LIBRARY
OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
Class

GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS.

Demy

8vo.

Handsome

Cloth.

STRATIGRAPHICAL GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY,
ON THE BASIS OF PHILLIPS. BY ROBERT ETHERIDGE, F.R.S.,
of the Natural Hist. Department, British Museum, late Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Past President of the Geological Society, etc.

With Map, Numerous
"
If Prof.

Tables,

and Thirty-six
its

Plates.

originality and the breadth of its views, Mr ETHERIDGE fully justifies the assertion made in his preface that his book Must take HIGH RANK differs in construction and detail from any known manual.

SEKLEY'S volume was remarkable for

.

.

.

AMONG WORKS OP REFERENCE."

A thenceum.

SIXTH EDITION, Thoroughly Revised.

With

Illustrations.

Cloth.

AIDS IN

PRACTICAL GEOLOGY:
WITH A SECTION ON PALEONTOLOGY. BY PROFESSOR GRENVILLE COLE, M.R.I. A., GENERAL CONTENTS.
I

F.G.S.

Part III. Examination of Rocks. Part I. Sampling of Earth's Crust. Part IV.- Examination of Fossils. Part II. Examination of Minerals. "That the work deserves its title, that it is full of AIDS.' and in the highest degree PRACTICAL,' will be the verdict of all who use it." Nature.
|

'

'

With 12

Full-page Illustrations from Photographs. SECOND EDITION, Revised.

Cloth.

OPEN-AIR STUDIES IN GEOLOGY:
AN INTRODUCTION TO GEOLOGY OUT-OF-DOORS. BY GRENVILLE A. J. COLE, F.G.S., M.R I.A.,
Professor of Geology in the Royal College of Science for Ireland, and Examiner in the University of London. "The FASCINATING 'OPEN-AiR STUDIES' of Prof. COLE give the subject a GLOW OF ANIMATION cannot fail to arouse keen interest in geology." Geological Magazine. "A CHARMING BOOK, beautifully illustrated." A thenceum.
. .
.

In Crown 8vo.

Handsome

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Fully Illustrated.

A HANDBOOK ON

THEODOLITE SURVEYING AND LEVELLING.
FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS IN LAND AND MINE SURVEYING. BY PROFESSOR JAMES PARK, F.G.S.

"A

book which should prove as useful
Nature.

to the

professional surveyor

as

to

the

student."

SECOND EDITION,

Revised.

Crown

8vo.

Handsome

Cloth.

Illustrated.

MINING GEOLOGY.
Professor of Mining and Director of the Otago University School of Mines late Director Thames School of Mines, and Geological Surveyor and Mining Geologist to the Government of New Zealand.
;

A TEXT-BOOK FOR MINING STUDENTS AND MINERS. BY PROFESSOR JAMES PARK, F.G.S., M.Inst.M.M.,

"A work which should find a place Mining World.

in the library of every

mining engineer."

LONDON

:

CHARLES GRIFFIN &

Co., LIMITED,

EXETER

ST.,

STRAND.

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS

BY

LIEUT. -CoL.

R. F.

SORSBIE,

R.E.

mattb nearly 100 ^figures.

LONDON:
CHARLES GRIFFIN & COMPANY, LIMITED,
PHILADELPHIA:
J. B.

L1PPINCOTT COMPANY.

7

PREFACE.
IN these days of specialising in " watertight compartments," the bearing of geology in relation to almost every branch of engineer-

A knowledge of very frequently neglected or ignored. of the first importance to the practical geology is, however,
ing
is

engineer, but

it is difficult

for

him

to study the application of this

science to his requirements without having recourse to a large

number

of different textbooks

and other works.

References to

geology which are often of the greatest practical importance are often almost hidden away or treated in an obscure fashion, whereas the engineer requires the needful information to be

him

in a clear

and concise manner.

To meet

this

want

put before I have

endeavoured to compile the requisite information in one volume,
in the
I

hope that

it

may

serve as a

handy book

of reference.

greatly indebted to the various authors and publishers of the books mentioned in the accompanying list for so kindly allowing me to take such extracts as I required, and desire to record

am

my

grateful thanks to Professors Lapworth, Cole,

and Bauerman,

and Mr Hayden of the Geological Survey help and encouragement.

of India, for their kind

These extracts are referred to by a number at the end of each quotation corresponding with the number in the accompanying
list.

R.

F.

SORSBIE.

January 1911.

226185

.

Longmans.I.G. F. Green & Co. Chemical and Physical. Theoretical and Practical.S. F... by Charles Bird.D.G.G S.S. 1902.S. M. 11 10 Wm. by Ralph Tate. 1894.. Lockwood & Son..G.S. Blackwood & Sons. 1874.R. Weale's series. 1889. F. F. Physical. F.G. Green 8 Crosby. 12 Textbook of Systematic Mineralogy. & Co. T. 1903. Longmans. 2 Geology: Chemical. Green.A. Phillips. F. by Frank Rutley. Physical Geology and PalceonCharles Griffin & Co. Mineralogy.G. . by Wintour F. by Charles Lapworth.. by John LL. Elementary Course of Geology.S. 6th edition. The Standard English Dictionary (a few definitions). Seeley. tology. Geology in Systematic Notes and Tables. Economic Geology. 1856.. 1 886.. Lond.S. 5 Geology : A Manual for Students in Advanced Classes and for General Readers.S. S. . F. 1 Author. 13 by Hilary Bauerman. M. 1885. 1898. Manual of Geology.G. F.. 16 The Study of Rocks.R. F..AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 14 Textbook of Descriptive Mineralogy.A. by A. Green & Co. 3 An Intermediate Textbook of Geology. 15 Aids in Practical Geology. 67 New Oxford Gwinnell. vol. 4th edition. Cole. and Physical Geography. i.S. by D. LL. Part I. Street. 7 Physical Geology. 1902. Longmans. 9 Physical Geology. A.G. by Hilary Bauerman.S.D. B. Ansted. Green & Co. 1907. Allmann & Sons.R. by H.. William Blackwood & Sons. Charles Griffin & Co.. by David Page.R. and Stratigraphical. 4 Green 6 & Co.S. H. Longmans. filoxam's Chemistry (a few definitions only).. 1894. F. Longmans. 1899. F. 2nd edition.. by Grenville A. G. Clarendon Press. John Van Voorst.. by Joseph Prestwich.

31 Limes. Paths. 1905.. by T. by Edward Hall. Burnell. by H. J. by T. Collins. 1882. Crosby.E. 33 Road-making and Griffin Crosby. The Principles of Waterworks Engineering.S.. 1905.. 36 An article on "Broken Stone Roads.. Lockwood & Sons. 1907'. D. and A. H. 30 Calcareous Cements. 18 17 by an 21 Officer of the First Book of William Collins & Sons. 37 The Rudiments of Civil Engineering.S. Tudsbery. Weale's series.. Mortars. C.Sc. of Prestwich's Geology (see No.Sc. Charles Griffin & Co. 22 A Bengal Engineers. Crosby. Lockwood & Sons. by W. quoted in Rudiments of the 1903. H. by E.E. by G. E. Charles & Co. Crosby. Griffin & Co.. 24 Sanitary Engineering. Weale's series. Lockwood & Sons.. by J. etc. Aitken.G.. Pioneer Engineering. C. Mineralogy. 76 and 205. 1876. 4). 1835. 1875. Brightmore. Lockwood & Sons. R. Aitken. !0 A Guide to Analysis in Geological and Agricultural Chemistry. 1895. 26 Quarrying and Blasting Rocks. R." by Reginald Ryves in Engineering. Historical Geology. F. Lockwood Sons. Ltd. T. and Sea Defences.. etc. ii. Lockwood & Sons. Law. & Longmans. pp.E. Weale's series. 32 Lockwood & Sons. Lockwood & Sons. Redgrave and Charles Spackman. 29 Appendix by R. T. Charles Knight. by Ralph Tate. Weale's series. 3rd edition. Crosby. W. 1900.. by Frank Latham. by Vernon Harcourt. Lockwood Burgoyne. Law. 1872. Crosby.Vlll GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. de la Beche. Vol. by H. 28 Charles Road-making and Maintenance. D. N. & Sons.R. by Sir Crosby. 34 The Construction of Roads. Macmillan & Co." Art of Constructing Roads. Cements. 25 Treatise on Waterworks. Spon. 1900. Weale's series. 1905. Humber. Green Co. F. 19 How to Observe: Geology. 27 Treatise on Building and Ornamental Stones of Great Britain and Foreign Countries. Maintenance. by J.. Weale's series. The Sanitary Publishing Company. Weale's series.. "Elementary Essay on Road-making. by G. & F. Hughes. by H. Dobson. Crosby. Crosby. 23 The Water Supply of Cities and Towns. Mallet in Dobson's Brick and Tile Making. & by S. C. 35 Professor Mahon's .

E. Waterlow & Sons. S. S8 IX Hydraulic Tables. by Nathaniel Beardmore. .. Owens. Etc.C." Encyclopaedia Britannica.AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. Wheeler. M. 1852. Hatch's Textbook of Petrology. 39 The General Principles of Mineralogy.I. Dana's Manual of Geology.G. Chambers^ Encyclopaedia. Marker's Petrology for Students. : Chamberlin and Salisbury : .. Longmans.S. by W. H.. " Geology Processes and their Results. 1908. Murchison's Siluria. M. Stevenson's Principles of Canal and River Engineering. F. and subsequent numbers. Collins & Sons. Wm.G. Green & Co. H. 0. 41 Coast Erosion and Foreshore Protection. Class-book of Geology.M. St Bride's Press. Penning's Field Geology. F. Collins.C." in The Engineer of 27th April 1906. Field Geology.. Case. by J. A.E.I.R. Lyell's Elements of Geology. by J. 42 An article on "Coast Erosion and Reclamation. and G.S. 1893.D. 40 Tidal Rivers. In addition to the above works from which extracts have been taken the following authorities have been consulted : Geikie's Textbook of Geology.

.

Destructive Action Transport of Particles Earth Pillars Disintegration Constructive Effects Talus. structive Effects 11-12 . (ii) Changes of Temperature JEolian Action Transportive Action and Constructive Effects Loess. EFFECTS SUB-HEADS . Stalagmites..7 Construc- 7_8 (iii) Rain Mechanical Action. 8-9 Section II. Subterranean 10-11 Channels.. and Swallow-holes (ii) Constructive Effects . Caverns. (i) Air. RoadBranches of Geology Arrangement 1_2 PART INTRODUCTORY REMARKS I. Con. . INTRODUCTION making. . Destructive Action Oxidation. Sand-drift. 3 CHAPTER I. Source (i) Underground Water.. Stalactites. Weathering. CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 9-10 Destructive Effects Amount Processes Chemical Action... 4 The Work of the Atmosphere. adopted : Practical Earthwork Uses Water-supply.. Deoxidation.CONTENTS. Rain-wash . Building. Carbonation. Petrifying Springs Mechanical Action.. Destructive xi Effects Landslips . AGENCIES DENUDATION Section I. Screes. DYNAMICAL AND STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY. Sand-dunes Rain Chemical A ction.. Hydration tive Effects Soil and Subsoil Destructive Action 4.

.. Rock . sidence of Land Causes of Secular Movements . Breakers Oceanic Movements. . . (iii) velopment of Valleys Chemical Transporting Power Materials Composition Alluvium Occurrence of Deposits: (a) Alluvial Deposition. Foliation. Decline of Volcanic Volcanic Vents Tuff Lapilli... Metamorphism. Source (i) Running Water... Heat Hot Springs Pressure Water Internal Forces. Section III.. Cause Heat.. Mechanical Action Chemical Action .. Cleavage ... : Trans- formation.. Consolidation . (i) Organic Action. Roches moutonne'es Section V.Xll GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Erosion. CHAPTER II.. fans or cones (b) Alluvial plains (c) River terraces (d) Marine deltas (e) Lake deltas (/) Bars .. (i) (ii) Glacial Agencies. Protective Action Frost and Snow. Plication. Bombs.. Perched blocks. Wave - action Erosion (ii) Transportation Deposition Under-tow Ocean Currents Pelagic Deposits Oceanic Deposits. Volcanic Products Lava. . Gradation (i) Marine Action. Movement of Glaciers Work of Glaciers Erosion Transportation and Deposition. CHANGES WITHIN THE EARTH. (2) Rock formation.. Effects : Cause Effects Earthquakes...fragments. Destructive Action Formation Glaciers and Ice-sheets. Section IV.. Water. (1) Methods of Excavation Rate of Erosion depends on Nature of channel... Constructive Action Constructive Action Vegetable. Pressure Changes in Rocks. (3) Climate De- (ii) Transportation.. . Activity Mud Volcanoes Mud Springs Variation in the Sea-level Elevation and SubCrust Movements. Terrigenous Deposits Globigerina Ooze Red Clay Section VI.. . . . Ash... Moraines. Volcanoes. Destructive Action Destructive Action (ii) Animal.

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS... .... 51 CHAPTER IV. 42-43 43-44 44-45 Section III. Monoclinal. 33-34 34 35 36-37 Section II. SOIL. Limestone Master Joints Faults Throw Hade Reversed Faults (v) Dislocation. and quartz Columnar Structure of Basalt .. Xlll CHAPTER III.... Sills Lava Fragments Necks Veins and Dykes . Aqueous. Nature of Alteration Altered and Metamorphic Rocks Causes . . 45-46 46 47 Hydro-metamorphism.. (iv) Joints.. etc Nature. Action Effects Dynamo. Subsequent or Intrusive Rocks. Strata. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Section Definition I.. Clay. Nature Cause Hexagonal Structure of Ice.. 37 after Deposition Stratification.or Contact Metamorphism.. Inliers Dip and Strike TJnconformability Overlap Plication Outcrop Outliers and 40-42 (iii) Curvature or Flexure. Cleavage Joints Foliation Relation between Igneous.CONTENTS. clinal. Extrusive and Intrusive Contemporaneous or Extrusive Rocks. ROCKS AND MINERALS. THE STUDY OF MINERALS. Changes (i) Aqueous Rocks. Sandstone. PAQB 33 Igneous Rocks. Action Results Thermo. Laccolites Bosses Joints. Syn. False-bedding Character of Strata Alternation of Beds (ii) 37-39 Inclination of Rocks. ROCK. and Metamorphic Rocks 47-50 PART INTRODUCTORY REMARKS II.. AND MINERALS 52 .. Step and Trough Faults Shift Fault-line Dyke Vein . Haematite. or Folds Anticlinal. Forms of Bedding Strata Interposed Laminae.or Regional Metamorphism...

. . Smooth. Touch. Tough. Flexible. Mineral Chemistry. Hackly.XIV GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Specific gravity Kinds Intensity Streak Lustre. .. ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. Section III. BeChemical Characters. Amorphous phous States Colloidal The Crystal Crystal Forms. 69-70 Aragonite Calcite Asphalt Celestine Epidote Felspars Garnet Glauconite Graphite GypGalena Fluor-spar Leucite Kaolin Iron Compounds sum Magnesite Manganese Compounds Micas and Talcs Nepheline Olivine Rock Salt Silica Series Sphene Sulphur Tourmaline Zeolites Augite Hornblende group Copper Pyrites Dolomite Barytes Zinc-blende 70-93 . Nature of 65 Frangibility. Splintery. Triad. . Tetrad. Dyad. Laws of Cleavage Quality of Cleavage Columnar Lamellar Granular Imitative Shapes . Rigidity. Section I. ..) Section II. 62-63 Globular Acicular Fracture. Crystalline . Elastic 65-66 66 Soapy Meagre Colour Harsh . Specific Gravity. Ductility Malleability Scale Sectility .. Mineral Forms. .. Uneven Friable 63-65 Form of Surface Surface Tenacity. Element Salt Compound Acid Metall oid Base Oxide Terminations Metal Monad. .B. Massive Amor57-58 Crystallography Axes Crystal Irregular Grouping of Crystals Pseudomorphism 58-62 Cleavage.. Organic Radicles Anhydride Elements Compounds Water Constituents of Earth. Reniform Stalactitic Botryoidal Mammillary Filiform Drusy Conchoidal. . Hydrous Oxides Carbonates Anhydrous Sulphates Phosphates 69 Hydrocarbons Apatite Testing Minerals Andalusite Anhydrite List of Minerals. Brittle. . Translucency Definitions. Systems Modified Forms Vitreous . . 66 66 66-68 CHAPTER V. Density. Mode of Occurrence.. Structure. Compound Earth Radicle PAQK Definitions. Physical Characters.. Even. . Native Elements Sulphides Fluorides Chlorides Silicates Anhydrous Oxides Hydrous Silicates Titanate Abbreviations. Soft. Classification. 52-54 54-56 57 haviour (B.. Hardness. Taste Odour Solubility in Acids Quantivalence . Earthy .

Group 98-101 4. Amorphous 102-103 Rocks of : : Section IV. Group 3. THE STUDY OF ROCKS. Mode of Origin. Bedding Crystallisation Cleavage Foliation EyeGroup 8. . Altered Plutonic I. Group 2. DEFINITION CLASSIFICATION PAGE 94 Section Igneous Rocks.. Hardness Fracture Physical Characters. Volcanic Fragmental Rocks Agglomerate Brecciatad Aqueous Rocks. Foliated or Schistose Rocks structure Granulitic. Group 7. . Group Dis- tinctly Holocrystalline Rocks Pegmatitic or Graphic Gneissic Ophitic Orbicular. Volcanic Hypabyssal Arenaceous and Metamorphic Argillaceous Calcareous Hocks. XV CHAPTER VI. Rocks retaining traces Hemicrystalline Microcrystalline : Scoriaceous : ... 96-97 97 98 Section III. Granitic Structure . 98 Porphyritic Felsitic Matter Columnar 1. Aqueous Rocks.. .... Lithoidal Fluidal Rocks 1 : Horny. Coarsely Fragmental Rocks Brecciated Stratified Rocks Conglomerate. . Streak Feel Colour and Lustre and Smell . General Terms Igneous Rocks. Arenaceous Argillaceous Calcareous Altered and Metamorphic Rocks. Glassy Rocks Perlitic Spherulitic Lithophyse Fluidal Pumiceous and Scoriaceous Amygdaloidal. Mylonitic Group 9.CONTENTS. Spheroidal Drusy Banded : Structure. Chemical and Mineralogical Composition.. 96 Rocks. Ordinary Oolitic Pisolitic Laminated Pebbly Concretionary 101-102 Psammitic Altered and Metamorphic Rocks.. : : Fluidal structure. Principal Changes . Igneous Rocks Arenaceous . Group 6. Group 5. Ultra-basic Chemical Constituents Mineral Constituents Aqueous Rocks. 104-105 . 94-95 95 95 Argillaceous Calcareous Section General Terms Igneous II. Groups Acid Intermediate Basic . .

Porphyry Diorite Section II. or Coarse Tuffs Tuffs and Ashes 111-112 Quartz. 112-116 (ii) Argillaceous: Clay Rocks formed by Chemical or Organic Agencies. Crystalline Limestone Gneiss Mica Schist Classification Distinctly Foliated Rocks. Igneous Rocks Silicates Eock Decomposition. Aqueous Eocks. (ii) Siliceous Flint and Chert. Chlorite Schist Talc Schist Hornblende Schist Calc Schist . . INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Section Plutonic Rocks. Granites Syenites Gabbro 106-109 109-111 Trachyte Andesites Basalt Rocks Volcanic Sands Volcanic Agglomerates Volcanic Fragmental Rocks. (i) Arenaceous: Sand Sandstone Grit Conglomerate Greywacke Arkose BlueQuartzite Shale Mudstone Marl stone. . Argillaceous Freestones Colour Green Deoxidisation Bleached gravels 132-134 . . . . : : : : . VII. (iv) Carbonaceous Coprolitic 116-122 (v) Ferruginous: Ironstones Lignite Coal. Alteration 128-132 of .XVI GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Fragmental or Clastic Rocks. CHAPTER EOCKS. 122 Quartzite Lydian-stone Spotted Shale Purcellanite Slate 123-124 Serpentine. 124-128 Section IV. Classification Altered and Metamorphic Eocks. .Porphyry Volcanic Rocks. Felspars Origin of Clays Decomposition of other Origin of Quartzose Sands and Sandstones Extent Sedimentary rocks of Disintegration Strata. Altered Rocks. Rhyolite Felspar. . Porphyry Granite Porphyry . Section III. (i) Calcareous Limestone Dolomite Rock-Salt Gypsum. Phosphatite Bone-beds (iii) Phosphatic Humus Peat Guano. Mylonite Granulite Flaser gneiss Augen gneiss . I. PAGE 106 Igneous Rocks.

PAGE 135 HISTORICAL GEOLOGY. Table II. Palaeontology. Australia List of the Sedimentary Strata of New Zealand Table V. Groups of Strata in North List of the Formations in India List of the Sedimentary and Metamorphic Strata of .. Anthropozoic or Quaternary Period..... List of the Sedimentary Strata of South Africa Table VI. Thallophyta .. . ... .. Angiosperms Gymnosperms Invertebrata... PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY... 168-171 . Human Relics Non-glacial 163-165 Glacial Deposits Continental Europe Australasia North America Great Britain Asia Africa 165-168 II.. . .. THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Protozoa . 152-153 Spongida Coslenterata Echinodermata Annulosa or Vermes Arthropoda or Articulata Molluscoida 153-160 Mollusca Fishes Amphibia Reptilia Birds Mammals. 160-162 Vertebrata. America Table III. 162 CHAPTER IX. Classification of Stratified Rocks. Section Introduction Cainozoic or Tertiary Period. Section Definitions Classification of II. 162 Classification of Plants 162 Phanerogams. deposits Pleistocene or Glacial Formations. . Animals . .. 163 Recent or Post-glacial Formations. XV11 PAKT INTRODUCTION III. CLASSIFICATION OF STRATA 163 Section Introduction I. Table IV.CONTENTS. I. CHAPTER VIII. Great Britain Fossils Continental North America Asia Australasia . Section Formations -Table I. Europe . . Pteridophyta Bryophyta . 136-138 138-143 144-147 148-149 150 151 152 Periods and Systems Sedimentary Strata in Great Britain Classified List of the Chief . Cryptogams.

GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATION... 189 CHAPTER Hammer X... Great South . Great Britain . Europe 175-177 Section IV. Continental Europe Asia America Africa Australasia . Mesozoic or Secondary Period. Introduction Fossils Archaean and Pre-Cambrian Rocks... OUTDOOR WORK. Fossils Great Britain Continental Europe Asia North America Australasia 185-186 Section V. Chisel Bag and Belt Abney's Level Walking-stickNote.. World-wide Distribution PAGE . Continental Types Cretaceous System Fossils ... North America ..XV111 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Continental Asia Africa Europe North America South America Australasia 177-179 Fossils Continental Europe North America Asia Africa Australia 179-181 Fossils Great Britain Continental Europe Devonian System Carboniferous System. .... Britain Eozoic Period. Section III. North America Silurian System (Upper). 186-188 PART INTRODUCTORY REMARKS IV. Equipment.. North America South America Asia Africa Australasia 174-175 Fossils Great Britain Triassic System. Compass book Tape-measure Pocket-leiis 190-191 . . Fossils 181-182 Great Britain Australia Fossils Europe North America Asia .. Continental 182-184 184-185 Ordovician System (Lower Silurian). Great Britain Con- North America Asia Australasia tinental Europe Cambrian System. Introduction Palaeozoic Period 177 Dyas or Great Britain Fossils Permian System.. Introduction . 171 Great Britain Continental Europe North America South America Asia Africa Australasia 172-174 Great Britain Continental Europe Fossils Jurassic System.

. . Section II. Detection of Carbonates Chemical Examination. Contours Tracing Boundary Lines .. Structure Hardness Feeling SmellEffervescence Colour and Lustre Table VII. Isolation of Constituents.. . 207-209 Summary Preparation of of determinative Chemical Analysis of a Rock Fusibility 209-212 Section II. Strike . Taste and Odour Solvents 219-224 Action of . Hardness Specific Gravity Physical Characters. . Structural Characters of Rocks. Easily Distinguishable Characters of Rocks Easily distinguishable Characters. PAGE Maps.. Selection of Specimens. Introductory Remarks Strata and their Inclination. Geological Surveying. XIX Section Preliminary Remarks . 203-206 CHAPTER XI. Mechanical Analysis. . ... .... ..CONTENTS. Mode of Occurrence Extraction 218 External Form. .. . Crushing Dense tions Liquids Washing Magnetic Separation Use of Acids Determination of Propor213-218 Section III.199-200 Section III. Preliminary Examination Measuring Hardness Solubility Crystal Angles Physical Characters. . 195 Measurement Dip and Principle of Stratification Curvatureof Thickness of Strata 195-199 . Determination of Rocks.. Material . Position 200 Streak Fracture 200-202 . . . Overlap Unconformity Dislocation.... 224-226 . 191-192 192-194 Geological Sections . ... Tracing Faults . INDOOR WORK.. I. Rock-specimens. 218-219 Determina- Determining Cleavage tion of Specific Gravity Fracture Chemical Characters. Determination of Minerals. .. Section I. Further Examination of Rocks.. Presence of a Fault .

Section IV. Rain Quantity of Rain Rainfall and Evaporation. Springs. Underground Water. . Strata Flow of Water Quality of Water dependent on Schemes Flow of Streams and Rivers Table IX. PAGE Apparatus and Reagents. V. 238-241 Evaporation Effect on Evaporation from Surfaces of Water Water-Supply Loss Dry Weather Flow .XX GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Springs and Wells. Rivers. Blowpipe Examination. WATER-SUPPLY. Water-slope Saturation and Imbibition. Apparatus Reagents Use of Blowpipe 226-229 Blowpipe Operations. Wells. XII. Assay Observation of Flame -col oration Observation of Fusibility First Operation (Closed Tube) Second Operation (Open Tube) Third Operation (Reactions on Charcoal) Fourth Operation (Cobalt) Fifth Operation (with Soda) Sixth Operation (Borax Bead) Seventh Operation (Microcosmic Salt) Eighth Operation Test for Sulphur 229-236 Table VIII. 241-243 Section II. River Summer Discharge of Rivers 263-266 266 . Estimation of Mean Annual Fall Maximum and Minimum and Absorption. PART INTRODUCTORY REMARKS . 237 CHAPTER Section Rainfall. Underground and Surface Waters. Capacity of Rocks for Water of Water Surface Waters. Porosity of Rocks Surface of Saturation Water-bearing Strata Yield Bournes Quality of Water 243-251 Conditions of Flow 251-253 Forests Section III. Ordinary Springs Intermittent Springs Line of SaturaFault Springs Artesian Springs Springs as a Source tion of Supply 253-260 Causes of Success or Failure Quality of Water . . PRACTICAL GEOLOGY. . Colours of Beads 233-234 . Shallow Wells Deep Wells Wells as a Source of Supply 260-262 Section IV. Fall I.

Analyses . . Analyses . Limestones. Analyses of Sandstones 289-293 . Fire-bricks. and Argillaceous Rocks. . Area PA GE Comparative Advantages Drainage Areas. BRICKS AND CLAYS. . BUILDING-STONES. Sites 267-270 270 . Source of Supply Size of Catchment Available Rainfall Tendula Project Lakes. Lithological Character Marbles Archaean Jurassic Silurian Devonian Tertiary Carboniferous Permian Cretaceous 293-299 Shales. Qualities Colouring etc. . 311-317 . Sandstones. Schists 273-279 Porphyry Basalt Crystalline Trap Hocks. Greenstone Lavas Table XI. . . . and Clays). Fire-clays Terra-cottas Shales. Silurian Devonian Argillaceous Hocks (Slates. . Granites British Qualities Geological Age of Granite Syenite Granites and Syenites European Granites Gneiss European Syenites Serpentine Table X. Floating Bricks Science of Brick -making.CONTENTS. 272-273 Granites and Granitoid Rocks. Brick and Tile Clays 305-309 Dinas Bricks Firestones . XIV. Limestones. Constituents of and Syenites. XXI Lakes and Impounding Reservoirs. 279-281 281-287 Section II. XIII. Mud Loam. etc. . . Sandstones. . Section V. Table XIII. 267 Advantages Reservoirs. 271 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Section Granites I. Clays. Analyses 299-304 CHAPTER Kaolin and Felspathic British Clays Fire-clays. 309-311 Normal Colours Choice of Clay Clays Foreign Bodies Constituents Laws of Induration Contraction Table XIV. Analyses Granitoid Hocks. 287-289 Weathering Properties of Sandstones and Limestones Old Lithological Character Cambrian and Silurian Red Sandstone Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Table XII. Marls. Impounding Geological Features . Characters Cambrian Selection of Quarry Lithological Carboniferous .

Influence of Heat on the Silicates 321-322 . .341-343 343-344 345-346 346-347 347-348 Suitable Road Metal Limestone Gravel Materials for Weather-resisting Roads. different Sorts of Calcination. Selenitic.. . CHAPTER XVI. . Value of Geological of Route Laying out Roads New 333-334 Road Construction. Descent Crossing Watersheds . etc. Durability of Tar-macadam Requisites in a Road Stone Physical Tests Road Stones Coefficients of Quality 348-351 . Road-making. Condition of the Silica Cements. Mode of Analysis .. Trass. . CEMENTS.. .. Classes of Roads Water Influence of Weather. Limestones... Local Circumstances . . . and Magnesium Cements of America Sesvage Sludge Cements Plasters. Lime Kilns and Fuel . Mountain Passes . Asphalt Selection of Materials.XX11 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 322-323 Results of Admixture with Ashes Berthier's Calcination Testing Limes 323-324 and Limestones. . Admixture of Clayey Matters Pozzuolana. . Subdivisions Chemical Nature of Stones furnishing . Road Materials. Materials Lias Lime British Limestones . Plaster of Paris Keene's and Parian Cements General Laws Probable Position of Different Geological Distribution. . Treatment with Muriatic Acid Influence of Calcination Roman Cement Energy Portland. ROADS AND CANALS. CHAPTER LIMES. . Choice On Main Roads On By-roads . Line of . Road-cuttings Side-slopes Methods of Drain334-338 ageSubsoil Drainage Mountain Roads. . DEFINITION OF CEMENTS AND LIMES INTERMEDIATE LIMES 318-319 Combination of Lime with Water Quicklime Slaked Lime Limes. .. Knowledge Determination Selection of Route. .. . Section I. Binding Material. 325-326 326-328 328-329 329-332 . 338-341 Section II. . . " Materials for Wearing" Roads. Paving Materials. Lime slowly recombines with Carbonic Acid Classification of Limes 319-321 The Influence of Clayey Matters Artificial Hydraulic Limes... AND PLASTERS.. . XV. PAGE . The . .

. . .. Wind-formed Currents. 379-380 Joint Action of Waves and Currents. to the Breaker Line Breakers Percolation . XVIII. Slow Rise and Fall Tidal Currents . Movement of Material 380 . Section III. . Origin and Description of Rivers Agents of Maintenance Regime of Rivers Junction of Rivers with the Sea Source of Detritus in Rivers Effect of obstructing the Free Flow of the Tide 362-365 Bars at the Mouth of Rivers. Motion of Water Retarding Force Velocity Contour Rotary Motion of Particles Dynamic Action 354-358 The Transporting Power of Water. Motion of Water in Rivers. Sea-cliffs 370-373 Forces acting on Coast and Sea-bed. Description Bars composed of Hard Material not affected by the Scour of the Current Bars due to the Deposit of Alluvial Matter Bars at the Mouths of Sandy Estuaries Formation of Sandbars Channels where Bars are absent Theories as to the Cause of Bars 365-368 River Improvement Schemes. Level Surface General xxiii Canal-making.CONTENTS.. . 368 Geological Formation of River Bed Land Reclamation. Leakage- PAQE Natural Feeder Strata passed through Remedy 351-353 CHAPTER XVII. 370 Coast-lines and their Origin. . Waves of Translation Waves Forced Waves Close Overtaking of One Wave by Another Direction of Waves Oblique Waves 373-378 Tidal Action. RIVERS. Inlets Influence of Altitude Minor Features Headlands The Shore Section Waves. COAST EROSION.. .. .. Effect of Wind Undercurrents Alongshore Currents . . . Embanking and Warping 368-369 . . Free II. . CHAPTER INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Section Outline I. 380-381 . Transport of Material Erosion Quantity of Material Motion of Particles of Matter in Suspension Effect of Alteration in Dimensions of Channel 358-362 Proportion of Deposit carried Material transported The Physical Condition of Tidal Rivers.

Impossibility of Entire Prevention of Erosion Effect of Protective Works on Adjoining Coast-line National Aid in Coast Protection Effect of Pier Works and other Artificial Projections Littoral Drift. PAQE Subsidence and Upheaval of the Physical Causes of Denudation. Effects of Coast Contour Effects of Tide and Wind 384-387 and River Estuaries Sea Watts and Groynes... Coal Silver Platinum Mercury Tin Copper . Effect of Deposits of Littoral Drift to on the Deep-sea Bed Relation 381-384 Eroded Material Deep-sea Erosion .. USES OF MINERALS.. Earth's Crust Physical Causes of Sea Encroachment River Detritus Protective Works.. Whiting .XXIV GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Iron Gold 391-393 393-394 Other Useful Minerals. Barytes Anhydrite Gypsum Asbestos Mica Mineral Pigments.. Se* Walls Groynes . Section III.. 387-388 388-390 CHAPTER XIX. Distribution of Valuable Minerals and Rocks. .. 394-396 INDEX 397-423 . Coast Erosion and Eeclamation.. Ultramarine Reddle Umber Metallic Pigments Table Ochre Bole .

. Section of ossiferous cavern with stalactites and stalagmites Fan at Tigar in Nubra at Ladakh 6 11 16 The Mer de Glace 6 Diagram of crag and Volcanic dykes 19 tail 4 19 . 3. Showing that cleavage does not pass through a bed of sandstone 6 Parallel cleavage in contorted strata of North Devon .. . Synclinal dip 22.39 40 40 40 39 .. 45 45 6 . 39 50 59 60 60 61 61 Rhombic system Oblique system 13 32.. Action of the sea on the rocks of the coast Columnar structure 9 of basalt . Reversed fault 6 27.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. *> 13 13 Doubly oblique system . 8 4... interposed.. Diagram of overlap 6 20. and divided beds 6 13.. 6 41 41 42 42 9 21. . Ideal section 6 .. - . Breadth and throw of a fault 23. 1..... 19 38 Lenticular.. 16. Section of inlier 6 40 Unconformity of stratification 19. Exchange or alternation of beds 14.. Yorkshire 6 6 2. 8.. . 6 35 37 37 10. . 44 44 Dislocation of strata 6 6 24. 33. Rocks passing up into soil 19 19 .. 48 48 . PIG. PAGE Millstone grit. Tetragonal system 31. 17. .. 6 . False-bedding 12.... 26. Cubic system 13 30. Anticlinal dip 6 6 . Map of outlier 6 6 Mapofinlier . 9. 18. 28.. 5.. 29. 6.. Section of outlier 15. Jointed structure of granite 11.19 21 19 18 7. Dislocation of vein 25.

. 61. ... ..156 . ' . . .'. . . .. Encrinus liliiformis .. . . . Heliolites 46. . . 69. .. . v . . . . 44. 78. ' ^.. Turrilites 68...". 13 Hexagonal system .155 . . Spirifer 56. 15 " .. . Gryphsea 3 . . 58.. 15 .. 77. . (c) Planorbis (Lyell) 64. 160 160 . . . . . ... Eurypterus 3 52.. . Didymograptus 40. ' . . . Belemnites 71.. Hollow collecting water ^ Spring arising from water falling on outcrop Spring at outcrop of permeable stratum w 23 Syphon action 23 254 254 254 255 ..XXVI F *G 34. Terebratula 6 . Diplograptus 17 39. .157 . .160 \ 197 198 Hamites (Geikie) Measurement of dip 73.214 .. Rhynchonella 57.. Syringopora 47. . . 53. (Dana) (Dana) 6 3 . v .. . 63. . .155 155 155 45. Ceratites 3 . ... . ...159 . Pentacrinus 48. Fenestella 55. . . 155 ... Calculating thickness of strata 74. " .. Monograptus (MurcMson) 17 154 154 38... Thoulet's 75. . PAGE 61 35..156 156 3 17 51.... Paradoxides (Murchison) 15 54.154 154 154 155 43. . 72..'. 159 159 .. . . .158 59. .158 158 . . .157 . . 49. . - GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. . . 15 .159 159 .''. . . Favosites ( Murchison) . Imitative shapes 36. . . Olenellus . . Cypris 15 50. washing apparatus 15 . .. 157 157 158 158 158 ' . Calceola 3 154 . . Ammonites 3 6 67. Madrepora 3 . ... 62. . Orthoceras 70... '. .. . . . .. 60. . ls 9 . Nummulites 6 64 153 37. 66. . (b) Limnaea . ' . . .. . Lithostrotion 3 42. .. . : . Goniatites (Lyell) 65.. 159 159 . .. Estheria . . Scaphites 3 3 . Rastrites (Lyell) 41. Cyrena 3 Hippurites Gasteropods (a) Bellerophon 3 (d) Paludina Nautilus 6 . ^ .. 76. ... Productus 3 15 .

....... spring w 32 259 263 340 341 ^ 41 . Road-cuttings in mountain pass Road-cutting in mountain pass 91... by fault ^ Spring on hill caused by fault thrown out by a dyke w Spring Water held down in porous bed by superimposed impervious stratum 23 Natural fissure giving rise to artesian 87. ... . .. .. Surface of saturation near a river 89. ........ ... 88...... at outcrop of permeable between * 80. .. 86........ 90... . .. . .... 41 374 378 379 380 ... ... Inclined line of saturation 82. two impermeable beds . .... Action of oblique waves 41 41 ... . * 256 256 257 25 * .... ..... Erosion by parallel waves 94... Inclined line of saturation Water 81.. . 85. 25 257 258 258 259 259 ^ . XXV11 79..... FIG..... 93. .. Spring in valley caused 84.LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS.. Oscillation of particles of water 92.... Joint action of waves and currents .. .. Origin of two kinds of springs 83.

.

and what rocks are unsuitable. INTRODUCTION. and of the history of the past 2 life. It affords indispensable information as to (1) the Building.GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. To the engineer making tunnels. employed abroad. composition of various rocks fit for particular uses. (2) the areas covered by rocks yielding these materials. as also where fissures and faults exist. and prevent slipping: this will depend on the nature and succession of the strata and their dip . cuttings. etc. and how best worked. e. affords a valuable guide as to its durability . Practical Uses. Earthwork. and it shows where artesian wells are possible. Road-making. and their relative position among other strata. whose remains (fossils) are buried in them. (2) as to roadmetal what rocks are obtainable. of the agents which produce changes in these rocks . for mortar and cement. for tiles and the way in which the rock has been affected by the weather. both surface and subterranean . for : building -stone. who often must win from Nature the materials with which they may eventually defy her destructive efforts. Water-supply. the science which investigates the history of the nature and formation of the rocks which form the solid framework of the globe .g. The advantages to engineers of a knowledge is GEOLOGY earth. for bricks. so as to ensure its proper drainage. what rocks are preferable. It is of great importance in guiding the engineer (1) as to the choice of a line of road. and slates : : 1 . where exposed in cliffs and quarries. The following are some of the practical of this science will especially to those l uses of a knowledge of geology It explains the natural drainage of a district. It treats of the and be palpable to all who study their profession.

drainage. In Part II.foundations for bridges. Geotectonic or Structural Geology. relating to the structure of rock-masses. . occurrence. 4. ^. . whereas the ordinary geological student is 2 more often^concerned with what occurred jnjbhe^jsast. cutting canals and docks. permeable or not. The Geological Systems and the traces of life contained in them are then described in Part III. are discussed and descriptions are given of the most important kinds. be the most useful to the engineer. (3) the dip of the strata.. relating to the causes of change in the earth's crust. relating to the origin. The arrangement adopted in this book will. and structure of the constituents of the earth's crust.. G?QLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and the direction of the it is . 3. Dynamical Geology. relating to the chronological order of strata and the succession of forms of life. especially whether hard or soft.) and Practical Geology 1 (Part V. 1 Branches of CreolCgy^^Th'e^cnlef branches of geology with which the engineer is concerned are : 1. to water (2) the succession of the strata in the district and their thickness. Part I. includes the causes which tend to produce change (Dynamical Geology) and the structural features of rock-masses induced thereby (Structural Geology). Historical Geology.). The practical value of geology to the engineer is therefore to enable him to ascertain facts with regard to the present state of the earth's crust and to deduce from those facts what is likely to occur in the future. it is thought. and the remainder of the book is devoted to the subjects of Geological Observation (Part IV. Petrological Geology. which form the constituents of the earth's crust. 2. <. most necessary that he should know (1) the character of the rocks met with. the characters of the Rocks and Minerals.

is variously termed structural geology. The ultimate source of all geological energy both inside the earth and on its surface is. due to original internal Dynamical . It is convenient to consider separately (i) changes on the earth's surface. sometimes known as hypogene or plutonic action. i.PART I. Geology is the study of the agencies that have produced geological changes. those of the large parts or whole of a rock-mass. sometimes called epigene or surface action. DYNAMICAL AND STRUCTUEAL GEOLOGY. of rocks. the sun. so far as we know at present. and tectonic or geotectonic geology. due principally to the movement of air and water actuated by the heat of the sun. heat. architectural geology. 1 . and (ii) changes within the earth.e. their laws and modes of action. The study of the structural characters Structural Geology.

Of these. plants and animals. transportive. or the process by which the surface of the ground is broken up. 5. or organic action. frost and ice. and in part actually constructive. CH. in part transportive. has probably very little effect on rocks and minerals. and constructive action 1. The Work (i) of the Atmosphere. or marine action. or glacial action. The The The The The work work work work work 1. I. 4. The principal change effected by these agencies is termed 1 denudation. but it is necessary to remember that the work of these agencies is so intimately connected that it is often impossible to say that the effects produced are due to any one of them. so as to lay bare new surfaces. AIR. The work of the atmosphere. CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 4. and 6 are said to be sub-aerial. OR EPIGENE THE agencies which effect change on the surface of the earth are air. 3. The effects on the earth's surface of these various agencies. : 2.[PT. For convenience. 1 Destructive Action. CHAPTER ACTION. are in part destructive. the action taking place on the actual surface of the earth. of of of of brooks of 3. and rivers. Section I. I. water. . each being dealt with separately as regards their destructive. dry air. underground water. or agents of denudation. Still. and its ruins carried away. their action is considered separately . or seolian action. 2 The work of the different agencies can best be considered under the following sub-heads. I. and life. the sea. 6. in localities where the changes of temperature are not great.

though the amount of dust deposited from the atmosphere under ordinary circumstances demonstrates that much matter is carried by the air from a higher to a lower level. They consist of hollow vitrified tubes. Heat causes rocks. blowing in prevalent And when we remark that the directions. During the day they become warmed. illustrates experimentally the way in which wind. rough. to expand. and cold causes them to contract . and as it is the outside which experiences the greatest changes. Their bases are often found to be buried in the fragments chipped off. tubes of variable lengths called fulgurites. and other substances are easily etched. These are found where beds of sand have been struck by lightning. contours of the sandhills of Holland are exactly the contours of mountain chains. but when they contain moisture.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. as they nearly always do. OR EPIGENE ACTION. exert a wasting or degrading effect upon all rock surfaces 3 (see Rain). I. and varying in thickness from a quill to J or J inch in diameter. the alternate expansion and contraction of the surface rocks is so great as to break them into 3 rugged sheets and finally to shiver them into the finest fragments. and the intense cold which follows the sunset causes rapid external contraction and fracture. Many extreme and striking instances of this are recorded by travellers and explorers. it is quite possible that the outlines of mountains are in the main to be attributed to the agency of the wind. Wind. The foregoing action takes place when the rocks are quite dry . after The In sandy strata there are occasionally found glassy Lightning. Changes of temperature in the air cause the rocks to split to pieces. and at Pillau near Koenigsberg. the disintegrating action caused by the expansion of the freezing water is still more marked. and angular. descending vertically into the ground. and consist of the grains of sand fused together. it is very apt to crack and split off from the inner portion. The modern invention of the sand-blast.SECT. abrades rocks. granite. both in hot and cold countries. which in some instances have been traced to a depth of 30 feet. acid). and carbonic they have been taken up by rain-water. nitrogen. They are very brittle. A considerable number have been found in the dunes near Drigg in Cumberland. The agency of the wind as a denuding power is easily underestimated. splintered crags which form the summits of many of the almost inaccessible Alpine peaks have been formed in this way. The bare. as well as other things. 5 gases of the atmosphere (oxygen. 5 In the Sahara and other desert regions where the daily range of the thermometer is excessive. by means of which glass. 6 ^Eolian action is admirably seen in the pinnacles and crags on 4 .

Similar forms are very common in granite. 1 is an instance of this action. In dry countries. The rock-erosion by seolian action often results in the under1 Wind also aids mining of cliffs and the downfall of rock-masses. and any loose as a transporting agent matters produced by the weathering of rocks. are swept by it But perhaps the most important into running water or the sea. they are ready to be swept further on by rain . CH. Rocks weathered in this way are often mistaken for " Druidical remains. a fine yellow dust often shrouds the sun and obscures the landscape. Yorkshire. ancient cities of the world. which often stand up in the shape of gigantic clubs or mushrooms.6 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. on which pillars of sandstone are left. : . pp. a tableland of lower carboniferous rocks. I. and after many years a deposit of In this manner some of the considerable thickness accumulates." 7 This destructive action of the wind results in the gradual lowering of the land level and the production of sandy wastes. 6 Fig. I. have . Wind also sand and dust. Millstone grit. acts . 1. Transportive Action and Constructive Effects. work it does in this way is by transporting the light ashes thrown up by volcanoes these are carried by it to vast distances if they fall on the land. such as large parts of Central Asia. such as Babylon and Nineveh. FIG.. 20-21). the top of Kinder Scout. This dust settles everywhere. and rivers or they may fall directly into the sea in either case 7 they furnish materials for subaqueous strata. the sea and other large bodies of water in the work of denudation by 7 causing waves and unusually high tides (see Section V. . [FT.

Africa. In its passage through the air and in contact with the soil it Deoxidisation. reducing from the state of an oxide. 1 Loess is a yellowish clay spread over the central parts of the Old World from Germany to China. the former of which is very inert and There is also present in passive. grains are usually more rounded than the grains of sand accumulated under water. which sometimes attain the height of 200 to 300 feet. Cornwall. 24). coasts (ii) RAIN CHEMICAL ACTION. the weathered rock usually acquiring a brown or yellow coloration. Its chemical is largely dependent on the nature of the substances drawn by it from the air as it descends. or Rain may also have the effect of deoxidising. The only method of stopping their advance is by planting sand-loving vegetation (see Section VI. and brings about many Most rocks contain iron. Moving sands are. . altering the contour of the land in many places. . Oxidation generally involves the disintegration of the rock. which is rendered compact by the growth of weeds among the ruined houses and walls. it is described more fully in Chapter VII. In China it occasionally attains a thickness of from 1500 to 2000 feet.. In the presence of moisture the oxygen of the air Oxidation. which oxidises very freely changes. On the coast of the Bay of Biscay they are advancing at the rate of about 60 feet per annum. considerable importance to the engineer. Destructive Action. etc. acts on various substances in the rocks. p. Wexford. I. 7 been gradually covered over with this fine dust. being subjected to more trituration than the latter. the formation of which has been ascribed to the agency of the wind. Section IV. 3 Their Sand-drift is sand driven and accumulated by the wind. is a term used to denote the Weathering As this action is of action of air and rain on minerals and rocks. at the present time. They cover extensive districts in the interior of Asia. action the air variable quantities of carbonic acid as well as aqueous 1 vapour and compounds of nitrogen and sulphur.SECT. and Australia.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. OR EPIGENE ACTION. iron and other oxides. Rain acts both chemically and mechanically. covering up Dunes are also found on the coasts of everything as they go. The air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. but it will be as well to refer here very briefly to the processes which tend to produce decomposition. while the latter is very active. Nairn.. Sand dunes are low hills formed entirely of sand on low sandy and in sandy deserts.

mechanical effect as a carrying agent. manner cavities are formed in limestone (see Section II.).. 2). combined with water. Rain exerts an Destructive Action. are due to a variety of processes of which. if convex. Section IV.. and as it sinks through the soil This it takes up still more from decaying vegetable matter. Rain as it falls brings with it some of the Carbonation. 2. become hydrated (absorb water) and may then be more liable to additional change. the The rock most important. and eventually form new rocks. Silicates of and manganese are also attacked by rain-water containing carbonic acid. [PT. Transport of particles. fig. lakes. 7 Some anhydrous minerals. soda. the chemical action of rain is. soil is formed in situ (see but. Organic Action. 1 (iii) RAIN : MECHANICAL ACTION. forms a weak solution of carbonic acid (H 2 C0 3 ) which attacks limestone (CaC0 3 ) and disIn this solves the resulting calcium bicarbonate (CaO 2C0 2 ). 10-11). streams to be deposited in pools. CH. 1 Formation of soil and subsoil. surface is broken up by the to weathering processes referred above as well as by the action of frost and vegetation. 24). disintegrated material is carried down by the rain (see Rain : Mechanical Action) into the hollows. and deposits of clay with flints are formed from chalk when the .. lime. The felspars are decomposed in this manner l (see Chapter VII. If the ground is level or concave. Anhydrite thus becomes gypsum. I.8 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Hydration thus often causes disruption of the rock. its bulk increasing by about 33 per cent. These Constructive Effects. when exposed to air Hydration. or or washed away by oceans. In some cases. iron. the FIG. however. potash. The loose important . absorbs organic matter which has an affinity for oxygen (see Section VI. p. t. containing moisture. perhaps. with the result that carbonates of these bases are formed and silica is liberated. where limestones contain a large admixture of siliceous matters. carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) of the air. Rocks passing up into soil. latter is dissolved. a sort of skeleton of the latter remains behind when the bicarbonate of lime is dissolved out. forming what is known as rotten-stone. pp. carbon dioxide.

Rain-wash is the name given to accumulations of soil. which are washed down into the hollows and often furnish brick-earths. and the harder rocks are usually so broken by joints and fissures that water easily penesoils Water trates to a considerable depth. The amount and rapidity of this action do not depend on the annual amount of rain. A few heavy rainstorms will carry off an enormous amount of sand and mud to lower levels. Earth pillars. 1 Section II. the mechanical action of rain accumulates material on the slopes below steep cliffs. p. 9 decomposed matter is washed off the higher ground. forming what is called a talus. rain softens many rocks. but on the severity of the downfall. and so makes them yield more easily to the weathering processes. and subsoil. large portion of the rain which falls on the land sinks into the ground and is lost to sight. leaving a pillar or column. often mixed with angular fragments of rock. p. such as clay. and as it moves it has a considerable erosive effect on the surface passed over. Again. as the zone of fracture of the rocky crust probably does not extend beyond that depth. The greatest depth reached may be assumed to be about 6 miles. In districts where conglomerate prevails it often happens that a large block preserves the soil immediately below it from disintegration. while the surrounding ground is washed away. Source.. OR EPIGENE ACTION.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Again. 253.. and eventually way into the sea (see Section III.SECT. and rocks are more or less porous. in which both springs and wells are dealt with. Besides acting as a carrier of loose materials Disintegration. brooks. by washing off by large the soil tion. Besides the formation of soil Talus. The remainder is either dissipated into the air by evaporation or flows off into streamlets. Underground Water. A most of it finds its Most gets beneath the surface by obvious processes. and rivers. 12). Screes are long trails of loose blocks collected on the slopes beneath precipitous mountain sides. The same effect is produced in certain valleys of the Alps where the clay is protected in places stones. Springs are due to the intervention of impervious strata which hold up the water and enable it to reappear at the surface see 1 Chapter XII. the greater the slope of the ground the more rapid is the action of the rain. I. . 1 Constructive Effects. on higher ground and the process of it soil exposes fresh surfaces to disintegramanufacture is thus continually renewed. the intervening portions being denuded.

or buried logs may be petrified or converted into stone by the substitution of mineral for vegetable matter. hysenas. causing In calcareous depressions in which pools and lakes are formed. the more (3) Formation of the surface. CH. 1 Ossiferous caves are so named because in them the remains of animals. Processes. bonate of lime in shells may be replaced by some other substance such as silica. the readiness with which it is reached by water. above). and the surface water is thus carried below in such quantities that large tunnels and caverns are dissolved out of the rock. The natter the ground. etc. The amount depends on the nature of the rock. (4) Texture of the soil. often enveloped by mud or other deposits.10 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. elephants. Amount following (1) (2) : underground water. are likewise set in motion by underground water and produce changes. In districts containing Subterranean channels and caverns. districts vertical cavities called swallow-holes or sinks are often formed.. and hence the various . of [PT. carbonation. deoxidation. such as bears. The heavier the fall the less water sinks into the ground. This depends on the Amount of rainfall. This subtraction is accomplished by underground water charged with carbonic acid as well as with the products of organic decay. are detected. Rate of rainfall. and the properties of the water. analogous to weathering. 1 Destructive Effects. 1 (i) CHEMICAL ACTION. subterranean channels and caverns are often found. the steeper the slope. as the surface soon becomes waterlogged. water will sink in . is Texture and structure of the underlying rock. I. rocks which are easily soluble. and hydration which have been described as set in motion by the action of rain (see Rain : Chemical Action. I. and in such Caverns are far more cases concealed from ordinary observation. abundant in limestone rocks than in others . The substitution of certain mineral substances for others Thus the carextracted from the rock is frequently effected. Stratified rock usually more favourable for the entrance of water than massive (5) rock. the quicker the water runs off. The various processes of oxidation. The solution and removal of rock-salt frequently results in local sinkings of the surface of the ground. which are often intensified by internal heat and pressure. The subtraction of soluble mineral matter from rock renders it porous.

1 and hence waters. on the melting of the ice. a landslip occurs. Sometimes when the strata are very much inclined and rest on an impermeable bed like clay. Destructive Effects. chiefly springs. may be. Stalactites. the appearance of being converted into stone. dd. which there below) covering cavities. OR EPIGENE ACTION. the water which percolates down . II. 19 of great assistance in the study of historical geology (see Part III. Travertine is a limestone deposited from calcareous It is usually soft and cellular. bb. or gravel. cc. in which there is an accumulation up to the stalagmite. communicating with a valley.SECT. v. as they are popularly called. When the fissure becomes sufficiently deep. 3 may Let a serve to illustrate one kind by no means relatively 1 1 uncommon. When underground water collects into definite streams the channels are enlarged as well as by solution. 3).. is water. silt. The chief agent. hill be a section of in is limestone a cavern. Let d d be a floor of stalagmite (see Constructive Effects.). as the case ^IG. or the pendent. but fig. however. etc. The conditions of ossiferous caverns vary . sands. intermingled with mud. icicle-like forms of calcium carbonate and stalagmites. which often masks the organic riches contained beneath it. is also (ii) MECHANICAL ACTION. 11 frequent occurrence of stalactical and stalagmitical matter in ossiferous caves. by the entrance. a. by mechanical erosion Landslips are common in volcanic districts. are calcareous springs which incrust vegetable matter with carbonate of lime. of the remains of animals.] CHANGES ON THE EARTHS SURFACE. giving the plants. Such caves are Petrifying springs. Constructive Effects. called calcareous tufa or calc sinter. 3- Section of limestone cavern. which most commonly acts by insinuating itself into minute cracks which are widened and deepened by frost. are the most notable instances of deposition (see fig. their complement forms which rise erect from the floors of caves and such like.

p. but is not otherwise springs. 263 . CH. 1 (i) EROSION.. (2) transportation. of very great importance.12 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The gravel rolled along the bed of a stream serves as a tool to excavate the channel owing to the friction set up between the moving pebbles and the stones of the bed.. [PT. I. A large proportion. the particles brought into contact with the sides and bed of the stream having a considerable wearing action owing by . and may be subdivided into (1) erosion. 9. The mechanical sediment carried off by underground water may be deposited either below the surface or after the streams emerge from underground. and the superincumbent mass slides over it to a lower level. and melted snow. and streams into rivers which eventually find their way into the sea. and in greater detail in Chapter XII. although it is convenient to discuss them separately. these cannot be separated in nature. for they are interdependent. These pebbles are themselves rounded in the first instance this friction. -as in the case of most geological action. Brooks and rivers would cease to flow in dry weather but for the fact that they are fed by springs which originate as described in Section II. Methods of Excavation. through the more porous rocks above softens the clay. of the rain which falls on the earth is carried off at once by a vast natural drainage system which forms a network over the land. which becomes slippery. The work done by running water is chiefly mechanical. and (3) deposition . Running Water. The mineral matter carried in solution by running water is derived from rain passing over rocks or from It increases the mechanical action. The matter carried in suspension also has an excavating and erosive effect. and are gradually worn smaller and smaller and ultimately become fine particles or are dissolved. also by mist. I. the major portion of which is deposited in the lower levels. Erosion is increased and accelerated by the amount of sediment transported. dew. the running water carries with it a large amount of material in the shape of mechanical sediment or in solution. 1 Chemical Action. 1 Constructive Effects. brooks. 1 Mechanical Action. and deposition depends on the rate of transportation as well as on the amount of sediment carried. p. Source. though some finds its way into the sea. Passing rapidly from the higher ground by streamlets. but. 1 Section III.

OR EPIGENE ACTION. if rocks split up into angular fragments. but. the latter have far more eroding effect than the rounded fragments afforded by also a matter of much importance the rock itself is soluble. The greater the slope the more rapid channel. Development of Valleys. only the upper portion of which is disturbed by the current. 1 Rate of Erosion. (i) Nature of is the rate of erosion. and fine-grained. and the started. The chemical composition this point of view. and. are more easily eroded than massive rocks. but little 1 weathering takes place. The rate of erosion is dependent on both (ii) the structural and petrological characters of the rock (see Chapters III.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. water entering at the head lengthens it by cutting back. (ii) the rock formation. 13 to the innumerable blows which they strike on the resisting surfaces. compact rocks resist erosion much better than those which cohere loosely. the rock will be an efficient eroding agent. or those possessing cleavage properties like slate. if the cementing material of the rock is soluble while the harder portions remain undissolved. not favourbasin which it drains. where conditions are favourable to weathering. Again. If the river bottom is covered with debris. while The form the water which flows through it tends to deepen it. .). Stratified and jointed rocks. the rate of erosion will be more rapid than where (iii) Climate. the underlying rocks will be protected. If the rainfall is sufficient small depressions in the ground soon become watercourses and a gully is The latter tends to collect still more drainage. but violent floods will sweep the debris away and lay the rock bare and subject it to erosion. it will be easily eroded. 4-9. and VI. in promoting erosion is rain. is conglomerates. In places where an eddy occurs and there is a gravelly bottom the circular motion of the gravel excavates pot-holes or depressions in the river bottom. as owing to rapid removal of the water the work of solution is retarded . however. (iii) the climate. III.. Rock formation. etc. both in the channel of a stream and in the A steep channel is. The effects of I. from If been discussed in Section atmospheric agencies have already The most important factor pp. Those conditions which are favourable to the most rapid erosion of the channel of a stream are not always the same as those which tend to produce the most rapid abrasion of The rate of erosion depends on (i) the the surrounding country. but the rapid wearing action induced by the greater slope brings fresh surfaces to undergo the action of weathering.SECT. able to weathering. nature of the channel.

and five. CH. velocity of a stream depends chiefly on its gradient. for the effort of moving sediment absorbs a certain amount of energy which reduces the velocity. four. the transporting power is increased 64-fold. . but as the sediment increases the velocity diminishes.g. . however. and the amount of sediment it moves. Fine sand . if the velocity of a stream The is doubled. . I'OO quires a velocity of Gravel of pebbles 1 inch in diameter 2*25 requires a velocity of Larger blocks of rock require a velocity of 6*00 . The transportation effected by a stream depends on (i) transporting power of the current. (ii) accessibility of materials. Gravel as large as French beans . I. it is obvious that other agents have been the chief factor in the development of the surface of the land. greatest is greater than the mean. Indian nullahs. in rainy regions subaerial denudation leads to the formation of wide valleys of much gentler slopes. . and greatest velocities may be taken as bearing to each other nearly the proportion of three. mean. e. . so does the velocity. The following are the effects in the removal and transport of various materials by currents of given velocities acting on the bed of a river : Soft clay requires a velocity of .walled canons or ravines. and varies as the sixth power of the velocity . 4 . e. chemical composition of the water.. are cut to a great depth across high plateaus . 1 (iii) Transporting Power. . it is clear that running water has been the principal agent. If.g. This depends on the velocity. "As both gradient and volume increase. its volume. the bed is about as much less than the mean velocity as the In ordinary cases the least. If a surface is characterised by open valleys which lead into other and lower ones and eventually to the sea or into an inland basin. 1 The velocity of a current is greatest in the centre of a river and The velocity of the particles in contact with least at the borders. [PT. 1 (ii) TRANSPORTATION.14 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. steep. . 0*25 foot per second 0'50 re.. the depressions are enclosed or hills and ridges occur in such a way as to be independent of lines of drainage. of valley excavated by rivers is determined in part by the nature In rainless or arid regions of the rocks and in part by the climate. I. and upwards. Valleys are also a guide to the nature of the agents which have developed the topography of the land.

Deposition cannot take place without transportation having previously occurred. rounded pebbles. Coarse materials such as small stones. but they are maintained in suspension (1) by subordinate upward or rotatory currents which are set in motion by obstacles such as boulders met with by the stream.SECT.. The average from two to three times that specific gravity of the materials varies of water. but finer particles of matter are held in suspension. . OR EPIGENE ACTION. although their specific If such gravity is considerably greater than that of water. 1 Occurrence of Deposits.. the stream becomes overloaded and a portion deposited is of its burden is deposited. at the base of mountain slopes where the gradient changes suddenly. 38 angular stones. sweep along coarse sand. e. water. . bottom velocities of 30 40 60 120 180 minute .. but if the latter is checked or reduced by any cause. are carried along by the water. and coarse grains of sand are rolled along the bottoms of streams. they lose from one-half to one-third of their weight in air and thus large blocks are easily carried along. they would infallibly sink to (iii) DEPOSITION. and is due to the transporting power being rendered deficient. etc. we have already seen.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 1 .. alluvial fans or cones are formed. 4). will will not disturb clay with sand and stones. hence deposition takes place when the For.g. The latter. a certain load of sediment velocity of a stream is checked. particles were only acted on by gravity and the onward rush of the bottom.. is carried by a stream with a certain velocity. 1 Chemical Composition. gravel. and consequently. (2) by different velocities in different parts of the stream which exert different pressure on the sides of the particles in suspension. when stones. Deposits usually occur under the following conditions (a) Where the gradient is suddenly decreased. fine gravel. Materials. 15 said that Or it may be feet per . is chiefly influenced by velocity. III. The sediment thus called alluvium. and at various points in the course of : every stream where slight changes in gradient occur suddenly and cause a check to the stream (see fig. Water chemically impure contains a considerable amount of mineral matter in solution which reduces 1 its transporting capacity below that of pure water.

there is a tendency to meander. however. making the bed deeper. and at the mouth of (d) Where rivers the Mississippi it is still thicker. eliminating the bends. which get gradually filled up (e) Similar with alluvium. prevent the formation of deltas. CH. previously deposited. covering alluvial plains. The continual deposition sometimes has the effect of raising the river bed above the surrounding country. and leaving part of the old bed high and dry. however. At Calcutta the alluvial matter is about 500 feet thick. Sudden floods. and they will also carry away some of the alluvium Where the gradient FIG. their front slope is steeper than that of fans or cones. (c) In these alluvial plains or flats. I. I. deposits will form the flood plains of streams and forming gradually. deltas occur and streams reach the sea and the tides are which spread out to sea. River terraces are formed in this way. being formed in deeper water. often to some distance. and both deposition and erosion take place at the same time. alluvium being deposited on the concave side of each bend. the sinuosities being thereby gradually increased. (b) [PT. owing to the gentle current.16 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. will often form short cuts. . is gradually reduced. The thickness of deposit in some deltas is enormous. and coastwise currents have the same effect. low. Fail at Tigar in Nubra. 4. but. action occurs in lakes. Deltas are similar to alluvial fans. at Ladakh. Strong tides. the delta gradually extending over the whole lake. while the bank is undercut on the convex side.

17 Rivers also give rise to lakes. shattered to such a degree that frequently the parent masses become buried under shivered heaps of their own debris. At different points on the earth's surface there is a certain line. crusts of rocks frost is hardly less active than rain. 7) Destructive Action. (i) Glacial Agencies.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 1 Section IV. It is in the Arctic and mountainous regions. Formation. due to the oscillation between the river tributaries and sea water.. in the shape of avalanches. that its action is most The rocks under its influence are ruptured and conspicuous. (/) Bars are formed at the mouths of tidal rivers by the deposition of alluvium. forming ice-sheets.. the latter drops part of its load and forms a bar which dams up the main stream and forms a lake. in the production of the weathered tegration of rocks. IV. when the tributaries contribute more sediment than the main stream can carry. but even in temperate regions its action is very marked and productive of great disinIndeed. OR EPIGENE ACTION.000 feet in the 'equatorial regions to the sea-level in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Frost assists weathering (see Section I. above which more snow falls than melts. and on the gentler 2 . It acts with great intensity at high levels and in high latitudes. called the snow-line. p. p. 1 (ii) GLACIERS AND ICE-SHEETS. however. 11). Protective Action. The height of this snow-line varies from about 18. and accelerates landslips (see Section II. Above the snow-line there is a continual process of accumulation of snow. and advantage is taken of this circumstance by some stone. FROST AND SNOW. either by obstructing their by deposition at the junction of the latter and thereby damming them up. or.workers. Snow protects the surface of the ground from the action of frost. 1 Frost will also split open stone full of "quarry-sap" if they are brought to the surface in winter. On the steeper slopes great masses of snow break away in the form of avalanches. The continual pressure from above gradually forces the ice to escape downwards by any available outlets. which presses downwards and converts the lower portion of the accumulated mass into ice. 6 Snow. sweeps away rocks and trees on steep hillsides and often causes floods by temporarily blocking up 1 valleys.SECT.

rivers of ice. snow-line. of ice and snow which fills the cirque and covers the ground . the and should have. [FT. 5. a great semicircular recess at its head (cirque) and above The snow and ice are then forced down it. The mass the slopes of the cirque and pushed down the valley. I. CH. a great snowfield.18 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. or nearly up to. I. are that the valley should ascend up to. in effect. These are usually found on or just below the snow-line in temperate climates. The Mer de Glace. slopes glaciers which are. The most favourable conditions for the formation of a glacier FIG. as indeed most mountain valleys have. are formed. but in the higher altitudes the ice-sheets cover the land and break off at the edge of the sea and the 1 portions thus detached form icebergs.

The Her de Glace (fig. according to the second or regelation theory. 1 The bottom of a glacier is usually charged with rock debris. part of which was embedded in the snow as it fell This originally.SECT. again freezing. Rocks subjected to glaciation are distinguished by scratches all in one direction. At the end of the glacier. and The motion resembles that of a river. and are often very deep. 5). Diagram of crag and tail. The debris lateral collected along the margin moraine. 1 and while always presenting a continuous slope in the direction from which . where the ice melts more quickly than it is carried down. 5) moves as much as 34 inches a day in the summer. There are two theories to explain the manner in which glaciers move. and are called perched blocks precarious situations. 1 Work of Glaciers. their is called adjacent form a medial moraine (see fig. where they have scraped along the bottom. 1 Transportation and Deposition. They extend across the glacier in curves which are convex towards its source. Crevasses are large cracks which are caused by the strains set up by the movement of the glacier. IV. and when two glaciers of the glacier meet. Rounded masses of glaciated rock are sometimes called roches moutonnees from their resemblance to reclining sheep. the glacier progresses by cracking. glaciers and is similar to includes erosion. the glacier.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. The work done by running water. lateral moraines Erratic blocks are large stones carried the ice. and part collected by the glacier as it moves. 6. According to the first or plastic theory. and deposition. It forms the gathering5 ground or birthplace of the glacier. 19 round about it is called ihefirn or neve. OR EPIGENE ACTION. a mass of debris collects which is called the terminal moraine. down to lower levels by when they are left in FIG. rock debris serves as a rasp to scour out and erode the bed of Erosion. that accomplished by transportation. the ice flows like a thick liquid . Movement of Glaciers. slipping. quicker in the middle than at the sides and bottom.

6). 1 (b) tion . This form of structure is known as " crag and tail. On tion is less important. (2) Volcanic action or vulcanism. : (i) OCEANIC MOVEMENTS. These processes and their results can best be considered under the heads of Oceanic Movements and Oceanic Deposits. (b) wind. The geological work effected by the sea is due to movements of the water which are actuated by (1) tides. or (b) oceancurrents. (1) Crust (3) or diastrophism. Section V. the ice travels.20 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. (c) similar in each case. shells. and though the sudden destruction caused by the sea often appears very great. I. Waves . it is in reality of far less geological importance than the gradual action of subaerial denudOf these the ing agents. (2) wind. Gradation. . first two processes are discussed in Chapter II. and carbonaceous matter. (3) differences of level due to influences exterior to the earth's surface. 1 Wave-action. The degrading or denuding action of the sea is termed marine denudation to distinguish it from subaerial denudation. both of which are dependent on all three of the above agencies. they often retain their scraggy edges at the further end. Marine Action. I. viz. (4) volcanic disturbances or other earth movements. : By chemical means: aggradation resulting from precipitaand degradation from solution in the are chiefly aggradational (c) By organic agencies which shape of corals. which are covered by seas as Those portions are affected : of the earth's crust by the same three movements processes the actual land surfaces. CH. the (a) By result being aggradational. The gradational processes at work in the sea are greatest near its shores. These all tend to produce either (a) waves. except in shallow waters . volcanic disturbances are caused by but their action (a) is tides. under the lee of which a certain amount of debris finds shelter and forms a short tail. but in the sea aggradation is far more important than degradation. 1 land degradation predominates and aggradaGradation. [PT." and serves to indicate the direction of " the ice movement on old " glaciated surfaces 4 (see fig. These processes are effected mechanical means by the movements of the water.

_ ^ . but it has a direct action between high. by the waves themselves and by the The waves. range of wave action is very limited. waves flow in on a shelving beach they the velocity of the undulation gradually change in character At diminishes. of course. but also on the position of the beds and on the planes of cleavage and of joints (see Chapter III. or on the shore. The abrading power of the waves depends not only on the relative hardness of the rocks of which the coast is composed. and submarine little disturbed at 15 to 25 feet below the is Erosion detritus effected both carried by them. 21 are.and low-water levels. and blocks exceeding 100 tons in weight have been moved. On the Atlantic and North Sea coasts of Britain. and boulders fall from above which are soon reduced to smaller dimensions. usually increased narrow straits the tide becomes the difference being only as regards their intensity.) is chiefly of an auxiliary nature in that its principal work is to communicate and dispose of material brought down from the cliffs. The downward : When effective structures are surface. and finally it topples over as a breaker upon the shore. 1 Erosion. a longshore current is produced. the troughs become flatter and the crests higher. V. ^ Action of 3ea on 7< hard rock 6> soft rock . but the under-tow remains at right angles to the coast. length the crest begins to curl over. by atmospheric agency. Tidal waves by wind. especially where a hard rock above above. As the undercutting continues. When passing through a current and may be an effective Breakers. sea. The power of the waves is often very great. c> fallen rock large rocks d. of coast> ^ . and in their turn reinforce the waves in their eroding action. The action of the sea on a coast (see Chapter XVII. breakers in winter will often exert a pressure of three tons per square foot. OR EPIGENE ACTION. ^ 7). Under-toiv." When the wave is oblique to the shore. The water carried forward by waves recedes along the bottom and forms the " under-tow. armed with the loose material which falls from cut like a saw and will often undercut the cliffs. agent of erosion. high-water level overlies a softer rock which is subjected to this sawlike process (see fig.SECT. .] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE.).

1. places.22 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and the action of the sea is often see under Deposition. and its shallow channel is abraded by the current. and the finer parts remain in suspension or are deposited in calmer water. Shore currents actuated by prevailing winds or tides cause the 1 shingle to travel along the coast. Deposition usually takes place opposite the mouth of a bay. It is probable that the disruption of sea-walls in heavy gales is due to the same cause. since most ocean currents do not touch bottom. hence where the waves break ridges or barriers are formed which may increase until they enclose lagoons. and shore-currents. Their erosive effect is not of much importIn ance. I. drowned by the waters of the sea. but the denudation is often due rather to subaerial forces. constructive rather than destructive down . [PT. . The eroding action of the waves on a coast-line wears away the land until it is reduced below the level of breaker action. by shore erosion. below. CH. e. owing to the shore current being checked in the deeper water of the bay. under-tow. action of the waves. and the amount of deposition is also small. and eventually the latter become filled with sediment. The effect of breakers on a cliff is greatly increased by the alternate expansion and contraction of air in the cracks and fissures of the rocks. The amount of transportation effected by ocean currents is comparatively slight. 1 It is easy to see that if the earth-crust remains stationary in any region the land of a country may in time all become cut foot by foot. A plain-like expanse theoretically formed in this way has been termed a plain of marine denudation? or base-level of erosion. 1 The eroded material is carried away by the Transportation. Ocean Currents. the Gulf Stream issues from the Gulf with a velocity of 4 or 5 miles an hour. and the under-tow carries out detritus. however. The incoming waves bring material to the shore Deposition. where they are forced through narrow and shallow passages they have considerable abrading effect . A partial vacuum is caused in this way and large masses of rock are often displaced some even above the direct action of the breakers. which keep the sediment in transit and gradually sift it so that the coarsest materials accumulate where there is most agitation. to a common plain-like level. and thus a submarine plain is formed protecting the coast-line from further 1 injury. The nature of the bottom beneath the current will show the amount of erosive action at work.g. when it becomes covered with sand and other debris.

water deposits are again divided into littoral deposits between high. sands. Volcanic muds are found round the shores of volcanic islands. chiefly by the accumulation of foraminifera named Globigerina and Orbulina. 23 as it depends on transportation except in the lee of places the bottom is eroded by the current. and (b) pelagic deposits which are laid down in deep water and contain little or no land debris. but it is at about this depth that the sea bottom ceases to be affected by waves and currents. The deep-sea exploration has yielded many genera previously supposed to be extinct. Deposits like the Chalk are now forming at the bottom of all the deep oceans. Oft EPlGENE ACTION. with a few pteropods which live in the surface waters and sink to the bottom after death to become mixed with sponges. mica. sea-urchins. Littoral deposits consist of boulders. generally coarse materials derived from the land. but are finer. reddish-coloured muds containing small particles of quartz. which live at great depths.SECT. the chocolate-coloured clays are tinged with oxide of manganese. 1 The deep waters of the ocean formerly Pelagic Deposits. and coral sand and mud are found round coral islands. 1 where (ii) OCEANIC DEPOSITS. and non-littoral deposits between low-water mark and 100 fathoms. These consist of blue-green or Terrigenous deep-sea deposits. a mineral that abounds in seabed regions covered with augitic materials. or glauconite. The red clays owe their colour to oxide of iron. determined by the nature of the adjoining land and organisms found locally. speaking. reports that the deep-sea clays and deposits at a greater depth than 2000 fathoms appear to be always due to the decomposition of ashes and volcanic materials. and crustaceans.and low-water mark. shells. composed Non-littoral deposits are composed of much the same materials as the littoral deposits. These consist of (a) terrigenous deposits which are chiefly of debris from the land. one. 6 Mr Murray . These are divided into shallow-water deposits up to the 100-fathom line and deep-sea deposits from the 100-fathom line to where terrigenous deposits merge into pelagic The selection of the 100-fathom line is an arbitrary deposits. V. Shallow. and other Their nature is. and many types allied to extinct genera of the secondary strata (see Chapter IX. Terrigenous Deposits..] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. p. gravels. supposed to be barren have been proved to be rich in life. 172).

