the park?" "Yes. • Pero no se puede contraer cuando la frase termina ahf. there are cuando la frases es plural: There is a man. There is a sandwich. • En la forma interrogativa se cambia el orden: Are there many flowers in this park? Are there any glasses in the kitchen? • En cuanto a la forma negativa. there are. Ejemplos de frases en singular "Is there any tea in the teapot?" "Yes.there are • En ingles. el presente del verbo impersonal "haber". there is. There are not many things to do in this place.
I don't like it. . There"s a tall woman. 1. Is there a window in this room? 9. a group of girls talking in the playground. 8. but there much in Mr there much traffic today along Elm Avenue?" "Yes. 3. 3. "Do we have much time?" "No. 2. Is there a good magazine? 7. " 6. Example: There is a man in the room. There 8. any tea in the tea-pot? Yes." 10. 1. 7 STANLEY . There is not a good country road. many chairs in the dining-room?" "Yes. There is a hill over there. 3. In my school there classrooms. 4." many teachers. many cars using this road today. Let's go Peter. there 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. " a lot of whisky in the bottle." plenty of time. there much coffee in the coffee-pot? No." only one girl. 5. there very much. Robert. and it's closed." only one window. There few students." 3. En este ejercicio hay que poner there's siempre que se pueda. There Brown's garden. There are two women in the garden. Example: There is a man. However. also many 4. there a lot of grass in this garden." . any windows open?"" any free time left?" "Yes. There are two men. There 7. "Constable James. there 5. En este ejercicio tiene que poner there is o there are. Example: There's a lot of water in the jar 1. " 5. There is a big tree in this street. 6. 2. Is there a telephone in this place? 4. There"s a big house. There 6. time to play another game?" "Yes. something I want to do today. a lot of noise in this place. Ahora va a poner las frases siguientes en plural. I'm afraid. " 7. 2. there many girls in your class?" "There there many people at the concert today? any time left. " 9. I'm going to make some. many boys playing football. There is not a good restaurant in this town.
• Sin embargo. I had a meal in a restaurant. moon. etc: I often listen to the radio. (no nos dice que libro) He bought a car. (este tren en particular en la estacion de esta ciudad): •Tambien con: the navy the army . The boy had short dark hair. (la luz de esta habitation) The bank opens at nine. 2. (este banco en particular) I took the train at the station. Usamos a/an cuando nuestro interlocutor no sabe a que nos referimos: I am looking for a book. theatre. The carpet is new but the lamp is old.the • Usamos a o an cuando es la primera vez que hablamos de un objeto: He had an apple in his bag. 5. The play was about a man who loved a woman but the woman didn't love the man. No solemos usar el artfculo the con las comidas: What time is dinner? What are you going to have for breakfast? Are we going to have lunch? •Tampoco usamos the con watch. Usamos el artfculo the con radio. cinema. • Asumimos que los que nos escuchan saben a que libros y manzanas nos referimos: • Otros ejemplos: There was a boy holding hands with a girl in the park. A spaceship is going to the moon. earth. 4. Usamos the cuando esta clara la situation de la persona o cosa a que nos referimos: The doctor came this morning to see Grandpa. I saw a play last night. . There are a carpet and a lamp in this room. (su medico de cabecera) The light was on all night. She had a very nice dog.the police the post office. The earth goes round the sun. television: She never watches television.. si los oyentes saben a que nos referimos usamos el articulo determinado: I left the books on the table. I never go to the theatre. We always watch the news on TV. universe. etc. 8 STANLEY 3. (no sabemos que coche) Mary sat on a chair. and the girl had long fair hair. tambien con sun. and the apples in the fridge. (no sabemos cual) We stayed at a nice hotel in Benidorm.UNIT 4 ENGLISH GRAMMAR A/an ..
30 I listened 2.00-to 4. We had a nice meal in a good restaurant. top of sun is shining in television or at cinema? radio. He spends the afternoon watching — television.00 till 12. film. it was beautiful girl?" "Yes. From 9. mornings. Examples: She always goes to the best restaurant in town. "Is she 5. "Was it expensive picture?" "Yes. Where did you see 9. it was most expensive in the gallery. sky. theatre. When I was a boy I used to live near 3. 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR Example: "Was it a good restaurant?" "Yes.S. I don't like going to 3. 9 STANLEY .30 . It is 8. He lives in 2.EXERCISES 1. "Was it 4. on small village in dinner they went for television in island in the Mediterranean. "Was it 3. Conteste estas preguntas segun el ejemplo." most beautiful girl in town. on country. was 11.00-12.30 breakfast afternoon: 1." longest trip I have ever made. Si no hacen falta. From 3. He is a seaman." moon. ponga un guion. largest house in the village. What is 6. ." 2.00 walk/sea .00 lunch evening: 7.00-10.00 I 4. longest river in world? dinner? sea. "Is it 2. He spends most of his life at 15. Why don't you invite your boyfriend to 14. At 1. I don't like listening to first country to send a man to big breakfast and I'm not hungry now. The U.00-4. page. it is long trip?" "Yes. Escriba una frase para cada una de ellas.00 dinner Example: I had breakfast at 1.00 6." best hotel in London. 13. She wrote her name at nice day.30 television 8. .1 had 12. it was the best restaurant in town. From 10. 10. it is large house?" "Yes. 5. At 7. Malta is 7. "Have you got 10. Estas son algunas de las cosas que hizo ayer. I don't like watching 5. 3. walk. capital is Valetta.00-9. From . right. After 4." 1. I prefer going to radio?" "No.A. En este ejercicio hay que poner a/an o the.00 until 9. she is good hotel?" "Yes.30 radio 3. Morning: 8.00 I was walking by 9. cinema.30 cinema half past eight. sea.
Crime doesn't pay. Doctors are very well paid.I have a cat I have some cats /1 have cats • No se debe omitir el articulo delante de profesiones: My daughter is studying to be a doctor. depende de la pronunciation de rirnos a clases de personas: the rich las palabras que siguen a los artfculos: the dying a uniform the blind a university the English an hour anMP an honest man an heir a unique vase • El articulo indefinido a/an se usa siempre con sustantivos en singular. pero no con plurales: . Most dogs are faithful to their owners. a . She is afraid of dogs. Life is very difficult nowadays. Generalmente ponemos an en vez de a cuando la palabra siguiente empieza por vocal: .The whale is the biggest animal on earth.She likes music. Galileo invented the telescope. . The dolphin is a mammal. .UNIT 5 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The. I love collecting stamps. an. He will play the trumpet tonight. • Usamos the con algunos adjetivos para refe• Sin embargo. Solemos omitir el uso de the antes de un sustantivo cuando nos referimos a alguien o algo en general: Children are nice. 10 STANLEY .an elephant . • Usamos el articulo the con ciencia y tecnologia: I like the telephone. 2. • Tambien suprimimos el articulo con most: Most people like pop music.Omission of articles 1.an idea an airfield •Tambien nos referimos a los instrumentos musicales de esta manera: I like playing the guitar.
Wales 9. Fruit / The fruit is good for you.wounded Example: This is a traffic control system for the blind.dead . the cries of and 11 STANLEY . Complete las frases usando the con estos adjetivos. 2. 6. Russia 3. Most / The most people hate violence / the violence. Scotland 10. filled the night air. The cheese/ cheese we had after the meal was delicious. dying . Japan 12.injured .Germany 4. France S.England 2. Examples: I love animals /the animal 1. En este ejercicio tiene que elegir la forma correcta.Italy 6. Spain S.rich .EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. How nice it looks! 11.needy . 7. Look at the fruit / fruit on that stand. con o sin the. 9. Don't go to that restaurant. They got married last year but the marriage / marriage wasn't successful. 1. 3. They say that Dick Turpin robbed 2. Switzerland 7. hospital. The hunting / Hunting is very cruel sometimes. 13.S. My sister is very interested in the art/ art. 8. 5. Do you like the skiing / skiing? 8.poor . 2. 10. Meals / The meals are terrible. Ireland Britain The British. After the battle. China 14. . All pictures / All the pictures on that wall belong to my father. This old house is going to be used as a shelter for 4.blind . Portugal 11. Women / The women are more sensitive than men. 4. were taken to 3. 12. After the plane crash. U.A. In this country the coffee / coffee is cheaper than the tea / tea. iComo se llama la gente que vive en los pai'ses que se mencionan a continuacion? Example: I. to give the money to were buried and .
etc. • Usamos todas estas palabras con el artfculo the cuando se visitan o se usan por otras razones: I went to the church to see the new altar. bed. sea. . • Con los verbos be. stay. • Estudiemos esta situation: . Algunas palabras de uso frecuente suelen suprimir el artfculo cuando se usan para lo que han sido disehadas. • Suprimimos el artfculo delante de todos estos sustantivos cuando les damos un sentido de uso: . court. / I am going to bed. university.He is studying at Bristol University.I go to church on Sundays. prison.Hospital/the hospital 1. I'm tired. church. My children are at school now. work. • En otras palabras. se usa at: The children are at home. She takes her children to school every day. Let's go home. si ingresas en el hospital como paciente: you go to hospital o are taken to hospital. home. town.Mr Carter had an accident yesterday. He often goes to the prison to give lectures. Let's stay at home. • De igual forma decimos: The injured are in hospital. • Se dice: go to sea as sailors.At the moment he is still in hospital. Mr Kent went to the school to speak to the maths teacher. . college. 12 STANLEY .UNIT 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 School/the school . They've been at sea for a week / I was on my way to work. and she is at the hospital now. These people are hard at work. I'll take you to court if you don't pay. He was sent to prison for robbery. They arrived home late. He is in bed resting. • Se suele omitir el the con town cuando se trata de la ciudad del que habla: We often go to town to do some shopping. The whole family were in/at church. school. 2. They are joining the navy and soon will go to sea.Mrs Carter went to the hospital to visit him. . We were in town last Wednesday. and he was taken to hospital. To be at sea. 3. • Si vas de visita: you go to the hospital o you • La palabra home no lleva preposition con verbos de movimiento: are at the hospital visiting somebody.
2. Jim has joined the Navy and within two months he will be 2. 7. Example: If you wanted to see the priest about a wedding. Are you going out? No. My wife likes to read in bed / in the bed before going to sleep. Little Jimmy doesn't like school / the school. 1. All those students are still 8. 5. Example: Children. university. on Sundays. After work / the work. I'm staying 9. she wants to study medicine 3.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. school. church. Our neighbour had an accident and is still 4. At the end of the course parents are invited to school / to the school to meet the teachers. I want to talk to the priest. 4. college. 1 . The lawyer had to go to prison / to the prison to see his client. work. If your son's teacher wanted to see you. Example: The children are already in bed In the bed. That man robbed a bank. 1. My son left university / the university without taking his final exams. where would you go? To the church. 9. bed. 3. My husband never goes to church / to the church. prison. There's a lot of traffic this morning. 6. Everybody seems to be going same time. I always go home / to home. 3. college. 8. I'm going to church / to the church. where would you go to speak to him? 3. If a thief was arrested and you wanted to speak to him. drink your milk and go to bed. where would you go to see him? 2. Responda con respuestas cortas a las siguientes preguntas. home. where would you go? 13 STANLEY . If your friend had an accident. My wife and I always go 7. Old Mc Donald is still ill in hospital / in the hospital. Complete estas frases usando las palabras siguientes: hospital. sea. Tache la que este mal. but was caught and sent only in the morning. When my daughter leaves school. En este ejercicio hay que elegir la forma correcta con o sin the. at the 2. 5. All these children go 6.
Any dictionary will give you the meaning of this. etc. • En general some se usa para frases afirmativas mientras que any se usa para frases interrogativas y negativas. He's got some interesting ideas. 14 STANLEY . There is something on your plate. If there is any doubt let me know. +1 don't know whether anybody will come or not. unos.Can you give me some water? Can you cook some rice? * Any a veces tiene el sentido de cualquiera. Frases afirmativas There are some girls in the park. Despues de if/whether signified alguna. My sister hasn't got any friends. . There is some beer in my glass. algun. I've got some books to read.UNIT 7 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Some. He hasn't got any paper. There isn't any milk in the glass. He's got some papers to read. There aren't any trees in this garden. My sister has got some coffee. alguien. I haven't got any books to read. Frases negativas They haven't got any children. haven't got anything to do. I've got something to tell you. any • Los artfculos partitives some y any se traducen por algo de. She hasn't got any tea. Prases interrogativas Have you got any wine? Has she got any champagne? Is there any tea in the tea-pot? Are there any books on the table? Have we got any coffee? Have you got anything to tell me? Have they got anything to do? Importante * A veces usamos some en preguntas cuando nos referimos a algo rnuy concreto. nada de. un poco.Anybody can tetl you that. We haven't got any beer. Do you want some wine? . You haven't got any good ideas.Can I have some sugar? . algunos.
is interested. 1. give me 3. 1. Can go with you to the party? No. thanks. they haven't got help if you want. but she has seen 2. Have the Browns got 6. can come with me. 1 can give you 12. lt"s all yours. Complete estas frases con: some/any/something/anything. There is children? Yes. any questions to ask? I'll be pleased to answer them. 2. I haven't got to eat? No. I can't see 8. Complete estas frases usando: somebody/nobody/anybody/anyone/someone. 6. sorry. I don't want tea left. Have they got 1 1 . Please. He didn't want to tell me anything. money on you? Sorry. Have you got more. She didn't say 4. You can cash this cheque at 4. on the table. 3. You left the car door unlocked. It's important. 1. Is there 6. Has 5. to tell you. 5. Peter. animals in the farm? Yes. bank. There is hardly 9. Would you like 8. Where's it? you want from here. can see that that is wrong! could have taken the car. There's 7. I can do for you? in the river. I've got 3. I've got 5. I don't have of these pictures. 15 STANLEY . when she came home. wants to see you. Can you see it? in the water.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. there are aspirins in the bar? No. Have you got 10. 7. 2. He's at the door. Have you got 7. 3. Is 4. 2. We are not going to do this afternoon. I haven't seen of them. interested in buying that piano? No. Darling. Complete estas frases con: something/anything. came to see you this morning. You can take in my eye. more coffee? No. Example: I have bought some new books. What is it? information about this place. they have four.
Did you have to do that yesterday? La forma interrogativa y negativa del have tambien se puede formar con la particula did. "Did you have a storm last night?" "No. we didn't have a storm. asf pues: lhad=Yotenia/tuve. I wasn't. I had a dog when I was a child. asi pues: I was = yo era / estaba / fui / estuve. We had a house in the country many years ago. Little Jim was very good last week." 16 STANLEY ." "Where were you yesterday afternoon?" "I was at the cinema." TO BE (past tense) SER o ESTAR Affirmative I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were Negative I was not (wasn't) You were not (weren't) He was not (wasn't) She was not (wasn't) It was not (wasn't) We were not (weren't) You were not (weren't) They were not (weren't) Interrogative Was I? Were you? Was he? Was she? Was it? Were we? Were you? Were they? • El past tense equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido. I was in London yesterday. "Were you at the concert last night?" "No.UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The past of Have and Be Past tense of Have (tener) Affirmative I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Negative I hadn't/I did not have You hadn't/You did not have He hadn't/He did not have She hadn't/She did not have It hadn't/It did not have We hadn't/We did not have You hadn't/You did not have They hadn't/They did not have Interrogative Had l?/Did I have? Had you?/Did you have? Had he?/Did he have? Had she?/Did she have? Had it?/Did it have? Had we?/Did we have? Had you?/Did you have? Had they?/Did they have? Recuerde El past tense ingles equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido.
Complete las frases con was o were. "Did the runners nothing to drink. waiting for you all night." at home all quite hot. it . Why was/were the police asking for our papers? 17 STANLEY . " 4. 1. What 7. We 11. thank you." the students doing when the teacher arrived? you going to do it? working at the factory? doing their homework when I arrived. I a cup of 8." 5." at the cinema. "Where day. 7. they 4. did.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. didn't. Example: Where was /were Peter's mother all day yesterday? 1." 3." 14. " 3. Rellene los huecos con: have. "Did you the students have any time to play?" "No. "Where 2." anything to drink during the marathon?" "No." much time. Elija la forma correcta. I it very cold last winter?" "No. had. How many women 9. Evans last Wednesday?" "She the tea hot enough?" "Yes. "What the children yesterday?" "They you at the concert last night?" "Yes." not a very cold winter. they 2. What did you 6. 1. Sandra and Jill was/were in bed until ten o'clock. Why was/were Mrs Smith's daughters out so late? 3. they anything to do last night?" "No. What time 8. she so angry with me? shopping all morning. it you reading?" "I raining. Why 12. She 13. " 6. "Did they have anything to eat?" "No." anything to eat!" have 3. They didn't 5. "Did you coffee." reading a very interesting book. " time!" 2. The children 10. I didn't. it Mrs. When was/were the school master going to give us the diplomas? 4. did they? in your pocket last night? James have time to do it last Sunday? any coffee after lunch?" "Yes. 2. it raining when you left?" "No.
houses • Las demas palabras que terminan en f o fe ahaden una s: safe cliff safes cliffs chief chiefs 2.boys . crew. las palabras de origen extranjero que terminan en o solamente ahaden una s: kilo kimono piano photo soprano solo kilos kimonos pianos photos sopranos solos 6.feet goose geese woman ox tooth mouse women oxen teeth mice • Sin embargo. o x forman el plural ahadiendo es: potato brush box potatoes brushes boxes kiss kisses pouch . 7. ch. There are a lot of fish in the sea. Generalmente se forma el plural de los sustantivos ahadiendo una s al singular: day. mackarel plaice 3. pero no es muy corriente. Algunos animales no cambian en plural: sheep deer trout cod salmon duck squid carp partridge. team. The police are looking for the thief. Los sustantivos que terminan en y siguiendo a una consonante forman el plural cambiando la y por ies: lady city ladies cities country countries • El plural de fish puede ser fishes. Los nombres colectivos.shelves calf calves wife wives 18 STANLEY . ss.monkeys 8. «> Our team are wearing the new shorts. los sustantivos que terminan en y despues de una vocal forman el plural anadiendo una s: toy boy monkey toys . Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en f o fe. pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural. Algunas otras palabras tampoco cambian: quid aircraft counsel hundredweight o stone (con significado de peso).UNIT 9 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The plural of nouns 1. cats house. etc. segun el sentido que le demos a la frase: Our police is very efficient. Our team is the best. Estos sustantivos son: wolf wife thief shelf sheaf self loaf life leaf knife half calf shelf . days cat. • Sin embargo. family. cuyo plural cambia en ves. Algunos sustantivos forman el plural de forma distinta al singular: man men child children foot ..pouches 5. cuando se trata de peces vivos. sh. Los nombres que terminen en o. 4. police.
deer. for the salad. 2. goose. squid. life. loaf. mouse. 1. I can hear them squeaking. by the river. The police is/are looking for the two fugitives. 1. Two men approached us riding on two incredibly old 2. It was hot and there were a lot of for the job. cliff. He gave me a couple of 10. . The leaves are falling from the trees. Jimmy. The little girl was dirty and her hair was full of 12. Rellene con la palabra apropiada en plural: dynamo. buzzing around. I'm sure there are 13. three times a day. 6. Todos estos sustantivos terminan en f o fe. as they approached him. The goose-boy was looking after the 9. donkey. It's autumn. leaf. In the shop they had two models of and he chose the bigger one. you must clean your 8. My family is/are wonderful. sheep. of Dover are famous all over the world. 19 STANLEY . tooth. safe. attacked the frogman squirting their black ink on him. louse. The hooligans were brandishing in the mountains this winter. Algunos cambian en plural por ves. in the distance. My mother bought two 2. The team is/are at the bottom of the second division. I have a very bad cold so I've taken a couple of 14. There are many 2. 7. Example: The Pope has published two new briefs. handkerchief. for the night. The two soldiers dropped their rifles and ran for their 5. It's very easy to be compassionate with other people's 4. fly. for emergencies. She bought three 7. wolf. 4. knife. 3. of bread for dinner. 3. quid. Example: The average family (which only consists of four member nowadays) is / are a great deal smaller than in the old days. The white of bread for tea. They are all helping me. Tache el verbo que crea que esta mal.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The shepherd's dog was rounding up all the 4. Our team has/have played one of their best games this season. 3. o subraye el que este bien. She cut up three large 6. tomato. . grief. loaf. Several 11. . otros no: brief. Estos sustantivos colectivos pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural segun el sentido que les demos. He needed a safe to keep money and documents in. 1. after meals. The hospital had two 5. in the attic. The hunter could see several 3.
pueden ser complementos directos de un verbo: I saw her. him. them. I saw it. they • It y you tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos: "Did you see the bird?" "Yes. he. He knows Mary. She made it for him." "Where's Jim?" 'That's him over there." He brought one for Mary/He brought Mary one. etc. • Sin embargo. any." none. they son siempre sujetos de oracion: I went to London. • Si el pronombre va seguido de una oracion. John? But it was he who told me that! • Me. she. She made him/John a cake. They live in Bristol. some.UNIT 10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 and Personal pronouns as subjects a objects FORMA (sing." • Los pronombres personales I. us. he/she/it sujeto we you • Pueden ser complementos circunstanciales: with her for him without us (plural) 1 persona 2 persona 3 persona a a a to them us you them LA POSICION • El complemento indirecto se pone delante del directo: I sent her/Mary the letters. Henry likes them. usamos el sujeto he: Who. it saw me. si el complemento directo es un pronombre personal es mas usual colocarlo directamente detras del verbo seguido de to o for: I sent them to her. • Con las expresiones it was me/I hay dos posibilidades: objeto directo + that (muy informal): It was me that posted the letter." "Did it see you?" "Yes. John found her a job. we. bo to be: "Who is it?" "It is I. 20 STANLEY .: • Aunque es mas corriente usar el complemento: "Who is it?" "It's me. her.) 1a persona 2a persona 3 persona a sujeto objeto I you me you him/her/it objeto • 0 complementos indirectos: Jim gave me a book. • Excepto I que puede ser complemento del ver• Esta regla no es aplicable a one.
"Did Jane come with you two?" "Yes. ." 5. Mary went with Henry to the theatre. . Just you and 6. Help (to) carry ." 2. . "Where did you leave the book?"" hall. 6." "Exactly. Rellene los espacios en bianco con los pronombres personales que crea conveniente. 4. . It never occurred to Fred that perhaps Tony was lying." a sweet each. 2. "Did he give you a sweet?" "Yes. "Did you come with SUsan?" "Yes. 7. it's 4. It is very small. the poor girl has fainted." 7. "Did Janet tell Bob and Jim about the accident?" "Yes. Bill found Peter a job. I think you're prettier than these girls. "She likes sugar.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 8. Let's go for a walk. Yes. We are much better than 9. 3. at football. 1. and I didn't want to. not are prettier than on the table in the _. 5. Did the boys give you something for Sandra? 21 STANLEY . An old man asked my friend and what time it was. It was very kind of you to give Peter and me a hand. It struck both men that everyone was unusually silent. 2. 3. Reemplace las palabras subrayadas por pronombres personales. left came with that likes sugar. (her/them) 1. I came with Jeff and 11. Nobody could do it except 8. Example: Go with John and Mary to visit Frank and Mark. They knew all about my friend and 10. It was Peter who lent John and me the money. not you. Mary told Bob and Jim. Example: That's Mary's baby. he gave Peter and 12.
It frightens me.I was the one (or the person) who posted the letter. • Sin embargo. 22 STANLEY . entonces el pronombre debe ser sujeto. • Cuando as y than van seguidos de pronombres personales. It was I who posted the letter. It is only two days old. Usos de IT • It se usa generalmente para cosas. I'm not as bad as he is. Robert / This is Robert. It is today that she's coming." • It puede introducir frases: It was Jim who came to see you. not tomorrow.). por supuesto: She's not as good as I am. se pueden usar tanto la forma de sujeto como la de complemento: He is not as clever as I/me. etc. si despues del pronombre ponemos un verbo. This is my baby." * "Is that Jerry?" "No.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 • Sujeto + who (muy formal). • Al telefono se dice asi: "Who is that/it?" "It is me. It's Frank. • Se puede evitar el uso de cualquiera de estas dos formas cambiando la estructura: .UNIT 10(cont. She understands the question better than I/me. tambien para bebes: Where's my book? I left It on the chair. him. Look at that snake. • En ingles coloquial se usan mucho mas los complementos (me. o un animal cuyo sexo no conocemos.
It's two months since I/me last saw he/him. this is Robert. 7. 6. "Where's Tim?" "That's he/him. The books? Oh. This letter is for she/her and these are for we/us. I am not as bad as he is. 5. Robert!" 2. Example: She is not as pretty as I am. 3. 10." 9. I am not as fast as they are. Silly Bill! It was he/him who chose the wallpaper. over there. "Who's that speaking?" "It's I/me. 12. I made it for she/her. 2. Example: Jim. Janet?" 2. We aren't as tall as they are. 9. Pauline is not as pretty as I am. I/Me haven't seen he/him for three years. 8. She/Her gave it to he/him. 4. She is not as clever as I am. 7. She eats as much as I do. 6. can you ring / me tonight? 1. 5. Pauline. Estas frases se pueden poner con dos complementos cambiados como en el ejemplo. 11. lt"s me/I. He is not as good as she is. 8. Elija entre el pronombre personal en nominative (sujeto) y el acusativo (objeto). We are not as clever as they are. 1. She is not as pretty as me.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 4. She/Her sent it to he/him. 3. "Who is speaking" "Oh. I/me sent they/them to he/him by post last week. He/Him bought it for us/we. How are you. They/Them sent the letter to him /he. Peter is not as stupid as we are. 23 STANLEY .
se convierte en .Those families' hobby. iglesias. . A) Primero se traduce el poseedor: Peter. • Si son extranjeros o clasicos. en caso de nombres propios o apellidos que terminen es s hay dos opciones: I live in St. The house of Mary. se convierte en * The girls' apples. This is Pythagoras' Theorem.The kitchen of my mother. • Sin embargo. se usa lo que se llama el genitive sajon o caso posesivo: La manzana de Pedro (the apple of Peter) se convierte en: Peter's apple. St James' Square. • Con expresiones de tiempo tambien es admisible el uso del genitive sajon: today's paper a month's holiday tomorrow's weather twenty minutes' break o two hours' delay o in two months' time I Recuerde * Si el poseedor es plural y termina en s.UNIT 11 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Possessives: possessive ( s and (') ') • Cuando un ser viviente (persona o animal) posee algo.The legs of the dog. catedrales y firmas comerciales se escriben con's: Barclays' (bank) St. solo se anade el apostrofo: Cervantes' works are interesting. se convierte en . This is Mary's house and that one is Jane's. The legs of the cats. (las del gato) • Con nombres compuestos o largos el apostrofo se pone al final: My brother-in-law's guitar. and the cat's are white. James's Square. . John's (College) St. The Jones's dog is very noisy. • Tambien hospitales. . (la de Jane) The dog's legs are black. • Es muy corriente usar el genitivo sajon con tiendas (la palabra shop se sobreentiende): My wife is at the hairdresser's. se convierte en . That is the Evans's house. 24 STANLEY • Cuando hablamos con algun conocido a veces omitimos la palabra house: We are going to Peter's. She's staying at the Brown's. Paul's (Cathedral) The hobby of those families.My mother's kitchen. se convierte en • The cats' legs. se convierte en . se convierte en The boys' house. • Tambien se puede poner 's despues de iniciales: The MP's secretary. The Prince of Wales's country house. The VIP's bodyguard. B) despues la preposicion de bajo el aspecto de's.Mary's house.The dog's legs. C) por ultimo la cosa posefda sin artfculo: apple. Is there a butcher's near here? The house of the boys. the Evans' house.The Jones' dog. se aftade solamente el apostrofo: The apples of the girls. . on the corner.
We went to the shop of Woolworth to do some shopping. Peter. En este ejercicio hay que unir dos sustantivos. The husband of my friend is very tall 4. The toys / the children 7. The house of Mr and Mrs Carter is new. Ahora vamos a usar el genitivo sajon con expresiones de tiempo. 6. etc. 7. We went to visit the Cathedral of St. The daughter / Bernard 9. The tail of our cat is black and white. The birthday / my father 2. Example: The weather / yesterday / was very good Yesterday's weather was very good. They went to the Hospital of St. Examples: The window / the room / The window of the room The mother / Peter / Peter's mother 1. The friends of my sister are very pretty. A veces hay que usar el apostrofo. distancia. The children's room is upstairs. 1. 7.1 didn't see the wife of your brother last night. The name / my husband 6. This river is / 20 miles / long 5. 6. 8.1 received the letter of Uncle George last night 5. The mother of my cousin is my aunt. con o sin s. con tiendas.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The eyes / the dog 3. The house / Tom 2. otras veces la preposition of. The country house / my uncle and aunt 10. 1. medida. peso. Lea la frase y escriba otra usando el genitivo sajon. Paul. 3. The door/ the room 4. 25 STANLEY . Example: The room of the children is upstairs. How heavy is it? About two pounds / weight 4. 3. The house is / two hours / walk / from here 3. The name / this town 5. The head of that bird is black. 2. The coference / last year / was terrible 2. The newspaper / today 8.
) She is looking at you angrily. blue with cold. • Cuando poor significa "desgraciado" debe ser atributo: The poor child had an accident.Meat goes bad. . alone. • Los verbos look. sheer. smell. • Go tambien se usa con adjetivos en muchos casos cuando las personas o las cosas cambian a peor: & People go crazy. (adv. deaf. appear. taste. The train arrived/was early. seem. machines go wrong. • El significado de late y early depende de su posicion.you look beautiful he feels strong • Los adjetivos principal. bread goes stale. • Sin embargo.) She looked calmly at the two men. We caught an early train. • Con ciertos verbos. The leaves of the book go yellow with age. • Turn se puede usar tambien con todas estas expresiones: She turned purple with rage. asleep van siempre siguiendo al verbo. sound. y los adjetivos en esta posicion se llaman predicatives: she is nice . Everything will come out all right in the end. white with anger.) She looked calm. por lo que son predicados: She is still alive. taste. upset. bald.predicatives • Los adjetivos que se colocan delante de los sustantivos se llaman atributos: a beautiful song . chief. (adj. red. green with envy. iron goes rusty. stand. Estos verbos se llaman verbos copulatives. (adj. a menudo ponemos un adjetivo detras. tales como: be. horses go lame. (adj.a tired expression a typical meal • El verbo come se suele usar con expresiones que tienen un final feliz: All my dreams have come true. This man is poor. afraid. and smell pueden ir seguidos de un adjetivo predicative o de un adverbio: She looks angry. lie. feel. 26 STANLEY . main son atributos que se ponen delante de los sustantivos a los que califican: The main road of the town is closed to the traffic. (adv. mad. look. tired y old). alive.He is a poor man. (Sin embargo go no se suele usar con ill. blind. (adv. milk goes off. • Algunos verbos se usan para mostrar como el sujeto de la frase cambia: People go pale. feel. • Algunos verbos como sit.) You must be careful.) The doctor felt my leg carefully.UNIT 12 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Adjectives: Attributes .) • Cuando poor significa "sin dinero" puede ser atributo o predicado: . pueden ir seguidos de adjetivos predicativos.
This is a slow train (adj. (adv. Example: He is the chief engineer. / This man is alive. We'll be there singer. (terrible/terribly) . He turned 6. I haven't been to the theatre very much 7. That is my upset mother. / This street is the main. 1. (short) . This is an afraid girl.) Example: Please. En este ejercicio tiene unas parejas de frases. (direct/directly) 6. She is an ashamed girl. He can jump very . This exercise looks 3. / That man is alone. Tachela. I hate arriving 8. (happy/happily) . 2.) She was driving slowly. Please. She looked (nervous/nervously) 4. 7. 4. (horrible/horribly) 1. This train is a road goes from one place to another. / She is ashamed of it. cut 3. Something smells 9.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMAR 1. It goes very 5. tAdjetivos o adyerbios? Algunas palabras pueden ser las dos cosas. That is an alone man. Incluso algunos adverbios se pueden escribir de dos formas diferentes. He tasted the soup 2. (good/well) . That music sounds 7. This is the main street. Go to the station and take the train that goes London. (beautiful/beautifully) . (straight) . She looked 5. (free/freely) . This client is our principal. Mary grew 8. 3. en una frase usamos el adjetivo como atributo. o un adverbio. Example: The food tasted horrible. These are alike girls. bien un adjetivo predicative. 3. (calm/calmly) 2. en la otra como predicado. She didn't seem to be at the angry mob. 8. She sings . (angry/angrily) I can't stand it! (terrible/terribly) as time passed. This is an alive man. (late/lately) in my restaurant if you want. /This girl is afraid. (suspicious/suspiciously) to me. 5. (well/good) . (impatient/impatiently) in the kitchen. Una de las dos frases no tiene sentido. / My mother is upset. (calm/calmly) on the man behind him. / These girls are alike. (high/highly) .) Go slow! (adv. You can eat 9. This engineer is the chief. / This is our principal client. She sings very train. (late/lately) 27 STANLEY . 6. He made her 10. (fast) to all the explanations. be careful and drive slowlyl (slow) 1. A 2. En las frases que vienen a continuacion tiene que ahadir. She is a 4.
es decir. Solo se usan para indicar que la frase esta. para formar frases interrogativas y negativas en presente de indicative con la mayoria de los verbos (exceptuando to be y los defectives can. • Cuando se usa la particula does. Do your children read many books? No.UNIT 13 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Interrogative and negative sentences in the present Affirmative I play golf You play golf He/she/it plays golf We play golf You play golf They play golf I Recuerde que para interrogar y negar. they don't read books. • Does. o bien en forma interrogativa o bien en forma negativa. my brother doesn't work very much. he does. solo se utiliza para la tercera persona singular. No. sin s. I don't come every day. que tambien se llaman auxiliary verbs. must. What do you do on Sundays? I don't do anything. Yes. he doesn't drink wine. they don't. es decir. they read a lot of books. el verbo se pone en infinitive. Respuestas cortas • Es muy corriente en ingles usar respuestas cortas usando las particulas do y does: Do you go to the cinema very often? Yes. Does he drink wine? No. Does your brother work very hard? No. he doesn't. might. may. • En forma negativa el do not se suele contraer en don't. No. I do. should) se usan las particulas do y does. • No se debe confundir el verbo to do (hacer) con la particula do. No. I don't. Does Peter go swimming every day? Yes. 28 STANLEY . Yes. ought to. could. Do the children go to school by bus? Yes. he works quite a lot. they do. y el does not en doesn't. o doesn't. • Estas particulas no se traducen. Negative I do not play golf You do not play golf He/she/it does not play golf We do not play golf You do not play golf They do not play golf Interrogative Do I play golf? Do you play golf? Does he/she/it play golf? Do we play golf? Do you play golf? Do they play golf? Ejemplos: Do you come here every day? No.
8. What 2. I do. Tu tienes que hacer las preguntas. you friend do in the mornings? come here very often. 2. Mrs Brent. Do they cut the grass very often? 6. The headmaster? Yes. 5. 4. Does Peter's uncle come to see him often? 4. 5. Aqui tienes unas respuestas. I don't speak French. Example: No. Yes. Do the children drink water with their meals? 5. don't o doesn't. Do you go to see the doctor when you have a cold? 3. Example: Do you go to the beach every day? Yes. 7. do his homework every day.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. does she? speak to us. my friend's mother cooks very well. They 3. 6. my father doesn't smoke. 9. my friends like running. 7. my friends like dancing. do they? your friend's mother cook well? you do your homework? these people go to the beach every day in summer? hear very well. Mr Smith's wife do the shopping in this supermarket? go to many concerts. 3. 29 STANLEY . Yes. Does Mr Smith like playing golf? 7. Fred's friend 4. old Mr Rock. 1. Do you listen to the news on the radio? 8. 1. No. Yes. Do you go every day? 1. My teacher. Responda estas preguntas usando respuestas cortas. they don't do their homework. I don't go every day. he teaches very well. Mr Smith goes to work by bus. 2. Does Mrs Evans go shopping every morning? 3. Does your brother's friend like swimming? 2. No. Example: Do you go to school every day? Yes. That old woman. Yes. does. No. I do. we don't play tennis very often. When 8. Rellene los huecos con las particulas do. No. I don't. These people 6. No. 10. 9.
S. no en la forma exacta o dimensiones del lugar. after that I worked at Barnard's Enterprises. (es importante para mf) The trains don't stop at Linster. He had a beer at that little pub round the corner. in High Street. There's a stain on the ceiling. restaurantes. A menudo usamos at cuando hablamos de cafes. frontera. no estamos interesados en el hecho de que sea fuera o dentro. I was at school from 1960 to 1971. • Tambien usamos at con nombres de actividades de grupo: at a meeting/at the theatre/at a concert/ at a lecture/at a match/at the cinema • Fi'jese en la diferencia entre in Oxford (en la ciudad) y at Oxford (en la universidad). (es solo un punto en el viaje) At the two-mile mark. and at university from 1971 to 1974. We'll eat at MacDonald's. I was at the theatre last night. On (lines) • Usamos on para decir que algo esta tocando o cercano a una Ifnea. in. Nos encontramos con alguien at the station.UNIT 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Prepositions of place: on.A. There's something on the sole of my shoe. Tijuana is on the frontier between Mexico and the U. (no. Put the picture on the other wall. o sitios donde se estudia o trabaja: I'll be at the club at 8. Bath is on the road to Bristol. at At • Cuando consideramos un sitio como un punto (sin tamano real). • A menudo usamos at con el nombre de un lugar cuando estamos interesados en la actividad que se desarrolla alii. y entre in the corner (rincon) y at/ on the corner (esquina). carretera): We have a house on the river. o algo parecido a una li'nea. 30 STANLEY . On (surfaces) • Usamos on cuando algo esta tocando una superficie: The book is on the table. We stopped for an hour at Orly airport. usamos at: I live in Linster. he was leading the other runners. sino que consideramos a la estacion como un sitio de encuentro. They spend the morning in a boat on the lake.
The sports results are 9. The second door Stratford Boston twenty years ago. We have a little house 8. There was no name 2. Examples: The policeman was standing on the corner of the street. the crossroads last night. There were many cars parked 11. 31 STANLEY 4. my way here. There is a path the door. It's a little fishing village 6. She lives above us. the ground floor. I was stuck in a traffic jam 13. Jimmy was sitting 4. The book was II. the end of this street. I'll meet her 12. They lived 5. on. Shakespeare was born 7.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR I. Write your name and address 5. The car was stopped 10. On the continent people drive 2. the right. She was 3. The young couple was watching the film sitting looking at the passers-by. They got married 8. I stopped there 7. his left cheek. or at con una de las frases dadas a continuation: the second floor London the east coast the Pyrenees the window the back of the envelope my way to work the right the back of the class the traffic lights the shelf the back of the cinema Example: The main office of the company is in London. the back. 2. a desk. There's another entrance the coast. at. Avon. 1. Complete estas frases usando in. a small island off the coast of Florida. There was an accident 14. that field. 1. Don't use the front entrance. the back page of the newspaper. I have a friend who lives 10. 9. My office is 6. I don't like spending the day sitting . Complete estas frases con in. on. so we knocked. this photograph. The man had a scar 3. I can't see you 16. a small village this street. 17. There is a herd of sheep 15. the corner of the street.
avionetas. • Hablando de heridas decimos in: He was wounded in the shoulder/in his head. caballos. • Usamos in en las cavidades: He hit me in the eye/mouth/ribs/ stomach. • Usamos in con coches. regiones.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 In • Se usa cuando los alrededores son tridimensionales: The table is in the room/in the shop/in the kitchen. • Con grandes superficies (pafses. taxis. She's swimming in the water/in the sea/ in the river. The boys are in the garden/in the park/ in the building.: I saw him in a new Mercedes. She's in a field/in the car park. motos y bicicletas: I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus. islas grandes) decimos in: She lives in Yorkshire/ in the Sahara/in the British Isles. The money is in your bag/in your purse/ in your drawer. (pero on a desert island) Parts of the body • Generalmente decimos on cuando se trata de la superficie del cuerpo: He had blood on his forehead/his cheeks.UNIT 14(Cont. 32 STANLEY . (pero on the beach) Means of transport • Usamos on con transportes publicos. etc.
They were 3. We had to wait 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Mike's wedding. It was a slow train. I'll be until 6 in my office. I last saw her 5.00. the Albert Festival Hall tonight. for two months. 2. Has Jim got up yet? No. She's still 4. Don't come to see me tomorrow. 4. were you? work today. Complete estas frases. 10. Utilice in. for half an hour. at. Mary and Jean are students Harvard University. She was 33 STANLEY . It stopped 9. There's a concert 6. home. 8. Complete estas frases con in y at. 3. I won't be I'll be John's. She hasn't gone to university yet. Example: There were a lot of young people at the concert. Where were you last night? I was watching a film. You weren't 10. Freddy's parents live 7. They always go to the Sunday Service. He was jailed for ten years. We had a party Frank's house last night. on con una de las palabras de esta lista. Manchester. the party. they are still 7. 6. I haven't seen Jane for a long time. He had a bad accident last month and he's still 11. Madrid for a year. sea hospital theatre church a farm bed prison work the station the cinema the airport school Example: My plane lands at 3. Please. He speaks good Spanish. every little station. It was a long voyage. 1. My secretary wasn't home ill bed. He studied 8. he is still 5. 1. Our train was delayed. There is a nice play tonight. meet me at the airport. 2. He's still 9. I was brought up in the country.