Woods and forests attract Destructive Action. I. and the like. jungle. the edible clay of the Indians. forming a sort of carpet which protects the surface of the land. marshes. The living organisms of the vegetable and animal kingdoms produce certain effects on inorganic matter which. Moist wood is slowly converted by decay into a brown substance which has been and forms the chief part of the organic matter in the regur or black-cotton soil of India is formed from decayed vegetation . The roots of plants and trees open up the subsoil to the action of air and water. and fresh-water estuaries through the growth and decay of microscopic forms (the diatoms) whose tiny frustules constitute beds of earthy matter (microphytal earths) such as the mountain-meal of the Swedes. Other rocks. [PT. 7) is often protected by plants. etc. (see Chapter VII.. 23). Besides the carbonaceous or water deposits formed by the growth of plants. but when covered with vegetation they are disin1 tegrated into clays. p. Accumulations of plant -growth form peat-mosses. jungle-growths. amber. when the surface is bare of vegetation crystalline rocks are broken up into their constituent minerals in the process of weathering. and drifted rafts would form similarly mineralised deposits.. cypress and other swamps. down and so increase the action due to rain and running water. (i) VEGETABLE. CH. . submerged peat-mosses. Section IV. and bog-iron ore is formed by the action of decayed vegetation on iron. formed directly from organic matter are Vegetation often checks erosion by graphite. and the surface of sand dunes (see Section I. forest-growths. 1 Constructive Action. Section VI. called humus. Trees split rocks mechanically by forcing their roots into tiny cracks and crevices. etc. diatoms are busied in forming new and widely extended deposits (see Section V. and in course of rain time. and paraffin... are yearly adding to the soil at the same time that they protect its surface from the wasting action of rain. Organic Action. soils 8 . 128).24 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. I. Plants. siliceous or flinty vegetable accumulations take place in lakes. and the decay of plants furnishes strong acids which aid the action of water on rocks and minerals. and under favourable conditions.. and Even in the ocean itself the the polishing slate of Tripoli. Again. though comparatively unimportant. Coal is but a mass of mineralised vegetation . by their growth and decay. p. p. 3 All these aid in building up the crust of the earth. must not be ignored. frost.

(ii) Destructive Action. p.] CHANGES ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Constructive Action. 1 Marine-boring shells pierce limestone and promote its decay. 25 ANIMAL. VI. 23) is formed from dead foraminifera.SECT.. OR EPIGENE ACTION. Foraminiferal ooze (see Section V. and limestone is chiefly formed from animal remains. beavers often alter the watercourses. Burrowing animals undermine the ground and expose the subsoil to the action of denuding agents. whilst coral reefs are built by living organisms. 1 Dams made by .

and that at great depths there is still existing a vast reservoir of heat. and the agencies. From numerous observations made in mines and artesian wells in France. The lateral in settling down gets broken. All of these are set in motion by certain forces acting within the earth. An examination of the temperature of the earth's crust at various depths establishes the fact that the temperature below the cool surface increases on descending. squeezing of the crust. Descending still lower. 3 INTERNAL FORCES.000 feet be a temperature of 1000 or that of low red heat. and elsewhere. generates additional heat. Russia. slow. Water. constant there would at 60. at a very moderate depth compared with the magnitude of the earth. all over the earth also bear witness to the internal heat of the earth. and it is therefore unnecessary to place at a great depth the source of the melted rocks which are still poured out in so many 9 parts of the earth. and if we Hot springs which are found 26 . though subject to many variations from the different conducting powers of different rocks. CHANGES WITHIN THE EARTH. England. the sudden earthquake. the earth contracts and the outer crust Pressure. it is assumed as an approximation. crushed. and contorted. Heat. in 60 feet of depth. It is well known that in a closed vessel water may be made white hot without being converted into vapour . the temperature. 1 In cooling.[FT. would be found sufficient to retain mineral matter in a state of fusion . that below a depth of 100 feet the stratum of variable temperature the temperature increases 1 If the rate of increase were considered F. THE levelling tendency of the external agencies is continually opposed and counteracted by an antagonistic set of internal These are the volcano. as it contracts like the rind of a withered 1 apple. I. Prussia. long-continued crust movement. CHAPTER II.

The permanent records of volcanic action are The ejected materials (1) Volcanic products. bombs. will also have a far more l powerful solvent action than when at an ordinary temperature VOLCANOES. 109-12. are at times expelled and scattered round the opening or crater. after the shower of these has subsided. etc. superheated in this manner. heated beneath the surface by contact with rocks at a high temperature. which escapes from it in the state of steam. Coarsely cellular lava or fragments of lava are scorice. and sometimes presents a peculiar columnar appearance. The vents and fissures through which the (2) Volcanic vents. II. 5 When solidified it is still lava. The bombs and lapilli are masses and fragments of the more or less . it would escape by the path where the pressure was least. lapilli and The fragments are torn off the throat of the volcano. 9 it is at times used to denote all the molten rocks of volcanoes.CH. The structure of these rocks is described in Chapter VII. then. 5 The chief propulsive and explosive agents concerned in volcanic eruptions are generally acknowledged to be superheated waters (steam. : considerable distances. but of themselves leave scarcely are not only spread out round the volcanic crater. Water. Fragmentary materials are rock-fragments. perhaps. The steam and gases which are the first products of an eruption are followed by fragmentary materials and. but are often carried to any lasting mark.. 1 Volcanic Products. pp. and solid. flashing into steam with 6 explosive energy as the pressure disappeared. liquid. As it cools it becomes compact in the central and lower portions. due to the development of cracks on cooling. filling the upper portion of the lava stream with bubbles. Section L. 1 Lava consists of molten or half-molten rocky material containing a large quantity of water. A volcano is a hole or fissure in the earth's crust from which various materials. and partly to a kind of rough attempt at crystallisation. 3 These carry with them dust as well as coarser materials. and rendering it light and cindery. 27 suppose the water from the sea to penetrate down fissures in the neighbourhood of volcanoes. . lQ known as dust. gaseous.) or their component gases. materials have been forced to the surface. molten lava wells up from the interior of the volcano. partly.] CHANGES WITHIN THE EARTH. and though the name is generally restricted to those volcanic rocks which are more or less cellular.

as the superheated water rises towards the surface. blown off by the ascending current of steam. 6 Decline of Volcanic Activity.* The still finer particles are known as volcanic ask. the lumps. partly from the building up of new lateral cones upon it. 5 Volcanic Vents. they occasionally find an outlet by producing rents on the mountainside. which deposit brilliantly crystals of salts. is gradual. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. All the time that the eruption is in progress. hydrogen. revolving in the air.28 liquid lava. and carbon dioxide. the existence of various gases may be Some of the gases detected. the volcano undergoes changes of form. small cracks appear about summit and its flanks. its As the mountain cools and contracts. and give vent to steam and various vapours. according to the direction of the wind. cool on the outside into rounded bombs the finer and rapidly cooled fragments fall as angular lapilli. however. others chiefly at its close. [PT. when it is called Tufa or Tuff. and at a coloured . The decline in eruptive power. and is generally the most abundant product of volcanic Volcanic ash is not at all uncommonly met wilh interstratified with some of our most ancient aqueous rocks. Fissure eruptions. for. But more important changes are developed at the top of the mountain . 3 Gradually the volcanic ash becomes more or less solidified. Among the most frequent acids are sulphuric and to hydrochloric. obliterated by subsequent eruption. and flashes into steam in the throat. appear to be given off all through an eruption. This dust is of excessive fineness and larger . its explosive force blows out the loose materials of which the cone was composed. partly from the accumulation of ejected materials on its flanks. 1 The finest particles of the exploded lava float in the air in the form of volcanic dust. and before the eruptive throat of a volcano is hermetically sealed. The gases comprise nitrogen. that are mostly soluble and are dissolved by rain. and its conical upward termination is often replaced by a funnel-shaped pit. After the solid materials cease be ejected. which spreads out in widely extended clouds around the volcano. I. These are termed fumaroles. which does not always become entirely action. After the central cone has become sufficiently massive and consolidated to oppose a resistance which the explosive forces below cannot easily overcome. and thus the mountain becomes truncated. and at another time on another side. and the deposition of salts observed. It is spread out in a more or less stratified manner. at one time on one side of the volcano. may travel for enormous distances.

the solid land must be the part An unstable change of sea-level is. in Iceland. near masses. which are found . where their situation is remarkable from the circumstance that there are no traces of volcanic action on the coast. which are common not only in the volcanic regions of Mexico and Peru. barometric pressure. In which latter case the sea. Evidences of oscillation of level are met with in the occurrence of sea-beaches now far removed from the action of the sea. and of submerged forests. must have been reduced in depth equal in height to some of the highest mountains. The sedimentary rocks which constitute the main mass of the land either have been elevated to their present position. of slight importance. so that a good deal of mud is brought to the surface and as the sulphuretted hydrogen in the water is decomposed. and to the force of winds. They occur also on the Mekran coast. which stretches from Scinde to the mouth of the Persian Gulf. These are. which are essentially hot springs wherein the dissolved acids decompose the rock through which the water flows. hence if the sea-level changes it must arise from the formation of hollows in the crust of the earth. 6 Mud Volcanoes and Mud Springs. Another phase of declining volcanic activity is exhibited in the formation of mud cones. however. 29 appear. near the Isthmus . to the tidal wave. 9 Elevation and Subsidence of Land. lower level on the flanks of mountains new phenomena often and testify to the changed condition of the interior regions. the filling up of its deeper parts. or by the contraction of its capacity by the rising of the solid rock. Alterations of level. Girgenti in Sicily. of Corinth.] CHANGES WITHIN THE EARTH. sulphur is deposited in the clay in nodular Such sources of sulphur-supply occur near Naples. by elevation or depression. But the quantity of water on the earth remains the same . II. Variation in the Sea-level. but in Iceland and many localities in the south of Europe. due that is moved. CRUST MOVEMENTS. This is especially seen in the formation of solfataras. and at Kalamaki. or the sea has been lowered.CH. From the statical property of water it is clear that if there be any permanent change of level between the land and the ocean. which must have been equally lowered over its whole area. and such movements are indicated by accurate measurements referred to some standard of level which has not been disturbed. sunken rocks. however.

movements.. and are (1) Secular. and which are Paroxysmal. [PT. crust. and this necessitates crumpling of the outer parts or which has become too large for the shrunken core within.g. basalt. interior. of magnetite or haematite to limonite. They sometimes cause a permanent elevation or depression of the land. as might be supposed. 5 The geological effect of earthquakes is not so great Effects. . The cracking under (see Chapter III. etc. e. 44). and water which set in Cause. The causes of these slow movements may be sometimes local and due to removal in solution of rocks beneath . and 1 springs. e. (d) The sudden condensation of steam under pressure. usually widespread. of rock-salt. The forces heat. Indirectly they strain. CHANGES IN ROCKS. the change of felspars to kaolin. limestone. gypsum or of certain constituents of such rocks as granite. p.. as well as landslips and rents of the ground. This cooling causes shrinkage of the bulk. or other volcanic vapours (c) The sudden generation of steam owing to water getting access to heated rock . in spite of the widespread destruction to life and property which they frequently occasion. and they are common among many of the great mountain ranges of the world. however. owing to access of water through fissures.g. such changes necessitating increase of : The movements are. of rocks with production of faults may be very slight (b) The collapse of the roofs of underground caverns . 2 EARTHQUAKES.30 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. taking place suddenly. of silicates to carbonates. Cause. 9 intimately connected with earthquakes (see Earthquakes}. motion the larger earth movements have also a considerable effect on the actual rocks. rivers. may produce derangements of lakes. Causes of Secular Movements. 2 Earthquakes are more frequent near the sea than far from it. I. and then almost certainly due to loss of the earth's internal heat by radiation into space. or to chemical change in minerals by addition of water (hydration) or substitution of carbonic acid for silica. either (a) Earthquakes are earth waves due to a sudden shock. or (2) in different parts of the world. pressure. the throw of which . are the effects of subterranean of two kinds : movements progressing slowly.

but the heat due to chemical changes within the earth's crust must also be taken into account. 1 42. matter in solution. and thus has a powerful chemical effect which greatly enhanced by heat. which dissolves certain mineral constituents from one place or one rock and deposits them is again elsewhere. and when a rock is thus altered by the action of water. which is Water. pp. as regards metamorphism. as well as the heat due to the transformation of mechanical energy in the crushing and crumpling of rocks.CH. and (3) as a heat producer (see above). and have imparted characters which sometimes make it difficult or impossible to discover from observation that they were ever deposited in water at all. Metamorphism. and when the original mineral character of the rock disappears to give rise to a crystalline texture. act upon the rocks themselves. sometimes as crystalline minerals. producing consolidation (see below) . Foliation and cleavage are structures induced by metamorphism 1 (see Chapter III. Consolidation. The newest water-formed rocks are similar in appearance to deposits which are now being deposited . known as interstitial water. II. that lavas and granites appear to be formed out of the sands and mud by the action of the heat to which pressure gives rise. 31 Heat. when rocks are forced by folding to occupy less space. p. and the minute cavities in crystals are This water usually contains other usually filled with water.. See Chapter III. of the slow infiltration of water.. Section II. The hardening process begins soon after a . When from the action of pressure the original distinction between minor layers of rock disappears and is replaced by new planes of division. p. 46. but almost always in different mineral combinations. All rocks contain water within their pores. 6 See Chapter III.. the rocks are said to be metamorphosed. Plication.] CHANGES WITHIN THE EARTH. These changes are partly the consequence Transformation. it may be said to be transformed. as regards plication. producing or tending to produce metamorphism 1 (see below) . Pressure acts (1) vertically. but the older strata have often undergone changes which have obliterated some of their original features which were due to deposition. Other changes of a more varied and important character result from the action of pressure. (2) laterally. Section III. Afterwards it may be seen that these changes go so far. Not only does the original heat of the globe. Rocks expand on fusion and contract on solidification. and to minerals which are never found in the strata.. 47-49).. Section III. Effects..

oxide of iron. this is all that has taken place. The pressure of overlying material squeezes deposit is formed. various substances. forces out a portion of the water. under the action of pressure. Generally. the particles closer together. are chemically deposited by percolating water among the In some particles. and cement them together into a solid mass. infiltration. soft aqueous deposits are converted into hard rocks. and subjected to a process of baking in addition. and 5 heat. however. .32 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and in the cases of some beds of clay and sand. I. instances when the deposit is very deeply buried. Thus. and causes a certain amount of consolidation . even of considerable antiquity. it is influenced by the subterranean heat. such as carbonate of lime. or silica. [PT.

SECT. while some igneous rocks are bedded . in some aqueous rocks the bedding planes are indistinguishable. Igneous rocks contain no evidences of aqueous origin or mechanical aggregation.CH. crystallised masses. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. the rocks are compact. They generally abound along mountain chains and groups Igneous Rocks are generally and evidently ducible from water. or those which have undergone change.e. and the greater number of the crystalline rocks are unstratified or have no true bedded structure. or stratified .e. or compounds containing essentially minerals which are not known to be proin several instances are obtainable by generated in the deep furnaces of which volcanic mountains are the vents . and after33 3 . but were injected into subterranean cavities and fissures in the earth-crust. those which did not reach Among the surface at the time of their formation. or generated by heat . Igneous Rocks. III. those which have been actually emitted at the surface of the earth-crust in the manner of the lavas. and they rarely possess organic remains except when volcanic ashes or mud have entombed the life of the time. i. however. structural characters of rocks according to their mode of origin viz. or and form their axis or nucleus. but some aqueous rocks have this characteristic . but artificial heat. i. bedded. be more convenient to consider the pressure. and second. I. and both altered and metamorphic rocks are not all foliated. THE principal structural characters are massive. 1 : Section I. 6 the igneous rock-masses we can distinguish two main groups first. homogeneous. Igneous. and tuffs of recent volcanoes . and have no joints or divisions . Aqueous. or water-formed .] CHAPTER III. and foliated. and Altered and Metamorphic. Most igneous rocks are massive. have division planes imposed by It will. often analogous to igneous or volcanic products. ashes.

round the flanks of the mountain itself. bombs. [PT. and the vesicles are elongated in the line of This fact enables us roughly to identify an effusive interflow. The throat or neck of the crater. because they are necessarily of the same geological age as the strata with which . the amygdaloids formed in this way often yielding (or almond-like inclusions) 3 agates or zeolites. which is usually more or less crystalline throughout. III. the finer lapilli form beds of volcanic ashes. Lava. and. The coarser materials ejected from volcanoes give origin to a volcanic breccia. because their ashes and tuffs are found interbedded with ordinary aqueous deposits and as Contemporaneous. they are associated. and as Subsequent. and consolidation must have been subsequent to that of the already consolidated rocks into whose fissures they were intruded. etc. thickest usually near their point of origin. because they were forced into the subterranean cavities and fissures in which they afterwards consolidated . intrusion. The igneous rocks belonging to the first of these groups are classed as Extrusive or Ejected. The vesicles of the ancient lava-flows are often filled up by a solid deposit carried in by infiltrating waters . The ashes and tuffs being formed of fragments and deposited in layers are necessarily bedded or stratified. Fragments. because they were forced out to the surface . . as the volcano becomes extinct. and ashy material of the final eruption or becomes forming what is called agglomerate 3 plugged up by the cooled material of the final lava flow. is gradually filled up either with the fragmentary blocks. 3 CONTEMPORANEOUS OR EXTRUSIVE ROCKS.34 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. when rounded by water. they mix more or less with sedimentary matter. but their finer materials are scattered far and wide . because their date of origin. and dying away gradually as they pass outwards from the base of the The ashes not only occur in thick sheets lapping volcanic pile. as Interstratified. The igneous rocks belonging to the second group are classed as Intrusive or Injected. A modern coulee or lava-flow has a scoriaceous upper and under surface. bedded lava-sheet. where they fall into the waters of lakes and seas. wards cooled and consolidated in that position. These are either massive or crystalline lavas or fragmentary The lavas radiate from the mouth of the ashes and lapilli. to a volcanic conglomerate . but are called pyroclastic sediments to distinguish them from the ordinary aqueous 3 deposits. I. crater in sheets. or. and to distinguish it from a subsequent sheet of intrusive rock. CH. and form what are called tuffs.

b. dykes. 35 SUBSEQUENT OR INTRUSIVE ROCKS. The largest masses of igneous rock are known as bosses. The margins of each great boss are more or less irregular dykes. appearance of a contemporaneous lava-flow. etc. and strings of granite. (3) when followed for some distance. fissure in These are classified according to the form and position of the which they have consolidated into necks. dome-like..SECT. forcing them apart and consolidatAt first sight a sill has the ing in this intermediate position. Laccolites. and consolidated in the intervening space as a dome-like mass of crystalline rock. and fragments and masses of them are often caught up and isolated in the granitic material of the boss and more or less metamorphosed (see Section veins. 3 III.. while they maintain an almost perfectly straight course for a long distance. 3 Bosses. Sometimes the igneous material of an intrusive sheet has apparently forced up the overlying strata into a vast arch or anticlinal. . etc. but also in the general parallelism of their sides. p. c% d> e> f> solid wal i s or dyke ^ of stone. and to catch up fragments of the underlying and overlying rocks . sills. -Volcanic dykes. porphyry. veins. between two successive strata. but it can be distinguished by noting that (1) it bakes and alters the beds both above and below . run out from the main granitic mass into the surrounding sedimentary rocks. A A -77 sill or sheet 7 of its igneous rock which way along the bedding plane a mass has made is beds of volcanic ashes. strings of igneous rock and cracks. heath-clad mountain areas often many miles across.] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. dyke Intrusive veins are the narrow bands and which (fig. p. mass of igneous a rock is up a more or less vertical Dykes differ from veins not only in their size. and (4) its edges. Such a mass is known as a laccolite or laccolith. laccolites. They are usually composed of granite. like those of dykes. 47). and form broad. ' a. and bosses. . 3 CI-TI e FIG 8. .. fill A up irregular and narrow fissures 8) wall -like filling fissure. Veins and Dykes. Sills. I. frequently 3 present selvages of more glassy material. (2) its upper and lower layers are rarely scoriaceous . it will be found to cut across the bedding. 28). These latter are intensely burnt and altered. Necks are the filled-up throats of extinct volcanoes (see Chapter II.

CH. Thus more than half of granite consists of orthoclase felspar. 6 Cause. phonolite. at first sight. and quartz would seem to be connected with the fact that those substances crystallise in . Nature. cause. in straight lines which cross each other at some angle and in fissures . These joints run through the rock in different directions. I. it becomes probable that the felspar crystals should have more than one direction. The joints in granite could unless it were supposed that cooling took place from opposite sides of the mass. [PT. kcematite. . but the forms and directions which they assume have always some predisposing basalt. regarded as consequences of the influence of the rate of cooling upon the mode of arrangement of the predominant mineral forming the rock. III. mind the circumstance that in granite the minerals have been arranged in at least two directions. that jointing of shrinkage is The hexagonal structure of ice. and to divide by joints which correspond more or less with the cleavage planes of And when we bear in orthoclase or with its crystalline faces. according to its and composition and the conditions under which it cooled sometimes the same rock presents two or three kinds of joints. There is no doubt that some joints are a consequence of conditions under which the rock cools. and this may be the explanation of the fact that in most granite quarries the joints which correspond with orthoclase cleavage are crossed by others which. and some other rocks the joints often form sixsided columns. usually pressure or strain. which may be straight or curved. and correspond better with the angular directions of the crystalline In the same way the other kinds of joints might be faces. then there must have been a tendency for the rock in cooling to behave as though it consisted entirely of felspar. and vary from an inch or two in diameter up to a width of many feet. and thus which are called joints appear in them. When igneous rocks cool they all contract. JOINTS. consequent either upon pressure or contraction. so that the shrinkage planes formed on one side have intersected those formed on the other side. seem to be inconsistent with it. And it seems likely for not be accounted by cooling alone. and if the majority of the felspar crystals have a prevalent direction. so that a second set of cleavage planes may be produced running through the other minerals associated with the felspar . primarily a consequence of the development planes in the direction of the predominant arrangement in the rock of its principal mineral constituent.36 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. or In granite the prevalent joints run it shows no joints at all.

and penetrated deeper and deeper as the cooling progressed. 10). Joints are formed. p. from other rocks. 5.] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. Aqueous Rocks. 111). frequently present the appearance of some 19 huge ruin (fig. The strata become inclined. The strata are bent and sometimes inverted. Section II. 10. II. 2. and circumstances have favoured their division into hexagonal prisms. Section I. 4. Columnar structure of basalt. they contain fossils and are generally stratified. (i) The sediment carried off by the action of wind and water. Jointed structure of granite. 3. Fractures and movements cause dislocation. 9) is of an The surface of the floor of the lavaaltogether different nature. and therefore contracted. as described in Chapter I.. Aqueous rocks are those which have been originally deposited Their particles are usually smooth and rounded water. or that of the sea on coasts. These. 9. stream cooled uniformly. 37 the hexagonal system. as described . FIG. 1 STRATIFICATION. They are consolidated and stratified. FIG. when exposed to the action of the atmosphere. though some aqueous rocks are unstratified and some igneous rocks are in stratified (see . Chapter VII. is laid down in lake and river bottoms or on the floor of the sea and consolidated into rocks.SECT. 6 The jointing of granite is generally such that the mass is divided into numerous short prisms with a rectangular base. so that the cracks appeared near the surface or base. But the prevalent columnar structure of basalt (fig. After deposition various changes occur : They are derived 1. sometimes leaving an undivided portion in the middle of a thick lava-flow...

This principle of superposition is constant (see is our chief guide in tracing out geological formations. The lines of stratification must not be confused with those of FIG. 102. still they are by no means uniform.. False-bedding (fig. Laminae are the thinnest separable layers or sheets in the planes of deposition of stratified rocks.. uneven surface among and a tendency to oblique fracture. that the strata which cover extensive districts follow one another in strictly chronological order. lamination or of joints. p. also called Current-bedding. . p. CH. foliation. and the order Chapter VIII. While it is true. or flow-structure (see below). 137. In the processes of stratification and consolidation concretions are formed. cleavage. 11. False-bedding.38 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. and fossiliferous. is due to changes in the directions of the currents which laid down the deposits. or tabular masses of Stratified rocks are generally non-crystalline various thicknesses. strata. in Chapter II. p. as will be seen in Chapter VIII. They are generally found in fine-grained rocks. There may be as many as thirty or forty laminae to the inch. The different strata frequently thin out in places so that they assume a wedge-shaped or lenticular section. Cross-bedding. 137). The thicker layers of stratified rocks are usually spoken of as beds or strata. but the average thickness is about 5 feet. giving them a rough. in. They may be parallel or oblique to the general stratification. 11).. p. coarse sandstones. [PT. Single beds of rock are occasionally found to attain a thickness of 200 feet.. in regular layers. i. 1 Forms of Bedding. Interposed Strata. and is characterised by laminae laid It is a common feature at various angles to the plane of the bed. 32. or Drift-bedding. but as these are of the nature of an internal structure they are described in Chapter VI.

ir^. therefore. Fine-grained deposits. the two strata are said to exchange beds or to be subject to alternation at their junction. Alternation of Beds.. 13 let sandstone beneath. some beds dying out whilst others are interposed described. When sets of strata are in contact as. b' b" are alternately oolite and sandstone. 13.] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. strata are interposed locally in various places l (fig. thus fine-grained sandstone occurs with shale. sandstone may pass into shale. there is a middle class of beds composed Thus in of alternate layers of the sandstone and limestone. and the phenomenon seems to have been occasioned by temporary cessations of the deposit of sandstone allowing the limestone which would normally have been only a cement to the sand to accumulate and form a limestone deposit. . FIG. The stratification. conglomerate with grit. 6 ... individual beds often are found to vary in composition in different places.SECT. i* Calcareout Grit. Character of Strata. too. etc. 12)... it often happens for instance.. havje a tendency to be more persistent and to cover larger areas than do conglomerates and sandstones. Exchange and divided beds. Moreover. Groups and series may be composed of strata of every possible variety. interposed. to foretell as above Careful observation is essential to enable the engineer what beds will be met with 1 (see Part IV.. or alternation of beds. and b calcareous fig. such as limestone and shale. In such a case. 39 and it not infrequently happens that. Conglomerate may pass into sandstone. FIG. the thickness varying extremely and Coralline Oolite.). limestone with fine shales.. but it more generally happens that certain varieties of rock are associated together . limestone lying upon sandstone. that while the limestone above and the sandstone below are unmixed with other matter. may in some places be very regular and in others very irregular. Lenticular. 12. a be the Coralline Oolite of England. owing to local modifications. and shale into limestone. the middle beds a a". II.

the horizontal MASS OF THE FORMATION OUTLI ER 1 1 FIG. 14.40 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The line of outcrop or basset is country is termed its outcrop. (ii) Dip and Strike. 3 line find the amount and direction of dip. CH. Chalk . [FT. B. p. Map of an inlier. FIG. 15. To . 16. 17. FIG. III. Strictly speaking. A. is usually more or less straight. If a flat piece of cardboard is held in an inclined position in a trough of water. and a drop of water placed on the cardboard. the strike is the intersection of the plane of the surface of the inclined bed with a horizontal plane. but if the bed is bent or folded the strike necessarily curves or changes from point to point. The line of direction followed by an inclined bed in crossing the country is known as its strike or level line. Map of outlier. I. of intersection of the surface of the cardboard with the surface of the water answers to the line of strike .. in air. by a clinometer. FIG. The area occupied by a stratum on the surface of a Outcrop. see Chapter X. INCLINATION OF ROCKS. the direction of the dip is measured by a compass. Section of outlier. will run down the steepest line upon the card and mark the line of dip. Upper Green-sand. the line where the bed comes to the surface from beneath an overThe line of outcrop of an inferior bed is the lying deposit. The direction of the strike is indicated by its compass-bearing. Where strata have been tilted from a horizontal position their inclination to the horizon is called the The amount of dip is expressed in degrees and measured dip. and is always at The strike of a bed right angles to the direction of the dip. Section of inlier. 196.

so as The general direction of outcrop to uncover the layers beneath. It is always newer than the formation around it (see figs. 16 and 17). 18).] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. because outcrop lines are determined by the ways in which the overlying strata are removed by the action of frost. Unconformity of stratification. the new strata are said to rest unconformably on the old strata (see 1 fig. overlap or transgression. tends to make its direction variable and sinuous. rain. II. Unconformability. and yet when traced to a distance are found to be unconformThis condition is termed able to the deposits on which they rest. because the overlying deposit extending . 41 or limit of the outcrop of the stratum which In level country the outcrop usually runs straight. and the sea. Outliers " " outlier CONFORMABLE UNCONFORMABLE FIG. An outlier is a portion of a stratum which has become separated from the principal mass by denudation and remains isolated like an island.SECT. Strata are sometimes conformable in one section Overlap. 18. and Inliers. FIG. so that it lies within a girdle of the surface rock 6 (see figs. but the details are the consequences of denudation. Diagram there of overlap. Two modifications of outcrop called and " inlier " often occur. follows the direction of strike. of strata When is a break in the succession and the surface of the older strata becomes denuded and the strata disturbed and inclined before the next strata are laid down. 19. 14 and 15). line. 6 denudation rests it. upon but every hill and valley. An inlier is an older deposit which is exposed by the removal of a portion of an overlying stratum. every variation in the texture of the stratum.

frequently been displaced from their horizontal ENE FIG. (iii) CURVATURE OR FLEXURE. when they are called Over/olds or Inversions? When strata are inclined in two opposite directions so that the dips converge upward. Anticlinal dip. overlaps and covers them up. If they dip everywhere toward a . 6 Plication or Folds. and the strata are bent underneath those which FIG. Owing strata have to the action of the forces referred to in Chapter II. no matter always a part of a fold of the earth's crust. is Dip. 21. it is called an Anticlinal or saddle (see fig. and the structure is called a Dome. 19). CH. so as to allow the sea to extend inland and throw down a stratum upon ground where the series had necessarily been interrupted 6 (fig. 21). i. Sometimes they are even pushed over the vertical. [FT. they are said to have a periclinal or qua-qua-versal dip.. were originally below them. If the beds dip away in all directions from a centre. in. how simple it may appear in a single section. When the dip is in only one direction it is called Monoclinal flexure. Synclinal dip. 20). and a ridge is formed. When geological folds are broad and gentle they are called Undulations . 1 position and bent or folded in various directions. 20. when sharp and compressed they are known as Contortions. When the dips converge downward.42 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Overlap occurs whenever the level of land is depressed over a wide area. the trough so formed is called a Synclinal (Hg. beyond the beds previously deposited.

joints are frequent and very regular in coal. sandstones the joints are very irregular. but small and confused. water-formed rocks. dividing the rock into rhomboidal masses. these planes became extended and systematised in All Nature. they have a centroclinal dip. quarries this cause coarse sandstone rocks show themselves against or facing the sea. 10 JOINTS. Afterwards. 6 Master Joints. and arranged in two sets. this is commonly the case . There may be more than one such set of long joints. and continuous than the others. as limestones. more regular and . In limestone the vertical joints are generally regular. underthrust when the lower or trough limb has been pushed under the upper or arch limb. yet. in. regular. after being upheaved. there is one set more commanding than the others. In clay vertical joints are numerous.precipitous valleys. only a single bed or stratum. or on the brow of hills. fresh joints occurring in the strata above and below. some kinds of slate. very straight and parallel. as shale. when the strata became strained and bent during the changes of level in land. which cross at nearly equal distances. and closed joints.] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OP ROCKS. This shrinkage is riot merely lateral.SECT. and laminated sandstones in others. dry superficial beds in any quarry may be seen to perfectly and into smaller pieces than the masses. the joints are less frequent and . themselves ranging uninterruptedly for some hundreds of yards. In examining with attention a considerable surface of rock. it will be found that amongst the joints are some more open. and these shrinkage planes are the beginnings of joints. generally. indeed. approximate. or form a basin. more open. mountain limestone is found to be divided into vast pillars which range in long perpendicular scars down the mining dales of the Rhomboidal north of England. whereas in indurated shale they are of extraordinary length. in In coarse rude and romantic grandeur. (iv) and shrink. and and thus the split the beds into equal-sized cuboidal blocks . 43 1 Overthrust centre. The be divided more definite and parallel directions. so that From of this rock produce blocks of all sizes and forms. and. which are deeper seated and moist. or even for greater distances. 3 Some rocks have very numerous. II. 6 In sedimentary rocks the joints traverse. but to some extent vertical also. as a rule. which occasionally altogether stop the cross joints. occurs when the upper or arch limb has been pushed over the lower or trough limb .

CH. 22). Master joints or stines. etc. the plane of separation z z slopes tion. (v) DISLOCATION.^Fault-^lane. and have been forcibly and The actual plane of fracture and slipping along which the strata have given way is known as the . backs. and the opposite as the upthrow side. 22). That side of the fault-plane upon which the beds have been relatively depressed is known as the downthrow 3 The tferow is side. In this case a peculiar general relation is observed between the inclination of this plane and the effect of the dislocaIn fig. Faults are the result of vertical movements by which whole masses of strata. even through very great thicknesses and 6 These joints are called through several alternations of rock. Hade. The succession of strata is on each side the same. 23. connected in continuous planes. and the line of outcrop of this plane of fracture upon the surface^of the ground as the Fault-line. fault is termed its hade. their thickness and qualities are the same. are dislocated so that on one side of the line of fracture the corresponding rocks are much higher than on the This difference of level in places sometimes amounts to other. bords. III. the perpendicular distance between lihe two portions of any dislocated stratum * (d b' in fig. 6 violently broken asunder. but generally The direction of inclination of the plane of a sloping a little. and is measured from the vertical (c bf in fig. I. being too rigid to bend under flexure. . more completely dividing the strata from top to bottom. 22. 23. The plane of separation between the elevated and depressed portions of the strata is sometimes vertical. and it seems impossible to doubt that they were once FIG. Breadth and throw of a fault. hundreds or even thousands of yards. either horizontal or inclined. determined in its direction. Dislocation of strata.44 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. FIG. for instance. [FT.

The newest water-formed rocks are similar in appearance to . had they occurred. Changes in Rocks). 23. distance between the planes perpendicular to the beds at their fractured ends 9 (b d in fig. as represented in The contrary appearances.SECT. 24. Nature of Alteration (see Chapter II. 45 under the depressed and over the elevated portions strata. striated. and the faults are FIG. crossing of nearly vertical mineral veins for instance. and then is called a Dyke. the strata descend like steps. A similar law is found to prevail very generally in the throw. known as Step-faults^ When faults cross each other they produce the phenomena termed Trough-faults or Cross-faults. 24 a a are two portions of a metallic vein dislocated by another vein In this case the relation of the line b b to the lines a a is b b. The direction of the hade is almost invariably towards the down. 6 Section III. z z b' acute. or by various sparry and metallic minerals.] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. the same as that of z z to the lines b b' in fig. would have been in the mining district of fig.. II. in fig. when they are termed Slickensides. and often polished. The line in which a fault extends is always sinuous. Cornwall they are termed upthrow or reversed faults. In several hundred examples of such dislocations which have come under notice an exception to this rule is rarely found. The line of dislocation is generally distinguished by a fissure which is filled by fragments of the neighbouring rocks or by basalt. 25. When faults are parallel to each other.). and. and the throw is always in the same direction. owing to displacement. faults always include many pockets in which minerals may accumulate. Reversed fault. of the disrupted making the alternate outer angles zzb. and such occur . Dislocation of vein. 22). The faulted surfaces which have been compressed against each other are hardened. 25. Fault-line. and is then called a Mineral vein (see Chapter II. 6 The breadth or shift of a fauTt~~is~ the perpendicular Shift. FIG. Altered and Metamorphic Kocks.

and ordinary limestones into crystalline or statuary Rocks so changed are sometimes included under the marble. HYDRO-METAMORPHISM. certain sandstones into quartzites. either alone or in combination with various gases. forming what are known as Mineral veins metals themselves may be thus carried off and redeposited in faults and fissures in association with quartz and other . 3 minerals. silica. has been p. sandy clays into schists (see Foliation. forming valuable lodes or metalliferous veins. as Regional Metamorphism.. 1 These changes are due partly to the action of slowly Causes. [PT. infiltrating water by which rocks became modified in composition. or dissolves and removes some of the soluble parts of their 1 component minerals. or. calc-spar. Impure limestone may lose its carbonate of lime and become rotten-stone silica may be deposited in the interstices of loose sandstones and form quartzites open rock-fissures become filled up by crystallised deposits of quartz. bedded granite. as the alterap. generic term Metamorphic. alteration by pressure 1 is usually widespread. 95). deposits which are now being laid down . 49). by which rocks become modified in structure. or salts of iron in the interstices of the rocks. The still more metamorphosed highly metamorphosed massive crystalline rocks. and felsitic schist or Halleflinta. by which rocks became modified in structure (see Chapter VI. but the older strata have often undergone changes which have obliterated some of their original features which were due to deposition. which is itself an altered rock. which is known as Hydro-metamorphism . or. p. and have imparted characters which sometimes make it difficult or impossible to discover from observation that they were ever deposited in water at all. into a garnetiferous mica schist. as Contact Metamorphism and partly to the action of crust pressure. such as granitoid gneiss.46 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. partly to the action of heat. as when clay-slate. Water infiltrating through the pores and fissures of Action. . which is tion effected by heat is restricted to the rocks in contact with the intrusive masses. are also classed as metamorphic. rocks. Results. CH. and other * and the minerals. III. I. . and to reserve the term metarnorphic for rocks which have been more highly altered and have acquired a foliated or schistose character (see Foliation. which is known as Dynamo-metamorphism. desposits carbonate of lime. known as Thermo-metamorphism. as the . . Thus clays have been changed into slates. but it is more usual now to class rocks which still retain traces of bedding and other obvious proofs of their originally derivative condition as Altered. 49).

and occasionally even crystallise the rocks into which they are injected. when of suitable quality and reduced to proper size. Earthy and clayey rocks are changed into porcellanite and lydian-stone . and the rock now opens in parallel sheets. J is on the plane. of homo- geneous and comparatively soft material. cutting the surface of stratification to this plane C. 26. Parallel cleavage. and is often actually cleft by nature into very thin and BB numerous plates which. even the massive igneous rocks have been forced to assume a platey structure (Foliation} splitting into irregular leaves or folia of various degrees of thinness. The irresistible crushing forces generated in the earth-crust by the lateral pressure effect the most startling changes not only in the original texture. harden. they bake. limestones into marbles. here supposed vertical of a joint. ordinary detrital sediments become metamorphosed into crystalline and gneissoid rocks. angle the plane or curved surfaces of the stratification. loose sandstones are altered to semi-crystalline quartzites . Finally. but in the original structure of rocks subjected Soft clays and shales become crushed and to their influence. The edges of these plates may be traced with care on the vertical . constitute the roofing-slates of our European houses. in a molten Action. and. 3 Effects. In the case of rock-masses composed Cleavage.J STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. which represents a mass of rocks in which this definite quality of splitting is developed. C is one of the planes of in ss. in extreme cases. force their way into fissures in the earth's crust (as in the case of dykes and bosses). crust-pressure frequently 1 This consists in a produces the structure called Cleavage. BB is the surface (curved in this instance) of one bed of the stratification . parallel to a certain plane.OR REGIONAL METAMORPHISM. 47 THERMO. or intensely heated state. the original bedding becomes obliterated. peculiar fissility of the rocks which are affected by it. and their very minerals themselves have been com3 pelled to recrystallise in new and different forms. 1 DYNAMO. where the pressure has been most intense. the surfaces of which have little or no relation to the original layers of sedimentation (see Cleavage). the mass of rock here represented is cleavable by art.OR CONTACT METAMORPHISM. which almost always cuts at a considerable In fig. III. The metamorphic action due to heat is best seen around any granite boss. compacted into hard slates. Where great masses of igneous material.SECT.

[PT. 26. One general relation appears between the stratification and the cleavage a relation arising from the displacement of the strata by axes of elevation and the "strike" or horizontal taken on a great scale and the strike of the cleavage (similarly defined) be compared with it. the cleavage edges on the surface of the strata so The direction. III. these surfaces have in fact been folded. cleavage On the surfaces of stratification the a bed of sandthrough stone^). beyond this.48 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. trilobites. and are represented in the figure by fine lines. but meet the surfaces of stratification as in fig. perfect above and below them in fine- grained and more argillaceous strata. the cleavage may be. and then the cleavage and joint planes in those beds are not parallel to the general cleavage. to that of the strata 27). necessary known relation (fig. cleavage structure is frequently traced in narrow. surface of the joint J and the sloping surface of the bed B. In a country where the strata are much 6 undulated. CH. I. Showing that and confused. the dip of the strata being moderate. It will be observed that these lines do not cross the bed marked This is supposed to be a hard grit or conglomerate. and in these irregular layers becomes irregular. etc. at angles more nearly approaching to a At I the cleavage crosses right angle. and mostly is. 26. of the are horizontal lines (ss in fig. however. or plaited. in parallel planes. then. that of the cleavage is usually greater. which are thus more or less distorted in figure. is on the surface if this be . interrupted hollows and ridges . and numerous cleavage planes often cross sandstone beds. however. or nearly in other words. line Parallel to these axes of the strata .. 27. does not pass curved. and such g. rocks are sometimes only in a slight degree affected is by the cleavage which. 26). but the inclination of the cleavage has no depression. cleavage in a given district is dependent in a general sense on that of the axes of earth-flexure in that district . Certain small joints. FIG. and the little folds thus occasioned are traceable across shells. Stratification and cleavage. . that Parallel cleavage in contorted FIG. the direction of each is found to be the same. or puckered by the force which occasioned the cleavage . strata of North Devon. nodular limestone or ironstone.

characteristic rocks of areas of regional These foliated rocks or crystalline gneisses and are normally divided into lens-like layers or folia alternately of different texture or mineralogical composition. The schistose rocks are always crumpled and contorted. a schist being l a rock which has had a parallel or foliated structure secondarily developed in it by shearing. This term is denned as "a crystalline segregation of certain minerals in a rock. and thus to dissect whole mountains into a multitude of angular solids. and when they assume a looser texture became scoriae or ashes. which may be those of stratification. 10 but it is more ordinarily used as a synonym for schistosity or the quality of being schistose.SECT. such as heat or pressure. with rhomboidal or triangular faces. and the plane of easiest division between the folia is known as the plane of schistosity? The distinctive feature in foliation is the crystallisation of the mineral flakes which to split into layers along the plane of produce the tendency schistosity which is characteristic of foliated rock. the minerals no longer form separately. but we may with more probability here also appeal to tension in successively different directions as the true cause of these phenomena. of shearing. capable of partially or wholly obliterating the original marks of stratification . 49 Joints.] STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF ROCKS. but generally is not. Foliation is. the joints. in fact. Aqueous. as at the earth's surface under the pressure of the atmosphere. 6 Foliation. or of fracture under the strain of flexure " . and when this rock cools more rapidly. poured out in a lava stream these rocks are called felstones. or is due to the same cause when the forces producing it are more powerful. and Metamorphic Rocks. In slate districts. 6 The dominant and metamorphism are the schists. Relation between Igneous. more numerous and more regular than in any other known rock. which strongly impress upon the beholder the notion of an imperfect crystallisation. in dominant planes. only an intense form of cleavage. The secondary foliation or 1 schistosity may be. III. a process generally accompanied by more or less recrystallisation of the constituents in layers parallel to the cleavage. have almost universally a tendency to intersect one another at acute and obtuse angles. and 6 commonly occur on the flanks of the older mountain ranges. of joints. If now we suppose the rocks over a central granite mass to become 4 . parallel to the bedding. The central cores of many volcanoes are found to be of granite . produced in these argillaceous rocks since their deposition and consolidation by some agency. but constitute rock consisting more or less obviously When of a felspathic matrix in which crystals may occur.

Thus it follows that clay. felstone. 28) will illustrate the relations of the several kinds of rocks to each other. 28. ditions of the to each other existence. GRANITE Ideal section. slate.50 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. I. which have been produced in sequence by the pressure which also brings mountains into and changes the outlines of land and water. fractured through their thickness so as to allow water to penetrate to the heated mass and form a funnel or vent out of which the heated materials may escape. granite. it is obvious that the central crystalline rocks will throw out lavas and ashes which may build up a volcano. [PT. may all exist simultaneously as different con- down CLEAVAGE BEDDING FOLIATION CLAY SLATE GNEISS FIG. rhyolite. The ideal mountain range. 6 . CH. gneiss. and show the order in which the several classes of rocks may succeed each other on the flanks of a same rock. III. section (fig.

Petrography. ROCKS AND MINERALS. Chapter VI. but Petrology more generally used to denote microscopic characters and is Lithology to denote macroscopic characters. 10 Rock is a solid mineral product which is at once of considerable extent and presents a general similarity of characters throughout 10 (see Introductory Remarks. .). and Lithology are frequently used indiscriminately to denote the science of rocks. The engineer can best study the nature and effects of geological forces after he has acquired some knowledge of the constituents of the earth's crust. Petrology. 1 Minerals are either the uncombined chemical elements in a native state or compounds of these elements formed in accordance with chemical laws.PART THE terms II.

mere inspection shows us that there are at least three different kinds of matter. IV. that by no amount of mechanical division can any of these three substances be reduced to others having THE first solid portion of the earth is usually a loose soil. Form. but in all their manifold properties. moreover. 2. . constituents. Si0 2 silicon A ternary compound consists of three dioxide or silica. DEFINITIONS. hydrogen oxide or water.PT. Element. They are therefore called Minerals. CHAPTER IV. The distinguishing characteristics of minerals are : l 1. mineral product met with in the examination of the beneath which is a firmer material to which the term Rock is applied. 1 Physical characters. That form of matter which cannot be decomposed by any means known to science. Compound. The union of any two elements forms a binary compound. able to detect different kinds of matter. CH. for instance. Section I. On inspection the soil is found to be a mixture of fragments of substances of different kinds. different characters. Chemical composition. and in most rocks the unaided eye is In granite. II. but to make these 1 notes more complete a few definitions are given. as H 2 0. least. It is desirable that the student of geology should possess. 3. Compound single A group of different atoms acting as a Radicle. THE STUDY OF MINERALS. which are distinct from each other not only in outward appearance. It will be found. at an elementary knowledge of chemistry. element in a compound and incapable of independent 52 . Mineral Chemistry.

arsenide An earth is an earth-like metallic oxide. CaO. as alumina. acid. by far the greater number which form rocks being silicates of one of the bases. series. 2 Oxide. H 2 S0 4 . -ous implying the smaller proportion of oxygen . the principal component of limestone. ammonium chloride. sulphuric acid . partly The union of a metal with oxygen usually soluble in water. Alkaline earths are barium hydrate. sulphur. carbonate = a salt of carbonic acid. . Monoxide. as NaCl. sulphates. . 8 The union of a non-metal with hydrogen.g. etc. e.g. and calcium hydrate. . an oxide containing only one atom of oxygen. A compound body capable of neutralising an acid. The most important acids which affect rocks are silicic acid. 8 The endings -ous and -ic distinguish between Terminations. 8 The action of an acid on a base of its hydrogen by a metal. e. sulphides. which is displaceable by a metal. or mixtures of them . hydrochloric acid 2 silicic acid. usually metals. sulphate .] THE STUDY OF MINERALS .SECT. chlorides. The ending -ide denotes a compound of an element or radicle with another . produces CaC0 3 carbonate of lime or calcium carbonate. ferrous oxide = = peroxide of iron. a few are carbonates. I. 1 Base. a salt. an oxide having a larger proportion of oxygen than any other oxide of the same . sulphide (also known as sulphuret) = a compound of = a compound of arsenic. as A1 2 3 alumina . are combined with three atoms of oxygen. an oxide containing a single atom of oxygen in combination with a basic radicle Sesquioxide. ferric oxide = a salt of -ate is used for the salt of an acid e. two compounds formed by oxygen with the same element. usually produces an . and sulphuric acid. Any binary compound of oxygen either with an element or with an organic radicle. etc. an oxide in which two basic radicles. 8 2 produces a base. etc. an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen to the molecule . strontium hydrate. Protoxide. A compound containing hydrogen the whole or part of Acid. lime. or with hydrogen and oxygen. sodium chloride (common salt) . A metal is an element capable of forming a base by combining with oxygen.g. in NH 4 C1. This term is used in comparison with Peroxide. 8 The elementary atoms are simple radicles. as NH 4 ammonium. as HC1. 53 existence. Dioxide or Binoxide. carbonic acid. A compound derived from an acid by the displacement Salt. H 2 Si0 2 . either An alkali is only a base which is very or entirely. 8 sulphuric acid. 8 The ending protoxide of iron. Most minerals are salts.

28-4 . Thus the atom of hydrogen is a monad simple radicle. . . Chemists have classified the constituents of the earth into elementary bodies. This term was formerly used to denote all nonMetalloid. . which no analysis has 6 The most important of yet been able to further subdivide. [PT. CONSTITUENTS OF EARTH. .T Non-metals. phosphorus. v . from a geological point of view. those equivalent to four atoms are termed tetrad elements. . sulphur. 16'0 Aluminium Calcium . . .g. . carbon and silicon. cording to their power of combining with or replacing different Those which are equivalent in combining quantities of hydrogen. are given in the accompanying table. Elements. . 27'0 . selenium . the atom of oxygen a dyad simple radicle. as arsenic and antimony. . . i Atomic Oxygen Silicon . oxygen. . . e. iodine. metals. e. Not only can the elements thus be considered as possessing varying quantivalence. Manganese Barium. . Anhydride is a compound which produces an acid when 8 brought into contact with water. . those equivalent to three atoms are termed triad elements. 55 '0 137'0 7 '02 52' 1 8 . e. 12'0 32-06 1*008 Magnesium Potassium . Chromium . or elements. 35 -45 31'0 19'0 .g. Lithium . .56*0 . II. chlorine. . . nr Metals. . . fluorine those equivalent to two atoms of hydrogen are termed bivalent or dyad elements. Carbon Sulphur . Phosphorus Fluorine . . Atomic weight . . Sodium Iron .g. .54 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. the most abundant of each group being placed first : . where 1 they are called organic radicles. Hydrogen Chlorine .g. IV. Radicles play the same part among carbon compounds. but also those groups of elementary atoms which act collectively as elements and to which the name of compound radicle is given (see above). <. bromine. whilst the group OH is a monad compound radicle. nitrogen. 10 The elements are divided into groups acQuantivalence. or displacing power to a single atom of hydrogen are said to be univalent or monad elements. CH. and arsenic . 40 '0 24 '3 39-11 23-05 . these. . but is now restricted to those which resemble metals. e.

8 Oxygen (0) forms by weight about one-half It unites world..'. . . 3J 100 5 of the mineral elements except fluorine and bromine. . with others alkalies. . .. . . . . with all Sulphur and oxygen. .] THE STUDY OP MINERALS.. . 55 few elements preponderate very greatly in the earth's crust. Aluminium Calcium . or with oxygen and metals forming silicates. . oxygen in two proportions. and with others neutral substances. . . Chlorine (Cl) is never found in the uncombined state. Sulphur (S) is remarkable for its abundant occurrence in nature in the uncombined state in many volcanic districts. . . . . but is very abundant in the mineral world in the form of chlorides. 10 It is found as sulphuretted hydrogen in many mineral waters. .SECT. and in the properties they exhibit. forming with some acids. . -. and chiefly occurs combined with calcium. . is never found in the free state. as fluor-spar. and very abundantly in combination with metals forming sulphides and in combination with oxygen and in metal-forming sulphates. Chlorates are the salts of chloric acid (HC10 3 ). constituent of water and in organic compounds. organic substances. occurring as a . It has been estimated that within 60 miles notably oxygen. and anthracite. . . 8 It does not Fluorine (Fl) is always found in combination. though very abundant in nature. Silicon (Si). . . Potassium The remainder . 50 25 10 4J 4j 2 1 Magnesium Sodium . . . Hydrogen (H) is very abundant in nature. below). the salts of carbon dioxide. . when both are in the gaseous state. forming the compounds known as Carbonates are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (C0 2 ). combine with oxygen. . correspond very closely in the compounds which they form. . -. of the earth's surface the percentages are as follows : A Oxygen Silicon .. as silica (see Compounds. Carbon is capable of combining with graphite. I. ' '. 10 Carbon (C) is especially remarkable for its uniform presence in Free carbon occurs in the form of diamond. though very dissimilar in their physical nature of the characters. but always in combination. . either with oxygen alone. . .

is an important constituent of rocks. Calcium (Ca) occurs in combination with silica and various silicates as a rock-builder. Sodium combined with chlorine forms common salt (NaCl). VI. in combination with silica. and with the protoxide (ferrous oxide) occurs in most crystalline rocks. Phosphorus (P) occurs combined with oxygen. and asbestos are silicates of magnesia (MgO) . 8 of combining with water to form hydrates. though not as abundant as calcium. [PT. It occurs in abundance as the mineral quartz. Epsom salts is the common name for sulphate of magnesia. steatite.56 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. IV. Combined with sulphuric acid calcium forms gypsum and anhydrite. thus is formed from water potassium hydrate by the replace2 Most bases are capable KHO H ment of H 8 by K. and is found nearly pure as sapphire. body it may either effect a simple solution or enter into chemical combination with it. magnesite is a carbonate. II. forms the basis of many rocks and soils. 1 is often found with iron among aqueous The combinations of water (H 2 0) with other substances are When water acts upon a compound generally called Hydrates. . chiefly in calcic phosphate..). 8 amorphous form it is a soft white insoluble powder. as exemplified in the slaking of lime. The hydrate of a metal is defined as a compound formed by the replacement of a part of the hydrogen in water by a metal . Magnesium (Mg). CH. and also forms many silicates in combination with metallic bases. 1 Alumina or aluminium oxide (A1 2 3 ) occurs chiefly in union with silica. and dolomite is formed by a combination of calcium carbonate with magnesium carbonate. Section IV. Potassium (K) or sodium (Na). It is the most abundant of all the earths. and. and In its emery. Silica or silicon-dioxide (Si0 2 ) constitutes more than half of the known portion of the crust of the earth. being a common constituent of the silicate minerals. but it is most abundant in union with C0 2 as calcite (CaC0 3 ) or limestone rock. Iron (Fe) is the principal colouring agent in rocks (see Chapter Its peroxide (ferric oxide) forms large masses. corundum. Talc. When crystallised it is intensely hard. is found in most silicates in small quantities. Manganese (Mn) rocks. The metals chiefly occur in the form of oxides or combined with sulphur. Compounds. The main bulk of the crust of the earth is formed of a few predominate compounds.

. such as citric. is Behaviour before the Blowpipe. This test has been very freely applied to Solubility in Acids. e. and thus affect that organ. (3) saline. Minerals occur in two conditions They are without any definite geometrical (1) Amorphous. obtained from serpentine. commonly required these reagents. and oxalic acids. and the time allowed for Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids are those most nitric acid may be useful if to hand. obtained from some varieties of quartz and limestone by friction or a blow with a hammer..] THE STUDY OF MINERALS.SECT. (5) cooling. and by heat from 13 most. II. Many decomposed minerals. The chemical composition of a mineral can only be ascertained by exact analysis. MODE OF OCCURRENCE. may also be used. unchanged may be obtained from several by moistening with the breath. Horse-radish odour. however. of the arsenical salts and ores. (6) bitter. Amongst the most remarkable varieties are the following Argillaceous. taste of sulphuric acid. the odour of sulphuretted hydrogen. 57 CHEMICAL CHARACTERS. which is beyond the scope of this book. as a guide to some of their properties. minerals. 13 (7) sour. having the taste of vitriol (2) sweetish-astringent. (4) alkaline. flame-coloration. by friction. garlic odour. taste of saltpetre. etc. Fetid. taste of common salt. Taste is a means of distinguishing many of the soluble minerals.. Section III. and some allied minerals by breathing upon them. they break in all directions with equal facility . form . tartaric. Organic acids. or by the application of acid. taste of alum is Odour . the odour of moistened clay. the temperature employed. Section IV. not possessed by any minerals in a dry. . taste of soda. and by heat from most of the sulphurets. 15 See Chapter XL. by heat. Sulphurous odour. obtained by friction from some. It is. obtained by friction from pyrites. Alliaceous or perceived when the ores of selenium are heated. adhere more or less strongly to the tongue. state but it : : .g. when : . given in some cases in the list of minerals in Chapter V. although they have no sensible taste. fusidescribed in Chapter XL. The tastes of minerals are thus described (1) astringent. for the methods of testing with the attack. reactions. Acids are chiefly used in the examination of carbonates. chlorite. Mineral Forms. Section II. bility. though with results varying according to the strength of the acid. taste of Epsom salts.

The same mineral may occur in both conditions. except such as may be parallel to These mutual inclinations are quite independent of the it. CH. They have a definite geometrical form . and. as is shown by measurement with the goniometer 39 (see Chapter XL. 12 minerals occur in the following states Amorphous The substance (a) Colloidal. and they are constant for similar planes even in different crystals of the same mineral. artificial The p. assume definite polyhedral forms which are constant for the same substance. The same substance is often capable of assuming both the crystalline and glassy state. Glassy bodies occasionally become stony by the formation of minute crystals within them . broken. solution very feebly and is easily precipitated. assist him in identifying the more important rock-forming minerals. resembling jelly or glue. and when no indications of crystalline structure are apparent in a mineral (2) Crystalline. the glass is then said to be devitrified. The term crystal is applied to natural and substances which. 62) . and they are equally hard and equally clastic in all directions.. however. the angle which such an edge encloses is called an interfacial angle. 12 The surfaces of a crystal are called planes or faces they interA crystal edge is the line of intersection sect in edges and angles. if soluble in water. Crystallography.58 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. said to be massive. aggregate it is : often insoluble in water. subject. viz. size or general form of the crystals. 219). however. IV. p. By the term crystal angle is meant the solid angle in which three or more crystal faces meet. 65). they exhibit a conchoidal or earthy surface (see Section III. Every plane in a crystal has a definite inclination or slope in relation to every other plane. (b) Glassy or vitreous The glass may consist of several minerals fused into one homogeneous substance. a good may. in solidifying from a state whether of solution or fusion.. of two crystal planes . is held in It is. has no power to crystallise. they are possess neither equally hard nor equally clastic in all directions. and the engineer will probably be content to refer to A brief description of the various specialists in all difficult cases. CRYSTAL FORMS. more common in rocks than in minerals. 1 crystal systems many of . To understand the higher branches of this deal of mathematical knowledge and skill is required. II. [PT. Crystal. p. they the property of cleavage (see Section III.

ratios of the parameters. " " elements are said to be fixed. c. 1 The axes may cut each other at right angles or at any other The number and relative situation of the axes. and ditetragonal pyramid : element" and prism (fig. the FIG. the proportion existing between the length of the principal and lateral axes. 59 Axes. 29. The . 39 There are six of these. the others are called lateral. II. 5 That part of each axis extending from the centre to the surface of a crystal. Cubic system. Important forms are the octahedron (magnetic iron ore). fig. 29. blende). a hexahedron or cube (fluorspar. Cubic (regular or monometric).SECT. and equal in length. Crystal Systems. b also combinations as in fig. in other words. or faces. and the relative lengths varying in different minerals. y . in others shorter than the laterals. 29. to each other. is called its parameter. in some pyramidal minerals it is longer. 29." which are supposed to exist within the crystal. c). 39 Principal forms are tetragonal pyramid and tetragonal prism of the first order (fig. These axes cross each other at a certain point within the crystal. 30. 30. or. a. Three axes at right angles to each other. Three axes at right angles. a) . dodecahedron (garnet). or edges. One is selected as Rhombic. variable . 30. . The third or principal axis is . the same of the second order. fig. and the angles. 29. fig. 39 similarly related. octahedron b. viz. There is consequently one " variable in this system. All unequal in length. . dodecahedron d combination of cube and octahedron. b) . the axial intercept. the principal. differing only in the position of the lateral axes (fig. the axes (consequently the parameters or semi-axes) As the axes are equal to each other. d. tetrahedron . called lateral. rock-salt) . two equal Tetragonal (dimetric). and each axis terminates on the surface at similar and opposite angles. hemi-octahedron or tetrahedron (grey copper.] THE STUDY OF MINERALS. The planes of all crystals are referred to certain imaginary lines termed "axes. c Three axes at right angles. together constitute what are called the elements of a crystal.

pyramid and prism of second order pyramid and prism of first order c. relative lengths variable in different minerals. a. b. Various combinations are shown in fig. b." that CL FIG. a. IV. b Rhombic system. Tetragonal system. 30. e." that at right angles with it is termed the "orthodiagonal. Various combinations are shown in fig.. FIG. One of the two which are at right angles is taken for "principal." this system." There are consequently " three variable " elements in this system. rt d. CH." the shorter the " Thus there are two variable elements in brachydiagonal. which is inclined is the "clinodiagonal. ditetragonal pyramid and prism. two at right angles. -and the inclination of the " clinodiagonal " to The ideal form is the oblique rhombic the "principal. 31. . 32. and usually all unequal. 32. viz. The most perfect form is a double pyramid on a rhombic base. the ratios respectively of the "macro" and 39 "brachy" diagonals to the principal. II. e various combinations. 31. c. . 6 and c.60 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. [PT. third inclined at different angles in different systems . . a). the Oblique (monoclinic). Three axes." 39 octahedron (fig. the ratios of two axes to the third. longer lateral axis is the "macrodiagonal. viz.

b. when the other two will be lateral. and usually unequal. oblique b. 39 The Very few forms occur in nature. of different lateral. the FIG. rhombic octahedron ." the shorter brachydiagonal. 13 Hexagonal (rhombohedral). combinations . system. The longer lateral may be termed "macro" diagonal." as in'the rhombic system. doubly oblique). a. . 33) is the ideal or fundamental form of sulphate of copper. . two axes to the third. at right angles to the three lateral equal lying phate of copper). length sometimes longer. " are four variable " elements in this system. pyroxene. doubly prism (sul- Four in . II. ratios of other. 32. 34. the fourth principal. FIG. sometimes shorter.] THE STUDY OF MINERALS. d. Oblique system. quartz). variable element in the system. viz. This is the only . 39 The principal simple form is the hexagonal dodecahedron . axes. hexagonal dodecahedron rhombohedron c. all inclined at different angles. three is FlQ> 33> _ Anorthic a. Hexagonal system. gypsum c. a. c. doubly oblique prism (fig. oblique and inclined to each other 60 one plane. 61 Anorthic in length Thus there Three axes.SECT. and their inclinations to each Either of the axes may be taken as principal. all variable (triclinic. . combinations (d. b.

This. of these are. and the Fig.. of splitting in in others. when half of the faces are suppressed it is hemihedral. a) . cleavage. the reader is referred to text-books of mineralogy. CLEAVAGE. but appear. Physical Characters of Minerals. as a rule. is The perfectly developed crystal is very rare. 63-64. 34. as columnar or fibrous masses (see Structure. 5 The term truncation denotes that an edge is replaced by a surface. the individuals are rarely recognisable with anything like their full number of faces. touch.. translucency. arranged as symmetrically twinned forms. sufficient numbers. attached at one end. The most important streak. etc. polarisation. formed apparently by the outgrowth of two similar crystals from a medial line. A crystal 1 is often twinned. the individuals of the group having a more or less radial arrangement diverging from the point of attachment. that the Modified Forms. as well as for thermal and electrical properties. which may be either parallel to it or placed obliquely . fracture. according to the size of the spheroids. The faces and 1 edges of crystals will often vary. Section III. the faces are exhibited a crystal is said to be holohedral . pleochroism. when not Irregular Grouping of Crystals. b) various combinations are shown in fig. IV. refraction. 34. the rhombohedron (fig. colour. all When edge is replaced by two planes placed parallel to it. 7 Section III. d. 63The latter. 34. For other properties. are spoken of as groups or crystalline aggregates. fluorescence. Masses of crystals. CH. When the aggregates are of a more compact kind. hardness. It is peculiar to . make up more or less spheroidal masses which. when in 64) arranged in parallel or divergent forms. A crystal is called a pseudomorph when it has the crystalline form characteristic of a mineral different from it in chemical composition. with the faces terminating the opposite end freely developed. may be considered as the most typical kind of grouping of well-individualised crystals. 12 assume imitative shapes.. Pseudomorphism. that is.62 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. as described under Structure in Section III. pp. e. These are commonly found in hollow spaces or druses in the containing rock. 34. This is the property possessed by many certain directions more readily than crystals. and bevelment. common type . tenacity. pp. [PT. specific gravity. II. lustre. most usual form of quartz. structure.g. but the angles remain unchanged. in general terms. (fig. a d. is c.

faces. or crystals. Made up of minute fibres or prisms. Quality of Cleavage. but has no relation to tenacity or hardness. (2) It occurs parallel to the faces of a fundamental form. (3) It is always the same in character parallel to similar faces of a crystal.). (4) All same readiness. (5) Some minerals present peculiar cleavages of subordinate character. 63 surfaces of separation are called cleavage planes. closely compacted together. (6) slate. The term "structure" is often reserved for the larger and " coarser features. 12 when only STRUCTURE. and hammer . 12 Cleavage is therefore directly related to crystalline structure. and hornblende . thus calc-spar has sometimes a cleavage parallel to the longer diagonal of its planes. The and are usually along the diagonals. surfaces is known. It may be of the following kinds : : . The terms used to denote the quality of cleavage are highly perfect. structure of many rocks is another result of the same property 13 Chapter III. while "texture is used for the smaller and finer but it is preferable to use the latter term to describe the ones. as in fluorspar. and. and very imperfect. parallel to the faces of one of the principal 1 When the direction of such crystal forms of the mineral. III. nature of the surface of a mineral or rock. being obtained with equal ease and affording planes of like lustre . Section III. very perfect. cannot be cleaved by the knife insuperable. Cleavage extends to rock-masses where it is observed. barytes. as in mica . as in The jointed chiefly with reference to one set of planes. conversely. While the resistance in the other directions may be considerably greater. for example.SECT. but it may sometimes be made to exhibit the property by plunging it into cold water while very hot. as in augite and chrysolite . traces of cleavage can be obtained. and sometimes in incrustations. perfect. (see imperfect. as in garnet and quartz . It is common in the seams of rocks. it is dissimilar parallel to dissimilar simple minerals do not submit to cleavage with the and in some the difficulty of effecting it is almost Quartz. The most important kinds of mineral structure are as follows J Columnar..] THE STUDY OF MINERALS. independent of the principal cleavage . a comparatively slight cutting or wedging strain will be sufficient to produce a separation. (1) It is uniform in all the varieties of the same mineral. Laws of Cleavage.

gypsum and (1) Fibrous. the fibres crossing and resembling a net. laminae thick. Ex. heavy-spar.. quartz. b. Ex. (3) Stellated. . globular .. [FT. 35. (1) Foliaceous. either thick or thin. Imitative shapes of minerals. botryoidal d. grey antimony. or with delicate parallel fibres. Ex. wavellite. and producing a star(4) Radiated and FIG. Ex. stalactitic. IV. fibres radiating from a centre like appearance. separating easily or with difficulty. (2) Tabular. (2) Reticulated. as in mica . c. mica. Ex. reniform e. II. asbestos. CH. divergent. leaves thin and separating easily. Lamellar. . quartz. mammillary . whence this variety is sometimes called micaceous... .. fibres radiating but not stellar. The laminae may be clastic. a.64 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Exhibits laminae or leaves (parallel plates). stilbite.

a surface free from marked depressions or elevations. and pulverulent. They are also sometimes arranged in stellar shapes. Ductility threads. malachite. but consisting of larger prominences filiform. hanging from the roof of a cavern or cavity carbonate of lime. having curved markings like those seen on the inside of many bivalve shells. as granular marble . brown iron ore. Drusy a cavity is said to be drusy when it is lined with distinct crystals. as in talc or graphite . or covered with sharp. Even. slender. like a thread stalactitic. or only . earthy. as into wire or in the case of mica. wire-like points. or easily crushed. is 5 . This term explains itself. Minerals may be or resistance to crushing. Granular. . : FRACTURE. when the mineral breaks like a piece of dried clay.. specular iron . III. : p. and admits of the following varieties (1) coarse granular. . . hackly. opal . Conchoidal (shell-like). Nature of Surface. or easily crumbled by the fingers. Imitative Shapes. . . a powder. (2) fine granular. minerals (see Section II. 1 Sectility is the property of being smoothly cut with a knife.] THE STUDY OF MINERALS. or 39 Others are very easily broken with a blow. The following terms are used to describe the surfaces of minerals broken in directions which are not cleavage planes Form of Surface. splintery.SECT. as in serpentine and fibrous haematite. a surface having irregular depressions or elevations. TENACITY. like a needle or conical. broken with difficulty. as granular quartz. as tourmaline. : Massive and imperfectly crystallised 62) sometimes take the following shapes (see fig. as in native copper. or kidneyshaped botryoidal. or brittle. as in lithomarge . (3) impalpable. and the structure either radiating or concentric reniform. and chalcedony are the chief minerals found in a stalactitic form. 65 flexible. cylindrical acicular. as chalcedony. (4) friable. as hornblende brittle. to friable Frangibility tough. 35) globular. . between the fingers. A mineral 13 having a drusy cavity is sometimes called a geode. as in diallage. when the shape is spherical. Smooth. as the property of being drawn out. 39 Uneven. when a mass consists of a number of rounded prominences like a bunch of grapes mammillary. resembling the former. as in mica. as in : flint and opal.

Malleability is the property of being hammered without 10 breaking or cracking. Moh's scale of hardness is as follows : 1. is It is gravity of a substance is the weight of any volume of with that of an equal volume of water. as talc and other magnesian minerals. IV.66 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Meagre. The feel or touch of some minerals is characteristic. as to the tongue? actinolite. Quartz. if it only just it. is specific gravity. adhere Harsh. 4. copper. Calcite. 5. according to their power of transmitting light throughout their . Orthoclase. Sapphire. etc. its hardness will be I'l or T2. 3. semi-transparent. A substance is said to be flexible when a thin plate Rigidity. If selenite scratches TOUCH. In systematic mineralogy. [PT. after being bent. it springs back to its original form. or moistureless dry and rough to the touch. 9. Topaz. or unctuous. Talc. Selenite. or unpleasantly rough. translucent in various degrees. of The density of a substance its matter per unit of volume. 10. silver. Some minerals SPECIFIC GRAVITY. 2. a mineral will scratch talc with the same ease with which be 1'5. Fluor-spar. e. minerals are classed as transparent. 7. its hardness will scratches talc. Diamond. CH. as talc . 8. Apatite. and opaque. 6. The following terms are used Soapy. 12 HARDNESS.g. as chalk : : and magnesite. 10 it compared TRANSLUCENCY. since mass the mass or quantity proportional to the The specific proportional to weight. gold. II. can be bent and remains so without breaking. and elastic when. The hardness of minerals may be compared by trying to scratch them with a knife or a file. Definitions. its hardness will be 1-8 or 1-9. and if selenite 1 only just scratches it.

does not appear to be susceptible of transmitting light under any condition. calcite. particuis opaque. where the thickness of the substance must be considered. lead grey of galena. III. for example. and iron black of magnetite and graphite. 67 mass . The test of transparency is the power of discerning an object through a parallel-sided plate or crystal of a certain thickness. zincblende in its lighter varieties. easily distinguishable.g. without reference to the homogeneity or colour of the substance. a better is usually constant for the same mineral.SECT. as it of the powder of a mineral produced by drawing it or piece of unglazed porcelain is. and. especially when it is dark-coloured. copper red of metallic copper . colour is often of very little use for distinguishing minerals. when only a cloudy light like that seen through oiled paper or ground glass is transmitted. in minute. Rockcrystal. brass yellow of copper pyrites. Flint and obsidian. or in thin splinters. and is therefore opaque. characteristic of native metals and heavy metallic sulphides. 1 LUSTRE. among the ores of the heavy metals. on the other hand. : . these terms being used in the popular sense. while in thicker masses they are apparently Ferric oxide and its hydrates are also fairly translucent opaque. The chief kinds are Metallic. microscopic crystals. it is translucent . it These terms are to a certain degree relative. Some metallic colours are. and barytes. when no light is transmitted. When the object is only imperfectly seen. the brilliancy of polished metals. Owing to the frequent admixture of foreign substances which cause the same mineral to assume varying tints. are said to be translucent at the edges. bronze red and bronze yellow of magnetic pyrites. the brilliancy of the diamond. however. e. The colour over a file guide. larly in the lower degrees. are among the most transparent substances known.] THE STUDY OF MINERALS. 12 STREAK. Magnetite. however. but opaque when sufficiently large to be apparent without magnifying. gypsum. 12 COLOUR. as are also the native metals and most of the heavy metallic sulphides. Adamantine. the substance is semi-transparent . This is the quality of the surface of a mineral as regards the kind and intensity of the light it reflects.

nepheline. or glimmering. CH. the brilliancy of a freshly oiled reflecting surface characteristic of slightly transparent minerals such as . 12 glistening. Vitreous or glassy. shining. characteristic of quartz.68 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. IV. II. characteristic of minerals with perfect cleavage. Fatty or greasy. like gypsum. Nacreous. serpentine. and sulphur. Silky. Resinous or waxy. Intensity of lustre is denoted by the terms splendent. but these are used very loosely. . such as satin-spar. characteristic of fibrous aggregates. like mother-of-pearl. etc. [FT.

and silica series. gravity. chlorite. = Chemical composition. manganese. Hardness. garnet. Sphene. described in alphabetical order of single minerals felspar. kaolin. = Fracture. Feel. ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. = Cleavage. Col. however. Fluor-spar. CLASSIFICATION. marcasite. 1 ABBREVIATIONS. iron. Sir.] CHAPTER V. Cl. Hydrous serpentine. chiastolite.CH. Fus. Phosphates. Tr. Anhydrous Oxides. copper pyrites. Felspars. = Crystallographic and other forms. micas and talcs. ilmenite. Flame Flame-coloration. dolomite. epidote. = Streak. Feeling to the touch. Ten. Zeolites. = Lustre. aragonite. : and Sulphides. zincblende. micas. Sulphates. Carbonates. Lus. talc. IN this chapter the most important rock-forming minerals are. Fr. = TransComp. as shown in the following list Native Elements. sulphur.= . Iron pyrites. augite-hornblende group. = Specific gr. glauconite. important groups. usually classified in chemical groups. Silicates. for convenient reference. tourmaline. H. leucite. Crys. Fluorides. Calcite. Quartz. haematite. Hydrous Oxides. Colour. psilomelane. Hydrocarbons. Graphite. Anhydrous Silicates. nepheline. In works on mineralogy they are. 69 = Tenacity. siderite. gypsum. celestine. Titanate. V. Apatite. magnetite. jSp. Limonite. olivine. Barytes. Chlorides. such as augite-hornblende. anhydrite. lucency. Rock-salt. Asphalt. galena.

. 3-3'5. Tr. 14 Flame. see Augite -Hornblende group . pearly on the others. Crystals.).. usually massive .. Sp. H. tube Closed tube. alumina blue. transparent to opaque. t Crys. characters. CaS0 4 or CaO 41-18. imperfect. and granular aggregates. The three cleavages. calcium with 2 HCl. tube = = Soda = Sodium carbonate. Adularia. Ch. vitreous. and exposed for a long period to the air it becomes partially hydrated. It is found in argillaceous schists... =0n charcoal. prisms. olive-green or violet. Comp. usually elongated Sp. Chapter XL must be read in conjunction LIST OF MINERALS. Sulphuric acid. Micr. FUB. gr... vitreous usually white or blue. 14 Flame. with cobalt. Apatite (Phosphate of Lime). infusible. transparent to translucent. reddish brown. sometimes red. decomposed by fusion with caustic alkalies. silicate of alumina. see Felspars. gneiss... H sulphur reaction. . white. 0. Sol. Albite. Borax bead. see Augite-Hornblende group Hornblende.. with soda. also Crys. Comp. splintery.. Hornblende. Lus. Fusibility. the former being often curved. H. see Felspars . Andalusite (Chiastolite). no water. or changes into gypsum 14 (see Chapter XIX. HCl. in of rock-salt. see Felspars .. The variety called Chiastolite shows a cuneiform Occurrence. Fr. Tr. t . Actinolite.. A1 2 3 63'10 per cent. Orthoclase. and similar rocks. S0 4 58'82 per cent. hardness greater than 1 gypsum.. [pi. HCl = Hydrochloric acid. Str. Occurrence. II. gr. uneven or splintery.. 7-7'5. Amphibole. Str. t white. white. generally of gypsum.70 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. grey. hexagonal. 3'15-3'35. Testing Minerals. Fr. Si0 2 36 '90. does not split into laminae like gypsum. Ch. Analcime.. Col. not affected by acids . about 2 '5. are usually columnar . mica schist. Dist. = Microcosmic salt bead. Alabaster. uneven. . Sol. 15 an associate Essentially Sol. Fus. Soda. Lus. crystals uncommon. hemihedral.. Plagioclase. see Gypsum. Cl. rhombic in fibrous. Co/. pyramidally of large size.. rhombic. three rectangular cleavages.. swells up to porous mass. see Zeolites. = open tube. 2*89-3. Cl.... or tessellated pattern in the cross-section of the prism. on basal cleavage. Bor. 14 Anhydrite (Anhydrous Calcium Sulphate). when Crys. with Chapter IV. Cl. 7/2 $0 4 = Solubility in acids. but does not fuse. lamellar. When Anorthite. Cl. tube.