34 STANLEY . Recuerde Decimos arrive in con pai'ses y ciudades: When did you arrive in England/in London? • Decimos arrived at con iugares comunes: He arrived late at school. • Con los pisos siempre decimos on: I live on the third floor/on the ground floor.. algunas con in. at work at the hotel at the park • No usamos preposicidn con verbos de movimiento y home: He arrived home. etc. in hospital. • Hay algunas expresiones que no usan artfculo. She lives in Boston Road. pero.. otras con at: in bed in hospital in court in church/at church in prison in American English in school in college in university at school at university at work at college Addresses • At se usa con el numero de la calle: She lives at number 27.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR At church. • Si usamos el numero y el nombre de la calle decimos at: She lives at 27 London Avenue.UNIT 14 (Cont.
work. He is 10. . Example: At what time did you arrive at the airport? 1. . Let's go 8. to speak to the convict. They arrived home very early. Use estas palabras con una preposicion (cuando sea necesario) para completar las frases: prison. My son is studying medicine 3. to speak to the vicar. to speak to the headmaster. We are getting married and we have to go 6. I want to go to the Sunday Service. . When the two boys arrived 4. the airport 2 hours late. the cinema they joined the queue. Majorca 7 hours late. university Example: The convict is in prison. hospital. This train arrives 9. church. The plane arrived 13. My husband always arrives 2. It's late. What time do the boys arrive 7. He arrived 11. the office in the morning? home from school? the hotel? 5. . 1. 35 STANLEY . He is on his way asleep. He is 4. My mother is coming 7. Darling. Complete estas frases con una preposicion cuando sea necesario. .EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 1. They arrived late 12. Mr Brown had an accident. When did she arrive 10. 2. What time do you usually arrive 6. this country. school. London early in the morning. The lawyer went 9. in your car. home late today. I'll be arriving platform 8. New York? work early for once. We arrive 14. Mr Smith is in his office. My father has gone to his office. the meeting. What time are we expected to arrive 8. The children are already 2. I had a strange feeling when I first arrived 3. Take the children 5. bed.
in time • Usamos on time cuando nos referimos a la puntualidad. she was suddenly afraid.I went to Spain last year. June 2nd Fechas: on June 16th. 36 STANLEY . in. • On + gerundio (on arriving.UNIT 15 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Prepositions of time: on. on hearing. . On time. in the Middle Ages In • Usamos in en expresiones como: I'll be there in ten minutes. I can run a mile in five minutes. al oi'r. • Decimos in time o in time for cuando se llega con un margen razonable de tiempo: All passengers arrived in time for the train.) se traduce por al llegar. at At • Usamos at con: In Usamos in para: Partes del dfa: Meses: Ahos: Estaciones: in the morning in the afternoon in the evening in April in October in 1992. etc. On hearing that. The book will be ready in ten days' time. etc. • No usamos ninguna preposition delante de last y next: .I'll see you next Sunday. a menudo con horarios de trenes: In this country trains always arrive on time. on 21st April in (the) spring in (the) winter) Siglos: in the 17th century in the 19th century Perfodos de tiempo: in that era. in 1885 • Expresiones de tiempo: at six at the weekend at present at Christmas at about/around at the age of at lunch time • Tambien empleamos at con las siguientes expresiones: at the beginning at first at the end at last On • Usamos on con: Dfas de la semana: on Monday on Sundays on Monday morning Partes del dfa: on Saturday nights on Christmas Day Festividades: on New Year's Day on his birthday Aniversarios: on her wedding day Ocasiones especiales: on that day on that evening Dfa + fecha: on Tuesday. in 1912.
The Titanic sank 6. There's very little work in the area 16. the same time. and relax 6. 8th March and ends midnight and got up Stratford . I'll probably be busy afternoon? 18. The "Charleston" was a very popular dance 8. on. 37 STANLEY a few years" time. This course begins 21. 14. We usually go for a walk 5. Shakespeare was born 1990. Wait for me. Come on! The train is leaving 20. I'll be there 8. 10th June. a couple of hours. 5. I always take my wife out 3. New Year's day. If everybody speaks nobody will understand.night . She went to bed morning. on. Pon la preposicion correcta: at. It's impossible for me to go 9. 22.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 10.the 20's .30. in. He always comes home 11. 2.the moment . January. She got married 2. two minutes.30 the next 1564. Usa at.the 19th century . He'll probably retire 2.12th April 1912 . I'll be there 3. Christmas. We always have a party 13. and sometimes Saturday night? night. Both horses arrived 4. 30th June. weekends. the moment. Can you come Monday morning. o in con cada una de las frases siguientes. Would you like to come to the cinema ten minutes. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases. 1. 1. the age of 91. 5. summer. a couple of years ago. the 11 o'clock. America was discovered 7. I can't sleep 4. I work hard during the week. the morning. Petrol is going up 15.1 like going for a walk 12. The old man died 17. 1492 . Example: The match begins at 4. Sunday mornings I usually cut the grass in the garden. They are going to get married 9. It was a short story and I wrote it 5.the age of 18 Example: Many things were invented in the 19th century. our wedding anniversary.Sundays about ten minutes . My father is 59. I'll come to see you 19.the same time . under the moonlight. Little Jimmy started school 7.
He has worked here for six months. Production stopped during the strike. Since • Se usa siempre como preposicion de tiempo.I haven't been feeling well since last Saturday. It has been raining since two o'clock. from During + sustantivo • Usamos esta formula para decir cuando sucede algo: It must have rained during the night. I haven't been home for a year. We came out for a drink during the interval. Opening hours are from 9 to 1 and from 3 to 7. The ground is wet. From • Puede ser preposicion de lugar: Where do you come from? • Pero tambien puede ser preposicion de tiempo: Many people work from nine to five. 38 STANLEY . We watched television for two hours. We've lived in four different places since last year.UNIT 16 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepositions of time: for. • (Generalmente during va seguido del artfculo the o algun adjetivo posesivo. I haven't seen her since we quarrelled. . He didn't feel well during the examination. during. The course goes on from June to September. nunca como preposicion de lugar: She has been here since Monday. We met many people during our stay in Paris.) For • Tambien puede significar durante cuando va seguido de un periodo de tiempo: We have already been in Miami for a week. He studied the piano from the age of five. Mother will be away from Monday to Friday. since.
Complete con for o since. nine to five. nine o'clock this morning? one to three. Where have you been? the week. When I was ill I couldn't eat anything 8. seven o'clock. I have been waiting the film. half an hour in the rain. He lived in South America 6. We watched television 2. Most people work 7. What have you been doing 2. 1980. We haven't seen each other 5. six years. a week.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. I've known her 8. 1. The production of the factory stopped 7. I haven't seen her 9. My lunch time is 3. I fell asleep 9. two hours last night. I've been waiting 4. 5 o'clock. That house has been empty 7. Christmas. I've been here since three o'clock but nobody's come. a week. breakfast. June 1990. We'll be back on 8th September. Complete con from o since. I haven't eaten anything 4. we met in Paris a year ago. many years. It is two years 8. En este ejercicio tiene que poner for o during. several days. It has been raining since four o'clock. Example: I was studying for two hours. a long time. I last saw Jim. That house has been empty 6. ages. six months. We never go out 2. 2. We are going away a long time. But it didn't rain during the night. My wife hasn't spoken to me 4. nine to ten. Example: It has been raining for three days. two to four but she didn't come. Example: I was there from three to four but nobody came. I like watching TV 5. My brother has been out of work 3. 1. We have been watching television 3. She waited for you 5. We only go out at weekends. I haven't seen you 6. 3. I haven't seen Jim 9. I waited 39 STANLEY . the strike. 1.
30 train . When are they coming back from South America? They are coming all the way from Chicago. We are going to fly to New York. To • Indica direction a o estado en: I've been to Paris five times. He sometimes goes to work by bicycle. quick! Let's get on the train.on a plane . etc. It's 200 miles from London to Bristol.in a taxi By • Usamos by para decir como viajamos: by train by car by rail by bus by road by sea by underground by bicycle by plane by air by ship by land I always go to Paris by plane. We prefer to go by train. She's never been to a football match.UNIT 17 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepositions of direction and manner From • Indica procedencia: The train is coming from Paris. Decimos in my car. The dog ran into the house. Let's go to a concert tonight. on the train.in my car .in a car . We never go by air. The old man walked into the shop. • Usamos in para coches y taxis: .on the 5. 40 STANLEY . Into • Usamos into en vez de to cuando entramos dentro de algun sitio: They went into the room.on foot Get on the bus. On • Usamos on para ir a pie y en transposes publicos: on the bus . A bird flew into the room. • Si usamos by no podemos decir my car / the bus / a taxi.
That man is going to be sent 5. on. He ran away 8. o in. 1. taxi this morning. No. the shops. He travels every day 6. the 7. I don't like travelling 11. They have cycled 2. He got 3. 41 STANLEY . 3. No. I can run 7. they have never been to Swede. He often goes to work 6. Complete con by. I've never been to Portugal. No. Haga preguntas como en el ejemplo." the train.30 train from Manchester. Example: The plane has arrived from Paris. prison. New York Washington. No. Example: They are coming by train. He got 8. 5. I have never been to the United States. your father's car. No. underground. the plane. Quick! Get 2. sea. the church in five minutes. the room and sat down. Your mother is coming back 4. to. hurry up! his motorcycle and rode off. they have never been to Australia. I'll take you to the station 3. a taxi. my car. "We'll probably go on holiday the bus. bicycle in summer. Have you been to Africa? 1. Rome. The passengers were already seated 3. 2. 4. 1. "Are you going 12. air?" "No. It's leaving. Seville? Paris the car and drove off. I've come to work 5. 9. On the 6 o'clock train. I have never been to Africa. 2. We'll go to the station 4. Get 7. my daughter has never been to Rome. She walked quietly 9. Is that the train coming here home at 15.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. They're arriving 10. Example: No. o into. Complete con from.
Tambien usamos el presente continuo para hablar sobre situaciones cambiantes: The standard of living is rising in this country. Para una accion actual pero que no necesariamente esta sucediendo en el momento en que se habla: I'm reading a very interesting book.UNIT 18 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The present continuous • El presente continue se forma con el presente del verbo auxiliar to be + el gerundio: Affirmative I am working You are working He is working We are working You are working They are working Negative I am not working You are not working He is not working We are not working You are not working They are not working Interrogative Am I working? Are you working? Is he working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Usos del presente continuo 1. I'm meeting John at seven this evening. 2. por ejemplo: today. 4. The Smiths are building their own house. etc. this term. "Are you doing anything tomorrow morning?" "I'm playing tennis with Janet. We are sitting at the table for dinner. 5. 42 STANLEY . Para una accion que esta sucediendo actualmente: It is raining. He's learning French. A menudo usamos el presente continuo cuando hablamos acerca de un perfodo presente. Your French is definitely getting better." I'm having dinner with your sister on Saturday. this season.: She is working very hard these days. Robert is not playing tennis this season. Una forma corriente de expresar las ideas de future planeado: He is taking me to the cinema tonight. What are you doing? I'm watching TV. We are not studying maths this term. He's going to the doctor on Monday. 3.
7. (enjoy) to concentrate. We 3. They the baby at seven o'clock.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The level of the water 4. Can you tell me the way? (look) a lot of noise. I at 43 STANLEY . Things 5. (wear) stones at people again. Complete las frases con "presente continue con proyeccion al future". (drive/drink). (not rain) anything tonight. Excuse me. Life is impossible! a lot of money in this business! very hard these days. 1. (speak) 6." (work) 6. sorry. (play) their anniversary dinner on Friday. isn't she? (get) your boyfriend? (meet) you this evening?" "Nothing. / am listening to the radio. Example: Keep quiet.(bathe) tennis on Sunday morning. darling? It was written by Shakespeare. I 2. (try) again. What language 2. (not work) your raincoat? It is not raining. Children. Ponga el verbo en la forma correcta. you 10. (have) you tomorrow? (come) after lunch. We 3. What time 5. It is not raining now. 3. a coat? It's very hot today. I have to drive after the party. The standard of living 2. I 7. We are on holiday. Why this month. Why 3. since the rain stopped three days ago. 1. the play. (rain) for the station. They 4. I 2. (listen) Let's go to play football. very expensive. (throw) 4. I think. (drink) 1. (arrive) . "Are you coming tomorrow?" "No. Complete estas frases usando uno de estos verbos. They you fast in some European countries. We 6. I 9. change / wear / rise / fall / get / lose / work Example: Things are changing very fast in this country. Don't make a noise. Go to play in the garden. Look at those boys! They 5." (do/stay) married next month. Look! It 8. Example: I am driving after the party so I'm not drinking. (make) ? I can't understand a word. Your friend 8. "What home. Where 9.
he does I fish. he obeys I say. I often speak to her on the phone. y ahadimos es: I copy. He hates you. on Sundays. I hear noises at night. never. She feels very well. pues no admiten la continua: I love you. I want a little more. he goes I do. o ahaden es en la tercera persona del singular: I kiss. She never tells me what to do. ch. For regla general se suele usar con adverbios o f rases adverbiales tales como: always. he watches I rush. cambiamos la y en i. We play football every day. los verbos que terminan en y detras de una vocal siguen la regla general: I play.UNIT 19 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The present simple • La forma afirmativa del presente de indicative tiene la misma forma que el infinitive. She adores him. he copies I try. usually. he tries • Con verbos de actividad mental se suele usar tambien la forma habitual: know mean expect assume agree feel realize suppose recognize remember see understand think • Sin embargo. occasionally. • Cuando un verbo termina en y detras de una consonante. excepto que normalmente la tercera persona ahade una s. On Sunday afternoons we stay at home. he boxes I go. x. I believe you. 44 STANLEY . often. he plays I obey. every day. he fishes • Con algunos verbos siempre se usa la forma habitual. He admires her. & I always go to Miami in summer. sh. in winter. I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work I play you play he/she/it plays we play you play they play I watch you watch he/she/it watches we watch you watch they watch Los verbos que terminan en ss. he rushes I box. he says • El present simple se usa para expresar una accion habitual. he kisses I watch. She likes me.
3. The water 9. 1. (boil) round the earth. This cake 9. Complete las frases con el verbo en la forma correcta. hate. We 3. (get up) lunch early today. (kiss) orders. very beautiful. (know) in Manchester. I 6. 1. A mother 7. I 3. (go) television in the mornings. very lonely when I am alone.(rain) English in the English class. love. (obey) to New York about two or three times a year. see. We 4. want. (read) one of Shakespeare's plays at school every day. early every day. My parents 6. We always 5. with you about that. The moon I'll make the tea. but not very often. like. (live) you them? (go) 45 STANLEY . (read) what to do. (come) 2. Elija entre la forma habitual y la forma continua. (speak) out to dinner on Saturdays. (go) to this place every week. You are right. (have) Shakespeare at school. (understand) 8. Example: I see Mr Evans every morning on his way to work. She never 6. My father sometimes 3. and the earth round the sun. My grandparents 7.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. agree. I everything. to study at Oxford next year. her children very much. This soldier never 8. look. It occasionally 4. She 2. remember. She has good memory. She 5. Mr Brown 9. Peter and David play tennis every Saturday. We 5. These people to work late. That young girl 8. I don't understand these people. very good. Complete las frases usando uno de los verbos que damos a continuacion: feel. My daughter 4. (watch) in summer. Mrs Green usually 7. getting up early on Monday mornings. (go) her children good night. Jonathan never 2. smell. Example: Children often go to school by bus. going for a walk in the country in spring. My father 2. Peter and David are playing tennis at five. Example: 1.
y 2. • I'm meeting Janet signified que ya ha hecho los arreglos necesarios y ha quedado con ella. Cuando se tiene intention de hacer algo. Be careful! You're going to fall into that hole. 1. Para predecir algo. • Going to se puede usar con expresiones de tiempo: I'm going to be a doctor when I grow up. pero la accion se espera que suceda en el future inmediato: I think it is going to rain tonight. • El tiempo generalmente no se menciona. El going to para prediction. I am afraid she is going to faint. El going to expresa la intention del sujeto para llevar a cabo una accion en el future. When are you going to get married? I'm going to think about your proposal. We are going to have a nice trip. I'm going to meet Janet at the airport at five. 46 STANLEY . Quiza Janet se lleve una sorpresa. Esta intention es siempre premeditada e indica una cierta preparation. Una posibilidad de que se lleve a cabo la accion aunque no de una forma tan definitiva como el presente continue: . • Podemos expresar un sentimiento de seguridad del que habla. 2.UNIT 20 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Going to • La forma going to se usa: 1. I'm sure she is going to like it. Mientras que I'm going to meet significa que no ha hecho ningun arreglo.I'm meeting Janet at the airport at five.
"Has she spoken to the teacher?" "No. 12. "He has written a book. Example: Have you read the letter? No. "Have you done your homework?" "No. "Have the boys washed the car?" "No. 15. "Has Sue washed the dishes?" "No. he 7. 11. "Have you had breakfast?" "No. she 5. I 6. "Has she made the tea?" "No." "When ?" (wear) 2. I 2. 13. "We have bought a little table. "I have been invited to a party tonight. 9. she 3." "When ?" (publish) 7. "Have you typed the letters?" "No. I 4. "Have you bought the book?" "No. 2." "Who ?" (marry) 47 STANLEY . "Have the Browns painted the house?" "No. "They have sold the house. En este ejercicio debe decir cuando vas a hacer algo. "Have you cooked the meat?" "No. "I have written a letter. "I have painted a new picture. "Have you washed your hands?" "No. En este ejercicio tiene que hacer preguntas con going to. "Have you bought the drinks?" "No." "What is she going to do with the money? 1. 10." "Who ?"(put) ?" (go) 5. "She has divorced Frank." "Where ?"(hang) 4. 8. 14. "Has Tony posted the letter?" "No. Example: "She's won the football pools. "Has little Jimmy gone to school?" "No." "Where ?" (live) 8. I'm going to read it now. 1." "Where : 3. "Have you done the ironing?" "No.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR I. "I have bought a pullover." "When ?" (post) 6.
My father will get better.) De forma parecida: • My father is going to get better Diferencias • 1. * This old car is going to break down. Cereals will be expensive this year. etc. pero no da idea de que vaya a mejorar en el proximo futuro. 48 STANLEY . cree. • 2. • Will es una manera comun de expresar lo que piensa. Going to implica que hay sehales que sucedera algo. This old car will break down.UNIT 20 (Cont. espera. • Will y going to son muy parecidos en este tipo de frases y cualquiera de los dos se puede usar: It will take us a long time to get there.It is going to take us a long time to get there. ei que habla: it will probably be hot tomorrow. • indica confianza y quiza una eventual recuperation. will no implica ningun tiempo en particular y podrfa referirse a un futuro remoto. • significa que esta dando senates de mejorar. • significa que hace ruidos raros y que nos va a dejar tirades en el camino. • significa que sucedera en algun tiempo en el futuro (quiza tarde mucho en averiarse. Will implica que el que habla cree que sucedera. .) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 I Recuerde * Comparemos ei going to (prediction) con will usado para probable futuro. Going to se usa con un futuro relativamente inmediato.
We are working very hard to succeed. "How 7. the TV doesn't work. I know. (break down) It 5. He trains a lot." 2. Example: "I haven't got my calculating machine." down for you!" by train. We 2. I get you some. It is nine o'clock.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1." have a look at it this evening. Ahora tiene que decir lo que piensa que va a suceder en estas situaciones. "Dad. I think 3. I think I 49 STANLEY . (fall) He is going to fall into the hole." to London?" "I don't know. Example: A man reading the paper is walking near a hole. "When month." "Don't worry. He is very clever and works hard. "Dad. Jim is taking his exams. I 6. (late for work) She 6. (win) He 4. She 8." "Is it? All right. Frank is running in a race. Tiene que elegir entre going to y will. The little girl is playing with the scissors." repair it in a minute. "What colo(u)r I paint it blue." "Don't worry. Mary is still in bed. and I'm going to take an exam in five minutes. I 5." next paint the kitchen?" "I don't know. (rain) It 3. her finger. (burn) He 7. Little Jim is playing with the fire. my bike is broken. I think I to write that story?" "I don't know. 1." 1. "I haven't got any more paint. I can't finish painting the room. The sky is full of dark clouds. The car is making strange noises. "I don't know her address!" "Okay. I 4. his hand. (pass) He 2." "Yes. I'll lend you mine. He is very good.
Se puede usar con verbos tales como: think. • Shall not se abrevia a shan't y will not se abrevia a won't. If you give me the letter. suppose. madam? (oferta) Shall we go to the disco. 50 STANLEY . El futuro tambien se usa en frases que tengan idea de condition: If you come early. El futuro se usa tambien para acciones habituales que suponemos tendran lugar: Summer will come eventually. It's such an old car! I think they'll wait for us there. know. o sugerir alguna cosa: Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow? (sugerencia) Shall I open the window? (oferta) <* Shall I carry that case for you. I'll post it. be sure.UNIT 21 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The future simple Affirmative I shall/will play You will play He will play We shall/will play You will play They will play Negative I shall/will not play You will not play He will not play We shall/will not play You will not play They will not play Interrogative Shall/will I play? Will you play? Will he play? Shall we play? Will you play? Will they play? • El shall tiene poco uso en practica. I'll drink the milk if it is warm. Others will come after these. 3. • En forma afirmativa se suele decir coloquialmente: I'll it'll you'll we'll he'll they'll she'll Usos del futuro 1. Solo se usa para ofrecerse a hacer algo. especulaciones acerca del futuro. Para expresar opiniones. boys? (sugerencia) 2. we'll go to the cinema. Nations will get together in the end and save humanity. believe. I suppose they'll sell it. We'll go out if it doesn't rain. wonder. I am sure he'll pass his driving test.
He hasn't done any work. We 9. 5. Can you get me something?" "All right. hurt you." to the theatre. We 4. "Do you think we probably soon. I expect they probably go to South America next year." 4.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. You're going on holiday. then. I for you. I am sure he 7. notice many changes. Don't worry about the injection. You have a common friend in hospital. o sugiera alguna cosa. If you don't come here I 8. You would like to ask Carol to go to the cinema with you. go there. Complete con will o going to Example: "Are you going to the cinema tonight?" "I don't know. but you'reundecided. En cada frase tiene una situacion. It's very cold." 1. 5. "There has been an accident on the road!" "Oh. Example: we will probably know the result next week. 3. Example: The window is open. "What are you going to eat? Make a decision!" "Okay. I 6. When she comes home she 3. wine or beer?" "I 6. Jim pass his examination." an aspirin 51 STANLEY . 1. go by train. we 5. "I've got a headache. 2. You and your friends are talking about going to the disco tonight? 3. You would like to go to the theatre. Ofrezcase para hacer algo. "Is it going to rain tonight?" "Yes. "Are you going out?" "Yes. 4." !" have a get there in time?" "Of course you 3. /'// probably go. His name is Jerry. (car) 2. we go out if it rains. Shall I close the window? 1. it 2. please. no! I 7. If it gets warmer. Complete las frases siguientes como en el ejemplo. I steak. get the job. 2. "What would you like to drink. go to the beach." call an ambulance. You can go by car or by plane." have wine. He's got experience. You want to visit him. You're going out tonight.
Don't let them play. Come on boys! Let's play a game of football. no existe la forma interrogativa. Aunque cuando estudiemos las formas enfaticas veremos que podemos hacerlo si queremos dar entasis a la frase. • En el imperativo. aunque tambien podemos usar el imperative como sugerencia o consejo. que da lo mismo decir let us que let's. Don't play. Don't let's speak about that again / Let's not speak about that again." • El imperative negative se forma poniendo do not (don't) delante de todas las personas: & Don't let me play. let her come. Cuando traducimos let me come recurrimos a dejame venir. en el imperativo no se usa la palabra you. 52 STANLEY . the children are sleeping. Sit down here and eat this! > "Nelly is coming. Don't make so much noise. Jesus said: "Let the children come to me!". / Let us not go too early. Don't let Peter go with you. Don't let us play. cosa que en espanol no existe. • Fijese tambien." "Okay. incluyendo la primera. Imperativo ven tu que venga el que venga ella que venga (ello) vengamos venid que vengan ellos/ellas let me come come let him come let her come let it come (animal) let us (let's) come come let them come Recuerde que en la primera persona del plural se admiten dos formas de negacion: Don't let us go too early.UNIT 22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The imperative • El imperative suele tener el sentido de una orden. Don't let him/her/it play. • Normalmente. Don't let me see you do that again. • En ingles se conjugan todas las personas. (let us not play) Don't play. Don't let them play with you.
7. So you say: work! 3. "The children are coming. They inform you that Diana is going to post the letters. I don't want to see you do that again. Example: Nelly is waiting for you. You don't mind." 4. darling."" 4. 4." "Okay. "He is waiting for you. 1." wait. Please. Esther." "All right. Pongalas en forma negativa. You don't want to give charity to lazy people. 1. Margaret. Estudie la situacion y forme una frase en imperativo para cada una de ellas. "I want to go to the cinema. so you say to your wife: 2.. You want to stay there. "We don't need to hurry. stay 3. 3. Don't let Peter come with us. You agree to that. So you say to your wife: at this hotel. 8. (take) come. Complete las siguientes frases en imperativo. Have a look at this." a picture of me with the baby. finish your soup. 6. let's take a taxi. them. 5.SH GRAMMAR 1. So you say: All right. 7." You: "Let her wait!" . let me see you do that. try on these jeans. They tell you that Charles is going away. 6. Eat vegetables. Let's go to the cinema tonight. We have plenty of time. So you say: Okay. Let us speak to the Jones. Your friend: "Nelly is waiting for you. You like the hotel. 8." 2. Let the children come with us 3. Mary. (to tell) anything on the plate.K. Example: Mary. You must not leave anything on the plate. hurry. go if he wants to. two tickets at the Odeon. (buy) 2. You want to see your children." "O. Mary." see you do that again! Charles that I want to see him. 5. They can work. Here is the camera. 53 STANLEY . 1. children. A continuation tiene unas frases en imperativo. but you don't want to see her. Example: Let Peter come with us. 5. 2.EXERCISES ENGL.
twice. I always arrive on time for work. 54 STANLEY . My father is often wrong. Frases negativas never hardly rarely seldom ever hardly ever • Tambien al final de una frase encontramos: once. 3. repeatedly. el adverbio se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio: I have always done my duty. Entre el sujeto y el verbo. . They go to Italy very frequently. I can never understand these people. I've been there once.She is always late for work. Con los tiempos compuestos. I have seen them in the park quite often. Despues del verbo ser o de un verbo defective: .We sometimes go to see them. We must never criticize other people. en los tiempos simples: They never come to see us. You had never spoken like that before. • Los adverbios de los dos grupos se colocan normalmente: 1.UNIT 23 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Adverbs of frequency and degree Adverbios de frecuencia • Los adverbios de frecuencia son los siguientes: Frases afirmativas often always once twice usually continually occasionally frequently sometimes repeatedly periodically Often • A veces encontramos la palabra often al final de una frase junto con very o quite: He comes to see us very often. 2. frequently.
2. Example: never/we talk/ about that/ at home We never talk about that at home.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 6. (twice) 4. Have you ever been to South America? Yes. (never) 3. always/she/is/telling/us/what/to/do. rarely/they/come/to Spain/on holiday. I often go to Spain 1. 8. very often/we/come/here. you people like that. 4. frequently/very/we have/travel/to Canada. 3. Responda como en el ejemplo: Example: Do you go to Spain very often? Yes. (seldom) 2. I . Tiene que poner las f rases en el orden apropiado usando un adverbio de frecuencia. Have you ever done things like that? Yes. I /often/have/told/you/not/to/do/that. 5. I to New York. sometimes/they/work/all/night. Have you ever been to New York? No. once/only/have/l/been/there. seldom/we/go/dancing/on Saturdays. 10. 2. Very occasionally/meet/you/people/like that. never/we/can/be/sure/of/his/reaction. 7. Have you ever met anybody like that? Well. 9. 11. I . (continually) 55 STANLEY . occasionally/have/l/been/to Madrid. 1.
I am just going.nearly fairly . • Con los tiempos compuestos se coloca entre el auxiliar y el participio: We have just arrived. nearly. How long?: time • La expresion how long se puede usar para preguntar cuanto tiempo: How long do you take to do this? How long ago did he live? • Con el verbo ser y con los verbos defectives se colocan detras: . long. a little. Generalmente se coloca delante: You are quite right.much completely just enough quite entirely rather Much so too • En frases afirmativas much tiene un uso limitado. I have got a lot of money / lots of money.absolutely hardly barely . wide. excepto much.UNIT 23 (Cont. far.really . just. I haven't got much. Un adverbio de grado modifica a un adjetivo o a otro adverbio. • Sin embargo.scarcely very etc. How + adjetivo o adverbio • How combina con gran variedad de adjetivos y adverbios tales como: deep. She doesn't walk fast enough. • Todos. . Se prefiere usar a lot o lots: Have you got much money? No. hardly. Los siguientes adverbios de grado pueden modificar a los verbos: almost. really. They have nearly finished. big. old. se colocan entre el sujeto y el verbo: I nearly fell into the river. quite. . scarcely.: How far is it to the station? How big is this town? How often do you come here? How wide is this road? How long is this river? How well can you swim? 2. Yes. • How many se usa para cosas contables (frases en plural): How much sugar do you want? How many trees are there? 1.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Much . enough.how + adjetivo o adverbio Adverbs of degree •Son: .She can hardly speak. etc. 56 STANLEY .almost extremely only far . I really enjoyed the film. rather. .We are almost ready. enough va a continuation: This house is not big enough for us. "How" para preguntar • How much se usa para cosas incontables (frases en singular). much.
1. Ponga las frases en el orden apropiado usando un adverbio de grado.
almost - is - ready - dinner Example: Dinner is almost ready. 1. fell/the old man/ nearly/as/he crossed/the road. 2. I have/enjoyed/really/the film. 3. could/she/hardly/speak/when/she/came/out/of/the/water. 4. hardly/we/spoke/to/each/other/during/the/meal. 5. quite/l/liked/the/old man's speech. 6. that/car/enough/is/for/us/not/big. 7. The Evans/arrived/have/just/home. 8. she/hardly/can/speak/the accident/after.
2. A continuacion tiene una serie de adverbios y adjetivos para que los combine con how.
deep, big, far, long, quickly, well, often, much, many, wide Example: How much does this cost? 1. How 2. How 3. How 4. How 5. How is the sea in this place? is the Mississipi river? is the Post Office? are you going to take, darling? It's late. people were there at the concert?
did you pay for it?
7. How 8. Let's see how 9. Let's see how 10. "How 11. How 12. How 13. How 14. How
does the bus pass this way? you can swim. you can do this addition. is the corridor?" "About 20 metres!" is the station? I'm in a hurry. do you come to this place? was the river you swam across? have you been working in this company?
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
The past simple tense
• En ingles el past tense comprende el imperfecto y el indefinido, por lo tanto hay que traducir segun el sentido de la frase.
• Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado de forma distinta. Por ejemplo el verbo go: 1 went
you went he went we went you went they went
• Para formar el pasado de un verbo regular se ahade ed:
I worked you worked he worked we worked you worked they worked
• Como se vera, la tercera persona del singular no anade una s.
• Si el verbo ya termina en e solo se ahade la d: I lived. • Los verbos monosflabos, y los bisilabos que terminan en consonante, con acento en la ultima silaba, duplican la consonante final: stop • stopped
admit prefer confer - admitted preferred conferred
• Que ios verbos regulares que terminan en t o en d, como count, visit, add, collect, want, pretend, accept, etc., al anadir la ed se pronuncian como en castellano: counted visited added collected wanted pretended accepted • Los demas verbos regulares que terminan en otras letras, no pronuncian la e que se anade:
seem walk play live wash seemed walked played lived washed [seemd] [walkd] [playd] [livd] [washd]
• Los verbos que terminan en y detras de una consonante cambian la y por i al anadir la ed:
try cry carry study hurry
tried cried - carried - studied hurried
1. Responda a estas preguntas, primero en forma afirmativa y despues en negativa.
Example: Did you drink the milk? Yes, / drank it. No, / didn't drink it. 1. Did he eat the potatoes? Yes,
2. Did you finish your drink? Yes,
3. Did you speak to her? Yes,
4. Did she buy the book? Yes,
5. Did the little girl cry? Yes, she
6. Did the boys run in the race? Yes,
7. Did Jane win the match? Yes,
8. Did you work hard? Yes,
2. Ponga estas frases en pasado. Todos los verbos son regulares.
Example: I stop on my way to work. / stopped on my way to work.
1.1 try to do that every day 2. He collects all the exam papers 3. These babies cry a lot 4. The children play in the park 5. I admit it's my fault 6.1 prefer to travel alone 7.1 always travel alone 8. We always hurry to get home 9. I always study in the evenings
" "Did you speak to my teacher?" "No. do. I didn't like it. We went to Paris last year. I didn't.UNIT 24 (Cont." "Did the children have school yesterday?" "No. She phoned me last Sunday. I didn't have breakfast today. I didn't invite her." "Did you invite Mary to the party?" "No." "Did you have breakfast this morning?" "No." • Ei verbo have para interrogar y negar en pasado usa la partfcula auxiliar did: "Did you have a dog when you were a child?" "No. I didn't. I didn't. they didn't have school. I met Peter yesterday. el verbo se pone en infinitive: "Did you phone Tony?" "No. Formation de la interrogation y negacion: Affirmative I went You went He went We went You went They went Interrogative Did I go? Did you go? Did he go? Did we go? Did you go? Did they go? Negative I did not (didn't) go You did not (didn't) go He did not (didn't) go We did not (didn't) go You did not (didn't) go They did not (didn't) go • Cuando usamos una partfcula de interrogation o negacion (did." Para la formation del verbo to be en pasado vease UNIT 7 60 STANLEY . I last saw him two years ago." "I had breakfast yesterday." "They had the day off. I had a cat." "Did you like the film?" "No.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR Use of the past tense • Se usa para acciones que se completaron en el pasado." "Did you see him?" "No. does). I didn't have a dog.
? 8. He broke a plate. She wrote a book. ? 5. We played tennis yesterday. Did she have a baby? She didn't have a baby. ? 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Example: She had a baby yesterday. It rained last night. We had something in common. Did you go to London on Monday? I didn't go to London on Monday. They had a villa Mexico. 1. ? 4. ? 6. 9 3. Las frases que tiene a continuation debe ponerlas en forma interrogativa y negativa.I saw your friend in the station. ? 7. 9 2. She opened the shop at 9. We had a shower in the evening. 9 61 STANLEY . The train left at seven ? 2. Ponga estas frases en interrogativa y negativa. ? 3. The car stopped at the traffic lights. Example: I went to London on Monday. 1.
would you like? • En ingles el verbo like es exactamente igual que los demas verbos en cuanto a la conjugation. tambien se acepta el infinitive con like. I don't mind obeying orders. she doesn't like it. mind. hay. prefer.. (No necesariamente disfruto lavando el coche. va a menudo seguido del gerundio: 1 hate flying. • Tambien podemos usar would you like + noun + gerund: I would like these people to stop smoking in my office." "Does Mark like running?" "Yes.) 62 STANLEY . love. I prefer coming here. etc. • Generalmente decimos: I like running cuando disfruto haciendolo: Do you like cooking? (iDisfrutas cocinando?) I don't like driving. dislike. • De todas formas. etc. sino de preferir. sin embargo. . . (No disfruto conduciendo. I would like to be a champion. I like her very much. I prefer to come here. I love to walk in the country. she doesn't like it very much.She enjoys reading at night. he likes it quite a lot. Verbs + gerund • El verbo like. I don't like people smoking here." "Does she like fish?" "No. enjoy.I prefer working alone. junto con hate. entonces usamos el infinitive detras: I like to wash the car on Saturdays. Would like • El condicional del verbo like va siempre seguido de infinitive: I would like to be very tall. prefer.I'd love to accompany you on your travels. hate: I love walking in the country." "Does your mother like cooking?" "No. prefer. She dislikes working with him. Like • Aunque normalmente aceptamos tanto el gerundio como el infinitive detras del verbo like.: "Do you like Marian?" "Yes.UNIT 25 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Like . a ti te gusta. love. Hay que olvidarse de la forma reflexiva a mi me gusta. • El would like se puede usar seguido del infinitive compuesto: I would have liked to have been here when that happened. no en el sentido de disfrutar. • Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos love. hate: ." • Pero si usamos el verbo like.) She likes to do the housework first thing in the morning. una ligera diferencia entre los dos usos.
Would you like 6. He prefers 10. Why do you go to the country every Sunday? (enjoy/walk) 3. Responda estas preguntas usando los verbos que se le dan a continuacion. please? 1. 2. I like 7. My sister likes 3. I would like to have gone to the party. (spend) to cycling. I wouldn't like 5. 63 STANLEY . (go) (run) 3. I like to school every day. I don't mind 2. Why do you get up late on Sundays? (like/stay/bed/late) 4. Why don't you wash your hair in the evenings? (like/do/mornings) 2. (meet) on the 20th floor. Do you enjoy 8. Ponga el verbo en gerundio o infinitivo. Example: / would have liked to go to the party. 5. I would have liked to be lying on the beach all day. I love 4. I would have liked to see that new play. I wouldn't have liked to spend Christmas there. (do) in the country? (live) Christmas alone. Why do you watch TV so often? (enjoy/watch) 5. I would have liked to go on that trip. 4. (live) with us to the cinema? (come) the washing-up in the mornings. Cambielas como en el ejemplo.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Why don't you take a shower? (like/have/bath) 2. (walk) (walk) but hates people. 1. Example: Why do you go to the beach every day? (love/swim) Because I love swimming. Would you like to speak English. 3. Las frases que vienen a continuacion se pueden escribir de dos formas. I would have liked to win the match. 1. Example: I enjoy playing tennis. l"d hate 9. (walk) to the dentist twice a year.
• Tambien se usa cuando una accion sigue a otra: When he pressed the brake the car stopped. Se puede usar when en preterite perfecto del subjuntivo espahol. probablemente estaba todavia en el umbral. • Esto significa que me acorde de las ventanas antes de salir de la casa. When I go to Madrid.. Before you leave you must come to have dinner with us.UNIT 26 ENGLISH GRAMMAR When . as soon as: You can have it as soon as I finish with it/have finished with it. • Para un desarrollo paralelo: As the sun rose the clouds dispersed. • As se usa cuando la segunda accion ocurre antes de que se haya acabado la primera: As I left the house I remembered the windows were open. que equivale al preterito perfecto del indicative ingles: .I will give it to you when I have finished it. ya que el subjuntivo ingles esta en desuso. • Tambien usamos as para acciones paralelas: He sang as he walked.I will call you when I arrive.I'll send you a postcard when I am in Benidorm. "When" y "as" • Se usa when cuando una accion ocurre al mismo tiempo que otra o en el mismo perfodo de tiempo que la otra: When it rains the buses are crowded. • En este tipo de frases indicamos que la accion estara acabada antes de que tenga lugar la segunda parte. after. until. • A menudo se usa este tipo de frases subordinadas de subjuntivo con una oracion de future: . A menudo se usa en castellano la conjuncion cuando para introducir oraciones de subjuntivo. • En ingles este tipo de frases se pone en indicative. • Por supuesto no podemos usar when en futuro: no podemos decir when I will arrive. 64 STANLEY . • Lo mismo sucede con while.. You can phone your friend when we have finished dinner.clauses 1. . es decir la oracion subordinada de subjuntivo: You can post the letter when I have written it. Cuando vaya a Madrid. You will feel better after you have something to drink.We will let you know when she comes. Si decimos when I left dan'a la impresion que el hecho de salir se habia ya completado y que la puerta estaba cerrada detras de mi. . 2. before...
You must come and see us then. when 4. (go) have it. En este ejercicio tiene que poner when o as. (see) Mary again. he comes to see us. (recognize) home from work. You must visit us before you leave. (grow) him again. I will finish. We'll find a flat in Bristol. I'm going to finish reading the paper. How can you expect the children to be truthful 65 STANLEY . You must visit us before that. as soon as 6. Ahora tiene que formar una frase de las dos que se le dan. Then I will come. I go shopping. the sun rose. En las frases siguientes debe poner el verbo en el tiempo correspondiente. 1. I 4. Then we'll give you our address. . (see) (come). When I (send) 5. 1. . I 6. I'll buy that for you 3. Example: When it stops raining I'll go out to play. (get) you a postcard. You will be in Spain next month. When the police (see) him he was still living in London. . We will talk about it I first met him. 1. I 8. I will make my decision. they asked a lot of questions. 3. you you (phone) when I (be) on holiday next month. as soon as 5. when you her. Just 7. (can) up. You 9. Example: You are leaving soon. to the library. Then you will see it clearly. When I last 2. 2. you tell lies yourself? he left the house he remembered the key. You will read the book. when 3. The fog dispersed 6. Then I will let you know. When you 3. When I 7. when . . when 2.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Then I'll get the tea ready. 5. . I (get) the book when I (finish) reading it you (need) any help when I (recognize) him. He was very well known 4. a teacher. He had just won the lottery 2. Example: He was panting as he climbed the stairs.