15 Fus. Sometimes visible as yellowish-white streaks in metamorphic rocks. or other rocks. rhombic.. conchoidal. Fr. pink. violet. in hollows and druses in marls. Phosphorite is a massive. despite too small for detection with^the eye. scratchable commonly Dist. Phosphatic Rocks. CL.] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS.. with nitric acid and ammonium molybdate solution. but this test cannot be applied to the imperfectly crystallised varieties. somewhat resembling calcite also in fibrous. basalts. phosphorus reaction. or Col. Small fragments may thus be dealt with on a glass 15 slip. and curved coral or plant-like forms (flosferri). 14 Comp. transparent. 14 Common as a constituent of the shells of Forms also radial groups in the cavities of many genera. limeOccurrence.. 7 Varieties. often of very considerable size. spheroidal. amorphous... in crystalline limestones... short. stalactitic. with Fus.. be its characters. H. Cl tube. Sol. 3Ca 3 P 2 8 + Ca(Cl 2 Fl 2 ). soluble in strong HC1. Flame. often with a fibrous structure. Crys.. : . and mam- millated variety. 4*5-5. When in crystals apatite may often by its shape. Lus. Its inferior hardness prevents being mistaken for beryl.. 3 '5-4. and in mineral veins. altered rocks.. p. and those with little or no chlorine Fluorapatite. blue. or grey. but. pointed. 71 and moderately broad. Tr. differently terminated. translucent. conchoidal.. concretionary. Col.. uneven. radiated. 14 colourless. variable. Apophyllite. resinous on fractures. Coinp. H. and effervesce with acids. none. Section II. Aragonite is harder than calcite. The absence of the marked cleavage of calcite is a good distinguishing . bluish green and greenish yellow most opaque. imperfect.. common. when microscopic. with HC1. Occurrence. A drop of H 2 S0 4 added to the Treated solution precipitates microscopic crystals of gypsum. especially those of iron ore. gr. Principally in veins or interspersed in irregular 14 crystals. magnesium.CH. near 5... gives strong yellow precipitate. effervesces freely in cold HC1. 121). with S0 4 green (phosphorus). V. sometimes colourless . CaC0 3 same as calcite. Sp. are often acicular. with a radiated fibrous composition. 2 H . Aragonite.. Sol. 15 Dist. strong calcium. but. Those containing little or no fluorine are called 7 Chlorapatite. Flame. Hexagonal crystals of calcite are softer. Fr. Also massive and in botryoidal and reniform aggregates. vitreous on crystal faces. 4 Coprolites and guano are impure varieties of phosphorite (see Chapter VIZ. 15 its abundance. Principally stones. see Zeolites. identified with the knife . Sp. twins common . 2'9-3.. crystals usually prismatic. characters.. also. infusible. 3-05-3-25. gr. CL. granular.

.. diabase. Fr. 14 white or grey. sometimes vesicular. lavas.. H. and modern varieties are chiefly found in altered lime- stones. also in granular irregular masses . The pale In basalt and dolerite. H. perfect.Hornblende group . gr. like augite. Sp. 1 Hornblende (Amphibole). 5-6. vitreous to pearly. 2'9-3'5... and 14 Fus. calcite. Fus. Fe)Si0 3 with some A1 2 about 3*5. rarely tabular. silica. Sp. 1 '0-1*8.. Comp. contains carbon. green. Col. Cl. twins common... Cornwall and gneiss in Spain. but not in any very well-defined proportions. Micr. one. [PT. hydrogen. . 2. Augite and hornblende are usually dark green or black minerals which belong to the monoclinic system.. and oxygen. II. Crys. gr. crystals mostly short or long columnar. 2'9-3'5. brown... 15 also in acicular forms and fibrous and granular aggregates.j at 90 to 100 C. 6 Rhombic Pyroxenes. and Petroleum when they are intermediate between these extremes. Lus. gr. Hornblende. but prisms often longer and of more fibrous aspect . approximately (Ca. prism-angle 87. A substances are included under the general term Bitumen. occurs in gabbros of Diallage. The solid varieties go by the general name of Asphalt or mineral pitch. 6 A thin. and that of augite on 6 cooling in lava streams. Augite (Pyroxene). Sir. one. Tr.72 test. They are found in gabbros and serpentine.. Crys. Enstatite. mostly with a strong bituminous odour. They consist of various hydrocarbons with variable quantities of oxygen and nitrogen. Lus. C7. or black. Sp.. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. filling cavities and veins in rocks encrusting other minerals. oblique. Crys.. opaque... amorphous. perfect. translucent to H. black and lustrous like pitch. and are commonly a little more easily scratched than the felspars with which they always occur. number of natural inflammable pitchy or oily Occurrence. see Augite. The liquid forms are called Naphtha when they are thin and slightly coloured. 15 Occurrence. 15 than that of Asbestos. They are probably different forms of the same mineral which assumes the form of hornblende on cooling slowly. but crystallise in rhombic system.. bronzite. foliated variety. Maltha or mineral tar when they are very viscid. also in drops and stalactitic. white.. Comp. 5*6. grey.. prism angle 124. Mg.. into But nothing is so characteristic as the way in which it falls 7 Its specific gravity is higher powder before the blowpipe.. Asphalt (Bitumen). Col. conchoidal. 7 AUGITE . 3 and Fe 2 3 ..HORNBLENDE GROUP. oblique. and hypersthene resemble augite.

pearly (cleavages). see ZincUende. Oys. Bog Manganese Ore. vitreous. see Iron Spathic Iron Ore. Lus. Fus. approximately (Mg. translucent.. see Micas and Talcs.. about 3. Ten. Fe)Si0 3 with often (fibres). yellowish. crystals usually prisms or domes. 7 Tr. cleavages differing to the Bitter-spar. ff. 14 Cl.. rhombic. white. in : Barytes transparent to translucent.. see Manganese. rather Tr. Blende. affecting fibrous or columnar forms. The habit of the crystals may Crys. subconchoidal. 34*32 per cent. white. see Micas and Talcs Biotite. and presence of sulphur. transparent crystals. 14 Gawk is a w&te.Hornblende group Rhombic Pyroxenes. massive. Brown-spar. colour. is commonly associated with serpentine. Col. Bronzite. from calcite in specific gravity.CH. lead. vitreous nacreous. a fibrous or felted variety. translucent ores. chlorite. S0 3 white. see Dolomite. 3-3'5. being more particularly associated with the . or brown. commonly 15 sulphur reaction. green. lamellar. insoluble. Ch... with soda. but generally in parallel or divergent groups also in spheroidal aggregates. thin. and often large up to 18 inches long. Dist. Lus. (Heavy. see Asphalt.spar). Sp. The high two of the planes. Bitumen. Limonite. 73 brittle. rarely blue. 14 Actinolite and smaragdite are greenish varieties.. or cryptocrystalline ing lead ores. V. more highly silicated felspars. 3-5. and pyrites. being at right angles 1 third. Calcite.. characters. Asbestos. see Iron . often with impurities. rhombohedral. gr.. grey. is essentially an associate of Nephrite or jade is crystalline limestones and dolomites. see Augite. Sir. Ca. Bog or Brown Iron Ore. passing by various shades of green to black. barium.. see Graphite. and in stalactitic forms with a fibrous structure. crystalline 15 and Fe 2 8 Fus. see Dolomite.. variety which is ground up and used for the adulteration of white decrepitates. . silky 14 Comp. opaque. 14 Comp.. silica. Flame. 14 Sol. especially accompanyOccurrence. Hornblende is a common constituent of rocks.] Fr. A very common vein mineral.. Biotite.. much A1 2 3 Occurrence. . Black Mica.. probably a compact variety of tremolite. quartz. parallel to the base and lateral faces of the unit prism. ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. Blackband Ironstone.. . BaS0 4 or BaO 65'68. Micr.. a white or colourless variety. .. 4'3~4'72. magnetite.. cleavable.. Tremolite. massive. Col. uneven. Black Lead.

. 4-1-4-3. Quartz. Tr. white or pale blue. Chalcedony. character. 14 Flame... Crys. C0 2 44 per cent. rhombic. gr. vitreous or pearly in crystals. by hardness. see Iron .. characters. 14 Dist. CuFeS 2 or Cu 34'57.. 3'5-4. pearly on opaque varieties. 3-3'5. 3. Fus. see Zeolites. conchoidal to uneven. Fe 30-54. especially in stalactitic and radiated forms. absence of water. vitreous. rhombohedral or scalenohedral. Clay Ironstone. being especially common Gawk. see Micas and Talcs. Distinguished from gypsum. be either columnar. columnar. Chlorite. Sp. 14 Occurrence. Chalcopyrite). strontium. 1 Comp. sub-metallic. 2 '6-2 '8. same as also in fibrous. In all cases the crystalline structure is 14 CL. tetragonal.... Tr. 14 Comp.. tabular in various degrees down to the thinnest hexagonal scales. as a deposit from water in caverns and veins. barytes . H 2 S0 4 4348 per cent. see Andalusite.. or grey.. Dist. see Kaolin. Col. 7 H. most perfect parallel to the faces of a rhomrecognisable. gr. see Apatite. with soda. Crystalline aggregates of various kinds are abundant. Lus. H. China Clay. The marked cleavage.74 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. bohedron. Found principally in marls and limestones. colourless. not very distinct. Col. Chiastolite. interspersed in granules or in reniform or botryoidal masses. S 34 "89 per cent. Twins are common. slightly sectile. should the flame be doubtful.. sulphur reaction. like 15 Soluble in acetic acid. 15 Ch. Copper Pyrites (Yellow Copper Ore. Ten. see Copper Pyrites.. radiated. see Barytes.. Sp. Occurrence. see Silica Series . Chlor-apatite. Lus. 15 Chabasite. Fr. 14 aragonite. . Abundant in all limestone regions. FT. [PT.. and Sol. transparent to translucent and opaque. Sir.. Clinochlore. shining.... The latter character distinguishes it from anhydrite. or white. colourless. Cl. transparent to imperfectly translucent. various colours.. the last two kinds being most common. Tr.. H. Chlorite. brittle.. 3'92-3'98. silky in fibrous variety. same as barytes. Celestine CL. Crys. and insolubility in HC1. specific gravity. when tarnished irised in Col. Chalcopyrite. (Strontium Sulphate). SrS0 4 or SrO 56-52.. and in finely granular masses and pulverulent crusts. IT. greenish black. conchoidal. brass to gold-yellow opaque. sometimes reddish. see Micas and Talcs ... usually compact. CaC0 3 or CaO 56. Lus.. gr. 14 Flame. . bluish or greenish. Sp. Comp. Carbonates. or spheroidal forms.

fuses. near to the contact with intrusive rocks in sandstones . 14 Dist. white. Sp. yellowish to opaque. Soda only obscures the reaction. faces. to a magnetic globule. Tr. with HC1.. decrepitates. u occasionally met with in rocks. in acetic acid..] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. or red less common. Sol.Hornblende group . 7 Ten. copper colours with HC1. owing to presence of iron. slowly soluble in nitric acid with separation of sulphur.. when hot. Lus. Lus. sometimes slaty or finely granular. and lead ores . <jr. vitreous. Dist. Dolomite (Bitter Spar). . 15 In many granites and in crystalline schists and Occurrence. spheroidal. 14 nacreous. etc. Augite. V.. one.. Roast in 0. Micr. Ca4 (AlFe) 6 Si 6 26 Fus. brittle. Comp. perfect. Col. or black. of calcite is less in cold HC1. or some pale shade of yellow or brown . 14 Dist.. 15 The standard ore of most copper-mining Occurrence. rhombohedral. oblique . Flame. Pearl spar or brown spar is a dolomite containing more or less iron. characters... Crys. gr. massive. also fibrous.CH. green in 0. which is usually light grey or white. in acetic acid and Sp.Hornblende group . 14 oil-green. see Apatite. easy.. especially with copper and also forming rock-masses often of consider- able extent. but by exposure to the air turns brown. crystals usually much elongated. and Micr. Bor.. often of considerable size. Epidote. translucent. see Augite. arid in crystalline concretions of stalactitic. argillaceous schists. 6-7. 3'5-4'5. Comp. Col... also in druses with curved and irregular aggregates. Sol. CL tube. Diallage. districts . cleavage planes usually curved. and some sulphur. granular. 3'32-3'49... 15 Cl... Easily distinguished 16 by hardness from 15 iron pyrites which cannot be scratched by the knife.. Abundant in mineral veins. 15 Occurrence. Fus. blue. Peculiar colour and brittleness 7 its hardness distinguishes it from hornblende. Coprolites.. H. see Augite.. ff. 2-85-2'95. (CaMg)C0 3 calcium. cleavable. Crys.. F. and in pseudo- morphs. with a pearly lustre when fresh. brownish grey. translucent to H . and other forms. Compact in rock and masses. some . with faces striated . infusible. slightly more fusible than actinolite . 2 intumesces somewhat. characters. copper reactions .. the latter is soluble Enstatite. insoluble .. and then reduce a copper bead separates in the mass. . silica. granites. with intumescence and scintillation. Fus. . gr. CL. characters. also in dolerites and other lavas. such as diabase. Rhombic Pyroxenes. Sp. green. 75 Flame.. Ch. gneiss. F. effervesces in hot HC1 .

orthoclase being the typical potash felspar. All felspars consist chemically of silicates of alumina combined with some other silicate. purposes it is sufficient to identify these two groups. but the most important varieties are briefly described below. or some combination of lime and soda They can be . sometimes bright red owing to the presence of oxides of iron. or even green. a fairly experienced eye can often be pretty sure of such forms as orthoclase by their look alone. if the student is sure of his power to produce a steady hot flame . and. the absence of striation. but when the crystal contains soda or lime it crystallises in the doubly oblique or triclinic For most system. When a typical felspar contains potash. or lime felspars. being softer than quartz. which is usually silicate of potash. and though mere appearance is a very dangerous test to trust to in determining a mineral. To detect the striation the crystal should be held so that a good light falls on the basal plane. we may be sure that the felspar is not orthoclase . soda. (2) by their fusibility. a felspar is known to belong to the triclinic group if it shows the characteristic striation either to the naked eye or by the aid of a pocket-lens. according to variations in chemical composition. The colour is often milky-white. decomposing and losing their colour (often forming a white coating) . or lime.76 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The more massive cleavable varieties of orthoclase have a characteristic look. and is recognised by fracturing at right angles to the side of the prism . With these chemical differences are associated differences of crystalline form. (3) generally by their inferior hardness. Again. while the remainder are plagioclase. bright cleavage faces. even small grains show. Felspars are also classed as potash. 4 The felspars may be distinguished Distinguishing characters. Whenever this striation is visible. and . or soda. the different varieties or species of felspar are identified and named. while quartz breaks. from quartz : To tell one felspar from another is by no means an easy matter. but albite is less liable to this change than the other varieties of felspar. II. does not prove that the felspar is not triclinic. They all weather under the action of the air and rain. known as Orthoclase and Plagioclase. [PT. FELSPARS are the most abundant minerals in igneous rocks. like glass. and the cleavage is then at an oblique angle. just scratched with a knife. and much harder than carbonate of lime. it crystallises in prisms in the oblique or monoclinic system. however. harder than apatite. with an uneven or conchoidal fracture . when (1) by their cleavage broken. 6 The composition of all the felspars is liable to vary. by the partial replacement of the alkaline bases by one another. and occasionally grey or black.

The Occurrence.. common 15 felspar of graphic granite. 7 Sp. rarely rhomboidal prism typical 4 . silica.. splintery. vitreous. perfect. gr.. but partially decomposed by caustic soda lye. In a very large number of cases microcline has been found to contain included bands and portions of orthoclase and albite.. dissolves very slowly in salt of phosphorus. but triclinic.] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. obsidian. often much sodium (soda-orthoclase). crystals soda felspar). Tr. 6-6-5. pink. gr. occurring in trachytes. white. colourless. or green. Comp. Col. potassium fair. prismatic CL. Lus." The lime felspars are soluble in heated HC1. Col. colourless. A1 2 3 18-43. a Fus. opaque. Occurrence.. pale green... pearly on cleavage.. flesh-red. smoky grey. gneiss. syenite. white. translucent to (Potash felspar). 6. Fr. Cry 8. green.. forming cloudy glass. 13 2-53-2-62. 77 till the light falls at the right angle to show the marking distinctly.. coloured varieties becoming white before fusion.. 6 occurring in the granite of St Gothard.CH. Orthoclase. replaced by soda. conchoidal. V. 4 turned backwards and forwards Oblique (Monoclinic) Felspar. leaving a siliceous skeleton. 6 phonolites. triclinic. H. or grey. Lus. yellowish.. whereas the soda and potash felspars are insoluble. being almost and parallel to brachyCl.. Sp. and trachyte. vitreous. oblique. Albite (the simple. and pitchstone.. basal. 5.. H. 2'59-2'65. K The typical constituent of granite. at right angles. pinacoid. or uneven.. two.. and granular.. usually with a little lime and magnesia. Str. 15 Micr. which is usually finely . 14 Is green from containing copper in some of the rocks of South America and Colorado. not affected by acids. gr. Sp. brick-red. yellow. Tr. 2 16-89 per cent. very pale tint of red. Sanidine is a grey and glassy variety of orthoclase. flesh-red. pearly on principal cleavage face.. white or some transparent to translucent. vitreous. bright green. usually in association with quartz. Crys. Adularia is a nearly transparent variety of orthoclase with a little lime . Lus.. and are more fusible than the potash felspars. Sol. The soda felspars colour the blowpipe flame yellow. with blue glass .. invariably twinned. Tridinic Felspar or Plagioclase. Microcline A felspar with the composition of orthoclase. Si0 2 64 '68. 2'57-2-60.. Potash is generally partly 14 Flame. Col.

... Micr. variously tinted.. colouring the flame yellow. greasy on cleavage faces. H. two. Sol. yellowish grey. CaO 20"10 per cent. both perfect. H... Oligoclase (the commonest form of soda felspar. Crys. A1 2 3 19-56. (contd. conchoidal. Comp. Tr. Micr. diorite. on decomposition with HC1. pearly or greasy on cleavage faces. Comp. Sol. either as Occurrence. the sole felspar. Sol. crystalline rocks. Si0 2 43-08. CL. 2-56-2-72. or red .. gr. 15 silica. sodium. Al 2 Si 6 16 )2(CaAl 2 Si 2 8 ). at times nearly black. Fus. or globular 14 aggregates on veins. Na 2 Al P Si 6 16 Na 2 6 11-82 orthoclase . generally in cleavable masses.. green. two. 14 Anorthite (the typical form of lirne felspar). silica.. [PT.. Tr. pearly on cleavages.. gr... 14 Flame. 15 in old lavas.. brittle. 2'68-2-82. or with labradorite in basalt and dolerite.. not acted on by acids. II. H.. in crystals. white. Sp. more readily than orthoclase. CL. Tr. one tolerably perfect.. faces generally striated. calcium and frequently (Na 2 sodium. the former often overpowered by the latter. 4 Flame. gr. As a constituent of igneous rocks. see Apatite. 6'7..78 FELSPARS 68-62. Col. 3-5. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS... colourless.. rather per cent. calcium. one perfect. vitreous or subvitreous on others. mostly in cleavable masses. white or usually opaque or translucent at the edges. Flame. Sp.) striated. 3-5. Comparatively rare found . colourless. etc. basal cleavage surface usually finely striated. A1 2 3 36-82. silica. vitreous. Si0 2 61*9. 2-66-2'78. Col. CaO 5-2 per cent. Col. 6. slowly decomposed by HC1. 1 . As a constituent of granite and other Occurrence. Fus. A1 2 3 24'1.. but usually in subordinate quantity to . Fr.. nearly as high as orthoclase. Lus. or in association with orthoclase and albite as in granite. triclinic. Sol... Comp. perfect. The common felspar of basalt and dolerite. similar to albite. or fibrous. Fus. but more generally of a bluish or brownish grey. pale grey or reddish. decomposed by HC1. CL.. 14 Lus. mostly very pale in tint.. 4 Crys. lamellar.. Na 2 8-8. Labradorite.. but Occurrence.. transparent to translucent. 6 Occurrence. Fluor-apatite. triclinic. 6.) Crys.. Sp. vitreous.. Micr. also massive in granular or lamellar aggregates. translucent to nearly opaque. cleavage repeatedly twinned like albite. Si0 2 to corresponding Fus.. 14 generally not recognisable except by the microscope. not decomposed by HC1. bluish.. 14 Comp. Lus.

14 Comp. cubic. subconchoidal or uneven. yellow . 15 Garnet. deep blue less common. Flame.. abundantly with lead and crystalline rocks the crystals are Dist.. gr. Distinguished from calcite by its superior hardness and specific gravity. and much more 15 In veins in granitic and usually small. Col. but rarely observable in crystals owing to cleavage. usually red. decrepitates much. Fr. characters. tube. tarnishing to a darker tint. 15 G-alena. Crys. Colour and cubic cleavage are characteristic. sub translucent Fus..... . lead-grey.CH. dark green. or Pb 86'6. after strong heating. tube.. but obtainable with difficulty sectile. or finely granular. slightly Col. 14 16 #. of cleavage. and more especially in the carboniferous limestone districts of Northumberland and Durham. etches the glass. fluorine reactions finally fuses at 2 '5-3 with ebullition.. but in those traversing sedimentary strata. 79 Fluor-spar. and compact or CL. or agate-like masses. 0. 14 silver ores. depositing chloride of lead on cooling. transparent . S 13'4 per cent. similar to colour. very brilliant when fresh. white-yellow sulphur sublimate. cubic. also massive in aggregates. and included in rocks also grouped in druses..] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. they are often of great size. V. lead incrustation fringed with lead 15 Sol. subconchoidal or splintery in massive varieties. but very variable. CaFl 3 . soluble in HC1 when hot. Lus. Tr.. Essentially a vein mineral. p. radiated. CL.. crystals either cubic or octahedral . pink or rose colour 14 the rarest. glass bead . but principally in the latter. The most abundant lead ore . generally purple or pale green. Sir. calcium. well given. widely distributed both in stratified deposits and veins. 4. transparent to the compact variety opaque. Occurrence. conchoidal. one highly perfect.. Crys. rarely colourless. varieties. Tr. owing to perfection Tr... sometimes phosphorescent.. Cl. Col. also in fibrous. cubic. Sp... Dist... 3 '16-3 '19. Ch. characters. twins common .. very easy. lamellar and massive aggregates. as in the clay slates of Cornwall. being found with tin and copper ores in Cornwall and Saxony. which are uncleavable.3'16-4-38.7-7'5. on Flame. Sir. crystals often completely developed. depositing sulphur sulphate. tube. metallic.. Fr. Fused with micr. Fus. white. Comp. lead. vitreous. and lead sulphate . except in the compact earthy. to opaque. partly soluble in nitric acid. in rounded masses and grains.. fairly good. and transparent . imperfect. Crys. very variable. . Str.. thin. a distinct and characteristic heavy sublimate of lead sulphate forms as a white streak on the under side of the tube. Ten. with a distinct crystalline structure. brittle.. PbS. opaque.. but Cl.. CL. very perfect octahedral. H.#r. Fr. Lus... 14 Occurrence.

common varieties represented by (Ca. or small fragments in granite.. MgMn) 3 (Al 2 Fe 2 Cr 2 )Si 3 12 lime-iron garnets fuse at 3. Black Lead). Molybdenite has sp. Fus.. opaque.. mostly iron. flexible in thin laminae. and chromic iron ore. Tr.. Dist.. 15 Guano.. : graphite is also blacker in colour. Occurrence. ff. fibrous. which may be etc. that of graphite being only 2 . one highly perfect. H. scales. usually impure. earthy. etc. or earthy.. and Str. colourless. gr.. Low fusibility distinguishes red garnet from ruby. F. one less perfect. in six-sided prisms with flat ends and modified basal edges. oblique crystals mostly stout. Gypsum . amorphous. infusible. which are more or less lenticular in shape. as in the gneiss of Bengal. see Apatite. Col. white. reddish.. black. snowy white. may be as low as 35 per cent. vitreous. Very widely distributed.80 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.. surfaces of fracture resinous. Sp. twins of two kinds common more complicated groups are stellate or spheroidal. Lus. metallic. transparent or translucent. nacreous Tr. carbon. [PT. the common iron-alumina and Micr. 1-2. The massive variety sometimes occurs in bands of considerable thickness. iron.. scales. A silicate of alumina. plates. CL. gr. Lus. 15 gneiss. while in those of inferior quality it 14 Bor. and other schistose rocks.. and compact masses. and in larger irregular masses. opaque granular. Fe. rhombic dodecahedron... Chiefly interspersed in grains. 1*5-2. the latter is distinguished 14 by its red streak and by its giving reactions of iron with fluxes. crystalline limestone.. 2-2 '6. unctuous and cold in the hand. with parallel or curved planes aggregates also common. 14 Comp. of 4*5.. . silica. Purest varieties contain 94 to 96 per cent. columnar. or tabular . yellowish to dark green . or tabular . basal. also in columnar.. with variable amounts of ash. Fus. Crys. .. Lus. Molybdenite and micaceous heematite are very similar in appearance to graphite the former is distinguished from it by the slightly green colour of its streak. magnetite. gr.. . or brown. 2-2'4. potassium. Crys. Cl. gneiss. and earthy matters... Glauconite (Greensand). iron-grey... 14 The crystalline forms. Ten.. . and . silica. 15 gives dusky . crystals vitreous. and massive. sectile. of carbon. and crystalline limestones. Occurrence. characters.. very perfect. II. on the best-developed cleavage planes. are characteristic and can be traced even in worn specimens. being found in granites. columnar. Dist. Ten. hexagonal or oblique crystals usually short. (Selenite). Sp. flexible in thin laminae. grey. and by giving the reaction of sulphur in the open tube . in R. Feel. characters. bead full of black flecks. Graphite (Plumbago. etc. Col. and radiated aggregates. Comp. or granular.

. crystals are sometimes found completely is developed. carbonates. Sp. Fr. about 2*5.. see Iron . a Ferrosoferric Oxide. 14 Flame. 1 Gypsum is very abundant in certain sedimentary formations and as a deposit from water. 70 -0 7 2 '4 . often in veins and beds of great size. Sol. but more usually grouped . and . . sulphides. also compact. Crys. . Intermediate between the largely and the cryptocrystalline forms are fibrous varieties fibres have a silky lustre.. Selenite can seldom be mistaken . 14 7 If. 14 Dist. Magnetic oxide or ferrosoferric oxide. Oxides. and whenever it is produced converted into a higher oxide. see Barytes. . 7 7 -7 Sesquioxide. are called Satin-spar. Hyalite. see Iron Oxides. V. Hornblende. characters. HC1. calcium with 32-54. with soda. gr. much water. Heavy-spar.] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. The first is an unstable compound. its foliation is most pronounced.. nor greasy and difficult of fusion like those of talc. When impurities. The other two occur as minerals. Cl. Ch. octahedral.Hornblende group Rhombic Pyroxenes. see Augite. peroxide. Magnetite (Magnetic Iron Ore). and earthy. in HC1. cubic . see Augite. 15 +2H H H Occurrence. Monoxide or ferrous oxide.Hornblende group. and the laminae are neither elastic like those of mica. native iron being meteorites. 81 or CaO Comp. crystalline which. 6 .. The The term Selenite is confined to the crystallised finely grained cryptocrystalline varieties are called very finely grained and mottled by coloured Gypsum.. CaS0 4 silky on those of the pyramid. Hypersthene. or some other com7 pound. 2 20'95 per cent. so as to be available for ornamental purposes. 4'9-5'2. conchoidal or granular. .. tube. 5"5-6'5. Fus.OH. . when the 7 usually enables us to recognise it with certainty. a carbonate. the mineral is called Alabaster. IRON is found chiefly in the form of oxides.. The mere look of gypsum. granular. varieties. becomes white and opaque. Fe 2 Fe 3 3 4 . or ferric oxide. FeO .. There are three oxides of iron : Percentage of metallic iron. see Silica Series. taken in conjunction with its softness. sulphur reaction. 15 of very rare occurrence except in Oxides of Iron. embedded in slaty or aqueous rocks. Haematite. 2 Cl. 2 S0 4 46-51. . massive. Ilmenite.

. The red streak is characteristic. magnetic 15 Sol. bluish iron-black in crystals . and when wet often nearly vermilion-red. Ilmenite (Titaniferous Iron Ore). Fus. Lus. and 7 very common occurrence in regular octahedrons. constituent it appears in igneous rocks. Tr. particularly those of a low percentage of silica. brilliant. black streak. fibrous and earthy varieties. Col. characters. and the softer kinds as Micaceous Iron Ore. both in beds and veins.. Sp. hornblende schist. Str. in R... and at times aggregated in .. attracting its own powder many masses show polar magnetism of opposite kinds. fibrous. conchoidal. Norway. gr. black. Ten. and Ruddle or Red Ochre. being usually interspersed in minute these are often titaniferous and crystals or granular masses These fine grains or crystals.. magnetic before reduction. when set free by the disintegration of the rocks containing : them... F. Col. .. Ch. Its strong magnetism. though not very large.. u residue. 14 most commonly in clusters of very flat. brittle. imperfect. fractured purplish to brown-red. and Micr. opaque. various shades of brown and Str. and in radiated fibrous aggregates crystals . crystals generally tabular... Sweden... the Fr. known as Specular Iron'. Tr. 15 Abundant in the older crystalline rocks of Occurrence. Feg0 4 iron reactions. such as basalt. deposits of specular or micaceous haematite. usually carry As a constant. soluble in HC1 after some time. chlorite schist. 14 Dist.. also pseudomorphous. vitreous or slaggy in aspect. metallic. tube. Red Hcematite . infusible. reniform. brittle. generally a trace Bor. and less commonly in quartzite or mica schist which.. crystals. diorite. hexagonal. Mag. Fe 2 3 or ferric oxide. Fus..82 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Comp. 4 '5-5*3.. 3-5 in haematite.. Lus. rather [PT. rhombohedral . bronze-red. and Russia. etc. 14 usually opaque. and botryoidal masses. forming spheroidal. II... . and Micr .. Cl.) Ten. the larger deposits being usually found in crystalline limestone. metallic . Cl. The hard. IRON (contd. serpentine. but far less than limonite. characters. knife-edged 7 also massive. hexagonal. well-crystallised forms are Occurrence. Crys. ff. form the black magnetic sands with which gold and other heavy minerals are associated in alluvial deposits. Crys. 5*5-6 '5 in specular iron... iron reactions of water.. 14 Comp. purest being the densest. Haematite (Specular Iron Ore). 6. black. EOT. Dist. " surfaces dull. very common . Haematite occurs in large deposits. the fibrous and dense crystalline varieties as Haematite. uneven. under similar conditions... Puddler's Ore.

also pyrites.. also CL. in large Common many 14 igneous rocks in deposits as a constituent of crystalline and parts of the world. gr. kinds. Occurrence. tube.. Chalybite. uneven. gr.. etc. practically infusible.. felspar. rutile.... yellowish brown. 14 Carbonates of Iron (Ferrous Carbonates). 5-5 '5 compact. siderite. 83 IRON groups forming the so-called iron roses.. radiated. Brown Haematite. Crys. Clay Ironstone). 3-6-4.. Bog Iron Ore). Cl... all shades. inclining to brown. titanium. iron Ch. Sphserosiderite. and titanium. such as pyrites. boiled with tin in HC1. Lus. H. Micr. Dist. and occasionally with quartz... metallic iron. 15 A common product of the alteration of Occurrence. Spathic Iron Ore (Siderite. siderite. Bor. Tr. silky in fibrous kinds . and other silicates. etc.. brown in earthy forms often softer. black. Umber. 14 reactions. slightly translucent.. in R.. minerals containing iron or ferrous oxide. hydrated ferric oxide.. Crys. in R.] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS.. and silicates. and dull and earthy in granular or pulverulent 14 Comp. forms after . imperfect.. 7 Col. garnet. opaque. (contd. gives a residue.. semi-metallic. and Sienna Earth are intimate mixtures of limonite and clay. . or in undefined cryptocrystalline in fibrous. 3-5-4-5.) rosette-like Lus.. rhombohedral. black. Bor.. Fr. iron reactions. Tr. ff.. conchoidal. Fe 2 3 85'6 per cent. nearly glassy or resinous when H. iron Fus. F. massive. CL. or finely granular in structure or in apparently amorphous nodules known as clay ironstone or spheerosiderite. or ferric hydrate giving 60 per cent. Limonite (Brown Iron Ore. 4*30 -5'21. .. Col.. 37-3'9. 5-6. F.. Sol. gr. and in concretionary forms of all kinds.. and Micr. Comp. Sir. characters. magnetic The soda residue. 14 pseudomorphous in purer forms . granular. Presence of titanium.CH. usually found in crystalline aggregates coarsely foliated. iron.. about 5. Sp. and in loose blocks and grains. Sp. rhombohedral. perfect. ferrous sulplates. Sp. compact and earthy masses. or dark grey. contains Mag. V. from nearly black to yellow. sometimes magnetic.. 15 satisfactory titanium reaction. magnetic residue. and oxygen in variable proportions. Ch. Ochre. Sir. magnesium. in HC1 after some time. amorphous. Fus.. crystals often with strongly curved faces . H 5 Fe 4 9 or HgO 14'4. water.

. Brass-yellow that it cannot be touched by the knife. tube. Fus. such as clay. slate... decomposed by nitric is acid. and Micr Sol.. those rich in manganese are especially valued for the production of the highest classes of malleable iron and steel and ferromanganese.. 14 often containing some copper. crystals often large and in various crystalline (3 inches across).. globular. gr. iron reactions. mixed with sufficient carbonaceous matter to burn readily when ignited. Marcasite (White Iron Pyrites). but becoming darker or brown by exposure. is 4'65-4'88 . cobalt. Occurs often as concretions in the Chalk. colour and hardness such Dist. S 53'3 per cent. II. Sol. and coal. -Very similar to pyrites. FeC0 3 or FeO 62. variously interspersed from grains to rock-masses . Comp. Col.. manganese. . pearly.. stalactitic. Fus. compact ferrous carbonate. 15 slowly soluble in HC1. 4'9-5'2.. Bor. Iron Pyrites (Pyrites). with effervescence.) Col.. colour brass-yellow. Lus. Crys. or bluish [FT.. occasionally united into irregular beds in the shales Black-band ironstone is a variety of of the coal measures. Bor. 15 The most Occurrence.... magnetic after reduction. . Lus. Comp. It isolated crystals and in rocks that are impermeable to water. brittle. Str. found in rocks of all abundant of metallic sulphides. Sp. or arsenic...84 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. so that it can be calcined without additional fuel.. brass-yellow. also massive. abundant about 2. The purer varieties of spathic iron ore and Occurrence. reniform usually of a radiated structure. C0 2 38 per cent. . aggregates. or contain carbonaceous substances. is readily decomposed 15 to the atmosphere. Ten. decrepitates when heated and is converted into magnetic oxide. ages. but sp. Fr. 14 Sulphides of Iron (Ferrous Sulphides}.. Cl. cubic. Clay iron ores are found in spheroidal or flattened nodules. passing into gold-yellow and brown. Cl. FeS 2 or Fe 46'7. pale yellowish grey. insoluble in Ch.. and interspersed in dendritic patches and grains on rocks and fossils . IRON (contd. conchoidal. sulphur. reaction of iron with soda'. but lighter than 14 on exposure pyrites . black. opaque. also in pseudomorphs. pale to full Tr. very imperfect... HC1. H. cubic. crystals rhombic . the corresponding amount of 14 metallic iron being 48 '2 per cent. characters. when fresh. metallic. like sandstone. infusible. than in those 14 that are freely permeable. more common . gr. 6-6-5. botryoidal.

14 rather unctuous. Section IV. see Micas and Talcs . completely decomposed by HC1.. with cobalt Kaolin (China Clay. white when pure. rhombohedral. or massive.. 15 Occurrence. usually granular. Fus.. or grey. Tr. 14 By mere hydration and loss of potash it is convertible into orthoclase and china clay. gr. Si0 2 54'97 per cent. 1 CL. Bor. see Felspars .. 4-4'5. Tr.. A characteristic constituent of lavas and some Occurrence.. water Fus. Micr. reddish. 14 Comp. blende. .. 2'4-2-63.. Labradorite. Flame. 85 Iron Pyrites. Muscovite.. Col. varieties of basalt. white. Lus. V. infusible. and green. Fr. 128. vitreous to greasy. 5-5-6. moss-like markings so common on the surfaces of joints and planes Its usual colour is black.. see Sulphides. twenty-four faced trapezohedrons. perfect. Chapter VII.. Sp. usually amorphous. p. Lithomarge).. rhombohedral. C0 2 51-27 per cent. brown. insoluble in acids.. Crys. the most common colouring inIt also forms the dendritic. next to iron. gredient of rocks. parent.. infusible. tube. see Iron.. Comp.. white. H. Fus. beds. semi-transCol. 14 In crystals in talcose schist and occasionally in MANGANESE is. 1-25.. but resembling cubic. gr.. Feel... but showing under the microscope six-sided scales. fair magnesia reaction. 4 It occurs in the following forms : . yellowish and reddish white. gr. it occurs more or less mixed with water. alumina with cobalt.. with transparent glass. A1 2 3 23-50. with cobalt nitrate.. see Iron Jade or Nephrite. imperfect. colourless and translucent. but it is of bedding of some rocks. according (like iron) to its different states of oxidisation and combination. but rare. 15 Sol. Sp. 14 As regards its origin see Occurrence.. in its purest form appears as a white powder. Plagioclase. Lepidolite or Lithia Mica. or variously tinted with yellow.CH. quartz. Crys. also brown.. Sol. Comp. Augite. 2-45-2'50. and gravels. Col.. nitrate. Ch. a fine alumina reaction. infusible. silica.. ferric hydrates..] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. K 2 21'53. effervesces fairly in hot HC1.. Cl. 14 Limonite. Horn- Crys.. 2'9-3'l.C0 3 or Mg 48'73... having a structure similar to that of mica. kaolin . strong vitreous lustre in some crystallised kinds.. Mg. separation of granular silica. sands. but usually opaque. with Sp. The basis of all clay. ash-grey. and organic matter. Lus. Magnesite.Hornblende group . conchoidal. H 4 Al 2 Si 2 9 Cl. H. Sol. Leucite. generally considered tetragonal. Ch. forming the variously coloured plastic clays. 14 H. crystalline...

and iron. water as pseudomorphs. imperfectly metallic... black. one less perfect. rather brittle.. - dark grey to black. Sir. 4-8 (weathered). black (weathered). augite. which in the inner flame becomes colourless . H. see Iron. 4'l-4 7.. when crystallised . 14 Dist.86 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Crys. The micas are usually in rhombic or hexagonal plates.. 14 Manganite (Grey Oxide). may be bent. Ba... Lus. The black peroxide of manganese is distinguished from iron oxide by having a The presence of manganese may also be black streak. and are hydrous silicates of magnesia where part of the magnesia may be replaced with iron.. 4 -8-4 '9. Marcasite. black. or Bog Manganese Ore is a brown. detected by its producing with borax in the outer flame of the blowpipe a violet bead. magnesia. give a more or less greasy sensation when touched. MICAS AND TALCS. 6 hornblende. earthy substance. Tr. 14 Comp. characters of manganese ores. but may be formed in rocks which were previously infiltrated with magnesian silicates derived from decomposed mica.. 4-3 (fresh). Crys. give a clean sensation when touched. or even. Lus. - conchoidal. one perH.. are both flexible and elastic. and some species Talcs are often deposited from are soluble in sulphuric acid. TV-. fibrous. Sir. somewhat resembling turquoise.. silky or 14 dull... hydrous oxide of Mn. Wad similar to psilomelane.) Pyrolusite (or the black peroxide known as Soft Manganese Ore). rhombic. dark grey to black. gr.. opaque. bluish or brownish black. Col. and are not acted on by acids. 1-1 5 in fibrous and earthy kinds. and K. Sp... H. because micas contain alumina. rhombic . 14 Lus. Sp. MANGANESE (contd. amorphous. are double silicates. potash. brown (fresh). Crys. brownish black... 2. [PT. 3-5-4. and olivine. . gr.. greenish-blue colour... fibrous and other forms. semi-metallic. Ten. uneven. opaque. but with more water. but will not spontaneously bend back again. gr. 5-6. Sp. Col. fect. Cl... but they cannot be correctly described as hydrated micas. Fr.. opaque. The talcs are softer than the micas.. in place of other magnesian minerals which originally formed part of the rock . II. also a manganese mineral fused on platinum wire with carbonate of soda imparts to it a fine. 4 usually of alumina. in Psilomelane (Hard Manganese Ore). also massive and granular. Fr. Sir. Col. The talcs and micas include many species which usually agree in dividing into thin laminae which are sometimes more 01 less transparent.. Tr. weathering greenish or brownish.

gr.. Sp. up to 2J tons weight. 2-5-S. with muscovite which is 14 light-coloured. being as a rule developed in the direction of this plane. Sp. various dark tints. Fus. Sp.. gr. with apatite. and alkalies. the knife scratches micas easily. frequently disseminated in scales. completely decomposed by dilute HC1 or S0 4 leaving a residue of glistening scales of silica.. 14 Also in metamorphic limestone and serpentine.J ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. gr. 2'5-3.. In granites and the older crystalline rocks it is associated H . bronze-coloured. volcanic rocks. Crys. or light . parallel to the base of an apparently hexagonal prism . 6 Muscovite (Potash Mica). 87 of Mica. Phlogopite. gr. brownish red. and Cl. the alkali micas and the magnesium-iron micas writing the bases in descending order of importance.. whitens and fuses on the bottle-green to black. etc.. also in small plates. while those of the former are silicates of alumina.. and magnesia. 14 Fus.. though varying considerably that is. the micas of the latter group are silicates of magnesia.. may . and occurs in crystalline enormous crystals. iron. most 7 H.. side the cleavage gives them a lamellar appearance and the characteristic lustre is lost.. H. two broad chemical groups be formed. thin edges. 2-75-2-97. Comp. their crystals. from brown through 2'8-3'2. V. grey. see under 15 Col.. alumina. 2-2 -5. The minerals included under the general name in composition and in some are united by a marked common characteristic. green or black. semi-metallic to vitreous and pearly. 7 2 Biotite is essentially the mica of modern Occurrence.. the thumbnail scratches them with difficulty if at all. Crys.. H. 7 Sp. 15 alkalies. occurs not unfrequently in six-sided prisms with a cross-section approximating to a regular hexagon and irregular lateral faces . Micas.. being found in the lavas of Vesuvius. Crys. attacked by boiling dilute HC1 and H S0 4 2 . one extremely perfect cleavage. Col. Sol. separate varieties.. .. but very long boiling 7 is required for complete decomposition.. producing a very characteristic grating sound . which are often of enormous size. 2 -83-2 '89. They are probably all monoclinic.. Biotite (Ferromagnesian or Black Mica).CH. 14 Viewed from the Lus. colourless. Col. Sol. while their other faces are rough and imperfectly developed. 14 14 7 Col. H.. Essentially characteristic of the Archaean limestones of North America. Crys. physical properties. iron. silvery. whitens and fuses on the thin edges. frequently in rhombic or Occurrence. hexagonal plates sometimes in irregularly shaped scales.

similar to mica. 7 (steatite or soap-stone). Occurrence. Flame. platy character. Distinguishing characters of micas. or violet. sometimes silvery white. Fus. Usually in foliated. if at all. Col. 15 The only other two minerals that split up to the same extent as micas are talc and selenite . in section by single cleavage. or lithia mica is similar to muscovite. scaly... notably in the Alps. whitens usually red. II. 14 Si 4 12 15 or laminae. 14 and fuses on thin edges to a grey 7 or yellow glass. with a schistose structure 14 steatite up to 2'5. but conLepidolite tains lithia. which are sometimes as much as 2 feet across. 14 .. fuses on edges of very thin laminae to white Talc H H enamel acids. 7 from hornblende by Talcs. and becomes luminous. pearly or greasy. Cl. sectile and flexible in thin laminae. in most cases. greasy or soapy. being occasionally found in six-sided tabular forms. serpentine. The white mica of granite. and the older crystalline rocks generally . tube. or dolomite. MICAS AND TALCS brown. with cobalt pale red of magnesia. generally pale green. and hardness . Steatite or soapstone . etc. and the fact that the basal sections are the darkest and show no cleavage.. also fine. Sol.. usually gives 2 off water. 2 Mg 3 Si0 2 63-49. the compact variety rather brittle. but neither of them are elastic. probably oblique or rhombic. Crys. and has been formed in 6 clayey sandstone walls of iron furnaces. whereas mica laminae are both flexible and elastic. are found in hollows in coarse granite or pegmatite veins. having a very perfect basal and traces of a prismatic cleavage. as talcose schist. and sometimes making a white mark like chalk upon a rough surface. H. their laminae are flexible. transparent in very thin grey. or associated with chlorite. Occurrence. scarcely. talc I.. in granite It is 6 (contd. exfoliates. (Steatite). Distinguished in rock lustre. [PT.. Sol. both crystallised and forming part of crystalline schistose masses.. pink. ragged fibrous edges. Muscovite has been found in slags. not decomposed by Talc occurs in many mountain districts. 4'76. spheroidal. or compact. the largest crystalline plates. Ten. but not elastic.. Tr.88 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.. Feel. MgO 31'75.) Fus. the compact varieties passing to dark green or Lus.. attacked by acids. gneiss. selenite imperfectly so. imperfectly translucent.. Comp. or radiated masses (talc). and occurs and gneiss. whitens.

. varieties give a silica-jelly with HC1. sometimes pearly on cleavage faces. Oligoclase... which are commonly darker silicates.. H. silica.. common alteration in basalt. Plagioclase. from talc in being more easily decomposed in H 2 S0 4 and less greasy. 14 H.. granules or approximately rectangular crystals. 6-7. Micaceous Iron Ore.. iron and sometimes manganese. Fus. reaction of iron. yellow-green Tr. Sol. Fus. white. gr. 7 Ten. In chlorite slate. very perfect. grey-brown areas and pseudomorphs. Very liable to 14 hydration. 89 MICAS AND TALCS (contd. rhombic. diabase. 1-2-5. 2'6-2*9.. 5*5. The name of a group of minerals. see Iron . imperfect. and in beds and masses. 14 Col. Sol. Limonite. see Felspars . Probably all monoclinic. Nepheline (Elseolite). 6 corresponding to mica as a rock constituent. sulphuric acid being most efficacious.. infusible. Muscovite. etc.. 15 % Naphtha.. Clinochlore. Laminae are not elastic like mica .] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS.. Nephrite. basal. Hornblende. see Augite-Hornblende group . or colourless grains and short hexagonal prisms in lavas.. Ochre.. Olivine. Sol. 3 5. greasy-looking masses in holocrystalline rocks. Very easily decomposed. transparent to blue-green. see Felspars .) is found in pseudomorphs after various silicates. unless rich in iron. mica. which changes it into serpentine. Plagioclase. see Asphalt. 15 CL. and more 14 readily after heating.. Sp. gr. Flame. Crys. partly decomposed by acids.. protogine gneiss. but do not melt easily.. differ Dist. Occurrence. hexagonal. Micr. and alumina in various proportions with much water. by Essentially characteristic of volcanic rocks. whiten and exfoliate. Str. laminse flexible but not Sp. Brown or greenish. Fr. Soda. ferrous and ferric oxides. though many 15 approach the hexagonal system. being and similar lavas. somewhat conspicuously marked out from their surroundings. Cl. vitreous. H. and then produces soft. Its extreme softness 7 not as brilliant as Dist. sodium. 14 French chalk is a kind of steatite. 15 Lus. 15 Occurrence. V. 14 Micr. Pennine.. \ Microcline.. in Crys. characters.CH. 3-23-3-56. silica. conchoidal. see Micas and Talcs. Ripidolite.. dolerite. elastic. 15 Chlorite. most common 14 Bor. composed of silicates of magnesia. with HC1 forms a strong silica jelly.. . see Iron Haematite. to translucent. 15 Fus.. characters.. when a black slag is produced.. .

Chlorite. Bipidolite.90 Dist. Taste. hexagonal. yellow-green appearance characdistinguished from quartz by its solubility. see Felspars. see Tourmaline. see Asphalt. 2-2 '5. conchoidal. Opal. characteristic. 2 -25. Satin-spar. teristic j GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. see Graphite.. see Iron . see Dolomite. Ten. Spathic Iron Ore. intense sodium. vitreous. Chlorite. as indicated by the occasion- . see Manganese.. Red Ochre. Micr.. see Iron . see Micas and Phosphorite. cubic. Haematite. Crys.. Rock-Salt. Psilomelane. Dist.. like gypsum. about 1. see Iron . strong chlorine reaction. with copper oxide. see Apatite. soluble 15 in water. see Micas and Talcs ... Plumbago. Petroleum. each of which is marked by These are (1) (2) : distinct physical and crystallographic characters. gr. see Micas and Talcs . Talcs. Crys. Quartz. Puddler's Ore. Pearl-spar. Cl 61 per cent. see Silica Series.. NaCl or Na 14 39. [PT. see Micas and Talcs. Fr. CL. Occurrence. or anhydride of silicic acid. II. . brittle. With other salts of the same class. see Iron Haematite. Potash Mica or Muscovite. Selenite.. or. Haematite. Sodium colour in flame. Transparent. see Iron . Comp. see Manganese. H. tridymite. SILICA SERIES.. characters. colourless when pure or with a Lus. Ruddle. see Iron . Siderite. see Silica Series. Limonite. Silica. slight blue or green tinge. Sp. Fus. Orthoclase. in beds and masses of considerable extent in many 14 geological formations. dioxide of silicon.. perfect. Sienna Earth. Pyrite. Col. gypsum and anhydrite. see Gypsum. Phlogopite. but cuts toughly. occurs in at least three different conditions. Sanidine. in quartz. Sol. Pyrolusite. Schorl. or as an efflorescence in fibrous masses and in thin beds of a fibrous structure. see Felspars . characters. Flame. Pennine. Hexagonal tetartohedral (3) Rhombic or asymmetric in asmanite and 14 Amorphous in hyalite and opal. Orthoclase.. see Gypsum. Pyrites. Quartz.

red. 14 Fr. May be seen as thin. hexagonal 2'65-2'66. Quartz is very common in mineral veins associated with galena. cryptocrystalline. Bristol.. Ch. . Tr. Silica in its various forms is the most Occurrence.. the hardness of which is 7-7'5. Comp. Tridymite. 91 The usual ally recurring tetartohedral faces. 14 chiefly Hornstone or chert. imperCry*. Chalcedony is essentially a mixture of quartz and amorphous hydrated silica.. vitreous. Micr. opaque in quartzite.. transparent hexagonal plates. Brittle. infusible. has a marked 7 cleavage and crystals totally unlike quartz.. The low specific gravity distinguishes Dist. abundant of all minerals . gneiss.. yellow. splintery in crystals of lamellar structure. is distinguished from it by the habit of its crystals and fusibility .1. 15 The hardness is a quartz distinguishing feature. H. 14 Fus. transparent and colourless in the purest varieties. and difficult to extract. translucent in various degrees. Si0 2 Si 46'67. Fr. and black. as in ordinary fusible silicates. and tourmaline. epidote. known Crystals of quartz.CH. triclinic 14 or hexagonal. V ] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. 15 CL. also fibrous. or Irish diamonds. . rare. violet. common. and compact aggregates. quartz forms one of the principal components of granite. white. 53 '33 per cent. quartzite. The finest crystals are usually found in hollows in granitic rocks where the component minerals have had room to develop. conchoidal. Cl. blue. 16 Aggregates radiated in druses with the points free are common.. H. fuses readily with soda. pyrites. forms are either hexagonal pyramids or combinations of the Twinning is pyramid and hexagonal prism. from many colourless gems.. whose hardness is 6-7.. undissolved. It also occurs in pseudomorphs of many minerals. Lus. lydian-stone. rhombohedral. several being grouped together. and are described in Chapter VII. gr... or popularly as Cornish. conchoidal. when perfectly limpid and colourless. 2'28-2'33.. an accessory component of many other rocks. parallel.gr. blende. insoluble in all acids except hydrofluoric. cobalt nitrate added to the glass produces a deep blue glass. lavas. in the cavities of some highly siliceous fect. Sp. massive. 7. are as rock-crystal. green. granular. and the mass of all quartzites and sandstones. Opal and Hyalite are amorphous forms of hydrated silica.. grey. and flint are rocks composed of silica. 15 Sol.. characters. and other metallic minerals. and mica schist. Col. brown. Sp... 15 Asmanite is very similar to tridymite.

14 red. somewhat Tr. Tr. Col. The particular wedge-shaped form of its and its hardness often enable us to identify sphene without any further tests. see Iron Titanite. Crys... Specular Iron Ore. 5-5-5. 1 -5-2-5. . almost chemically pure in lighter-coloured crystals orange or darker tints often contain selenium or arsenic compact varieties usually mixed with clay. or brown. gypsum.. Talc. see Iron Haematite. Crys. imperfect. Dist. sectile.. 2 '94-3-24. and in powdery incrustations. Ch. see Micas and Talcs. yellow. as the emanations of steam in the vicinity of volcanoes are termed. brittle. Tr. transparent. Sphene (Titanite). . see Micas and Talcs . also in stalactitic. Ilmenite. CaSiTi0 5 Bor. If.. and limestone. see Augite-Hornblende group Hornblende. characters... the crystals are prominently dissimilarly ended. with soda and addition of water to the slag. im. solfataras... blackens silver coin after fusion in R. CL... 207. the soda residue boiled with tin in HC1 gives a clear titanium reaction. vitreous. faces of prisms usually striated also vertically large crystals often in parallel columnar groups . Ch.. 0. Sp. Fus. 3-4-3'6. crystals. the latter known as flour or flowers of sulphur. see Iron.and straw-yellow to white. II. fibrous in radiated and plumose forms. twins common. pyramidal in habit.. imperfectly Col. Lus. Cl. tube... see Iron Spathic Iron Ore. green. its strong resinous lustre. H. Titanic Iron Ore. 7 Steatite. and irregular masses. . Sp. fairly easy. Cl. characters. resinous. Spathic Iron Ore. Occurrence. Talc. reniform. Comp. crystalline schists. . Smaragdite. CL. yellow sublimate from many minerals. Dist... 15 In granite. titanium reaction. native sulphur gives a blue flame. conchoidal. and through primrose. tube. flame. gr. sulphurous anhydride is often evolved. opaque. Sp. Sphserosiderite. gr. 14 Colour and smell. adamantine. 7-7'5. the colour most noticeable when .. Fr. hexagonal. or celestine.. perfect. . . 14 magnetic iron ore. 15 Common in volcanic districts as a product of Occurrence. uneven. twins common . Lus. imperfect. Ten.. globular. F.. and Micr. and certain volcanic rocks. passing through orange to brown. hot. rarely transparent to translucent... Sulphur.. translucent.92 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. rhombic. H. bitumen. silica in latter. but this is not seen in the heating of sulphides and sulphates.. gr. Comp. adamantine. oblique. see Sphene. sulphur-yellow. Tourmaline (Schorl) Crys. . [PT.

Natrolite. Cl. Thomsonite. They occur filling up cracks or hollows among lavas or other minerals. reniform... .gr.. Fus. borosilicate of various bases. various.. . transparent to translucent. Prehnite. brown. often magnetic residue. 14 Occurrence. 2'2-2'4. F. Str. usually black less common colours are 14 Lus. Series. V. Distinguished from hornblende by more resinous fracture and absence of cleavage. Fus.] ROCK-FORMING MINERALS. 15 generally gelatinise with HC1. and other concretionary shapes. white. or black .. often in fibrous aggregates. Ch. they intumesce and melt. H. about 6. zinc 67. zinc incrustation.. . Zeolites are hydrated silicates of alumina. brown. and massive. cubic. Some varieties give cadmium incrustation . very perfect. adamantine or resinous Comp. Stilbite. potash.CH. twins common cleavable crystalline masses of various kinds. Zinc-blende (Blende). potash. usually with a perfect cleavage. opaque in black varieties. also in Crys. Hornblende. Chabasite. and soda. . Flame. see Iron Limonite.. green. generally milky white. Fus. Analcime. Lus.Hornblende group . Tr... Marcasite. characters. give boron flame when fused with fluor-spar and bisulphate of Micr.. ZnS. Ten.. compact or finely granular texture in columnar. brittle. 3 '5-4. 14 Cl. thin sulphur. the latter the rarest. gr. lime.. blue. In granite and other crystalline rocks. Tridymite. 93 Col. transparent and translucent Sp.... sulphuretted hydrogen being evolved.. effervesces in hot Sol. White Iron Pyrites. compact varieties lighter. some reddish. sometimes colourless. 3'7-4'2. poor in other examples best produced when specimen is in R. tube. opaque in dark and compact varieties. vitreous. Col.. see Augite. see Silica .. hardness varying from 3'5 to 6. silica. and red. 1 HC1. but often easy. Col. when light-coloured. Tremolite. The various species are known as Apophyllite. Soda. at times excellent with cobalt nitrate. some specimens Comp. sulphur 33 per cent.. usually yellow. . Sp. see Iron Sol.. of a Umber... sulphur reaction. Dist.

THE term Rock is applied to any bed. 94 consolidated at . aqueous. CHAPTER VI. 1. 2. division according to mode of origin into igneous. Structural Characters of Rocks. or mass of the earth's crust whether consolidated or not. THE STUDY OF KOCKS. Plutonic or abyssal rocks are those which considerable depth within the earth's crust.g. or coherent crystals or grains. 10 The minerals may be either loose. blown sand. chemical composition and mineral constituents. or peroxide of iron. felspathic matter. and Metamorphic Rocks. The physical characters of rocks are described in a 1 separate section. 2 Classification. Section I. Their mode of origin.. The usual cement is either silica. Their chemical and mineralogical composition. sand. as limestone. not excluding beds of clay and A rock may consist of one mineral species. Mode of Origin. Their structure. IGNEOUS ROCKS. VI. Igneous. Aqueous. carbonate of iron. will be followed in III. In the first three sections of this chapter the mode of origin. angular or rounded. or of several intermingled. CH. layer. e. in which the characteristics of rocks are described. which has been already adopted in Chapter III. II. incoherent grains. Rocks may be named and viz. 3. Metamorphic and altered. carbonate of lime.[PT. cemented by crystalline or by amorphous matter. as granite. II. and structure are treatedly separately. Aqueous or sedimentary or derivative. : classified accord- ing to I. the subject-matter of each section being subdivided under the heads of Igneous. and metamorphic rocks. The Chapter VII..

silicates of alumina. (2) It will generally be more coarsely and completely crystalline. 95 superficial II. as a volcanic rock (see Section : same mineralogical composition Mineral Constituents}. composed of grains. (4) The crystals will probably contain water-cavities. held together by a cement or base.g. it will differ in the following points (1) It will contain no vesicular (p. I. Igneous rocks are frequently altered by thermal metamorphism. In Arenaceous rocks the effects of thermal metamorphism depend on the nature of the deposits. viz. intruded granite. but some of the chief effects of been described The acid rocks are less liable activity. The term Hypabyssal is used by petrologists for rocks filling necks. but the two main divisions are sufficient for the 1 purposes of the engineer. etc. altered into marbles' and crystalline .. e... and when more highly metamorphosed the whole body of the rock becomes altered into schists or compact masses like hornstone. (3) It will not be stratified. AQUEOUS ROCKS. of derived Argillaceous or clay rocks similarly consist elements held together by a fine textured base or paste and retaining enough moisture to be plastic. dykes. A pure quartz sandstone or quartzose grit will be changed into a homogeneous quartzite. slaggy. may be produced and the rock may assume a gneissose character. and so forming a connecting link between volcanic and plutonic rocks. The mode in Chapter metamorphism may be noted here. owing to the different conditions under which it solidified. etc. Volcanic rocks are those which consolidated from fusion under A plutonic rock may have exactly the conditions. Arenaceous or sand rocks are typically fragmented or clastic in character. etc. derived from the waste of igneous rocks.. garnet. Calcareous rocks are 1 limestones. the principal changes being the replacement of one or more minerals by others in the vicinity of the region of thermal of origin of these rocks has already III.] THE STUDY OF ROCKS. to thermal metamorphism than the intermediate and basic rocks. 1 ALTERED AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Calcareous or lime rocks are chiefly of organic origin. 98).SECT. while if the original rock was impure and contained other substances. but. micas. Among Argillaceous rocks clays are altered into slates and shales. or glassy portions.

Peridolites. When the silica is in excess of the bases. Pyritous. gr. alumina. Sp. Section II. the rock is said to be acid or acidic . Gabbros. gr. Chemical and Mineralogical Composition. the rock is said to be basic. [FT. 2 '70 to 2 '80. Carbonaceous. rhyolites. VI. containing a considerable proportion of salt in of Micaceous. though the term is often restricted to iron pyrites. Gypseous. The mineralogical composition is of great importance to the engineer. Sp. composed of or containing silica. Basic group with 45 to 60 per cent of silica. Saliferous. consisting of. Granites. composed of or containing quartz. The percentage chemical composition of a fragment of rock depends on the chemical composition of the various mineral and chemical substances of which the rock is composed.. Igneous rocks may therefore be divided into groups.. Sp. composition of rocks Siliceous. felsites. beds. basalts. of silica. or resembling felspar. and soda. 2'85 to 3-4. Intermediate group with 55 to 70 per cent. as follows Acid group with 65 to 80 per cent. Syenites. lime. but plagioclase also occurs. of silica. to enable him to ascertain the comparative durability of his materials. porphyrites. Ultra-basic group with 35 to 50 per cent. potash. CH.96 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. andesites. pertaining to or yielding carbon. combined with the bases iron. diorites. The following terms are used : to denote the Felspathic. Sp gr. trachytes. General Terms. 2 The Acid group is distinguished by the presence of free silica The chief felspar is orthoor quartz in more or less abundance. when the percentage of silica is low. The magma or ground mass is invariably composed of silica. 1 composed of or containing layers or flakes IGNEOUS ROCKS. clase. dolerites. and is only of service in so far as it affords an indication of the nature of the various substances. containing. 2*80 to 3 '00. 1 Groups. mica. having the property of one of the native metallic sulphides known as pyrites.. gr. below : 2 '7 5. II.. . Quartzose. el vans. having the properties of or containing gypsum. according to their percentage of silica. of silica.

the most important constituents of rocks. etc. amphiboles. Plutonic and volcanic rocks are. flint. 1 Chemical Constituents. and glauconite Other constituents The base. ferruginous. felspars. Impure calcareous rocks contain sand and fine detritus. and sulphur also occur. speaking generally. or ilmenite. such as white mica and quartz. The alkalies. Arenaceous Rocks. In dolomitic limestones and dolomites a portion or the whole of the calcite is replaced by also occur. notably in felspars. 1 Fluorine. augite.. the hard parts of which consist chiefly of calcite or aragonite (see Chapter VII. The oxides of iron and magnesium are of considerable importance. micas. which are least liable to chemical change. 1 In Argillaceous Rocks the constituents cannot easily be The derived portions may identified owing to their minuteness. . composed of the same minerals. II. organisms. carbonates. felspars. Mineral Constituents.SECT. is probably often of micaceous origin. are. In the Ultra-basic group the rocks are largely composed of olivine combined with other ferro-magnesian minerals and iron ores. and deposition. transportation. tourmaline. hornblende. but olivine is very often present. and other common silicates being their Sometimes plutonic and volcanic rocks principal components. or micas . chlorine. AQUEOUS ROCKS. of calcareous Calcareous Rocks. p. 116). basic rocks in the shape of phosphate of lime (apatite) or titaniferous iron ore (ilmenite) and sphene (titanosilicate of lime). 1 These are composed. The cement may be calcareous. may be found locally.] THE STUDY OF ROCKS. In the Basic group the rocks usually contain no quartz and very little orthoclase. The commonest constituents of sands are minerals. micas. or siliceous. as the materials which formed the rocks from which the sands were derived have probably been subjected to chemical action during the processes of disintegration. Section II. 1 7 . though formerly it was supposed to be kaolin. however. pyrites. especially in the basic rocks. such as garnet. which is of exceedingly fine texture. be quartz. dolomite. 97 little The Intermediate group is characterised by rocks containing or no quartz and more plagioclase felspar than ortho- clase. are even composed of the same minerals mixed in the same 1 proportions. and Phosphoric acid and titanic acid are present in most pyroxenes. potash and soda. as a rule.

consists generally of plutonic rocks (see Mode of Origin. igneous rocks may be divided into three groups: (1) holocrystalline rocks. As in the case of minerals (vide Chapter IV. Aqueous. composed of minute crystals invisible to the naked eye." and shaped cavities. (2) The first of these groups lithoidal rocks. ante). p. so closely grained that no component particles or recognised by the eye a term used in field observation (see Chapter X. angular grains or particles more or of rounded fragments of preexistent masses. as rough.. Cellular or Vesicular. " " Amygdaloidal varieties of this structure see under Glassy and Lithoidal Rocks. CH. groups 1 and 2. : less crystallised in place." " Scoriaceous. VI. but the following terms are used in a general sense . whilst the second group comprises both of these varieties. . or Metamorphic. (3) glassy rocks. composed of and not Cryptocrystalline. 1 minerals are developed during the process of Section III. and the third of volcanic rocks. crystals can be IGNEOUS ROCKS." "Microcrystalline. Structure.. [PT. but it is preferable to limit the use of the latter term to the nature of the surface. etc. p. ALTERED AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS. For the purpose of studying their structure. without definite crystalline form. II. For "Holocrystalline. Granular. Section III. 63) " " the terms " structure and " texture are often used indiscriminately. containing small spherical or bubble- For the "Pumiceous. The various kinds of structure of rocks are described below according to their classification as Igneous. 1 Massive." "Hemicrystalline... Section III. The principal change in composition is due to recrystallisation. 201)." see under Igneous Rocks.98 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. while the former term is used to denote the method in which the component parts of a solid are built up.. Crystalline. composed of approximately equal grains. even-grained. 1 General Terms. either crystalline in outline or rounded by attrition. accessory alteration. and while the chief original minerals are not much altered. Compact.

the quartz appears as hook-shaped and irregular forms apparently disconnected from one another. The term " holocrystalline " are completely material. The porphyritic and granitic are the two principal structures found among plutonic rocks. relatively large crystallisation. 1 Columnar. of structure 99 The following kinds groups : are common to all three Granitic.SECT. 15 Fluidal Gneissic. crystals mutually intergrown. or in the irregular columns seen in many granitic rocks. to distinguish it from the metamorphic gneissic structure (see under Metamorphic Rocks). Banded Structure. The crystals or masses of differing comby flow into separate bands. position are carried out 15 glassy rocks. Showing a tendency to cleave into columns. Drusy. often of great beauty. crystalline used to denote rocks which is without admixture of amorphous quartz Pegmatitic or Graphic. 1 The rock breaks up into roughly or regularly Spheroidal. When devitrification takes place owing to line meteoric influence the glassy base is replaced by a cryptocrystalaggregate of quartz and felspar known as Felsitic Matter. When the crystallisation is complete the ground-mass is crystalline. crystals. have developed simultaneously in large The felspar being predominant. Two constituents. Graphic granite provides the best and almost only type. In the first phase. The coarser type of this structure may be seen concentric coats.] THE STUDY OF ROCKS. This may also be developed during consolidation. in granites. Common in Group 1. are developed in the walls of cavities in the mass. but usually there is a glassy base. most commonly and felspar. resembling granite. . well-defined. III. In most igneous rocks there are two phases of Porphyritic. 1 Felsitic Matter. and its most delicate type as the perlitic structure of glassy rocks. as in the basaltic columns of the Giant's Causeway. In the second phase the magma consolidates and forms the groundmass in which the porphyritic crystals are embedded. Crystals. The banded or foliated structure of many holocrystalline rocks arises in some cases during their original flow. Distinctly Holocrystalline Rocks. known as Porphyritic^ float in a molten base or magma. and may be designated as above.

This group includes rocks of dull. included. The smaller constituents flow round " eyes " formed by the larger ones. the microscope reveals Microcrystalline fairly distinct glass. while another constituent has settled down in large crystals round them. and sometimes the intrusion of a non-homogeneous magma 15 produces a banded structure on a handsome scale. are often called Cryptocrystals. [PT. Scoriaceous Structure occurs commonly in the rocks of this group (see under group 3). flint and chert. Often with the eye the crystals of one constituent be seen to have developed freely. very close-grained texture. rock specimen in the hand. All the common lavas and most porphyries are glassy matter. Group 2. spherulites aggregated together. Hornlike and slightly lustrous and translucent. a microscopic form of spheroidal structure. II. Lithoidal Rocks. the light will glance from some such surface and show the real continuity of areas that appear distinct from one another on the broken surface of the rock. crystallites. may appear. become no Structure. 15 like Group Perlitic Structure is 3. Spherulitic Structure is characterised by the presence of .100 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 15 ("Corsite") of Corsica. CH. contain some old Continental writers. 15 A rare structure in which the crystals are grouped Orbicular. The individual constituents with the lens. Such rocks. " " " " giving them a stony appearance. Glassy Rocks. so that the interspaces of the former are filled over considerable areas by material On turning the having parallel cleavage-surfaces or crystal-faces. 1^ The matrix is compact and often The lens will sometimes show and banded and fluidal structures crystalline. will is common in dolerites and diabases. consisting of a close admixture of and glass. so as to form spheroidal aggregates with or without radial or A fine example is the orbicular diorite concentric arrangement. Horny. It consists in the presence of cracks having approximately spherical forms. such as the lithoidal lavas of which may. though very possibly not specifically determinable by this means . almost vitreous to the eye. VI. caused by the contraction of the rock as it cooled. This structure Ophitic. or may not. 1 Hemicrystalline Structure.

breccia Brecciated (see group 4. rocks often become amygdaloidal when the cavities are filled with alteration products . Composed of an unstratified mass compacted volcanic debris. which radiate from a centre. p. litic 1 Lithophyse Structure. as in pumice . this texture may occur in a simple form when. 101 spherules or globules. with numerous elongated steam. as in common Such (see "Cellular. The finer portions of the fragmentary materials thrown up by volcanoes (see Chapter II. the concentric coats of which are separated from one another by interspaces in which minute crystals have commonly been developed. so called from the supposed almondlike shape of the cavities.vesicles. Fragmental or Clastic rocks are composed of fragments of preexistent rocks which have become cemented together. of Agglomerate. 1 AQUEOUS ROCKS. 15 Fluidal Structure. Brecciated. structure. which will form groups 5 and 6 of the whole series. a large spherulite. Group 5. each of which is generally composed of It is distinguishfibrous crystals. The rock may be completely comparatively rare form of spheru(stone-bladders) were so named their hollows were caused by the more glassy.SECT. A The lithophyses from the supposition that The lithophyse looks like expansion of vapours in the interior. scoriae Group 4.) are soon converted into mud by the action of steam. These Coarsely Fragmental Rocks. III. . all the crystallites and crystals are carried 15 along with their longer axes parallel to one another." under General Terms. able from the surrounding glass by its different colour and appearance. of fragments Composed of breccia or angular fragments. and form a cement to weld together the larger fragments. Volcanic Fragmental Rocks). Pumiceous and Scoriaceous. may be divided into (1) coarsely fragmental rocks. In older examples these hollows have been filled up. or lithoidal and less completely vesicular. (2) ordinary stratified rocks. 98).] THE STUDY OF ROCXS. owing to the motion of the rock. Though commonly associated with banding. A may also be produced by the crushing of a rock owing . Volcanic Fragmental Rocks.

[PT. Concretionary. Laminated Structure (see Chapter III. Ordinary Stratified Rocks. II. which thus pass into conglomerates. to earth-movements. 1 ALTERED AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS. Psammitic or resembling sandstone. Usually the rock splits easily along the planes of lamination. Divisible into thin layers. 15 coarse development of oolitic. rocks. the fragments being afterwards cemented together in such a breccia parts recognisable as having belonged to the same fragment of the original mass may be expected to : be occasionally found in close proximity to one another. but sometimes the laminae cohere so firmly that the rock will break more easily in some other direction.worn fragments or pebbles. The points to be noted are the character of the bedding and the 15 degree of coarseness of the constituents. Containing small. water. Common among Pisolitic. CH. Group Rocks retaining Traces of Bedding. These rocks (1) fall naturally into three groups.. Foliated and schistose rocks. A limestones. as in the case of quartzite and crystalline . Crystallisation. 1 Oolitic. 1 Conglomerate Structure.102 'GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. VI. 1 Group 6. p. 1 cracks filled with products of infiltration. Amorphous 7. The same is generally applied to rocks the fragments of which are of considerable size. Composed of inorganic matter which has been aggregated in nodules or lumps round some central point or On being broken open they often show shrinkagenucleus. The structural characters are partly those due to the original rocks and partly those set up by the action of heat and pressure during alteration. 15 Pebbly. Composed of fragments the edges of which are rounded. with grains as large as peas. giving rise to a septarian structure. forming groups : 7 to 9 of the whole series (2) (3) Those which retain traces of bedding. 38). Formed of egg-like granules with concentric coats and often a central nucleus of some fossil or mineral fragment. as in the case of coarse sandstones.

A rippled. the passage of a foliated rock into one with normal structure. 47) is a fissile structure 1 brought about by heat and pressure. Foliated or Schistose Rocks. of previously crystalline materials. hand specimens at times leaving this point unsettled. The fluidal structure referred to is in this section under Igneous Rocks. and what have. limestone. the smaller constituents flowing round the larger ones and tailing out in streams on either side. on the other hand. as in a mill.. the curvature of one another. p. These occur under their most typical form in masses. wavy structure. 103 is usually incomplete. often causes the cleavage to become imperfect. so that each fragment assumes the form of a much extended lenticle. along some cleavageplanes connects cleavage and foliation. and so on till unaltered clastic strata are reached. if possible. III. Distinctly Foliated Rocks. pass gradually along . in many cases the latter structure is due to the rolling out. This structure is best seen on surfaces perpendicular to the planes of foliation. but is evidenced by the additional hardness and frangibility.SECT.. 15 For Mylonitic and Granulitic structures see Chapter VII.] THE STUDY OF ROCKS. 15 The resistance of large. 127. group seen in vitrified sandstones. and is best seen in slates. Group 8. resisting bands or coloured stripes at an angle to the cleavage-planes often afford the Fossils will sometimes be found distorted on necessary evidence.. 1 3. Section III.. and hard. pre-existing crystals produces the eye-structure of many gneisses. 49) consists in the grouping of the mineral constituents along surfaces that are parallel to. Traces of the original bedding must be keenly looked for. Foliation (see Chapter III. Section III. Cleavage must be distinguished from lamination. which in its turn shades away into less highly metamorphosed 7 beds. or follow.. been developed during the period of crush and pressure. the herald of 15 foliation. Amorphous Metamorphic Rocks. and too much care cannot be devoted to the question as to what minerals in the schistose product are deformed primary substances.. p. Hence it is important to trace. Although the development of minerals. whether igneous or sedimentary. Group 9. p. and then their margins into some form of foliated rock. Section III. 1 Cleavage (see Chapter III. the cleavage-planes. notably mica.

Rocks which contain iron under this form are usually bluish or greyish. . .. . or where they have been otherwise Where they have been shielded from the action of the air. 201. Rocks. and is only important as a rock-character when the rock is so fine in grain that the hardness of the individual constituent cannot be separately determined or when the adhesion of the different constituents to each other is of appreciable importance as compared with the cohesion of the parts of a constituent.. Basalt. they are comparatively unimportant. however. 1 Iron is one of the most important colouring agents. which is white when pure and therefore imparts no colour to the rock. on the sizes and arrangement of the constituents. In many it is present as ferrous carbonate. on their modes of The terms union. and the colours given by these compounds are strong enough to overpower the original grey hue of the rock. Ferrous carbonate is an unstable compound. Section III. and under the oxidising influence of the atmosphere and of water becomes converted either into ferric oxide (2FeC0 3 + = Fe 2 3 + 2C0 2 ) or one of the ferric hydrates... . and the following are typical examples : Conchoidal Even Uneven Earthy .. ferric hydrate generally produces some . Scarcely any rock is free from iron. 1 Colour and Lustre. used are the same as in the case of minerals (see Chapter IV. . Cast Iron. Physical Characters. Splintery .. brown. p. 207. or yellow. Hardness is a character of the immediate constituents or minerals of which rock is composed. VI. . Fracture. p. CH. lustre exposed they are commonly red. sometimes to various inorganic substances. The scale of hardness p. Chert. the colour being due sometimes to organic matter. Owing to the varieties of colour and met with in one and the same rock. II. Ferric oxide colours red . . but some indication of the nature of a rock may be obtained from them if due caution is observed. Flint. Section I. Section IV. . [FT. For determination of hardness see Chapter X. . . Chalk. 66.. l is given in Chapter IV. and Chapter XL. Section III. --The character of the surface of fracture of a rock depends on the kind of fracture of each of the constituents.). seldom show this bluish or greyish hue except at some depth below the surface..104 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.. and on their cohesive and adhesive power. . Section III.