Estan'a mal I know this. eso. • Cuando se usan como adjetivos. aquellos. Adjetivos THIS • Se traduce por este. I found this inside the wallet. estas. THAT • Se traduce por ese. This is bread. Son los unicos adjetivos que hacen esto. • Los pronombres demostrativos despues de what se refieren a cosas: What is that? What are those? • Los pronombres demostrativos this y that despues de who se refieren a personas: Who is this? Who's that? 66 STANLEY . concuerdan con su sustantivo en numero. aquellas: This is water. The photos I want are those. refiriendose a una persona. esto. o that: THESE The picture I'm talking about is this one • Se traduce por estos. esas. se refieren a coThese boys here are very tall. THOSE • Se traduce por esos. aquellos. esto. this man these men that woman those women Pronombres THIS • Se traduce por este. not that one. aquella. aquella. (pronombre) Those glasses there have water in. esa. • Que los demostrativos que se usan como There's a table in that room there. and that is butter. aquel. sas. estas. I know this boy (adjetivo). but those are stupid. esta. aquel. eso. esta. that/those • Pueden ser adjetivos demostrativos y pronombres demostrativos. esa. There's a tree in this garden. Recuerde That woman there has a little dog. here. • A menudo usamos one despues de this. These glasses here have beer in.UNIT 27 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Demonstratives: this/these. These children are very clever. no a gente: Those girls there have nice dresses. esas. Todos los demas adjetivos son invariables. and that is milk. pronombres normalmente. THAT • Se traduce por ese. THOSE • Pero no despues de these o those: • Se traduce por esos. aquello THESE • Se traduce por estos. aquellas. This man here is very tall.
Can you see people there. 4. here? 67 STANLEY . "Look at the photos!" "Which photos?"" 6. These men are very short. A continuacion vamos a usar los pronombres demostrativos. who wish to go now." is the man I want you to meet. stand up. 3. over there are the veterans. are listening to trees here. who were wounded were taken to hospital. Those are the most difficult. Look. Go and tell him now. Do you see that man? Well. The picture I am referring to is 7. school children over there are playing football. classrooms here are very old. Look at these children here! 8. are the children I want you to lookafter. instant! man over there. 7. Look at the top of the hill. but I prefer 5. 3. That chair is too low. Do you see the two girls by the window? Well. 2. This is my umbrella. the green socks or the blue socks?" "I prefer the blue ones here. "Who's 8. are the mostintelligent in over there. 1. 7. but what about 6. 3. Do you see 9. Example: This man is very tall. I'll sit on over there. 6. Pongaselo. Those houses on the hill are beautiful. 1. you." 4. in your hand?"" is a tropical fruit. Do you like this coat? No." over there. 4. "Which socks do you like best. 3. are the men and women who are waiting for 9. Example: This one here is the best in the shop. These pullovers are very nice. I prefer 2. birds at the top of the tree? pigeon on the roof? man is Tom Smith". woman here is very beautiful. 1. 2. A las frases que tiene a continuacion les falta un adjetivo demostrativo. here.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 2. here are the new boys. siempre que sea factible. are the biggest in the park. man over there?" "Oh. Example: These are the easy ones. 5. "What's one is yours. I don't like . 5. Ahora vamos a usar los demostrativos junto con one/ones. here. the class.
All of us knew the answer to the question.us both both of them . We are both volunteers. all of them speak French. especialmente con all + un sustantivo o pronombre en singular. all the village all (of) Peter's friends all her life both (of) the villages all (of) these both (of) his parents 2. All/Both of us came. They drank all/both of them. They drank them all/both.them both All of them were there. BOTH (pronombre) + of: • Se puede usar de la misma manera. El of aquf se omite a menudo. pero solamente con formas en plural. They were all there. all of it both of them I Recuerde • que hay una construccion alternativa: pronombre personal + all/both: all of it se reemplaza por it all all of us . Con all/both + of + pronombre personal. All (pronombre) puede ir seguido de of + the / this / these / that / those / posesivos y sustantivos. We all/both came. This is my friend Jeff.they both . They drank all/both the bottles.UNIT 28 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Both and all 1.we all (sujeto) us all (objeto) all of you se reemplaza por you all all of them they all (sujeto) them all (objeto) 68 STANLEY . Do you see those boys? Well. el of no se puede omitir: • De la misma forma: both of us we both .
Jack was late too. 3. Both the pianos need tuning up. He has telephoned. Both the houses need painting. 69 STANLEY . He has broken a saucer too. He closed the door. 2. The children were both too young. Both planets are very similar. She plays the piano. En este ejercicio tiene que cambiar la frase tal como se hace en el ejemplo. Example: Jim was late. 8. Both of the women were talking for hours over a cup of tea. 8. He has won the 100 m. He has also written a novel. 3. 2. Both cars are very fast. 6. He has won the long jump too. 6. 4. He has written too. 7. 4. She sings too. Both Jim and Jack were late. He has written a play. Both of the cats were sitting on the carpet. He closed the window too. Unalas usando both o all. 5. She can also speak Italian. 2. Both girls are very intelligent.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Jennifer went to the party too. The boy has broken a plate. Example: Both the children were too young. 1. James went. They sound terrible. 7. She speaks French. A continuacion tiene dos frases. race. 5. Both pairs of trousers are very dirty. 1.
The dogs were both asleep. • En preterite perfecto se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio: We have both been to the same school. Both looked the same to me.Both of the children have been to Paris.UNIT 28 (Cont.The children have both been to Paris. Both are very similar. • Si both se refiere al sujeto de la frase. • Both puede usarse como adjetivo: She had burns on both hands. Both of the dogs were asleep. es decir. The girls both looked English. 70 STANLEY . Give me both. please. My parents have both been invited to the party. The girls were both very pretty. "Both" como pronombre We'll buy both. Both the dogs were asleep. entre el sujeto y el verbo: We both like beer. • o detras del verbo ser: You are both too young. Both (of) my sons are very tall. . • Hay varias construcciones posibles con both: Both dogs were asleep.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 "Both" y "both of" • Both se puede usar de dos maneras en la misma frase: . se puede poner en la misma position que los adverbios de tiempo. I bought both (of) these vases in Greece. • Both con una frase sustantivada: Both (of) the bikes broke down soon after the start.
All of us were tired. All of them like riding / They all like riding. All the oranges are bad. 7. All of us are very tired. 4. All of them are very interesting. Use all. 3. I bought them all. Reemplace la frase que se le da con otra que signifique lo mismo. 1. 7. We sent them all 5. All of you are wrong 6. 10.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 1. 12. All those children are adorable. 6. They all enjoyed the party. We are all very intelligent. 9. They are all very thirsty 13. Cambie el sustantivo por un pronombre personal. All these people are right. All cakes have sugar. All Shakespeare's plays are good. 2. 2. She broke all of it 8. We ate all of it. I drank all of it 4. 11. Example: All of them enjoyed the party. They are all here. Example: All my friends like riding. They all came late to work. 3. 5. All whisky is expensive. All these girls are beautiful. 71 STANLEY . 2.
What did Peter say last night? He said that it is going to rain today. es decir. He told me a lie. una persona que recibe la accion del verbo: Tell me something about that. They told him that it was very difficult. nobody is listening to you. He told me a story. la diferencia radica en el uso. relatar. narrar un cuento. tell us a story. please. He told me the truth. Mum. She didn't tell her mother what she had seen. Recuerde • que en algunos casos tell equivaie a say to. En estos casos el verbo tell puede no llevar complemento indirecto: He told a story. She told us that she was coming. I will tell you the truth tomorrow morning. tell a story. really? Say what you want. What did he tell the children? Say • Se usa generalmente cuando no hay un complemento indirecto detras del verbo. 72 STANLEY . Did she say that. Did the girls tell you what they intend to do? They never told us the whole truth. Mum. es decir. He told the truth. El verbo tell se usa generalmente cuando detras hay un complemento indirecto. igual que say.UNIT 29 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Say and tell Tell • Significa "decir". Mary said that she is going to get married. Don't say that! It is terrible! • En algunos casos tell signified contar. • Lo mismo ocurre con las palabras truth y lie: He told a lie. John told his father that he was going to do it. She said to us that she was coming. please. They said to him that it was very difficult. no hay nadie que reciba la accion del verbo: What did you say? I didn't say anything. Don't tell her anything yet.
EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Ponga el verbo tell o say. My father likes 3. "Come here. Mum. My son. he was going to do it today? 2. 4. Who did you 10. "I'm leaving at once. you when she expects to finish? next week was Diana's birthday. stories. that she is going to have a shower. I'm afraid she 5. the truth. beautiful stories." James told me. she is going to read for a while. He didn't tell me that. Example: She didn't say anything. En algunas circunstancias se puede usar el verbo tell sin complemento detras. that the chicken was delicious." he told the girl. she was on a diet. 73 STANLEY . Did Mr Brown you last night? me that he hasn't got any money. What did your cousin 2. 1. She 12. She was too fat. 1. 5. lies. She is not going to tell us anything. Example: What did you tell him? What did you say to him? 1. me to go there by underground. He told her that he had just heard the news. came with you last night? me anything. He 13. 3. She 9. I'm afraid she didn't want to 11. He 3. She 4. the children to get up early. That girl is always 2. 5. El verbo tell a veces se puede sustituir por say to. Mary 6. you must always 4. 3. you know! 2. My grandmother used to a lie. He didn't tell me anything. Example: She told the truth at the trial. Did stie 7. You didn't 8.
no altera la formation de la oration: what a/an + sustantivo (con o sin adjetivo). What • Se usa con sustantivos en plural y con cosas incontables: What houses! What strange houses! What coffee! What terrible coffee! What weather! What awful weather! What girls! What beautiful girls! What nonsense! What silly nonsense! What men! What horrible men! I Recuerde • que how long signified que largo/cuanto mide de largo. Como sabemos. How long are you going to stay here? 74 STANLEY .UNIT 30 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Exclamations: What a/an . un adjetivo calificativo es un adorno que se le anade al sustantivo para que sepa el oyente como es el sustantivo. How • Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios: How big! How big this house is! How dark! How dark that tunnel is! How wonderful! How wonderful she is! How stupid! How stupid I was to lose my ticket! How difficult! How difficult that is! How wide! How wide this river is! No confundas: What a long road this is! jQue carretera tan larga es esta! con: How long this road is! !Que larga es esta carretera! • Observa que decimos: What a long road this is y no is this.what .how What a/an • Se usa con sustantivos en singular: «> What a girl! What a beautiful girl! What a boy! What a silly boy! What a house! What a strange house! What a book! What an interesting book! What a face he has! What an attractive face he has! • En la columna de mano derecha hemos anadido un adjetivo calificativo. puesto que no es una pregunta. por lo tanto. pero tambien signified cuanto tiempo. Esto.
7. 4. What clever people those are! 6. 8. Example: How difficult this problem is! 1. o what a/an. 2. 9. Rellene las frases con what. Example: What a meal! It's terrible! 1. Ahora va a cambiar la frase tal como en el ejemplo. James! fantastic bargain I found yesterday! long queues there are for the buses! waste of time! lucky you were to win the prize! clever you were to answer the question! stupid fool you are! pity. 10. Rellene los huecos con how. 3. 7. we didn't arrive in time! 3. wonderful! We can go to Spain in July! heavy those suitcases are! haircut you've got. what. 2. what a. What scruffy boys those are! 4. 3. 5. What a terrible meal this is! 5. 4. Example: What terrible coffee this is. 6. What a curious story this is! 3. o what an.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. What a large house this is! 2. house! It's awful! idiot that man is! untidy room that is! awful weather we are having! beer this is! attractive proposition! scruffy clothes he always wears! a lot of money she's got! horrible men! 2. 6. What a silly story this is! 75 STANLEY . How terrible this coffee is! 1. 9. 5. 8.
126). Recuerde * Can-Could se pueden traducir a veces por saber cuando expresamos una habilidad de hacer algo: I can swim very well. No anade una s en la tercera persona del singular: He can come with you. 5. he can't. 7. La forma negativa se puede contraer: I can't. they can't. No admite la partfcula to ni delante ni detras: We can go tonight. he couldn't. La conjugation completa de este verbo se da en la pagina 126. (podia) I could do it for you. Preterite perfecto I have been able to finish it in time.could . 1. Will he be able to come in time? 3. I couldn't. You cannot go there tonight. they couldn't. Future I'll be able to go tonight. * La forma impersonal se puede generalmente se traduce por you can aunque tambien se puede usar la voz pasiva: You can't do that here/That can't be done here. Can solamente se usa para el presente de indicative: She can do it alone. I suppose. 76 STANLEY . 6. 4. we couldn't. No admite la particula do ni para interrogar ni para negar: Can you come? Can they do it? They cannot do it alone. • Para todos los demas tiempos se usa la locution be able (ser capaz. we can't. but I didn't want to. She could speak four languages.be able • Can es un verbo defective. Could se usa para el pasado y el conditional: I could do it alone. vease pag. I can go tonight. She can do it tomorrow.UNIT 31 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Can . They can come at any time. you can't. (podria) 2. you couldn't. El infinitive del verbo poder es to be able: They long to be able to live in freedom. Eso no se puede hacer aqui.
I 8./ will be able to do it tomorrow.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. They couldn't do it properly. do my homework last night. Rellene los espacios con un tiempo apropiado. you speak English when you were a child? probably to have a shower tomorrow." 1. 7. sir. I 10. type very well. Can you do that for me? 4. 9. Oebe ponerlas en interrogativa y negativa. We'll do it tomorrow. to use it yet. They couldn't tell me what happened. to come tomorrow. go away. I 9. You can type this letter. 1. 2. ./ have been able to do it this morning. 5. 7. 4. Ahora vamos a cambiar el tiempo de las frases de presente a futuro. Example: "Can you come with me?" "I don't know if / will be able to. Tiene unas frases en forma afirmativa. 2. I'm afraid. We 3. I could fill in the form. 1. ? ? ? ? ? 2. If you pass your exams. Examples: I can do it now. Example: You can speak four languages. Mum. I could do it yesterday. She can speak several languages. Can you speak four languages? You can't speak four languages. Sorry. 3. 8. 4. you can speak to the teacher. 77 STANLEY . to do it yet. We can go on holiday to Salou. you come to the races this afternoon? 6. y de pasado a preterite perfecto. . We could go to that supermarket. That little girl can type very well. 6. We buy the car because it was very expensive. I could go shopping with you this afternoon. Could they go shopping yesterday? 3. . 5. You can have this film developed at the chemist's. you 3. . Emilio. I 2. I'm afraid I can't come today. I'm afraid. I 5. .
UNIT 32 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Be . • Para traducir cumplir ahos tambien se usa el verbo to be: Little Jimmy is five today. How old will you be tomorrow? Tomorrow I will be fourteen. She died at the age of ninety-one. the age of: How old are you? I am fifteen years old. • Opcionalmente se pueden suprimir las palabras years old. How big is the town? It is quite big. I am twenty..with ages and measurements • Para preguntar la edad se usa la formula how old are you?. • Tambien se puede usar years of age.. Asi se dice: How tall? How big? How long? How wide? How small? How high? How deep is the . Measurements • Tambien se usa el verbo to be para medidas. it is very long.. o at How wide is the river? It is 200 yards wide. How old was she when she died? She was ninety-one.? "What's the colour of her eyes?" "Her eyes are blue. What shoe size are you? What is the length of." What is the length of the river? It is about 1.848 metres high. asi se puede decir. How old is your mother? She is forty. Alice was ten yesterday...? What colour are his eyes? She is the same age as me. How old was David? He was twenty-one. How high is Everest? It is 8. What's the width of this cloth? It is two yards wide. Tambien se puede decir: What is the height? What is the colour of. How old is she? She is twenty-two. she is eighteen.? • Para responder tambien se usa el verbo ser. 78 STANLEY . I am the same weight as you. es decir.? What is the width of. se usa el verbo to be.000 kms long. How tall are you? I am six feet tall. y se responde I am fifteen years old. asi: I am very tall.. How small is an atom? It is very small.. etc.." "What's the height of the building?" "What size is it?" "It is size 8.
6. The river is 300 kms. I don't know exactly. The corridor is 2 yards wide. She is six today. How old is she? 1. He was twenty when he went there. The two roads 8. 7. 6. 5. 2. long. you? the same age as you. Ponga el verbo en el tiempo que corresponda. ? ? 3. the depth of this river? the size of that cloth? 79 STANLEY . but the room is very large. 4. The sea is 400 feet deep here. 5. What 7. Le dan unas respuestas. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2. Big Ben is 98 m. Example: This man is six feet tall. This river is twenty yards wide. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con medidas. He 3. What her eyes? just the right height to be a policeman. . a fat man of medium height. This street is 2 km. He was twenty-one. Example: What size is that? 1. What colo(u)r 2. 9. Example: She is twenty years old. but it's very small. 2. 7. in length each. My father will be forty on his birthday. I'll be fifteen next week. My sister is ten. He started school at the age of five. She 6. 8.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 3. the width of the river? about 2 km. He 4. high. He will be twenty tomorrow. 9. I don't know. What 9. What shoe size 5. Usted tiene que poner la pregunta. She is five feet six inches tall. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 8. 3. long.How tall is this man? 1. 4. She died at the age of eighty.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Comparative and superlative adjectives; comparison
• Para formar el grade comparative de los adjetivos y adverbios cortos (monosilabos y bisflabos), se afiade er, y para el superlative se anade est:
tall - taller small - smaller - tallest smallest
good bad far - old - better worse farther further - older elder - best worst farthest further oldest - eldest
• El que de comparacion se escribe con n (than).
Peter is taller than Andrew. Our house is bigger than yours.
• Con comparativos se puede poner much o a bit.
This is much bigger than that, (mucho mas grande) - This is a bit smaller than that, (un poco mas pequeno)
- She is the tallest girl in her class. - This is the smallest diamond.
Comparativos de igualdad
as as (tan come)
He is as rich as his brother. My watch is as good as yours.
• Para la formation del grado comparativo de un adjetivo largo se antepone el adverbio more, igual que en castellano. Para formar el superlative se antepone the most:
difficult - more difficult - the most difficult
• Para frases negativas se puede usar so o as en la primera parte de la comparacion: • not so/as as (no tan como)
This car is not as/so fast as mine.
This lesson is more difficult than that one.
- This is the most comfortable chair that I have ever seen.
• Para adverbios que terminan en ly usamos more:
You must drive more slowly.
1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner el adjetivo en el grado que corresponda. Todos son adjetivos cortos.
Examples: Our house is bigger than yours. This house is the biggest. 1. Diana is 2. Peter is much 3. Our fridge is 4. My home town is 5. This girl is a bit 6. It's a bit 7. June 21 . is 8. Everest is 9. Summer is much 10. This exercise is much 11. That exercise is
girl in her class, (pretty) than John, (tall) than yours, (noisy) in Spain, (nice) than that one. (thin) today than it was yesterday, (warm) day of the year, (long) mountain in the world, (high) than spring, (hot) than that one. (good) of all. (bad)
2. Ahora va a hacer los mismo pero con adjetivos largos.
Example: She is the most beautiful girl in this town. This book is more difficult than that one. 1. This boy is 2. That problem is much 3. She has the (beautiful) 4. This book is 5. This room is 6. My father is in this class, (intelligent) than this one. (difficult) eyes that I have ever seen. in the library, (interesting) than ever, (untidy) man in the world, (understanding)
3. Tiene ahora dos frases. Va a formar una frase en grado comparativo de igualdad.
Example: Peter is tall. Mary is also tall. Mary is as tall as Peter. 1. This mountain is high. That mountain is not very high. 2. My car is fast. Your car is also fast. 3. This problem is difficult. That problem is also difficult. 4. Diana is pretty. Janet is not very pretty. 5. My book is interesting. Your book is also interesting.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Good at / look like / what is ... like?
• La expresion good at puede ir seguida de un sustantivo, o de un gerundio: Peter is very good at maths. Those boys are very good at playing games.
What is like?
• Esta expresion se usa para preguntar como es fulano, no como esta de salud. "What is the new teacher like?" "I think he's very strict." "What is your boyfriend like?" "Oh, he is very nice." "What are the new boys like?" "Well, they look very fit." "What are the recruits like?" 'They don't look very clever to me." • Nota bien la diferencia entre: What is he like?
• Esta expresion se puede traducir por parecer, tener el aspecto de. Puede ir seguida de un sustantivo o una frase sustantivada: He looks like a boy of spirit. It looks like rain. That looks like cheese to me. The picture doesn't look like him. He looks like his brother. She looks like her mother. • Tambien puede ir seguido de gerundio: The festival looks like being lively. He looked like biting. It looks like being wet all day. He looked like beating the champion.
y How is he?
What is he like? iComo es? "How is he?" "Very well, thank you." "I Que tal esta?" "Muy bien gracias."
Look + adjetivo
• Generalmente usamos esta expresion cuando queremos decir que alguien o algo tiene un aspecto triste, cansado, alegre, etc: «> You look very tired today. A sad-looking little boy stood in front of him. The countryside looked beautiful in the sunshine. Pauline looks very excited today. • Con el mismo sentido se puede usar el presente progresivo: You are looking very unhappy today. What's the matter? She is looking very happy today.
1. That boy can't hold the racket properly. 4. It had a terrible appearance. Usted tiene que poner las preguntas. He can run long distances. tea to me. ? ? ? ? 83 STANLEY . 3. 5. It complicated. The little girl looked excited. The grass was very green. Our teacher is very strict. My daughter spends the whole winter skiing. Is that tea or coffee? Well. Cambielas usando good at o bad at. Well. 2. Example: The girl was excited. Gamble ahora estas frases usando look like. It was beautiful.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. The apparatus seemed to be complicated. It looks 2. it doesn't 3. . It's going to be sunny this weekend. 3. to me. 4. He is tall and intelligent. 1. She had a sad expression on her face. 4. 3. it 4. Example: Emily plays tennis very well. He can't play tennis. My little dog is very sweet. Tiene ahora unas respuestas. She wore a new dress. 1. My new secretary is beautiful and clever. The tall boy runs very well. Usted tiene que cambiar las frases usando look + adjetivo. The teacher had an angry expression that morning. My son understands all the maths problems. A continuation encontrara varias frases. The weather is good. 4. Example: There are a lot of clouds. Ahora tiene unas frases explicando que aspecto tiene algo. Emily is good at tennis. 3.What's your boyfriend like? 1. 2. it looks like rain. . 2. Example: My boyfriend is very nice. I am sure it's butter. It is butter. 2. The dress was beautiful.
va seguido de una referencia de tiempo (por ejemplo.How long is it since you came to live here? How long is it since you last saw her? For (durante) • Se usa para decir durante cuanto tiempo se ha estado haciendo algo. • Este tipo de frases se puede traducir al castellano de dos formas: Ha estado trabajando aqui durante 20 anos (literal).UNIT 35 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Present perfect tense: "for" and "since" • El preterite perfecto de indicative se forma igual que en espahol: Affirmative I have played You have played He has played We have played You have played They have played Interrogative Have I played? Have you played? Has he played? Have we played? Have you played? Have they played? Negative I have not played You have not played He has not played We have not played You have not played They have not played • A menudo usamos el preterito perfecto para hablar de situaciones o acciones que continuan hasta el momento en que hablamos (o poco antes): I have lived in this country for many years. Lleva 20 ahos trabajando aqui (libre). o I've been waiting for hours. • En este tipo de preguntas a menudo suprimimos el for: How long have you been living in Los Angeles (for)? How long + since • Se emplea para preguntar cuanto tiempo hace desde que ocurrio algo: . two months): She has worked here for twenty years. I have been reading since five o'clock. How long + for • Esto se emplea para preguntar durante cuanto tiempo: How long have you been waiting for? • El preterito perfecto se usa a menudo con since y for. Since (desde) • Se usa para decir cuando empezo algo: She has worked there since 1990. I have studied the piano since I was five. I have always liked English people. It has been raining since Monday. 84 STANLEY .
He has been 3. It's ages since we last met. . She's been learning French October last year. Examples: It started raining at three o'clock. It's three months since I last saw her.? Example: It's two years since I last had a holiday. How long have you been living in New York (for)? 1. 9. 1. Ahora tiene que formar una nueva frase tal como en los ejemplos. 6. Old Mr and Mrs Johnson have been married 1950. I met him two years ago. . 7. Ahora usa la estructura How long is it since . She has lived in this town since 1990. 5. It's six months since I last had a good meal. We haven't 6. He bought his car in January. . 3. She's been studying English for two years. 1. / have known him for two years. We got married ten years ago.. . How long is it since you last had a holiday? 1. 8. He has had his car 2. . En este ejercicio tiene que poner since o for. Example: 2. We last met when they arrived from Spain. The last time they came to see us was around Christmas. Listed tiene que poner las preguntas. 2. She went shopping at ten o'clock. 3. I've had it years. I haven't had a holiday 1980.. It has been raining since three o'clock. I've been doing that job for twenty years. Old Bronson has been a sergeant twenty years. ? 4. 2. We have 4. Ahora tiene unas respuestas. I have been doing that lor two years. Example: I've been living in New York for ten years. 4. My father hasn't had a holiday ages.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 85 STANLEY . This is a very old bicycle. My parents have been married 25 years. He went on holiday three weeks ago. ? 2. 3. She has 5. They haven't . It's been raining early this morning. We've been celebrating all night. We've been learning English a very long time. ? 3.
reserve. Esta construction es posible con los verbos: build. Don't annoy me.UNIT 36 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verbs with two objects • Complemento directo se refiere a una persona o cosa que recibe la accion del verbo: They ate the cake. I'll cook something for you. I'll cook you something. make. book. I met Peter this morning. order. Posicion de los complementos • El complemento indirecto a menudo se refiere a una persona y se suele poner delante del directo: I gave Peter the book. Show me what you've got in your pocket. I showed the letter to Fred. He gave me the knife. He threw the ball. The meat is eaten by the dog. I sent the letter to Jane. The girl runs very fast. get. find. 86 STANLEY . I bought him a book. I sent Jane the letter. • Se llama verbo intransitivo el que no lleva complemento directo y no se puede poner en voz pasiva: . buy.She dropped the paper. .A quien encontraste? .The plane landed in New York. etc: . .the paper • De la misma forma I'll find a job for Tom podria expresarse I'll findTom a job. I bought a book for him. • Los verbos transitivos se pueden poner en voz • La construction sin preposition se prefiere pasiva: cuando el objeto directo es una oration: The dog eats the meat. • El complemento indirecto se refiere generalmente a la persona que se beneficia de la accion expresada por el verbo: Throw me the ball. leave. He gave the knife to me.Que estas leyendo? . La mejor forma de averiguar si un verbo es transitive es hacerse la pregunta i.a quien? o ^que? Si se puede responder. Buy your sister a present.I'll get you a drink. i. I showed Fred the letter. Give me it. I'll get a drink for you. el verbo es transitive.Peter I am reading the paper. Give it to me. keep. Tell me the whole story. • Se llama verbo transitive el que lleva complemento directo. cook. o detras con to I gave the book to Peter.
. She showed me a wonderful photo. Send him the letter. Give John the book. 7. 2. give it to me. He'll find a job for me. 6. . usted tiene que poner la otra. Con muchos verbos se pueden poner los complementos de dos formas. Hand me your exams. She bought Jane a present. . 5. Cambie la frase que hace de complemento directo por un pronombre y pongalo en las dos formas que sabe. She got the change for me. . 87 STANLEY . Can you pass the sugar to your sister? 4.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 4. . . . Example: I'll get you a drink. . Lend me the newspaper. I'll fetch you the plate. ? . Show it to me. 1. . . Bring the bill to me. . I'll find the money for you. . I bought a book for Mary. Example: Show me what you've got in your hand. 1. 6. 1. I'll offer him more money. 8. A continuacion se le da una. 9. 7. She made her daughter a dress. 3. He offered her the best job in the office. Example: Give the book to John. . She bought him the book he wanted to read. Ahora vamos a hacur lo mismo usando for. . . 10. 3. I'll cook you a meal. He gave me a very nice present. Show me the photos. They'll build a house for us. Show me it. Show the map to your father. 2. . 5. I'll lend you the best book in the library. 2. . /'// get a drink for you. 2. 4. 5. I'll prepare something for you. 8. A continuacion encontrara unas frases con un complemento directo largo. 3. 3. Please. 9.
UNIT 37 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Question words as subjects • Who puede hacer el of icio de sujeto y de complemento del verbo. sin partfculas de interrogation: Who came yesterday? (sujeto) o Who spoke at the meeting? (sujeto) Who pays the bills? (sujeto) • Who. • Cuando hace el oficio de sujeto el verbo se pone en forma afirmativa. es decir. whom como complementos del verbo: Ingles coloquial: Who did you see? Who did she talk to? Ingles gramatical: Whom did you see? Whom did she talk to? • Whose como sujeto: Whose car broke down? Whose horse arrived first? Whose ship sank? • Whose como complemento de un verbo: Whose book did you borrow? Whose pen did you use? Whose umbrella did you lose? • Which como sujeto: Which finger hurts you? Which car won the race? Which horse broke its leg? • Which como complemento: Which hand do you use? o Which of these books do you prefer? Which horse do you think will win? • What como sujeto: What caused the fire? What happened last night? • What como complemento: What paper do you read? What did he say? What do you want? • How many + sustantivo puede ser sujeto de oracion y por lo tanto ir sin partfculas de interrogacion: How many dogs ran in the race? How many cars crashed on the bridge? How many people went to Madrid? • How many como complemento: How many things did you buy? How many people did you see? How many children did they have? 88 STANLEY .
5. I posted ten letters.1 didn't say anything. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con how many. . The explosion was caused by gas. The Evans had six children. Example: About twenty people went to Madrid. 2. A continuacion tiene unas respuestas. She didn't see anything. 4. He didn't see anyone. My brother ran in the marathon. How many books did you buy? ? ? ? ? ? ? 89 STANLEY 1. .Who/Whom did you see? Peter came with me. Example: Nothing happened yesterday. Your friend spoke at the meeting. 7.I didn't tell anybody. 5. 3. 8. She didn't speak to anybody. 3. Forme preguntas para las siguientes respuestas con what y which.1 don't know what caused the rebellion. 8.1 had seven students in my class yesterday. He reads the "Daily Mail". My father paid the bill.Who came with you? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1. This motor makes the noise. 6. 4. 2. How many people went to Madrid? I bought ten books. Robert saw it. 7. . 6. 5. 2. 9. 3. 2. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. usted tiene que hacer las preguntas. 6. What y which a veces son sujetos de oracion y a veces complementos. This horse arrived first. Example: I didn't see anybody. About ten girls came to the party. 4. Only six dogs run in each race. Two union leaders spoke at the meeting. They ate fish and chips. She didn't give it to anybody. My mother bought the book. What happened yesterday? 1.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. A veces el who es sujeto y a veces complemento.
Direct speech Presente "I never go there".UNIT 38 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Reported or Indirect Speech • Hay dos formas de relatar lo que dice una persona: la forma directa e indirecta. • En forma indirecta se da el sentido exacto de lo que se dice pero sin necesidad de usar las palabras exactas del que habla: He said (that) he had gone to London the previous week. • Cuando convertimos el estilo directo en indirecto tenemos que hacer algunos cambios. Condicional "I would like to go". he said. Condicional He said (that) he would like to go. Condicional He said (that) he would go the next day. "I went to London last week". • En la forma directa repetimos las palabras exactas del que habla: He said. Pluscuamperfecto He said (that) he had gone there the day before. he said. he said. Indirect speech Pasado He said (that) he never went there. Pluscuamperfecto He said (that) he had done it. • Hay que tener en cuenta que al pasar a estilo indirecto algunas expresiones de tiempo cambian: Direct today yesterday the day before yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/month/year last week/month/year a week ago 90 STANLEY Indirect that day the day before two days before the next/following day in two days' time the following week/month/year the previous week/month/year the week before/the previous week . he said. Pasado "I went there yesterday". La tabla que va a continuation indica estos cambios. he said. Future "I will go tomorrow". Preterite perfecto "I have done if.
3." he said.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 3. 8." Jim said. She said that she would like to go with him. "We have found a flat." she said. He said that he was writing a letter. Gamble de estilo directo a indirecto." he said." he explained. Example: "I never eat bread. He said that he had found the book he wanted. 8. 4. 1. 6."/ never eat bread. 7. Las frases de estilo indirecto paselas a directo." he said. "I would like to go to New York. 1. Example: He said that he never ate bread. Peter said that he had done it in the morning. 5. 4. Jim said he would speak to her. 5. He said that he never ate bread. They said they were going to Paris on business." she said. "I like to stay at home. "I have spoken to him. 2. "I spoke to him yesterday. 2. She said that she had spoken to him. "I will go to Mexico on Sunday." he said. Ahora vamos a hacer lo contrario." he said. He said that he always spoke English in class. 6. "I always get up early. 7. 2." he said. 91 STANLEY . "I have eaten too much.
" "Neither/Nor can I!" "He couldn't come in time. will. does. yo tampoco. yo tambien etc." "So have I!" • Si el que usamos es un verbo defectivo. en ingles hay varias posibilidades. • En caso de que haya un verbo auxiliar en la frase." "Neither/Nor are we!" "I haven't got a dog." "Neither/Nor would I!" "She wouldn't tell me anything." "So am I!" "We are going to school." "So have I!" "She has a nice house." "So will I!" "I would like to go. did." "So did we!" • En caso que la frase sea negativa y queramos anadir." "Neither/Nor would he!" nor: "I am not a man. will." "Neither/Nor did she!" "She didn't come in time.." "Neither/Nor will I!" "I wouldn't like to go. usamos neither o Con los demas verbos usamos las particulas do." "So do I!" "She speaks French." "So can mine!" • En los demas casos usamos las particulas do." "So are we!" "I have a dog.UNIT 39 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 So am I .Neither/nor am • Cuando queremos anadir una adicion afirmativa." "Neither/Nor do we!" "He didn't buy the book." "So can I!" "I could drive a car when I was 14." "Neither/nor could we!" 92 STANLEY . would: "I come every day. tambien se repite este verbo: "I can speak French." "So does he!" "I will go tomorrow." "Neither/Nor am I!" 'They are not very tall." "Neither/Nor am I!" "She is not a woman. thanks. does." "Neither/Nor will he!" 'They won't do it tomorrow." "So would I!" 'They went to England last summer. would: "I don't speak French." "Neither/Nor do I!" "I don't want any more. este verbo se repite: "I am a man." "Neither/Nor have I!" • Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos defectives: "I can't speak French." "So could I!" "My mother can cook very well.So do I ." "Neither/Nor did I!" "She won't speak to us. did.
"I didn't see him. Anada una observacion afirmativa a las siguientes frases: Example: "She is very intelligent. "I would go there tomorrow. "You didn't come in time. "They didn't speak French."" 9.Neither/Nor am I! 1."" we!" we!" we!" I!" he!" I!" I!" I!" we!" you!" we!" we!" I!" we!" we!" 93 STANLEY ."" 10." " 11."" 12."" 7. "We came as soon as we could."" 13."" 13."" 4.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. "We won't go on holiday this year." " 2. Example: I am not a tall man. "I would like to speak many languages. "They haven't got a big house."" 14. "I wouldn't buy that."" 15." " 12."" 3."" 6. "I was very tired. "She is not very pretty. "He buys the paper every day." "So am I!" 1. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con frases negativas. "She can dance well." " 14. "He wasn't injured."" 15. "We couldn't pay so much."" 11."" 5. "That girl is very pretty. "He speaks good English." " 5." " 7. "They speak perfect French."" 8. "They are very tall" " 2. "I would like to have another drink. "I can run very fast. "I can't speak Italian. "They haven't done anything yet. "She never goes to concerts." " 10. "I will go to Paris next summer."" 6.." " 4." " 3. "We didn't get paid. "You could find a better job." " 9. "They won't stop in this village. "I didn't think about it. "I will buy it tomorrow."" we!" I!" I!' we!" her sister!" the others!" we!" she!" I!" we!" I!" she!" I!" you!" I!" 2." " 8.
...o.. • La estructura either...: She can speak neither French nor Spanish. 94 STANLEY ..... and Either . • Pero tambien se suele usar some en frases interrogativas cuando la frase indica una oferta.... sugerencia.. The man on the phone was neither Peter nor John.. He loved both Susan and Sandra. • Las tres estructuras sirven de union. • Las frases negativas como Ese hombre no era ni Pedro ni Juan se pueden traducir de dos formas: The man on the phone wasn't either Peter or John. The girl was neither pretty nor intelligent. She is either French or Italian..UNIT 40 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Some and something in offers and requests • Normalmente some se usa con verbos afirmativos: They bought some cakes. Linking words both ... We'll go there either on Saturday or on Sunday.. o peticion.... se traduce por o .. Both.. como. se traduce por ni.: * You can have either biscuits or cakes.. ni. The room was neither large nor bright. se traduce por tanto.. and. y se espera que la respuesta sea afirmativa: ^ Would you like some wine? Could you do something for me? Can I have some of those sweets? Have you got some glasses you can lend me? Why don't you give her some flowers? Didn't you borrow some books from the library? Would you like some more milk? Why don't you give him something to drink? • La estructura neither. The woman on the phone was neither Rose nor her mother.... or. or Neither. They were both hungry and thirsty. I like both John and Peter.: Both Jim and Jane were late... nor .. We can go either by plane or by train. nor..
You can leave now or you can leave this afternoon... 4. 2. either. What are you looking for? Have you lost 7.. Why doesn't she put up to eat? to drink. The restaurant wasn't good.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 7. too. And we haven't got time. Would you like to take 9. Is that girl's name Jane? Or is it Julia? It's one of the two. And it wasn't very cheap. too. 8. She can't write. And I don't smoke. Why don't they give them 6. Can I have 8.. please? 1. please? of these biscuits? chocolates? to cover that hole in the wall? 2. 1. The doors need painting. Complete estas frases con some/something. We haven't got any money to go to Disneyworld.. She can't read. Can I have 5.. It was very long. She didn't telephone. Both Bob and Jill were late.. He emigrated because he needed a change. 95 STANLEY . Would you like 4. He needed more money. Example: Can you give me some sugar. The play was very boring. The windows need painting. Why don't you give her 10. She didn't write. Could you give me 2. Jill was late too. neither. or Example: Bob was late. Why don't you send him 3. too. nor. 9.. 3. and .. 5. please? to eat? ? information about this town? money? more milk in my coffee.. 6. She neither telephoned nor wrote. Esta vez tiene que hacer frases con: both . I don't drink...
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
Infinitive of Purpose
• La idea de proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitive. Es decir, usamos to + infinitive para hablar acerca del proposito de hacer algo (para + infinitive):
She went to Paris to learn French. He shouted to warn us of the danger. Mary telephoned to invite us to her wedding. The secretary went out to post the letters.
• Para que el pueda...:
Give him my phone number so that he can phone me. He wears glasses so that nobody can recognize him.
• Infinitivo + sustantivo + preposicion:
He wants a case to keep his tapes and records in. I need a tin opener to open this tin of asparagus with.
• Tambien usamos to + infinitivo cuando nos referimos acerca del proposito de alguna cosa, o el porque alguien necesita o quiere algo:
I need something to open this tin. The rich Arab had six bodyguards to protect him. This fence is to keep people out of my property. This generator is here to produce electricity.
• Esto es cuando hablamos de algo en particular, pero si nos referimos a algo con un sentido en general usamos for + gerundio:
This is a box for keeping old books in. - This is a tool for cutting wood.
• Tambien podemos usar in order to/so as + to + infinitivo con un infinitivo negativo:
He pulled out his knife in order/so as to frighten them. - She walked on tiptoe in order/so as not to wake her children.
• Con to be y to have:
She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time for her family. She got up early in order/so as to have a big breakfast. She left work at four in order/so as to be home early.
• Con can y could se usa el so that... (para poder):
She is learning French so that she can study in Paris. He moved to Boston so that he could see his girlfriend more often.
1. Use las palabras en parentesis para responder a estas preguntas.
Example: Why are you going out? (buy/some/milk) I'm going out to buy some milk. 1. Why did you go to Jim's school? (speak/Jim's teacher)
2. Why are you wearing boots? (keep/feet/warm)
3. Why is she going into hospital? (have/operation)
4. Why are they saving money? (get/married)
5. Why did you shout? (warn/you/danger)
6. Why are you going to the bank? (change/money)
2. Ahora va a completar estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. keep, hang, solve, buy, wear, climb, read, celebrate, sit
Example: There was no furniture, not even chairs to sit on. 1. We haven't got enough money 2. I'm going to buy a picture 3. Get me a box 4. We must get together and try 5. He was too afraid 6. I need a new dress 7. I have no time 8. They are having a party a new house. in the hall. these old books in. the problem. the mountain. at the wedding. books. the end of the course.
3. En este ejercicio tiene que escribir frases con so that.
Example: I'll give you her address. I want you to write to her. I'll give you her address so that you can write to her.
1. He locked his door. He didn't want to be disturbed.
2. I spoke loud. I wanted everybody to hear.
3. She arrived early. She wanted to get a good seat.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1
• El condicional se forma igual que el future, anteponiendo al infinitive las particulas would o should.
I should/would go you would go he would go we should/would go you would go they would go
should/would I go? would you go? would he go? should/would we go? would you go? would they go?
Negative I should/would not go you would not go he would not go we should/would go you would not go they would not go
• La particula should solo se usa en ingles muy formal:
I thought they would give me a diploma. They expected that the plane would arrive on time. She hoped they would come to the party.
Condicional compuesto • Affirmative
I would have gone. You would have gone. He would have gone. We would have gone. You would have gone. They would have gone.