. in others perhaps by ferrosoferric phosphate .. Section I. Section IV. the latter salt may also be the cause of the green colour of certain rocks. 132). bituminous odour. etc.).. 105 brown or yellow.). to come across blocks of stone which are blue inside. talcose and other magnesian rocks often have a soapy or greasy Some rocks have a distinct feel. Section III. Chapter IV." and have a brown or yellow outside crust.g. too. of course. 1 Streak. while in other cases this colour may be due to a silicate of iron. Carbonaceous matter. IV. p. It is not uncommon. 1 Feel and Smell are distinctive in the case of certain rocks. the same beds when quarried at the surface are brown or yellow.] THE STUDY OF ROCKS. While the hardness is being tried the colour and lustre of the streak or mark left on paper by the abraded powder (cf. 1 Lustre.. than in impervious tint of : clayey rocks. but this quality is not of the same value in the latter case. in the case of minerals) should also be observed. 1 Specific Gravity and Fusibility (see Chapter XI. The same difference may be noticed between the top and bottom beds of a deep quarry. "blue-hearted.. Section III. and trachyte is notably rough. p. and so at times does iron in the form of ilmenite or magnetite. The terms used for minerals (see Chapter IV. or a ferrosoferric hydrate. 67) apply equally to rocks. (see Chapter XL. The blue colour of rocks is caused by finely disseminated iron pyrites in some cases. e. Magnetism is important in the cases of rocks containing 1 magnetite.. The student may observe instances of this change of colour in the sinking of shafts or wells the sandstones brought up from any depth are almost invariably blue or grey.SECT. and in some sandstones black patches of colour are due to the presence of peroxide of manganese. the exact shade depending perhaps on the degree of hydration. A white colour may be due to the absence of metallic oxides. usually gives a black colour. Section I. or to weathering or bleaching (see Chapter VII. and sometimes perhaps to a ferric hydrate. like sandstone.. 7 . Organic matter will colour clays and other rocks from light grey to black . This change has naturally gone on to a larger extent in porous rocks.

and absence of cleavage. granite. more detailed scopic 1 descriptions. but plagioclase (oligoclase or orthoclase is generally the predominating It usually occurs in twin crystals. conchoidal fracture. Granites. Igneous Rocks. but not often with the crystalline faces perfectly developed. hornVarieties due to differences in blende. 15 Belong to the Acid group. VII.[PT. especially as regards microcharacters. The felspar albite) occurs mineral. specific gravity about typical granitic structure is holocrystalline. in the various text-books. The Varieties of granite due to structural differences are porphyritic pegmatite. see below. The science of petrology. graphic granite. reference should be made to text-books on petrology. 1 usually orthoclase. 2-65. gneissose eurite . the nomenclature is almost For bewildering and differs. has. 6 It is recognisable by its vitreous lustre. therefore. cleaves with a is . Granites are aggregates of quartz and felspar with mica. especially among igneous rocks. the crystals or grains all touching one another. The quartz usually occurs in more or less angular grains. IN this chapter an attempt has been made to describe the more important rocks in such a way that the engineer may be able to distinguish them with comparative ease. and is either colourless or has a smoky tinge. PLUTONIC ROCKS. advanced considerably of late years and the various types have been found to slide into one another. 106 . moreover. but sometimes porous. or augite as accessories. II. CHAPTER KOCKS. so that. VII. with no paste or matrix. Section I. and granite. composition are described below. CH. They are usually compact. however. and the crystals 6 vary in size from a mustard seed to the size of a closed fist.

107 pearly fracture. It occurs in Ireland. I. or brownish red. and quartz is of reduced importance. being pink. They show a prismatic cleavage and are green or brownish green. or black. red. but consists of orthoclase and quartz so arranged in parallel layers that a transverse fracture exhibits the quartz in forms suggesting letters of an Oriental It occurs near Ilmenau. greenish tinge. green or reddish grey. typical granite and syenite. yellowish grey. Sometimes the greater part of the rock is formed in a Saxony. but the lustre of the Certain largebasal planes will easily serve to identify them. garnet. Crystals are rare. topaz. language. and hornblende to a large extent replaces the mica. but contains in addition a pale green. Hornblende granite or syenitic granite is intermediate between It contains less quartz than granite. 15 6 grained granites contain lithia mica. Tourmaline granite is granite in which the mica is partly . 7 The mica generally occurs in thin plates which are often It varies in colour. Both kinds often occur together.] ROCKS. while the orthoclase is grey. and has a grey or greenish tinge. and by Limoges.SECT. 1 Biotite granite or granitite has only dark mica. is more fusible. Protogenic or talc granite of the Alps has the same composition as granite. Graphic granite is also schistose. 6 The dull edges of biotite crystals often resemble fibrous hornblende. and the quartz and felspar are in approximately equal proportions. Pegmatite is a kind of giant granite in which the crystals of orthoclase are sometimes a foot long. etc. oligoclase predominates. brown. Its quartz is easily broken. and generally It is seen near Penig in contains tourmaline. Granite proper contains both light and dark micas. 6 Albite and labradorite also occur. which is 6 always dark. The talc is only freely developed when the rock becomes schistose. and even blue in Connecticut and the The oligoclase is less transparent. and gives granite its characteristic colour. etc. being silvery hexagonal. and the white mica occurs in large flakes. contains more soda Pyrenees. The mica is usually in six-sided plates. milk-white quartz. reddish brown. rarer and more diffused than the black magnesian mica (biotite). white. talc-like The oligoclase has a mineral. and is frequently cavernous. Gneissose granite is granite which has a schistose character. It is only known in other granite. with the walls of the cavities covered with crystals. than orthoclase. Muscovite granite has white mica only. 1 Augite granite is of rare occurrence. The hornblende crystals are irregular. The white potash mica (muscovite) is white.

A general term denoting rocks which contain an alkali felspar and occupy a position structurally between porphyritic 1 granites and 10 rhyolite. Composed of colourless. It has also remarkable J weathering properties (see Chapter VII. brown mica. both colours may occur together. " whence came the old name " orthoclase-porphyry (see under Porphyry. augite 6 syenite. 15 The structure is like that of granite. VII. and felsites. The felspar is flesh-coloured. Porphyritic granite contains large porphyritic crystals of orthoThe ground-mass is composed of the same constituents as clase. The mica (biotite) is usually colourless or very pale green. and mica syenite? Syenites are typically without quartz. eurite form of granite sometimes has porphyritic orthoclase. white. from Foya in 15 Algarve. elvans. It commonly occurs in lamellar and columnar crystals. Granite occurs in large masses or bosses with veins and dykes Chapter XIII. and the texture is even-grained. Granite Porphyry is similar to porphyritic granite. 1 The hornblende is usually green. 6 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. but the matrix is finer and more compact than that of a granite.. Specific gravity about 2'75. 6 is The nepheline in the coarse elaeolite form Nepheline Syenite. Syenites belong to the Intermediate group. According to the nature of the latter we have hornblende syenite or syenite proper. ordinary granite. Elvan is the Cornish name for certain 'granitic and porphyritic rocks. being microcrystalline or . 1 The by the knife varieties with hornblende have been called Foyaite. and those with mica Miascite. or smoky porphyritic of the same minerals. [PT. the ground-mass felsitic. and there is very little quartz.). Section IV. OH. and titanite.108 replaced by schorl. II. but may be distinguished 15 and by its characteristic greasy lustre. The felspars resemble those of granite. It consists essentially of orthoclase felspar with one of the ferromagnesian group. apatite. brown or green . resembles brownish or greenish quartz. from Miask in the Urals. The fine-grained form corresponding to the Compact Syenite. below). and (see The augite encloses magnetite. name Eurite some writers also include quartz and felspar 15 porphyries. Eurite is the name given by some authors to a white micro1 Under the granite which is also called Aplite and Granulite. Specific gravity about 2'65. for further details). Porphyry. but sometimes a deep brown. crystals of quartz and felspar in a ground-mass Is compact in structure. 1 Quartz-Porphyry (see under Eurite). 15 Belongs to Acid group.

chiefly composed of microliths of felspar. 109 Felspar-Porphyry. and granitic in structure. but sometimes anorthite. it has a holocrystalline granitoid structure. Specific gravity. perlitic. contains olivine which. when fresh. 1 Intermediate group. hornblende. 1 A granitoid rock. also called Orthoclase-Porphyry. usually diallage. or pyroxene in a light-coloured ground-mass. Olivine Gabbro. In Gabbro proper diallage or augite predominates . It is also called Quartz. which no olivine is present. augite. which often fills up the spaces between the felspar. are known as Pyroxene Diorites. Liparite. syenite that quartz-porphyry does to granite. contains little or no free quartz and It bears the same relation to belongs to the Basic group. enstatite also Quartz The name gabbro in is sometimes restricted to varieties containbasic . the texture varying from Holocrystalline medium to coarse grain. and Highly acidic. but is often stained with limonite . Specific gravity. Consists of quartz and orthoclase with either mica. Belongs to both the Intermediate and the Basic groups. and corresponds Ehyolite. marked conchoidal fracture. lithoidal. used to some extent for building G-abbro. usually labradorite. which are more while the intermediate types.The other principal conDiorite. which is green or brown . Like syenite hornblende. and may be present. structure. and a high 15 fusibility. 15 1 It is compact. 1 stituent is usually green occur. in addition to hornblende and augite. and spherulitic has a glassy ground-mass. and includes many so-called Felstones. 2*85 to 3-0. Nevadite is a crystalline and granitoid variety of rhyolite.Trachyte and with quartz-porphyry. Consists essentially of a lime-soda felspar. SyenitePorphyry^ or Orthophyre. its cleavage surfaces having a marked metallic or pearly lustre. 2-9 to 3 -02. ophitic from syenite in having a soda-lime felspar instead of orthoclase as one of its principal constituents. and when in considerable quantity the rock is termed Quartz. but mica. like that found in trachyte. or porphyritic. is colourless. The volcanic equivalent of granite. . while Differs structure is found in the more basic varieties.SECT. under the commercial name of granite. in Norite diallage is replaced by hypersthene which has a coppery lustre. often with marked fluidal.] ROCKS. Hornblende Gabbro contains hornblende in addition. 15 VOLCANIC ROCKS. ing olivine. . Obsidian is a term which includes both rhyolite glass and 1 These glasses have a low specific gravity. I. and a pyroxene. Specific gravity about 2'5. a trachyte glass.Diorite.

15 Constituents are the same as those of syenite. which are now known as rhyolites. 1 with felspar-porphyry. 1 Specific gravity abont 2 '5. the orthoclase being usually sanidine in large. or even black trachytes are found. and corresponds Trachyte. lithoidal. 99. and approach basalts in . It consists of sanidine and nepheline with a ferromagnesian constituent . Trachytic Andesite (Mica or Hornblende has a structure like that of trachyte. but its use is now restricted to the felsitic structure described in Chapter VI. sometimes with glassy interspaces between the crystals. emits a ringing sound when struck.. which also includes a spheroidal or onion-like structure in the decomposing rock. and a lithoidal to glassy groundThe absence of orthoclase is characteristic. but sometimes dark yellow or red. The volcanic equivalent of syenite. characteristically trachytic. 1 mass. II. plagioclase felspar with group mica. This term was formerly used to describe many rocks Felsite. weathering. 15 usually commonly porphyritic. Basaltic Andesites (Pyroxene Andesites). and when hornblende abounds be dark brown or black. VII. Pitchstone is almost identical with obsidian. Specific gravity is i Structure lithoidal. Sometimes has a fissile character and splits into slabs which can The fissile character is intensified by be used for roofing. structure. Dark-coloured lavas prevalent in the Andes . of greyish-green colour and spotted appearance. but reddish. They are darker than the trachytic andesites. water than obsidian and is generally dark green or brown in colour.110 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. as it Intermediate group. or glassy in Specific gravity about 2*55. the ground-mass being derived. 1 15 Compact. but is less glassy and has a greasy or pitch-like lustre and a fracture more or less It contains more conchoidal and at times rather splintery. [PT. Phonolite or Nepheline-Trachyte is the volcanic equivalent of nepheline-syenite and is commonly known as Clinkstone. They vary in colour may from grey to dark green. or pyroxene. CH. Compact and lithoidal in structure and very often scoriaceous. Intermediate group. volcanic equivalent of diorite. yellowish. and is The ground-mass darker about 2-75. 6 They occupy an intermediate Andesite) position between trachyte and basalt. sometimes leucite is present in combination with or 1 replacing nepheline. p. and the colour is than that of trachyte. They belong to the Intermediate and consist chiefly of a glassy. hornblende. causing the rough texture from which the name is Usually pale in colour. platelike crystals which are porphyritic. the Andesites. felsitic.

they are often included with other bedded rocks under the general term "Sedimentary Rocks. 15 is conchoidal. 15 gravity Altered Andesites. 2 '9.] ROCKS. p. These are frequently scoriaceous and amygdaloidal. Qiiartz-Andesite. Specific gravity. and the . 10 They consist of plagioclase and augite with olivine in the most basic varieties.. As these rocks are bedded. p. contains a considerable proportion of quartz. ropy types coloured externally a rusty brown. 27. name used for a basalt or dolerite rich in olivine. Basalt proper consists of augite and plagioclase felspar . when olivine or hornblende occurs the rock is called Olivine basalt or Hornblende basalt. Leucite and nepbeline also occur. ilmenite. they are the plutonic equivalents of andesite. 1 Basalt Rocks. and are the volcanic equivalents of gabbro. bomb-like forms may be looked for as well as twisted. They belong to the Basic group. Very compact.SECT. 1 They often form immense dykes with a tendency to cleave into hexagonal columns as on the Giant's Causeway. Peridotite. Dolerite is sometimes classed with gabbro as a plutonic rock. The ground-mass is formed of similar smaller fragments and fine dust. are sometimes called Porphyrites. and magnetite. and represent the more vitreous parts of lavas. chiefly noticeable for their alteration into serpentine (see 1 A Section III. but otherwise resembles the trachytic andesites. dark brown or greenish rocks varying in structure from holocrystalline to semi-vitreous and sometimes porphyritic or ophitic. Ill The fracture texture. but it is usually considered to be a coarse variety of basalt. black. The constituents are blocks of volcanic or more deeply seated rocks." but it seems better to class them according to their mode of origin among the igneous rocks. Spheroidal. and apatite. but this term is now used for rocks resembling porphyry. in which the glassy matrix is replaced by a brown earthy base. 2'75 to 2 9. becoming even black and notably heavy. or Dacite. Specific gravity. 124). but having a though it soda-lime felspar. 1 Volcanic Sands are mere water-worn deposits the materials of which have been derived from some neighbouring volcanic area.. - has some features in common with rhy elites. VOLCANIC FRAGMENTAL ROCKS. Diabase is a name given to a doleritic rock in which a greenish chloritic colour has been given by the alteration of the olivine or augite. 1 Specific about 2'65. angular and often of considerable size. I. 15 Volcanic Agglomerates or Coarse Tuffs. As regards volcanic ejecta see Chapter II.

which have been formed pyroclastic sedimentary rocks volcanic fragments have been These consist of the stratified rocks by deposition in water. formed from materials derived from older rocks 1 (2) rocks formed by chemical or organic agencies. or mud which have become hardened by various natural cements into solid beds or strata. and develops again the scoriaceous character of many of the included blocks. The tuffs are so often altered soon after deposition. Section II. The beds will be found. the sand a sandstone. on tracing them out. [PT.112 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Examples of the weathered surface should always be collected. marked variations in thickness. They may be divided into arenaceous or sandy rocks and argillaceous or clayey rocks. The pebbles then become a conglomerate. 15 Tuffs aud Ashes. and the mud a clay. The which have been formed from already described in Section I. whole becomes in older examples as firmly cemented together as a conglomerate. . and to present. Weathering. if deposited on land. VII. 1 (i) Arenaceous Rocks. and the blocks of lava. reveals the coarsely fragmental structure. Earlier and consolidated beds however. sand. to vary considerably and rather rapidly. The finer ashes form very compact beds that require the 15 microscope for their determination. and they appear compact and even uniform on newly fractured surfaces. Sand. The embedded crystals. will enable one to ascertain the character of the materials that rose in the volcanic vent. that their former character is lost. however. and vary indefinitely in composition according to the nature of the sources from which they were derived. such as augite or felspar. . II. By this term we understand the materials constituting This sand has the fine-grained siliceous rocks called sandstones. 6 They are all mechanical deposits. owing to the attacks of volcanic vapours. Aqueous Rocks. be sometimes blown to pieces and mingled with these fresher layers. the joint-planes traversing the included blocks and the binding material alike. Aqueous rocks may be divided into (1) fragmental or clastic rocks. The loose tuffs of Late Tertiary volcanoes are readily recognised. FRAGMENTAL OR CLASTIC ROCKS. These consist of pebbles. CH. will. viz.

beds are made up of grains which are unworn and practically new. The quartz derived from gneiss and mica schist. every grain presenting the characters of a miniature pebble. 7). but the quartz from felsite is much more truly crystalline. at the same time as the sand grains. and in some cases of cherts or flints.] BOCKS. while the grains on many a modern sea-beach are of vast antiquity. and presents the features characteristic of sand derived from schists. the amount of wear is found to be unexpectedly small .SECT. 8 . The calcareous cement siliceous. and Some ancient sandgrinding by the waves on the seashore. Argillaceous cement also occurs formed by the decomposition of 1 felspars. 113 in every case been derived from the destruction of igneous or metamorphic rocks. Egyptian. though the angles are more rounded than in the quartz from granite. thin plates of mica are found between the parallel grains of quartz. etc. so that when broken up it gives rise to a fine-grained sand. Ferruginous cement may occur alone or associated with calcareous matter. and consists of numerous small crystals dovetailed together. thus the sand of the riverterraces at Dunkeld is almost entirely angular. and have formed part of several geological formations. and the planes of the crystals are frequently perfect. II. When we examine some of the modern sands in process of formation. but has had no binding effect until it has been dissolved and redeposited with a more or less crystalline texture. a feature resulting from the agency of wind in rubbing the grains against each other (cf. p. has probably been originally deposited in the form of mud. This attrition is due to transport of the material by rivers. and great African deserts. or a sand containing grains which show a compound structure . ferruginous. in each of which they have been worn. The quartz from granite consists of separate grains which often have an irregular and complex form. which may be calcareous. Sometimes the grains are corroded as though partly dissolved by the action of the alkalies liberated when the associated felspar was decomposed. are exceptionally worn. on the other hand. The red oxide of iron and brown hydrated oxide both occur and often form a thin coat round each grain. and if the parent rock contained mica. 6 Sandstone consists of grains of sand compacted by some cementing medium.. or a mixture of some of these. is remarkable for being flattened in the plane of foliation. especially when those rocks have a thin foliation. The sands of the Arabian. The grains of sand are rarely obtained direct from the rock which yields them without experiencing a large amount of wear. When the cement is siliceous it is often deposited in crystalline continuity with the quartz grains. etc.

Clay consists of extremely fine particles which can easily be transported by moving water. Bluestone is a bluish. Felspathic. A Greywacke is an old. Quartzose.. or similar plutonic rock. p. etc. The fine-grained Arkose especially when seen in section. 123). 1 Conglomerate. 80). yellow. oxide of iron . Sometimes. it then splits into thin layers in the direction in which was deposited. of colour should be noted in a clay-pit as deeper Any change beds are approached. CH. 102). completely compacted by a cement of quartz. p. it is usually grey or blue. the result is a quartzite. the clay is called shale it . and capable of being split up into large sheets for paving. Clay consists chemically chiefly of alumina. When the pebbles are rounded the rock is called Pudding stone . or black. according to the nature of their materials. Sandstones are described as Micaceous. may sometimes closely imitate the igneous mass. argillaceous sandstone used for flagging and building. greenish-grey felspathic sandstone. closely set. red. for the suspicion of alteration hangs over most brown clays. VII. but one in which the original grains and cementing material are clearly distinguishable. compact. when hardened by pressure. 10 (ii) Argillaceous Rocks. which makes up so large a part of fire-formed rocks. as may be seen by the muddy state of the rivers after rain in The colour of clay is generally due to some clayey districts. somewhat vague term now used for a 1 hard. produced under such conditions contains all the minerals of the igneous rock. When hammer it is when known sandstone is capable of being easily dressed by the for building purposes it is denominated freestone. sometimes brown.. II. The term is also used locally for any stone of a blue-grey colour. When a deposit of quartz-sand has become Section III. silicate of Clay. as a flagstone? Quartzite (see also under Altered and Metamorphic Rocks. clastic deposit composed of pebbles or fragments of pre-existent rocks (cf. and has very nearly the same composition as the mineral felspar. p. 6 occasionally white. coarse. The irregular greenish or red streaks of the " mottled clays" impart a characteristic effect to many fresh- . Grit is a hard and firm sandstone formed of coarse. sharp grains. purple. [FT. Sandstones formed close against a mass of granite. Glauconitic (cf. fine-grained. and by containing other minerals.114 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and fitted into one another by the 15 pressure of overlying strata. when they are 1 angular it is called a Breccia (cf. 101). p. crimson.

pp. and when this has evaporated. II. however. and graphitic matter becomes finely disseminated by organic decay. Clays may originate in many ways. and when calcareous are Shale. such as those in caves. There is necessarily every gradation between sands and clays on the one hand. the Wealden entomostraca. although forming but a small percentage of the limestone. Among the older rocks is a tendency for shales to become darker than the corresponding modern stratified clays. and the impressions of the graptolites being familiar examples (see Chapter IX. On the surfaces of such beds delicate fossils must be looked for. the red earth found in caves. of existing mud and much more difficult. gullies. it lands . as a rule. as a rule. minute flakes of mica. like parts of the Solenhofen "slate. yet has often contributed to the accumulation of small deposits. and the observations on the deposits now forming are too few to . and sometimes needle-like prisms. and washed in by the streams flowing through them. Very fine calcareous beds. give no indications of pumice or volcanic dust. Clays when sandy are termed loam . after the carbonic acid gas dissolved in water has carried away the whole of the carbonate of lime. It may.] BOCKS. No such careful and detailed examination has been made The subject is clay as of sand or limestone. with variable amounts of calcareous granules and sand.. but can at once be distinguished chemically with acid. The while when fine they are due to the destruction of schists. but always holds a good deal of water suspended in its substance . and limestones and clays on the other . due there . the plant remains of the Coal Measures. 181. and. large and deep surface-cracks and fissures are formed which may be enlarged by rain into water deposits. The beautiful laminated structure of some clays becomes more apparent where the materials are more consolidated and the rock passes into shale. 184).completely demonstrate the conditions under which many of the newer clay-beds were formed. nothing can be distinguished by the microscope but more or less irregular granules. is obtained from the destruction of the neighbouring limestone rocks . 115 15 Clay generally occurs in valleys and low does not easily allow water to pass through it. be regarded as certain that when the quartz grains in clays are coarse the clays are derived from granite. there remains an insoluble residue of silicate of alumina and oxide of iron which. the leaves of Tertiary deposits.SECT." resemble some pale shales. for. newer clays. but many of the older muds now changed into slate rocks appear to be entirely of volcanic origin. The fissility of the layers.

and leaves a well-marked scratch. There is no means known by which calcite can be changed into aragonite. etc. 15 Mudstone or clay rock is hard and compact without any split. Some compact varieties give only 2*6. tendency to Marl is a and lime. as strikingly unstable. or by chemical precipitation and deposition. the knife readily settles the question. (i) calcareous. the former being a remarkably stable substance. from remains of mollusca and other organisms. CH. and iron. With hot acid all varieties effervesce freely. argillaceous. or replaced by structureless calcite. but the hardness. limestone. shrinkage and pressure of upper deposits. arenaceous. and since calcite is usually deposited from cold solutions of carbonate of lime. is the essential character of these shaly forms. it is also easily dissolved. Limestone may be formed from the waste of older limestones. The ordinary limestones do so when . while the dolomites (see below) run up to about 2-85. siliceous. about 3. The specific gravity is generally rather under that of calcite. When its temperature is raised it passes into a mass of crystals of calcite . and dark varieties even imitate compact basaltic lavas. across the limestone. etc. Physical characters. filled with white powder. rock is known as a siliceous. Limestone. These may be divided into carbonaceous. While at times finely granular limestones resemble quartzites.116 to GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. it happens that organisms formed of aragonite are often removed entirely from a deposit. VII.. 3 loose appellation for all friable compounds of clay ROCKS FORMED BY CHEMICAL OR ORGANIC AGENCIES. and ferruginous. probably owing to organic impurities. It consists of pure carbonate of lime or of carbonate of lime mixed with silica. or carbon1 aceous. but aragonite is of calcite. The carbonate of lime sometimes exists in the crystalline form sometimes in the form of aragonite. Calcareous Rocks. but also important points in the general structure of limestones. and many shells have one layer of calcite and the other layer of aragonite. Varieties with much aragonite will give 2*8. II. When any of these occurs in excess the alumina. phosphatic. This difference explains not only the circumstance of preservation of many groups of fossils. helps greatly in the detection of these rocks. 6 The colours of limestones are very various . [PT.

and may be peas. Pisolitic limestone is 'sometimes known as " pea grit. Concretions of this subsection)." the interspaces becoming finally filled up with calcite and the whole mass consolidated into a lime- stone showing vegetable impressions. The defor- . hollow or may enclose a minute grain of some mineral substance. but the dolomitic limestones show a less rapid effervescence.. do not necessarily form easy planes of separation." or one which can be Bath stone. 127). Brecciated limestones. will be commonly found coated with stalactitic crusts.] BOCKS. to the yielding nature of Owing the rock. as in some Tyrol The dolomites.. distinct vertical joints. the surfaces produced by trimming being conchoidal in those of the finest grain. passing down through many feet of strata. p. Similar deposition upon leaves.. give. but grey oolite is found. of hollows caves." which Crystalline limestone has a coarse or fine crystalline structure may be due to alteration (see Section III. from springs containing carbonate of lime. and tend to perpetuate the terraced In the hand. Portland stone. gives rise to travertine or "calcareous tufa. often of great delicacy. silica (flint and chert. II.SECT. and the surfaces of limestones of every age. Its peculiar structure makes it a "freestone. are cut in any given direction. oolitic limestones. 15 Chalk is a white.. of carbonate of lime. these types are fairly taken place. with the bedding-planes. 117 a drop of cold acid is laid upon them . and in pisolite or pisolitic limestone the grains are as large as The grains have several concentric coats. Chalk marl is chalk mixed with clay. By developof mica along surfaces metamorphic "calc schists" of ment movement they pass over into the (see Section III. twigs. etc. Oolite is usually a dull yellow colour. in and the replacement of whole beds by pseudo- morphic action. fine-grained limestone containing at times as much as 94 to 98 per cent. We may note that fissile limestones are rare. The cracks common where earth-movements have become filled with calcite. and frequently contains nodules of flint and iron pyrites. and that planes of lamination. the well-known block-like character to exposed limestone surfaces. see (ii) Siliceous Rocks. Oolite or oolitic limestone is composed of grains like the roe Qf a fish. compact limestones cliffs so familiar in the field. are common features The and faces of cracks in limestones. It may be quite soft and earthy or harder and more compact. etc. though they may be quite apparent. 124) or to 1 original structure. break through with a clean fracture in almost any direction. each crystal being a fragment of a fossil. and true dolomite gives barely a trace until heated in the acid. p.

. Dolomitic Limestone. from the form of stalactites. affords a most interesting field for observation. often resembling igneous veins. brownish grey. in striking contrast to the dark-grey limestone about it. but are liable to contain cavernous hollows and cavities of types. are formed by deposition from water which has passed through calcareous rocks. Commonly the formation ordinary limestones. often contains relics of vegetable matter. together with many remains of the organisms of the external sea. Stalactites. leaves. [PT. are well marked on broken surfaces. and stalagmites. etc.118 mation GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The iron that is often at the same time introduced colours the dolomite a faint brown. and the mode of deposition can be clearly appreciated from this structure. II. or the root-like pendants from the roofs of limestone caverns. structure to the eye. Arenaceous limestones pass into calcareous sandstones. being about 2 '8. This rock is generally due to the alteration of ordinary limestone. and from the characteristic of stalagmites. a portion of the carbonate of lime being replaced 1 Dolomites resemble ordinary by carbonate of magnesia. or Magnesian Limestone. of dolomite in ordinary limestone spreads as a sort of disease in stones bands and patches. 1 and in most stalagmites. reef-like masses among ordinary sediments. Carbonaceous or bituminous limestone obtains its dark colour from the decomposition of vegetable or animal matter.. 1 Scattered corals occur in many shelly limeCoral limestones. white. Travertines are characteristically pale in mammillated surfaces Travertine. VII. or the lumps and bosses which rise from the floors. colour. being opaque. Rottenstone is a name given to the siliceous skeleton formed from siliceous limestone by the weathering out or decomposition of the calcareous part of the rock. Cornstone is an arenaceous limestone in which the carbonate of lime is sufficiently predominant to enable it to be burnt for lime when better stone is not available.. or their reduction to mere mineral 15 fragments. enclosing the coral detritus accumulated on their flanks. consisting of carbonate of lime deposited upon twigs. of fossils in such rocks. CH. or slightly tinged with 15 orange where iron oxides are more abundant. but occasionally the branching or astrsean types build up . 1 Dolomite. and commonly show a crystalline The successive layers in some stalactites. etc. in streams. retreat. and fetid limestone owes its smell to the same cause. or casts of such materials appear when the consolidated mass is broken open. as if the materials had shrunk during the process of The specific gravity is higher than that of chemical change.

These terms can be used synonymously for the concretions and beds of chalcedonic and amorphous silica found so frequently in limestones and sandy rocks. and sometimes forms large concretions. The white powdery surfaces distinguishes the two types of rock. The rock does not effervesce with test. semitransparent. It occurs in the form of regular beds in irregular concretionary masses and in veins and strings in other rocks. The glancing surfaces of the calcite cleavages in the latter are represented in some coarser alabasters by the clinopinacoidal plates of the gypsum crystals . 1 The rock is generally white. 119 The rion-effervescence of true dolomite with cold acids may cause mistakes on hurried examination. their The comparative purity of massive gypsums prevents weathered surfaces from being masked by products of 15 decomposition. 1 The characteristically uniform and often conchoidal surface of fracture. Dolomite is sometimes earthy and friable. acids. 1 Gypsum (see Chapter V. Flint and Chert.. and the thumb-nail thus compact. The crystalline varieties are known as Selenite . being only about 2*32. while the fibrous varieties with a silky lustre are called Satin-spar. 80).SECT. 15 Flint. or bituminous earths which give it various colours. but. is brittle and breaks with a very marked conchoidal fracture. while Chert is tough and breaks with a splintery fracture.. or gleams high up among mountain masses. p. and black varieties occur. It is frequently mixed with argillaceous. II. It is often associated with gypsum. p. the semi-transparency of fragments. sometimes splits easily into thin slabs. grey. as it appears in bosses through the soil. Its colour is usually brown or yellow. 1 Rock-salt (see Chapter V. (ii) Siliceous Rocks. is a feature that attracts attention at a distance even of miles. as a rule. very fine-grained and mottled varieties are known as Alabaster .] ROCKS. but white. the cryptocrystalline and fine-grained varieties are called Gypsum. 16 is only a little above that of calcite limestones. In the field the whiteness of the rock. however. 90) occurs in beds and masses sometimes from 60 to 90 feet thick. but is sometimes perfectly pure and white. ferruginous. the compact. of gypsum when struck by the hammer resemble those of The specific gravity is another excellent crystalline limestone. with a compact structure. however. The hardness. and resembling some pure crystalline limestones. the mass is more The hardness is only 2. and the hardness .

casts being place. formed of them. or of fossil forms. which are the residue of chalk-mud. that no small amount of this siliceous material has actually been derived from the solution of overlying sandstones. These deposits appear to have been owing chiefly to the growth and decay of sea-plants for many generations. Occasionally beds of small concretions of phosphate of lime. lustre. 15 . caused by the removal of the porosity more soluble part of the chalcedonic silica. which have 6 happened to contain sufficient lime to render the silica soluble. 179). rest on clay surfaces or are scattered in sands or limestones. = 7) Acids. 15 [PT. II. 174). It is probable. have strata. The chief accumulations of flint are met with in the Carboniferous limestone (p. by the solvent action which have dissolved the substance of various minute skeletons of siliceous organisms. Some phosphatic deposits consist of black casts of fossils mingled with irregular concretionary lumps. All cases can easily be tested chemically. Phosphatite. They may also " be looked for in " tabular forms along planes of jointing or In the Chalk the white exterior of the flints is due to faulting. 15 (iii) Phosphatic Rocks.120 ( GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and in the Chalk. mainly sponges. CH. on fixed spots near to the shore. and redeposited the material. structure. after of percolating waters. duller white patches are often seen in cherts and flints. no effect. They are highly valued for the manufacture of an artificial manure for root-crops which is named superphosphate of lime. which forms nodules round them and disguises their outlines. about which the segregation has taken Fossils may be included without change. are useful features in determination. VII. Nodular flints and chert-bands are found to follow the lines of stratification of the rocks in which they occur. moreover. in some cases. These concretions have been accumulated in the their consolidation. or their calcareous substance may be partly or wholly silicified. in the Portland and Purbeck beds (p. on a microscopic scale. p.). The fragments of bone have usually become rich dark brown or grey-black. With the unaided eye. and have a characteristic Associated with them is concretionary phosphate of lime. sometimes called coprolites. 6 Bone-beds (Bone-breccia). and the mineral often invests or infiltrates animal substances. since those plants all contain a quantity of phosphates which are capable of combining with lime when liberated by the decay of their These concretions rarely assume a septarian organic tissues. 172 (see Chapter IX.

and Its formation in the hence coal is of every geological age. is more brittle. Its about 1 '28. lignite. Peat. hydrogen.] ROCKS. and it is also sectile. 71) consists mainly of the droppings of countless sea-fowl. localities necessary for its preservation. coal needs specific gravity is no description as to external characters. as in the English fens or Irish bogs.. It is sectile and sometimes clayey. properly speaking. Section VI. the oxygen. alternates with beds of clay. 1 Humus Peat is strictly a vegetable accumulation (see Chapter I. Anthracite has a more brilliant lustre. formed of the excrement of animals \ but the name is often given to ordinary 1 phosphatic deposits (see p. sometimes laminated. 24) is the vegetable part of the soil as opposed to the strictly mineral portion. Various stages in the process of decomposition under various conditions produce humus. the stumps of forest trees are found beneath the vegetable growth. Section VI. which was itself a soil for plants of many kinds now imperfectly preserved. and other massive creatures frequenting the islands on which it is 11 deposited. coal is a lignitic coal. seals. to the dark compact peat below. and has a specific gravity near 1*4. the decomposed bodies and bones of fishes. and nitrogen are gradually removed until almost nothing but carbon is left. Brown soil the fingers. like coal. 15 Common .) and occurs in all stages of consolidation from the light fibrous turf of the surface. II. p. (see Chapter I. When wood decomposes. and does not about 2. Wherever vegetation has accumulated in swampy Coal.. peat. in which the several plants are 11 apparent. 121 Coprolitic beds and nodules are. 6 The common characters of the coals that serve readily in their recognition are their very low specific gravity. 7 1). and.. brown coal. bituminous coal. and generally. p. coal has been formed. flame produced from it is very weak. (iv) Carbonaceous Rocks. Lignite consists of a mass of branches and stems of trees and plants matted together and retaining their woody fibre.. Carboniferous period. Spores of coniferous trees furnished bituminous bands. was analogous to the growth of peat. their hardness of and their combustibility. intermingled with their skeletons and eggs. the latter containing the largest percentage of carbon. of a warm brown colour. Intercepted drainage killed the forest trees in districts experiencing a temperate climate.SECT. and anthracite. Guano (see under Apatite^ Chapter V. does not soil the The fingers.

and the outermost coat is often box-like and well interior from further action. Magnetite. It must always be borne in mind. also. however. each block on being broken open reveals towards the centre sections of concentric spheroidal surfaces. though some arise from deposition as bog iron ore. may be found in many sands. Section III. VII. hence such rocks as can with a fair approximation to certainty be referred to their natural position are classed as Altered Rocks . so that its chief importance is as a colouring agent. (v) Ferruginous Rocks. ilmenite. Section IV. that all the great rock- . 46). and. found in many crystalline rocks and occasionally occur in beds or masses. p. Our knowledge does not admit of this. and serve to 15 protect fossils that might otherwise have been entirely dissolved. specular iron ore. which is a stable product insoluble in water.122 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. with no apparent connection with joint-planes. or has been subsequently made a mixture of both. with regard to its weathering properties. These nodules consist of carbonate of iron with brown oxide crusts. either an original (igneous) or derivative (aqueous) rock. of this chapter. Altered and Metamorphic Rocks. those in which the original characters are masked or appear to be wholly obliterated are classed as Metamorphic. As these surfaces approach the joint-planes they conform more to them. [PT. consolidated. concentric coats of limonite are formed in succession around each original centre . Very few rocks are free from iron. and limonite are. where the rock is split up into cuboidal blocks by jointing. but it usually occurs in small quantities. structure or texture by any of the agents of metamorphism (see Chapter III. p. which effervesces with hot hydrochloric acid.. see Section IV.. Section III. Many concretions consist of brown clay ironstone. II.. CH. marked brown by the hydrated oxide. and others are merely cemented sandstones. the solution becoming coloured a strong yellow. The most natural classification of the altered and metamorphic rocks. would be to arrange each as a variety of the special rock out of which it has been formed. when first formed. Ironstones very frequently result from the pseudomorphosis of some ordinary sedimentary rock. see Chapter VI. 104. it is tolerably clear that it was. By the breaking up of concretionary carbonate of iron. The " black-band " of the Coal Measure rocks is similar. therefore. protecting the Concretionary layers of limonite. However much a rock may have changed in Classification. 1 Ironstones..

123 groups shade the one into the other. though by easy changes in composition it becomes nearly The internal evidence of texture seems to identical with them. The division adopted in this section is into "Altered Rocks" and " Distinctly Foliated Rocks. the siliceous cement being a subsequent deposit carried in 3 by percolating waters.. compact. red. due to the metamorphism of fine clays. the result of the hardening or silicification of a somewhat carbonaceous shale. Mere contact with a dyke (see Chapter III. white. and to prove action. and usually more or Slate. in other cases it has the however altered by subsequent metamorphic 6 density of the quartz of veins. p. The shaly mass is full of dark brown or black These spots and patches. the question of the origin of quartz-rock. of its primary detrital character. flinty Porcellanite (Baked Shale). At times 15 recognisable garnets may be developed. Section I. so that authorities rarely 3 agree as to the separating lines between them. and show are mere " pigment spots no true faces or specific characters. aluminous rock. extremely Lydianfine-grained. breaking with a peculiar lustrous fracture.] ROCKS. which it exhibits varies extremely. stone. cf. crowded with micaceous flakes as to present a silvery "sheen " it . in the greater number of instances. in some cases approaching the loose granular character of sandstone . A hard.. 35) will sometimes produce this type of alteration in the shales or slates around. close-grained. it is known as clay slate.SECT. the microscope it is seen to be composed of quartz grains. III. seems more recent than mica schist and gneiss. Under It is distinctly stratified. it was The degree of compactness originally a mechanical deposit. occurring usually in thick beds. 3 A hard. Quartz-rock. green When its cleavage planes are so slate. rock breaking with a hackly or conchoidal fracture . more or less oblique to When the rock still retains evidences the original stratification. decide that. with an attempt at regular outlines. 3 Spotted Shale. Quartzite (Quartz-rock. shales. most cases it appears to have been originally an ordinary sandstone. the In interspaces between which are filled up by a deposit of silica. A dense black or brownish rock. " or actual embryo-crystals. or fine tuffs. splitting into thin. or brown in colour. compact rock. p. especially when occurring in veins. so called less from its resemblance to porcelain or chinaware." ALTERED ROCKS. parallel layers. 114). etc. roofing slate. A pale.

when it is distinctly crystalline and micaceous throughout it is termed a mica slate. are of crystalline limestone. it was therefore a water-formed Its state of granular or saccharoid crystallisation is due deposit. steatite. Though crystalline limestone is a simple rock. etc.124 is GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. serpentine. The two latter varieties graduate into the typically metamorphic rock. which owe their crystalline character to alteration by intrusive masses. It is a silicate of magnesia. is. and sometimes retains argillaceous partings. whether distinctly stratified in general detached and limited. p. to changes developed since its deposition. 117) is in general stratified it frequently alternates with gneiss and mica schist. scribed in Chapter VI.. 3 DISTINCTLY FOLIATED ROCKS. known a phyllite. The beds or not. This group includes the schists and gneisses the origin of which Foliation has been destill much discussed by geologists. and partly occasioned by the action of heat on contained water this change is more obvious in the deeper-seated than in the newer calcareous . 103. still. and so entirely enveloped in gneiss and mica slate as to form but subordinate members of those widespread rocks. the latter of which often communicates a green or mottled colour to the whole rock. there are also many in which the The term marble crystalline structure is not due to this cause. and many marbles are rocks of this kind. p.. The division of foliated rocks into altered sediments and altered igneous masses is beset with such enormous difficulties that we must be content merely to bear in mind the possibility of either origin. VII. such &s picrite. CH. and frequently shows scattered crystals of enstatite. and appears to be due in most cases to the alteration of a highly basic rock (peridotite). very loosely employed. compact rock formed of the mineral Serpentine. II. chromite. : deposits. 16 . as [FT. talc. of a dull-green or brownish colour. It is easily cut with a knife. its aspect admits of many variations from unequal admixture with other mineral Of these the most frequent are mica. however. mica schist? Crystalline Limestone (cf. Section III. 6 Those crystalline limestones which are suitable for ornamental architecture are termed Marbles. and may be generally taken to signify any rock which takes a good polish and is employed A massive. and substances. etc. and to seek diligently for elucidation in each case as it comes before us in the is for decorative or architectural purposes. often curiously veined and mottled.

15 Chapter VI. syenite When the foliated rock. felspar.. however.. They are mixed with the like accidents and permutations. The chief varieties are named according to their mineralogical composition. and thus we have mica schist. and the foliation is feebly developed. however. 3 Gneiss.. as hornblende rock.] ROCKS. diorite gneiss. etc. and we are compelled to conclude that they were not accumulated in distinct crystals ready formed. granular varieties pass insensibly into granite. 3 Some writers hold that there is no definite rock known as gneiss. diorite. but that the term is to be applied only to a particular kind of structure. augite gneiss. etc. When the schist becomes more or less massive. and mica. and not metamorphism. and occasional admixture of other minerals.SECT. 99). etc. slate. such as granitic gneiss. felspar. a few mica schists. 125 field. but that the minerals never had a separate existence as solids until their . syenite. Group 1. shale. that one mineral penetrates and is intimately united with another . and divides with ease into thin lenticular sheets (apparently differing from ordinary flagstone. so that it may with difficulty be split up into subparallel slabs but the name is now generally employed for all foliated The more finely holocrystalline rocks with a granitoid structure. Classification. . and are subject in both rocks to the same extreme variation of size. and thus we have granite gneiss. the rock is termed a schist . syenite. or tuff mainly in its foliated and crystalline nature). -This name was originally applied to a crystalline aggregate of quartz. III. and the other varieties of holocrystalline igneous rocks mainly in the fact that its constituents are arranged in distinct folia) the rock is known as a gneiss . garnet schist. biotite gneiss. is responsible for their special structures (see Fluidal Gneissic Structure. a growing feeling that the great majority of amphibole and chlorite schists. and mica. it is termed Rock. etc. hornblende schist. The ingredients of granite are so connected together by contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous crystallisation. while in many cases original flow. The component minerals of gneiss and granite are the same quartz. schistose varieties shade down into felspathic schists the more . When the foliated rock has a granitoid structure (apparently differing from granite. But these rocks differ in the mode of arrangement among their constituent minerals. and the like. differing from granite simply in the fact that its component minerals are arranged in folia. each variety being named usually after its dominant or characteristic mineral. and many gneisses have their origin in igneous rocks . p. is finegneiss. Section III. etc. There is. grained in texture. hornblendic gneiss.. garnet rock.

veined aspect to the rock. Gneiss is essentially a mass of quartz and felspar. owing to the imperfect continuity of the mica films. hornblende gneiss. mica. [PT. isolate the quartz and felspar in lenticular masses . gneiss. ready-made and crystallised. VII. or greenish grey. Sometimes the mica shows parallelism. grains or small lenticular plates and is The quartz occurs made up of many The mica may be either potash mica or magnesia mica. sometimes found in porphyritic either in crystals united together. and Structure. Gneiss varies in structure with the condition of the In the common type. . is indistinct. but dark magnesia mica is most common. which is grey. by some degree of imperfection of the edges and angles of the quartz and felspar. The kind of mica in mica In the St Gothard the soda mica In some localities the yellowish-white potash paragonite is found. different geometric forms tion. 6 Mica Schist.126 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. though oligoclase is more frequent in hornblende gneiss and protogine gneiss j there are varieties of gneiss in which orthoclase is the only felspar. or yellow grey. Mineral constituents. This mineral determines the colour of the schist. or may be brownish schist varies with the locality. II. so that gneiss has often been divided into mica gneiss. CH. colours of the mica vary. crystals. and in section this condition gives a delicate. and occasionally both micas are found in the same rock. but oligoclase is sometimes associated with the orthoclase. and much more decidedly by the laminar arrangement of the mica and consequent minute foliation of the rock. Sometimes the mica surrounds the crystals of felspar. portant constituent in many gneisses of the West of Scotland. But when the foliated structure dividing the felspar and quartz. and makes a transition to On the other hand. Hornblende is an imgiving that mineral a lenticular form. that its materials. foliated with thin films of mica which are sometimes exposed by fracture. As in granite. The mica is rich in water. the mica may be so abundant as to granite. varies in colour in gneiss quite as much as in granite. the rock is termed granitic gneiss. rock as regular an aspect as exogenous growth in wood and this condition further developed imparts a platey cleavage to the . and forms the species damourite. and chlorite and talc are found in some gneisses of Scotland. Orthoclase Occasionally albite is associated with orthoclase. were slowly developed by crystallisaGneiss almost always suggests. giving the folise of the chlorite gneiss. black. mica is found in separate laminae. the felspar is usually orthoclase. were brought together and arranged by water.

SECT. 15 Calc Schist (cf. A foliated rock. In the characteristic. composed The granulitic structure augen-granulite. p. with a silvery and The rock feels soapy to the hand and its hardness pearly lustre. 117) is the schistose representative of the limestones with accessory silicates. microscopic shear-breccia typically formed in the numberless overfaults (thrust-planes) of mountain It is composed of the flakes and particles of the rocks regions. talc or talc slate. being which is of microscopic granules of quartz and felspar. and such varieties make a transition to quartzite. varieties which are poorest in quartz always have small grains of quartz enveloped in the laminae of mica. the grains become large flattened lenticular plates. forming a kind of mosaic. 3 Flaser gneiss. Mylonite. 3 Hornblende Schist is one of the commonest metamorphic rocks. forming lustrous specks and rods 15 upon the planes of foliation. The chief varieties are garnet-granulite. 15 Talc Schist. The varieties of structure are similar to those of gneiss . 6 Chlorite Schist. is a massive variety of talc schist. etc. composed of a finely felted aggregate of scales of It is also known as indurated talc. generally pale greenish or pure white.] BOCKS. As the quantity of quartz increases. field. usually green-black. Igneous or gneissic rocks . with chlorite and serpentine. 127 The quartz occurs in grains. istic of some of the crystalline schists. and ground between the jaws of the gliding planes. flaser is very character- gabbro. which have been sheared. light in colour. with black-green scales on the surfaces of The softness is foliation. The particles are set in a subcrystalline streaked with inosculating veins and fibres of more or less opaque matter. but the crumpled wavy structure is one of its most typical modifications. the lapis ollaris of the ancients. among which films of of mica are diffused. Occasionally the quartz becomes so abundant as to be only separated into layers by thin films of finely divided The mica. 3 Granulite. scattered between parallel layers mica scales. etc. with a lustre due to fibrous or somewhat plate-like hornblende . A somewhat rare magnesian schist. It is dark green. = lt i5 Potstone. dragged. paste. A rare rock compared with mica schist. III. the absence of the glancing surfaces of mica and the general darkness of the rock exposed mark it out from mica schist. The compact. the whole having a soapy feel in the hand. quite distinct from that of a dark mica schist. and is typically rather fine in grain. differing in structure from mylonite essentially in the fact that the matrix is holocrystalline.

removed wholly or in greater part by the water . amongst which the felspars very largely predominate. are. but more generally in combination with the various earths and alkalies. . 3 " metamorphic rocks showing "eyes or inclusions of set in a finer crystalline and foliated ground-mass. Exposed to the action of the weather. being entirely insoluble..pressure and the like into masses separated from each other by folia or wavy films of finer crystalline material. augen-schist. and of the analogous crystalline rocks. decomposed by the carbonic acid in the rain and surface waters. 76. II. these rocks. of silica and alumina on the other hand. etc.. p. forming. These contain silica. The igneous and metamorphic rocks consist in greater part of various silicates which are largely subject to external atmospheric In consequence of this. p. carbonates which. under certain conditions. the felspars of the hardest granites. with probably some alkaline silicates. the wear and reconstruction of others of older date all traceable back to the antecedent igneous rocks these changes in the structure of the latter bear upon the composition of the former. etc. sometimes free (quartz). 3 Augen-gneiss. while the silica set free remains mostly The combination as an impalpable powder (see Chapter I. VII. and form more or less stable compounds in proportion Their comto the quantity and nature of the alkalies present. Section IV. potash. with the lime and alkalies present. being readily soluble. hard and influences. seemingly indestructible as they generally are in the unaltered state. [PT. the typical composition of the three geologically more important varieties has been given in Chapter V. position varies in consequence of the bases being liable to be in part replaced by one another . and a few metallic oxides.. 8). Rock Decomposition. and of the alkalies and alkaline earths. silica. alumina. Formation of kaolin. are. CH. IGNEOUS ROCKS.128 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. soda. are liable to decompose and disintegrate into soft and As all the sedimentary strata are derived from yielding masses. The insoluble essential bases of both are alike only that in the sedimentary rocks they exist free. Felspars are essentially double silicates of alumina. lenticular which have been deformed by earth. and in the igneous rocks are All the rocks of igneous origin consist of usually combined. They contain more or less potash or soda. augen-gabbro. forming with them a variety of silicates. Igneous or crystals. and lime in variable proportions.

formerly known under the general name of "wacke. rocks furnish by their decomposition not only kaolin. augite. together with lime and magnesia. or brown colours. and gneisses." At Robschutz in Saxony a decomposed diorite is worked as a fuller's earth. which enter so largely into the composition of the more basic igneous rocks. IV. holding a definite proportion of combined water. unctuous and plastic in water. definite hydrated silicate representing the typical kaolin. magnesia.] ROCKS. while a hydrated silicate of the protoxide of iron is formed as another product of the alteration of the hornblendes and augites. some9 .SECT. the whole mass disintegrates and decomposes. green. Kaolin is also obtained from decomposed porphyries kaolins. This is an hydrated silicate of alumina. diabase. in combination with the other portion of the silica. augite. and near Florence a decomposed variety of gabbro is worked as a fire-clay. It is in this way that the widely disseminated ironperoxides and glauconite (silicate of iron) have originated. small This portions of the other elements present in the original rock. kaolin is the basis of all clays . while the whole of the alumina. with a Origin of clays. This change shows the loss of a portion of the silica and of all the alkalies . or kaolin (china-clay) (see Chapter V. olivine . combined with a portion of water which is taken up during the change.. Serpentine itself an altered rock is not infrequently more completely decomposed and changed into magnesian clays. The composition of the more important of the The normal composition of basic rocks is given in Section I. the actual composition in nature varies within certain limits.g. as there generally remain some portions of undecomposed felspar and a variable quantity of free silica. It is owing to the presence of these complex silicates containing lime. the clays show correspondingly varied Granite and its ally pegmatite furnish the purest composition. and as in these rocks free quartz is generally absent. Great bodies of these rocks are also converted into masses of soft and decayed rock. p. and olivine is given in Chapter V. and the resultant is a white mealy powder. Almost all the china-clays contain. remains as an insoluble residue. 85). and other basic rocks generally decompose into green and brown clays. e. of grey. These hornblende. but also a large proportion of the peroxide of iron resulting from the peroxidation and hydration of the protoxide . red. 129 remains. and where the decomposed rock contains foreign elements. hornblende. 4 Decomposition of other Silicates. melaphyre. and the metallic oxides that diorite. But. The decomposition is not It equally affects the other silicates limited to the felspars.

All the soft and soluble and a ingredients of the decomposed silicates have disappeared. but are constantly reconstructed by denudation from the In these reconstrucearlier sedimentary strata of the same class. crumbles down into a flakes of the mica. the trachytic lavas and liable to The vitreous lavas are less decompose. Ordinary clays are not generally derived direct from the parent igneous rock. such chiefly derived. from 40 to 50 per cent. however. 4 which yields ultimately to the successive changes. The quartz forms a crystalline matrix. CH. contain as much as 33 per cent. etc. The decomposition of granite is not of Disintegration. contain silicates with metallic oxides. Section I. this source that the materials of the various quartzose. andesite. matter. breaks up in fine-grained granites into grains generally of small As size . 4 Granites (see Origin of Quartzose Sands and Sandstones.130 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and wave action (see Chapter I. the sand becomes portions of the felspar resist decomposition. but are reconstructed. from older clay beds.) consist of a more or less intimate mixture of quartz and felspar. and. tions the only change which is effected is a greater amount of wear of the sand. 20). The alteration in the felspathic bases is very Basaltic rocks. on the removal of the decomposed soft parts. Section V. Some of these clays times white and at other times coloured. such as dolerite. of mica. on the average. then into larger fragments. if it be of coarser grain. of each. sandstones are not always derived directly from the crystalline rocks. by which their angles are gradually rounded This takes place on shoreoff and the size of the grains reduced. and as these rocks. with indestructible. of magnesia.. as the felspar decomposes. by tide is The result . [PT. the production of a fine quartzose. decomposition goes on the whole rock loses its coherence . noticeable. or. VII. are liable to decompose . they only furnish very impure clays. and so also in a less degree are scoriae. like the older greenstones. simple residue of micaceous quartzose sand. and the gradual removal of all traces of felspar. as not infrequently happens. which. These being grit or gravel of quartz. such as may be seen in the many beautiful small bays on the coast of the Land's End. p. II. in proportions varying. especially in the later deposits. with 5 to 10 per cent. and felspathic sandstones of the sedimentary strata have been As in the case of the argillaceous strata.. the only further change they undercomparatively go is through wear. also Other basic volcanic rocks. micaceous. with some amorphous When.. Extent lines. and more or less micaceous sand. remains. It is from further mixed with a proportion of felspathic debris.

are disintegrated in places to a depth of 50 feet or more and he states that a considerable part of the north of the island of Alderney consists of a thick bed of sand and fine gravel with boulders. Spain.SECT. while others (St Austell. or even a damp condition. The decay is also irregular. some parts of the same granite resisting Hence the formation of granite decomposition more than others. the recent monuments of St Petersburg already show symptoms of decay. etc. p. Central The Asia. but extends to considerable depths. Penryn.) furnish solid and enduring materials for our public monuments. granite monuments of Egypt have remained unaltered for ages. sometimes to a few feet. this rock is decayed to a depth exceeding 150 feet. process of decay is very variable. which are deposited in veins traversing the altered rock. and to such a depth that the unaltered rock rarely shows in the pits or railway sections. the whole mass being derived from the decomposition of the greenstone rock in situ. but the influence of cold is important. the disintegration extends to depths of 40 to 50 feet or more. very variable . France. This rock is of Late Cretaceous and Miocene age. the change sets free carbonate of magnesia and silica. and . This is frequent in Northern Italy. while the position.] ROCKS. to . depending on the nature of the Moisture. is the great element in effecting decomThus. The ophite (diorite.) are so decomposed as to form a mass of quartz grit and white clay (kaolin) that can be readily removed with pickaxe and spade. etc. Over large tracts in Cornwall. near Bayonne. which are 30 to 40 feet deep. Basaltic rocks are decomposed often to great depths. depth to which decomposition extends is. blocks and " tors" (see Chapter I. At Itsasson. and upon climatic temperature and humidity. Again. and elsewhere the granite is thoroughly disintegrated. India. 109) of the Pyrenees is disintegrated generally into a bright brown argillaceous mass with concentric nodules or subangular blocks of the unaltered rock remaining in situ. however. decomposed. at others to more than 100 feet. In addition to the formation of unctuous clays. according Professor Ansted. felspar. 131 The confined to the surface. The syenites and diorites of Guernsey and Jersey. and horizontally on the side of the hill for a distance of more than 100 feet. some of the Cornish and Welsh granites (Lamorna. Graphic granite is very liable to decompose. In the Pyrenees reddish clay from a few inches to 100 feet deep. It forms a very fine white kaolin with free quartz. Some clays gneisses are also extensively . 6). IV. forming kaolin more or less pure this is of common occurrence in Central Around Rio Janeiro the gneiss has decomposed into a France. Serpentine is sometimes decomposed to a considerable depth.. p. in this country.

due to the influence of air and moisture. or brown. the action of air and moisture. CH.132 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS.. and quently retains only the slight tinge due to the presence of the ironperoxide. the grey argillaceous limestones or marls of the Lias. Section VI. and the extent of the original decalcification. [PT. 4 impure fuller's SEDIMENTARY STRATA. These changes are due to the oxidisation of the metallic bases by air and moisture. and this with some of the earthy or alkaline bases present. Although productive of infinitely less actual decomposition. but more frequently central dark cores This alteration is due to the circumstance that almost are left. whole mass is bleached . which are rocks of considerable local importance. red. are nevertheless of importance from the differences they often produce in the aspect of the strata. the deceptive appearances to which they give rise. The schistose rocks are also subject to change. changes in the sedimentary strata. A talcose schist in the neighbourhood of Pau and Bagneres is so altered that the Other disintegrated mass is worked as a marl for manure. is decomposed and changed by oxidisation of the sulphur and iron into the sulphate of the in its turn is decomposed. schistose rocks have been found to pass into an earth. all these argillaceous limestones owe their bluish-grey colour to the presence of a small quantity of bisulphide of iron (iron-pyrites). 24). and dark greens pass into browns and reds. Laterite and palagonite. become light yellow or brown for some Sometimes the distance from the lines of joint and bedding. are merely weathered and altered forms of lava. Ochreous and even blackish beds become white. and of brown passing to black. . or of the Kimmeridge. and the uniting The rock conseprotoxide passing into a hydrated peroxide. when exposed to or of some carbonaceous matter. The grains of titaniferous iron which may be present remain unaltered. often scoriaceous and tufaceous. generally give rise to impure ferruginous clay. loses the dark colour due to the original pigment. and to deoxidisation by Thus some of organic matter (see Chapter L. and similar argillo-calcareous strata. changed to light yellow. VII. although at times the iron has been so far removed as to leave a light-coloured clay. Rocks originally grey. p. which imbibe small portions of water. are Alteration of Colour. the acid protoxide of iron. II. in which the protoxide of iron has been changed into the peroxide. or blue. The former. and the rock has assumed various bright colours of red and yellow.

which ultimately It is to the decomposition passes into the brown hydrated oxide. taking up a further portion of water.SECT. and possibly some portions of the Red Crag were deposited originally as green glauconiferous sands. On the other hand. is converted into a hydrated peroxide. when exposed to the air. the silicate of iron is decomposed. Some of the fossiliferous iron-sandstones of the Lower Tertiary strata of Kent are not improbably decomposed green-sandstones. of another small portion of iron-sulphide dispersed through beds of this class that is due the change which commonly takes place in the London and other of these clays. matter is thus often completely destroyed. and the Oxford Clay. owing to the permeability of the strata and the consequent influence of the surface waters at depths. the influence of vegetable matter is effecting deoxidisation is very marked. A change of another kind takes place in . Kimmeridge Clay. decompose and form an efflorescence of the sulphate of iron. and it is not until a depth considerably below the surface is reached that the rock is found to retain the grey colour it originally had. 133 due to organic or carbonaceous matter by the slow oxidisation of the The organic colouring organic matter by the air and moisture. be due to a change of this nature. extends in them In these it to a greater depth than in the more compact rocks. IV. Green rocks. Argillaceous strata. the silica being set free. Freestones. the is effected carbonic acid is carried off by the permeating waters. and the brown colour of some of the oolitic iron-ores may.] ROCKS. as shown in the case of a piece of lignite found in the London Clay around which the iron was deoxidised and the clay changed from a dark brown to a light fawn colour. such as the London Clay. while the resulting the colouring alteration is When alone. as glauconite. oxygen and Bleached gravels. The presence of minerals with a base of iron- protoxide. generally contain concretions and shell-casts of iron-pyrites which. and the iron. Deoxidisation. either alone or in combination as a carbonate of some substance. owing generally to the greater permeability of the oolitic and other freestones. and passes to yellowish brown or ferruginous. has generally removed the colour of the whole mass of the strata above the line of permanent water-saturation (see Chapter XII. On exposure.). gives some rocks a deep bright-green colour. This action is very marked on the surface of the calcareous iron-ore of the marlstone of the Lias . the rock loses its green colour. This alteration. from dark bluish grey at depths to a light burnt-umber-brown near the surface a change which often extends to some depth. Consequently.

being soluble. These gravels have a bright ochreous colour. VII. such as are common in the neighbourhood of London. caused by the When they presence of a small quantity of the peroxide of iron. leaving the upper part of the gravel colourless and often quite white. form. ' . or here and there coated with a thin layer of peat. and they then present a bleached and white surface. II. the organic matter carried down by the rain-water reduces the iron-salt from a peroxide to a protoxide. and in the Hampshire Tertiary area. superficial gravels. The yellow staining of the flints is also removed. which the free carbonic acid present converts into a carbonate . moors and commons covered with heath.134 iron-stained GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. CH. is removed by the same surface-waters. as is often the case. [PT. and this salt. Or it may sometimes be that the humic acid in the soil removes the iron as a soluble humate.

1 135 . respectively. 3 The sciences which deal with these aims are. stratigraphy and palaeontology. It is usual in geological text-books to describe the various formations in ascending order.PART III. and (b) to ascertain and point out the successive groups of animals and plants which have made their appearance on the face of the globe from the dawn of life up to the present time. commencing with the lower. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY. the descending order will be more serviceable and has 1 been adopted in this part. THE aims of historical geology are (a) to classify and describe the rocks of the earth's crust in the order of their formation. but to the engineer who has to deal practically with the formations as he finds them.

less dependence is to be placed upon it than upon palseontological evidence. (2) characteristic (3) superposition. as proved by the Yet both formations fossils which they respectively contain. sandstones.PT. and limestones of different geological ages often bearing a close resemblance to one another. the former having been thrown down in the sea and the latter in lakes. Classification of Stratified Rocks. Section I. Furthermore. Again. characters. forms collectively a thick and continuous rock-sheet. but also by a characteristic assemblage alone. 16 Characteristic fossils. as in the case of the Devonian and Old Red Sandstone rocks. therefore. The stratified rocks of Britain and other countries appear at the surface. shales. and VII. CH. occupy a position intermediate between the Upper Silurian rocks and the lowest members (ii) of the Carboniferous series. rocks differing widely in lithological character may have been deposited at the same time. Each formation possesses 136 as a whole . III. slates. (4) conformability. and. These are referred to in (i) Lithological Chapters VI. VIII. or beneath the soil. each band showing only one special lithological type (or special association of types) of stratified rock. and is distinguished by geologists under a special name. 3 formations are (1) lithological characters. Formations. n Each formation is not only identifiable as a whole by its characteristic lithological features. PEINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. which is known as a geological formation. of fossils The main guides to peculiar to that formation the correct classification of the fossils. in definite geographical bands or zones. CHAPTER VIII. the slight variation in the lithological characters of sedimentary rocks often renders it very difficult to assign them to any particular horizon in the absence of fossils. Each such band is formed of the outcropping edges of a succession of more or less similar strata following one over the other in unbroken The entire succession of strata occurring in each band order. The lithological character of a bed sometimes varies.

Inverted strata (see p. Because an unconformity occurs in one limited district it does not necessarily follow that this break extended over the entire globe. and probably. more or less arbitrary. Of the entire series of the successive formations. which occur in a lower formation are often represented in the succeeding deposits of a newer formation. the lowest must have been the first deposited. for the deposition of that formation had been completed. and the highest must have been deposited last. p. of necessity that the order of sequence or superposition of the geological formations gives us the order of their deposition in geological time. it would be found that all the formations which we now recognise pass from one into another. and there is a break or gap in the ordinary succession both of the rocks and of the fossils. (5) Archaean or Pre-Cambrian. The grouping of sedimentary rocks into formations is. the Coal Measure formation by its flowerless plants. afford fossils the special assemblage of fossils (fauna and flora) found in one formation. in descending order (1) Post-Tertiary or Quaternary (2) Tertiary (3) Secondary . for its strata could not have been laid down upon the underlying formation until the And. (iii) Superposition. Allowances must be made for relative distributions of land and water. 42) must be tion. 137 All the British stratified formations distinctive organic remains. (4) Primary . in descending order several. : The . but the relative order of the formations 3 present remains always the same. which we have often no means of realising. however. the Mountain Limestone formation by a host of special corals. by the presence of its mail-clad fishes. and no doubt the universal application of limited knowledge often does more harm than good Periods and in this branch of geological inquiry.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. Sometimes formations are locally miss(iv) Conformability. which is usually marked by an unconformability (cf. . same reason. ing. 41). the British geological formations are strikingly indiThus the Old Red Sandstone is marked vidualised in this respect. Systems. Some genera. 16 British formations have been arranged in five successive major chronological Periods or Cycles. and frequently species. but of Some carefully distinguished. of course. if the truth were known. (3) Cre- . I.SECT. every geological formation must be older than the formation which overlies it. never occurs in another forma: is restricted to the strata of that formation alone. while others include The recognised British systems are. Every geological formation must be newer than the formation which underlies it. (2) Tertiary. Some of these cycles include only one system. therefore. It follows. and the like. : (1) Post-Tertiary or Quaternary.

ferous. 1 CAINOZOIC OR TERTIARY PERIOD. Lower . that of the Tertiary formations as Cainozoic. Silurian. lignites. Clyde beds of Arctic clay and shell. Middle sands and gravels . fossiliferous. (4) Jurassic. The collective life-assemblage represented by the fossils of the Pre-Carnbrian formations is known as Eozoic. SEDIMENTARY STRATA IN GREAT BRITAIN. Pleistocene or Glacial Deposits. Ordovician. peat bogs. Recent or Post-Glacial Deposits. Coralline or White Crag . and the Post-Tertiary formations referred to as Anthropozoic* TABLE I. 'Forest bed group of clays. Norwich Crag of shelly sands. and shelly . with fragments of rock interspersed. ANTHROPOZOIC OR QUATERNARY PERIOD. III. (8) (5) Triassic. a stiff clay interstratified with beds of sand. Ordovician. Upper Weybourne Crag. VIII. and sands. fireclay. Westleton sands and shingle. ossiferous caves. valley drifts and gravels. of collectively as Neozoic. (9) (11) Cambrian. (10) (7) Carboni- Devonian. ^Red Crag. Chillesford Crag. loess. gravels. beds. river and marine terraces. Lower boulder clay or till. Moraine debris. Pliocene Formations. raised beaches. Kames (in Scotland) and eskers (in Ireland) of sands and gravels. and peat. chalk rubble. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. that of the Primary systems as Palaeozoic. Elephant beds. Carboniferous. that of the Secondary systems as Mesozoic.138 taceous. of calcareous sands. [PT. un stratified. The Mesozoic and Cainozoic systems may be spoken Permian). Alluvial deposits. (6) Permian. deltas. The Palaeozoic systems may be regarded as divisible into Protozoic (Cambrian. dark red or brown ferruginous sands. (12) Archaean. brick earths. Erratic blocks. Contorted drift of East Norfolk loams. CH. Silurian) and Deutozoic (Devonian. Upper boulder clay . aerial deposits.

BracMesham clays. Hempstead beds : an upper group of marine beds. London Basin. 1 beds.water and estuarine Bembridge beds'. Upper white Upper Bagshot and pale yellow sands. coloured marls. Hampshire Basin. Wanting in Britain. Middle Bagshot purple sands. . : London clay stiff grey or brown clay with septaria. and pale. plastic clay. persistent limestones. Thanet sands pale sands with grains of glau: conite. sands. - series of Upper part of Lower Bagshot : and sands. marls. etc. I. Lower part of Lower Bagshot : pebble bed. and clays and marls. green clays.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. Lower Woolwich and Reading beds sands. and loam. light coloured sands. 139 Miocene Formations. Plastic clays and sands with occasional bands of flint pebbles. marls. and calcareous sandstones. Oligocene Formations. a lower group of fresh. Bognor series of clays. Osborne beds blue and red clays with calcareous zones. and : : Barton series and sands.SECT. pebble : sands. : Headon beds of limestones. of clays Middle pebble beds. Eocene Formations.

'Upper Chalk (with numerous layers. grey. bedded limestones. flints) : harder and less white Upper . and (b) Hastings beds clays. III. formed of the Oxford Clay and Kellaways Rock fossiliferous calcareous sandstone. including the Inferior Oolite limestones and grits and the Midford sands. Upper (or fPurbeck beds marls. formed of the Corallian Oolite. including Grey Chalk. and a greyish or yellowish marly Chloritic Marl chalk. and shales. : Middle(or Oxford) Oolites. flints) : soft white chalk. : Upper Greensand Gault : : beds of siliceous sand with grains of glauconite. of : comian. VIII. MESOZOIC OR SECONDAEY PERIOD. CH. [PT. . Wealden. fresh. a bluish tenacious clay. Cretaceous System. and 3 shelly limestones. Jurassic System. sandstones. Inferior Oolite Series. and green soft sands limestone and ironstone and occasional masses of ragstone and the Atherfield Clay at its base.water limestones.and fine-grained oolitic lime: : Portland K Oolites. including in its upper portion the Cornbrash of limestones and marls. stones. subdivided into (a) Weald Clay. : Great Oolite Series. and sand. shales. Loiver Chalk. and Fuller's Earth. Portland beds coarse. containing flint nodules more or less arranged in Middle Chalk (without than the Upper. the Stonesfield Slate of thinOolites. Oxfordian.140 GEOLOGY EOR ENGINEERS. cream-coloured (or Bath) oolitic limestones. the Forest Marble. : Lower Greensand with bands Lower or Neo< Yellow. Calcareous and Coral Rag. Corallian : Grit. and the Bradford Clay in its lower portion Lower the Great Oolite proper of thick. Chalk Marl. Kimmeridge Clay and shale black bituminous shales and calcareous clays. marls.

clays. \f-AA\ Middle (Millstone Grit \ : grits. Permian or Dyas System. clays.). : and Lower Variegated Sandstones soft. clays. and " White Lias " of white and cream-coloured lime: ( stones and marls. Middle or chief coal-bearing series of yellow sandstones. Reddish-brown and purple sandstones and marls. Red and variegated sandstone. with thin seams of coal Moor Mock (Scot. flagstones. with occasional seams and streaks of coal and Upper or Coal < spirorbis limestone. flagstones. 3 : : Triassic System. 1 Carboniferous System. and thin coals. 1 Bunter. with calcareous conglomerates and breccias of volcanic rocks. and bands of limestone. and variegated sandstones and marls with thick beds of rounded pebbles. Upper Lias clays and shells with nodular limestones.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. with occasionally a base : : I Middle . . scales. and gypsum. {Upper Lower PALAEOZOIC OR PRIMARY PERIOD. 'Red and grey sandstones. I Lower Lias blue clays. brightTrias or red. red and green marls with occasional sandstones and beds of rock-salt and gypsum. and shales. /Magnesian limestone. I. Gannister beds . Rhsetic iPenarth beds green and grey marls. and sometimes breccias.SECT. Keuper Marls Upper Trias or Keuper. Lower Keuper Sandstone red and white sandstones (waterstones). and shales. Muschelkalk of Germany wanting : in Britain. \Marl slate. of conglomerate or breccia. . : 141 Liassic . black shales. local grits. with numerous workable coals. with hard siliceous (gannister) pavements. Middle Lias or Marlstone ferruginous limestone with micaceous clays and sandy beds. Measures. Upper Middle Lower Red sandstones. shales.

shales. Lynton Lower. and green slates with volcanic -limestones tuffs and (Chudleigh) in S. III. Lower or Carboniferous Yoredale group of shales and grits. and conglomerates with volcanic rocks S. grey. Scotland green. and con- glomerates. Devon. and S. passing northwards into sandstones. red. and parts of Shropshire. of south and centre Calciferous of passing northwards 1 group of Scotland. Thick limestone in south and centre of England and Ireland. 3 - 18 . Wales. stones. sandstones. Lower conglomerates and sandstones of Ross . bloodS. lower part of Cornstones in viz. lime: Caithness flags of N. Devonian Type. and grey. VIII. CH. and coals. : grits. etc. Devon. seams in N. into England. Devon. Hfracombe group barren grey slates and grits in N. and reddish sandstones. passing down into dark shales and limestones. Sandstone Devonian System. Middle Cornstones of Hereford. group and calcareous beds in both N. [FT. Lower Limestone shale Limestone. in Devon. and calcareous slates in S. Yellow and red sandstones and conglomerates of Caithness. Scotland. Somerset. Forfarshire flagstones. flag: Middle. red shales and marls with bands of impure concretionary limestone : termed cornstones. Pilton group grey. red. Old Red Type. volcanic rocks. with intercalated eruptive rocks. stones (Torquay). slates.142 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and green grits and slates with calcareous : Upper. Devon.

and slates with conglomerates. and (c) the Upper Ludlow Shales. . Mayhill Sandstone an irregular sheet of coarse grit and conglomerate. : Upper. : : 'Tarannon Shales a thin series of purple shales. dark-grey flags. Llandeilo. Uriconian. : Aymestry or Ludlow Limestone concretionary limestone crowded with fossils. Pebidian. Lower Ludlow Shales greenish-brown shales and : : muds tones. . Pentamerus Limestone a hard calcareous rock with Pentamerus (Brachiopod). red. Upper or Ludlow. and shales. Lower or Llandovery. etc. Lower or (Arenig or Stiper Stone group a thick series of grey 3 \ flags and dark shales. : Archaean and Pre-Cambrian Rocks. Middle or Wenlock. and the Bala Limestone. 3 : : : : Ordovician or Lower Silurian System. soft. Longmynd group purple. Lower Llandovery grits and flagstones. Cambrian System. Lewisian. I. 143 Silurian System. ( f : : Lower. series. fCaradoc formation of calcareous sandstones and shales . including (a) the Downton Sandstone and Passage Beds or Tilestones. with corals.SECT. (b) the Bone bed. incoherent shales and mudstone. Arenig.] PRINCIPLES OP STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. \ sandstones. Middle. (Harlech and ( flags. : : . Upper or Bala. Wenlock Shales a thick mass of greenish-grey shales. \ Tremadoc Slates dark-grey earthy slates. \ Middle or (Llandeilo Flag group dark argillaceous flagstones. Wenlock Limestone flaggy limestone of great thickness. Lingula Flags bluish and black slates and flags with bands of grey flags and sandstones. ( jMenevian Beds sandstones and shales with dark-blue slates and flags.. Upper Ludlow Rock composed of red sandstones and calcareous grey shales. and grey sandstones. and grey grits. 3 Torridonian.

III. VIII. 17 . [PT. CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE CHIEF GROUPS OF STRATA IN NORTH AMERICA.144 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. TABLE II. CH.