• El condicional se suele abreviar, sobre todo en conversacion: I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, you'd, they'd.
I'd go if I could. I'd go to Paris if I spoke French. She'd buy the house if she had money. I'd speak louder if I had to.
Would I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he have gone?
I wouldn't have gone. You wouldn't have gone, etc.
• El condicional negative tambien se puede abreviar: I wouldn't, you wouldn't, he wouldn't, etc.
I wouldn't go if I were you.
Is Mary going to change clothes? (be late). ? 6. "Perhaps one day somebody will ask you to go out with him". No. Perhaps one day somebody will hit you. Perhaps one day you will lose your money in Mexico. No. I 3. he 4. ? 5. if I took her necklace. Are you going to take Mary's necklace? (be angry). No. Perhaps one day someone will ask you to marry him/her. if she changed clothes. What would you do if you met a nice girl? 1. it 6. Ahora responds como en el ejemplo. No. 1. if I sold my car. ? ? 3. Perhaps one day a pretty girl will say she loves you. Example: Are you going to leave at 5? (we/arrive/too/early) If we left at five. Perhaps one day you will meet your favourite film star. she 7. if I saw this horror film. No. Perhaps one day hooligans will rob you. ? 4. if he applied for the post. Are you going to see this horror film? (not sleep). Are you going to sell your car? (have to walk/to work). 99 STANLEY . Are you going to leave the car unlocked (be stolen). 2. he 2. No. if he invited Martha. Example: Perhaps one day you will meet a nice girl. ? 7. Perhaps one day someone will insult you. Is your brother going to apply for the post? (not/get it).EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Haga preguntas. ? 8. if I left the car unlocked. Is John going to invite Martha? (he have to/invite Marian/too). What would you do if 2. No. she 5. we would arrive too early.
The boys would have played football if the teacher had let them. we would go for a picnic. They would have gone without you if you hadn't hurried.They would go without you if you didn't hurry. If the weather was good. y la frase subordinada en presente. If you had run. el verbo principal se pone en condicional simple. el verbo principal se pone en condicional compuesto. . el verbo principal se pone en futuro simple. • Con las frases del tipo 3. you would have caught the train. you would catch the train. y la frase subordinada en pluscuamperfecto. • Con las frases condicionales del tipo 1.UNIT 42 (Cont. . The boys would play football if the teacher let them. Type 3: Type 2: • What would you do if it rained? if + past + simple conditional If it rained. we would stay at home.If the weather is good. you will catch the train. 100 STANLEY . we will go for a picnic. we would have gone for a picnic. They will go without you if you don't hurry. If the weather had been good. • Con las frases del tipo 2. we would stayed at home. we will stay at home. y la frase subordinada en pasado: If you ran. • What would you have done if it had rained? if + past perfect + perfect conditional If it had rained. The boys will play football if the teacher lets them.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR Types of conditional sentences • Las frases condicionales en ingles moderno se suelen dividir en tres tipos: Type 1: • What will you do if it rains? if + present + future If it rains. No importa el orden: If you run.
(earn) more. If you had asked me. What will you do if you 3. I gone with you. he would have been a policeman. You would have been accepted if you the form. I will eat (eat) something. I will catch the train if it 4. I would go to the party if you 2. If you don't write better. If she found the key. (rain) (send) (catch) 101 STANLEY . (give) it to him. (can). Pon el verbo en la forma correcta. (keep) it. 1. If you are clever. 1. you time. If I had known you were coming. If you had come by car. We would have arrived earlier if we the 9 o'clock train.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 2. I (go) to the airport to meet you. she 7. (win) the lottery? (arrive) on time. Tipo 1. If I had known she was ill. (fill) in (go) (save) . Example: If you sold the house. (rain). (have) time. (give) it to you. I 5. Tipo 2. They would telephone if they (invite) me. We would have stayed at home if it 3. (stop) smoking. 7. you would get a lot of money. If you spoke good English. If it is hot. Example: If I am hungry. 2. 4. (open) the window. you 3. I 7. Pon el verbo en la forma correcta. 6. I her some flowers. Example: If he had been taller. you 2. I will ring you up if I (solve) the problem. Little Jim would lose the money if you 4. If I found money in the street. 3. I 5. Tipo 3. (understand) a word. The boys will play football if it 6. 1. 5. You would feel better if you 6. En este ejercicio tiene que poner el verbo en la forma correcta.
que esto solamente ocurre en presente de indicative. conseguir.That woman is getting old. participio. • Cuando lo que sigue a get es cualquier cosa menos un simple complemento directo. • Cuando el get va seguido de un participio. participio. preposicion o adverbio. What have you got in your hand? We haven't got any news yet. quiza. Con un adjetivo. no obstante. y del resto de la frase. I can't get Peter to arrive on time. 2. coger. You can get your hands warm in front of the fire. 1. Get tiene cuatro significados. infinitive. infinitive. (were damaged) The thief got caught by the police. mucho menos en el lenguaje escrito. el significado es "causar un cambio": Get him to stop doing that. El significado exacto depende de la clase de palabra que vaya detras del get. casi siempre se refiere a un cambio de estado: las cosas o las personas que se hacen diferentes. (was caught) He gets invited to all parties. adverbio). el verbo que mas se usa en el lenguaje coloquial ingles. Cuando se usa con cualquier otra cosa (adjetivo. get tiene un significado parecido a become: .UNIT 43 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Structures with Get • Get es. Cuando detras del get hay un complemento directo seguido de un adjetivo. sin embargo. preposicion. El significado exacto depende de la frase: Did you get the parcel? Can you get the tickets for tonight's concert? Can you get a pound of sugar and a sack of potatoes in the supermarket? I'll come and get you at the airport tomorrow. y algunos profesores opinan que el usar get en el lenguaje escrito es "mat ingles". Se usa. Cuando se usa con un complemento directo. significa algo asf como recibir. comienzan otras actividades. el sentido exacto depende del resto de la frase. get generalmente sugiere algun cambio o movimiento. 102 STANLEY . relaciones u obligation: I've got a friend who lives in Paris. • Hay que observar. (is invited) 3. etc. El participio got se usa con algunas formas habladas con el verbo have. obtener. cuando se refiere a posesion. He got a punch on his nose. De nuevo. He got a punch on his nose. se mueven de sitio. a menudo tiene el mismo sentido que to be: The goods got damaged in transit. 4.
3. En algunas de las siguientes frases se puede afiadir el got. Jill and Jane have had a lot of work this year. siempre que se pueda. 4. Example: She got the tickets at the Odeon Cinema. Have you got any news from your boyfriend? 6. 4. 1. 2. My friend got hit by a golf ball. 5. 1. Haga lo mismo con el tipo 3. Example: Have you got a dog? . Can you get some apples at the shop. 2.Yes. Example: When people get old they forget things. Robert has very good marks at school. Cambie el verbo get por otro verbo con el mismo significado. I've got a nice little dog. When people become old they forget things. Try to get her to stay with us for dinner. 3. I'll get you home in my car. I'll get a glass of beer for you. 103 STANLEY . 3. 5. 2. Example: She wants to get her feet warm. They have to come early every day. Anada el got.I am going to get my hair cut. 1.EXERCISES 1. The Evans had a house in the country. 4.I want to get the car going. en otras no. not only on Mondays. The prisoner is trying to get his hands free. The picture got damaged on the way here. I'll get some information about this company. 4. Did you get my letter? 2. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con el tipo 2. She wants to warm her feet. She bought the tickets at the Odeon Cinema. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 4. The poor woman got very ill. 2. When you get to New York send me a post card. The boys will have many things to do next Sunday. 3. please? 3.
Have you finished washing the car yet? During (durante) • Suele ir seguido del artfculo determinado the. I hadn't seen her since 1990. Yet (todavi'a) • Se usa para frases con sentido negative. Normalmente se usa un verbo en pasado (past tense): I went to London six months ago. Ago (hace) • Se pone al final de la frase. .Never say that again. Suele ir seguido del artfculo indeterminado a. aunque tambien puede ir al final: This machine is already too old. Already (ya) • Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de frecuencia. He knows it already. 104 STANLEY . I studied Latin years ago. . I met her last week. . Nota: • Con la expresion the last se usa for: I haven't seen him for the last two weeks. yet.UNIT 44 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Still. o un adjetivo posesivo: . Always ask for advice. Since (desde) • A menudo se usa para expresiones de tiempo con preterito perfecto o pluscuamperfecto: I haven't seen him.Always tell me the truth. I've already read the newspaper. For (durante) • Se usa para marcar la duration de un periodo de tiempo. o de un numeral. since. Generalmente lo solemos poner al final de la frase: I haven't finished the job yet. during Always .It was very cold during the winter. A menudo se usa con preterites perfectos o pluscuamperfectos: I haven't seen her for six months. Se refiere a algo que sucedio algun tiempo atras sin idea de continuidad. She hasn't written the letter yet. Never go jogging alone. Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de frecuencia: Mr Evans is still in bed. We haven't done anything for the last three hours. Are you still waiting for an answer? Jimmy still works for that company. for.Never throw stones at people. I learned a lot during my stay with you.never • Los adverbios always y never se pueden usar en los comienzos de frase con oraciones de imperative: Always pay the money you owe. already. He already knows the truth. Still (todavia) • Se usa para frases afirmativas e interrogativas. o She has been on the phone for an hour. o I spoke to him during the interval. a menudo en preterite perfecto.
The children haven't gone to bed homework. studying it. . The Browns have been living in Spain the summer. "Have you finished washing the car finished 2. Example: Mum hasn't finished doing the washing up yet. She's been doing the same thing 3. . I've just spoken to him on the phone a few minutes 3. She's been waiting 2. He's ?" "No. the last twenty years. segun convenga a la frase. I started working at Lloyds six months 2. in hospital. the race. five o'clock this morning. The Wilsons lived here 7. A continuacion tiene que diferenciar entre for y during. We've got many things to do. We haven't had any news from him 4. Jews have been emigrating to Israel 5. We haven't finished . 1947. doing their . She is run faster than you. We were very happy 6. Use still o yet. a couple of years. 3. She hasn't come out . 1990. Example: We haven't seen each other for years. We met two years ago. three months. I can 2. I haven't 6. I last heard of him ten years . The weather was terrible 3. 1. News has been arriving 6. five or six years. They're . He hasn't decided what to do 7. Are you still reading that book? 1. They emigrated to Australia years 4. He's . It was very hot 5. en las frases que vienen a continuacion. Example: I haven't seen him since January. 1. 105 STANLEY .EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. our stay with you. 7. 5. thinking about it. We met during the rehearsal of the last play. . Ahora tiene que poner bien since o bien ago. He hasn't finished studying German 4.
isn't she? He isn't a boy. aren't there? There isn't much time. En futuro se usa la parti'cula will. didn't you? She spoke at the meeting. is there? There aren't many trees.UNIT 45 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Question Tags • Las coletillas o question tags son preguntas que se ponen al final de una frase afirmativa: . does she? 3. is he? » She isn't a girl. has he? We haven't got a son. Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectives forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo. does. will they? 5. En condicional se usa would: They would come if they could. hasn't he? We have a son. isn't there? There are many people. Si la frase es afirmativa la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa/negativa. Con los demas verbos se usan las particulas do. wouldn't they? She wouldn't tell you. have we? You can speak French. couldn't she? He can't speak Italian. haven't we? He hasn't got a dog. doesn't she? You don't speak Chinese. could she? She could cook. can he? 2. don't you? She plays tennis very well.verdad? 1 . En pasado se usa did: You went to Madrid. would she? Con el verbo impersonal there is/there are: There is a lot of money. Si la frase es negativa. was there? 106 STANLEY . en presente: You come every day. is she? He has a dog. Recuerda que will not = won't: You will go tomorrow. are there? There wasn't anny coffee. la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa solamente: You are a man. aren't you? She is a woman. can't you? She couldn't run fast. didn't she? 4. do you? She doesn't cook very well. won't you? They won't come tomorrow.
You've got a German car. 9. 5. Example: You went to Mexico. You would like to do that. You haven't given the fish to the cat. 12. 4. She speaks English very well. isn't it? 1. 7. 4. 2. 3. You aren't going to leave me here. You can help us with this. He is going by car. 15. He has been an engineer for 20 years. 9. Ahora va a hacer lo mismo pero usando las particulas do. 3. 11. 13. That TV set doesn't give a good picture. They must take him to hospital. didn't you? 1. 14. You won't go swimming tomorrow. 6. There are many things to do. 8. will. You are very clever. Your friend can't speak French. 5. She wouldn't like that to happen. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2. Mr Brown wasn't at work yesterday. 12. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 107 STANLEY . You will come with us. 8. 7. That girl is not coming with you. 14. It will rain tonight. would etc. They weren't in New York yesterday. 11. Example: Her birthday is on the 23rd. You learned a lot. You can't drive a car without a licence. There weren't many people at the concert. 10. 2. They didn't buy the video. The hotel was very expensive. 10. did. We will get our pay tomorrow. does. 13.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. He has borrowed money from you. She won't pass her driving test. Complete las frases poniendo la coletilla con los verbos auxiliares o defectives. There is a lot of time. 6.
These boys study this book. The jar has been broken by me. 108 STANLEY . The player threw the ball. Pasado Future Condicionai Preterite perfecto Pluscuamperfecto Future perfecto Condicionai compuesto Recuerde • La voz pasiva en ingles se usa mucho mas que en castellano. They would eat the cake. Se usa a menudo para traducir formas impersonales: se dice. Activa Presente The dog eats the bread. Susan will read the book. I have broken the jar. That would have been broken by me. • La preposicion espanola por se traduce por by. He has written two books this year. She had made a delicious cake.. It is thought. The milk was drunk by the cat.UNIT 46 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Passive Voice • La voz pasiva inglesa. Alice will wash the dishes. It would be done better by my mother. This artist had painted the picture. would have broken that. The medicine will have been taken by her. igual que en castellano. This book is studied by these boys.. y el participio del verbo que se conjuga... It is said. se forma con el auxiliar to be. The ball was thrown by the player. The dishes will be washed by Alice. The book will be read by Susan.. The cat drank the milk.. The picture had been painted by this artist. She will have taken the medicine. A delicious cake had been made by her. Two books have been written by him this year. The money will have been stolen by them. Pasiva The bread is eaten by the dog. They will have stolen the money. se piensa. The cake would be eaten by them. My mother would do it better.
10. A goal was scored by the centre forward. My colleague will do the job. The cook has prepared a good meal. 8. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.The cat drank the milk. Jim will write the letter. 6. Many writers were influenced by Cervantes.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 3. 6. 4. My wife washed the dishes. This sweater will be worn by Peter tomorrow. The centre forward scored a goal. 2. 13. That film is going to be seen by all the children. 11. Example: My father built this house. 7. This horse won the race. Jean was taken out by Jeff. Many things are broken by children playing at home. 9. 5. 3. My mother will open the window. Ahora va a hacer todo lo contrario. -This house was built by my father. 10. 109 STANLEY . Ponga estas frases en voz activa. The government bought that company. They would buy many things. 12. The children will do this exercise. Ponga las siguientes frases en voz pasiva. The work has been done by the children. . 2. 7. The money was stolen by the thieves. 9. 4. 2. My brother has repaired the TV set. This man wrote this book. The dishes were washed by my wife. 8. 1. He has said many things. Example: The milk was drunk by the cat. 5. 1.
" Where (donde) "Where do you live?" "I live in New York." When (cuando) "When do you come here?" "I come here every day.A quien hablaste? Whom did they go with? iCon quien/quienes fueron? Whom are you talking about? iDe quien estais hablando? (acerca de) Whom did he tell? iA quien se lo dijo? • Ffjese que colocamos la preposicion al final de la frase.With whom are you going? pero eso ha caido en desuso. Antiguamente se colocaba al principio . Indica posesion: Whose is this car/Whose car is this? quien es este coche? What (que) • Se usa para cosas: What did you say last night? iQue dijiste ayer noche? Which (cual) • Se usa para cosas y personas y es mas selectivo que what: Which is the cheapest? Which is the best? We have two Susans here." I Recuerde que cuando los pronombres who y what son sujetos de oracion no se usan particulas de interrogacion: Who came yesterday? Who told you that? Who ate all the bread? Who spoke at the meeting? What happened last night? What caused the fire? 110 STANLEY .UNIT 47 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Interrogative Pronouns Who (quien) • El pronombre interrogative who es sujeto de oracion: Who was that woman? Who is going to do it? Whom (a quien) • Es complemento indirecto o circunstancial." How (como) "How did you come?" "I came by train. y a menudo va acompahado por una preposicion: Whom did you see last night? A quien viste ayer noche? Whom did you speak to? . • En ingles coloquial a veces se suprime la m de whom: Who are you going with? Who were you talking to? Whose (de quien) • Es un complemento determinative. Which one do you want to see? Why (por que?) "Why was he late?" "Because he missed the train.
7. About whom are you talking. To whom are you going to get married? 5." 3." 9." 2." were you talking about?" "I was talking about Jim. We are going to the cinema with Fred." 7. 8." are you going to run with?" happened in your school last week?" one do you like?" "I like the one on the left. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. Usted tiene que poner la preposicion al final.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. Estas son las respuestas. 2. 6. 4. boys? 2. A short circuit caused the fire. Usted tiene que hacer las preguntas. We saw that woman. Who came with her? 1. A continuation se le dan unas frases de relative con la preposicion al principio. 3." 5. Steve told me that. With whom was she when you met her? 4. Example: Whom did you see this morning? 1. Fred? 111 STANLEY . I was talking to Jim. With whom did you have dinner on Sunday? 3." 8." 6. I went with my friend." 2. 5. Example: Peter came with her." came with you last night?" are you going to make the cake with?" was she with?" "She was with her friend. Ponga el pronombre interrogative apropiado. The dog? It's ours. Example: To whom were you talking? Who were you talking to? 1." is that dog?" "It's ours. With whom are you going to run the marathon." were you talking to?" "I was talking to Tom. I didn't say anything." 4.
And this is what he said. Which or that (el cual) • Generalmente se usa para cosas. el cual) • Es el sujeto de la frase subordinada de relative. everybody. who I was telling you about.UNIT 48 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Relative Pronouns Who (quien. The girl I asked. told me to come back today. Those are the boys who said that. told me to come back today. no one. is interested in your plan. 112 STANLEY . about whom. Nobody who/that saw the accident will forget it. Solemos usar that o lo omitimos: Everything (that) you say will be taken • La forma whom se considera muy formal. This is the girl with whom he fell in love. none. everything. that. told me to come back today.: Mr Jones. The girl that I asked. • Sin embargo. se usa para personas: This is the man whom I saw. little. ingles coloquial generalmente usamos who o This is the best hotel (that) I know. • En las oraciones que proporcionamos una informacion extra se puede usar la preposicion antes de whom (para personas) y which (para cosas). pero a veces tambien para personas: The car (which/that) I bought last week. etc. no. with whom. o despues de superlatives. Whom (a quien) • Es complemento indirect© o circunstancial. que. en ingles coloquial. much. Whose (cuyo) This is the man whose son is so tall. y todavia es mas corriente omitir el proWhat (lo que) nombre: The girl whom I asked. broke down yesterday. nobody and those: & Everybody who/that knew her liked her. everyone. That • Puede ser sujeto de una frase de relative detras de all. En down. The girl who I asked. Asf que se puede decir to whom. for which. • Which no se suele usar detras de all. Is that what you wanted? • Cuando el sujeto es una mezcla de personas y cosas usamos that: Those are the men and the carts that we saw on the way. a menudo ponemos la preposicion detras del verbo en la oracion de relative. told me to come back today. Se usa para personas: This is the man who came. to whom I spoke on the phone last night. Cuando hacemos esto generalmente usamos who en vez de whom: This is Mr Carter.
who is 80. The Boston train was late this morning. Mr Smith is retiring now. What was the name of the boy? He won the race. Don't tell anyone 7.EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. 1. escribe (that).) 2.) 4. Tell me 2. My mother is the only person 3. (Jim's father is 80) Jim's father. 1. En los casos en los que se pueda escribir that u omitirlo. cuando sea necesario. I've got is a few coins. I can't agree with 6. He/She doesn't eat meat. My friend speaks French and English fluently.Tiene que unir estas dos frases en una usando un pronombre relativo. 2. goes wrong.) 3. understands me. she wants. She told me you were away. but this is you want and I'll see what I can do. He stole my car. Example: Did you hear what she said? Everything (that) I say is true. En este ejercicio tiene que escribir estas frases de nuevo uniendolas con una oracion de relativo. A vegetarian is a person. (His mother is French. (She always wears a red dress. (It is always on time. She gives her daughter everything 4. It is used to look up words. A dictionary is a book. happened last night. The woman answered the phone. Examples: Jim's father goes running every day. The police have caught the man who/that stole my car.) 3. who. 2. 4. Complete estas frases. That woman is an artist. I don't know. 3. Example: The police have caught the man. I say. goes running every day. All 5. o what. people say. I can't give you any money. My sister always disagrees with everything 9. con that. 113 STANLEY . Don't blame me for everything 8. 1. (He has worked for the company all his life. you've just said.