I. .SECT.J PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. 145 TABLE II. Continued.

west of the Mississippi. Virginia. and Arkansas. Brunswick. Portage sandstones. boniferous and parts of Wyoming and Utah. and Corniferous Corniferous Onon- daga limestones.146 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Continued. Chemung Chemung Middle Palaeozoic. VIII. Michigan. Tennessee. Catskill Catskill red sandstone. shales and sand- stones. marls. and Epochs. Periods. gypsum. " Devonian Hamilton Hamilton flags and shales. northern half of California. Limestones. TABLE II. Missouri. Limestones. Tennessee. Wyoming. The Upper and Lower Coal Measures of the Alle- ghany Upper Palseozoic or Car- Carboniferous region. Conglomerates and sandstones of Appalachian and region. [PT. Iowa. Schoharie Galli grit. Names. Illinois. Local Characters. III. CH. and conPermian glomerates of the Interior Continental basin. Nova Scotia. sandstones. grit Cauda . Marcellus shale. Limestones of Utah. SubCarboniferous and shales of Illinois. Genesee shales. Kansas. Michigan. and Northern California. Kentucky. sandstones. Rhode New Island.

Continued. I. 147 TABLE II.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. .SECT.

148 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. VIII.HiR| ..2 d IIII -4! . OlOZOUrBQ a -s a* > ^ -3 H Jg g 0} <D If! 1 W S s? ! fl O) I ! IH -3 E . [PT. CH. III.s|l P-iSOH III I ^-1-sl lll O i?.

I. 149 0107098^(5 .| WtJ tS ow a If .SECT.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY.

III. and Clarence series of N. etc. and Queensland. Marine beds Desert sandstone of Queensland. Triassic Marine clays.W.W. Yars beds.S. VIII. n Ossiferous " extinct caves containing gigantic kangaroos and emus.W.W.W. Pliocene Miocene Deep leads. or Oolitic beds." mostly capped by basalt. Devonian ( . Middle Coal Measures of East Maitland. LIST OF THE SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC STRATA OF AUSTRALIA. Permian ( Carboniferous ( Upper Lower Upper Lower Newcastle and Bowenfels Upper Coal Measures. IT Age.S. Carbonaceous series and Bacchus Marsh Sandstone of Victoria.S.A.S.W. Coal Measures. CH. Wainamatta. Gneiss of Bathurst and S.water beds of N.S.W. N.S. Archaean Gneiss and schists of Silverton. quartzites. Local Formations.W. and Clifton coal-beds of Queensland. [FT. N. Portland beds of Victoria and "deep " leads . Murray River beds of South Australia. Pleistocene . Lower Marine beds.W. N. N. Eocene Upper. Fresh-water "deep leads" with plant of Victoria. N. Upper Marine beds.. Lower Coal Measures. Port Stephen's beds. Silurian grits.W.S. I Gordon River beds. TABLE IV. . N. Burrum. of Yarralumla. Cretaceous Middle.S. Black-soil plains.150 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.S. N. Lower. N. Fresh.S.W. limestones. Queensland . ( Upper Lower Mudstones Slates. . Hawkesbury. { Brown sandstones and Murrumbidgee beds. Ipswich.

Mount Arthur slates. limestone. pumice and lignite beds. LIST OF THE SEDIMENTARY STRATA OF NEW Age. series. . stone. Awamoa. Lower Silurian Archaean and rocks . Neocomian Jurassic Liassic Conglomerates . and Pareora beds. pro- pylite breccias. shore deposits. coal seams. Oreti Permian Kaihiku . . Reefton beds. .SECT. Te-anan series. shingle plains. Recent Pleistocene . porphyries. Triassic Mataura series. series. Otapiri series. greensands. Mount Potts and Glos- sopteris beds. series. Devonian Devonian Silurian Maitau series. Upper Eocene Cretaceo-Tertiary Mount Brown Ototara beds.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. Num- Amuri Fucoidal greensands. Cattin River and Bastion series. mica schists. I. . and ( granites. Baton River slates and limestones. syenites. Moa Pliocene beds. . ZEALAND. Pututaka beds. . with coal. mulitic beds. . 17 Local Names. Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Carboniferous Carboniferous Wanting ) ) 1 . Terrace plains. series and graptolite Plutonic . ( Gneiss. Cave deposits Upper Miocene Lower Miocene . Oamara beds. Waitotara and Awatere beds. alluvial gold drifts. 151 TABLE V. Flag-hill beds. Coal formation. Wanganui Taipo. Kereru beds. alluvia. Wairoa series. . Margapakeka.

sandstones. \ Wood bed Zwartkop sandstone. 800 feet. Section is II. Witteberg and Zumberg quartzites. Local Names. [PT. and blown sands. the study of fossil beings . Kimberley or Olive shales and conglomerates. Umtafuna and Impengati Trigonia beds. Lower Ecca beds. Upper Ecca beds. Shell beds and raised beaches on the seaboard of the East Province. Pliocene 1 . feet. 1000 ( feet? Devonian Silurian 1 1 Cambrian Archaean ? Table Mountain sandstone. Miocene Eocene Cretaceous . Malmesbury beds . VIII. 300 Triassio feet. A fossil or "petrifaction" is any body. Jurassic J 1 >hage formation < Saliferous beds. f Stormber g series Cave sandstones. 4000 feet. 2000 feet. LIST OF THE SEDIMENTARY STRATA OF SOUTH AFRICA. 150 Red beds. TABLE VI. (PermioTriassic) Karoo series Carboniferous Stormberg beds with coal. 500 feet.152 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 5000 feet. I beds. Clays. 2300 feet. mica schists and slates of the Cape. and it treats of the Palaeontology animal and vegetable which have inhabited the living beings earth at past periods in its history. CH. Recent Tufa. Sandstone and shales. ( 1 400 C ) feet. [ < Ecca or Dwyka conglomerate. shell-breccias. Namaqualand schists and gneiss. 17 Age. III. Palaeontology. 600 feet. and lignites of the 1 Pleistocene Cape flats. Bokkeveld beds. Enon conglomerate. or the traces of the . 2700 feet. Wanting.

(d) Sometimes this mould may become afterwards filled up by fresh mineral matter. Atlantic : ooze still forming. corals. and even with trunks. rarely found The remains are 2 fossil. (a) In the majority of cases the original substance of the fossils is preserved unaltered. vivianite. and scales of animals. (b) Sometimes the original substance has been replaced by fresh mineral matter leaving an exact model not only as to external form but often as to minute structure. and 1 the like and in a less degree with teeth. leaving in the rock a hollow mould. Sponges are soft animals with an internal skeleton of FIG.SECT. and even sulphur. 2 .g. 3 Classification of Animals. Rhizopoda include (1) Foraminifera having mostly calcareous These date from Silurian and possibly Archaean times and shells. Animals are arranged by zoologists into eight sub-kingdoms two grand divisions the Invertebrata. are very abundant. and leaves. The replacing material may be silica. Sometimes (c) the original substance may become silicifled. many cases secreting beautiful shells. Genera Globigerina. Spongida. Miliola. shells. 36. iron oxide. II. Nummulitic Limestone of Eocene age. branches. corals.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. e. sub-kingdom. Fossilisation or petrification refers to the particular state of preservation of fossils. whether animal or vegetable. of a jelly-like substance. which forms a single . giving a solid cast of the original fossil. fossils from the Cambrian period. Fauna and flora mean the entire assemblage of the animals and of the plants respectively belonging to a particular region or a particular period. iron pyrites. may be wholly removed. bones. kinds occur abundantly as The latter or of spicules of lime or of silica. and the like malachite. 153 existence of any body. This is usually the case with all bodies originally stony such as shells. Thus wood. 1 In the following arrangement the order is an INVERTEBRATA. ascending one. often forming thick beds of limestone . laria having (2) Radiosiliceous shells of great beauty. which are divided into and the Vertebrata. Chalk of Cretaceous age. Nummulites (fig. in Animals of the lowest type. Nummulitic Limestone. 36). etc. iron carbonate. horny fibres. Protozoa. which has been buried in the earth by natural causes.

cup corals (Caryophyllia. or of both. Diplograptus. FIG. 41. millepores. less circular in section. the glistening impressions of which. horny skeletons.). CH. and include jelly-fishes. FIG. etc. . cyphus. single as in the mushroom corals (Fungia). FIG. Dictyonema. with septa in fours of Palaeozoic times: Lithostrotion^ Calceola (figs. a. VIII. 39. or compound. 38. as in the reef-building corals may be The space by zoophyte is more or (Astrcea.). [PT. Simple or compound animals with a distinct body-cavity. spirilis Monograptus. Genera Monograptus. b. 5 They are divided into Tetracoralla or Rugose (wrinkled) corals.154 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and corals. FIG . III. Diplograptus. FIG. 41. etc. 40. Didymo- graptus. Corals (2) Actinozoa include sea-anemones. : . : Didymograptus. and often a firm. Calceola sandalina. Cselenterata (Corals and Zoophytes). Lithostrotion. sea-fans. 42). (1) Hydrozoa. are common in Silurian . Rastrites (figs. graptolites the last named had pen-like. 37-40). in pyrites. FIG. with divisions called septa reaching from inhabited 2 the the circumference towards the centre. stony skeleton of radial plates or tubes. 37. Rastrites. corals. 42. rocks.

44. Encrinus liliiformis (figs.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. both found in Palaeozoic only. 155 Hexacoralla or Zoantharia. abundant in Carboniferous and Jurassic. Madre- FIG. 44).g. e. FIG. 48) . sixes. FIG. Syringopora (figs. (2) Cystideans or bladder-like forms . 46. (a) Fixed forms.g." ranging from Cambrian. 48. and (3) Blastoids or bud-like forms. Encrinus liliiformis. 47. Pentacrinus. derma. e. FIG. with septa in Favosites (figs. red coral. 46). Usually five-rayed animals with a rough skin strengthened by calcareous g3 fie 43. Favosites. with septa in eights. II. Syringopora. a spine . They include : jointed calcareous stalks: Crinoids or encrinites.SECT. pora. "sea-lilies. Heliolites. 47. skin). Madrepora. particles or by plates so fitted as to form a shell covered with movable (1) spines. e. 45. 2 Echinodennata (echinus.) FIG. Heliolites. 45. Pentacrinus. Octocoralla or Alcyonaria. mostly with . 43. (Young specimen.g.

large compound eyes. 53). with The chief groups are many : paired legs. viz. 50). Serpula (tubes of). which encase themselves in a calcareous 5 tube. Estheria. (Mesozoic) . 5 Chief genera: Paradoxides (fig. e. FIG. 2 They had symmetrical jointed bodies. CH. The chief fossil forms belong to Annelida. 50. and in the older strata Eurypterids These (fig. Olenus and Olenellus (fig. Annulosa (ringed) or Vermes (Worms). 52) Eurypterus ." . III. Arthropoda or Articulata (jointed). 51). 8 stars (4) Echinoidea or "sea-urchins. . Cypris. 49) Phyllopods. Free forms. lobsters The and . gills. often calcified. 51. which have jointed or FIG. 49. Arenicolites (tracks and burrows). Cypris (fig. and especially Trilobites. crabs Ostracods. and a firm jointed shell-fish. [PT. This sub-kingdom comprises all creatures without a backbone. articulated limbs. (1) Crustacea. Barnacles . Pterygotus.156 (b) GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. (6) Ophiuroidea or brittleand (7) Holothurea or sea-cucumbers. and two lines or indentations running down them giving them the threelobed appearance from which they derive their name. Estheria (fig. Eurypterus. 2 whose and perforations hard external crusts with knobs or tubercles arranged geometrically are very noticeable and are abundant in the Chalk 5 (5) Asteroidea or star-fishes. They have skin of chitin. FIG. VIII. varied in size from that of a pin's head to over 2 feet in length. 6 and a hard segmented bodies the crust.g.

six legs and four wings. Phacops. thorax. (4) Insecta include beetles. Devonian in America.. FIG. A provisional group allied both (1) Polyzoa. dating from the Carboniferous. flies. They date from Silurian in France. mostly having distinct head. FIG. Calymene from (2) Arachnida include spiders Palaeozoic. FIG. Paradoxides. and Carboniferous in Britain.] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY. Spirifer. etc. FIG. both dating many Myriapoda include millepedes and centipedes. 53. 54.SECT. (3) and scorpions. and to Yermes. Asaphus. 157 (Cambrian). moths. 2 to Mollusca Molluscoida (Mollusc-like). and aiding largely in the formation . Ogygia (Ordovician). 55. 52. or free. II. (Silurian). with very paired limbs. encrusting shells. Fenestella. abdomen. bees. small compound animals common in rocks of all ages. Olenellua.

(fig. The miscalled Coralline Crag is rich in Ex. 61. 61). either in one piece or in two " valves. polyzoans. The forms with but one shell-muscle occur only in the sea. 54). as Unio (mussel). each symmetrical. 60. FIG. Fenestella (fig. FIG. Terebratula. [PT. Anodonta. Cyrena (fig. Gryphcea Those with two may occur in either salt water. 59). Mytilus. Mollusca." (2) Brachiopoda have shells with two valves placed front and : some limestones. back. 57. 55)." leaf-like gills. Orthis. Spirifera (fig. 56). Strophomena? FIG. FIG. CH. Hippurites. but usually unequal. FIG. the "lace-coral. 58. as Ostrea (oyster). Rhynchonella. III. Productus (fig. Soft-bodied animals enclosed in a tough muscular skin (mantle) and usually covered with a calcareous shell often very thick and of great size.158 of GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. FIG. Rhynchonella (fig. the front one with a Chief genera Lingula. Atrypa. and placed right and left. Productus. 60). Cyprina. Gryphaea. (1) Lamellibranchiata differ from Brachiopoda in breathing by the two valves of the shell being usually equal.. Hippurites (fig. Cyrena. 59. VIII. or in fresh water. Terebratula beak. often unsymmetrical. 57). 56. 58). . as (fig. Cardium (cockle).

] PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. Paludina.) FIG. 67. d. FIG. a. Gomatites. 159 (a. Ceratites.SECT. 65. c. Scaphites. Gasteropods. FIG. 66. b. 63. FIG. 64. 68. Limnsea . Ammonites. 62. FIG. Turrilites. FIG. FIG. Planorbis . Nautilus. . II. Bellerophon .

[FT. 71). (fig. VIII. 63). etc.. (fig. destitute of enamel. 3 (2) placoid (plate-like). Belemnites 70). covered with enamel . 2 Ceratites 65). Limncea. when the body is covered with horny plates or bristled with small eminences like the shagreen of the shark . Planshells. and its terminal portion is symmetrically surrounded by the caudal fin. FIG. VERTEBRATA. Orthoceras (fig. CH. and having rounded margins. (3) : genera: Turrilites Nautilus (fig. In the others this terminal portion is bent obliquely upwards. FIG. Hamites (fig. 71. (fig. 67). 69).160 (2) Gasteropoda : GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. whelks. cowries. 68). Cephalopoda octopus. (fig. with a smooth surface often bearing a central spine. cuttle-fish having long arms bearing Chief suckers around the mouth. (fig.. or formed of bone protection. Ammonites Scaphites 66). The internal skeleton varies from osseous to cartiThe external covering may be armour scales or no Scales are (1) ganoid (shining). Hamites.water forms by a lung-sac. so that the tail becomes bilobed in form. Goniatites 64). orbis. Fishes. - * . Clymenia. 69. Ex. when they are bony or horny. and the lower part of the caudal fin is. 18 (3) cycloid. The vertebral column is straight throughout. Bellerophon. which contains powerful jaws. but are jagged at the edges like the teeth Tails of fishes may be diphycercal* (double-tail )> of a comb. FIG. snails. 3 developed into a distinct lobe. (4) Ctenoid are of similar composition. Paludina (fig. 62). (fig. breathing either by gills or in the land and fresh. 70. having univalve usually spiral. heterocercal (with unequal lobes). III. laginous. or homocercal (with symmetrical 3 lobes). Orthoceras. Belemnites.

(2) Cetaceans . and of reptiles in their adult state. (1) Teleostei (perfect-boned). having pouches for carrying the young. flying reptiles. Teleosaurus of the Oolite. and the gigantic Cretaceous Mosasaurus. e. . dating from Jurassic times. (4) Dipnoi (double breathers) include mud-fishes . Pterodactylus. frog. etc. found only in 2 Carboniferous. but are fairly common in Tertiary strata. there were Labyrinthodonts. Trias to Chalk.. chief extinct orders. tion of the skull to the vertebrse. Dinosauria. . dolphins. Oolites. can be distinguished from Amphibians by the articulaReptilia Amphibia.. and often of colossal size. unknown before Tertiary times. (3) Sirenians (4) . including the Permian Proterosaurus (the earliest known reptile). Cephalaspis and Pteraspis.g. 5 Of the ten orders known only four still live : and turtles. are from the Trias to Chalk. Megalosaurus. scales. Permian. porpoises.. (5) Marsipobranchii (pouch-gilled) include the Ostracodermi or shell-skinned. etc.g. Hybodus. from the Lias to Chalk. e.] PRINCIPLES OP STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. and by the teeth having one fang. (7) Ornithosauria or Pterosauria. Bird fossils are never abundant. armadillo. (3) Elasmobranchii (plate-gilled) include sharks and rays. Palgeozoic fishes.g. u . huge reptiles Atlantosaurus (100 feet long). The (5) Ichthyosauria. osseous or cartilaginous skeleton. skin unprotected or with scattered. (1) Tortoises (2) (4) Crocodiles. and Goniopholis of the Cretaceous. 2 Mammals. all Mesozoic only. (1) Marsupials. newt. Acrodus. toad. Ceratodus. e. whales.g. Ganoidei ganoid and heterocercal tails. The earliest known form is Archceopteryx of the Upper with a long bony tail.SECT. . Batrachians. manatee. Stereognathus. These have the character of fishes in the young or Besides the tadpole stage. : (6) Plesiosauria. (5) Insectivores (6) Bats. most modern (2) fishes. bone-clad forms with peculiar teeth. and the recent tailed forms. Birds. 161 Groups of Fishes. 2 (8) Iguanodon. Glyptodon. with the whole of the internal skeleton osseous and the tail homocercal . etc. (3) Lizards. isolated scales. toothed and very like a reptile. etc. mole. and Triassic rocks. including the Stagonolepis of the Trias. Snakes and serpents. cartilaginous skeleton . Megatherium. the Triassic Telerpeton. II. Edentates (toothless) . the complexity of the lower jaw. e. Mastodonsaurus.

etc. as in all our shrubs and forest trees. and always having their seeds enclosed in some more or less conspicuous form of enveloping fruit. and Chara.g. Plants with naked seeds. elephant. mode of growth exogenous.. with resinous wood (the fibres Conifers. Cycads. . with calcareous incrustation . also the Ruminants. etc. Rodents . occur fossil from Cambrian period. Bryophyta or Moss-plants. creasing by additions in the interior. lichens. Corallines and Nullipores. which secrete mineral matter. dog. the most abundant of Carboniferous plants. in Tertiary strata. abundant and Ex. Firs. Dinotherium. etc. pines. Plants with two cotyledons or seedDicotylce or Dicotyledons. often of tree-like size. (9) Carnivores . The following arrangement is in descending PHANEROGAMS. often bearing bright bells or brilliant clusters of bloom. Lycopods or Club-mosses. CH. Diatoms. Palceo- (8) Ungulates. yews. They date from Carboniferous age. easily preserved. cat. including horse. True flowering plants. the Phanerogams or flowering plants. bear. grasses. Calamites. (10) Primates . [PT. Some... Sphagnum. inMonocotyledons or Endogens. 1 . from Devonian or Silurian times. hyaena.162 (7) GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. rhinoceros. apes. Equisetites or Horse-tails. with encrusted stems and fruits. rare as fossils. fruits.. VIII. arums. Ex. lilies. palm-like plants with hard leaves. beaver. botanists into two main divisions or sub-kingdoms namely. hare. i. the bog-moss Thallophyta. of They date from Upper Cretaceous and abound which have peculiar markings) and usually cone-shaped These date from Devonian. pig. with beautiful siliceous cases. 1 Mushrooms. etc. Neuropteris. therium . Gymnosperms. Fungi Algce . Mosses form beds of peat . Angiosperms.e. and the Cryptogams or non3 2 flowering plants. elk. They date from Permian times. tapir. with pointed stems. Plants have been arranged by Classification of Plants. etc. monkeys. not contained in a seed-vessel. CRYPTOGAMS. e. Cyclopteris. form rock-deposits. lion. ox. etc. Liverworts. III. 1 Ex. order. Pteridophyta or Fern-plants. palms. mouse. Mastodon. like that of the dicotyledons. Ferns. deer. Sea-weeds.. and man. Plants with one seed-lobe. and Probosci- deans. Equisetum. also called Exogens from their mode of growth outwards lobes forming annual rings of growth.

full of fresh-water shells. Terrestrial deposits on old land surfaces are marked by tree- stumps in position as they grew. insects. Section Anthropozoic or Quaternary Period. Lacustrine deposits in old lake beds and Fluviatile deposits in old river beds are (a) marked by : of shell-marl or limestone. in the old soil round their roots. In the glaciated regions of the northern hemisphere the various Glacial deposits are grouped as the older division under the name of Pleistocene. etc.. with tree-stems. bone. In most of the non-glacial deposits we find evidence of the existence of man. echinoderms. and the younger accumulations which lie above them are named Recent or Post-Glacial. all that time which elapsed between the and the present day. THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. corals. etc. foraminifera. fluviatile. fruits. and the study of this special branch of geology 163 . If classed as to their place and mode of formation strata are terrestrial. in the form of implements of stone. Classification of Strata. gravel. sea-shells.. leaves. 2 Beds water and land plants. or marine. (b) Clay containing these Iron-stained sand. I.SECT. Human Relics. leaves. land-shells. Marine deposits on old sea bottoms are marked by sea-weeds. There is no break either stratigraphical or palseontological between the Tertiary and the Quaternary. but the latter is signalised by the It is not possible to commencement of the Glacial epoch. and conglomerate with fresh(c) fishes. etc. etc. fruits. I. arrange the Quaternary accumulations in strict chronological order. lacustrine. 8 This period includes close of the Tertiary period RECENT OR POST-GLACIAL FORMATIONS.] CHAPTER IX. etc. because their relative antiquity is so often indeterminable. shells or insects.

15). all accumulations and deposits resulting from the operations of These accumulations are often of great thickness. recent times and the preceding non-glaciated areas of Pleistocene times are as follows Cavern deposits occur usually in limestone districts in the caves and rock shelters inhabited by early man and are largely 3 Palaeolithic. 16) which belt the slopes of most inland river valleys are composed of sand. South America. the valley gravels of California. The smooth and polished implements of Neolithic man occur in association with the bones of wild animals similar to those now existing. [PT. CH. the former being the more modern and containing relics of Neolithic man. Under this head are comprehended Alluvial deposits (cf. sand. dark-blue unctuous clay and The layers of shell-marl. 3 Lacustrine deposits. river-terraces (cf. Australia. as Limncea. marsh plants. and with various objects of human manufacture. (a) Palaeolithic or human Older Stone Age. in the marls. while the older and higher terraces contain traces of Palaeolithic man. many of which are now extinct. shingle. (b) Neolithic or Newer Stone Age. p. e. (c) Bronze and Earlier Iron Age. Silted-up lakes are numerous in almost every country. in the Thames and Severn valleys.164 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. p.g. these river gravels as low-level and high-level. with occasional beds of fine. shades insensibly into the science of archaeology. and mud. shells. is generally employed by archaeoof ( ' ( ( Prehistoric < ( The period covered by the records history down to the present time. New Zealand. such as those of the river-plains of Eastern North America. as the reed. 1 The following is the chronological classification of the deposits yielding traces of human workmanship which logists TT: . IX. the Brixham Cave. and Planorbis. and give evidence It is usual to distinguish of the former flood-levels of the river. and rivers. e. Siberia. masses of gravel and shingle. The most characteristic phenomena of Non-glacial Deposits. consist for the most part of alluvial silt. and many parts of alluvial valleys are but the The sites of former lakes and marshes filled up and obliterated. Paludina 52). : etc. 3 The rude implements of Palaeolithic man occur in association with the bones of wild animals. . organic remains found in lake-deposits are strictly fresh-water and terrestrial fresh-water (fig. and silt.g. III. Among alluvial formations must be grouped those widespreading foreign sheets of gravel. together with those of the ordinary domestic or tamed 3 animals.

sand. areas which were not reached by the ice the non-glacial deposits described above must have commenced in Pleistocene times. Sometimes it is scores or even hundreds of feet in thickness . 1 Raised beaches and submerged forests (cf. which form "links" and "dunes" on the coast. oak. hazels. In the hill-range bounding the Thames valley on the north. and in the higher beds forms of more recent times. since some of them belong are partly covered by Glacial clay. and in mosses and aquatic plants in the upper and lighter-coloured portion. in the lowest beds which are of Palaeolithic age. alder. abounding in roots and trunks of trees in the lower portion. terrestrial plants. and gravel. p. and throughout are embedded hazel-nuts. and resting unconformably upon the rocks which form the solid floor of the country. birches. alders. Fluvio-marine formations. as the birch. and the wing-cases of insects. The trees are chiefly oaks (often of great dimensions). hazel. In the "deltas" or large expanses of low alluvial land which have accumulated at the mouths or in the estuaries of rivers are found marine shells. as well as on the Lincoln coast. in the peat-moss. Scotch firs. At the period of maximum cold the ice-sheet extended over only a part of the northern hemisphere. lying below the soil. 17 They consist of a bed of peat or semi-lignite from 2 to 6 feet in thickness.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. etc. 3 PLEISTOCENE OR GLACIAL FORMATIONS. pine. seeds of various plants. It is usually thickest and most compact in the open plains and deep valleys. 3 With these occur bones and skeletons all pointing to Neolithic times. 165 bulrush. and on the Lancashire coast. at the entrance to the Mersey.. and willows. 3 Such raised beaches are found " 17 the higher ones " probably fringing the south coast of England . and all Europe north of a parallel through the valley of the Thames.SECT. These are collectively known as the Drift or Glacial Drift which forms a more or less continuous mantle overspreading the rocky floor of the British Islands. and thins away upon the ridges and swells of the higher grounds. and possibly reached out also from the Antarctic regions into South America and In Britain the southern limit of the ice was the Australasia. It consists of a sheet of clay. 1 Glacial Deposits. sometimes it is . to the final stages of the Glacial epoch. 29) afford evidences of the great variations in the level of the shore-line which have taken place in Quaternary time. etc. Aerial deposits of sand-drift. and equisetum. I. contain a few Neolithic relics. 3 Submerged forests and peat-lands occur in the Bristol Channel.

and gravel (sometimes rudely stratified. having till below them and ordinary boulder-clay above. [PT. In Scotland the Till or Lower Boulder Clay overlies rocksurfaces sometimes highly glaciated. 19). while the surface of the clay itself is often scattered over with similar erratic blocks (cf. sometimes for over a hundred miles. lands of Central England. On low ground they are well-defined ridges which break into irregular mounds and short ridges crossing high ground. but in Ireland. The more loosely compacted types of Drift are known as Boulder Clay (a title which is sometimes applied to all these clayey drifts in general). III. where they are known as These Esker systems extend Eskers. notably on the coast of East Norfolk. and sometimes they occur alone. Sometimes they occur as sheets overlying boulder-clay. and the boulder-clays are locally accumulated in longer mounds (moraines) or shorter mounds (drumlins). and shelly beds which have been powerfully contorted. the Clyde valley come the later brick earths with their Arctic molluscan fauna. sometimes destitute of stratification). Cheshire. and Lancashire. and the gravels in wide expanses or narrow sinuous ridges (Kames. 17 The Kames or peculiar elongated ridges (or rarely mounds) of sand and gravel are comparatively frequent in Scotland . Middle Sands and There is little drift on the high Gravels. and the most closely compacted varieties are known in Scotland as Till. the esker will be either deflected passed. The rocky floor on which the Drift rests is often polished and grooved in different directions (striated). which sometimes occur grouped together and form a middle member of the Drift series. reduced to a mere film. but on the western side there is a thick covering of Glacial deposits. IX. The Glacial series is well developed in the eastern counties. and is succeeded by clays interstratified with beds of sands and gravels. rubble. they are most abundant. the triple series recurring in 17 Shropshire.166 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. but are modified by local circumstances. many miles from their original home. CH. Associated with the boulder-bearing clays are masses and sheets of gravel and sands. Up . p. In Lincolnshire occurs the ordinary triple series of Upper Boulder Clay. chalk. It is composed of more or less tumultuous masses of clay. where the " contorted drift " consists of loams. Eskers). usually containing pebbles and rounded and angular blocks or boulders (from a pound to many tons in weight) of rocks many of which are foreign to the district where they are met with. but again becoming well defined when the high ground is If a hill occurs. and Lower Boulder Clay. overspreading wide tracts of country (Fluvioglacial Deposits). sand. z Great Britain.

which seem to have been converted into bogs in consequence of the eakers damming the drainage of the country. and the Arenig Mountains of North Wales are scattered over much of the Midland area of England. 18 Huge blocks of Finnish granite are scattered over the plains of St Petersburg. eastward over Finland. which lie scattered from Tcheskaia Bay to a point a few miles south of Moscow and Warsaw. or round partially or entirely surrounding flat places. and thence by Leipsic and Hanover to the coast of Holland. where it is replaced by a thick accumulation of sand and gravel. 17 Erratic blocks. and those of the igneous rocks of Galloway. diorite. I. the dark-grey Kimmeridge and Oxford Clays. granite.SECT. and black beds of the Carboniferous rocks. which the ice has ploughed up. white Chalk. while throughout North-Western Germany. Some of the Scandinavian rocks were carried to Eastern England. come successively to the surface . as it ends on or near one side of the hill but sets in again on the other side. The ice-sheet which covered the greater part of Britain formed part of a vast continental ice-sheet which attained its greatest thickness in the mountains of Scandinavia. either running in lines between two large bogs. This clay extends as far as the coast of Germany. and the boulders consist of gneiss. but also maintains the colour and is composed largely of the debris (clay and gravel) of the rocks which it successively overlaps for a considerable distance to the south of their outcrop. the Lake District. the light yellow Oolitic strata. while other portions passed northward into the Polar Sea. From this centre one portion flowed westward into the North Atlantic. and . 167 it or there will be a break in the system. with large boulders. and southward over Sweden and the islands of the Baltic. 18 as far as Holland. the red Sandstones and Marls. Silurian rocks from the southern parts of Sweden. 3 Continental Europe. and it is found that the Boulder Clay not only partakes in each area of the nature and colour of the underlying rocks. The eskers of the central plain of Ireland are often associated with the bogs. the superfluous water simply soaking 18 through the porous base of the esker. the Boulder clay.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. In passing from the south to the north. and extend to the neighbourhood of Moscow. In Poland and North-Eastern Germany boulders from the rocks of Finland are mingled with others from North Sweden . the grey Lias. Hanover. Throughout this area the rocks are glaciated and covered in places with a tenacious boulder-clay full of striated stones and boulders. abundant boulders of the metamorphic Highland rocks are spread out over the low grounds of Central Scotland . whereas on the north side there is an entire absence of such debris.

Lombardy. 3 and the the the K Section II. The denudation of great part of the Katberg. are as distinct as those of most typical areas in Europe or America. In Northern India traces of glaciation have been found in the valleys of Sikkim and Eastern Nepal down to 5000 feet. Patagonia. the evidences of extended glaciation in form of boulder-clays. III. with peaks rising to the height of from 5000 to 1000 feet. In New Zealand. IX.168 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 18 have extended southward New York and St Louis.Western Africa. Stormberg. and We piling 3 up vast moraines. 18 Africa.. in the earlier stages of the Ice Australasia. and southward far into Piedmont. CH. [PT. In the Western Himalayas perched blocks (cf. westward down the valley of the Rhone nearly to Lyons. A northern continental ice-sheet seems to Age to The great drift-mounds and moraine hills of the Glacial period have been traced far and wide across the entire breadth of the continent from Long Island to the 3 Rocky Mountains. After passing the Urals there is no trace of landalthough there is evidence of extreme cold. and in the range of the Lebanon the remains of old moraines are still conspicuous. The glaciers of the high range of the Caucasus had formerly a far greater extension. other countries lying now within the temperate regions of southern hemisphere. and mammoth remains have been found in the frozen ground in Siberia. of ice. has been effected by the agency Asia. are of great lithological variety. and Venetia filling up the valleys and lowlands. 19) are found at still lower heights. During the period of its deposition most of the species of animals and plants which inhabit the lands and seas of the present day came all . glaciation. Krome and other ranges lying between the latitude of 30 and 33 in South. Cainozoic or Tertiary Period. Phenomena corresponding to those characteristic of the Glacial deposits of Northern Europe and Britain occur in many other have evidence that parts of the northern hemisphere. p. transporting gravels and erratics. gravels. etc. North America. and take part in the structure of the continents and their great mountain chains. during the Great Ice Age the Alpine glaciers coalesced into a vast sheet of ice which poured out over the lower grounds northward to the foot of the Black Forest and into Bavaria and Austria. all yJ ^ The Tertiary period embraces the sedimentary accumula- tions which were formed between the close of the Cretaceous Its strata period and the commencement of the Glacial epoch. Tasmania.

Fusus con- and trarius. The Eocene rocks of Britain are rich in angiospermous plants. cinnamon). The Fishes are dominantly Teleostean. tapir (Miocene) and the Brontotherium and Pal&otherium . but teeth of Vertebrata. rocks is 3 The typical development of British Tertiary found in the London and Hampshire basins and the Eastern counties. now more characteristic of tropical and subtropical regions. Great Britain. terrestrial and fresh-water forms. Paludina. characteristic of African. Fossils. Among the odd. American. together with the last of the toothed birds (Odontopteryx). antelopes. and Hipparion. the horse (Pliocene) with its ancestors Orohippus. e. e. the Ungulata are largely represented.g. 3 The Pliocene strata are best developed in the Eastern counties. e. Suffolk. Limncea. being of recent types. like those of temperate climates of the Lamellibranchs are locally abundant.g. Flora. and the true elephant (Pliocene) . The Gasteropods include marine types. parts of Norfolk. planes.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. The Carnivora are represented by most of the recent families. e. 36) occur occasionally in Britain. Australian.toed forms we have Dinotherium. the genera present day. 169 into being. Miohippus. and gazelles and their relatives. with but few Brachiopoda. but are marvellously abundant in the Mediterranean regions. 62). Miocene 1 minority of recent .) and East Asian types (bamboo. Sequoia. etc. deer. Oligocene few recent . The genera include many now Planorbis more regions. and there is evidence of warm conditions. The remains of the Forest Bed may still be seen on the Norfolk .SECT.g. and Essex. Mammals. Foraminifera (Nummulites) (fig.g. and Asian In the Pliocene deposits of Europe we find the extreme southern forms gradually disappearing as we ascend the succesand their place taken first by North American (evergreen oaks. Eocene dawn of recent species . and finally wholly by the ancestors of the present European flora. II. both Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. 3 The percentage of existing species gradually increases upwards and gives name to the successive systems or groups. Elasmobranchs are locally common. and equalling men Invertebrata. and the Primates by anthropoid apes. Among the even-toed forms are camels. Pliocene majority of recent. taking the place of older forms which became extinct. Polyzoa are locally common. The Birds include many forms which have now disappeared from north temperate regions. Among Mammals there are a few Marsupiala and Cetacea . sion. apparently arboreal in habit. Sivatherium of India. Mastodon (Miocene). rhinoceros (Miocene) and the allied Chalicotherium . in stature. and Dicotyledons. The era of Birds. (fig.

and (4) Barton series. Carpathians. etc. generally on the White or Coralline Crag. CH. and deer. which are made up of deposits of marine. Black. with a large array of fossils many of which occur also in the Oligocene strata of the Continent. regional 'and local . origin. The Eocene formations of the Hampshire basin include (1) Plastic clays. extending from Spain to the Himalayas and from the Northern Alps to the Sahara. horse. (2) Bagshot sands and estuarine . (2) Bembridge. basin. [PT. but are mainly fresh-water. hippopotamus. the Tertiary rocks are remarkable for their masses of Nummulitic limestone laid down in the clear waters of the broad sea which overspread this region in Eocene times. The shallow seas in. Britain. 5 Miocene strata appear to be wholly absent from Great . estuarine. (3) Bracklesham series. with remains of elephant. and seas. (3) Osborne. beaver. strata are conspicuous for their abundant beds of brown coal. The Eocene of the London basin is made up of (1) the Thanet Woolwich and Reading beds. At the close of the Eocene period the floor of this region became subjected to great earth-movements accompanied by volcanic action. and include the formations of the (1) Hempstead. (2) Bognor series. and (4) and these strata include beds of marine. III. Himalayas. Miocene. These ridges were separated by areas of depression. . and (4) Headon beds. are found near its base. fluviatile.170 coast. This group rests on clays with which are associated sands and gravels known as the Elephant ed. In Belgium they show older strata than those of In Germany the Oligocene Britain. and The history of later Oligocene. 3 Continental Europe. Atlas. The rhinoceros. Oligocene strata occur only in the Hampshire basin. bear. used for manure. (3) London Clay. In the Mediterranean region. It was ridged up into chains of islands which afterwards became transformed into our present mountain-ranges the Alps. but sometimes on the London Clay. with animal and vegetable remains characteristic of a warm or sub-tropical climate. such are the areas now occupied by the Mediterranean. and fluviatile origin (Fluvio-marine series). IX. In the Paris basin of Northern France the Eocene and Oligocene strata contain many limestones and are rich in fossils. 6 Norwich Crag is mammaliferous the Red Crag extends along the coast between Aldborough and Walton-on-the-Naze phosphatic It rests nodules. Pliocene times is the history of the gradual transformation of these irregularities into the present geographical conditions of this vast region. the rocks and fossils of which admit of general parallelism with those of the London sands. the more Alpine districts Caspian . 1 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

North America. 3 rn*-*^^ Section III. Asia. and river plains in time partly filled up by deposits like the Nagelflue and Molasse of Switzerland. and remarkable for the abundance of their extinct Mammalia (Sivatherium.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.000 feet).). III. Marine Tertiary beds floor all the middle parts of the Mississippi basin. are rich in marine fossils. Lophiodon. and was eroded by the streams into deep river beds. like those of the Alps.water strata of Eocene. con- glomerates. etc. which now afford the auriferous These fluviatile deposits. which covers a large portion of the outer Apennines and of the island of Sicily. and clays (Siwalik beds) of fluviatile origin. In India there is a complete series of Tertiary formations (12. and cover large areas in New Zealand. The Rocky Mountain ranges.). though unconformity of the strata is rarely apparent. with abundant plant and mammalian remains 3 (Miohippus. Hippopotamus. Where the conditions remained longer. Older Tertiary deposits cover much of Victoria. They show enormous thicknesses (13. 2 Here all the Syria. Elephas. and the fresh-water marls of Auvergne. 3 Australasia. Afghanistan. . also in Tasmania. laid down along the outer skirts of the Himalayas. submarine strata were formed like the sub-Apennine series of Pliocene times. underwent their last upheaval in Tertiary time. In New South Wales the region appears to have remained a landsurface for the greater part of Tertiary times. etc. and along the Himalayas to the farthest confines of India. which were gravels of the country. Mesozoic or Secondary Period. have yielded a large number of extinct marsupial forms. Persia. the sands and clays of the Vienna and Hungary basins. 171 became changed into gulfs. Rhinoceros. and limestones thousands of feet thick. the latest of marine origin being of Miocene date. and Egypt passage beds bridge this gap. A great palseontological break occurs in Europe between the shallow-water (often estuarine and fresh-water) Tertiary deposits and the ocean-formed chalk of the Cretaceous period. and Pliocene ages. from New Orleans up to St Louis. buried from sight by outflows of volcanic material. The Nummulitic limestone is continued onwards from the Mediterranean through Palestine.000 feet) of fresh. Miocene. The Indian Pliocene rocks are sandstones. The lowest rocks are clays with giant forms of cowries and volutes the upper beds are clays and lignites with great sheets of basalt. 3 marls. In North America. and are valuable because of their locally auriferous character.SECT. lakes. Tertiary rocks occur . where they are associated with contemporaneous igneous rocks.000 to 15. It consists of clays.

Hippurites. etc. and Arthro3 poda less abundant. die out and are replaced by the distinctive genera of Tertiary times. In Ireland Upper Cretaceous strata occur below the basalts of Antrim. Plesiosaurus. Invertebrata. are characteristic of the thick Mediterranean limestones. Prussia. Amphibia were rare. cepted on the Continent are those of the French scheme. [PT. and Danien. Turonien. and Hanover the White Chalk in North France. marked by the presence of the Hippurite . Polyzoa. ranging from Ireland to the Urals. Sweden. Belemnites (fig. Birds are rare and mammals unknown in Britain. itself occurs in North. according to which the Lower Cretaceous is composed of the Neocomien. the remarkable Dinosaurian Iguanodon. but Reptilia abundant : Ichthyosaurus. 3 Continental Europe. PtychoVertebrata. The western boundary of the Cretaceous area ranges from Flamborough Head to Swanage east of that line the Cretaceous strata are warped upwards into the Wealden anticlinal (around which the strata outcrop in concentric bands). The Fishes include Elasmobranchs Acrodus.West France. and the Upper Cretaceous of the Cenomanien. and Albien . which are absent in Britain. 66) are very abundant. Brachiopoda. Aptien. but some remarkable birds and remains of mammals have been found in North America. the name of the marine equivalents of the Wealden. Denmark.'2 dus. strictly speaking. Ganoids. CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. IX. Of Cephalopoda. but here die out. CH. and in Scotland below those of Morven and Mull. and along the line of the North-East Alps by barren In the Spanish Peninsula. The divisions of the Cretaceous generally aclimestones. marked by the presence of the White Chalk . Mosasaurus. 70) and Ammonites (fig. is sometimes applied to the whole of the Lower Cretaceous. and Pterodactylus. The term Neocomien. and Russia.172 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 61). and warped downwards into the two broad hollows of the London and the Hampshire basins. Belgium. In Saxony the Upper Chalk formations are represented by massive sandstones (Quader).. The Lamellibranch Hippurites (fig. ranging from Spain to the Balkan Peninsula. Fossils. serpent-like Mosasaurus was confined to the Cretaceous rocks. the Ammonites and Belemnites. The fluviatile Wealden . ^\fA^3^y : ^ The age of Iguanodon. which is. III. Senonien. sandstones or grits ( Vienna Flysch). and Teleosteans. but Corals. The marine. etc. . Great Britain. Urgonien.Russian. Echinoderms are frequent. and the Mediterranean. great Saurian reptiles. The Cretaceous rocks of Europe belong apparently to two distinct geological provinces the Brito. Foraminifera abound.

Vancouver Island. 3 A small outcrop of Lower CreMarine strata are well developed around taceous occurs in Cutch. and extends through Southern Asia to the Himalayas.000 square miles.000 feet. extends over an area of some 18. and Aleutian Islands as well as in California and The rocks are often of shallow-water origin. which are also found in 17 Syria. Japan. III. The Libyan desert of North Africa is floored by Africa. third type is met with in the lands surrounding the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Indo-Pacific Province) and occurs in South India. where the strata have a collective thickness of some 16. a Asia. Southern India their highest strata are fresh-water beds.000 feet above the present sealevel. strata continue northward to the shores of the Arctic Ocean.SECT. Cretaceous rocks which are of the type of the White Chalk. etc. and rise to heights of from 10. which is at the top. Cretaceous rocks cover a large proportion of In the eastern districts they are shown as a the continent. the Alps.000 to 20. and the Laramie series. In South Africa occur beds related to the Indian Cretaceous. 3 In Queensland Cretaceous strata cover large Australasia. of the Punjab with Hippurite limestones. Cretaceous strata extend to North Greenland. 3 North America. South America. the Hippurite or Mediterranean Cretaceous is developed. Arabia. Trichinopoly and Pondicherry and again slightly in the Narbada Cretaceous beds also occur in Sind and the Salt Range valley. and the Atlas. is in the Western States.000 square miles and contains coal-beds varying from 5 to 20 feet in thickness. and Persia. they consist of marine limestones. and In the central part of occasionally contain workable coal-seams.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. occupying a more or less connected area some 2000 miles in Its greatest development length by 600 to 800 miles in width. and the 3 Queen Charlotte group. and covering an area of 200.) ranging from New Jersey round the southern extremity of the In Texas Alleghanies into the centre of the Mississippi basin. Cretaceous strata occur in mass at many points along the chain of the Andes from Venezuela to Cape Horn . and they are associated with the famous Deccan traps sheets of basalt of a collective thickness of more than 5000 feet. broad band of fresh-water strata (Potomac formation. 3 Besides the two types found in Continental Europe. 3 tracts. the marine fossiliferous deposits have taken part in the great earth-movements which have affected the region. 173 Pyrenees. and in New Zealand Upper Cretaceous strata are met with . Vancouver. and even of white chalk with From Texas the Cretaceous fossils of the Mediterranean type.

Whitchurch. Rhynchonella (fig. and Echinoids occurred. 3 grey clays and marls. The Liassic strata stretch across England in a narrow strip. 56). There are two sections the Lias and the the former consisting typically of dark shales alternating Oolite with thin beds of blue or grey limestone. and also in ScotIn Skye and Ramsay the Lias is 1200 feet thick. Outliers of the Lias occur in England at Needwood. III. Portland. varying from 1 to 20 miles wide. in the Franco-Swabian area. Pterodactylus . [PT. Great Oolite. Crinoids. possibly 17 equivalent in time of the Lower Greensand. and are well displayed round the Paris basin. and N. Terebratula (fig. But Reptiles are characteristic Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus Fossils. and of The firstDinosauria the colossal Megalosaurus and Cetiosaurus. and shows fresh-water beds in its upper zones (Purbeck). including the Coal formation. but on the west coast seams of good bituminous coal are found in sandstones and conglomerates. Lamellibranchs are numerous Trigonia also Gasteropods and Brachio: . but the nomenclature is that of . : . and the Amphibia were represented by a few Stegocephala. while the Middle Oolites are invariably The Upper Oolite is best developed at Swanage and marine. of Pterosauria. VerteThe Fishes included Elasmobranchs. and Reptiles.174 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. . Invertebrata. CH. Abundant six-rayed Corals. brata. Brora estuarine beds of Jurassic age have been worked for coal. and Carlisle in Ireland in the county of Antrim. The age of Cycads. Cycads and Conifers. Glossopteris. At followed by the Inferior Oolite. known and Marsupials Birds were found in the Upper Oolite beds of Solenhofen in the Stonesfield slate and Purbeck beds. 2> 3 Pecopteris. Flora Ferns. Ammonites. IX. The Oolitic strata form a wider tract directly to the east of the Lias. In these areas the same divisions and fossil zones are recognisable as those in England. and the latter of alternations of massive calcareous rocks with thick sheets of soft pods. Great Britain. of great thickness. The most striking feature is the abundance of the Cephalopoda. Ganoids. 5 The Lias is marine throughout. Teleosaurus . but affords beds of iron-ore in Yorkshire (Cleveland) . /\ the JURASSIC SYSTEM. and Oxfordian. The formations of the English Jurassic are continued into France and Germany. 3 Continental Europe. and is land. from Lyme Regis to Whitby and the mouth of the Tees. which contains only brown coals . Star-fishes. Germany.W. and some Teleostei. the Lower Oolites are marine and estuarine towards the north . of Crocodilia. Ammonites and Belemnites. 58).

Telerpeton. Mastodonsaurus. limestones. and Siberia. which saliferous strata. In the United States Jurassic rocks cover broad areas in Nevada. but vary in thickness and lithological members.water Gondwana series of Central India are 3 also of Jurassic age. and Colorado. sandstones. facies : (1) There are three fairly distinct types or paleeontological the Marine type of the Alps . In Swabia petroleum occurs in the Upper Lias marls . Palceoniscus . Upper Jurassic strata are also represented in Punjab and the Himalayas. Africa) the mammalian-toothed Galeosaurus t Of . The upper divisions (Rajmahal. 17 A massive series of marine and fresh-water beds with coals occurs in New Zealand. Fishes Elasmobranchs. semi-continental type of the German Trias. Hybodus. andDipnoids. represents the whole of the Jurassic series. Africa. 3 Fossils. and the Carbonaceous formation of Victoria. 3 the Wainamatta series of argillaceous shales and thick sandstones of New South Wales. The Burrum Coal Measure formations of QueensAustralasia. Placodus . Notosaurus. Rhyncosaurus . limestones. The Uitenhage formation land. Trematosaurus. 3 TRIASSIC SYSTEM. the Upper Oolite being the most widely The Russian type of the Jurassic covers much of Russia extended. Jurassic beds occur in the Andes of Chili and Peru. Acrodus . and Eastern North America. are of Jurassic age. Utah. The Jurassic formations extend along the whole course of the Alps. Ceratodus. (2) the Mixed or semi- marine. III. Products. Of Amphibia LabyrinthoOf Reptiles Lizards. 17 In India a thick development of Oolite rocks more than Asia. (3) the inland or continental type of Great Britain. creatures with crushing teeth. 3 South America. shales. In the western districts. Lithographic slabs are procured from the limestones of Solenhofen in Germany. Crocodiles. seams of coal of the Yorkshire Jurassic type occur in Bohemia and in Hungary. South Africa. especially in Colorado. 6000 feet thick occurs in Cutch.SECT. and forms a broken zone round the (north) polar D'Orbigny. donts.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Ganoids. which is 5000 feet thick. regions. Types. 17 consists of of South Africa.) of the great fresh. they have afforded a remarkable series of reptilian forms. and 17 conglomerates. 3 North America. 175 In the Jura and in Provence the strata are rich in but are greatly folded. Dakota. Ichthyosaurus. Vertebrata. The advent of Mammals and Ammonites. etc. Stagonolepis. Of Anomodonts (in S.

branchiata contorta. The marine development of the Trias is typified by the thickbedded limestones. is generally rich in fossils. barren in organic remains. the stones with plant remains. and the Lamellibranchs Daonella. dolomites. Pecopteris. which is absent in Britain. 65). 3 World-wide Distribution. and practically surround the Pacific Ocean. and calcareous shales of the Eastern The individual beds Alps. Encrinus liliiformis (fig. [PT. Estheria (fig. 48). and the double dog-toothed Of Mammals the teeth and jaws of Nautilus Cephalopoda are abundant. are representative. The marine strata of the pelagic or Alpine facies of the Trias are of almost world-wide distribution they occur in the Maritime Alps. with the intermediate Pebblebeds and the Upper Trias or Keuper is made up of the Keuper marls and waterstones. The Triassic system is most fully developed in the central parts of South Britain. CH. etc. are numerous. Myophoria. Great Britain. Flora. Ceratites (fig. 2 Continental Europe. except in its intermediate zones. Microlestes. etc. Alaska. and a few Ammonites. Apennines. and sandThe distinct central member. III. New Caledonia. 69).176 the equal-toothed GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The Rhsetic or " passage beds occur as a thin band from north of Yorkshire to the Dorset coast. Triassic strata occur also in the basins of the Sol way. In all these regions their limestones yield the Ammonoid forms Ceratites. upon the western coasts and islands of Scotland. Crinoids are also abundant. being met with in Peru. they also occur in Siberia and Spitzbergen. Turkestan. The Bunter series is almost barren of fossils. Equisetum. but on the whole are their equivalents in time. Colombia. The Lower Trias or Bunter is formed of the Upper and Lower Variegated Sandstones. and Brachiopods. where the derived pebbles . British Columbia. 63). 50). where they yield the rich reptilian fauna already . (fig. Nevada. Conifers and Cycads. Muschelkalk. Japan. Dicynodon (rordonia. and varies from 750 to 5000 feet in thickness. Gervillia. Spain. rich in invertebrata of all types. cannot be paralleled with the German formations. . and Zealand . Terebratula. New Trachyceras. Pariasaurus. Triassic beds of the continental type occur in South Africa (Karoo series). IX. the Moray Firth. and in some of the counties of North-East " Ireland. and Avicula Gasteropoda occur. Himalayas. Triassic rocks occupy the greater part of Germany the Bunter locally affords beds of dolomite. The Keuper is equally contain a few fossils of pre-Triassic age. Of Crustacea. LamelliInvertebrata. : California. Orthoceras (fig. Balkan Peninsula. while the lower half of the Keuper is marked by impure coal and the upper half by its abundant gypsum beds.

OrthoCrinoids or ceratites and Labyrinthodont (or frog-like) reptiles. Note. There are but few distinctive forms. limestones. Gasteropods are rare. and limestone bands. 63). as also certain whole families. : Lepidotosaurus. 57) . The land plants were chiefly Ferns. Subsequently. with local sheets of melaphyre (Palisades. of Mesozic age. and very varied in form. They occur also in South India (Panchet beds). The Polyzoan Fenestella retiformis (fig. in Central India and southern hemisphere Glossopteris and other Mesozoic types. are characteristic . 177 described. viz. Cystideans. Trilobites and Eurypterids. Platysomus.) and with plantremains (Virginia). and a true reptile (lizard). The Cephalopod Nautilus (fig. Fossils are nearly confined to Fossils. Rugose Corals.] THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. and mammals. Avicula. the Lamellibranchs. In Great Britain and Europe Callipteris and Walchia Flora. birds. though often covered with bony plates. the Brachiopods. and copper shales. etc. and marls which was formerly considered to be one system and was named the New Red Sandstone. the younger. The Primary of life. it was found to be composed of two distinct systems. the marl. Bakevellia. Encrinites and Brachiopod shells were then very abundant in number. slate. as Triassic. 2 DYAS OR PERMIAN SYSTEM. 55) . Proterosaurus. most being mere survivals from the Carboniferous. Entire absence of flowering plants. Graptolites. which are of ordinary size in the lower beds but higher up become stunted and finally disappear. shales. etc. It was the age of Brachiopods.SECT. In the coastal regions of North-East America the Trias is represented by red sandstones and shales with abundant footprints of Dinosaurs (Connecticut). Fishes : Palceoniscus. The Carboniferous system in Britain is overlain by a great thickness of red sandstones. The fishes had heterocercal (unequally-lobed) tails. slate. 3 12 . all strata are marked by Palaeozoic or ancient forms the species and all but sixteen genera then existing being now extinct. Spirifer (fig. Productus (fig. 2 3 - Vertebrata. but no true bony skeleton. IV. in the marl Labyrinthodonts JSranchiosaurus. 54) . Palaeozoic Period. The advent of reptiles. Similar Triassic strata occur also in South America (Argentina). where they yield a few of the same forms. the older of which is known as Permian and is 3 of Palseozoic age . Invertebrata. and Conifers. 3 Section IV. giant Lycopods.

In Northern Germany the Permian is made up of the Zechstein and Rothliegende. and Nottingham .178 Great Britain. Saxony. [PT. overlying the local Coal Measures. is Copper-bearing deposits of Germany and Persia and coal-seams in France. CH. such as the Mansfield sandstones and the magnesian limestones of Durham.W. III. the Saar district in S. the calcareous zone disappears and we have a great accumulation of red. Marine rocks of this age also occur in Spitzbergen? South America. In the typical Russian district of Perm the Permian strata cover vast areas. the red rocks extend into the valleys of the Nith and Annan in Scotland. many workable . near Whitehaven. and at the city of Armagh. and by the richly fossiliferous marine In Carinthia and Sicily the entire series Bellerophon limestone. attain a thickness of 400 feet. 3 Continental Europe. marls for brickmaking and a thick bed of rock-salt. IX. limestones. further south in Staffordshire. sandstones. The Rothliegende occurs also in Bohemia. Some of the finest building-stones of the country. and in the Tyrol by the sandstone and quartzporphyry series of Botzen. and the breccias. York. arenaceous. and extending southwards into the central of On Northumberland counties. are referred to the Permian. North America. and contain an admixture of Coal Measure and Permain forms. Strata of the Indian Gondwana type with the GlossOpteris flora have been met with on the east of the Andes in Brazil and Argentina? Asia. the Permian rocks consist of a great central mass of limestone . Texas certain mottled clays. and limestones. In together with genera characteristic of the Jurassic period. and marls and shales in repeated In the Alps the Permian is represented by the alternation. but on the west side of the Pennines. the east side of England. from the coast to the plains of the Trent. Germany. The Lower division is typically developed in the Vale of Eden. In Southern India the Permian beds consist of great thicknesses of sandstones and shales. Verrucano. where it consists of brick-red sandstones and breccias. Products. of boulder beds and limestone breccias. Products. The Permian rocks of North Ireland consist of fossiliferous magnesian limestone with red marls at its base. The Upper division is best seen at St Bees. Permian rocks are rare. and gravelly rocks. The highest division (the so-called Barren Measures) of the Coal Formation of the Alleghany region have been referred to the Permian. with fresh-water and marine. and at many localities in Central France. which constitute the so-called Dyassic type of the system. GEOLOGY FOE ENGINEERS. and consist of sandstones.

SECT. coals. South Africa occur in Australia.. and Crinoids. In Queensland the local Permian is made up of a lower marine series with abundant Brachiopods and Cephalopods. of workable Coal Measures of New South Wales is also. This great system attains a maximum thickness of 20. beetles. uncommon. such as Anthrocosia. fossils of The Brachiopods. The terrestrial forms embrace rare forms of Articulata. and Scales and teeth of large Elasmobranch fishes are not Protozoa. and ironstone. viz. At Bacchus Marsh and elsewhere in Victoria sandstones and shales with the Glossopteris flora. Great Britain. 3 Ferns. and Equisetums. etc. abundant Corals. and an upper fresh-water series with Glossopteris. affords examples of Glossopteris and shows at its base a remarkable boulder bed (Dwyka) which has been compared with the Indian Talcher. They form the lower half of the Gondwana series and comprise the Talcher. 3 Similar beds to those of Southern India and Australasia. crickets. Corals. Calcareous strata with sandstones. Polyzoa.000 feet and is made up of limestones. with local coal-seams. South India.] terrestrial THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Annelids. but the most abundant are plants including many Cryptogams and a few Gymnosperms. shales. estuarine. The Upper Carboniferous or series of Coal Measures is djvide4 . grits. may-flies. The estuarine forms include mussel-like forms. probably. 179 the plants include Glossopteris and other fossils . Permian age. 3 CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. like those of the The Upper or Newcastle division of the Talcher. Phyllopods and Trilobites and occasionally Sponges. and The marine forms are generically related to those terrestrial. which is distinguished by its remarkable conglomerates or boulder beds (which are met with not only south of the Nerbudda River but in the Salt Range of the Punjab) and the Damuda with workable coal-seams. IV. marine fossils prevail generally in the lower half of the system. Fossils. Encrinites. associated with boulder conglomerates with striated pebbles. which are sometimes so abundant as to constitute valuable seams of coal. such as scorpions. of the Carboniferous Limestone. Mesozoic types. etc. The age of Cryptogamic plants. A group of sandstones and shales (Lower Karoo or Ecca beds). the coal-bearing strata are marine. are met with. hence it has been suggested that these three widely separated regions formed part of a single Permian continent. Among the Cryptogams are tree-like Lycopods. and sandy and shaly strata with abundant land-plants in the upper half. Cephalopods with rare Eurypterids. 3 The beds in South Africa are similar to those of Africa.

180

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT.

III.

CH. IX.

of the Millstone grit, The Middle or Grey which, however, is absent in the Midlands. Coal Measures afford the richest and most valuable seams of coal mined in the British coal-fields. Three of the chief British coalfields occur in the neighbourhood of the Bristol Channel ; six in the Midlands and the Welsh border ; five in the Pennine region ; three in Central Scotland ; and three in Ireland. In Southern Britain coal-measures have been proved to exist below some of the more recent formations. The Lower or Carboniferous Limestone series is typically developed in the Southern Pennines, where the Yoredale group of shales, limestones, and sandstones is from 1500 to 4500 feet thick and the limestone from 2000 to 4000. The same series recur in North Wales. In South Wales, Mendip Hills, and the Forest of Dean the Yoredale rocks are wanting. Passing northwards the limestone is gradually replaced by a series of sandstones, grits, and shales with occasional bands of limestone, which develops into the Calciferous group of sandstones, shales, and cement stones with a series of workable coals overlain by the Carboniferous Limestone, in the north of Scotland and north of Ireland. In Central Ireland the whole of the Lower Carboniferous is practically represented by limestones ; but in the extreme south of the island it becomes replaced by cleaved grits, sandstones, and In the central parts of Devonshire the whole of the shales. Lower and perhaps some of the Upper Carboniferous is represented by a mixed group of greywackes, flags, shales, and thin bands of limestone of the "Culm" type. 3 Continental Europe. Carboniferous strata of the Pennine type occur in Belgium and North France ; of the Culm type in West and North Germany, Central Europe, and the Alps ; and of The the Limestone (S. Wales) type in Russia and the Urals. chief European coal-fields are those of France and Belgium, Westphalia, Saarbriick, Silesia, Bohemia, and Russia, Central
3 France, and Northern Spain. North America. Carboniferous rocks are grandly developed Their lower divisions in Nova Scotia and the United States. (sub-Carboniferous) are typically limestones, with abundant marine fossils ; and the beds of their highest division, which form the rich coal-fields of Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, and the basins of the Ohio and Mississippi, are prolific in terrestrial plants

from the Lower by the arenaceous formation

and

afford

many remarkable

terrestrial Articulata. 3

Asia.

Carboniferous rocks,

covering large

areas,

occur

in

Northern China; they are made up of limestones below, with Fusulina, etc., rich coal-measures in the middle, and marine sandstones above. 3 Coal and Carboniferous limestone occur in

SECT. IV.]

THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

181

Japan. Coal of this period is also found is some islands of the Indian Archipelago and in Borneo. 1 ^ Africa. Rocks with Carboniferous fossils occur in the Sahara and in Egypt? Coal has been noticed on the banks of the Zambesi, and occurs in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony. Natal coal is of Triassic or Permian age. 17 The Carboniferous rocks of New South Wales are Australia. formed of two distinct divisions, both containing workable coals. 3

DEVONIAN SYSTEM.
There are two distinct types of strata: (1) the Types. Fresh-water or Old Red Sandstone, and (2) the Marine or Devonian. The age of Fishes and Eurypterids. Fossils.

Old Red Sandstone.

The Fauna is remarkable for the predominance of tishes. Their skeletons were cartilaginous, and their tails either diphyTheir bodies were sometimes naked, but more or hetero-cercal. 2 generally protected by an armour of plates, or a covering of granules, ganoid, or placoid scales, and in some cases were even provided with various protective spines (Ichthydorulites). The Old Red fishes included lamprey - like forms (Palceospondylus), fishes shell - skinned Ganoids (Ostracodermi), joint -necked (Coccosteus), fringe-finned Ganoids (Holoptychius, etc.), Dipnoids or mud-fishes (Dipterus, etc.), and shark -like Elasmobranchs
these fishes occur the giant Crustacea or Arachnoids Eurypterus (fig. 51), Pterygotus, and Stylonurus. The Flora are few in the Lower series and include Psilophyton and other marsh plants those of the Upper Old Red Sandstone
;

(Acanthodes, etc.). Associated with

3

are

more common and embrace Lycopods and Ferns.
Devonian.

Graptolites die out; a peculiar sponge, (?) Stromatopora, as do Corals (Favosites, fig. 44 ; Heliolites, fig. 45 ; " " Calceola, fig. 42), which form the Madrepore marble of Torbay and Plymouth. Trilobites are few, but large allied Crustaceans Brachiopod and Lamelli(Eurypterus, Pterygotus) continue. branch bivalve shells, and the Cephalopods, Orthoceras, Clymcnia, 2 Goniatites, Nautilus, are the most abundant fossils. Great Britain. The Old Red type occurs from the Bristol

abounds,

182

GEOLOGY FOE ENGINEERS.

[PT.

III.

CH. IX.

Channel through Wales, Central and North-East Scotland to the Shetlands j and also largely in Ireland. Everywhere a great break occurs between the Upper and Lower groups. It consists of lake deposits (in Lakes Orcadie, Lome, Caledonia, Cheviot, and Welsh lake), and in Scotland often abounds in fish remains and There, too, interbedded volcanic rocks occur, more land-plants. than 6000 feet thick, and form the Pentland, Ochil, and Sidlaw " the basal wrecks of extinct volcanoes." hills, which are The Devonian type occurs only to the south of the Bristol Channel, and consists of a great thickness of grey and blue slates, 2 schists, sandstones, and limestones rich in corals. Continental Europe. Old Red Sandstone strata occur in Northern Russia with typical fishes, in Norway with remarkable igneous rocks, and in Spitzbergen and Bear Island with abundant Devonian strata sweep almost uninterruptedly plant remains. Europe from Calais to the Urals. In Belgium and the through Rhine provinces all three divisions are present in great thickness and rich in characteristic fossils. In Russia they are almost horizontal, and interbedded with red sandy strata with Old Red In Bohemia they consist of limestones rich in Orthoceratites fishes. and Goniatites. Devonian rocks are also met with in many other
3 parts of Europe.

North America. Old Red Sandstone beds are met with in Gaspe and New Brunswick, containing Lycopods, Calamites, Ferns, and even a few Conifers, often in such abundance as to form seams of coal. In the United States Devonian rocks include a Lower division of sandstones and limestones (Oriskany and Corniferous), with Brachiopods and plants a Middle division of black shales and limestones (Hamilton) with Goniatites and Productus; and an Upper division (Chemung) which is formed, in some districts, of limestones rich in Clymenia, and in others 3 of red sandstone (Catskill\ with Upper Old Red Sandstone fishes. strata are the source of immense The Devonian Products. supplies of petroleum which, it is thought, has distilled from decomposing animal matter in the limestones, such as fishes, crustaceans, and mollusca, whose hard parts are embedded in it
;

in great abundance. bitumen. 5

This

is

also the source of the deposits of

(UPPER) SILURIAN SYSTEM.
Fossils.

The age

of

and Trilobites ; and Insects. Scorpions,
Encrinites,

Brachiopods ; advent of

abundance
Vertebrates

of
:

Corals,

Fishes,

The

Pteraspis,

Fishes are Elasmobrancliii or Ostracodermi (Cephalaspis^ The Arachnida or forms of scorpions appear. etc.).

SECT.

IV*.]

THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

183

Among
are

Crustacea, Trilobites are abundant, Phacops, Calymene, and

Homalonotus being commonest.

Cephalopoda and Gasteropoda

Orthoceras and Betterophon (fig. 62). represented by Brachiopoda are the most prevalent and characteristic of the The Echinodermata system, especially Pentamerus and Spirifer. the are represented by star-fishes and crinoids, and of Of the Ccelenterata both Actinozoa and Hydrozoa are abundant. former the Corals are chiefly rugose, while in the latter the great group of Graptolites becomes extinct within the limits of the

system.

Of Flora but little is known ; but both Lycopods and Ferns 3 appear to have been in existence. Great Britain. The typical area is that of Shropshire, and the same type is prolonged south-westward along the Welsh border (where an older formation the Lower Llandovery makes its appearance at the base of the system), and south-eastward and eastwards into the areas of Woolhope, the Malvern Hills, and South Staffordshire, etc.
strata of the greywacke type sweep through the parts of Wales from Cardigan to Denbigh, the Llandovery being represented to the south by great thicknesses of grits, and to the north by a few bands of graptolitic shales, while the equivalents of the Wenlock and Ludlow are more or less barren grits and shales, which thicken northwards (Denbigh Grits and Flags}. The same is the case in Westmoreland, where the Skelgill and Browgill Shales answer to the Llandovery, the Coniston Grits and Flags to the Wenlock, and the Bannister Slates and Kirkby Moor Flags to the Ludlow formations. Rocks of the greywacke type floor almost the whole of the Scottish uplands. The most widespread formation is the Gala Group (Tarannon), which is underlain by the thin but richly graptolitic formation of the Birkhill Shales (Llandovery), and overlain by another In greywack^ formation, the Riccarton Beds (Wenlock). Ireland, Silurian rocks of the Shropshire type occur in Galway and Kerry, and of the types of those of Birkhill and Gala of the

Silurian

central

southern uplands, in Londonderry, Cavan, and Down. 3 Continental Europe. In Northern Europe the Silurian rocks are usually limestones, as in Norway, Central Sweden, Gothland, and Esthonia, but are locally intermixed with or replaced by carbonaceous shales with graptolites, as in Scania and Dalecarlia. In Bohemia two lithological members occur, an Upper or CalIn France and careous series and a Lower or Graptolitic division. Belgium the Ludlow is partly represented by marls, and all the formations below by grey and black shales with graptolites. 3 North America. The majority of the rocks remind us both of

184

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT. III. CH. IX.

The Llandovery is reprethose of Shropshire and Scandinavia. sented by sandstones and shales (Oneida and Medina], the Wenlock by shales and calcareous beds (C'Union and Niagara], and the Ludlow by three formations the Salt Group of Onondaga, the Water-lime with Eurypterus, and Lower Helderberg limestones with abundant forms of Pentamerus. 3 Lower Silurian rocks occur in the Salt Range and Simla Asia. area, while in the great chain of the Himalayas, Silurian rocks, flanked by Secondary formations, form part of the central axis of the range. In China, Silurian Graptolites and Orthoceratites have been met with. Similar formations spread over large tracts in Southern Siberia, in the Altai Mountains, and in Asia Minor. 17 Australia. Silurian fossils occur in Southern and Western Australia, and it is in the highly metamorphosed Silurian rocks that auriferous quartz-veins so frequently occur. 17
ORDOVICIAN OR LOWER SILURIAN SYSTEM.
Silurian strata cover a wider extent of the earth's surface and are more uniform in nature of deposits and fossils than any other

group.

The age of Graptolites, Trilobites, and Cystideans. Fossils. Graptolites are the characteristic fossils ; they are found in more or less abundance in strata of all lithological types, but are most Of Trilobites the prevalent in the thin-bedded black shales. primordial genera Olenus, etc., die out, and Asaphus, Calymene,

2

and Ogygia Buchii first appear. Corals were few, but Brachiopods and Cystidean Echinoderms swarmed. Gasteropods first appear, also Cephalopod-chambered shells. 3 ex. Bellerophon Great Britain. The typical area is North Wales. The Arenig beds, containing enormous sheets of volcanic rocks, sweep round the Merionethshire anticlinal, forming the ranges of Cader Idris, the Arans, and the Arenigs, etc. They are succeeded by a great thickness of barren, dark shales, representative of the Llandeilo. The final division is made up of grey flagstones and shales with the typical Bala limestone near the base, and the Hirnant limeThe upper of the two volcanic groups of stone near the summit. the Ordovician of North Wales is comparatively thin near Bala, but expands to an enormous thickness, and forms the mountainIn the Lake District ranges of Snowdon and Penmaenmaur, etc. the two volcanic series are connected by intermediate masses of This lava and ashes and form collectively the Borrowdale series. is underlain by the Skiddaw slates and overlain by the Coniston In the Girvan district of South Scotland the lowest limestone. Ordovician rocks are the Ballantrae volcanic series. The Llandeilo
;

SECT. IV.]

THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

185

seems to be represented by the Stinchar group of conglomerates and limestones, and the Bala by the Ardmillan series of flagstones and shales. At Moffat, etc., the Upper Llandeilo and Bala beds are represented by the Glenkiln and Hartfell shales of the thinbedded Moffat series. In Tyrone In Ireland Ordovician rocks occur in many areas. and Mayo they are of the Girvan type in Down and Cavan they have a Moffat facies at Kildare and elsewhere in Central Ireland in they call to mind the Bala beds of the Lake District Wicklow and Wexford they are of the type of the sedimentary and volcanic rocks of North and South Wales. 3
; ; ;

The Ordovician rocks attain their widest Continental Europe. Scandinavia and Esthonia, where they are thin, horizontal, and rich in fossils ; their calcareous members have a far more varied fauna than those of Britain, but their graptolitic members agree with ours almost specifically. The same is also the case in Belgium, but the rocks are more disturbed. Important beds occur in Western France and in Bohemia* North America. The Ordovician strata are of two main types the calcareous type of the central regions, including the Calciferous sandstone, the Chazy and Trenton limestones, and the Utica and Hudson River (Cincinnati group) shales and the greywacke and black-shale type of the Hudson River and the lower reaches of the St Lawrence, including the graptolite-bearing Quebec group (Point Levis beds) and the Marsouin and Norman's Kill shales,
extension in
;

etc. 8

Asia. Lower Silurian rocks occur in the Salt Range and the Simla area of India. 11 Ordovician strata with abundant Arenig and Australasia. Llandeilo graptolites are found in Australia (Victoria) and also
in

New

Zealand. 3

CAMBRIAN SYSTEM.
This system consists of a vast succession of reddish
grits, con-

glomerates, shales, slate, and quartzite ; but there is no gneiss, and there are few schists and fewer limestones. It is divided into
5 Upper, Middle, and Lower zones.

Fossils.

The

genus Olenellus
(fig.

(fig.

characteristic fossils are Trilobites, of which the 52) characterises the Lower, Paradoxides

The chief 53) the Middle, and Olenus the Upper Cambrian. invertebrate groups which occur, in addition, are Cephalopoda,
Gasteropoda, Lamellibranchiata, Pteropoda, Brachiopoda, Asteroidea, Vertebrata are very doubtCrinoidea, Hydroida, and Sponges. fully represented ; and of plants only sea-weeds are known to

186

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT.

III.

CH. IX.

Great Britain. The Cambrian rocks of Merionethshire have been estimated at 15,000 feet in thickness. They consist of the Tremadoc slates, Lingula flags, Menevian beds, and Harlech series. At St David's (9000 feet thick) the Upper Cambrian is represented by the Tremadoc beds and Lingula flags, the Middle by the Menevian beds and Solva group, and the Lower by the Caerfai group, with evidences of Olenellus. In Shropshire the Cambrian consists of three members the

Wrekin quartzite at the base, the Cornley sandstone, and the Shineton shales. In the Malvern Hills the Cornley or Hollybush sandstone lies at the base of the Cambrian, and is followed by black shales with Dolgelly trilobites and green shales with In the Nuneaton district there are two members Dictyonema. In the Norththe Hartshill quartzite and Stockingford shales. west Highlands of Scotland a band of Cambrian strata ranges from Eriboll almost to Skye, comprising (1) Eriboll quartzite; (2) Fucoid beds; (3) Salterella grit; (4) Durness limestone. Near Bray Head in Ireland occur certain coloured slates and grits 3 usually referred to the Cambrian. Cambrian rocks are well displayed in Continental Europe. Scandinavia and North- West Russia ; they are usually horizontal and of no great thickness, but yield a rich fauna, the characteristic genera of the Lower, Middle, and Upper Cambrian being all Cambrian rocks occur in Bohemia, Bavaria, France, present.
Belgium, Spain, and Sardinia. Asia. In India, Lower Cambrian fossils occur in the Salt Range of the Punjab, and Higher Cambrian fossils are met with in Northern China. 3 North America. Well developed in North America. The Lower Cambrian or Olenellus zone is shown in the Rocky Mountains, the Alleghanies, the Taconic Ranges, and in NewThe typical Middle Cambrian fossils are most foundland.
3

abundant in New Brunswick (Acadia), Massachusetts, and Newfoundland. The Upper Cambrian (Potsdam sandstone, etc.) formations occur in Canada and in the basin of the Mississippi and the highest Cambrian or Dictyonema beds in the valley of
;

the St Lawrence. 3 Australasia. Olenellus has been found in Western Australia.

Section V.

Eozoic Period.

ARCH^AN AND PRE-CAMBRIAN ROCKS.
All rocks of greater antiquity than the oldest fossil-bearing strata of the Cambrian are grouped together as Pre-Cambrian or

SECT. V.]

THE GEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

187

Archaean. These rocks, unlike those of the subsequent fossiliferous systems, have not yet been satisfactorily divided into formations and systems. They present themselves under three types (a) coarsely crystalline gneisses and schists associated with plutonic igneous rocks ; (6) finely crystalline schists and gneisses associated with more or less metamorphosed sedimentaries and volcanics ; and (c) unaltered sediments and contemporaneous lavas, ashes,
:

and

tuffs.

3

fossils yet obtained from the worm-burrows and worm-tracks. The crystalline limestone of the original Laurentian of North America have yielded the problematic fossil Eozoon Canadense, some of the more or less metamorphosed groups of the Huronian type, a few traces of Annelids, sponges, and plants and the unaltered 3 formations, forms of Protozoa, Mollusca, and Molluscoidea. Great Britain. In the North-West Highlands occur the Leivisian, which consists of coarsely crystalline gneisses and schists more or less inclined above which and unconformably rests the Torridonian, composed of masses of chocolate-coloured sandstones and conglomerates approximately horizontal. In Ireland there are gneissic rocks with micaceous and chloritic schists associated with granite in Wicklow, and gneisses and serpentinous limestones in Galway and Donegal, in all probability of Archaean age. In Wales occur the Dimetian, composed of granites and gneiss, covered by the Arvonian strata of volcanic rocks, and on the latter rest unconformably the Pebidian strata of slates and shales,

Fossils.

The only undisputed
of Britain are

Pre-Cambrian rocks

\

;

etc.

Pre-Cambrian rocks occur in Anglesea, Shropshire (the Long-

myndian and Uriconian series), in the Malvern and at Charnwood Forest in Leicestershire. 3

Hills, at

the Lizard,

Continental Europe. Pre-Cambrian rocks of all the British types cover large areas in Scandinavia and Finland, occur also in France and Spain, and in the cores of the great European 3 mountain-ranges. " massifs " of Asia. In India there are two great gneissic and rocks the one forms the extensive upland and crystalline plateau tracts that extend from Ceylon through the Madras, Bengal, and Bundelkhand districts to Assam ; the other constitutes the colossal framework of the Himalayas. These Archaean gneisses are succeeded unconformably by a series 2000 feet thick of
quartzites, conglomerates, schists, slates, breecias, and limestones, associated with contemporaneous bedded igneous rocks. 17 North America. These rocks occupy a connected area of two million square miles, having Hudson Bay as its centre. They

188

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT.

III.

CH.

IX.

comprise a lower or Basement complex consisting of coarsely gneissose types, which was formerly called Laurentian, and an upper division known as AlgonJcian or Proterozoic which is divided into a Keewenawan, resting on an Upper and a Lower Huronian
all of finer crystalline schists

South America.
of Brazil,

and sediments, etc. 3 These rocks range through the greater part Guiana, and Venezuela and occur again in the Andes of

Pre-Cambrian rocks form considerable rocks tracts in 17 Algeria and on the eastern borders of Egypt. Australasia. Gneissic and crystalline rocks occupy large tracts
in

Chili." Africa.

South -Western Australia.
Zealand. 17

New

They

are also well developed in

the methods of geological observation. a theoretical knowledge of geology. The observer should train himself not to jump to conclusions. without minimising their value or too greatly ^ subject. are of fundamental importance. Every fact which throws light on the area observed must be carefully noted and the record must be both full and accurate. as set forth very briefly in the three preceding parts of this book. Hence all geological observation must be carried on in the most accurate and careful manner possible. is of great value to the engineer as a necessary groundwork to any study of the In the practical application of geology to engineering. but to view every bit of evidence with regard to the nature and structure of the rocks which are concealed from view. which is the subject of the concluding part of this book. 1 189 .PART WHILE IV. GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATION. which are dealt exaggerating it. it is essential that the geological factors should be based on the most reliable data. and must learn to interpret rightly such facts as are patent. with in this part.

there is no doubt of its convenience where blocks of rock have to be worked out from a cliff-face. the cutting edge of the chisel being Sir A. a hammer weighing two or three pounds or even more will be required. The most important implement of the geologist. and tape or other measure. but it must be heavy enough to break up any ordinary rock which is met with.PT. Geikie at right angles to the axis of the handle shaft. OUTDOOR WORK. geologists prefer to dispense with a Though many chisel. No : It may be light or heavy.over the right shoulder. The specimen-bag is commonly slung by a strap passing . short. lens. X. considers a hammer weighing one pound. however. knife. Hammer. equipment or outfit for the field should be one can do good work of any kind with a regular "Christmas tree" slung round him. IV. so that it can be steadied and partly supported by An additional the left hand when it becomes full and heavy. Chisel. IT is essential that the as light as possible. Most geologists recommend a square face with a chisel-shaped tail end. Elaborate hammer-belts seem quite unnecessary. before the block Bag and Belt. 190 . therefore. or in any place where the hammer fails to get an easy hold. If. CH. indispensable hammer. and should 1 provide himself with both hammers. its it may down is joint-cracks before work is done and 15 wedged away from the parent-mass.or long-handled. in If it is too short. CHAPTER X. or a few ounces more. and a small chipping or trimming hammer as well. The following instruments are. 4J to 5 inches become driven in length is suitable. 1 compass and clinometer. according to the nature of the work to be done and the fancy of the individual. A good "cold chisel" some . note-book. when it is intended to collect specimens. quite sufficient for the ordinary purposes of a field geologist but. EQUIPMENT. the engineer has time and opportunity to devote to geological observation he will do well to collect rock specimens for future reference.

as in the convenient box instruments often made.. A walking-stick is indispensable on steep or roughish ground. being hung from the centre of the straight edge so as to reach the graduated arc. To find the relation of the point where observations are being made to features marked upon the map. A common triplet pocket-lens. Anyone can construct a clinometer from an ordinary protractor a swinging index. 15 combining as it does the properties of a level and of a clinometer. do not allow sufficient length in the edge which is to be held coincident with the line of dip observed.] OUTDOOR WORK. whether in town or country. so important point to the place of observation. not in the outside. keep the bag from rubbing unpleasantly on the hip. Geological Sections). and even in a belt the head has to be prevented from touching and wearing through the clothes. It may be comcompass bined with the clinometer. as indeed it should be carried by the geological observer every day of his 15 life. A measurements must be made extending from some recognisable The tape-measure. 15 Tape-measure. Even the map on the scale of 6 inches to a mile cannot represent every rock and projecting boss. in determining the thicknesses of beds on faces of a quarry. for which purpose it should be at least 40 feet in length. 15 An Abney's level is useful for contouring and measuring angles. during long walking. 15 inside. . It is simple enough to slip the hammer into the side bag itself. arid A note-book is indispensable. flap. or even a weighted thread. and thus in one's notes to localise the observation.SECT. hand. however. is often difficult in a wide and open country. and should have some blank pages for outline sketches. I. is often of use in direct measurement on the surface of the ground. maps geological observations should be recorded on geological or plans and geological sections. Of course the 90 marked on the protractor reads as when a dip is to be taken . 15 Section All I. the handle projecting from the forward end under the The left hand. by resting on the handle. is a necessity for the pedestrian. can then easily. thus. and where long slopes and taluses are in question its use will make observations possible that might otherwise involve genuine A steep hillside should be traversed with the stick in the risk. Many of these. and so on (see Section II. 191 strap for the hammer cumbers the chest. or any useful form which will bear rough usage. if the index points to 84 the dip is 6. must always be carried in the field. Geological Surveying.

192 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. viz. and containing as much information as possible with regard to the structural characters of the district. The actual sections and geological plans can then be prepared at home. A geological plan consists of a plan or plans of all the geological deposits with the boundary lines between formations clearly shown. X. an enlargement of the local map should be prepared. and the boundary line of any given stratum coincides with the outcrop of the stratum below it. by means of contour lines. dislocations. When the strata dip towards a hill the boundary lines are (2) less winding than the contours. such undulations of the ground as are of any prominence each contour line passes through all the points at which a horizontal plane would cut the surface of the ground. coincide with the contours. 1 Contours. (1) This relation is as follows the strata are horizontal. 6 inches to the mile is not obtainable. It is presumed that the observer is familiar with the system of representing on a map. [PT. 1 MAPS. To anyone accustomed to the use of contours it will be obvious that the boundary lines of strata must bear some relation to the : contours. geological section not only gives the outline of the surface features but also the geological formations and structural characters as far as they can be traced. etc. etc. the boundary lines This is obvious. A geological map of a given area consists of a map or plan of the surface features in which are shown the boundary lines of These boundary lines each bed or stratum exposed in the area. this into the field as a basis for his traverses and section the observer should record as much information as possible on the plan and the remainder in his note-book. Some lines.. CH. and if one on a suitable say. dips. curvatures. IV. with the nature of the surface depicted by contour lines or A hachuring. scale map is usually available. It may be necessary to prepare two or more plans of the same area in order to show the various formations. sort of of. and all possible information of Taking economic value. : When .. The geological plans and sections taken together should contain full information as to the geological structure. It will often be desirable to prepare several sections in different directions across a given area. are the lines where the lower margins of the strata cut the surface of the earth. The first requisite is an accurate plan of the topography of the area.

SECT.

I.]

OUTDOOR WORK.

193

of this can be seen if we imagine the dip increased the strata are vertical, for the boundary lines would then become parallel straight lines. (3) When the strata dip away from a hill the boundary lines are more winding than the contours. This is true so long as the dip is less than the slope of the hill, but if it is greater the boundary lines wind in a reverse way to the contours. 1 Tracing Boundary Lines. The object of the observer is to trace the lower margin of the stratum on which he is standing. He will, therefore, first look for any natural sections or artificial exposures such as cliffs, quarries, road and railway cuttings, etc., and, selecting these as his principal points, he will locate them on his map and then make a traverse of the intervening country, noting all the geological features. In making such a traverse it is Preliminary traverse. desirable to select such roads, paths, streams, or other lines which If there is a coastconveniently divide the area to be traversed. The observer should then line it should be carefully examined. work along these lines, going over the ground on either side. In this way the whole area will be traversed and nothing important omitted. The points to be noted are those which tend to throw light on the geological characteristics of the area, especially (1) all indications of the nature of the rocks, as described below; and (2) the chief structural features as described in Section II. Considerable experience is needed to enable the observer to place a proper value on the different indications he may meet with, and it may often happen that many miles may be walked before a boundary line can be accurately determined ; but in such cases points should be provisionally fixed, and further indications must
till

The truth

be sought for. It should be noted that when there is very little change of feature the boundary line will be found to run higher up than would at first appear, owing to the movement of rocks and soil from the higher to a lower level. When obscure areas are met with, such as grass-lands, marsh, moors, indications should be sought outside these areas, and when sufficient data are available the boundary lines may be traced by

means of the surface features. The same rule applies in unravelling the details of geological structure by going further afield some clues may be obtained
will throw fresh light on the situation. 1 While making this traverse the Indications of nature of rocks. engineer should look out for every indication of the nature of the

which

13

194
rocks,

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT. IV. CH. X.

and

whether exposed or underlying the surface. The natural exposures, which form the principal points of the survey, will afford specimens for rough classification in the field
artificial

as described in Section III., as well as for

more

careful indoor

examination (vide Chapter XL). In places where no such exposures can be found, it will be necessary to dig through the surface soil and subsoil, if any exist, in order to obtain an indication of the nature of the underlying While doing so a look-out should be maintained for any rocks. weathered portions of rock which have worked up from below.
soil and subsoil will also afford valuable indications. The soil derived from the subsoil which, in its turn, is derived from the underlying rock, and the nature of the subsoil may be detected by examining the heaps thrown up by burrowing animals. Light soils are derived from sands and gravels, and heavy soils are generally due to the presence of clay. Vegetation is also an indication of the nature of the rocks from which the soil and subsoil have been derived. Oak flourishes on clay, while fir-trees grow freely on light
is

The

sandy

soils.

life on limestone soils, common snails are very abundant, and partridges, rabbits, and snakes are common on

As regards animal

1 light soils.

GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS.

While the geological map shows the various outcrops in a given area, the structural features, e.g. dips, faults, thickness of strata, unconformable strata, curvature, etc., can be best described by means of a section. To a certain extent a geological section must be considered an ideal one, inasmuch as some of the details of what is below the surface of the ground must remain uncertain ; but the indications obtained in the process of geological surveying will afford a sufficiently accurate basis for filling in the details of the section. In running a section, a line should be selected which traverses those parts of the area which are geologically most important, and which is, as nearly as possible, at right angles to the strike of the beds ; if necessary, the bearing must be changed from time to time to fulfil these purposes. If an accurately contoured map is not available, the inequalities of the surface of the ground must be recorded in the usual way by means of a theodolite and level and chain, or, if great accuracy
All unnecessary, by pacing and Abney's level or clinometer. artificial or natural exposures, wells or borings, dips, 1 fault, etc., should be noted on the section.
is

outcrops,

SECT.

II.]

OUTDOOR WORK.

195

Section

II.

Structural Characters of Rocks.

It has already been pointed out in Section I. that, while making the geological survey of an area, all possible indications of the nature of the rocks should be looked for and noted down. The structural characters of rocks are dealt with separately in this section for the sake of convenience, but it is not meant that a separate examination of the district must be made on this account. The structural characters of the rocks should be noted while the

geological survey is being made. Referring to Chapter III., we note that the first question for consideration is whether the rocks met with are igneous, aqueous, or altered, and in forming our conclusion we must bear in mind

that igneous rocks are usually crystalline and aqueous rocks are very generally fossiliferous. We must remember, however, that some altered rocks are crystalline and that some igneous rocks, composed of fragmentary volcanic materials, are stratified or bedded. Again, the jointing of igneous rocks and the lines of foliation and cleavage in altered rocks must not be confused with lines of stratification in aqueous rocks (see Chapter III., Section
II., p. 38).i

The structural characters of igneous and metamorphic rocks need no further reference beyond that given in Chapter III.,
I. and III. As mentioned in Chapter III., Section II., p. 37, the changes which occur in aqueous rocks are (i) stratification (ii) inclination For convenience we curvature ; (iv) joints (v) dislocation. (iii) will take (i), (ii), and (iii) together; as regards (iv), joints, see

Sections

;

;

;

p. 43.

STRATA AND THEIR INCLINATION.

The law of continuity of strata Principle of Stratification. Chapter VIII., p. 137) must be firmly impressed on the observer, who should not be misled by the temporary absence of a particular bed or beds in any of the sections he has observed. He must look out for alterations of strata, overlap, unconformable strata, etc. (see Chapter III.), and by comparison of the various sections observed he will be able to deduce the regular order of stratification in the district which he is surveying. JDip andJStrike (see Chapter III., Section II., p. 40). Strata are said to dip when they are inclined ; the direction of the dip is the point of the compass towards which the strata slope, and the amount of the dip is estimated by the size of the angle which the
(see

196
layers

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[FT. IV. CH. X.

make with the plane of the horizon. For example, the dip be 40 to the south, or 60 to the north-east, and so on, the limits of variation of dip being the horizontal and the perpendicular. The direction of the dip is ascertained by means of a pocketThe dip may compass, and the amount of dip with a clinometer. be stated by the incline of 1 in a given number of units of length; thus a fall of 1 in 100 corresponds to an angle of 6. The opposite term to dip is rise ; if the beds dip to the west, they rise to the east. The strike of a set of beds is denned to be the plane at right angles to the direction of dip, on the course of a horizontal line on the surface of inclined beds ; it coincides, therefore, with the line of outcrop when the surface is horizontal. Consequently, the edges of inclined strata, viewed in the line of their strike, will be level, whilst a section at right angles will exhibit the true direction and maximum amount of slope of the strata. If, then, a bed dips due east, its strike is due north and south. Through knowing the strike, we do not necessarily learn either the direction because it may be to either side of the line or of its 'of the dip amount ; yet to ascertain the true dip it is requisite that the line of strike be determined, inasmuch as the direction and amount of dip will vary with the section obtained. Thus, if the strike be due N. and S., then all the sections, except the one at right angles, will give a false dip ; if the dip be 45 E., then the variations in dip will be from W. and E. to N. and S., and from 45

may

to

0. 9 Measurement of dip. In observing a dip, the plane of the graduated arc of the clinometer must be held parallel to a vertical rock-face on which the beds appear exposed, and the distance between the eye and the rocks should be reasonable, in order that

the straight-edge may appear coincident with a considerable length The instrument is tilted until this edge of the dipping strata. to lie along some well-marked line of stratification ; the appears plummet or index then points to an angle equal to the angle of dip observed. Several observations are desirable as checks to one another ; any evidences of lenticular or current-bedding (cf. p. 38) must be noted, and the compass-bearing of the face of rock utilised must also be observed. The dip thus found is very probably only an apparent dip, and Two is less than the true dip, which runs in some other direction. or more observations taken near to one another will settle this Thus, where there are two dips seen on different walls of point. the same quarry, or in closely adjoining quarries, and where these are evidently not due to mere local slippings or to the very common creep of the higher beds dowu the slope of a. hillside,

SECT.

II.]

OUTDOOR WORK.

197

then the direction and amount of the true dip can be found by the simple geometrical method of Mr W. H. Dalton. The directions of the walls, or rock-faces, on which the dips are seen are determined with the compass, and two lines are drawn to
represent them on paper, giving the angle rab. Should one dip in the actual quarry-sections incline towards a and the other away from a, one of the lines drawn must be produced, so that the dips represented in direction by the lines a r and a b both either incline towards or away from a.

/

Draw ac perpendicular
and
of

to

a b,

length, say, for greater accuracy, about 3 inches ; and draw a s perpendicular to ar and equal to ac. From c

any

convenient

r

and s draw lines making with ac FIG. 72. Measurement of dip. and as respectively angles equal to the complements of the observed angles of dip and cutting a b and ar in d and t. Then the angles ad c and at s represent the angles of observed dip along the directions a b and ar
respectively. Join d t ; this line represents the strike of the beds, a e, drawn from a perpendicularly to it, gives us the direction of true dip.

Draw af perpendicular to a e and equal to ac or as; join fe. The angle aef, when measured with a protractor, gives the amount of true dip. The matter is clear if the three triangles ast, acd, and afe are imagined as bent up so as to stand perpendicularly to the The points s, c, and / plane atd, which remains horizontal. coincide, and a plane laid upon the dipping lines s t> fe, and c d
one of the strata observed in the dips were inclined away from a. d t is a horizontal line in this surface, and is therefore the strike ; the line/e now perpendicular to it, and also in the same surface, represents the true dip both in compass-bearing and in inclination to the horizon. 15 Calculating the Thickness of Strata. By knowing the upper
will represent truly a surface of
field,

when both the apparent

of a stratum and its average dip, one can determine approximately the depth at which it will be found under any given spot, and its thickness. In fig. 73, suppose to represent the level surface of the outcrop of a bed, the thickness of which, and the depth of its lower surface below the

and lower boundaries
readily

AB

198
point B,
it
is

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.
desired to ascertain; the

[PT.

IV.

CH. X.

B

that B C angles to the be the will depth, and B D at right angles to the dip will be the thickness of the
It
is

dip having previously been observed to be 30, and the distance AB to measure 300 yards.
clear

at right horizon

FIG. 73.

Calculating thickness of strata,

bed.

angled triangle

A D B,
?,
.'.

Now,

in

the

right-

BD = sin AxAB,

or the thickness of the beds

= sin 30 x 300 = J x 300 =150 yards. in the right-angled triangle and the angle at Again, the length of the line B are known, so that

ABC

A

A

= tanAxAB;
that
is,

B C,

or the depth of

C below B = tan 30

x 300 =174 yards

nearly.

Any two terms being given in either of the equations, the third can be obtained for each. 9
Outcrop and Strike. As the strike is always at right angles to the direction of the dip, it must continually change with the It must not, however, be confused with the outcrop, which latter. is the line where any particular formation cuts the surface.

As explained in Chapter III., p. 41, the strike must coincide with the outcrop when the surface of the ground is quite level, and also when the beds are vertical. At all other times they do not coincide, but the outcrop wanders to and fro across the strike according to the changes in the angle of inclination and in the form of the ground. 1 Curvature. If any of the upper beds which have come to the surface, in any district, are found to be setting in again and dip in the opposite direction away from their line of strike, an anticlinal is indicated ; and similarly, when the beds dip inwards in opposite directions a synclinal may be expected. The above is true whether the beds are faulted or not. 1 This may be detected, even when there is no section Overlap. which displays it, by the boundary lines of the two beds gradually

SECT.

II.]

OUTDOOR WORK.

199

drawing nearer to one another and the outer or lower one dis1 appearing beneath the inner or higher bed. There will usually be a considerable Unconformity (cf. p. 41). difference in inclination, and the boundary lines will generally draw near to one another at a considerable angle. 1
DISLOCATION.

See under Dislocation, in Chapter III., Section II., p. 44. The presence of a fault may be anticipated from the following (1) The abrupt ending of an outcrop, or the want of continuity
:

of definite

bands or beds.

a bed passes under another unconformable one the outcrop of the first bed will terminate abruptly, but in this case the line of junction will be a wavy line following the dip and surface features of the newer unconformable bed, whereas the line of a fault will be a straighter line. (2) An abrupt change in the strike due to an abrupt change in the direction of the dip. Changes in direction of dip and strike often occur in beds which are not fractured, and at times the change is very sudden, but in such cases the changing dip forms a curve where the direction changes, whereas if the beds are fractured by a fault there will be a sharp angle at the point where the direction of dip changes. (3) A considerable change in amount and direction of dips of the same bed in adjacent sections.

When

Change in direction of dip may indicate flexure (cf. p. 42), but when there is change in amount of dip as well a fault is indicated. (4) The presence, between outcrops of any two formations, of a
formation not in its normal position ; or the absence, between outcrops, of a formation which is usually present. This may be an indication of either a fracture or an unconformity ; other indications must be looked for. (5) When a bed fails to appear at the place where, from its dip as previously observed in section, it was expected; or, the appearance of a bed at a place where, from its dip, it was not
expected.
is an indication of either a fault or a flexure. 1 Tracing Faults. The faults which are seen on cliff faces or other exposed sections are very often comparatively small ones. The larger faults can seldom be actually seen, although their One reason for presence can be detected by surface indications.

This

this is that along the fault-lines of larger faults the walls of the fracture are subjected to great crushing force which causes them

200

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

CH. X. [PT. IV.

to crumble away, and thus the opening becomes filled with debris and the fault is concealed. Again, later deposits frequently cover the older rocks, and thus the dislocations among the latter are hidden from view. 1

Section III.

Determination of Rocks.

SELECTION OF SPECIMENS.

As a general rule specimens are of little utility or Position. interest to the geologist unless gathered actually in situ. talus-

A

heap (cf. p. 9), still worse a road-heap, the materials of which may have come from anywhere, affords very tempting but very misSome " specimens " seen in their true position leading material. In such cases a are, however, far too large to be carried away. sketch giving dimensions, or a photograph, must suffice, and chips from various parts may serve subsequently as illustrations of the
whole.
Soils are best collected in artificial cuts or on the banks of streams, some 2 feet or so below the ordinary cultivated and altered surface.
cavities

Well-developed crystals of minerals are to be hoped for only in and on the walls of open joints. 1 Bock-specimens should be broken out from larger masses, so

as to secure fresh unweathered surfaces. It is often useful, however, to show the amount of resistance of the rock to atmospheric action by collecting the surface-crust also. The difference in

colour between such crusts and the interior is often striking, as may be seen in brown clay-blocks with blue cores, or in the bluegrey "felstones" (cf. p. 109) of Wales, which weather to a porcellanous white. The rock-specimen should be broken, with as little chipping as possible, into a square fragment with the larger surfaces reprePieces about 2 inches senting the lines of bedding if possible. long and 1J inches wide, and about the same thickness, are of a convenient size. When first detached each specimen should be wrapped in paper and the locality, formation, and bed should be written on the wrapper. The specimens can then be easily labelled and numbered and particulars entered in a note-

book

in

due course. 15
EASILY DISTINGUISHABLE CHARACTERS.

It must be clearly understood that the characters described below and referred to in the accompanying table (p. 203) are In all important only such as can be easily detected in the field.

SECT.

III.]

OUTDOOR WORK.

201

or doubtful cases the specimens should be examined at home and the minerals separated as described in Chapter XL, p. 212, when, with the aid of the fuller description of structure and other physical characters given in Chapter VI. and the descriptions of

the rocks given in Chapter VII., it is hoped that the reader will be able to identify any ordinary rock. 1 Structure. The various kinds of structure referred to in the
table are
:

Crystalline.

Compact or Homogeneous.
Foliated or Schistose.

Fragmental.
Granular. Vitreous.
Cleaved.

Earthy. Concretionary.
Crystalline includes all types in which crystalline texture can be detected by the eye, but the minuter forms, such as cryptocrystalline, etc., are included under Compact.

Compact

or

Homogeneous

includes

all

close-grained

and

lithoidal rocks.

Foliated or Schistose rocks are those of a distinctly foliated character; see Chapter VII., Section III., p. 124. Fragmental (see Chapter VI., Section III, Group 5, p. 101) includes breccia, conglomerate and volcanic agglomerates, tuffs, etc. Granular. This term refers rather to texture than structure ; see under Texture, Chapter VI, Section III., p. 98.

The remaining terms, Vitreous, Cleaved, Earthy, Concretionary, are described in Chapter VI. 1 Hardness. The pocket-knife must be used freely, as in the The angle case of minerals, in estimating the hardness of a rock. of a steel hammer, drawn across the face, often gives similar information. All rocks tend, however, to have a hardness a little below that of their principal constituents (see Chapter VI., Section IV., p. 104), owing to looseness of texture or development of decomposition-films between the grains, but granular limestones can at once be distinguished by the knife from the unscratchable quartzites. Basalt, which is scratched with some difficulty when fresh, can in this state never be confused with black limestone or compact dark shale mistakes that have often been made during the hurried examination of hand specimens. 15 See also Chapter XL, Section I. Streak. While the specimen is being scratched to ascertain

This is apparent in some limestones containing hydrogen as well as carbonic acid. but it will generally suffice. Fracture. be observed. 20 Smell. Some clays have an earthy smell when breathed upon. [TABLE.. sulphuric. it will cause rapid effervescence if the rock is a pure carbonate of lime. If a drop of dilute nitric. . 104. or hydrochloric acid in the proportion of 1 part acid to 5 parts water be applied to the fresh fractured surface of a rock. p. May unctuous. for the purposes of the rough outdoor examination under consideration. chalk. when the surface seems to rub off in powder under the finger as . the streak or colour of the powder produced by 1 scratching should also be observed. as trachyte . and serpentine (slightly) . smell strongly of carburetted hydrogen also in some varieties of quartz. Section III. [PT. pp. as talc. hardness.. X. of the latter should. or meagre. to note whether the freshly fractured surface is or is not lustrous. when rubbed. as mica Feeling. if any. 68. 1 Colour and Lustre (see Chapter VI.. Section 1 IV. Effervescence. The various kinds of lustre recognised by experts in the case of minerals are given in Chapter IV. 104). which. The colours of weathered fragments and fresh-fractured surfaces should be carefully noted and the lustre. and the same terms are applicable to rocks. p. slow effervescence if the rock is partly composed of carbonate of lime. 20 . CH. but none at all if the rock is a sulphate or silicate.202 its GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The usual forms are given in Chapter VI.. be rough.. smooth.. Section IV. 67. steatite. IV.

.OUTDOOR WOfcK. i -a |l|- !53 2 g^ H ^ No. of Specimen.a S?o c 5 te ted . 203 1! II P 3? 5 5*a I S -2 1 1 I S >1 131 S> ^5 en S^: >> t< t*> a II I|I or II .

204

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

OUTDOOR WORK,

205

S3

II
js

S**

111 1!

fel

,

i

u
nolite, rphyrite.

PI

ill I s

1 ^ e
iO

I 5

(O
CJ

<M

206

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

ii
py
scatl

iron

ine-graine

tains

of

Hi
OJ

rs

c8

*I

fe-

ll

II'

(U

C

to

SI 5
white

|s I

Greenish

No. of Specimen.

CHAPTER

XI.

INDOOR WORK.
Section
I.

Further Examination of Rocks.
in

THE rough examination
insufficient

the

field

will

frequently

prove

and it will often be necessary to isolate the mineral constituents and examine them separately as described in but before doing so the Sections II. and III. of this chapter following further tests should be applied and may suffice to
;

determine the nature of the rock. 1

PHYSICAL CHARACTERS.
Hardness.
(see

The rough
X.,

test

made by
201)

scratching with a knife

Chapter

Section

III., p.

may

be supplemented by

following the instructions for testing the hardness of minerals The precautions to be given in Section III. of this chapter. observed in the case of minerals apply also to rocks. This is often a good guide to chemical Specific Gravity.

The general methods of determining specific gravity are detailed in the next section (Determination of Minerals}. The specimen must be selected with the following precautions
constitution.
:

1.

It

must be representative

of the

mass under examination,

and

sufficiently large to include all the constituents in their correct average proportions. 2. It must be free from flaws and cavities. 3. It must be unweathered, except in certain special investigations.

To observe the first precaution, it is often necessary, and indeed safer, to use Walker's rather than the refined chemical balance, which will not weigh a specimen of more than 100 grammes.
for measuring the displaced highly satisfactory in dealing with crystalline rocks of coarse grain and any specimen which it is inadvisable to reduce The displacement-apparatus consists in simple form of in size.

The method devised by Mohr
is

water

207

208

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT. IV. CH. XI.

an inverted glass bell-jar furnished below with an indiarubber tube and clip, and supported on a stand. The water placed in the vessel can be thus run off from below, accuracy being ensured by using the clip rather than a tap, and by letting the tube terminate in a jet formed of glass tubing. A horizontal wooden bar bearing a needle is laid across the top of the vessel, the needle projecting about 3 or 4 cm. downwards. To ensure constancy of position, the points where the bar habitually rests on the glass rim should be marked with a file or by gummed slips
is filled with water ; the end of the needle is lightly and allowed to project into the liquid. Looking up from below at the bright, totally reflecting surface of the water, the clip is released, and the water is allowed to run off until the It now exactly touches needle-point just disappears from view. the upper surface of the water and gives us a standard to which to refer. The specimen, which has been weighed upon a strong but accurate balance, is then lowered by a fine thread or wire into the vessel, the water rising higher by the addition of its When all bubbles have disappeared, a graduated bulk. measuring-glass is taken, the divisions of which correspond to the

of paper. The vessel

greased,

units of weight used in the determination of the weight in airThus, if grammes were used, the glass will be graduated in cubic Into this glass the water is run off until the needlecentimetres. point, observed from below as before, again exactly touches the The amount run off gives the bulk of surface of the water.

water

(d) displaced.

G = weight

in air

To observe the second precaution, some rocks, such as porous sediments or pumiceous lavas, must be reduced to powder and determined with the specific gravity bottle, the finest dust being sifted or blown off to avoid choking of the small tube in the
stopper.

To observe the third precaution, it is often well to pick up clean chips from specimens trimmed in the field, which, selected from a large number, will serve both for the determination of specific gravity and the making of microscopic sections, if required. Since the range of specific gravity in rocks, the coals being omitted, rarely exceeds the limits 2 '2 to 3 '4, many very diverse rocks have the same specific gravity, and the results are not of But in the case of igneous value in absolute determination. rocks, provided that specimens are selected and examined from different parts of an exposure, an excellent idea can be formed,

SECT.

I.]

INDOOR WORK.
specific gravity alone, of the silica

209
percentage of the

from the
mass.

THE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ROCKS.
rocks,

ordinary qualitative tests may be applied to acids, hot or cold, is naturally of great value in the detection of carbonates. Pure dolomites such as at times occur among crystalline masses will effervesce only when the acid is heated, but magnesia occurs in many limestones in which the acid test is The ordinary dolomitic limestones thus effervesce unavailing. very freely in cold acid, and the magnesia can only be safely
of

A

number

and the examination with

determined by precipitation from solution by hydric disodic On the other hand, we must phosphate in the ordinary way. here repeat the warning that a rock which gives no effervescence when touched with strong cold acid may yet belong to the group commonly styled limestones, being in fact a dolomite ; and the
except in hardness, of some of these rocks to compact grey gypsums or even quartzites makes it necessary to
resemblance,

emphasise this caution. Preparation of Material. The treatment of a rock with acid is frequently important as revealing an insoluble residue, which should always be examined further. The division, however, of every rock into a soluble and insoluble portion, prior to analysis, is now regarded as of little value, and the ordinary plan pursued is to make a thorough fusion of a weighed quantity of the powder with carbonate of potash and carbonate of soda. The powder must be obtained by breaking up little fragments of the rocks The fragments may be wrapped in still further upon an anvil.
stout
steel

brown paper so as to avoid the introduction of particles of from the hammer or anvil used. Finally, freed from any whisps of paper, the material is ground and reground, a portion at a time, in a fair-sized agate mortar until the powder is Too much care cannot practically impalpable between the fingers. be given to this simple preparation of the material used in the
analysis, since imperfect fusion
sufficiently fine,

may

result

if

the particles are not

ultimately separated will contain gritty, undecomposed matter. Although the precautions and details of the methods employed must be left to chemical works and to personal practice, it may be of service to remind the reader of the successive operations performed during a simple rock analysis, such as would suffice for ordinary determinative purposes. Naturally, the list of substances that might be looked for and separately estimated in an elaborate analysis of material from the
silica

and the

14

210
earth's crust
is

GEOLOGY FOE ENGINEERS.
as long as that of the

[PT. IV. CH. XI.

known chemical

elements,

but the proportions in which the below-mentioned oxides occur are often of fundamental geological importance.

Summary
1.

of Determinative Chemical Analysis of a Rock.

Loss on ignition.
C.,

Dry the powdered rock

in a water-bath

transfer about 1 gramme to a platinum crucible, and determine the weight of the quantity thus used. Then ignite at 100

Ignite a second strongly over a gas blowpipe and weigh again. time and weigh, repeating this until the weight is constant. The difference thus found is due to loss on ignition, which Where it is necessary to determine generally represents water. carbon dioxide, a sample of the powder must be decomposed by acid in an apparatus in which either the gas evolved is allowed to escape and is determined by loss, or in which it is collected in an absorption tube by soda-lime and weighed. 2. Silica. Prepare a fusion mixture by minutely mixing 13 parts by weight of potassium carbonate with 10 parts sodium Add to the ignited powder in the crucible, or to a carbonate. fresh sample if the heating has caused it to fuse or frit together, about 4 times its weight of fusion mixture, mixing carefully and very thoroughly with a rod or platinum spatula. Fuse at first over a Bunsen burner, the lid of the crucible being kept on and avoiding too great heat at the outset. Then apply the blowpipe until the whole mass runs freely together and ebullition ceases. The crucible lid should be easily lifted off with the platinum forceps so that inspection of the mass can be made from time to
time.

Remove and stand the crucible on a cool surface such as an iron plate, so that the fused mass may crack away from the wall of the crucible. Place in a porcelain or platinum dish with hydrochloric acid and water, covering quickly with a clock-glass to avoid loss by effervescence of the carbonates. Warm, and allow to stand until decomposition is complete. Evaporate to
dryness, breaking up any lumps with the spatula, and heat Moisten again with C. in an air-bath. finally to about 120

The silica should strong hydrochloric acid, add water, and warm. now float about lightly in the liquid when stirred, while all the If bases are in solution. Filter off the silica, ignite, and weigh. gritty matter occurs amid the silica, the fusion has not been satisfactory, and the process must be begun again. Add to the filtrate a few drops 3. Alumina and ferric oxide. of nitric acid, in order to ensure the conversion of ferrous to
ferric salts.

Then add ammonia

in very slight excess

and

boil.

SECT.

I.]

INDOOR WORK.

211

Filter off the precipitate of alumina and ferric oxide, obtaining When thoroughly washed, redissolve the prethe nitrate a. cipitate into another vessel, and divide the subsidiary nitrate

thus obtained into two measured quantities. Thus it may be made up to | a litre by dilution in a marked flask, and 250 c.c. may be drawn off with a pipette. In this portion precipitate

alumina and ferric oxide as before, filter, ignite, and weigh. Draw off 100 c.c. from the portion remaining in the flask, and determine the iron in this volu metrically by means of bichromate
or

permanganate of potash. Make a check-determination by drawing off another 50 or 100 c.c. Divide the weight of iron found by '7, which will give the weight of ferric-oxide. Deduct this from the joint oxides, the alumina being thus found by
difference.
4.

Lime.

To the

original

filtrate

a,

which

must contain
Allow to
;

ammonia

in excess,

add excess
Filter,
is

of

ammonia
The

oxalate.

stand for twelve hours. repeat till the weight converted into lime.
5. Magnesia. phosphate to the

and

ignite strongly

constant.

weigh, and precipitate is thus

being in excess, add hydric disodic very carefully with a rod, since the precipitate clings to any parts of the beaker that may have been in the least degree abraded by touching. Stand for twelve hours and filter cold. Wash the precipitate with a mixture of 1 part ammonia and 3 water, and ignite, the filter being burnt Where a large quantity of separately in the lid of the crucible. magnesia is expected a porcelain crucible should be used, to avoid injury to the platinum. The ignited precipitate is the
filtrate, stirring

Ammonia

pyrophosphate (Mg 2 P 2 7 ). To estimate as magnesia, multiply by 36036. These alkalies are best determined by 6. Potash and soda. the Lawrence-Smith method. Mix intimately 1 part of the powdered rock (about J a gramme) with 1 part of ammonium chloride and 8 parts of pure calcium carbonate. Heat for an hour in a deep platinum crucible, which is best supported almost horizontally over a flat-sided Bunsen flame, and under a conical iron shield. The flame must be applied very gradually at first to
avoid rapid volatilisation of the ammonium chloride, and the temperature should at no time rise above dull redness. The decomposition is effected without complete fusion. Dissolve out the fritted mass in water in a dish, and filter. The filtrate contains the metals of the alkalies in the form of chlorides, with some portion of the materials used in decomposition. Precipitate the lime from the filtrate by ammonium carbonate ; filter and evaporate down, testing the filtrate as it becomes more

212
concentrated
solution.
If

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

[PT. IV. CH. XI.

with a drop or two of ammonium carbonate lime is still present, precipitate it and filter again. Evaporate to dryness in a small dish, and gently drive off by further heating the ammonium chloride and ammonium carbonate. A dark stain may appear, which is due to impurities in the ammonium carbonate, and may be neglected. Excessive heat must be avoided, lest a portion of the chlorides of the alkali metals should be lost. Weigh the joint chlorides in the dish while the latter is slightly warm. Dissolve in water, add platinic chloride, and evaporate almost to dryness on a water-bath. Add alcohol, and allow to stand for some hours, the precipitate of potassic platinic chloride being insoluble in alcohol. Filter on to a weighed filter, wash with alcohol, and dry at 100. Weigh with the filter without
ignition.

To calculate this precipitate as potash multiply by '19272. Divide this result by '63173, which gives the weight of the potassium chloride in the joint chlorides. Deduct this from the This gives joint weight and multiply the remainder by '53022. the weight of soda. 15 Fusibility. Though it is seldom desirable, on account of their complexity, to treat rocks before the blowpipe as if they were simple minerals, yet in a few cases the determination of the
The older writers relied, indeed, proves of service. more upon this character than has since been thought desirable, and the nature of the glasses produced was closely studied. It is
fusibility

obvious that the application of the flame, in the absence of an acid, will decide between a soft rock composed of silicates and a limestone, the former in all probability fusing to a glass while The natural the latter becomes luminous and crumbling. glasses also have various degrees of fusibility, the more highly Thus silicated fusing with greater difficulty than the basic. obsidian fuses at about 5 of von Kobell's scale (see Section IV., Observation of Fusibility, p. 230) and tachylyte as easily as 2 '5. Care must be exercised, however, in dealing with these glasses that the splinters used do not present unusually thin edges. In the case of an igneous rock that has undergone alteration, the fusibility can be of little service, since a very small admixture of hydrous minerals such as zeolites may suffice to considerably increase the fusibility of the mass. 15

Section

II.

Isolation of Constituents.

geneous materials,

In the case of a coarse-grained rock, clearly composed of heteroit is not difficult to break out with the hammer

can be broken up with the pliers or even with the fingers. 213 or pliers fragments or crystals of individual constituents. however. The crushed are convenient. such as clays. which can then be submitted to special tests. Other rocks. or upon the stage of a . by care and patience. and the grain is detached at once and sinks. in which each grain consists of only one mineral For this purpose the sieves used in chemical laboratories species.. The objection to the use of sieves lies in the the constituents may be much more friable than fineness fact that some of others. when selected after examination with the lens. must be examined in order to determine if any mineral has become eliminated from this cause. such as sandstones. A fine brush should be moistened with water (Dr Sorby recommends glycerine) and brought in It is then dipped just contact with the grain to be picked out. which were in reality fine-grained rocks in which it seemed impossible to determine the fossils. as coarse as possible.] INDOOR WORK. may be broken up after prolonged treatment in water. several fitting one above the other. which has the widest mesh. and hence for quantitative purposes The contents of each sieve no one sample may be satisfactory. a quantity of any one constituent can be accumulated sufficient even for a chemical But for merely qualitative tests a very few grains will analysis. will generally wash off till we reach the lowest pan. is passed through sieves of various mesh. a rock is. which must be fairly coarse. mineral is placed in the topmost. each sieve selects a sample increasing in metallic or mineral material. II. and the grains spread out on paper for identification.SECT. may be picked over by the aid of that instrument. and at the beginning of the nineteenth century a large number of masses were classed as homogeneous. below the surface of a little vessel of distilled water. its constituents can be isolated only with difficulty . small being finally left behind. microscope with a low power. The powder of the rock. Many sedimentary rocks. and an often valuable residue of larger grains. or even as mineral species. the materials of varying fineness being successively washed off into separate vessels. etc. The crushing of crystalline rocks. When constituents. compact and coherent. until a sample is procured. 15 MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. In this way. to avoid the introduction of extraneous Any fibres from the paper used on soaking. The sample. and the whole being shaken. with a view to the isolation of their constituents. is best performed between folds of smooth cloth or even paper.

. This rises in a and flows over at c. with effect. In using the simple Magnetic Separation. . fine dust. corks. CH. etc. all the light substances thus washed out of the material. [pT.214 be GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. terminating in a tap below. Thoulet (fig. such as clay. and the magnetic particles adhere Tet's 'washing apparatus. and by regulating it none of the material escapes up b. and the grains of different characters will descend successively. the olivine and the felspars and allied minerals which contain traces of " "f elspathoids magnetic substances. The powdered material is placed in a. A tube c opens a through the side of a. IV. is fitted with a rubber cork through which a finer tube. magnet. will probably appear among the upper layers. and water is introduced through b. The removal of light material. M. to cap On withdrawing the magnet to the collecting vessel the thrust forward and the material falls off into the vessel. may become taken up but such can be subsequently removed by It is useif the iron oxide itself is required to be pure. and excellent material can be quickly obtained. These can be drawn off by the tap and a fairly pure amount of any particular Plate-like minerals. This current keeps the powder well disturbed. 74). is . containing only minute particles of magnetite. ful to make a little sliding of tissue-paper as a cover for the end This is kept in contact with the end while of the magnet used. connected. In separating minerals of different specific gravities water is introduced at c. from heavier or coarser constituents may be performed by ivashiny. it. six Bunsen cells. passing over the powdered rock. such as constituent collected. 15 Washing. as in an apparatus described by M. It is clear that simple forms of such an apparatus can be constructed with glass tubes. A residue of felspars and The frequently occurring glassy matrix of finally alone remains. passes. A large tube a. mica. to which microchemical reagents may be applied. grains of composite character. Check the flow gradually. and flows out up b when a has become full. and a clip to act as a stop-cock. 6. Fouque has extended this simple method with considerable He uses an electro-magnet. picking. forming distinct layers at the bottom. rubber 15 tubing. By successive increases in the strength of the current the constituents of a rock can be fairly sorted one from another first the magnetite. then the pyroxene. if the operation is sufficiently prolonged. carrying with it. if necessary. XL sufficient.

but in many cases it is highly silicated and scarcely ferriferous.SECT. to prevent the adhesion of non-magnetic particles to any moisture on the surface of the The powder is placed on a large card and jerked close iron. If it is pyroxenic it may. Any overheating will cause the salt to crystallise out on cooling down. When a certain amount of material has been attracted. solutions of known density. while others sink. and comparing the readings given when it is immersed in water and in the liquids respectively. the borotungstate is not irritant like the mercury solutions. by inclusion in the felspar. upon the surface. As we have already stated. II. 15 Dense Liquids. as indeed in most isolations by other means. cause the removal of a large quantity of the latter. if the liquid is diluted until a particular specimen floats swims about in it and remains sluggishly wherever it is placed. when a fresh dilution will be necessary. 215 igneous rocks affords the greatest cause of error. or by suspending a weight from a chemical or Jolly's balance. though it has been completely freed from bubbles. a specimen. In practice with Fouque's method. If a solution of known density is to hand. The most suitable liquids are (1) solution of borotungstate of cadmium. under the poles. kept carefully stoppered. it can be carried about in a stoppered bottle in the solid state and A few ready-made dissolved in distilled water when required. and . Further. first prepared by D. That of the liquid may be determined by throwing in a series of specimens already determined until one is found that will neither float nor sink to the bottom. This is a pale yellow liquid. the liquid and the mineral will be of the same specific gravity. with more or less rapidity. will be very The only objections to this useful in the discrimination of gems. the ends of the electro- magnet may be covered with thin paper.] INDOOR WORK. Klein. some idea of their relative specific gravities may be obtained. Though poisonous. with a density of 3*28. it can be diluted with water and again concentrated by heating over a water-bath until a hornblende crystal just floats upon the surface. so that specimens before use should be treated with a mild acid. and now very widely used. and cannot be separated from the felspars that are to be tested by Szabo's or other reaction. liquid are that it decomposes carbonates. the card is withdrawn and a clean card or paper substituted the current is then interrupted. and the particles fall off and are collected. and that it tends to bottles or the glass rods crystallise readily upon the stoppers of . microscopic examination must decide on the suitability of such selected material for refined determinative tests. leaving only the purer quality .

must be kept as much as possible from the light. as must eventually happen. which must be diluted with benzole. the operation may be performed in an ordinary beaker and the surface-material skimmed off with a For economy of the liquid the beaker should be fairly spatula. The washings are collected in a dish and evaporated down until a concentrated liquid is again obtained for future use. one of these will float up to the surface while the other will sink. since some composite grains are sure to be included. A more dangerous method of isolating particular minerals from the powdered rock. The material must be well stirred on immersion. and which. to preserve its pale straw-colour and transparency. or with benzole if methylene iodide is used in the separation. cadmium solution is used. The rods and vessels used should always be distilled water. Strong acids are likely to produce surface-decomposition of the minerals that are to be ulti- . to be concentrated by evaporation when time allows. [PT. This liquid. He uses methylene iodide. The material separated. for ordinary qualitative tests. be well washed with distilled water. washed with in stirring. If the lighter mineral is the only one to be collected and examined. Brauns. or. IV. the powdered rock must be treated beforehand with dilute acid to ensure the removal of the carbonates.216 used GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. from its not crystallising when concentrated by evaporation. 15 Use of Acids. It is clear that if we prepare a solution of density intermediate between the densities of any two constituents. the colour can be restored by putting a few globules of mercury into the bottle and shaking the whole together for a few minutes. should be carefully searched over with a lens of low microscopic power. when washed and dried. the resulting very dilute solutions being kept together in a bottle. only the purest grains must be selected. CH. XI. narrow. Another liquid (2) that promises very well has been brought forward by R. Any doubtful object must be rejected if a quantitative analysis is contemplated . When it has become darkened. but it does not seem so adapted for researches made beyond the reach of laboratories as does the borotungstate of liquids is a most valuable method for the isolation of constituents of rocks. The use of these dense and bottom layers stirred later to prevent entangling of inapproThe particles when removed must priate constituents in either. and not with either water or alcohol. and both top cadmium solution. since some depth of liquid must be used to allow of If Klein's convenient borotungstate of perfect separation. is very clean and agreeable to use.

The outlines of the minerals were then traced through with a pencil or fine pen.] INDOOR WORK. In this way the amorphous glassy matrix may be removed from around many minerals. hence they can be isolated from quartz and The acid is thus found to attack. from which the finest and the coarsest particles had been sifted off. To avoid errors due to irregular thickness of the gum and paper. cautiously and stirred together . the six surfaces of a parallelepipedon cut from it. The materials. then quartz. fluorides. of the rock-powder. the process of decomposition was arrested at any required stage by pouring in water and washing off the fluosilicates. then the felspars. The tracing was removed from the rock and gummed to a sheet of lead or tin-foil. felspars with comparative ease. should be rubbed with the finger under water to free them from the last traces of the jelly. in a platinum dish into which concentrated The materials were inserted hydrofluoric acid has been poured. and gelatinous products that had been formed. and the various minerals were coloured with different tints. It is thus of especial value to observers far removed from refined apparatus. II. and lastly the ferromagnesian group (pyroxene. be effected by weighing the original powdered material and the successive groups of Delesse long ago employed a rougher isolated constituents. It is obvious that the nature and strength of the solvent used in each instance must be left to the judgment of the observer. the glassy matrix. amphibole. olivine) and magnetite. each sorted group was treated in water and the fragments of the foil alone finally used. 15 The determination of the proportions in which particular minerals are present in a rock can. These groups of fragments were then weighed and compared with the total weight of foil that corresponded to the area or areas . which is simple and very reasonably accurate. The covering was affixed with gum. increasing the transparency if necessary by soaking the covering and the face of the rock in oil. Fouque employed hydrofluoric acid in the isolation of the He placed about 30 grammes minerals of the lavas of Santorin. Delesse chose a plane or even polished surface of the rock. M. when washed. or. though it may be difficult to free felspars completely from it without seriously attacking the The ferromagnesian minerals are attacked only after crystals. The outlines were cut round with a pair of scissors and the pieces of the same tint were sorted together. 217 mately examined. long immersion. He covered each such surface with a sheet of goldbeater's skin or fine paper.SECT. method. of course. first. in special investigations.

15 EXTERNAL FORM (cf. the paper may probably be cut out and estimated directly. IV. XI. its its Mode of Occurrence. in such a problematical case. 15 . such as mica. In the preliminary examination with the eye or with the lens twin-structures may occasionally be detected. The pocket-lens will aid considerably in examining the crystalline form of minerals that have consolidated under favourable conditions . in concretionary forms or in well-developed crystals. The relation of the mineral specimen to surroundings should in all cases be observed prior to its extraction. but. Delesse found it convenient to estimate fine lamellar minerals. often reveals itself by the appearance of fine alternating duller or more lustrous bands. 15 Extraction. The rock-constituents. a series of brightly reflecting surfaces.218 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. having been isolated. without transference to the foil. 58). as the specimen is turned about in the hand. as in plagioclase felspars. Its occurrence in veins or diffused through a rockmass. p. Determination of Minerals. hence the one half will show. The test of hardness. the basal cleavage is inclined in reverse directions in the two halves of which the crystal is built up . while the other remains dull or even earthy-looking. is very generally observable upon broken surfaces . 15 Section III. or the almost complete suppression of others. whether in granitic or trachytic rocks. deposition upon earlier-formed constituents or its inclusion in other substances that have aggregated round it these are a few of the many points that may help in its final determination. but the undue development of certain faces. of the rock selected. by difference. Not even the measurement of the angles will distinguish between an elongated cube and a prism of the tetragonal system . When a good balance is at hand. the proportions of each mineral being thus ascertained. and some one or all of the following methods of examination may be applied with a view to their determination. CH. Thus the characteristic Carlsbad twinning of orthoclase. [PT. some other test is certain to be available which will virtually decide the question of the species to which the mineral belongs. renders the interpretation of natural forms far more difficult than would appear from the symmetrical drawings and models with which the elementary student becomes at first familiar. may often be employed without the removal of the mineral particle from its surroundings. and some observations on form and cleavage. Repeated twinning. Preliminary Examination. must be either simple minerals or mineral aggregates.

(cf. A little bolt is passed through the slots. which may best be secured by holding up the crystal and the instrument and observing that no light passes between the planes and the edges of the bars. p. the other half remaining solid. their cleanly-cut inner edges may be applied to any two planes of the crystal that are not parallel to one another. Determining Cleavage readiest way of The Proper direction. from their constancy in the same species. The point of intersection of two corresponding edges of the bars.] INDOOR WORK. It is often useful. serve to explain With faces and forms of the most anomalous development.SECT. Determination of angle. the prolongation of one bar is cut back to half its width. the clamp is usually bored on the under side. back or thrusting forward either of the bars. The angle is line. contact has been made. coincides with the line joining read off between the prolongations of the bars and not between When the the edges that were actually applied to the crystal. the bars are carefully clamped together and again applied to the planes in If no shifting has taken place during clamping it only question. III. its simplest and perhaps handiest form it consists of two small flat bars of steel or brass. to determine the angles made by Even where works of reference are certain planes of the crystal. the determinations can be forwarded to a friend more fortunately situated . cases is and in some absolutely necessary. middle line is used. which indeed forms an integral part of the contact goniometer. 219 Measuring Crystal Angles. sufficient practice upon familiar specimens the well-known contactIn goniometer of Carangeot is capable of giving excellent results. and the bars are clamped By releasing the nut and drawing together by a nut above. is made to coincide with the centre from which The bolt of the angles have been marked off on the protractor. determining the cleavage of a crystal is to place the edge of a knife or small chisel upon a face parallel to that of some . and the angles thus measured and compared will. remains to determine the angle between the inner edges of the bars. and is dropped over a pin so fixed that either the edge of one bar. when it is brought against a stop rising from the circle. in each of which a slot is cut extending from near one end to the centre. This is best done by applying the instrument to a semicircular or circular protractor. or else its middle and 180. 15 PHYSICAL CHARACTERS. not to hand. 62). the measurement being taken when the edges of the bars are perpendicular to that formed by When exact the intersection of the two planes of the crystal. or else of their middle lines.

developed in imperfectly cleavable crystals by strongly heating and suddenly cooling them in water. and calcite. and the sound produced. In the case of mica there seems to be no limit to the capacity for cleavage. IV. be divided by the finger-nail. cannot be cleaved to that form. with slight effort. and the relative degree of resistance to the knife afforded by the softer substances will commonly assign them their places. Minerals scratched by the thumb-nail have (d) Few minerals are harder than 7. [PT. until No. 7 is reached. Quartz crystals. into laminae of extreme thinness. p. such as mica and gypsum. The observer may. and under ordinary circumstances they break with a fracture like that of glass. Thus fluorspar. CH. however.220 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. if the direction is near that of a principal cleavage. 66). rely largely upon certain simple instruments alone. or will show traces of step-shaped structure in the direction of the true cleavage plane. whose crystals are chiefly cubes. a more or less flatfaced fragment will be removed. XI. Some minerals. such as salt. fluorspar. the fractured surface will be uneven or irregular. on the other hand. but yields with the greatest ease in the direction of an octahedral face. principal form and strike a light blow with a hammer. the fragments obtained 12 being regular cleavage forms. Thus (a) Minerals unscratched by a good knife have a hardness (H) of 6 or upwards. usually decrepitate or fly into pieces when suddenly heated. Easily cleavable minerals.. surface of a file. galena. = 5'5 or less. which is not scratched by If a specimen of each member is passed lightly over the steel. If. or the file is drawn across an edge of the member.. (c) Minerals scratched by a bronze coin have = 2 '5 or less. (b) Minerals scratched with a knife have = 3'0 or less. The relative resistance of each member to the point of a good pocket-knife should be carefully observed in succession. or needle. Anyone seeking to determine minerals should be thoroughly well acquainted with Moh's scale (see Chapter IV. different amounts of material will be removed from each. Hardness. when so treated. In some instances cleavages may be Developing cleavage. even when an actual scale of : H H H . are parallel very easily cleavable. will become more grating as the higher members are used. when. Section III. no cleavage is obtainable in the direction of the blow. as laminee may be obtained thinner than the edge of any cutting tool that can be brought to bear upon them. or the point of a knife. Rough scale. occasionally develop faces parallel to those of the unit rhombohedron . and many may. at first sight. Easy cleavage.

presents occasionally a difficulty and it must be remembered that decomposition renders many substances softer than the values given in textbooks. undecomposed specimen should always be selected. is greatly affected by decomposition.] INDOOR WORK. since the hardness of minerals A Chemical balance. wrapped about a harder core. as may occur in schists. 1 all bubbles are carefully removed. Many minerals are softer when first obtained than after they have been kept some time in a dry cabinet.SECT. than the therefore be parallel to the fibres. a matter of considerable When the substance contains cavities. In crystals. it is necessary to nicety. The grains may be cemented on to a slip of wood with " electric " cement. In a brush. which replaces the ordinary pan of the balance. and the quotient of the original weight by the difference will be the specific gravity. such as talc or mica. the substance being first weighed in air arid then in water . withdraw the specimen and paint it which should be worked well into the hollows. . On again immersing.. and 1 part red . The most familiar method of determining the specific gravity of a body is that involving the use of an accurate balance and a set of chemical weights. still better. or the vessel being placed for some time under an air pump . weighed in air (w) and then immersed in a glass of distilled water . 5. The specimen is suspended by a light silk thread from the hook on the under side of a small It is pan. the scratch should or. the weight of the specimen when suspended in water is then determined 1 (w') t and the specific gravity G= w w -. of a transverse fracture. 12 powder it before taking the specific gravity. while the thumb-nail decides the lowest degrees of all in an equally efficient manner. 66). III. The hardness of small fragments of minerals can be best ascertained by drawing them across a substance already determined. the water being boiled if necessary. 1 part bees-wax. p. the fibres will always indicate true one . and those of the primitive form than of the modifications. 15 In a fibrous Precautions. An exact determination is. with water. the difference between the two weights gives the weight of an equivalent volume of water. 221 hardness is not to hand. 39 Determination of Specific Gravity (cf. the bubbles will have broken and disappeared. This is in principle very simple. and 6. which are those of typical specimens. however. the edges and angles are often considerably harder than the faces. A thin soft mineral. To remove bubbles with over. as it were. 4. made of 5 parts resin. Few persons will find serious difficulty in thus distinguishing between degrees 3. ochre. on the surface specimen a scratch directed across a lower degree of hardness. sound.

The gauging vessel is a glass cylinder. is graduated into inches and tenths. The bottle should be small. and divided into 5-grain spaces. can thus be hung from it at a variety of The long arm passes through a distances from the fulcrum. by a knife-edge piece fixed through it about 3 inches from one end. English observers have chosen 60 F. when it displaces its own volume of water. the exact level being attained weight. replace the stopper. is well adapted for taking the specific gravities of coal. starting from the point of support. Then G= CL 15 . [PT. the aperture of which can be varied by a slight pressure of the finger upon the tube. supported in a rest. Place the stopper. XI. powdered or fragmentary specimen on the pan of the balance on a scrap of smooth paper. The remainder. The use of this method involves appliSpecific gravity bottle. Transfer the specimen to the bottle. ances of some delicacy. Weigh thus in air (w). CH. which has the advantage of not requiring a correction for temperature. IV. wipe. and weigh again (b). the ordinary alkalimeter used in volumetric analysis containing 1000 grains. or an equivalent one with metrical divisions. 12 The short arm of the bar is notched upon its upper surface. which is filled with water to a standard point formed by a needle projecting from a slip of wood when the point of the needle and its reflected image in the water coincide. with a corresponding rise of the surface level. Now place the full bottle beside the specimen in the pan. of water displaced by the specimen = a b. some 18 inches long. remove bubbles with particular The weight care. A. limestone. . accurate determination the water used should be at a standard temperature . This method. a 25-gramme flask is Fill it with distilled water. to suit the probable amount of material to be used . and a heavy weight. C. The weighed substance is then carefully lowered into the cylinder. and similar substances ranging from 2 to 3. Walker's balance is the most convenient and portable instrument A steel bar. insert the perforated large enough. B. The level of the water may be adjusted with great nicety by a simple valve formed of a piece of glass rod inserted in the indiarubber delivery tube. and wipe off any water that has flowed over. is of which the geologist can avail himself. a counterpoise to the paper being laid on the other pan. and determine the joint weight a. which can be used in fragments of about half a pound across the top. The amount of displacement is measured by drawing the water into a graduated tube or burette until the A convenient size of graduated tube is original level is restored.222 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. O Mohr's method is susceptible of considerable accuracy.

the liquid and the mineral will be of the same specific gravity. if the liquid is diluted until a particular specimen swims about in it and remains sluggishly wherever it is placed. The reverse operation of calculating the weight of a measured mass from the known specific gravities of its components 12 is often useful..e. 15 Jolly's spring balance is a simple laboratory instrument which It consists essentially of a pair of scale yields excellent results. though it has been completely freed from bubbles. a loop of which passes over the long arm. and the specimen is immersed in a tumbler of water.SECT. Large masses. some idea of their relative specific gravities may be obtained. and often compete with the ordinary balance in the second place . by the principle of the lever. Then. then slid along the arm until it counterbalances the weight C. The respective weights in air and water can be easily found. or the weight of a cubic foot of water. G=b . a The results are accurate to the first place of decimals. whose position can be 12 adjusted by a sliding movement worked by a rack and pinion. floats upon the surface. Let this new position be b. while others sink with more or less rapidity. Further. D. pans suspended one above another . If a solution of known density is to hand. the reading a is taken i. III. by its swing that it would come to rest in a horizontal position. the upper one is attached to the end of a coiled steel spring. the distance from the fulcrum of the point of suspension of the specimen. which has been suspended near to or far from the fulcrum accordWhen the bar indicates ing to the weight of the specimen used. while for mineral or rock specimens of a fair size they may be held to be entirely satisfactory. is hung by a It is cotton thread. The specimen. respectively. which checks undue swinging. and the lower one is immersed in a cistern of water standing on a bracket. inversely proportional to the weights in air and water . Dense liquids. serves to indicate when the bar comes to a horizontal position. the specimen must now be carried further out along the beam. and.] INDOOR WORK. to restore equilibrium. and a specimen. . The density of large masses of an approximately regular figure may be roughly determined by weighing them and calculating their cubic volume from their measured dimensions. by a mark scratched on it. a and b being. 223 looped upright. The specific gravity is found by dividing the weight by the contents in cubic feet multiplied by 62*4 Ibs. The weight C is kept in the same position. which may weigh several ounces.

or by suspending a weight from a chemical or Jolly's balance and comparing the readings given when it is immersed in water and in the liquid respectively. when traces of characteristic fractures may occasionally be 12 obtained. a few grains of . In easily cleavable minerals it is. as a rule. (e) Aqua regia (/) Special solvents. 65). in which is stirred up as much mercuric iodide as it will dissolve. 57. p. springing across from one cleavage surface to another. stronger afterwards. treated with acids Solubility. Colour. when they are so intimately associated as to be incapable of separation by hand . The chief solvents used (and the order in which they are applied) are as follows (a) Water. IV. for instance. Section III. XI.. see below. p. 15 but the solution may be diluted as required. or alkalies. a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid. as that of a rounded hammer or pestle. . This is a useful method of separating mixed minerals for analysis. : 39 also citric and tartaric acids.. (c) Nitric acid (d) dilute at first. Translucency. when the first mineral will float. but it may sometimes be done by striking a fragment a sharp blow with a blunt point. CHEMICAL CHARACTERS. the felspars and lighter silicates in a rock may be roughly divided from the denser ferrous and magnesian ones by a solution of a specific gravity of about 2 '75.. Section I. then strong. Taste and Odour have been referred to in Chapter IV. This : (b) if Hydrochloric acid : : dilute at first. CH. and Lustre see Chapter IV. until one is found that will neither float nor sink to the bottom .224 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The maximum density is about 3'2. as. Sulphuric acid. [PT. It consists of a saturated solution of potassium iodide in water. 12 Fracture (see Chapter IV. necessary. Odour is often most noticeable when the mineral has been . Streak. ammonia. while the latter will sink readily. is determined by treating a powdered mineral with water.. difficult to develop any special fracture. etc. such as oxalic acid. For Tenacity. The specific gravity of the liquid may be determined by throwing in a series of specimens already determined. Section III.. and it can therefore be scarcely recommended except for laboratory use. Sonstadt's solution is largely used for this purpose. acids. The chief drawback to the use of this substance is in its extremely poisonous character. 15 its To ascertain the solubility of a mineral.

powder should be placed Any effervescence. give off vapours of 2 S when treated with HC1. particularly those that are hydrated or with a low percentage of silica. as limonite. and H The great majority of olivine crystals thus distinguished from pale 15 pyroxenes. when so treated decompose the acid and give rise to red vapours. Many of the metals. As these facts are rarely stated in books on mineralogy. Sulphates.] INDOOR WORK. and generally minerals having distinct taste. Some sulphides. 15 Action of Solvents. the jelly of silicic hydrate being often well seen after partial The mass clings to the evaporation and cooling of the liquid. also gelatinise easily. This is chiefly used in treating native metals and metallic oxides and sulphides. such as cyanosite. warm acid. Some silicates are decomposed by boiling in HC1. solution take place. give off chlorine. titanates behave as with HC1. The silica separates either in a powdery or a gelatinous condition. All carbonates effervesce strongly in (b) Hydrochloric acid. as white powders. 225 in a test-tube or watch-glass. 39 In all cases the time of immersion in the acid and the other conditions of the experiment should be noted where comparison is desired. as pyrolusite. are not perceptibly affected. as pyrites. Sulphides often afford a deposit or floating cake of Minerals containing sulphur. 15 (a) Water. soluble and it is only in such cases that this test is valuable in determinative mineralogy the powder will rapidly disappear. and warmed If the substance be freely with a few drops of the solvent. if not in cold acid. others. especially when warmed with the acid. further qualitative tests may be applied. III. 39 The smell of the H 2 S (sulphuretted hydrogen) will distinguish sulphides from carbonates. arsenic and antimony often afford insoluble oxides of these substances. test-tube.SECT. which are not decomposed. This gelatinisation may be observed in nepheline (or elaeolite). are soluble in water. without effervescence or evolution of vapour . Titanates are only partially decomposed in HC1. Many oxides. change of colour or appearance. The results may be noted both in cold acid and after boiling. dissolve quietly in HC1. 15 . but may be removed by boiling with a strong solution of sodium carbonate. leaving a white powder (titanic acid) which is insoluble in an excess of the may be solvent. or insoluble residue should be carefully noted. (c) Nitric acid. others. typical and known specimens should be compared with the Should complete doubtful one under the same conditions. as blende. peculiar odour. as copper and bismuth.

and besides being clean. and the ordinary tests for the presence of carbonic anhydride. and may be had from chemical dealers packed into boxes of very moderate size.226 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. A opening. Citric acid may thus be carried about in a solid form. serves obtainable the ordinary Bunsen-burner brass tube. but some by it than by HC1. Some silicates are decomposable. is rarely (d) Sulphuric acid silicates. flattened at the top and cut off obliquely. should be dropped into the ordinary Bunsen-tube from above. APPARATUS AND REAGENTS. a saturated solution in cold water may be made at any time. with or without gelatinisation. No geologist can consider himself equipped for determinative observations until he has systematically examined a series of and with associated tests. and in many cases the solution does not require to be heated. will serve for boiling specimens in acid. costing about three its The may be added is to any blowpipe. such as are here the following apparatus will probably be found : described. Dr Bolton has shown that citric. hot or cold. in a test-tube. CH. as kaolin. and which hydrochloric acid has generally been thought necessary. The typical minerals with the blowpipe instruments and reagents required are few and simple. tartaric. or the colourless blowpipe flame. than the mouthpiece. . Ordinarily a rather longer time must be allowed for the action of the acid than is the case with hydrochloric acid. Blowpipe. the blowpipe being directed along the slit-like Lamps. Ammonia will serve to precipitate alumina and iron from 15 solution in HC1. any simple spirit-lamp. (/) Organic acids. A nozzle is far more important aperture should be clearly circular platinum nozzle. or sulphur in certain sulphides. Blowpipe Examination. (e) are Aqua regia may used as a mineral solvent. be used for the decomposition of obstinate more readily attacked 39 sulphates and arsenides. XI. all Where gas purposes. can never cause coloration in the flame. Where gas cannot be had. For purely qualitative determinations. and at the same time giving a flattened flame above. oxalic acids effect decompositions for Section IV. sufficient Apparatus. large. and and not too shillings extra. [FT. may be performed with this. IV. preventing the access of air by surrounding the jet where the gas enters.

Determinative Mineralogy). as to be self-closing. The following are used Reagents. lest the platinum tips should become fused. agate mortar and pestle. must be performed carefully. Powdered crystals of the dry carbonate. are used as supports for assays (cf.SECT. Hydrochloric acid. and the 15 practical geologist will add to the list as occasion requires.] etc. Powdered crystals. antimony. excellent work can be done with an ordinary candle. so made Forceps. Drops can be taken out with or a little glass a glass rod or a tube drawn out as a pipette bulb can be made. kept in a stoppered bottle. held inverted in the hand. small anvil and hammer. A magnet of any small bar form. since wires. They should never be used for metallic-looking substances. small triangular file for cutting glass tubing. square. and paraffin. owing to the heat evolved.. These two dry reagents are used as fluxes on platinum wire. Powdered crystals. have to be dipped in . Charcoal blocks. open and closed glass tubes. Platinum wire. In use. and as a test for manganese. so as to convert the water present into steam. INDOOR WORK. Concentrated in stoppered bottle. a little of which enters on reheating. a little of each of these acids must be poured out into watch-glasses or beakers. Borax. A pair of steel ones with platinum points. Where space screw-cap for travelling. Concentrated in stoppered bottle. as it is liable to suffer from the formation of fusible alloys. p. This bulb is heated and the neck placed beneath the solution. 227 The blowpipe lamp may burn oil. the bulb becomes nearly filled. A strip or two of platinum foil may be useful as a support during fusions. 236). 229) and as a reagent. is practically indispensable. : They must be free to effect fusions from sulphur (see Sulphur Test. p. and watchglasses or double concave lens will all be found of use. and When again immersing the neck. Microcosmic salt (hydrogen sodium ammonium phosphate). water. Twelve inches or so should be kept in hand if much work is undertaken. or bismuth. with a narrow neck. the air within expands and forces out . IV. Carbonate of soda. Dilution Sulphuric acid. lead. A solution of the crystals in 10 parts of Nitrate of cobalt. . zinc. etc. is limited the best lamps are those filled with grease or solid A small cyclist's head-lamp is not unsuitable. characteristic colours being imparted by many metallic oxides to the glass formed on fusion. steel pliers. or any suspected of containing arsenic. the liquid in convenient drops (Brush. Used and reductions on charcoal. some 10 centimetres long with a section 5 cm. and be provided with a The wick should be flat.

short intervals the cheeks must be redistended in order to In this way a continuous blast can be maintain the pressure. so that a sudden distension is necessary and the blast is momentarily checked. where the tube bearing the nozzle is coiled round so as to become heated above it in the upper part of the flame. under pressure from the tension of the At cheeks. etc. Some of the expired air will pass out by the tube. It is necessary in some reductions to maintain a blast for two to three minutes. Reducing flame (R. Used to facilitate Tin-foil. fluor: 15 spar. for chlorine. Copper-wire. and the remainder will pass out through the nose. all moisture is converted into steam before This form of blowpipe is particularly it can reach the orifice. which should be about 1J inches high. This precaution is very simple. and when the habit is once acquired. but seldom longer. In Fletcher's hot-blast blowpipe. A body placed well within the interior of the cone is cut off from contact with the air. has a tendency to take it from any oxidised substance placed . IV.) The nozzle of the blowpipe should be to touch the outer surface of the flame. time makes little difference . XI. during long blowing. magnesium-potassium-iodide. as the yellow flame.F. and by allowing the cheeks to fall in too far. silver chloride. them. Use of Blowpipe. most of the difficulties that at first occur are caused by the endeavour to force all the expired air out through the blowpipe instead of by its natural exit. sulphur.228 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. many reductions. being sufficiently supplied with oxygen for complete combustion. but the hot surface of the tube is sometimes an inconvenience when laid upon the as usual table. not heated. [FT. both in borax (Some workers use cupric oxide) used in testing owing to its combination with the copper. and a gentle blast of air directed a little downwards so as to carry the flame out sideways and produce a bright yellow cone with a luminous interior. and yet. and the expanded part there must occasionally be emptied. and the main store in the bottle must be left absolutely uncontaminated. Practice is all that is necessary . kept up without interfering with the ordinary action of the lungs. Less important reagents are Potassium-bisulphate. and in hydrochloric acid. CH. adapted for effecting fusions and oxidations. and the colour consequently imparted to the flame. becomes highly made The result is its reduction. if brought near the point. but a warning on the point is often necessary. or the trumpet mouth against them. Now place the blowpipe between the lips. but saliva is apt to accumulate in the bottom of the blowpipe. Distend the cheeks and breathe in and out by the nose.

Should no colour be thus seen. A body placed at the point or a little beyond this flame becomes heated in contact with the air. 15 position is termed the fusion-place. but a negative result is not conclusive. Silver chloride. the splinter. sometimes be omitted without much loss after a little 1 experience has been gained. within BLOWPIPE OPERATIONS. reducing flame. Gypsum may similarly be used with certain silicates.). which become decomposed when heated with it. some of which may. or its powder on a moistened wire. If more heat is required as in the determination Fusion-place. since here the highest temperature occurs. called the Assay. The complete blowpipe examination observation of of a mineral consists of (a) flame-coloration. the metals present being rendered volatile in the form of sulphates.g. 229 Hence it is called the it. Observation of Flame-Coloration. but the substance is held inside the point of the This visible flame." should not generally be much larger than a mustard seed. as enough air is introduced to effect the oxidisation of the glowing carbon compounds. The fragment of mineral operated upon. and (c) eight or more distinct observations.SECT. IV.F. the blue flame due to copper chloride becoming at once apparent. should be dipped in a drop of hydrochloric acid specially placed out for this purpose.F. however. is useful to intensify some reactions. and again be introduced into the flarne. "assay. notably those of copper compounds. Many volatile substances The observation impart characteristic colours to the flame. The volatile and decomposable character of the chlorides thus formed often reveals the presence of a metal (e. the nozzle is placed as in the production of the oxidising flame. of fusibility. and consequently takes up oxygen according to its affinities. (6) observation of fusibility. should be coupled with that of fusibility.] INDOOR WORK. or to reduce such substances. barium) that might otherwise remain undetected throughout the analysis. Compounds of phosphorus and borax are best treated with sulphuric acid. designated by the letters R. a small assay being much more manageable than a larger one. duced a little way into the flame and a somewhat stronger blast The interior luminous cone almost disappears is sent through it. . mixed with the powder of the specimen. The nozzle of the blowpipe is introOxidising flame (O.

as well as on the size of the fragment employed. The A black background should be used. or wire should be cleaned with HC1 until they have no forceps The acids must give no colour except the effect on the flame. [PT. but drops must be set out for the purpose. Sodium So prevalent that a strong persistent flame can alone be regarded as satisfactory evidence of its presence as an essential constituent of the assay. Hence it is necessary for each worker to be in the habit of using splinters of similar size and shape. after heating. Light Blue.. which is scarcely to be avoided. The transient yellow of sodium. sometimes intensified upon long heating or fusion. approaching Purple. smoky. Lead. Precautions. Red to Yellow-Red.230 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Bright Green. Sulphuric acid must be used. gives the green of the oxide beyond and round it. IV. Sulphuric acid should be used and the flame carefully observed on the entrance of the assay. This flame is very easily masked by sodium. inconspicuous. The coloration is sometimes transient. Crimson. also observations and statements suffice (a) Fusible in the unaided : flame of the lamp in fairly large (or small) fragments . Copper. CH. and entails in most cases the use of the blue glass. Often similar to that of strontium. must always be different substances. For most purposes the following broad etc. Dull Green. XI. The ease with which a substance fuses must depend greatly on the strength of flame employed and on the skill of the operator. Appears when the assay is on the very margin of the flame. The last Blue. of Yellower Tinge.^ Observation of Fusibility. Borax is a good example. (6) fusible . Arsenic. Boron. A blue inner flame appears Bright Emerald Green. Lithium. transparency. Often the assay must be held just in the edge of the flame. comparison being then possible between the results gained by himself from The product. wire must never be dipped into the acid-bottle. Appears when the assay is on the very margin of the flame. examined with the lens. when hydrochloric acid has been used. and dull pink Potassium. and any change of colour. and not brought too far within it. or Copper Chloride. Strontium. : Magnesia. Calcium. Violet. noted. Yellow-Green. Barium or Molybdenum. Yellow. With cobalt nitrate blue denotes Alumina. Selenium (rare). other tests distinguishing the compounds of these metals. Flame-colorations are as follows : Crimson. Phosphorus.

brown haematite always gives off water. Carbonate of iron or chalybite turns black when heated. and 6 to (e). but these usually give off moisture as well. red haematite gives off no moisture when so treated . (e) fusible bB on the edges of thin splinters only . which it sometimes much resembles. At the close of the operation the flame may be urged by the blowpipe. and other mineral substances are strongly heated in the closed tube. von Kobell proposed the well-known Scale of The six degrees are formed by Fusibility. (c) fusible bB with easy rounding of the edges. a ready mode of distinguishing between hydrous and anyhydrous minerals thus. (b). 5. 2. such as the arseniates and phosphates of copper. noise. and 3 correspond respectively to the verbal descriptions (a). In this manner it may be readily distinguished from dolomite. Actinolite. The assay flies to pieces with a crackling (6) Decrepitation. Almandine (common). blende. Degrees 1. 6. typical minerals. The specimens are held in the flame in the platinum forceps or in a tiny loop of platinum wire. This is (c) Deposition of moisture on the cool part of the tube. scale). garnet. IV. 4. To facilitate comparison with slung. This closed tube must be clean and dry the assay being placed in it is heated by means of a spirit-lamp or the flame of a "Bunsen's burner. which condenses : : A in drops. should be heated gradually. Antimonite (the most easily fusible member of the Natrolite. if little or no change has been observed. It must be remembered that the substances styled by the mineralogist infusible are mostly fusible with ease in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe.] INDOOE WORK. 231 before the blowpipe (bB) with easy formation of a globule ." so that no The assay coating of smoke may be deposited on the outside. through which a wedge-shaped splinter may be The fusion-place is used. 2. (d) fusible bB in splinters only . Many mineral substances change (a) colour when heated in the matrass. The assay is placed in a small tube of glass sealed at one end. 3. 15 First Operation (Closed Tube). the better to see the changes produced. The changes to be looked for are Changes of colour. good blowpipe flarne should fuse the tips of thin splinters of bronzite into tiny globules. Bronzite. : 1. even after prolonged heating. . This is often observed when wolfram.SECT. Orthoclase. and becomes magnetic. (/) infusible bB. 4 and 5 to (d) . and (c) given above .

is The sublimate of arsenic is white or and arsenic together. A non-volatile residue remains. 21 Flame(f) Tinging of the tip of the flame (see Observation of Dark (d) coloration. lead. indicating arsenic. yellow. arsenides. This should be compared with that of (a) Degree of fusibility. on the cool part of (d) Formation of a sublimate or solid deposit This is observable in the case of sulphides. White. fragments of a similar size from the scale of fusibility. garlic odour.232 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. malleable bead of metal in fifth : operation. A new assay piece is placed in a tube about 6 inches long. black. fusibility. This may occasionally Reduction to a bead of metal. A little of the coarsely powdered mineral is placed upon the surface of a piece of charcoal. of sulphur yellow. white malleable bead in fifth operation. zinc. White. near the assay. the flame may be urged by the blowpipe towards the The effects to be noted are the same as close of the experiment. the tube being held in an inclined position over the spirit-lamp flame. CH. IV. the tube. in the first operation. sulphur or arsenic are indicated. When the odour (e) Evolution of sulphureous or alliaceous. tin. effects noted. This may be tested by the (e) fourth or fifth operation. happen with certain ores of gold or silver. but the sublimates will sometimes be different and the odours more distinct. but often much more distinct. no bead in fifth operation. yellow while hot. Yellow or orange. bismuth. which is open at both ends. As before. and the penknife. This will usually be like (b) Evolution of vapour or odour. and some other substances. silver. a vapour or peculiar odour. XI. [PT. in a small cavity scooped out for the purpose with a The oxidising flame is then directed upon it. further from the assay. that observed in the second operation. or brown. malleable bead in fifth operation. Yellow. antimony. a coating or incrustation on the cool part of the (c) Deposition of This will usually be much like that observed in the charcoal. Fourth Operation (Cobalt). little or no odour. This will not happen with sub(/) Fusion of the substance. red. stances of a higher degree of fusibility than 2 in the scale of 21 Second Operation (Open Tube). or black. White. 21 Third Operation (Reactions on Charcoal). second operation. brittle bead in fifth operation. yellow while hot. red. above). Those most likely to be observed are White. If the residue from the third . of sulphur red.

grey and brittle. ground up with water in a little mortar. grey and very Sixth Operation (Borax Bead. 21 somewhat brittle . The result to be looked for is the production of a bead of metal in obstinate cases a little borax or cyanide of potassium may be If the portions of reduced metal be very small. (e) is 233 operation nitrate green.). Any shining particles of metal may then be readily detected. moisten it with a simple drop of solution of Should it turn cobalt. titanic oxide is probably present. COLOURS OF BEADS. more of the assay on the same bead of borax and heat again. and the light carbon and soluble soda washed away. it will probably be one of those given in attached table. bismuth. then the reducing.] INDOOR WORK. of white.SECT. heat it again. . B. Fifth Operation (with Soda).B. magnesia is present. Should a distinct colour be produced. red and malleable . antimony. alumina is . 21 magnesia. flame while counting If no distinct colour is produced. gold will be yellow and malleable silver and tin. glassy bead. grey and malleable indicated If in this : : . or zinc. and heat strongly with the reducing flame. add a little carbonate of soda. dip it into powdered borax. If the residue from the third operation (e) be any other colour than white. heat it in the flame of the spirit-lamp. take a little fifty in each case. Do this several times if necessary. IV. lead. second strong heating a bright and intense glow is observed. in this case the portion of charcoal around the assay should be cut out. Make a small loop in the end of a platinum wire. hold it again in the clear flame until the borax has melted into a clear. blue. white and malleable copper. The metals discovered may be recognised b}r their properties thus. they may added. 21 TABLE VIII. add to it a very little of the fine powder of the substance to be tested. lime. escape observation . . and heat it again strongly. it will probably indicate either strontium. put in the oxidising. red or pink.