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dejar let -dejar. creer understood -entender woken -despertarse worn won -llevar puesto -ganar to understand understood to wake to wear woke wore led left let to win to write won wrote written -escribir 116 STANLEY . tomar heard -oir kept -guardar known. atrapar come -venir cost -coster cut -cortar done -hacer drawn -dibujar drunk -beber eaten -comer fallen -caer felt -sentir found -encontrar got -conseguir given -dar gone -ir grown -crecer had -tener. contar ate fell felt found got gave went grew had heard kept knew to sit to sleep to speak to spend to stand to swim to take to tell to think sat slept spoke spent stood swam took told thought spoken -hablar swum -nadar thought -pensar. ester -empezar -soplar -romper -traer -construir -comprar -coger. -saber. pasar -ester de pie -coger. tomar -decir.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Irregu lar verl)S Infinitive Past was/were began blew broke brought built bought caught came cost Past participle -ser. conocer led -conducir left -salir. permitir been begun blown broken brought built bought caught Infinitive Past Past participle lain made met paid put read rung run said seen sold sent -yacer -hacer -encontrarse -pagar -poner -leer -llamar (al timbre) -correr -decir -ver -vender -enviar to be to begin bo blow to break to bring to build to buy to catch to come to cost to cut to do to draw to drink to eat to fall to feel to find to get to give to go to grow to have to hear to keep to know to lead to leave to let to lie to make to meet to pay to put to read to ring to run to say to see to sell to send to shine to show to shut lay made met paid put read rang ran said cut did drew drank saw sold sent shone showed shut shone -brillar shown -mostrar shut sat slept spent stood taken told -cerrar -sentarse -dormir -gastar.
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday domingo lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sabado Possessive Adj.000th a millionth 117 STANLEY .000th a thousandth 2. Pron.July August September October November December Julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre Interrog.000th two thousandth 1. who? whom? whose? which? what? when? where? how? why? Relative Pron.000. mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs Personal pronouns (object forms) me you him her it us you them Months of the year January February March April May June enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio . who whom whose which that what Numbers Cardinals one 21 two 22 three 23 four 30 40 five six 50 seven 60 eight 70 nine 80 ten 90 eleven 100 twelve 101 thirteen 200 fourteen 500 fifteen 1.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR The days of the week Sunday . my your his her its our your their Possessive Pron.000 sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty Ordinals twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a hundred a hundred and one two hundred five hundred a thousand 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 200th 500th eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth a hundredth a hundred and first two hundredth five hundredth 1.
seais/esteis ellos sean/esten Imperfecto yo era/estaba tu eras/estabas el era/estaba nos. hubisteis sido/estado ellos hubieron sido/estado Imperfecto (estar) yo estuviera o estuviese tu estuvieras o estuvieses el estuviera o estuviese nos. fueramos o fuesemos vos. seamos/estemos vos. hubierais o hubieseis estado ellos hubieran o hubiesen estado Compuesto yo habri'a sido/estado tu habrias sido/estado el habri'a sido/estado nos. seremos/estaremos vos. habrfamos sido/estado vos. fuisteis/estuvisteis ellos fueron/estuvieron Anterior yo hube sido/estado tu hubiste sido/estado el hubo sido/estado nos. hubierais o hubieseis sido ello hubieran o hubiesen sido Condicional Presente yo serfa/estaria tu serias/estarias el seria/estaria nos. habeis sido/estado ellos nan sido/estado Presente yo sea/este tu seas/estes el sea/este nos. serfais/estarfamos ellos serian/estarfan Imperativo jse tu! jsea el! jseamos nosotros! jsed vosotros! isean ellos! jesta tu! jeste el! jestemos nosotros! jestad vosotros! jesten ellos! Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese estado tu hubieras o hubieses estado el hubiera o hubiese estado nos. eramos/estabamos vos. fuimos/estuvimos vos. serfamos/estariamos vos. erais/estabais ellos eran/estaban Pluscuamperfecto yo habi'a sido/estado tu habias sido/estado el habia sido/estado nos. habreis sido/estado ellos habran sido/estado Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese sido tu hubieras o hubieses sido el hubiera o hubiese sido nos. Perfecto yo he sido/estado tu has sido/estado el ha sido/estado nos.Appendixt ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verbo ser-estar Indicativo Presente Yo soy/estoy tu eres/estas el es/esta nos. sereis/estareis ellos seran/estaran Futuro Perfecto yo habre sido/estado tu habras sido/estado el habra sido/estado nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos estado vos. fuerais o fueseis ellos fueran o fuesen Indefinido yo fui/estuve tu fuiste/estuviste el fue/estuvo nos. habremos sido/estado vos. somos/estamos vos. hubieramos o hubiesemos sido vos. estuvieramos o estuviesemos vos. estuvierais o estuvieseis ellos estuvieran o estuviesen Preterite perfecto yo haya sido/estado tu hayas sido/estado el haya sido/estado nos. hubimos sido/estado vos. habrfais sido/estado ellos habrian sido/estado Infinitivo Gerundio Participio Participio pasado ser estar siendo estando sido estado haber sido estado 118 STANLEY . habiamos sido/estado vos. hemos sido/estado vos. habiais sido/estado ellos habian sido/estado Imperfecto (ser) yo fuera o fuese tu fueras o fueses el fuera o fuese nos. sois/estais ellos son/estan Subjuntivo P. hayamos sido/estado vos. hayais sido/estado ellos hayan sido/estado Futuro yo sere/estare tu seras/estaras el sera/estara nos.
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verbo to be Indicative Present 1 am you are he is we are you are they are Subjuntive Present perfect tense 1 have been you have been he has been we have been you have been they have been Past tense if if if if if if I were you were he were we were you were they were Past tense 1 was you were he was we were you were they were Past perfect tense 1 had been you had been he had been we had been you had been they had been Nota: El imperfecto de subjuntivo del verbo SER (TO BE) es el unico que se usa en la practica. Ej: "si yo fuera rico" -If I were rich. Future 1 shall/will be you will be he will be we shall/will be you will be they will be Future perfect tense 1 shall/will have been you will have been he will have been we shall/will have been you will have been they will have been Conditional Present I should/would be you would be he would be we should/would be you would be they would be Imperative let me be! be! let him be! let us (let's) be! be! let them be! Past conditional I should/would have been you would have been he would have been We should/would have been you would have been they would have been Infinitive Gerund to be being Participle been Past participle have been 119 STANLEY .
habeis/teneis ellos han/tienen Subjuntivo P. hayais/tengais ellos hayan/tengan Imperfecto yo habia/tenia tu habias/tenias el habia/tenia nos. hayamos habido/tenido vos. hubieramos o hubiesemos habido vos. habreis/tendreis ellos habran/tendran Future Perfecto yo habre habido/tenido tu habras habido/tenido el habra habido/tenido nos. hubierais o hubieseis habido ello hubieran o hubiesen habido Condicional Presente yo habrfa/tendria tu habrias/tendrias 61 habria/tendria nos. hubierais o hubieseis tenido ellos hubieran o hubiesen tenido Compuesto yo habria habido/tenido tu habn'as habido/tenido el habria habido/tenido nos. habrfamos habido/tenido vos. habiamos/tem'amos vos. hubisteis habido/tenido ellos hubieron habido/tenido Imperfecto (tener) yo tuviera o tuviese tu tuvieras o tuvieses el tuviera o tuviese nos. habeis habido/tenido ellos han habido/tenido Presente yo haya/tenga tu hayas/tengas el haya/tenga nos. hemos habido/tenido vos. habreis habido/tenido ellos habran habido/tenido Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese habido tu hubieras o hubieses habido el hubiera o hubiese habido nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos tenido vos. habremos/tendremos vos. tuvieramos o tuviesemos vos. hubierais o hubieseis ellos hubieran o hubiesen Indefinido yo hube/tuve tu hubiste/tuviste el hubo/tuvo nos. habriais habido/tenido ellos habrfan habido/tenido 120 STANLEY Infinitivo Gerundio Participio Participio pasado haber tener habiendo teniendo habido tenido haber habido tenido .Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verbo haber-tener Indicative Presente yo he/tengo tu has/tienes el ha/tiene nos. hayamos/tengamos vos. hemos/tenemos vos. habiais habido/tenido ellos nab fan habido/tenido Imperfecto (haber) yo hubiera o hubiese tu hubieras o hubieses el hubiera o hubiese nos. habiais/teniais ellos habian/tenian Pluscuamperfecto yo habi'a habido/tenido tu habfas habido/tenido el habia habido/tenido nos. hubisteis/tuvimos ellos hubieron/tuvieron Anterior yo hube habido/tenido tu hubiste habido/tenido el hubo habido/tenido nos. habfamos habido/tenido vos. hubimos habido/tenido vos. Perfecto yo he habido/tenido tu has habido/tenido el ha habido/tenido nos. habrfamos/tendriamos vos. hayais habido/tenido ellos hayan habido/tenido Future yo habre/tendre tu habras/tendras el habra/tendra nos. tuvierais o tuvieseis ellos tuvieran o tuviesen Preterite perfecto yo haya habido/tenido tu hayas habido/tenido el haya habido/tenido nos. habremos habido/tenido vos. hubimos/tuvimos vos. habriais/tendriais ellos habrian/tendrian Imperativo ihe tu! jhaya el! jhayamos nosotros! jhabed vosotros! jhayan ellos! jten tu! jtenga el! itengamos nosotros! jtened vosotros! jtengan ellos! Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese tenido tu hubieras o hubieses tenido el hubiera o hubiese tenido nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos vos.
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verb to have Indicative Present I have you have he has we have you have they have Present perfect tense I have had you have had he has had we have had you have had they have had Past perfect tense I had had you had had he had had we had had you had had they had had Future perfect tense I shall/will have had you will have had he will have had we shall/will have had you will have had they will have had Past tense I had you had he had we had you had they had Future I shall/will have you will have he will have we shall/will have you will have they will have Conditional Present I should/would have you would have he would have we should/would have you would have they would have Imperative let me have! have! let him have! let us (let's) have! have! let them have! Past conditional I should/would have had you would have had he would have had we should/would have had you would have had they would have had Infinitive Gerund To have Having Participle Had Past participle Have had 121 STANLEY .
hubimos amado vos. habreis amado ellos habran amado Pluscuamperfecto yo hubiera o hubiese amado tu hubieras o hubieses amado el hubiera o hubiese amado nos. hayais amado ellos hayan amado Futuro yo amare tu amaras el amara nos. hemos amado vos. amaremos vos. amais ellos aman Subjuntivo P. amarfamos vos. habremos amado vos. Perfecto yo he amado tu has amado el ha amado nos. amemos vos. amabamos vos. amabais ellos amaban Pluscuamperfecto yo habi'a amado tu habfas amado el habi'a amado nos. hubieramos o hubiesemos amado vos. habrfais amado ellos habrfan amado Gerundio Participio Participio pasado Amando Amado Haber amado 122 STANLEY . hubisteis amado ellos hubieron amado Preterite perfecto yo haya amado tu hayas amado el haya amado nos. amarfais ellos amarfan Imperativo iama tui iame el! jamemos nosotros! Iamad vosotros! Iamen ellos! Compuesto yo habrfa amado tu habrias amado el habrfa amado InfinitJVO Amar nos. hayamos amado vos. amarais o amaseis allos amaran o amasen Indefinido yo ame tu amaste el amo nos. habfamos amado vos. habfais amado ellos habfan amado Imperfecto yo amara o amase tu amaras o amases el amara o amase nos.Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verbo amar Indicative Presente yo amo tu amas el ama nos. ameis ellos amen Imperfecto yo amaba tu amabas el amaba nos. amareis ellos amaran Futuro Perfecto yo habre amado tu habras amado el habra amado nos. amamos vos. habriamos amado vos. amaramos o amasemos vos. amamos vos. hubierais o hubieseis amado ellos hubieran o hubiesen amado Condicional Presente yo amarfa tu amarias el amarfa nos. habeis amado ellos nan amado Presente yo ame tu ames el ame nos. amasteis ellos amaron Anterior yo hube amado tu hubiste amado el hubo amado nos.
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verb to love Indicative Present I love you love he loves we love you love they love Present perfect tense I have loved you have loved he has loved we have loved you have loved they have loved Past perfect tense I had loved you had loved he had loved we had loved you had loved they had loved Future perfect tense I shall/will have loved you will have loved he will have loved we shall/will have loved you will have loved they will have loved Past tense I loved you loved he loved we loved you loved they loved Future I shall/will love you will love he will love we shall/will love you will love they will love Conditional Present 1 should/would love you would love he would love we should/would love you would love they would love Imperative let me love! love! let him love! let us (let's) love! love! let them love! Past conditional I should/would have loved you would have loved he would have loved we should/would have loved you would have loved they would have loved Infinitive Gerund Participle Past participle To love Loving Loved Have loved 123 STANLEY .
el modo subjuntivo no se usa en ingles. Ej.Salvo muy raras excepciones..Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Verb to love Indicative Present Interrogative do 1 love? do you love? does he love? do we love? do you love? do they love? Subjuntive Present perfect tense Interrogative have I loved? have you loved? has he loved? have we loved? have you loved? have they loved? Nota. Conditional Present Interrogative should/would I love? would you love? would he love? should/would we love? would you love? would they love? Negative I do not love you do not love he does not love we do not love you do not love they do not love Negative I have not loved you have not loved he has not loved we have not loved you have not loved they have not loved Past tense interrogative did I love? did you love? did he love? did we love? did you love? did they love? Past perfect tense Negative I should/would not love you would not love he would not love we should/would not love you would not love they would not love Interrogative had I loved? had you loved? had he loved? had we loved? had you loved? had they loved? Negative I did not love you did not love he did not love we did not love you did not love they did not love Negative I had not loved you had not loved he had not loved we had not loved you had not loved they had not loved Past conditional Interrogative should/would I have loved? would you have loved? would he have loved? should/would we have loved? would you have loved? would they have loved? Future Interrogative shall/will I love? will you love? will he love? shall we love? will you love? will they love? Future perfect tense Negative I should/would not have loved you would not have loved he would not have loved we should/would not have loved you would not have loved they would not have loved Interrogative shall/will I have loved? will you have loved? will he have loved? shall we have loved? will you have loved? will they have loved? Imperative Negative do do do do do do not not not not not not let me love! love! let him love! let us love! (let's not love!) love let them love! Negative I shall/will not love you will not love he will not love we shall/will not love you will not love they will not love Negative I shall/will not have loved you will not have loved he will not have loved we shall/will not have loved you will not have loved they will not have loved 124 STANLEY . For regla general se usa el mismo tiempo que en indicative.: "Cuando yo vaya"-When I go.
Appendix ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verbo "there to be" .haber (impersonal) Indicative Present there is there are hay Present perfect tense there has been there have been ha habido Past tense there was there were habia/hubo Past perfect tense there had been habia/hubo habido Future there will be habra Future perfect tense there will have been habra habido Conditional Present There would be Habria Imperative Let there be! jHaya! Past conditional There would have been Habria habido Infinitive Gerund There to be Haber There being Habiendo Participle Past participle 125 STANLEY .
pudisteis podian.Appendix Verbo ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 "to be able". pudiste podia. pude podias.poder Indicative Presente Preterite perfecto yo puedo tu puedes el puede nos. podeis ellos pueden I have been able you have been able he has been able we have been able you have been able they have been able he podido has podido ha podido hemos podido habeis podido han podido 1 can/I am able you can/you are able he can/he is able we can/we are able you can/you are able they can/they are able Pasado I could/l was able you could/you were able he could/he was able we could/we were able you could/you were able they could/they were able podia. pudo podiamos. pudieron Pluscuamperfecto I had been able you had been able he had been able we had been able you had been able they had been able habfa podido habias podido habia podido habiamos podido habiais podido habian podido Futuro I shall/will be able you will be able he will be able we shall/will be able you will be able they will be able podre podras podra podremos podreis podran Futuro perfecto I shall/will have been able you will have been able he will have been able we shall/will have been able you will have been able they will have been able habre podido habras podido habra podido habremos podido habreis podido habran podido Conditional Condicional I could/would be able you could/would be able he could/would be able we could/would be able you could/would be able they could/would be able podria podrias podria podriamos podriais podrian Condicional compuesto I should/would have been able you would have been able he would have been able we should/would have been able you would have been able they would have been able habria podido habrias podido habria podido habriamos podido habriais podido habrian podido 126 STANLEY . pudimos podiais. podemos vos.
000 LIEUES SOUS LES MERS LE COMTE DE MONTE-CRISTO NIVEL 2 LES TROIS MOUSQUETAIRES UN CAPITAINE DE QUINZE ANS MICHEL STROGOFF CONVERSATION IN ACTION NEW GUIDE TO BUSINESS LETTERS A TO ZED. 3 Y 4 ENTRAtNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS . 1-BY1-C CLAVES GRAMATICA ESPANOLA LOS VERBOS ESPANOLES DIFERENCIAS ENTRE SER 0 ESTAR CLAVES DIFERENCIAS SER 0 ESTAR FILL IN THE GAPS • NIVELES 1.2.com • Apdo.000 LEGUAS VIAJE SUBMARINO EL CONDE DE MONTECRISTO DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA NIVEL 2 LOS TRES MOSQUETEROS UN CAPITAN DE 15 ANOS MIGUEL STROGOFF URDANETA.LIVRE DU PROFESSEUR ENTRAINEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS-ELEVE ENTRAlNEZ-VOUS AUX VERBES FRANQAIS . B Y C KEYS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS GRAMATICA ESPANOLA EN MARCHA 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES • PRASES BILINGUES • NIVELES 1. 2 Y 3 KEYS FILL IN THE GAPS DIDACTIC CROSSWORDS NIVEL 1 (EDICI6N FOTOCOPIABLE) NEW GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS EXERCISES . 2 Y 3 ESPANOL TESTS ESPANOL •NIVELES 1. A TO ZEE A GUIDE TO THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH GUlAS PARA VIAJAR GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-INGLES GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-FRANCES GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-ALEMAN GUlA DEL VIAJERO GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-ITALIANO ESPANOL-PORTUGUES EVERYDAY IDIOMS IN BUSINESS EL INGLES PROHIBIDO FALSOS AMIGOS-FALSE FRIENDS FRONT LINE ENGLISH GRAMMAR SERIES: MODAL VERBS PREPOSITIONS PHRASAL VERBS REPORTED SPEECH GUlA DEL VIAJERO ESPANOL-INGLES (USA) GUlA DE CONVERSACION FRANCES-ESPANOL -L'ESPAGNE EN PARLANT GUlA DE CONVERSACI6N INGLES-ESPANOL GUlA DE CONVERSACI6N ALEMAN-ESPANOL GUlA DE CONVERSACION ITALIANO-ESPANOL EDITORIAL STANLEY • www.2. 207 • 20300 IRUN • Tel.gentedellibro. EL TORNAVIAJE KEYS ENGLISH GRAMMAR GUIDE TO PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH TO SPANISH USING PREPOSITIONS ENGLISH VERBS ONE BY ONE IRREGULAR VERBS AND MODALS MY ENGLISH TELLTALE DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH • NIVELES 1 Y 2 LECTURAS GRADUADAS EN FRANCES NIVEL o LAFAMILLELENOIR QUISAIT? NIVEL 1 L'lLEMYSTERIEUSE 20. 2. 4 Y 5 TRANSLATIONS • TRADUCCIONES • NIVELES 1.CAHIER D'ACTIVITES LECTURAS GRADUADAS EN ESPANOL NIVEL o LA FAMILIA PEREZ iQUIEN SABE? LA CLASE DE YOGA NIVEL 1 LA ISLA MISTERIOSA 20. 2. 3. 2 Y 3 CLES POUR LES TESTS EN FRANQAIS TRADUIREAUJOURD'HUI • NIVELES 1. 943 64 38 63 . 943 64 04 12 • Fax.FONDO E D I T O R I A L S T A N L E Y INGLES 3000 TESTS ELEMENTARY LEVEL KEYS 3 0 TESTS 00 2 0 TESTS ADVANCED LEVEL 00 KEYS 2000 TESTS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS • NIVELES 1. 4Y5 CLAVES TESTS ESPANOL CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS • NIVELES 1. 3.GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS ENGLISH GRAMMAR • NIVELES 1. 3. 2 Y 3 DICTADOS EN ESPANOL • NIVELES A. 3 Y 4 NOUVEAU GUIDE DE CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALS MOTS CROISES-NIVEL 1 MONBILAN GRAMMATICAL DICTEES EN FRANQAIS • NIVELES 1-A. 4Y5 FRANCES 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS •NIVELES 1. 2.