Continued.234 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. CH. TABLE VIII. XI. [PT. IV. .

A . The bead must be small. The powdered assay must be added in small quantity. and increased until it is clear that no good reaction is obtainable. Compounds of phosphorus arid borax are best treated with sulphuric acid. The salt must be picked up on the heated wire in small quantities at a time. and again be introduced into the flame. and fused so as to expel the water and ammonia after each addition. as mentioned in the third experiment. using microcosmic salt instead of borax. the eighth experiment should be omitted. but any tendency to fall during an operation may be generally checked by shifting the wire to the upper portion of the flame. so as to be completely enveloped during reduction.g. 15 Eighth Operation. the splinter or its powder or a moistened wire should be dipped in a drop of HC1 specially placed out for this purpose. or coloured beads in the first seven experiments. but the colours will be sometimes more delicate (see table). Repeat the sixth The results experiment. Hold a new assay piece by means of a pair of platinum-pointed forceps. will be generally the same.] INDOOR WORK. change of tint. The coloration is sometimes transient. as it may be compared with similar fragments from the scale of fusibility. 235 Seventh Operation (Microcosmic Salt). Often the assay must be held just in the edge of the flame and not brought too far within it. barium) that might otherwise remain undetected throughout the analysis. sometimes intensified upon long heating or fusion. By means of this experiment. incrustations. too. but will remain in the bead unchanged as to form. The eighth operation is of the greatest use in the absence of such substances as give sublimates. such results have been already observed.'21 While a larger quantity of the mineral powder is often required before a good result is obtained. This experiment. however. The resulting bead drops easily from the wire.SECT. the reactions are as a whole cleaner and clearer than those in borax. assay may In the seventh operation larger quantities of the possibly be required than in the experiments with borax. 21 Should no colour be seen at first. The volatile and decomposable character of the chlorides thus formed often reveals the presence of a metal (e. IV. When. silica may be readily detected. will afford a convenient opportunity of determining the degree of fusibility of the specimen. as the platinum is liable to be injured. too. as it will not dissolve in a bead of microcosmic salt. in the top of the oxidising flame. Precautions. The wire must be clean and give no colour. or a piece of platinum wire tightly Observe any twisted round it.

and can be persulphide. owing to its absorption of sodium sulphide. and the charcoal below be cut out. should be used 15 Test for Sulphur. [rT.236 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. until effervescence ceases. 15 must . IV. such as a charcoal block or a book-cover. Because a substance is a sulphate or even a sulphide. it by no means follows that evidence of sulphur will be given either in the closed or open tube. CH. sodium sulphide will have resulted. leaving a brown or black stain of silver This test is delicate and unfailing. If sulphur has been for about ten seconds and wipe it off lightly. XL black background.F. formed as a natural sequel to any good reduction with sodium carbonate.. and crush on the Allow it to lie surface of a clean silver coin with a drop of water. The reduction must be thorough. : present in any form. a portion of the slaggy mass being reserved for this purpose. which decomposes on the coin. residue and the patch of charcoal below it. The decisive deterFuse thoroughly some of the mination is made as follows powdered mineral with about three times its bulk of sodium Cut out the slaggy carbonate in K.

PRACTICAL GEOLOGY. or. either as the basis of operations. 13 237 . he will not be inclined to question either the value of such knowledge to practical men. or the nature of the applications of geology to Such knowledge must always be available practical purposes.PART IF the V. if he understands the nature of the materials of which the earth's crust is made up. reader has made himself acquainted with the facts of geology. or the source whence all valuable materials are obtained. the order of arrangement of those materials. in other words. and the changes undergone both in the rocks themselves and in the position they occupy. when anything is undertaken concerning the earth.

CH. springs. p. the motion of water is to be explained 22 according to the same uniform physical laws. RAINFALL. Whether supplies of water are to be drawn from catchment areas. mechanically... that which falls after a continuance of rain being comparatively free from them. and nitric acid. the estimation of the rainfall upon the area from which the water it is desired to intercept and take is derived. a little ammonia. This is the case more especially with rain that falls after a long drought. Section I. but in its passage through the air it absorbs certain gases. The above would be the principal. which are carried down by the rain. WATER-SUPPLY. are for the most part organic. it being formed by the action of the electric spark on the ammonia and vapour of water contained in the air. The particles floating in the air. forms the basis of investigation into the capabilities of those sources. The substances thus absorbed by the rain in its passage to the earth are the gases oxygen. rivers. or percolating the soil and rocks beneath. if not the only.PT. 7) as it leaves the clouds is doubtless pure water. CHAPTER XII. impurities found in rain water if it were collected before it reached the earth in the open country. or flowing over the earth's surface as stream or river. Whether precipitated through the atmosphere as rain. particles of matter which are floating about in the air. this latter more especially during a thunderstorm. THE several sources of supply known to hydraulic engineering science are to be regarded merely as stages of the various courses pursued by water in its passage from the rain-clouds to the ocean. "Rainfall and Evaporation. Section I. carbonic acid. or wells. V. 22 Bain (see Chapter I. nitrogen. XII. and carries with it. 238 .

however. rising to the altitude of the hills. of the total fall at the sea-level for every 100 feet above it. in colonial settlements). hail. in accordance with the adiabatic law for the expansion of gases and vapours. and rainfall and its variation. more especially where lead- 23 pipes or gutters are used. or if they come from a place of low temperature to a warmer district Under such circumstances the air is of no greater elevation. for instance. The cooled air cannot hold in suspension so large a quantity of vapour as before. Much appears to depend upon the elevation of the country with regard to the region of the rain-clouds. now comparatively bare (as. and the latter is deposited in the form of mist.. it is found that the rainfall has considerably diminished from what it was formerly. The moist air. the rainfall is considerably greater in rugged or thickly wooded districts than in open and barren plains. it being found that in many cases the increase amounts to about 3 per cent. several other substances would then be found in it. and heavily charged with moisture. There are many curious facts connected with the subject of In districts once thickly wooded. the rainfall of the first high ground encountered by them will be heavy. though the number of days on which rain falls is The aspects of the greater in the latter than in the former case. as sulphurous acid. 23 Where the prevailing winds are warm. expands in volume and is reduced in temperature. affect the rainfall. more rain falling at equal heights on the windward margin of the basin than on the opposite one. rain. by crossing a large extent of ocean. The quantity of rain is mainly ruled by the physical configuration of the district. I. In the latter. or snow. but in the tropics more on the eastern side . by the elevation of the locality. in respect to the direction of the prevailing winds. Indeed. but also. varying with the kind of manufactures carried on near the spot. 22 generally in a suitable state for absorbing additional moisture. Again. 239 In or near large manufacturing towns the case is different. more rain falls in tropical than in temperate climates.SECT. it would seem to be universal that. etc. A larger quantity of rain falls on coast-lines on the western side of great continents in the temperate zones than on the eastern side or the interior. with which it it will be further contaminated with substances has come in contact. slopes of the basin. if rain be collected after it has fallen on the roofs of houses. other circumstances being the same. it has been observed that .] WATER-SUPPLY. The rainfall of a district is likely to be small if the prevailing winds traverse a wide expanse of land before reaching it. which may be said to extend to about 3000 or 4000 feet above the sea-level. to a certain extent.

ground must be first ascertained. in excess for the wettest The three year. XII. in the latter. and this value. mean annual fall 140 inches. and estimating the compensation to be given to millowners.. Observations on the ground proposed to be made available are therefore of the highest importance.e. the mean annual rainfall over the gathering. The mean : fall at any place being known. and that observed facts are Where they infinitely preferable where they can be obtained. and the same amount for defect in the driest. until the latter reaches 60 inches beyond that point it remains stationary at 6 per For example. that the term of three consecutive dry years occurs at intervals of about twenty-two years. If. rain now falls in refreshing abundance. cannot be obtained. cent. and is also regularly noted . from the records in questions of water-supply. the departure of extreme years from the mean may be estimated at 33 per cent. in drier ones. then. the latter in the summer in the former January is the wettest month . and is generally conformable to the following rule : : 16 per cent. V. . then the determination of the true fall on the district is a comparatively easy matter. long-established gauge exists. however great the annual fall may be. the recorded fall at the old-established stations be multiplied 23 by this proportion. and if none exist. great Maximum and Minimum Fall. July or sometimes October. an approximate idea of other rainfall elements may It must be understood be formed from the following rough rules that they are only approximations. and observed with unfailing regularity. the construction of railways influences the rainful to a very Instead of continuous drought all along the extent. But these observations are of practical use only when a proximate. 1-40 x 6 With a mean fall of 20 inches it is . or its equivalent fiveis generally taken as the basis of calculations sixths of the mean It would appear. driest consecutive years have ordinarily about 80 or 85 per cent. 23 The greatest fall in twenty-four hours is an element of much importance. of the mean annual fall . 23 Estimation of Mean Annual Fall. a fairly reliable result will be obtained. of the mean annual fall (i. = 8-40 = the Seathwaite. of rainfall at the Greenwich Observatory. CH. Pacific railroad. gauges should be placed at the earliest possible date. for each increase of 4 inches in the mean annual fall it decreases 1 per cent. The different in distribution of the fall over the various months is very mountainous tracts from what it is in flatter and In the former it is greater in the winter months. 3-20 inches) .240 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. [PT. The proportion of the fall at the newly established gauges to that of the long-established gauges should be carefully ascertained. In designing gravitation schemes.

from which there is scarcely any evaporation. On the other hand. one-third is drained into rivers and streams . of course. EVAPORATION AND ABSORPTION. and become available for impounding. however. arid the rate at which the rain falls. When in the warmer seasons of the temperate zones the showers come very lightly on a loose. Again. It has been popular in this branch of engineering to suppose that. where the greatest fall in twenty-four hours sometimes reaches 20 per cent. and partly to be evaporated from its leaves.] WATER-SUPPLY. that in a given district the loss by evaporation and absorption is rather a constant quantity than one directly proportionate to the : 16 . the rainfall is less likely to be lost. of the rain immediately upon its falling to the ground. such as the slated roof of a house. it is lost as far as the purposes of water-supply are concerned. on the average. The evaporation from the ground surface will depend on the temperature. a steep. with a steep descent and on an impermeable surface. one-third of the rainfall is lost by evaporation and absorption by vegetation. The extreme cases are for the maximum evaporation. nor does it flow into the rivers and streams. There is the evaporation. as in boggy parts . bare. but is evaporated in many instances almost as fast as it falls. and impermeable surface. and one-third percolates into the ground to appear again in the form of springs. thus confirming the above rule. and for the minimum. In either case. and the geological formation of the district. with a retentive substratum. It would seem. Loss. the state of the drainage. a vast amount of the water which falls in the shape of rain is absorbed by vegetation partly to be retained in the body and fibres of the tree or plant.SECT. The greatest fall yet recorded at that station is 6-60. 23 This rule is not applicable to India. 23 The maximum 1 evaporation is also obtained in sandy plains. and there is the evaporation from the surface of large bodies of water. they are registered in the rain-gauge . and while being temporarily retained by the latter . the nature of the surface of the ground. however. Intimately connected with the indeed forming a necessary part of it in its subject of rainfall is that of practical bearing evaporation. 241 computed maximum fall in twenty-four hours. I. a flat spongy district. absorbent soil. the physical configuration. depend on the amount and nature of the vegetation. such as lakes and reservoirs. Effect on Water-Supply. but the rain neither sinks into the ground sufficiently to appear again in the form of springs. The absorption of vegetation will. of the mean annual rainfall.

Evaporation from Surfaces of Water. of the rainfall. evapora22 tion takes place actively under favourable atmospheric conditions. sometimes amounting to 70 or 80 per cent. England the loss by evaporation and absorption is found to range from about 9 to 19 inches per annum. from what has already been said. it will be seen that in matters affecting the water-supply of towns. 23 Generally. [PT. The available rainfall of the dry season is measured by the "dry weather flow. the loss by evaporation is small. and the average seems to be about 13 or 14 inches. the loss from evaporation will also be It has been shown that in the districts where there is greater. it nearer the truth to consider that the proportion of the rainfall by evaporation will vary inversely as some higher power of The cause is obviously to be found in the diminished the rainfall. namely. will be found to obtain. Indeed. Again. when the amount of lost The same principles. the loss will depend greatly upon the distribution of the rain in the different seasons of each year . to be used merely for estimating the quantity that will be actually available It is evident that to speak definitely with conin dry years. CH. as the rainfall increases in is lost tion of is it which will decrease. XII. but it is necessary further to regard the proportion borne to the annual evaporation by that which occurs during the drier seasons. either in the district under consideration or in analogous positions. for. however. the mean annual loss is. there is thus an additional cause for the 23 loss to be greater in the districts of less rain. as the proportion of rain falling in the summer months becomes greater. even when taken over a period of five or six months. would be folly. upon permeable soils or upon steep and impervious If. have reference more especially to The foregoing considerations the mean annual evaporation. humidity of the atmosphere. But. owing to the physical features of the locality. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. situated near to the surface of the ground. is of most consequence. less rain annually the tendency is for the bulk of the rain to fall in the summer months . fidence on a subject the conditions and circumstances of which It is only from are liable to so much variation. V.242 rainfall ." In to which reference will be made hereafter (see below). The discrepancies available rainfall . like the mean annual fall. that any reliable estimates can be formed. the proporand vice versa. and it is for the same reason that the absolute evaporation is greater in those districts where the mean rainfall is less. and in many cases the increased temperature in the seasons of less rain . however. direct and careful observation. that in the dry season the proportion lost by evaporation will be enormously increased. any season. in permeable land. soils the surface of saturation is. for.

319). in order to be on the safe side. Here the motion is not arrested. form of hereafter. to allow for daily loss during the dry season of not less than one-fifth of an inch. the elements of loss have to be more closely watched.] WATER-SUPPLY. under the action of gravity. it is necessary to allow for an evaporation rangIn an ing between one-sixth and one-eighth of an inch per day. p. when reservoirs are being taxed to their utmost capacity. whereas from reservoirs in India it has been reckoned as a depth of 4 to 6 feet over the whole area in a year (cf. Of more importance. and at Van Wyk's Vley reservoir. this direction is vertical through soil and subsoil. The annual evaporation at Melbourne from a water surface has been found to amount to 40| inches . however. Molesworth. whilst in South Africa it is 39 inches at Port Elizabeth on the sea-coast. it reaches 80 incredible inches. but its direction becomes inclined at a certain angle. 24 Dry Weather Flow. 243 between the records of careful observers have been almost probably owing to the small scale on which experiments were made. to seek lower levels.Slope. in his Rudiments of Hydraulic Engineering. In the United States it has been calculated that the evaporation from surfaces of water ranges from a minimum of about 18 inches in a year on the North Pacific coast." important matter like this. in the interior. and when. says that "the experience derived from the use of reservoirs on canals appears to indicate that. pursuing those routes in which it experiences the least resistance to its downward motion. up to a maximum of about 100 inches on the Southern Plateau. during the summer months. it is perhaps advisable. water. UNDERGROUND WATER. 23 In England the loss from evaporation has been estimated as equivalent to a depth of about 3 feet from the surface of reservoirs.SECT. Underground and Surface Waters. 23 Section II. Mr Burnell. Generally speaking. changes from point to point according to the geological forma- . therefore. which is determined by the resistance opposed to the flow by the strata at the place in The inclination of this subterranean water-slope question. than the mean annual evaporation is the evaporation during the dry season of the year. II. subject to some losses that will be alluded to still continues. Water. After falling upon the surface of land in the rain.. 23rd ed. until its progress is checked by encountering the great body of water that saturates the subterranean regions at depths depending upon local circumstances.

it follows that in the upper non-saturated portion there must be spaces which have no water in them. V. in accordance with ordinary hydrodynamical laws. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.e. The conditions under which water exists in rocks may be illustrated as follows Let us suppose a large dry block of chalk to be half immersed in a vessel of water.e. the slope is . naturally flat in sandstone it is less so . every cubic foot of chalk which is below the water-level will contain 18 pints of water. If. large and small. The part in the water will slowly get as full of water as it can : hold. it will contain 35 per cent. . or. and no higher. Thus there extends in all directions a surface of saturation.244 tions traversed. [PT. 19 per cent. and if the moisture were removed from the top by evaporation. it will become "saturated. of its bulk." every crevice and When this hollow. The absolute level at any point of the slope also varies according to the volume of water which. contributed by the rainfall. as it is sometimes termed. in this particular case the water of imbibition is little more than half the water of saturation in an equal volume of chalk. and which therefore remain full of air whereas in the saturated part there is no air at all. i. Suppose now that some water is gently poured over the top of the chalk for some time . seeks a passage to the ocean. These are the larger hollows which are too wide for capillary attraction to fill. i. fresh supplies would As rise by capillary attraction from the saturated portion below. which is continuous with the level of the water in which the chalk is immersed. that is to say. This water has been soaked up. such as chalk * and gravels. Saturation and Imbibition. whilst in compact grits the angle of inclination is large in just such degree as the impervious character of the rocks requires greater hydrostatic force to overcome their resistance to the passage of the water. will be filled with water. XII. or imbibed. some will run off and * The permeability of chalk is chiefly due to the fissures that traverse it. of its own bulk of water of saturation. The upper portion will also be found to have become damp. state is arrived at. In permeable rocks. CH." inasmuch as it represents the ordinary natural moisture of the stone when it is first taken from the quarry. The boundary between the saturated and the non-saturated portions is a plane. plane of saturation. occurring always where the descending waters assume a definite surface22 slope. This imbibition is due to capillary attraction. a hole were to be bored with an auger straight down from the top of the chalk nearly to the bottom. now. and is called ivater of imbibition or "quarry water. . and an examination of its condition will show that it contains 10 pints of water per cubic foot. we should find that it would fill with water up to the level at which the chalk is saturated.

but the water will gradually sink by gravitation till it reaches the saturated portion. either of saturation or imbibition. the plane of saturation at gradually becoming less and less curved until it becomes flat as A fresh watering of the block will raise it again. instead of being flat. but the water in the centre will not be able to get away so readily. The part into which it soaks will be temporarily saturated . rising higher when well watered. it is never dry very far down. because. below the level of the sea below that line the rocks are always The height to which they are saturated above that saturated. will be curved high in the middle and sloping downward on each side. the water . and sinking towards its limit when left to itself. II. as there will be no room for it. After a long dry period the water of imbibition in the upper part of the strata passes off into the air in the form of vapour or is abstracted by vegetation . and the its composition and texture. the greater the quantity of water the rock will contain when saturated . and because. At the coast the saturation line coincides with the sea-level. The amount of water. secondly. as the water presses downwards and outwards. in the first place. will contain a large quantity of water of saturation. but gradually. which any rock will contain depends on The looser the texture. combined with the rainfall. in the relative facility with which . more numerous and the larger the cracks. from which it rises gently or abruptly according to the nature of the rocks. always tends to the level which is determined for it by the surrounding water. block it will easily make its way into the surrounding water . capillary attraction is weak because of the large size of the spaces between the grains. rain. line depends on their porosity. and evaporation. but it first. but the rock which takes a great deal of water to saturate will not necessarily contain a large quantity of water above the line of saturation.] WATER-SUPPLY. The water in the small well will now stand higher than before . This experiment illustrates the condition of the dry land under the combined influence of the The saturation line never sinks much sea. but it nevertheless makes a very dry soil. because the cavities between its particles may be too Thus a coarse loose sand large for capillary attraction to act. and distance from the sea. the level will sink to its original position. 245 some will soak in. where its downward course will be Near the outside of the stopped. the rainfall. so that however dry the actual surface may be.SECT. 5 Rocks vary greatly in the quantity of water they retain. in the way in which they retain it. 5 Capacity of Rocks for Water. and for some time the surface of saturation. but more is drawn up by capillary attraction from the lower portions. can very readily make its way downwards through it.

and conduct it to some other more permeable rock. if loose. its position.246 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. under certain circumstances. [PT. Even joints. and often by their level and easily smoothed surface retain large pools and sheets of water When there is a natural fall to to the great injury of the soil. have undergone a partial consolidation. XII. Thus. and generally by those facts observed and described by the : clays. The whole mass of rock is thus divided into compartments or cells which have little communication with each other. but if this surface-gravel covers up and conceals boulder-clay of a stiff and tenacious character and this is by no means uncommon in various parts of England the compartments above alluded to will be very differently supplied with water in various parts of the by permeable same district. and retaining the water at the surface only so long as it is running towards some natural vent. form an almost impassable barrier for water. allow water to percolate freely through them . alternating with bands of marl and not intersected by impermeable bands such as form the great mass of the New Red Sandstone series in the middle and south of England. . they offer natural channels. others at a distance When part of a rock of this kind is are not necessarily affected. or oxide of iron. and sometimes mixed with so much sand and lime as not to be absolutely close. little difference might be anticipated . 13 Sands and gravels may be considered the most open of the different kinds of rocks. many sand rocks. Clays when of considerable thickness and extent do not allow water to pass downwards into the earth. perSo limestones. although themselves loose and containing much water with which they would readily part. CH. they absorb or part with it. its condition. they conduct water very badly or not at all . Thus sands. very bad conductors of water and this is governed by the nature of the rock. if hardened. and crossed by others at right angles to them. the marl beds forming mere local interruptions. quartz. such as the Millstone grit. Harder sands and sandstones. mitting a very perfect but partial transmission. Loose sand rocks. V. and in the degree of accidental interruption that can interfere with the free course of the water beneath the surface. although generally tough and quite retaining water to any extent. geologist. usually allow water to percolate freely to their base. if broken. are sometimes broken impermeable. but both require careful examination if we would discover their true condition. or are traversed by a multitude of crevices. and if one such compartment is drained by pumping. are good conductors. and sometimes by systems of faults parallel to each other filled up with clay. covered with gravel. and under other circumstances.

SECT. of which the soft upper beds are The lower beds of exceedingly porous and absorbent of water. depends on the nature of the materials of which it is composed. while springs of water are neither required. chalk.] WATER-SUPPLY. it may happen that by opening a way into the lower beds the surface-waters would be drained off. and much doubt has long existed as to the true state of such rocks in particular cases. are usually. and a large quantity of water is yielded freely. consisting of the debris of rocks carried down and deposited by flowing water in valleys and depressions in the ground. found to be exceedingly wet. which are usually gravel and sand. and sometimes on the lower slopes of hills. II. appear at the surface. when penetrated by sinkings. having been washed down by rain from the higher ground. Permeable strata are found at very different and variable depths . large quantities of water are often found. is very irregular in The porosity of the drift thickness. 247 the sea. though the replacement seems to take place but slowly. constituting the upper portion of the primary series of rocks. there is always a possibility of greatly improving the condition of such land by drainage. would rise to the surface in artesian wells. and the other hard and semi-crystalline. On the other hand. if borings were made. there is no doubt of the existence and crevices. 13 Water-bearing Strata. Calcareous or lime rocks differ a good deal in their containing power with reference to water. and frequently large cavities. other lime rocks. Drift. but sometimes consist of less permeable materials brought down from the adjacent hills. Oolites offer a kind of intermediate condition. owing to denudaof fissures all in chalk numerous and tion or geological disturbances. In the Secondary and Tertiary formations the permeable strata are interspersed with impermeable strata which occasion the retention of the water percolating through the outcrop into the permeable strata overlying them. for in some places the surface layer consists of recent deposits. In addition to the ordinary sources of water in the mass of the rock. however small. and even primitive rocks. stratified strata but in the . though not as soft as the upper. Igneous rocks and fissured un- do not afford facilities for the storage of water. and often discontinuous. and at other parts. Magnesian Limestone and Lower Red Sandstone. The first of these groups is illustrated by chalk. and these are often filled with water at considerable pressure. They may be divided into two groups the one partaking more or less of a The spongy nature. It may happen and the geological structure of the district would show whether this is likely or not that the clay covers up permeable and very wet beds which. nor if required would they be easily found without sinking. older strata.

and also for long distances in North America. . The absorption of rainfall by stratified. and Magnesian Limestones. available rainfall on them. Alluvial deposits are very similar in their origin to drift. absorbing almost 30 per cent. in volume in the sandstones of the United States. known as Trias abroad. outcrop. Dip. but they are more regular and extensive they are usually composed of materials brought from a greater distance. . whilst gravel and sand can contain from one-quarter to three-tenths their volume of water. being capable of absorbing from one-third to nearly one-half its volume of water . whilst the Greensands furnish large volumes of water. Sometimes gravel. though less extensive in area England than the two above-mentioned strata. Numerous wells have been sunk into these upper permeable stata for supplying water to large towns in the United States. . outcrop. of its volume of water on the average. Water is also drawn from wells sunk in the Limestones. and therefore may be regarded as quite as suitable for wells. This stratum. according to their compactness. together with clays and marls. Sand furnishes the most porous stratum. although wells have to be sunk to a considerable depth in the New Red Sandstone to reach water. often filling up ancient lakes and river-beds. these permeable strata form the surface layer. stretching from the Channel on the south coast of Devonshire to the Solway Firth. and receive their supply of water by the direct percolation of the rainfall but they are often partially overlaid by an impervious stratum. under which the ground-water flows for considerable distances. in The New Red Sandstone or Trias. traverses the more rainy western districts. [FT. and is less hard than water from the Chalk. CH. Lias. and stones. and the underground flow is liable to be obstructed by faults. since limestones only yield water when extensively fissured. and they consist mainly of sand. and slope. the volume is abundant when found. V. with its good thickness and large outcrop. the porous Potsdam and St Peter sandstones having been largely resorted to for deriving water-supplies from wells. The Chalk is the principal water-bearing stratum for a considerable part of the southern portion of England. Oolitic. but not with the same certainty and facility as from sandstones. and porosity. more uniformly distributed throughout them than in the Chalk . and both these formations yield good supplies to wells sunk into them. XII.248 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Moreover. both. which ranges from at least 28 to 7 per cent. Other sandstones yield large quantities of water proportionate to their extent. extends over considerable areas in Europe.in England and North America.

249 water-bearing strata at their outcrop is largely affected by their their freedom from a surface covering of an impermeable A considernature. has a very large capacity for water. that which it contains over and above what it is able to hold as water of imbibition. when once saturated. large in soft sandstones and oolites dip. and the flatness or depression of the ground. II. of Rivington's Building Construction and other works. but a solid lump of chalk. in the case of the beforementioned chalk (cf. partly through the crevices getting choked with it. Tables showing the absorbent power of various rocks as deduced from laboratory experiments are given in part iii. the difference between 18 and 10. The quantity of water which any particular rock may yield does not depend simply on the quantity it can The water capable of being drawn off is contain when saturated. from which it may be seen that the quantity of water absorbed by the different strata is very variable.SECT. which contains 18 pints per cubic foot when saturated and 10 pints of water of imbibition. whereas it would be liable to flow away down a steep slope. but from the cracks and joints. . For this reason it is usual. but the rock may part surplus water. and the rain is adequately retained for percolating into the porous stratum when falling on fairly flat ground. p. 5 Porosity of Rocks. as may be seen by trying to drain the water from it. partly on account of the strong affinity clay possesses for moisture.] WATER-SUPPLY. 244). dependent on the permeable outcrop being free from obstruction at the surface by an impermeable layer of overlying drift. again. where a large supply is needed. Loose sand or a well-jointed and cracked sandstone will part with its water with the greatest ease . not from the chalk itself. It is small in compact sandstones and limestones. to drive headings through the chalk in various directions from the bottom of the well in order to tap as many of these fissures as possible. and be to a great extent lost to the permeable stratum. but if any clayey material is present the case is very different. with it very slowly. For instance. For practical purposes of water-supply another important factor is the readiness with which any given rock will give off this There may be plenty. the amount of water which it would yield per cubic foot would be 8 pints. and still more on a valley or depression. 24 Yield of Water. well sunk in the chalk the water issues chiefly. but if continued for some distance causes the stratum to descend to too The inflow of the rain is great a depth below the surface. is not at all ready to surrender the water In a again. and Chalk. able dip facilitates the descent of the water into the stratum along the interstices between the successive layers.

only transmitted. 4 Quality of Water. It sometimes happens that a permanent spring At issues at a certain point generally low down in a valley. with strong imbibition. unfissured places of the several rocks. such as quartzites. in consequence of the presence of a small relative proportion of argillaceous matter. But the full absorbent power of a rock. although it held when saturated 3 gallons per cubic foot. " " to the saturation line (cf. If. percolation is very slow. Chalk absorbs freely.. introduced into the atmosphere when large numbers of human beings and animals are collected together. when it again as suddenly ceases. rain water contains ammonia. the resistance to the free passage of water in the former is to the latter in the proportion of about 600 In imperme1. slates. and continues to This is due flow for some time. 4 Bournes. granites. Laboratory experiments. and in or near towns is always tainted with various impurities. oolites. and in inverse ratio of power of imbibition. moreover. three. and manufactories is . p. the cracks and fissures serve as In channels and conduits to facilitate the passage of the water. V. impermeable limestones. does not represent its value as a water-bearing stratum. as in the case of deep-seated and undisturbed chalk . The value of the strata as water-bearing strata is in direct ratio of capacity of saturation. if they are fissured. but. Even compact. 3J gallons per hour. will form high waterless tracts.250 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. or more years it suddenly bursts out 2 or 3 or more miles further up the valley. Absolutely pure water is not to be obtained in nature . and sandstones are traversed by joints and fissures which hold and transmit water freely. and especially where household fires. Clay can absorb a large quantity of water but transmits none. although solid chalk and loose sands may hold the same quantity of water. for the purposes of animal and vegetable life. although only holding when saturated 2 to 2| gallons. whereas in nature the chalk. etc. with strong springs issuing in the valleys. for this reason. [FT. oolitic strata and soft sandstones fissures and joints prevail as a : rule. 245) being temporarily raised owing to exceptionally heavy rainfall. XII. intervals of two. saturation and imbibition are more or less nearly balanced. which represents both the water of imbibition and of saturation. but transmits slowly and in . whereas purer sand of the Lower Greensand. clays. and the phenomena of a bourne thus caused. small quantities. able strata. and largest in pure quartzose sands. the rocks are also compact. transmitted at the rate of 8 to 14 gallons per hour. A sand of the Upper Greensand. and fortunately it is not essential nor even desirable In ordinary cases. Thus. CH. are made on compact.

and as water is an almost universal solvent. carbonates. both of animal and vegetable origin. silica. even of the worst kind. and for most economic purposes.] WATER-SUPPLY. geological structure of which is of a compact and impervious nature. causes The at work tending to purify the water by simple exposure. the best water is that obtained from mountainous or hilly districts. sulphates. such a condition resulting evidently from the permeability of the land . also common. water is freed from its impurities. and where the rain is collected on a surface of hard rock containing little limestone and no other soluble mineral. which in the neighbourhood of large towns usually includes much sewage matter. the surface of saturation is often situated at no great depth underground. but on the whole.SECT. chiefly salts and gases. The surface of saturation level " ordinarily coincides with the "free- of the subterranean waters at every point in the district. and very small quantities of organic matter are occasionally found. but which really collect the offensive River particles and reintroduce them into the realms of life. a quantity of organic matter. the variety In ordinary cases the salts of lime and of these is very great. Spring water contains numerous mineral sub- stances. and with the aid of a little filtration it is admirably adapted for household use. Spring ivater is generally the purest as far as regards admixture with organic matter. and phosphates. Iron. when the rainfall is heavy. although in synclinal basins overlaid by extremely impervious In a district the formations this is not necessaiily the case. 13 SURFACE WATERS. however. in addition to the various substances obtained from springs. involve the combustion of very large quantities of mineral fuel. where there is abundant rainfall. River water contains. It might be supposed. in a wonderfully brief space of time. II. and from rocks over which the stream passes. but salts of potash and magnesia are The salts include chlorides. obtained from the rocks passed through . and may at times. soda are chiefly abundant . become raised until it coincides with the land surface. that where this deposit is constantly stirred up by the periodical passage of the tidal wave the water cannot be in any other than an unwholesome state and unfit for general use. There are. 251 of various kinds. and has often been stated. decomposing animal and vegetable matter is rapidly removed from a mischievous condition partly by aeration and partly by those myriads of animalcules which are often spoken of as being themselves impurities.

A similar effect is produced when permeable material has accumulated in hollows on more or less impervious rock with a Rainfall in the rocky surface is absorbed by the sloping surface." as the free surface over the ground. the surface of saturation of the district rises above the surface of the land.252 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. whereas the real saturation may be much lower. because the water flowing above ground is comparatively free from frictional resistance. When the surface of saturation is high. Any hollow below the surface of saturation presents to the water in the adjacent ground a course of diminished resistance which is In proportion to reduced resistnaturally taken advantage of. When the surface-slope of a considerable tract of Case I." 22 Conditions of Flow. the resistance of the surface to the passage of water through it may be so high as to prevent any considerable portion of it from penetrating the earth. since level the water-slope in any direction is determined by the facilities afforded to the passage of water in that direction. does not differ much from the ground surface. until. it issues above the ground as a true hydraulic surface. this a casual observer might take to be the level of the surface of saturation. the smallest depression in the land may be sufficient to cause it to issue therefrom. being barely adequate to meet the demands of such increased The land is then quantity of water for a passage through it. in the hollow. and part of the flow takes place The "hydraulic surface. although the true surface of saturation is at the time situated at some depth beneath. or of floods caused by the sudden melting of large accumulations of snow. [PT. and abnormal flow may b>0 established upon the surface. and to effect discharge the surface as fast as the rain falls upon it. and a slight fall is enough off to produce considerable velocity. ance the surface of saturation becomes flattened. In the special cases of rain falling upon frozen ground. permeable accumulation. . V. XII. CH. and reappears at its lower edge on the surface of the rock . land is less than the hydraulic gradient required to force the entire volume of water through the earth as rapidly as it falls upon it. until a hydraulic gradient is formed adapted to the circumstances of the case. There are in general two conditions of which the immediate result is the establishment of flow upon the surface. must have been astonished to observe the current and the depth of water which may prevail temporarily over wide areas of land into which ordinary rainfall disappears at once. or falling very heavily. thus formed may be conveniently designated. said to be " waterlogged. Those who have experience of severe tropical rains.

Springs and Wells. A B S being the line of . frequently occur in the streaming vertical faces of sandstone quarries. and faults. or absorbent nature. under which springs are met with is where a pervious stratum overlies an inclined impervious one.] WATER-SUPPLY. as in fig. no less than rivers and lakes. The general conditions under which springs are met with in nature are necessarily most varied. and overlie other strata of an impermeable quality. Some of the water that enters every ditch is contributed in like manner from the adjacent subsoil. porous. and in the marshy areas often found on steep hillsides. The rills on every hillside. If the impervious substratum be depressed into a hollow or basin. after falling upon the earth. Ordinary Springs. The simplest case Pervious or impervious. water which. owe their origin and maintenance to such causes . Case II. the alternation and inclination of pervious and impervious strata. dependent as they are on the geological structure of the locality.SECT. thus tending to 22 prevent excessive rise of the latter after storms. the outgush is called a spring. the 23 latter serving to retain the water in the former. and the lower part of the porous stratum will become permanently saturated. and it is due jointly to the high position of the surface of saturation and to their undulating character that districts of hard and impervious " surfacegeological structure lend themselves so readily to yield " water that is to say. ' Section III. and their endless contortions. SPRINGS. dislocations. sinks into the ground and percolates until it reaches an impermeable stratum. Waterbearing strata are such as are of an open. III. 253 of When. is almost at once directed by its own gravitating impulse to flow in channels on the surface of the land. Forests have an important effect in acting as regulators which retard the flow of the rain into the streams. 75. appearing again at the surface at a lower level. Fig. 76 illustrates such a case. the surface of saturation naturally issues above the ground in the action Illustrations of this manner described in Case I. the water will necessarily accumulate in the same. > When water falls from the clouds in the form of rain or snow. at any place. the surface-slope of the land is higher inclination than the hydraulic gradient required by the flow of the percolating subsoil waters through the rocks. the rain falling upon the surface of the former being delivered at S as a land or shallow-seated spring.

76. of a permeable bed. C (fig. Spring arising from water falling on outcrop. D. Pervious between two impervious beds. 77). which are impermeable . and these FIG. D. it will be seen that this line need not necessarily be horizontal. than make its appearance at certain places only on this line. and inasmuch as the water is sustained partly by attraction. as flows down the sides of the hill and is intercepted by the stratum A. lying between two others. [FT. is limited to the rainfall on the basset or exposed surface of higher outcrop. conduct the water in definite channels and courses. It would at first sight appear strange that the water does not rather ooze out as a sand-soak along the junction of the impervious FIG. however. This. Spring at outcrop of permeable stratum. the supply. Hollow collecting water. A. B. with the pervious bed. and as much of the drainage from the upper impermeable stratum. Rents and fissures acting as subterranean drains assist in the concentration of the flow of water at certain points. 77.254 saturation capillary GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 75. V. is explained by the fact that on the surface of the impermeable bed numerous irregularities exist similar to those on the exposed surface of the land. XII. B. Springs are sometimes found at the lower outcrop. however. 23 . FIG. CH. and then in the form of continuous gushing streams.

255 Intermittent Springs. Syphon action. If the part S G C of the impervious stratum be regarded as a syphon tube. There is a class of intermittent springs phenomenon of which is attributed to an action similar to that of B is a permeable stratum lying on an and having a layer of an impermeable The layer B may for a moment be conceived falling on the basset E F will penetrate and descend into the pervious stratum B. appearing in the form of a spring at S. 78. 23 Line of Saturation.] WATER-SUPPLY. the water will probably . 79 and 80. and will accumulate in the the syphon. where it is of considerable extent and depth. In wells sunk at e and / the water will rise to the level of the line a b . will sink into the porous stratum. III. and the rain falling at intervals on the upper surface is delivered with a uniform flow.SECT. it will be understood that the water which has accumulated in the basin will be drawn over the ridge in the impermeable bed until the water-level has been lowered to a point at which the syphon will cease to act. it acts as a natural storage reservoir. Rain FIG. Friction and capillary is attraction. on the other hand. which in its turn rests on an impermeable stratum. in borings made at d. Other conditions under which water occurs are illustrated in figs. In fig. and perhaps some of that which falls on A. breaking out at c. A well-known example of such a case may be seen beside the road leading from Buxton to Castleton. as a tube. B. acting in opposition to gravity. The water which falls on the surface of B. Where the overlying pervious stratum comparatively shallow and of small extent. are the chief agents in bringing this about. C. B. 78 C. the springs issuing from it will generally be of an intermittent character. being limited by the variations of the rainfall . subterranean reservoir C until it attains to a level sufficient to overflow at G. impermeable one material above it. at which level it is drained by springs. also. and accumulate nearly to the level of a b. resting on a porous bed. In Fig. and water will not again issue from the spring until the reservoir has received a supply sufficient to bring the syphon again into action. 79 A is an impermeable cap of clay. but. Syphon action.

FIG. CH.GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. XII. It is probable that the line of saturation a b is not invariably a straight line. It is evident. Here A. rise is [FT. Inclined line of saturation. 79. 79. and so. 80. If we conceive it to swell . At a is a river. as 79. to as high a level as the edges of the bed C. 79. and hence the line of saturation and the height to which water will rise in wells become the line a b. then the line of saturation would correspond with that upper level a distinction which will be sufficiently understood by inspection of fig. if any part of the surface at A should lie below ab. drawn from the outcrop of C to the mean level of water in the river at a. while in wet seasons it swells into a convex curve above the straight line. then in fig. namely. that we may expect to meet with springs breaking out on the surface . It is evident. 80 represents the case of a basin drained by a river and having an inclined line of saturation. if any part of the surface of B should lie below a 6. we may expect to find overflowing artesian wells. forming what an overflowing artesian well. called FIG. V. and C represent the same succession of strata as in fig. but in dry seasons is depressed into a hollow curve beneath the straight line. without the aid of another diagram. Water at outcrop of permeable between impermeable beds. if the mass A covered the permeable strata to a higher level than c. through the bore-hole and overflow the surface. two Fig. where the water lodged in B finds the means of escape . B.

a and b. The hill C represents the case of a spring produced by a fault and D descends H. 82 is a section across a valley. 81. in small faults that traverse the low cliff of red marl and In inland districts lias on the north-east of the Aust passage. Springs originating in causes of this kind are of very frequent occurrence. Between these two hills is a valley of denudation. The rain that falls upon this hill between through the porous stratum a" to the subjacent beds of clay b". and are easily recognised in cliffs upon the seashore. FIG. C are supposed to be formed of a permeable stratum a a a". and at this level the water will stand in wells sunk in between a and 5. accumulates therein until it is discharged by numerous springs in position similar to S. percolating downwards through the porous stratum a a. near the head and along the sides of the valleys. Origin of two kinds of springs. B. 81 shows an arrangement nature. the fractures which cause these springs are usually less apparent. and. The inclination of this bed directs its course towards the fault H. The hills A. towards the head of which the a a with the clay bed bb' junction of the permeable stratum Inclined line of FIG. Three such cases may be seen on the banks of the Severn. 25 Fault Springs. Fig. looking up the same. This is one mode of accounting for at that point. from b to a. III. the impervious mass C cropping out at very different Here the line of saturation also will be inclined levels.] WATER-SUPPLY. near Bristol. and a spring is formed at the point /. saturation. B. here the intersection of these strata by the denudation of the valley affords a perennial issue to the rain water which falls upon the adjacent upland plain. resting on an impermeable bed of clay b b' b". of strata which often prevails in Fig. in the neighbourhood of a fault. produces a spring at the point S . flowing intermittent springs. H 17 .SECT. 257 wet seasons to such an extent as to cut the surface D at any we shall have for a time a spring point to the right of the mass A. 82. where its progress is intercepted by the dislocation edge of the clay bed b'.

and some of those near the level of the sea never cease to flow. while those at the higher levels are readily affected in dry seasons. where the magnesian limestone and Red Sandstone marls are brought down in contact with the Coal Measures. are by no means confined to combs or valleys. Spring in valley caused by fault. occurrence where the fault X has caused a dislocation of the strata and brought down the impermeable bed A in contact with the porous stratum B. XII. CH. It has been observed by geologists that the occurrence of springs in limestone districts is one of the best indications of the In the Carboniferous district of Gower the existence of faults. sea. 83 and 84 show one of the most common modes of Figs. fig. in the neighbourhood of Wolverhampton. V. Springs are occasionally thrown out by dykes or thin layers of impermeable material intersecting a water-bear- . 83. unlike those caused by alternation of strata in valleys of denudation. The great boundary fault of the Dudley coal-field. On the contrary. as at X. Dyke Springs. The lower springs are far more copious. Springs arising from faults. but the same effect sometimes takes place near the tops of hills or on high tableland. 84. limestone is traversed by a succession of nearly parallel faults. which range across the limestone at right angles to the coast-line. 83 shows the spring breaking out in the valley at X. and often cease for months together to yield a drop of water. FIG. 84. [FT. gives rise to numerous springs almost at the summit of an elevation district along the margin of the coal-field. and may be seen in several cases breaking through the hard surfaces of roads and flowing 25 over into the gutters. especially if the beds in B dip towards X. up almost to the summit of the country. Fig. Spring on hill caused by fault. and the issues of water often give to the geologist notice of faults 23 of which the form of the surface affords no visible indication. they often appear on tablelands and other high elevations. Many of these springs burst up in an almost vertical direction.258 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The lines of these faults are invariably marked on the surface by a series of springs breaking out at different levels from that of the FIG.

and B is a water-bearing stratum. III. . other impervious material. Water held down in porous bed by superimposed impervious stratum. where they are very common. Such wells are called artesian. upper one by hydrostatic force.] WATER-SUPPLY.SECT. the water will rise to a level determined by this hydrostatic pressure. Natural fissure giving rise to artesian spring. Artesian Springs. 259 The water will accumulate between ing stratum. the impermeable substratum and the dyke. 86 A and C are beds of clay or FIG. and were executed with the greatest success as far back as the twelfth If J* the upper surface of the impervious stratum be century. therefore. 85. In fig. Water will accumulate in the hollow of the lower impervious stratum until it is pressed upwards against the under side of the FIG. 87. 86. a well be sunk or a hole bored. from FIG. the French province of Artois. as in fig. below the level determined by the hydrostatic force just mentioned. 85. until it makes its 23 appearance on the surface at S. Spring thrown out by a dyke. say at K. If.

Shallow Wells. They are supplied by the infiltration of rain and other water which falls on the adjacent surface of the ground. will be seen to depend on the elevation of the outcrop of the 23 pervious stratum at B. the nature and position of the water-bearing stratum in which the well is sunk. tage to be drawn from the joint utilisation of waters from different springs is. Wells which are sunk comparatively but a short distance into a superficial water-bearing stratum are known . of this kind. CH. a bore-hole through the impervious stratum at that point will give A natural fissure in the rise to an overflowing artesian well. They are highly objectionable when situated in the immediate neighbourhood of towns. or the spring at S. to an artesian spring.260 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. rivers. Difference in the extent. may bring this about. perhaps. One advanserving also. as a rule. The quantity derivable by these means will depend upon the depth of the well. but localities may frequently be discovered where the conditions are favourable for sinking them. purposes in many villages and towns are. XII. other sources of organic matters . situation. and the disposition. but always with the advantageous result that the periodical diminution of flow in any one spring will be more or less neutralised by the more liberal flow from the others. as a service or town reservoir. or other The numerous wells sunk for domestic reservoirs and channels. [PT. two or more springs. and also difference in the lithological characters. of the . Springs may more frequently be utilised as contributing to a supply than as the sole source. also be divided into ordinary Wells are either shallow or deep. highly cultivated lands. Sometimes. under similar circumstances. impermeable stratum will. elevation. The rise of the water from the bore-hole at A. and where at the same time the water will be wholesome and comparatively pure. 23 WELLS. too small independently for the demand to be met. give rise In fig. and inclination of the respective strata. sewers. 87 these conditions are illustrated. however. V. as a Source of Supply. nature. and as shallow wells. that probably their least separate discharges will not occur at precisely the same season of the year. may be led into a common reservoir. Springs Long-continued observation is the only safe guide for ascertaining the relationship which subsists between the flow of a spring and the rainfall upon the area from which the water is drawn. cemeteries. as explained below they may and artesian. and distance of their respective drainage grounds. massif. cesspools. or which is drained from ponds.

forming a dyke which serves to retain the water in the permeable stratum lying above A well sunk. sides of the well. may be formed by sinking through a moderately thin bed of clay or rock into a water-bearing stratum. or rocky detritus which forms their margin. as far as the yield is concerned. The conditions which affect the success of a well. is carried down below the line of saturation A B S. tive substratum may divide the geological basin into different reservoirs with different lines of saturation. even in Irregularities or undulations of the retenclosely adjacent sites. III. In the case of fig. The cases which are given here must be regarded only as a few types. that any attempt to illustrate them with an approach to completeness would be futile.SECT. say. the water derived from it will be simply that which. as far as the yield of water and its level are concerned. if the well wells and of some deep ones.] WATER-SUPPLY. as in fig. and are supplied by the water filtering through the sands. for a deep well. the supply will no longer be limited to the drip-water. while one sunk on the other or lower side of the fault would evidently be a failure. to the line of saturation will sometimes vary considerably. are so varied. the fault were filled with the detritus of the adjacent strata in such a manner as to fissures. 76. 75. 23 gravels. If. Wells which are supplied by water which has had to percolate and filter through large masses of the earth's The difference between shallow crust are known as deep wells. but will be drawn from the subterranean reservoir formed by the depression in the underThe distance from the ground surface lying impervious stratum. however. 77. Shallow wells are frequently sunk in the vicinity of rivers and lakes. let it be supposed that the fault there shown has been filled with an impervious material. and thus render the selection of the most favourable site a somewhat doubtful task. or more properly a deep-seated well. 261 impermeable stratum below. Referring to fig. whose nearest drainage area or outcrop is at a considerable distance. in the latter would yield a supply it. at A. more or less abundant according to the extent of the exposed surface of that part of the water-bearing stratum. flows in . 23 Causes of Success or Failure. If the well be sunk in a permeable stratum. One of the most frequent causes of either success or failure is the existence of faults in the strata in which a well is sunk. and deep wells consists rather in the greater or less distance of the source of the water which flows into it than in the actual depth of the well . in percolating downwards through the pores and through the. Deep Wells. more quickly and from a larger surface than it can filter away through the bottom of the This drip-water is an element in the yield of all shallow well. because of the diminished resistance to its passage.

a tunnel or heading driven from the well into the fault would have a similar result. or the increase of population in the Of all sources. Xlt. V. as they undergo a more or less complete natural filtration . The quality of water is much affected by the rocks through which it passes. and also in such a manner that the fault would be intersected by the well . salts of soda. When comparing different sources on the ground of purity. The waters of "deep" wells will depend for their characteristics upon the nature of the strata through which they have percolated and the soluble matters contained therein . the greater the depth of the well. whether sand or otherwise. quality of their water injured by such causes. for the water from a comparatively large extent of the stratum would be drained into the fault and thence into the well. however the tion in the water. 23 Wells as a Source of Supply. water is obtained. and which are usually carried down to some little distance by the descending supply of rain. Springs and Wells. although it is not always safe to conclude what the result will be without actual investigation. water from ferruginous rocks. being generally chalybeate. although the actual quantity is frequently less in amount in deep than in shallow wells in the same locality. because of the great 23 depths of natural filtration which the waters undergo. deep wells are least liable to have the district. such as by mineral workings in mountain districts. and that from calcareous The rocks holding carbonate and other salts of lime in solution. admit the passage of the water. Thus water obtained from surface deposits is almost sure to contain in solution some of those organic substances which in cultivated land must always abound. and other substances will also be taken up. magnesia.262 freely GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. the more complete will be the oxidation of the organic matters. [PT. there will generally be found a certain proportion of saline and other ingredients. note must be taken of the possibility of contamination at future periods. they are more free from organic matters than river waters. or alter combinations already in soluThus it results that in all wells. The waters of " shallow " wells are frequently unfit for human consumption (see p. CH. The nature of the impurity is often very different from what might be anticipated in the case of water obtained from great depths 13 . potash. or rather the longer the time which the process occupies. 260). it is obvious that the most favourable site would be one below the fault. Should the fault not be struck in the vertical line of the well. Quality of Water. while the very action of water and the decompositions otherwise going on produce sulphuric acid and thus again act upon the containing rock. or by the cultivation of the land. carefully selected with regard to the position of the fault on plan.

that which has drained into . the subterranean waters gravitate towards the bottom of the valley . its maintenance to the rainfall of its district preserving the level of the surface of saturation above the natural hollow that forms The occurrence of river-valleys. without the apparent cause that is afforded by the junction of the tributaries. but its bed. small originally. has fed them in the shape of springs . further. by and ditches. Elvers. directly.] WATER-SUPPLY. or. ever widening and deepening by the erosion due to the scour and to fretting of their currents (see Chapter L. in defining the watershed or catchment area of a river. Flow of Water. 88). 263 Section IV.water : . offers the water percolating through adjacent land a course of less resistance than that of the interior of the rocks . which tributaries derive their own flow as miniature rivers and. normally. Section III. contributed to it two elements that are seldom coincident. . it is necessary to consider not only the superficial extent of land that discharges surface-water into but. rivulets The water flowing in rivers is contributed in three ways by adventitious surface-flow and by rain indirectly.SECT. 88. 22 Quality of Water dependent upon Strata. The formation of a river is due It owes to precisely the same cause as that of the smallest rill. and lakes is either that which has been immediately drained into them from the surface of the land or. by the percolating land. the area from which underground water is it.). Rivers are channels that maintain a perennial though ever-varying discharge. that enters their beds under the hydraulic head of the neighbourThe last-mentioned form of contribuing subterranean waters. Thus. the surface of saturation is depressed in the vicinity. Surface of saturation near a river. having been previously absorbed by porous strata. thirdly. The water found in rivers. rapidly at first but flattening as the river is approached (see fig. river. and emerges from the ground coincident with the hydraulic surface of the V FIG. tion is sometimes peculiarly marked by the evident increase in the size of rivers. IV. streams.

water is drawn from a stream or river whose flow is greatly in excess of the quantity to be This excess makes one of the chief differences abstracted. are the rivers which have passed over or through districts containing carbonate of lime in some form or other. find its way. it therefore remains comThe water from rivers and paratively free from foreign matters. reservoirs for such purposes are. inasmuch as. and therefore to present a greater number of ingredients than water derived from a more limited area .264 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Where the rain falls on impervious strata. River Schemes. XII. it is infinitely less effective than the natural its and The next waters 22 Further information processes of filtration and distillation. 23 Much has been said in favour of a supply from large rivers on The water is usually softer than that derived sanitary grounds. with regard to this subject must be sought elsewhere l (cf. that rivers which drain large areas of cultivated land. are always open to suspicion. It is the softest of river water. In any case. 25 It must be remembered. but vary very considerably in the total quantities of these substances. In these. them by artificial means. storage reservoirs. and small streams. are essential. p. such as granite. however. at the same time that it is commonly more impregnated with organic matter. from wells. and the proportions of them one to the other in the several waters. [PT. and. and contains a less amount of mineral salts than either of these. and in either a crude or modified 23 form. and over which it has flowed. sulphate of lime. The self-purification of streams during their flow has engaged much attention . springs. between river schemes and impounding or gravitation schemes . and chloride of sodium). They vary but little in the nature of their inorganic constituents (consisting principally of carbonate of lime. solvent powers are therefore comparatively high. the nature of the foreign matter contained in river water will depend upon the nature of the strata through which it has percolated. quite . in the latter. to equalise the supply and demand. CH. carbonate of magnesia. and this is generally found to be the peculiar character of river water. A large river flowing over many geological formations and many different varieties of soils may naturally be expected to take up in solution a variety of mineral matters. except in very rare cases. 251). whereas. in the former. although it must be conceded that such action does take place. however. lakes in such districts approaches more nearly the nature of rain than any other natural water. it runs off the surface without encountering any substances which it can dissolve to any great extent . V. and into which the sewage of towns on their banks must sooner or later.

Accordingly. besides having necessarily a much larger discharge. however. the flow of streams draining the higher portions of river basins is usually very irregular. the streams rising rapidly in high flood during rainy weather. The discharge of watercourses. affect the flow of the rainfall off the ground. the ground is commonly somewhat alluvial. the fall of the river is reduced. times rivers rising in mountainous districts with a large rainfall. and less liable to sudden variations from great fluctuations in rainfall usually limited in extent. Rivers. the Nile. And thus it is that droughts which would threaten the complete failure of impounding works need scarcely be regarded in connection with river schemes. somedischarge in the dry season. where enormous quantities of water are lost in the Sudd regions (see Sir W. possess a more and even in tropical countries. The larger the stream. the main rivers regular flow .] WATER-SUPPLY. and even more so will be the existence in that drainage area of absorbent strata serving to retain the rain water only to yield it again in the form of perennial springs. in the lower part of their course. or any water which may be drawn off from underground sources. as already pointed out. which constitutes the available rainfall of the basins which they drain. and the rainfall greater than on the lower ground. varies with the conditions which. is much more uniform. and the discharge being derived from a much larger area. The greater extent of the drainage area will alone be a moderator of the effects of irregularities in rainfall . IV. and running almost dry in dry weather. on the contrary. and therefore permeable. proportionately. the fall of the upper river is large. 265 unnecessary. of the river is It is sufficient that the smallest dry-weather flow so large as not to be injuriously affected by the withdrawal of the quantity required for the works. draining large basins subject to varied meteorological conditions still maintain a Moreover. . e. with the exception of any springs flowing straight into the sea. will be the variations in its flow at different seasons. In the lower part of a river-basin. do not necessarily have a larger discharge in the lower parts of their course. which would be uninhabitable without them. eventually in their course to the sea traverse almost rainless districts. The strata forming the upper portion of the basins of rivers on high ground are generally impermeable. consequently.g. The great experience and careful observation necessary for the success of large gravitation works may be here largely dispensed with that is. 24 Rivers. bringing water to these arid tracts. as far as ensuring an abundant supply is concerned. the smaller.SECT. of which the Nile and the Indus furnish typical instances. 23 Flow of Streams and Elvers.

and as this rain evaporates very slowly in winter and very rapidly in summer. The flow in chalk districts is. sometimes rivers disappear underground. CH. The larger percentage of summer discharge in the case of the chalk rivers may be explained as follows Rivers flowing in a clay basin are only fed by the rain falling within the actual basin .266 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. . In fact. Willcock's Report on Assuan Dam and Egypt Fifty Years Hence). because the rivers are fed by springs as well as by surface drainage hence the water stored up in the subterranean reservoirs is discharged by chalk rivers even in the driest seasons. V. Again. however. taken from Mr Beardmore's Annual. and their discharge is much more uniform throughout the year than in most other rivers. are of value in connection with this subject. such rivers are subject to great winter floods and to severe summer droughts. country dry up and disappear altogether in the sandy deserts 1 lying at the foot of the hills. much more uniform. [FT. they draw their supplies from areas beyond their actual basin. SUMMER DISCHARGE OF RIVERS. or a large portion of the discharge will flow underground to appear above ground Some rivers of considerable volume in hilly again further down. 25 : . as showing the powerful influence of retentiveness in the geological character of the drainage ground acting even in 23 opposition to the moderating effect of extent : TABLE IX. The following particulars of the summer discharge of rivers. XII.

reservoirs of water. possess the very important advantage of storing up the These surplus flow in flood-time for use during dry weather. for the water to be conveyed by gravitation to the into reservoirs for service reservoirs. moreover. and of being at a sufficient elevation above the district to be supplied. in gravitation works is the rainfall upon the gathering-ground or catchment basin. 267 Lakes and Impounding Reservoirs. the relative magnitude of such floods is greater in the smaller areas. Section V. obtained \ proportion of the rainfall flows down them into the valley below. Moreover. streams are.SECT. Accordingly. as might be supposed. is reduced by the comparative The catchment basins of mountain coldness of high altitudes. The purest supplies of water are from lakes in hilly districts. necessarily very much smaller than those of but lakes converted rivers in the lower portion of their course . and vice versa. In impervious or rocky districts the case is simplified to one of surface observations. the rainfall in mountainous districts is. especially where the lands draining into them are devoid of habitations and culture. a tract of land more or less completely bounded by ridge lines or more properly watershed lines. water-supply. when situated in high. WATER-SUPPLY. enjoy the further merits of being free from sources of pollution. the flow of a given drainage area is much greater in such regions than elsewhere . with a large available rainfall out of a considerable total fall. and the slopes of their sides are steep. a large Comparative Advantages. and artificial impounding reservoirs. and from impounding reservoirs formed by dams enclosing the valleys of mountain streams. under ordinary conditions. where permeable strata are superimposed. There are two reasons for the decrease of the rate of flood-discharge as the catchment area increases: (1) Extremely heavy The source of supply . 24 DRAINAGE AREAS. because the hydrographical basin is not necessarily coincident with that traced from surface contours. V. considerably greater than on lower ground and as the hills are commonly formed of impermeable strata. Valleys of denudation on an anticlinal axis. mountainous country. Unusually heavy falls of rain are the determining causes of the excessive floods that occur on catchment areas . indeed. whilst the loss from evaporation. This latter distinction is necessary. both over the land and the reservoir. would show from surface contours a gathering-ground larger than the drainage area really available for the impounding of water. 23 Size of Catchment Area. and. for instance.

. V. as already stated. naturally affect but slightly the discharge from extensive watersheds. The available fall is a quantity more or less short of the mean fall how much so remains to be seen. The mean fall in three consecutive dry years is found to be. is found to be about two-thirds of the mean fall that is. pp. and its area ascertained. the one sixth passes away in floods which the reservoir is not large enough to impound. . 22 Available Rainfall. 241-2) an estimate of it for any case can be formed only from careful observation and by experienced judgment. and to secure a gatheringground correspondingly large. XII. equal to the mean fall. whilst its intensity is diminished.268 falls GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. occurring only locally over limited areas. one-third in excess. to be discharged from the reservoir. and this deduction is therefore always made. p. one-sixth less than the mean fall. and a uniform quantity. corresponds with a discharge of 1 cubic foot per second off an area of 1 statute acre. 240. The extent of the variations. by evaporation and absorpcountry from about 9 to 19 inches per annum (vide Section I. a modification of this practice may be advantageous. It is useful to remember that 1 inch of rainfall per twenty-four hours over 1000 acres is approximately equivalent to 42 cubic feet Also that a fall at the rate of 1 inch per hour per second. CH. The greater the mean supply (rainfall) compared with the mean demand. and rain falling in the remote portions of a large watershed takes appreciably longer to flow to the place of discharge than does the rain precipitated at more central parts . the storage capacity of the reservoir would have to be far greater in proportion to the supply than has hitherto been found economical. The gathering-ground having been determined. and the first deduction from this is one rendered necessary by the variations in the amount of fall. the less will be the storage capacity required to ensure the demand being regularly met . Were the whole of the rainfall (neglecting for a moment the loss by evaporation) to be impounded. and an increase of storage capacity unusual facilities. and onethird in defect. so the duration of the flood is prolonged. with remarkable regularity. an estimate has to be made of the available rainfall upon that area. (2) Heavy falls of rain. The mean annual fall is referred to in Section L. The actual loss for a particular period may be found by comparing the gaugings of the stream or streams fed from the is The next deduction which varies for the loss tion. in this . and it is now the practice to consider as available no more than the mean fall for three consecutive dry years. [PT. Where an extension of catchment area presents difficulties. only last for a short time.

and in inexperienced hands would be almost sure to lead to erroneous conclusions. though in exceptional cases as much as 70 per It is. 30. run-off from sandy catchments and 20 per cent. for a storage tank to impound 18 square miles of water. from observations at Nagpur by A. curve the yield for each of the thirty years was then deduced from the calculated mean Tendula rainfall. 23rd ed.. Binnie. At the same time the taking the Dharntari records as basis. The Difference will. miles in two valleys.. 40 inches of rain had fallen. howcent. ff. In the case of the Tendula project. from the rainfall statistics it was possible to see about when water would have been required for irrigation. 23 Ratio of run off a catchment area to total rainfall on the catchment. 35. A table of the proportion of rainfall running off into outfalls. Garrett. the mean rainfall of the for past thirty years was then worked out. Captain A. Gaugings for short periods require to be treated with the greatest caution. V. is given in Molesworth's Pocket Book.] WATER-SUPPLY. India. Captain Garrett worked out the probable supply as follows : Catchment area is over 300 sq. and vice versd.E. Raingauges were established in centre of each valley and read for two years and compared with readings from the gauge at Dhamtari. from hilly ones. some 30 miles distant. Allowing for water drawn off for irrigation and 5 feet loss annually for evaporation and absorption. Tendula river was carefully gauged daily for two years the gauges being read every four hours during high floods. jects 10 per cent. 269 drainage ground with the returns from the rain-gauges for the same period. Again. 25. states that he has tested these in the Central Provinces. Probably similar percentages would hold in other parts of the In Rajputana. By Tendula catchment . and found them remarkably correct generally within 5 per cent. he says. has been obtained off bare rocky catchments. of which there were records for taking proportions. give the loss for that If the period of stream-gauging be one in which the period. From the results of these gaugings the percentage of run-off was calculated and a curve was plotted showing the percentage runFrom this off after 20. the proportionate loss shown by the gaugings will be greater than the proportionate mean loss. rainfall has proved to be less than the mean annual fall. it was possible to completely trace the working of the whole scheme. 319. almost impossible to make an accurate estimate unless there are previous records to go on. supposing it had been in existence for thirty thirty years. of course. they generally took for new proworld. ever.SECT. R. just sanctioned in the Central Provinces. p.

25 LAKES. prove that the strata forming their basin are thoroughly water-tight. soft obstruction. rain which falls on the sloping surface of the hills and finds its way by gravitation to the lower levels. many districts will be found to have a of the surface. but the effect of springs is also often very great in augmenting the quantity of water. 24 Advantages. CH. Natural reservoirs are provided by lakes. which is an Another advantage possessed essential condition in a reservoir. glacier-fed river. were delivering the water which filtered into them far beyond the limits of the drainage area. by lakes for conversion into reservoirs is the existence of a rocky barrier across their outlet. by their very existence. as indicated by the levels In fact. 24 . for the water discharged from them would have worn away any . in which the water is retained by a ridge of rock across the valley at its lower end. with a very small dip cropping out on the sides of the valley. V. GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. which enters the Lake of Geneva as a very muddy.270 years. Lakes. Mr Beardmore relates an instance where an oolitic district was found discharging a very large quantity of water with scarcely any In this case the porous drainage area lying above or beyond it. The value of lakes as storage reservoirs depends upon the discharge of the river flowing into them. together with the flow of their own gathering-ground. in regulating the flow. in which all the sediment brought down by the river is gradually deposited as the A notable example of current is checked on entering the lake. It is not alone the estimating the capacity of a drainage area. geological drainage area as well as a surface drainage . and the freedom of the drainage area and the shores of the lake from sources of pollution. stores up to some valley below. extent over its large area the flood discharge of the river above and it also acts as an immense settling basin. this result is furnished by the River Rhone. and thus to form a very in the future. and it often happens that the former is far the most important of the two. [FT. strata. XII. and emerges at Geneva as pure and blue as the waters of the lake. and over which it has to rise before the river flowing in at the upper end can continue its course down the The lake. which is a cause of their existence . formed generally by a depression in a mountain valley through which a river flows. 1 fairly reliable forecast of its working The geological structure is extremely important in Capacity.

The reservoirs of the Manchester Waterworks. and expose a pervious stratum into which the impounded water may escape. so as to reduce its length. in order that a water-tight reservoir may be constructed. If any porous strata be intersected. 24 Suitable sites for dams are often found just below the junction of two or more streams. they are exposed to a heavy a large proportion of which. as in such cases two or more valleys are available as storage basins. adequately impermeable and continuous throughout so as to be rainfall. on the other hand. and for the formation of the bank in point of dimensions. and uncultivated districts afford the most favourable sites for impounding reservoirs. impermeable perfectly water-tight. it will be necessary to study their dip. from their situation. situated on the Lower Coal Measures and the Millstone Grit. the porous strata. or capable of being readily made impervious A narrow in small defective places by layers of clay puddle. Where excavations are conducted in the interior of a reservoir. if possible. if any. finds its way into the watercourse draining The area to be covered by the reservoir must be the valley. 23 that floods . and special means should be taken to stop all such as are discovered. but if the valley be on a synclinal axis. care must be taken not to cut through a sound water-tight bottom. the geological features must be carefully regarded. by which the water is almost sure to be drained away. Simultaneously with the favourableness of the site for capacity. by the introduction of concrete and puddle. 271 IMPOUNDING RESERVOIRS.SECT. and a site where the valley widens out considerably above the gorge for some distance so as to provide an extensive area for the reservoir. be selected for the dam. falling on very sloping.] WATER-SUPPLY. for if it be away from the valley. such strata will only drain the reservoir of its contents . strata. serve to augment its waters by the inflow of Cracks and fissures springs which most likely will be perennial. Geological Features. presented many difficulties in this respect. owing to their freedom from pollution. The valleys of mountain streams draining uninhabited Sites. in rocks are frequently sources of leakage from reservoirs. The mountain limestone also is full of fissures. V. part of the valley should. It is also most important in selecting sites for storage reservoirs to see that a suitable position for the waste weir is available so 1 may be discharged harmlessly. and because. dipping towards the reservoir will.

and cold during the other. CHAPTER XIII. there learn which part. or the study of rocks. BUILDING-STONES. A somewhat porous sandstone.PT. and the situations whence the best materials may be obtained. may do well when kept constantly under water . might gradually crumble away from causes referred to in Chapter I. The observer desirous of selecting a stone to be exposed to atmospheric influences would do well to study the mode in which He may it is weathered in the locality whence it is obtained. XIII. V. when exposed to the atmosphere. more particularly in climates subject to frost. is a branch of study which is i THE importance frequently neglected by many architects and engineers. petrology. however. 19 during part of the year. Disregarding private dwellings. A stone which may be sufficiently durable if plunged beneath water. It is therefore abundantly clear that a careful investigation of the geological history and structure of the rocks of his district will frequently enable the engineer to avoid such expensive 272 . if it be a compound rock. according to the motives that lead to their erection. on which such various materials are employed. though they may be hard and difficult to work when first taken from a quarry. may not be so when kept alternately wet and dry by the rise and fall of water in a river or on a tidal coast. it may be fairly stated that a knowledge of the general structure of rocks. but the same rock. Unfortunately. and the conditions under which it does so. is essential to those who are either charged with or direct public works. in consequence of the facility with which the felspar in them decomposes when exposed to the action of a wet atmosphere. in a climate which may be warm national monuments. are among the worst building materials. however. is liable to give way before such influences. Granite generally is considered a proper material for Some granites. for instance. of a practical knowledge of geology when dealing with building-stones is so obvious that it would appear quite unnecessary to dilate upon this theme. CH. or when wholly exposed to the action of the atmosphere.

and water. yet the felspar or mica may be almost any member. in some of the Cornish granites to upwards of 5 per cent. thus the silica as high as 80-24 in the granite of judged by this test. the Ardara rock ranges from as low as 55*20 in the granite of Ardara to Croghan Kinshela. varies from 11*14 per cent. of similar quality and at a low price. l only necessary to add here that granites are described as or large-grained or as porphyritic. Not only do granites vary Constituents of Granite (p. like that of Shap in Westmoreland. lime. felspar. and are local in their development. whilst the protoxide of iron. which may be a mere trace. magnesia. Skiddaw. yet sometimes in addition to these there are perceptible quantities of oxide of manganese. for although we may regard the normal composition as including silica. and mica to describe the rock. and they may be supplemented or partly replaced by minerals which are no It is The essential component is And when variation of granite. the almost as remarkable . at White Gill. they contain large and 11 independent crystals of felspar scattered through the mass. and fluorine. a knowledge of the physical properties and weathering qualities of building-stones is of the highest importance. in some of those from Donegal. greatly in the relative proportions of their mineral elements. granites the percentage of every constituent is very variable . and these should be studied at the quarry site and not merely deduced from carefully selected samples. when. For although we may use the general formula of quartz. while not be infrequently the protoxide of iron. Section I. 273 mistakes as importing materials which can be obtained. as may be the magnesia and the water. alumina. The magnesia. in 18 . or members. I. Moreover. may Even in British absent.SECT. so that. amounts sometimes to upwards of 2 per cent. but they also exhibit considerable variation in their constituent minerals. of these families of minerals. lithology of these rocks is fully described in Chapter VII. varies from J per cent. peroxide and protoxide of iron. GRANITES AND SYENITES. amounts to 3J per cent. which is so frequently The alumina The lime absent. phosphoric acid. of iron ranges from -23 at Botallack to 7*3 in some of the granites of Leinster . in the granite of Glen in Donegal. litnia. might be termed basic. 106). on the spot. soda and potash. medium-grained. The peroxide to 20 per cent. or even all the iron. fine-grained. 1 Granites and Granitoid Rocks. while the Croghan Kinshela rock is typically acidic.] BUILDING-STONES. the chemical composition of granite is examined.

000 Ibs. or durability. and durability.. for the most part. Like other rocks it can be squared and dressed with greater facility when newly raised and in possession of its quarrysap. but split with wedge and mallet for larger blocks and monoliths. The granites are quarried. and from experiments on inch cubes. Owing to the substitution of hornblende for mica in its composition." and this. it is said. Although it was once supposed that granite is the oldest of rocks. Potash granites and 5 per cent. resistance to pressure.. and the same may be said of varieties in which soda-felspar. Some granites of open texture are capable of absorbing as much. for building purposes . including that known as syenite. CH. while others. 11 Durability. or soda in the felspar and mica. according to the texture and composition. of course. from observa- . a cubic foot weighs from 164 to 169 Ibs. The silica is partly free. and liable to decomposition. texture. 1 The ultimate chemical analysis of a granite gives no idea either of its colour. in Cornish the granite of Ardara. depend upon the size and arrangement of the several ingredients the granites most liable to decay being those containing an excess of lime. of its weight. from Qualities. Although all granites are similar in structure. The specific gravity of ordinary granites ranges from 2*6 to 2'8. are blasted for smaller purposes. syenite is often more durable than true granite. have little or no superficial covering. may vary from 5 to 1 per cent. as from 2 to 3 gallons per cubic yard. according to the texture of the rock. and the magnesia in the mica. hillsides and other rising grounds. the crushing force varied. from 3000 up to " 13. XIII. iron. Soda may be but J per cent. susceptibility of polish. texture. in some of the Leinster rocks. Those containing large crystals of mica are unfitted. V. The manganese never quite amounts to 1 per cent. and potash partly in the felspar and partly in the mica . but in some instances it is massive and capable of yielding blocks of large dimensions. predominate. 11 Geological Age of Granite. it is now known. [PT. the difference in the proportions of their constituent substances occasions great difference in their enduring and useful properties. in the granite of Chywoon Morvah in Cornwall. Some varieties are exceedingly friable. In most quarries the rock has a rudely jointed or tabular structure. and the water 6 is never more than 2 per cent. and very deep red (iron) felspar. soda. partly in the felspar and mica . in one of the Leinster granites and more than 8J per cent. suffer but imper26 ceptibly from moisture and the atmosphere. resistance to pressure. the lime. and those -absorbing the most are the least to be relied upon for their durability. The colour.274 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. is less than J per cent.

This term was formerly applied to hornblendic Syenite. Thus it is known that the granite of Cornwall and Devon is more recent than the Carboniferous period. that the granite of the Alps of Savoy is more recent than the Jurassic period . and older than a stratum deposited upon it. however. and in some parts of Cornwall to the Lee. sometimes black. I. Donegal and Galway. rare to be able to fix both of these limits of age. Anglesea. The granite of the Bodmin Moor or Brown Willy district is . The hornblende gives syenite a darker colour and adds to its tions 1 durability. and that the granite of the Eastern Pyrenees is more recent than the White Chalk.] BUILDING-STONES. and for this reason syenites are classed with granites as regards distribution. The granite of Dartmoor is coarse-grained. frequently meet with the older nomenclature. England. at great distances from any quarries where the stone is available. 26 In Cornwall and Devon the granite forms bosses of several British Granites square miles in extent. The protogine 6 granite of the Alps is newer than the Lias. There are six principal masses of granite besides smaller patches. the Highlands of Scotland. as at Holm Dartmoor height of 2050 feet. found in the beds of some of the rivers in the north-west parts of Yorkshire. But the more ancient or Silurian granites are found in the Harz. and Syenites. and in clay pits in Cheshire and Lancashire. Saxon Erzgebirge. It is schorlaceous where it joins After the mica disappears the felspar vanishes and the slates. also in North Wales. that granites have been formed at several geological periods from the Silurian down to. such as some of those found in Scandinavia. the Channel Islands. all of which are older than the Devonian . 27 The age of granite is always newer than the rock which it It is penetrates. Vosges. and rises at its culminating point at It is generally lightcoloured . some. Christiania in Norway. and at other places numerous 4 crystals of black tourmaline (schorlaceous granite). Section I.SECT. but is now usually reserved for the rock described in Chapter VII. there are granitic rocks of great antiquity. than the Upper Silurian periods. Thuringerwald. 275 extending over large tracts of the earth's surface. Charnwood Forest in LeicesterGranite blocks are shire.. the close of the Cretaceous period. with the mica sometimes white. On the other hand. granite. as also that of Arran . at least. Granite occurs in Devonshire and Cornwall. 108. p. The engineer will. the Malvern Hills. it contains large crystals of white felspar (porphyritic granite). and in Cumberland and Westmoreland.. the rock at last consists of quartz and schorl.

rock is rather coarsely crystalline and contains dark-green hornblende with pink and greenish felspar with small masses of Leicestershire. . consists of quartz. XIII. The Mount Sorrel granite is usually pinkish or grey. CH. schorl. coarse. At the Land's End the granite abounds in schorl and often passes into schorl rock.276 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The Syenite occurs in Charnwood Forest. It is poor in Falmouth granite is occasionally porphyritic. the rock is more finely crystalline it is generally of a red colour. When yellowish-green epidote and occasional grains of pyrites. except near St Cleer. The granite of St Austell or Hensborough is much more variable and much richer in schorl than those of either Brown Willy or The Carn Menelez or Dartmoor. It is occasionally slightly porphyritic and consists of quartz. TABLE X. felspar. [PT. . That of the Scilly Isles is somewhat schorl is rare. ANALYSES o and two micas. is often porphybut not particularly schorlaceous. and is more decomposed. two micas being present similar. felspar ritic. V.

26 Channel Islands. and dark-green hornblende. is the best known . very hard and consequently expensive. North Wales. purposes. as well as from Guernsey and the little island of Herm.SECT. Large quantities have been raised and exported from the quarries of Mount Mado and La Perruque in 26 Jersey. which is probably granitoid gneiss. but is capable of being extracted from the quarry of any required It is dimensions. however. . black mica. with the felspar not well crystallised and the mica often absent. but is usually coarse. 277 GRANITES AND SYENITES. Lake District. 6 Its warm rose-tint renders it suitable for ornamental It is. with its large flesh-coloured or reddish-brown crystals of felspar. The Shap granite. and black and silvery mica. felspar. occasionally with pyrites and epidote. BUILDING-STONES. and may be moulded to any desired form. also well suited for paving. the felspar is partly orthoclase and partly triclinic. The reputed granite of Anglesea. where best developed is composed of quartz.

North. East side of the Ural. Oberlausitz. the Auvergne.. and abounds in cavities filled with crystals of the The rock consists of smokyminerals which form the granite. in Bohemia. the highest peaks of the Tatra in the Carpathians. Among the European localities for European Syenites. south of the Thuringerwald. where the lower portions of the masses are exposed by extensive denudation. the Sierra Morena. Typical granite occurs in the Grampians. and Mayo. several areas in the Erzgebirge. the In the Mourne Mountains the granite is fine-grained. A somewhat similar rock occurs- . 6 European Granites. white felspar. to north of Boskowitz . 6 Russia. Velteline Switzerland and Italy. V. with red orthoclase. A large part of the peninsula. in Leinster. quartz.278 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. in the Odenwald. the Spain. and Brittany. stratified structure. The granite in Donegal has a brown mica. albite. near Dresden. but in the higher peaks the granite becomes more hornblendic and then graduates into a more or less porphyritic felsite. Scandinavia. opaque-white orthoclase. etc. The principal granitic districts in Europe : comprise Eastern part of the Vosges. the district between Nantes and Parthenay. Guadarrama Mountains. in the Harz. the Pyrenees. much of the high land of France. through Brunn. the Sudetic Alps. are Plauen. quartz. West of the Schwarzwald. and a large area in the south. XIlI. the Sommo-Sierra. The central mass of Ben Nevis Loch Etive is a fine-grained rock hornblendic. Gal way. much of the Fichtelgebirge. etc. Scotland.. the Riesengebirge. and dark-green Granite also occurs in the Carlingford district. of syenitic character. stretches from north to south in the east of the Banat from Kudernatch to Moldawa. The granite of Goat Fell and principal mountains in Arran is a largegrained variety in which felspar predominates and mica is comparatively rare. Trientine Alps. a large proportion of black mica and hornblende with crystals of sphene and perhaps zircon. Corsica and Elba. classed by Zirkel as a syenite-graniteporphyry. CH. many places on the southern syenite slope of the Thuringerwald. the Bohmerwald. Meissen. and is well seen in the Ross of Mull. is mainly anorthic . Alps. in Saxony . that of Strontian is dark and coarse-grained. Mont Blanc.West Province of Galicia. in the mountains of Lower Silesia A rock a large mass of syenite extends from Glatz to Ullersdorf. in the Odenwald. [PT. beds being nearly vertical. St Gothard. Germany and Austria. in Moravia it extends 30 miles from south of Kienitz. The granite is of in which the felspar Ireland.

Rocks of this vague character are not infrequently met with. These are composed of a felsite-porphyry. films of hornblende GRANITOID ROCKS. characterised by red orthoclase. red gneiss containing from 75 to 76 per cent. although thin. penetrating slates and lime6 stones. typically. Section I. with and brown mica. quartz. felstone. represented by It is a rock of very extensive occurrence. etc. massive syenite appears between Windstein and Ballow. Canada. and at others both kinds are present. the orthoclase in some varieties being red. less distinct layers or foliae another.. Gneiss. closely allied to and sometimes called granites. white oligoclase. Gneisses generally occur among the so-called Archaean rocks in Central France.SECT. plagioThese minerals are arranged in more or clase. 16 which are approximately parallel to one especially forms very distinct. and the great mountain mass of Monzoni. intermediate forms are styled granitic gneiss. 125) is a foliated crystalline aggregate of the same minerals which constitute the different varieties of granite . of orthoclase. and in vast bands 4 generally coincident with mountain ranges . mixture of orthoclase and quartz as the essential constituents. 1 Porphyry (see Chapter VII. Gneiss has a very wide and irregular distribution. In the Vosges. I. rising in bosses chiefly amidst Palaeozoic strata. 108).. In the south of Norway syenite is seen around Christiania. The mica bands. are quartz-porphyry. and in Finland it occurs near Viborg.. and passages oligoclase. sometimes a magnesian mica. Gneiss varies in colour. Scandinavia. to this arrangement of the mica that the schistose have been observed from hornblende gneiss into hornblende schist. Section III. while in others it is white or greyish. and it is hard to Such say whether they should be called gneiss or granite. The felspar is. Syenitic or hornblendic gneiss has the same mineral constitution as syenitic granite. When the foliation of gneiss becomes indistinct the rock approximates lithologically to granite.] BUILDING-STONES. United States. penetrating Neocomian rocks. Certain rocks. 16 Granitic Gneiss. of silica.. while the grey variety contains only 65 to 66. and it is and often fissile character of the rock is due. . There is a marked chemical difference between red and grey gneiss. and felsite. in great part. 7 Occurrence. and mica. In the Tyrol it forms the centre of the eruptive mass at Predazzo. Sometimes the mica is a potash. north of Geromagny. Gneiss (vide Chapter VII. p. When the little or no mica being found in their composition. p. 279 in the Bihargebirge in South-East Hungary. more rarely in dykes.

with varying proportions of iron-peroxide and traces of other colouring matter. V. and are usually much fissured and jointed. Both varieties appear in many tints red. for which their hardness and toughness render them specially suitable. [PT. brown. The stone known as porphyry was quarried by the Egyptians in It was dark the granite found between Suint and the Red Sea. Devon. p. accompany the essential constituents. A similar stone of a green colour was quarried in Greece between Sparta and Marathon. for it is acted on by hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. yellow. magnetite. Perth. felstone. of silica. and bluish green. Occurrence. the Southern Uplands and Northern Highlands of Scotland. and Devonian rocks of Ireland. arising apparently from the transmutation of magnesian limeIts average composition stones or other closely related strata. and when properly dressed and coursed make a very fair structure (especially the fawn-coloured sorts) and are perfectly indestructible. to slate-grey. or felsite . Though chiefly used for road material. flesh-coloured. apatite. and Cornwall. Incapable of being raised in large blocks. fawn-coloured. hence the name. farmsteads. and for this reason incapable of being raised in massive monoliths like the granites. and 13 of water. originally crimson or purplish. while dark-grey. but when the felspar and mica are intimately mixed so as to present a homogeneous matrix the rock is termed felsiteporphyry. and Forfar .280 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. especially in towns. in the counties of Banff. They are found cutting through the Cambrian. 35) and eruptive masses intersecting the older schists and slates. while the minerals mica and hornblende ally occur in these rocks. CH. Serpentine. Serpentine is not adapted for outdoor use. black. these rocks vary from flesh-red. Aberdeen. and The colours of pyrite being at times met with as accessories. quartz forms conspicuous crystals the rock is called quartzporphyry. building of country mansions. purple. they are polished only for minor ornaments. is 40 per cent. the Lake District. their principal use in Britain being for causeway stones and road metal. 40 of magnesia. they are generally very compact in Triclinic felspars occasiontexture or even flinty in appearance. Serpentines occur in Cornwall and Anglesea in England . and walls. 10 The porphyries generally occur as dykes (cf. depending chiefly on the felspar. 11 A siliceo-magnesian rock of metamorphic origin. and greenish tints are imparted by the presence of mica or hornblende. but it is very suitable for indoor decoration. Wales. bluish black. in some districts they are employed in the Silurian. 28 The antique porphyries were of several varieties. Occurrence. XIII.

varieties of the same rock solidified under slightly different conditions. generally in the form of dykes. S. and chlorite schists are employed for building purposes. where sandstones and limestones are scarce. though tough and 11 durable. Italy. etc. the mica schists. as well as the rocks known as greenstones or whinstones. 2-6 to 2-9. Egypt. and Aphanite.SECT. it is generally tough. as in the case of the lavas of the Faroe Islands. In some districts. a frontage of this sort is greatly improved by light-coloured sandstone dressings. no doubt. Canada. It is generally extremely hard and tough. and other slab purposes than for building and yet some of the compacter beds of the Silurian (the greywackes) make not a bad . 27 in a manner precisely analogous to It diorite. diorite. Diabase. the Deccan. paving. Cambrian. India. They are all occasionally amygdaloidal. gneisses. and North America yielding many varieties. and metamorphic rocks. Their green colour is derived partly from their hornblende and partly from a small quantity of chlorite which is generally present. building-stone (Keswick. are often all included under the name of trap rocks. Galashiels). fine-grained rocks to the known is as Diorite. but the term trap is more properly applied dark compact greenstones or basalts of which the successive streams have flowed in great horizontal sheets and have given rise to a step-like structure. Kendal. found amongst Silurian. Greece. 281 in Scotland among and in Galway and Donegal in Ireland. the Urals. 11 These old rocks generally occur in a slaty Crystalline Schists. and are better adapted for roofing. Where obtainable. The name is sometimes confined to sufficient for but the more general designation These rocks 1 all occur as practical purposes. Gabbro. contains silica 47-58 per cent. and is consequently well suited for road material and paving.G. being flatbedded and easily squared and jointed. 4 Greenstone is an old name for the dark-green. the metamorphic or crystalline rocks of most countries France. and aphanite is very compact and fine-grained.] BUILDING-STONES. I. The basalts and felstones or claystones. dykes and veins. occurs in the form of intrusive dykes amongst the Silurian rocks Mica trap or Minette occurs . often assuming a bedded aspect and a columnar structure. they seldom produce anything like a satisfactory effect. 5 It is Diorite. TRAP ROCKS. Hawick. Norway. and are. and weathers rusty brown. but. Germany. chiefly in the more ancient rocks. diabase and diorite are fine-grained. or fissile state. as well as . Gabbro is coarse-grained.

and greenish black . Basaltic rocks have a high specific gravity and basic composition. Dolerite includes rocks which were once termed "greenstones. [PT. In texture and composition these basaltic rocks are extremely . p. but in which a crystalline texture is yet clearly discernible. the north of England. and bands of bole. magnesia. is Basalt (cf. The lime. diabase. dorite and augite. the rock is commonly a pale drab. though the tint varies with chemical and mineral composition and texture. Any very hard in easily broken up dark-coloured rock that is not excavating. and on this variation depends Basalt abounds in labrathe mineral composition of the rock. while the still more compact varieties. sheets occupy a considerable area in the north-east of Ireland. V. are styled Anamesites'. newly fractured surface. Wicklow and Mayo and the Southern Uplands of Scotland. no necessary relation to the silica. blue. but when the external surface is weathered. and those in which the different mineral constituents are sufficiently well developed to be distinguished by the naked eye. (3) as tabular sheets poured over the surface and forming horizontal or inclined beds. Intrusive sheets are prevalent amongst the Carboniferous rocks of Tabular Ayrshire. Whinstone.282 of is GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and the centre of Scotland. as basalt. (2) as sheets or beds intruded amongst older rocks .g. and sometimes may have a little quartz and sanidine. Except as a material for mend27 ing roads it is useless for any economical purpose. which to unassisted vision present a more or less homogeneous 16 appearance. and other parts of Scotland. though the average amount ranges between 1 1 per cent. the Clyde basin. those in which the constituents are too small to be recognised without a magnifying power. agglomerates. or quartzose sandstone. traversing rocks of different ages from the Silurian to the Oolitic. 10 These lavas have a dark colour on the 11). OH.. 6 The basalts vary considerably in structure the coarsely crystalline varieties. and soda all vary in amount. varying through shades of greyish brown." : e. It of frequent occurrence amongst the Lower Silurian strata of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 1 called a whinstone locally. XIII. often interstratified with volcanic ashes. The alumina has of lime. generally contains magnetite and olivine. etc. are termed Dolerites. are called Basalts (basalts proper) or basal tites. chert. Basalts and dolerites occur under three general modes: (1) as vertical dykes . Their silica rarely sinks below 40 per cent. and sometimes The silica rarely exceeds 56 per cent. and 28 per cent. potash. 27 Vertical dykes are extremely numerous over the north-east of Ireland. a lower percentage of silica is usually associated with large percentages of iron.

In some places they are soft. which have been already described. and In the Andes of Ecuador. at Funchal in Madeira.] BUILDING-STONES. 6 . at Palulagua. Basalts occupy large areas in the Southern Eifel Occurrence. 283 variable. constituents passing into obsidian (or volcanic glass) or pumiceIn this condition it passes stone so porous as to float on water. and several of the islands of the Greek Archipelago. admirably adapted for street-paving. includes all the molten rocks of volcanoes (see Chapter II. changes in chemical composition or the presence of accessory minerals and different rates of cooling from a molten state. at Paranagua in Venezuela. per cubic foot. the Northern Island of New Zealand. near Buda-Pest in Hungary . the andesite is Teolo. St Helena. and Transylvania. earthy. In the Auvergne hornblende andesites In Italy andesites occur in the Euganean are seen in the lavas. and south of Sweden. the St Andra-Visegrad Mountains. 27 beyond the category of building-stones. I. rhyolite. Iceland. and is extremely durable. Moravia. at Monte di Ferro di gran Pietra. 27) . the Rocky Mountain region of North America. and for road metal . for foundation and curb stones. 109). North Italy. p. Hills. the Smrkouzgebirge in Styria . Monte della Croce. and amygdaloidal . A similar rock to the Hungarian and TranRhyolite (p. occurs in the Lipari Islands. in others compact. on the other we find the same Teneriffe . the south ^f Servia." properly speaking. and Inner Hebrides. absorbs less than 4 oz. are for while on the one extreme we have a crystalline endless granular rock. or highly crystalline. the Auvergne. They are among the most effective rocks for resisting crushing force. and obsidian. 27). sylvanian lavas. Among the more important European localities for andesites are Schemnitz.. the Auvergne. the Transylvanian Erzgebirge. Kremnitz. 27 Bohemia. but it is generally objectionable for building purposes owing to its gloomy and heavy appearance. the Faroe Islands. Basalt weighs 171 to 181 Ibs. north of Melbourne in Victoria. at Patna. in the Galapagos Islands. and at Cruz in also in many parts of North America. " are excluded and " lavas denote only the lighter varieties.SECT. A similar rock occurs at Toluca in . Hungary. resembling granite. the Isle of Reunion. and Northern Bohemia as well as in many parts of Saxony. Lavas. consequent on Trachyte (p. Styria. but for practical purposes the basaltic rocks. almost free from augite. Iceland. The term "lava. of water per With these qualities it is cubic foot. near Banau in Moravia. Basalts are well known in Greenland. Sandwich Islands. andesite. to which the name of rhyolite was first given. such as 1 trachyte. The varieties of this rock. 110). 6 Andesite (p. in Rhenish Prussia. Euganean Hills.

o H fi II -t^OJr-l co Td n 'bbw g53S8. .S8g * ^ B | 3 S 5 s tEdo . M o H M . b|z. XIII. [PT. CH. V.284 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS.

.] BUILDING-STONES. 285 TABLE XL ULTIMATE CHEMICAL ANALYSES OP SOME GRANITOID AND TRAP ROCKS Continued.SECT. I.

CH. V. [PT.286 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. . XIII.

generally. Limestones. are frequently laminated. and more especially so when micaceous. the plates of mica being generally deposited in planes parallel to the beds.. also at Neu Prevali in Carinthia and Monte Alto in the Euganean Hills and in America. because the crystalline parts offer the greatest These resistance to the decomposing effects of the atmosphere. Uses. found chiefly in lava streams. but if their edges only are laid bare. but their main use now. IT. which are usually crystalline paste. Australia.SECT. and Java. shelly limestones have also. and has a very general tendency to split into slabs or slates. where their plane surfaces are exposed .). be equally coherent. has been as materials for streets and roadways.] BUILDING-STONES. 287 in the Mexico. Section IV. Dacite occurs in Hungary and Transylvania. (see Weathering Properties of Sandstones and Limestones Chapter VII. and in Transylvania and Hungary. Sandstones. The decomposition of stones employed for building purposes is greatly influenced as well by the chemical and mechanical composition of the stone itself and by the nature of the aggregation of its component parts as by the circumstances The oolitic limestones will thus suffer unequal of exposure. they will last for a long period. It sometimes exhibits well-marked columnar structure. also in North and South America. egg-shaped particles. from the mode of their formation. Victoria. but more commonly in conical masses or hills. and Argillaceous Rocks. as well as in the Auvergne . are unequal in their rate of decomposition. the more finely cleavable varieties In advanced being used for roofing purposes in certain localities. at Portillo in Teneriffe. and of The shelly limestones. a coarse laminated structure parallel to the plane of stratification. It occurs in Iceland. like sandstones formed in the same way. and. decomposition unless the brittle. and the Rhine district lavas of closer texture have been employed in building . as in former years. Sandstones. In Italy. 6 Phonolite > occurs occasionally in the form of lava-flows. 16 stages of weathering the rock passes into an earthy condition. . and the cement with which they are united. Hornblende andesite is met with Caucasus near Kasbek. The variety which is free from quartz is Augite andesite. formed of fragments of and cemented by a calcareous chiefly shells. Auvergne. being the same chemical composition. 11 Section II. they decompose rapidly when used as flags.

2. twenty-four hours after they have been suspended. The specimens are then withdrawn and hung up in the air. by constantly presenting new 18 surfaces. and the latter by the congelation of water forced into. action rendering the stone liable to be more easily affected by mechanical action. those which partake least of the crystalline to atmospheric influences. if placed so that the planes of lamination are horizontal. action of the atmosphere produces a change in the entire matter of limestones. V. with sharp edges. Brandts Test. XIII. mechanical action due to atmospheric causes occasions either a removal or a disruption of the exposed particles . or general appearance. according to the amount of surface The exposed. accelerates the disintegrating effects of the former. Hence. which latter. To determine the weathering properties of stones . 3. [PT. the limestones and magnesian limestones are durable in proportion rather to the extent in which they are crystalline. and in the cementing substance of sandstones. more or less rapidly. the cubes are to be plunged into the vessel below them. These fragments should be cut into 2-inch cakes. A saturated solution of Glauber's salt (sulphate of soda) is then to be boiled and the cubes submerged. grain. the former by suffering most from exposure The chemical means of powerful winds and driving rains. for instance. be placed in a building with the planes of lamination in a vertical position. and retained in the If a longer period elapse the boiling liquid for half an hour. the external These effects are reciprocal. care being taken that it contains no fragments of the stone detached during the boiling. and this is to be done . Cannot be applied with any certainty to other rocks. 5. while. taking. If the weather is not too wet or too cold it will be found that the surface of the stones. that is. the amount of decomposition will be altogether immaterial. Several specimens should be selected from a block of stone to be tried. it will decompose in flakes. effects exceed those of ordinary atmospheric action and frost. and each marked carefully. 1. according to the thickness of the laminae . on the other hand. When these appear.288 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. whereas. especially adapted to oolites and other calcareous rocks. if such a sandstone. as in its natural bed. are covered with small white acicular crystals of salt. 4. CH. or shelly laminated limestone. or absorbed by. The sandstones being composed of quartzose or siliceous grains comparatively indestructible. and beneath each is placed a vessel containing a quantity of the solution in which it has been boiled. the edges only being exposed. chemical portions of the stone. they are more or less durable according to the nature of the cementing substance . those which present differences of colour. to get rid of the efflorescence .

black. or carbonate of iron. 16 Colour and Texture. and yellow . grey. They occur as beds of loose sand. iron oxides. from fine-grained soft sandstones to coarse-grained but see above as to grits. the constituent grains being cemented by either In silica.] BUILDING-STONES. even from the first appearance of the salt. brown. are frequently Under these very fine-grained and compact in character. detached. such as the Coniston and Denbighshire grits. of coarse texture. or low-lying districts on seacoasts. or they may be excessively hard and compact. II. as in some of the New Red Sandstones. 6. no cementing matter present. circumstances it seems that a grit may best be defined as a rock. is more or less coarse-grained. or tough sandstone. character. and the cube will soon lose its angles and sharp edges. and neither grains. The Millstone Grit. where the wind piles the sand up in dunes . but not necessarily. nor other fragments of the stone are found in the vessel. well-cemented. the constituent grains being apparently held together merely by surface cohesion superinduced by pressure. small fragments will be perceived to separate themselves. and these colours sometimes fade. Sandstones appear in all colours white. usually. carbonate of lime. the stone yield to this action. These rocks consist essentially of either occur as superficial accumulations of loose sand forming desert tracts. 13 repeatedly. interstratified with coherent beds of They are also met with in a state of more or less imperfect consolidation. which may be taken as one of the leading types. according to Professor Morris. siliceous grits . or they may Lithological grains of silica. the grains being feebly held together by an iron oxide or by calcareous matter . red. The rocks called grits vary considerably in lithological Grits. The cubes are weighed at the end of the experiment and the difference noted. laminse. some few cases there even appears to be. 289 thrown out during the experiment. on the other hand. strongly coherent.SECT. greenish grey. while some of . In texture they occur in every degree of fineness from particles scarcely perceptible to the naked eye to grains as large as a pea in other words. Character. The term " grit " appears indeed to be very ill-defined. If. .the Silurian rocks. and sometimes become intensified by exposure to the weather. fawn-coloured. as often as crystals of the salt are SANDSTONES. the salt does not force out any portions of the stone with it. The experiment should last four days. If the stone resist the decomposing action of damp and frost.

in crushing weight from so low a figure as 500 Ibs. The following are analyses of some well-known varieties. as given in the Report of the Commissioners for the Other selection of stone for the new Houses of Parliament. [PT. XIII.290 Composition. test of the durability of a sandcliffs by observing it in the face of exposed and old . for the cubic inch. CH. the least absorbent of water. sandstones of ordinary softness and porosity absorbing from 5 to 6 Ibs. are spoken of as siliceous. and no two strata even from the same quarry will yield perhaps the same results. ANALYSES OF SANDSTONES. in weight per cubic foot from 130 to 160 Ibs. In selecting sandstones. the more homogeneous in texture. from their softness and rapidity of disintegration when exposed to the weather. the finer-grained. and. All blocks containing balls or nodules of sulphide of iron (iron pyrites) should be carefully rejected. as the case may be. micaceous. become blackish brown with unsightly stains. if derived from the decomposition of felspathic rocks. argillaceous.ferruginous. Many of the sandstones. and The builder cannot have a better stone than finally weather out into cavities. 11 Selection for Building. analyses are given at the end of this section : TABLE XII. . GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and the freest from lime and iron should be preferred. . as in a few years such nodules oxidise. to 14. quartzose. of water per cubic foot. As mixed rocks sandstones consist of several ingredients. carbonaceous or. felspathic. In chemical composition the sandstones vary extremely. bituminous. are altogether unfit for building. while others are so hard and siliceous as to be better adapted for road metal than for building. In specific gravity the sandstones and grits vary from 2 to 2'6 . in absorbent power from 1 to 11 Ibs. calcareous. V.000 Ibs.

In Scotland Carboniferous sandstones occur low down in the Mountain Limestone of England. owing to the presence of peroxide of iron . colour. taking the place of the same may be . but in some old buildings. 16 Old Red Sandstone.] BUILDING-STONES. however. its absorbent nature he can test by experiment . at other times The it is greyish or yellowish. As they are tough and strong. is generally durable. but these are. well suited for road metal. frequently containing minute fragments of felspars and sometimes scales of mica. The sandstones including those of the Yoredale Carboniferous. occasionally with a greenish tinge. p. true sandstones. series. or flaggy sandstones. The main objection to them is their dull rusty-grey tints. sea-walls. piers. and to this circumstance their fissile character is often due. The stone is admirably adapted for resisting the effects of the smoky atmosphere of the large manufacturing towns. bridges. at all events to some extent. Silurian. ^ Forfar rocks form good and durable material for building. finer siliceous Millstone suitable respectively for foundations. and the frequent embedding of pebbles or nodules of foreign matter. ordinary building-stones. the Millstone Grit. Cambrian and stone. 291 quarries . series occur either as coarse massive grits. It is often of a deep reddish-brown or purple stone is procured. and many of the Perth and 288). and in some places good flagstones are quarried. and the said of those of Cork and Kerry. notably at Bramley Fall near Leeds. they are well fitted for harbours. it has 16 The flagstones of suffered considerably from the weather. II. durable. engine beds. if judiciously laid. Caithness are well and widely known. 11 as may be seen in the docks of Dundee. Both building stones and flagstones are They are mainly employed in the districts where the quarried. and of greyish or flagging. They are. paving and The stone is generally hard. so that they are seldom used for building purposes. Their constitution implies that they were formed. 27 series. from the detritus of pre-existing eruptive rocks. They are generally traversed by numerous joints. and in the case of a new variety he may subject it to Brand's process n (cf. for the most part. except locally in the construction of rough walls. and the Coal Measures afford good 16 The building-stones of the material for building and paving.SECT. rather to be regarded as sandy shales and slates than The flaggy sandstones are generally micaceous. such as Chepstow Castle and Tintern Abbey. however. as very little lime enters into its composition. and is used England to a large extent. closely compacted sandstones. grits. The grits are for the most part very tough. and can be raised in blocks of any size. and heavy structures. in many parts of the north of light-brown colours.

and County Antrim. brown. These rocks have being very absorbent and liable to decay. mostly a deep red colour. sometimes almost white. while those of Fifeshire are softer. the reddish . but harden on 11 exposure to the weather. are perhaps the most important sandstones of Ireland . and 27 Some of them absorb water readily parted by bands of shale. generally of purple. 16 Those belonging to the Upper Trias or Keuper are Triassic. The sandstones are but little used in England. XIII. of Somersetstained. for building-stone. and the Binnie quarry in Linlithgowshire are 16 the whitish sandstones of extensively employed for buildings and the yellower sandstones of Stirlingshire are very Glasgow durable. As a rule the Permian sandstones are not well suited for building. This stone has been largely used in the cathedrals of Chester and Worcester. Nottinghamshire white varieties at Mansfield are said to be durable and Yorkshire. comparable to the Carboniferous Sandstone in texture and 11 The sandstones loosely durability. . some parts of Cumberland. in very exposed and damp situations they are liable to flake. 16 The sandstones of the Coal Measures are generally of a more destructible nature. however. which together with dolomitic matter constitutes their except locally. of the Lower Trias or cemented and Bunter are. 16 It is not. as a rule. is of pale red. and is mostly fine-grained and easy to work. evenly bedded. the Lower Keuper Sandstones being extensively It used in the midland and north-western counties of England. too friable in character for building purposes. colour. which are generally micaceous.292 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. shire and South Wales more nearly resemble those of the Millstone Grit. particularly if placed in positions where they are unable to part with their moisture. the most important. consequently. they are sometimes more or less micaceous and are of dark-bluish or grey . and are very apt upon exposure to become ironThe Pennant Grit Sandstones. near Edinburgh. containing as they do more argillaceous matter. 27 Permian. They are also rather softer. In Ireland yellowish and reddish sandstones capable of producing a good building-stone are distributed throughout parts of 27 The Carlow flags Londonderry. however. V. yellow. as in cement. [FT. The fine-grained pale-brown and grey sandstones from Craigleith. . Tyrone. than is the case with those just described. or greyish colours. CH. 16 The Gannister Beds produce excellent flagstones known as Yorkshire flags. due to the presence of peroxide of iron. and yellow colours. as well as iron.brown and almost Staffordshire.

Tertiary. and converted into the stony skeletons of the inhabitants of the deep. a pale calcareous sandstone called fire-stone occurs. as a rule. There are. in England. beds of sand are of constant occurrence in the Tertiary formations. and Dorsetshire sandstone belonging to the A hard and fineinferior Oolite is employed for building. compared with the associated sedimentary strata consisting of various forms of sand or clay.SECT. which is used not only in the locality but at London. part limestones." The Folkestone beds of the Lower Greensand afford hard sandstone In the Upper and grit suitable for building and road-making. at least in the British Isles and Europe. by which the calcareous matter dissolved in the waters of the ocean by carbonic acid is seized upon. Those of most importance belong to the Hastings sand series. but good sandstone is quarried at Aislaby near 16 Whitby from the Lias. A calcareous sandstone Godalming in the upper part of the Hythe beds. limestones are comparatively rare. as higher importance. The rubbly sandstones in these beds are termed "hassock. which is well suited for the floors of furnaces and is also a durable building-stone. appears to be intimately connected with the development of those classes of marine animals which form for themselves calcareous shells or skeletons by the vital process of assimilation . sandstones attain great importance. they are not.] BUILDING-STONES. except for making mortar. occurs at though it is not very durable. They are often variegated and mottled and frequently exhibit false bedding 16 (cf. 16 LIMESTONES. 16 11 grained calciferous sandstone is found at Tisbury in Wiltshire. II. Limestone of several varieties is employed as a building material. Cretaceous. 27 . at Godstone and Merstham. Northamptonshire. These varieties depend very much on differences of origin and composition. but in each successive period they gradually assume a This gradual augmentation in volume. Character. Cambridge. and correspond Lithological largely to successive geological periods. a few very hard sandstones in the Woolwich series and Bagshot beds which are used In some parts of the world Tertiary for building and paving. however. This sand-rock is not a very coherent stone when first dug. 38). sufficiently coherent to be of value for building purposes. Amongst the oldest formations. Although. 11 In Lincolnshire. p. The rocks of the Jurassic period are for the most Jurassic. but it hardens on exposure and is used locally for building. Greensand. 293 but are useful for moulds in foundries. and other towns.

corals. a cloudy green. Encrinal marbles. owing to their organic origin. or serpentine itself. and crystalline marbles must necessarily vary much in density. giving them a veined or clouded appearance. however. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Parian. Many.294 Qualities. and other exuviae. more or less veined. shells. Any rock "marble" by the We . Lunabluish-grey variety chello or fire-marble. mixed with serpentine. Shell marbles. Cipolino. a with bold black veins and cloudings. absorption. and is. susceptible of a fine polish is termed stone-cutter. and Westmoreland limestones are thick-bedded and homogeneous. also crystalline and employed in Giallo-antico." which is often a brecciated lava. veined and clouded. portion of hydrate of iron Sienna. such as pure blacks and whites and parti-coloured sorts. from metallic oxides. : and semi-transparent highly esteemed for statuary purposes. a dark-brown variety. which it owes to the nacreous matter of enclosed shells. Mandelato. yellow and mixed with a small prostatuary. restricted by geologists to limestones capable of receiving a polish. like those of Purbeck and Petworth in Dorset and Sussex. . V. Verde Antique. a Rosso-antico. but. a deep blood-red. encrinites. light red. of a waxy cream colour. The term. and hence such experiments as have been made must be received as applicable only to the rocks to which they relate. hence we hear of "Connemara marble. Bardiglia. and incapable of being raised in large blocks . and Kingsbarns in Fife. of talcose schist with white saccharoidal marble. or from shells. Derbyshire. like those of Dent in Yorkshire and other " from the stems Carboniferous districts. 11 oolite. deriving their tints from accidental minerals. and Kilkenny. Marbles. should be. Black marbles like those of Derbyshire. and can be raised in blocks of great size and solidity. and other organisms which impart a variety of " figure " as well as of hue. ancient and modern Carrara. dolomite. having brilliant chatoyant reflections. used for ornamental purposes. in texture they vary from earthy to compact and subcrystalline." which is a true serpentine. receiving . CH. Yorkshire. compact limestone. 11 In structure the limestones are often jointed. pure white. A family consisting of such members as chalk. [PT. encrinites. The following are a few of the better-known and more esteemed varieties. XITI. with lighter veins and cloudings. Dent. deriving their " figure and joints of encrinites. have thus uni-coloured marbles. uniformity of texture is frequently interrupted by the remains of corals. however. a mixture . of the Devonshire. and resistance to pressure . saccharoid. and of "Sicilian marble. deriving their dark colours from bitumen. and frequently exhibiting a variety of colours in veins and blotches. a rich yellowish-brown.

. of 295 univalves their "figure" from the component shells and bivalves. the great bulk of them are quarried for the blast-furnace. with deeper veinings. except for mortar and agricultural purposes. which are worked at Plymouth. Silurian. II. occasionally reddish or flesh-coloured. and seldom quarried. and other of white and places. In England the limestones of this system are the largely developed both in thickness and extent. present some useful varieties. having a black ground irregularly traversed with bold white veinings. Devonian. Developed chiefly in Wales and of comparatively 11 little value. and are usually greyish crystalline varieties.SECT. the encrinal of Dent. Several of the limestones are used as ornamental marbles. bleaching. as shown below. None of them are used as building-stones. climate Statuary marbles of the finest hue and texture are brought from Italy and Greece (Carrara and Paros). tanning. marbles are also obtained from Belgium and France. 11 Carboniferous. road-making. The marbles are among the most varied and useful of rocks whether for external structures or for internal decoration. with veins yellow. however. for the most part. The limestones and marbles of Archaean age are found chiefly in the Scottish Highlands. and the grey-shelly and encrinal of Poolwash . and some of them are well adapted for ornamental purposes on account of the richly coloured mottling and veinings which they frequently exhibit. unless on The Devonian a very small scale for mortar and agriculture. notably the black marbles of Ashford.] BUILDING-STONES. can be raised.and greenish-veined varieties. the brown of Bake well. They are sufficiently durable in dry and pure atmospheres. 16 The South Devon marbles. St Mary's Church. for mortars. Matlock. The calcareous beds of the Old Red Sandstone proper are limited and irregular. and are easily As building-stones they are unsuited to our tooled and polished. are of various shades of grey. 11 limestones are. in blocks of any size . but only for mortar and 11 agricultural purposes. but several useful sorts are derived from the formations of our islands. agriculture. often siliceous and concretionary. extensively used for building and paving." Devon marbles. Babbacombe. The North and not unfrequently coralline or "madrepore. Some beautiful parti-coloured varieties for internal decoration. as are also many of the . and Dent. hence their use is chiefly for interior decoration. Totnes. Newton Bushel. or bluish. comprising main portion of the Lower division of the series. 11 Archaean. cements. Mainly restricted to Devonshire. though not so extensively quarried.

King's County. Derby. Many limestones in other formations contain small amounts of magnesia. CH. are much more absorbent of water than the sandstones. 11 Permian. and appear in many varying beds In (earthy. concretionary. XIIL gas purification. colours of these mountain limestones. is against their wider adoption . Upper divisions produce a good crystalline greyish limestone. The Carboniferous Limestone occupies the greater part of the central plain of Ireland and has been largely used both in the The Lower and ancient and modern buildings of this region. and oxide of iron . and other industrial purposes. of carbonate of magnesia and passing into dolomites . but many of them make strong substantial structures. they . with varying proIf the silica is in excess portions of silica. In Scotland the beds are thin and irregular and the stone is employed for the manufacture of mortar or smelting iron ores there being no other calcareous strata and is far too valuable to be used for building.296 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and in the more crystalline varieties withstand a considerable crushing power. while only a small proportion is raised for building. are regarded as magnesian limestones. V. In England they occupy considerable areas in Durham. laminated. assuming deeper tints as that In specific gravity they vary from 2 to 2 '6 6. and in a few instances oolitic but the Middle or Calp division produces a dark carbonaceous or earthy 27 Several excellent grey limestone which is liable to rapid decay. and iron. . Yorkshire. with minor proportions of silica. and Tipperary reddish and variegated in Armagh . and crystalline). and encrinal in Cork. They vary extremely in composition some containing upwards of 90 per cent. and the difficulty of tooling them. consist of carbonates of lime and magnesia. The limestones are mainly magnesian that is. are entitled to the name of " These limestones derive their warm yellowish magnesian. to 152 Ibs. of carbonate of lime. compact. . alumina." tints from the oxide of iron. coralline. [PT. a cubic foot. weigh from 128 Ibs. grey. but only those containing above 15 or 18 per cent. and would be more generally employed were it not for the abundance of available sandstones with which they are associated in Carboniferous districts. alumina. : . marbles occur black in Kilkenny and Gal way . red and mottled in Limerick and other veined and mottled varieties in several other counties. they become calcareous sandstones. ingredient prevails. and others embodying such a large proportion of silica and alumina as to The unattractive pass into cherts and hydraulic limestones. sometimes dolomitic. generally of hard and close texture but when it constitutes only a small percentage. and Notts. some containing from 10 to 15 per cent. .

In Yorkshire they are employed in various structures with varying results. whitish stone which can be raised in blocks of any size. but are worthless . even when placed in unfavourable situations. Texture and Durability. that it is only possible to mention a few of those principally employed. The Liassic limestones are argillaceous. hence the skilled and watchful care It is not only that they differ in the magnesia ranging from 45 down to 10 per cent. The celebrated quarries of Mansfield in Notts yield a siliceous dolomite of hard. Permian limestones do not occur either in Scotland or Ireland. composition system. In the same quarry. As this zone trends eastwards yet soon hardens on exposure. and Lincolnshire it assumes browner and richer tints n the Ketton stone in the latter county being an exceedingly valuable building-stone. 297 Durham they are seldom used as building-stones. II ] BUILDING-STONES. and Professor Daniell observed that the nearer the composition of magnesian limestones approaches to equivalent proportions of carbonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia. through Oxfordshire. and are burnt for hydraulic lime 16 (see Chapter XIV. possessing great tenacity.SECT. and though soft enough when first extracted to be cut with the saw. The Bath Oolite is still more largely quarried along the Somerset and Wiltshire hills. Ancaster stone is also very durable. p. 16 They occur in four series of the Few that is requisite in selection. Jurassic.. The Oolitic limestones are so numerous and constitute such valuable building-stones. The Commissioners on stone for the Houses of Parliament concurred in stating that in proportion as the stone is crystalline does it appear to resist the decomposing effects of the atmosphere . is largely developed in the Cotswold yields some fine-grained compact white or yellow beds. 318). and crystalline beds to others that are so soft and earthy as to yield readily to the nail. and under but that they vary in textural aggregation from hard. close-grained texture and enduring quality. close-grained. The Inferior Oolite. 16 . In Derbyshire the Bolsover Moor stone employed in the new Houses some wasting of Parliament has proved to be of varying quality and becoming worthless. compact. working freely and resisting atmospheric The influences. and yields a fine. Northamptonshire. beds of tried excellence are frequently associated with others which look as well. 27 rocks vary so much in texture and durability as the magnesian limestones of England. and others being fairly durable. the more crystalline and better they are in every respect. which hills.

and the rock. The Purbeck limestones. a cubic foot weighs. [PT. under these circumstances. which. They differ in structure from the limestones of older and more recent date. while it is also developed in the coarser pisolites or 16 pea-travertines of recent date. is mostly a very hard sandy limestone. Oolitic structure is not exclusively peculiar to limestones of Oolitic age. 11 Cretaceous. When carefully selected and not exposed to the Durability. being inferior in texture and durability. or replace the tests of foraminifera. many of these limestones are of fair durability but even the best of them are not to be compared in this respect with the siliceous grits and sandstones. and they are also cemented together by calcareous matter. 16 Texture and Composition. for it occurs in certain beds of Carboniferous limestone near Bristol. The Portland limestone has been long and largely quarried. coarse. generally in fine. and in composition they are nearly pure carbonates of lime with minor proportions of carbonates of magnesia. when dry. in that they are usually aggregates of little spherical deposits of carbonate of lime. These nuclei consist sometimes of a granule of sand. which have formed in concentric crusts round nuclei. and contains more or . . . are of fresh-water origin. Kentish Rag. silica. By decomposition the protoxide of iron in the glauconite is converted into peroxide of iron. CH. carbonated atmosphere of towns.298 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. very durable building-stones. unlike the preceding. roundish grains. which is derived from the Hythe beds. the glauconite grains often These rocks form fill. They vary in texture from compact. occasionally in Glauconite is stated to sometimes form the cementing medium in these rocks. seldom used as a building-stone. assumes a reddishbrown tint. sometimes of the remains of a minute organism. either as ordinary chalk or as subordinate beds of less dark-green glauconite. The little spherules are seldom much bigger than a pin's head. Limestone. of their weight of water. 11 and constitutes one of the most important building-stones of the is country. In specific gravity the oolites vary from 2 to 2*5 . but more or less carbonate of lime is always present in this capacity. XIII. small-grained roe-stones to pea-stones. while in the upper part of the series a compact limestone is known as Purbeck marble and has been used for architectural decoration for some centuries. from 125 to 150 Ibs. and from pea-stones to coarse-grained shelly and coralline rag-stones. V. and iron. invest. The Coralline Oolite. when dry they absorb from 8 to 10 per cent. have been used for paving . According to Ehrenberg.

the coarseness of Chapter VI. are called shales or flags. besides being largely burnt for lime. 299 compact limestone. been extensively quarried. When free from sand. has. described Their present. and has been employed in the construction of some of our early churches. when temporarily flooded by the overflow of rivers. Very often another and more strongly marked fissile structure is superinduced in directions cutting across the planes of stratification at various angles. is generally glauconitic at the base. and occasionally bands of flint. the lower portion. SHALES. in most instances at the bottom of the sea. . in are. The Pyramids. In other parts of the world Tertiary limestones often attain great thicknesses. but the term flag is applied to a rock of any character which splits along its bedding into large flat slabs. as in the case of the Nile. are built of Nummulitic limestone. and exceptionally over land. in the older geological formations. sented. which split parallel with the planes of lamination or bedding. Chalk. Lithological Characters. The chalk attains a great thickness in some parts of the kingdom .SECT. less silicates carbonaceous sometimes of matter is Sometimes the impurity and more or carbonate of lime many cases coarseness of texture is mainly dependent upon the sand which often occurs in them. and consequently it is common to find the term used to denote in . The Binstead limestone. This is slaty cleavage. frequently accompanied by a tendency to split along the planes of bedding. and constitute important building-stones. Those argillaceous rocks. have assumed a more or less indurated character.. impure hydrous consists of sand. AND CLAYS). they are usually of fine texture. 103).] BUILDING-STONES. termed the Grey Chalk or Chalk The Upper Chalk conMarl. 16 ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS (SLATES. Clay deposits often have a welllaminated structure. 16 In the British Isles these are but poorly repreTertiary. Certain hard beds occur in the chalk which are better suited for this purpose than the softer material. tains numerous nodules. (cf. however. p. represents a considerable part of the Cretaceous series of rocks. while most of the Cretaceous sandstones are very calcareous. for example. in others at the bottoms of lakes or as deltas. occurring in the Bembridge beds in the Isle of Wight. and. II. although at times vertical bands of flint occur filling up what once were open fissures. These rocks of alumina. is also locally used for building. Section III. chemically speaking. They have all originally been deposited as mud. which follow the stratification.

They are black. V. To when quarried. per cubic foot. as a rule. and straightness the Welsh slates are unequalled. mostly of a dark purple or greenish colour. but. Cambrian. The best Lower Silurian slates of North Wales are quarried in the Llandeilo and Bala beds. Excellent foreign slates are obtained in France. 16 A good slate is little absorbent of water. 11 The best slates are obtained from various parts of North Wales. . affording compact roofing-slates of admirable quality. stones of the inferior Oolite. but sometimes contain iron pyrites. weighs from 160 to 180 Ibs. Slate. Wales. near the coast. generally from The best slate slabs are from quarries of great magnitude. or dark-grey rocks. and pale grey. . The Cambrian slates are very important rocks. lightness. in Western Germany from the Duchy of Nassau . CH. dark grey. Tintagel. but the Irish and the Lake District varieties are while for strength harder. and elsewhere on the north coast of Cornwall from various parts of Cumberland . the term slate is given. from its decomposition. so that no good roofing-slate can. and in the east of Europe from other Slates and slabs are also found in America. The slates of the Penrhyn and Bangor and of the Din or wig or Llanberis quarries North Wales are of Cambrian age. 16 The Skiddaw (Lower Silurian slates of Cumberland) are black. in this case the term is also applied to rocks which differ widely The Collyweston slates. to yield the argillaceous rocks which split in directions other than that of bedding. from Delabole. be procured from them. [PT. Llangollen. calcareous sandfrom ordinary slate. and from the west coast of Scotland. The finest slabs and flagstones (not argillaceous) are from Yorkshire and Caithness (see Sandstones). and Aberdovey are in Silurian. . Ffestiniog. are examples of the application of the term slate as indicative of fissile structure. detrimental to them as roofing material. Still. heavier. XIII.000 Ibs. and in Brittany in Belgium from the Ardennes . For thinness. which are often traversed by many sets of cleavage planes. fissile. and should resist a crushing weight of from 20. sandstones which are sufficiently slabs or flags. causing them to break up into splinters or dice. and the green slates of the Lake District. cuts but toughly. chiefly from near Angers.000 to 25. and not of lithological character. and more durable and solidity the Scotch are perhaps superior to either. tougher. is most Qualities. 13 places. which have been mapped as volcanic ash by the Geological Survey. freely .300 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. which is common in many slates. and capable of being split into very thin and large slates exceedingly free from pyrites.

SECT. As it is. Flags are quarried for roofing and paving purposes at several places in Yorkshire. the direction of the cleavage-planes. and the quarries are so situated that the waste can be disposed of. Uniformity of texture and condition of the rock for considerable distances. but have a greener tinge. by partial hardening. at Wiveliscombe and Treborough in 16 The Somersetshire. Perthshire. communicate value to a property unless the essential point of cheap and ready conveyance to a large market can be secured. They are of dark-grey colour or black. the nature of the small veins of other material pervading the slate (of which there are always many). while the rough Silurian slates are material serves for local building purposes. 301 The cleavage in these rocks is the principal quarries. and other counties where Carboniferous rocks occur. and in Devonshire in the neighbourhood of Tavistock. where long exposure to the weather has usually disintegrated and even destroyed the texture. obliterated or obscured the cleavage. J BUILDING-STONES. 27 Carboniferous. but in other parts of the world slates of even Tertiary age occur. among quarried in Scotland in Inverness-shire. Lancashire. at the Delabole and Tintagel quarries. also at Killaloe and some other localities in Ireland Slates of a grey colour are worked in Cornwall. entirely from the superficial rock and its geological condition that a judgment must be formed. and in other parts of the United Kingdom. It is not usual to find slates and slabs good condition near the surface. slates of Valencia in Ireland somewhat resemble those of Killaloe. the presence or absence of iron pyrites. and are principally used in the neighbourhoods where they are quarried. are procured. so that occasionally slates 10 feet long. 6 inches or a foot wide. the direction and magnitude of the joints these are the chief points concerning which careful investigation is But any or all of these are altogether insufficient to necessary. often wonderfully perfect and even. a certain amount of experience. the nature and condition of the cleavage. and scarcely thicker than a These remarkably thin stout piece of cardboard. II. 16 Selection of Quarry. slates are tolerably flexible. The Upper Silurian rocks also afford good slates and flags in certain localities. . There are no true clay slates of later age in Great Britain. combined with a knowin ledge of the material. however. and often. Devonian. enables the geologist to judge well of the chance of a valuable quarry. and the valuable part of the slate laid bare without great 12 expense. and are mainly procured from the Coal Measures. and Aberdeenshire .

302 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. TABLE XIII. . ANALYSES OF SANDSTONES. LIMESTONES. AND CLAY-ROCKS.

o CO : iis in Ibs. 303 OO CO <* rH CO rH CO rH CO Specific Gravity.OCOrH lOiOOOCOiO OOsCOCOt>. Absorption in percentage of is Dry Weight. CO Bitumen. Water and Loss. iO iO rH eo <p cp co rH 00 rH rH CO CO CO p i t~t^ OO * os CO fH rH I CO oo CO p CO COT* Alumina and Iron. : ^ b ^ OS .O T ^P? ipfT C*0-*0 1 1 5 OSOSOS CO OS OSOSJO *P M< rf< i>. coco^cpt^cp orHosrHcoci <J< O OOO oiursco cocorH cotrH >co* rH co -^ Tfl Tfl Tji Phosphate of Lime.BUILDING-STONES. o rH O rH rH 00 rHOOOCO CO 03 oog^S: O ? co o co os CM CO OS CO Silica rHCOrHCOCO CO CO CO ^i vi woscop. cpoooo COCOOO^CO t> -'rH ^OC O r1 O co * ^ Carbonate ot Magnesia s*l v iO CO CO ^tMcoprr' corncooos . Sulphate of Lime. CO TJH ** CO CO rH rH rH CO CO CO CO CO CO CO Crushing Load per sq. ft. ^rl ^ rl J"^ 'ig'^rSj'!^^'!^^ Jlg^H If J | .t^. . ft. CO Weight per cub. g= oaroonate /-(i f 01 COCOCOOO poo>posp Lime OSOSOSOSCO 0^^>tO rHrH>o^oop rHTtlt>.OS kQ J I % 1 J a 1 J s||. in tons.

LIMESTONES. AND CLAY-ROCKS Continued.304 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. . XIII. TABLE ANALYSES OF SANDSTONES.

and it will sometimes hold together moderately well when baked. 116). but by the mechanical trituration of a felspathic This substance may be called Felspathic Mud. fairly plastic. but has approximately the same composition as the mineral from which it was derived. CLAYS. Clays (cf. p. Hence mineral. alkaline earths. a complex silicate of alumina. BRICKS AND CLAYS. Kaolin and Felspathic Mud.CH. A clayey substance will often hold together as long as but falls to powder when all the water is driven off. 85) . if it be first dried at 100 C. 114). though this is very imperfectly the case with many of the substances that would be called clays in common parlance. XIV. and perhaps of other substances.] CHAPTER XIV. The clay of ordinary language The one includes two substances of totally different character. 76) or a felspathic mineral refine powder. but not decomposed. at higher temperatures. It is also generally understood that it will retain its shape when dried by heat. comclays may be divided into two classes. the other clayey substance is composed of felspar (p. is kaolin or china clay (see Chapter V. and it has been produced not by the chemical decomposition. p. It is eminently clayey in many of its properties . clay is used to denote any earthy substance which can be worked up with water into a plastic mass. viz. p. Mudstones (cf. But it is anhydrous . a mass which may be pressed into any form and will retain the shape given to it. as the case may be . alkalies. that is. posed essentially of kaolin with admixtures of other substances . IN the common acceptation of the word. composed essentially of felspar with mixtures of other substances. 7 it is damp. In practice a great many clayey rocks duced to a very 305 20 . to drive off the mechanically mixed water. it gives off no water in a closed tube It is not a simple silicate of alumina. though seldom to the same degree as kaolin . so finely divided that when mixed with water it takes days to settle to the bottom ..

gradually into argillaceous sandstones and common sandstone. Blue-bind. Shales. ironstone. When there is a good deal of sand present. Bass. It may be here noted that its plasticity. and though powdered brick will absorb a great deal of water. it is impossible to make it in The degree of the least degree plastic by any amount of water. if felspathic mud. Marl. and Crystals of clays and shales. the blow-pipe . or Bait. Shales stained dark by vegetable matter are called Carbonaceous When such shales contain sufficient bituShale.306 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 7 . p. Shales containing a sufficient quantity of iron pyrites are used for the manufacture of alum and are called Alum Shales. Balls very are generally found in clays containing iron . The oxidation of the iron pyrites and some calcareous matter. for instance. the Clayey rocks which split into layers along planes of bedding are called Shale . V. Loam (cf. the combined water which be driven off by strong heat This water. Marl 1 15. Kaolin and felspathic mud are most certainly distinguished by analysis. or Stone-bind. coal occasionally. the rock is called Arenaceous or Sandy Shale. seems to depend largely on the fineness of the plasticity 7 particles. 116) is a clay containing carbonate of lime . iron pyrites are selenite are not and produces sulphate of lime. minous matter to be used for the manufacture of paraffin. Plate. it is called calcareous shale or Marl Slate. they Such shales pass gradually into cannel are called Oil Shales. 115) is a mixture of clay latter being present in sufficient quantity to allow of water percolating through the mass and to prevent its binding and sand. its edges at least may be following method till : with water all rounded. These forms pass together. if the rock (cf. The residue is boiled in dilute hydrochloric acid to dissolve off the coating of oxide of iron which colours the grains . [PT. and If the clay be kaolin. it is then filtered and well washed. a small portion is pressed with the blade of a knife into a thin plate with a sharp edge. splits into plates. Shiver are other names applied by miners to the same rock. and this acts on the carbonate of lime common in uncommon they and irregular lumps of clay. pyrites produces sulphuric acid. is expelled in the burning of bricks. The streak of oil shales is usually brown. pp. because they contain both kaolin and felspathic mud in variable proportions. cannot strictly be placed under either of these heads. Bind. this plate will be infusible before dried. Method of distinguishing Clay and Mud. or Rock-bind. etc. is it is gives kaolin the residue If this no longer plastic. but the will often suffice The clay is elutriated grains of sand or foreign matter are removed. Loam.

alumina. and coloured by the presence of metallic oxides and organic matter. but in the older formations. They are also found in Tertiary formations sufficiently soft and plastic for the purposes of the potter and brick-maker. desiccated lake-sites. after being 16 artificially mixed with chalk and burnt. large quantities of which are annually shipped at Teignmouth.CH. Generally speaking. There are also many brick-earths and clays of post-Tertiary age which The are extensively used for brick-making and other purposes. in addition to the presence of Carbonaceous matter. The former. which belongs to the Bagshot of the The clays series. and the London clay. etc. some of which are used for brickmaking. which have been formed from the decomposition of the felspathic constituents of granite . the celebrated Poole clay. used for brick-making and burning for lime and hydraulic cement. which occurs in the Trias. It has principally in the form of carbonate of the protoxide. in the state of anhydrous peroxide. with the exception of some beds in the Lias .] BRICKS AND CLAYS. and upraised seabeds. more or less mingled with mineral impurities. may be mentioned the china clays or kaolins of Cornwall. river-valleys. . and plastic. or scattered over the surface as drifts or boulder-clays. sectile. the Watcombe clay. estuaries. and is now used in the manufacture of pottery . change to bright yellow. and emit. the calcareous Liassic clays. and occasionally to the presence of finely divided In the white and light-grey clays iron occurs bisulphide of iron. the clays of the Woolwich and Reading beds. XIV. afford good pottery-clays and pipe-clays. 4 All the clays are essentially hydrous silicates of Qualities. 307 purposes Of the clays used in this country for economic British Clays. also been shown that many clays contain a notable proportion of titanic acid. the Gault. The varied colouring of clays (and other rocks) is Colouring. while intermediate conditions and concentration of the iron give shades of brown and purple. on becoming hydrated. when breathed upon. they are soft. Bovey beds. known as the clayey or The majority are superficial deposits occurring in argillaceous. imparts the deep reds which. and is extensively used for pottery. The grey clays so largely developed as clunches and fire-clays in the Coal Measures owe their colour. due to the presence of iron in various states of oxidisation. all of which are used for bricks . dug at Wareham. to carbonate of the protoxide of iron in a fine state of subdivision. a peculiar odour. river-mud in the Medway and at the mouth of the Thames is largely used in the manufacture of Portland cement. to black. and The latter colours the clay from light grey to organic matter. the various clays of Oolitic and Neocomian age.

yellow. 138) of the Glacial or immediately post-Glacial period. or grey. meagre. and red. from the clays of the Tertiary system. or long clays as they are termed. lime. Pure clay (silicate of alumina) is reRefractory Qualities. of which there ought not to be more than 2 per cent. term it. the refractory qualities of clay are least influenced by magnesia. still more by oxide of fractory and most of all by potash. capable of resisting intense heat . etc. they become more compact. during which they undergo a kind of fermentation or internal This ripening or tempering. and which are iron. according to the fabric for which they are intended a clay fit for a common brick being unfitted for a fire-brick. Besides this mellowing most of the clays have to undergo various position of processes of washing. generally fine in texture. pugging.. which is also of little consequence. The relative percentages of silica and alumina do not seem extremely important. 11 Brick-clay of the better kind consists of a tolerably pure silicate of alumina. According to the experiments of E.308 GEOLOGY FOK ENGINEERS. p. and a clay suited for common or brown earthenware being altogether unsuitable for porcelain or china. and there is always a variable proportion of water present. the clay must be tolerably free from large stones and coarse particles . short. Richters (1868). [PT. clays occur in various states of purity and plasticity some being pure. 11 As sedimentary deposits. and pass into the texture and consistency of shales and clay slates. pyrites. and exposed to the action of air and frost. unctuous. as the decomposition of lime. and. The thickest and most extensive beds are the so-called "brick clays" (cf. laid out in heaps of moderate thickness. and others impure. combined with sand in various proportions. but abundant supplies can also be obtained from estuary silts. according to the rock formations from which they have been derived. 11 Brick and Tile Clays are widely diffused. tenacious. and Oolite. greatly improves their quality. or with which they are associated . as the workmen decomposition. and admixture. more so by lime. or deficient in tenacity. or other alkaline earth in such proportions as to render it in any degree fusible. that is. they are all improved by being dug in summer. as . blue. and occasionally from the outcrops of the argillaceous beds of the older systems. crushing. that it should not contain iron oxide. for use. and Whatever their natural characters. and is no doubt the result partly of chemical change. resulting from the waste and decompre-existing rocks. It is clear that. and partly of mere mechanical disintegration. V. and free from lime and other alkaline ingredients. and one essential requisite in a good clay is.

or alkaline earths. ovensoles. Kaolin shrinks and cracks in drying and firing too much to allow of being used for brick-making. it must support great pressure at high temperatures without crumbling.linings. and other objects which have to endure exceedingly high and long-continued temperatures. usually passes into the state of peroxide and gives the brick a dark-red colour. crucibles. where they occur in beds from 1 to 5 feet in thickness. 11 As far as infusibility goes there is no widely diffused substance that will resist heat better than silica. because it has a theoretically suitable composition. and hence a theoretically perfect fire-clay is either kaolin or a mixture of kaolin and silica. to a uniform is consistency.CH. certain proportion of iron A compound is commonly present. FIRE-BRICKS. and this vehicle must be itself infusible. But nature has furnished us with rocks which approach a mixture of kaolin and silica in composition very nearly. obtained from the Coal Formation. Such a vehicle we find in kaolin. the fire-clays are clays. 309 the principal process of manufacture before burning consists in mixing the clay with water and sand. and it must resist the corrosive action of some of the slags produced in metallurgical operations. anything that would interfere with this process injurious. XIV. that a clay. we can make silica into bricks we must have some vehicle to bind the grains together. Fire-clays derive their name from their highly refractory or a property they possess from their containing little or no lime.] BRICKS AND CLAYS. furnace. ETC. protoxide of iron. however. and manipulate than ordinary clays. and these make the best fireits enough to bricks. It must not be assumed. Too large a quantity of iron compound renders the brick liable to run into glass in the this. gas-retorts. . will necessarily make a good There are other conditions to be satisfied . that would Unlike the other cause them to yield to intense temperatures. 13 FIRE-CLAYS. and burnt. or ashes. and for the most part as the floors infusible nature " or " under-clays of coal-seams. coke-ovens. even if it were plentiful be employed for this purpose. and if finely divided silica were plastic we could not have a better material for making But before bricks capable of standing heat without being fused. is when the brick kiln. grate-backs. must not crack and fly when exposed to a sudden rise or great extremes of temperature. the brick fire-brick. which are mainly superficial deposits. Being more expensive to raise they are chiefly employed in the fabrication of fire-bricks.

About 1 per cent. however. Light mealy deposits composed of the Floating known siliceous shields of infusoria and the frustules of diatoms have been as diatomaceous. . Fire-bricks are in some cases made out of The Dinas brick substances composed almost entirely of silica. employed in the construction of ovens. Dinas Bricks. The Upper Greensand of Kent and Surrey (Reigate) yields a stone of this description which was at one time much prized . U.S. of lime is mixed with the sand. ovens. the " Tuscany. will settle the question. 11 . and the sandstone of Craigenbank. of silica. and alkalies present in it in the Dinas process. capable of being sawn into blocks of any form. and subjecting it to the heat that it will be required 7 to stand. [PT. Oolitic. only one-sixth the weight of ordinary bricks. near Borrowstounness. . It contains up to 96 per cent. and able to resist intense and intermittent temperatures.310 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. siliceous rock. and similar erections subjected to high and oftentimes to intermittent temperatures. 292) is used for making fire-bricks " " and linings to furnaces and Bessemer converters in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Chemical and mineralogical examination will often enable us to say that certain clays will assuredly not make fire-bricks and it will enable us to say that other clays are promising enough to make it worth while trying them but nothing short of making a test-brick. is usually applied to certain sandstones of the Greensand. fire-clay fabrics. and similar purposes.. and the mixture pressed into moulds. 7 play the same part as the lime Bricks. Such sandstones. some of the soft yellow sandstones of the Tyne have also been employed in furnace structures . is made of pounded or weathered gritstone which contains between 98 and 99 per cent of silica. and it is probable that the ferric oxide. The lime causes the outside of the dried. and strongly fired. they are suitable for use as fire-proofs on board the These siliceous earths are by no means rare ship. and the "Richmond earth of Virginia being examples on a large scale. infusorial. and microphytal earths employed in the manufacture of floating bricks by mixing the As these bricks are fossil flour with a paste of lime and clay. 7 quartz grains to fuse and adhere together. Firestones. lime. however. having a specific gravity of 1*49. V. described as a light. and unaffected by the strongest heat. and Coal formations. " " mountain meal " of Sweden and " polishing slate of Bilin. are all but superseded by is The firestone of Nevada. 11 A stone called gannister (cf. glass furnaces. porous. p. has been shipped to St Petersburg for furnaces. Any stone that stands heat for a considerable time without perceptible injury is entitled to the designation of a Firestone. The term.

constituting meerschaum. mixed (and so altered) either with more sand or more tough clay. such as sand. as some geologists have supposed (see Chapter VII. unless we also possess a chemical analysis of the natural material. either alone. or iron. in fact. More widely spread for our use. vases. not to the brickmaker. bricks. XIV. true hydrates. etc. it is quite possible. by any amount of examination. mouldings. etc.washing. or breeze. or more than one of these ." etc. and other architectural ornaments prepared from the finest fire-clays. grinding. he may modify by the addition of other mineral bodies. to tell with a great degree of certainty whether it will make good bricks or not. The brickmaker deals with natural clays only. They do not require further notice here. and this is Clays. and then further wetting a little bit.. tiles. and rubbing it between the thumb and forefinger. They are.). ashes. the latter magnesian clays. . pebbles. These "baked earths" of the Italians are merely unglazed wares vases. Extreme care is bestowed in the selection and manipulation of the raw material the object being to secure a substance that will contract equally. the constitution of which.CH. both hydrated H : especially so when indurated. magnesium. are essentially chemical compounds. answer well for the brickmaker's use cannot be made before trial.. and have the general + RO. or ashes. when more or less ascertained in respect to his object. but recently Staffordshire and Lanark have produced shafts. etc. and 29 occasionally with coarsely ground coal. which have generally the combination Si0 2 4. Aided by that. They true whether they be or be not always mere mud from dischoice of a clay that shall The integrated rocks.(A1 2 8 + Fe 2 3 ) and the calcareous clays (Si0 2 + FeO + (Na 2 + 2 0) + H 2 K . or. SCIENCE OF BRICK-MAKING. upon tempering a ball of the clay. we have the ferruginous clays. Italy and France have long enjoyed the supremacy in terra-cottas . these are rare. statuettes. manganese. the last or accidental constitution (Si0 2 + A1 2 3 ) + 2 base or bases being usually oxides of calcium. and the like of unrivalled 11 symmetry and elegance. and so avoid all warping or distortion in the finished article. 311 Terra-cottas. as sand. and whose physical qualities he may alter by mechanical means " slip. or by the mechanical extraction of naturally mixed matter. as is almost always the case. Choice of Clay.] BRICKS AND CLAYS. and they may be Pure aluminous clays and pure divided into four great classes. as they belong to the porcelainmaker. pyrites. observing its plasticity and body.

be delivered into the brickyard in their moist natural state. which are absorbed to all depths in brick. and if it exist in the state of diffused limestone or chalk pebbles. oxidation takes place. + Fe 2 3) Either of these this is + (CaO + C0 2 + MgO + C0 2 ) FeO + Na2 + K 2 0) may be mixed with more or less siliceous in considerable proportion the clay is sand. or but very slowly. and when lose a more or less of their hygroscopic water at 212 F. most of the calcareous clays melt at or below this temperature. While many of the clays rich in alumina. and then. durable. as found in nature. or rather below it. 29 Analyses of various clays are given in the annexed table (p. of lime is scarcely fitted for good brick-making. and the plastic mixture not so free and nice as before. of hard pyrites or limestone. and in fact a clay that contains more than about 5 per cent. When these are exposed later on to air and moisture. contain some Foreign Unless these are organic matters and pebbles of foreign bodies. Bodies. The pyrites is but partially decomposed in the kiln oxide of iron and basic sulphides of iron remain. and when sand in a separate form is at hand. and so burst the brick to pieces. when the brick absorbs moisture and carbonic acid. 317). or taken out by the screen or sieve. Iron pyrites also in clays. for these burn into caustic lime in the kiln. they bake into pottery or brick. or at least agglutinate. assuming a vitreous texture if the heat be long continued. is a not uncommon accidental product present and unless separated. Whether a natural clay contains much or little sand naturally is not important. Clays naturally very rich in lime or the alkalies (derived from felspar) are the worst. and frequently also sulphates of lime . . most of their oxide do not fuse. it is easiest and best mixed in such proportions as we may require in the pug-mill. if possible. sulphate of iron. loam. at the melting-point of castiron. they shrink and harden greatly. Flinty pebbles can generally be crushed in the clay-mill. and the labour of mixing into good brick "stuff" is greater. it is so much the worse. If the lime be in the state of carbonate. and iron They . they are unimportant. to say nothing of wellcoloured brick can never be made of the clay. Most clays. for when they have been permitted to dry up under a scorching sun or drying wind. silica. combined water at a red heat.312 (A1 2 3 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. the " nodules of lime " slack and swell in their places. Clays should. and at a bright yellow or white heat. [FT. Every clay requires more or less grinding and mixing. + H 2 0. V. it is worst of all.

silicic acid. opaque glasses). and in that condition it carries with metallic compounds. they frequently. potash and soda. when wetted in the wall. 313 alums (sulphates with double bases). and of a few others. as those of iron.. The most . Silicic acid. forms glass or enamel (i. singly or in combination. various clays. and will not bear cutting for face. twist. hydrated or not. together with several other chemical compounds occasionally. magnesia.] BRICKS AND CLAYS. also present. with silicic acid. though burning into good brick. are unfit for is which is that bricks The result exist in nearly all clays. it. made of such clays tend to fuse. in accordance with the general law of chemistry that bodies in the same range combine. and. though itself a base with respect to As regards the oxides of the earthy metals. and been exposed to a agglutinate together upon the surfaces long before they have sufficient or sufficiently prolonged heat to burn " them to the core into good hard brick. Alumina.CH. but when these are taken from the seashore. and with small amounts of the alkalies. or from localities in and about the salt formations in all other respects excellent (Trias). these. present in minute proportions. for when not burnt completely and in the kiln. Normal Constituents. and exposed to high temperatures in certain proportions. because never afterwards free from hygrometric moisture. also combine at high temperatures. The normal constituents of brick clays. etc. Chloride of sodium not only a powerful flux when mixed even in very small proportion in clays. are formed. oxides with oxides. 29 then. in a volatile state. with which we need not concern ourselves. and also act as fluxes.e. the great electro-negative element of clays when combined with the oxides of the earthy bases. lime. but nothing more . and like these (when used again in new work) discolour plastering or stucco- work. salt is nearly always present in minute quantity in or Common clays . from beneath the sea-washes. though in a less degree. split it to pieces. may be said to be oxides of the earthy metals. etc. such bricks..work without spoiling the appearance of the brick-work. occasionally pass out soluble compounds like those absorbed from soot by the bricks of the flue. XIV. which is sometimes difficult with the denser clays. the bricks are of a different colour in the exterior and interior. made of such clay. Much carbonaceous matter naturally mixed in clays is also in certain states objectionable. But. but uncertainly. also plays the part of acid towards the earthy bases. to warp. crystallising within the mass of the brick. alumina. but possesses the property of being volatilised by the heat of the brick-kiln. " Place bricks can be and these are always bad. worse than this.

etc. with or without alkalies . 310). not only upon the chemical nature of the constituents of the clay. Porcelain. the mass is infusible in the kiln. are most usually infusible except at still higher temperatures. but if the silicic be in great excess (as in Dinas fire-brick. such as the alkalies or oxides of potassium. 29 The laws. powerful bases. or binding together fragmentary bits of uniformly diffused silicic acid (sand. more especially alumina or magnesia. at the highest temperature of the porcelain furnace or brick-kiln. Magnesia present in large proportions with either of the other earths produces a very difficultly fusible compound. the form of glass at once. and hard brick (such as the Staffordshire or Flintshire blue bricks) consist in substance of such compound glasses. Compounds of silicic acid with alumina are less fusible than with lime. per se. . of Kir wan (Mineralogy). and the results obtained pounds. the chief characteristic of which is the When such glasses are formed with oxides of vitreous fracture. have been elicited from innumerable experiments made by ceramic chemists upon very varied comThe phenomena are complex. then. and other writers. who made very many experiments upon known combinations of earths when exposed to heat. but upon the proportions in which these are present. the bases being two others combined. Silicic acid combined with any one earth is less fusible than when combined with two or more a proof that not only the silicic acid combines with each earth. acid and of earths. with or without other metallic oxides present. and sodium and the oxides of iron. Where the silicic acid constitutes the largest proportion of the mass it is much more fusible. but that these in its Laws Binary compounds of silicic presence combine with each other. earthenware. V. lime. upon which depends the induration or agglutination by heat of silicic and earthy compounds. so far as they have been of Induration. they may assume a crystalline or porcellaneous character when cooled. magnesia. or if one or other of the earthy bases be in great excess. ascertained. The degree of fusibility or of partial fusibility (agglutination) of any hard-baked brick depends. ground flint. or binding together the finely diffused particles of the excess of earthy oxides which are present.).314 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. see p. diffused throughout their substance uniformly. and these less so than with the alkalies. Silica. earthy bases also present. are all infusible. or of earths with earths. [PT. With oxides of iron silicic acid forms fusible compounds in certain proportions. combine more readily with silicic These combinations usually take acid than do the earthy oxides. We must refer for these to the works are mostly only empirical. alumina.

or true chemical combinations of those with each other or with the earths themselves.CH. much concerned in the production of certain qualities of brick that which was for example. exposed to heat. soft. down to George II.e. Thus alumina and sesquioxide of iron become compact. but which may be both. when exposed for some time to a high temperature. which is probably rather a change in the state of molecular aggregation than a chemical combination. through full yellow. which. Compound oxides. The same is true of many of the lightcoloured bricks now in use. and present in the of colouring to bricks. 29 Were brick constituted of silicic acid and pure clays Bricks. which contain most alumina. i. and physical or molecular and must be held in view by the scientific brickmaker. and frequently compacted.] BRICKS AND CLAYS. and orange. but with the duration of the time of It is least in compounds in which the silicic acid preexposure. and if these pass partially from the crystalline to the vitreous state of aggregation in the firing. indurated more or by less. This induration. presents no sign of agglutination. as when obtained precipitation or by levigation. the specific gravity is reduced and the increase of volume may more than equal the This is said to be the case with Dinas fire-brick. its constituents have merely become partially indurated and compacted by the fire. owe only. 29 Two sets of forces. 315 All difficultly fusible and pulverulent oxides. as is the Staffordshire blue brick . when so become still more indurated and compact. it would be perfectly white. iron in various states of oxidation. and . contraction. Where the proportion of oxide of iron present is very large. from protoxide to sesquioxide. and of nearly all the of oxides the common metals. in the burning of brick chemical. most varied proportions. and it combines with silicic acid to form silicates of iron in or on the brick. earths. though presenting no traces of agglutination or of fusion. scarlet cutting brick so much employed for fine facing brick in the reign of William is III. is said to expand. almost as bright as red lead. their colour to admixed metallic oxides . dominates . to the rich scarlet of red facing-brick. give the whole range from the lightest tawny yellow. are or may be in play Contraction. become hard in grain. Colours. then. when highly heated in furnaces built of it. This is true even of some pure such as alumina and magnesia. XIV. its colour may be dark purple or nearly black. and with any given specimen is great not only in proportion to the elevation of the temperature to which it is exposed. To the latter belongs the contraction that takes place in the process of This is greatest with those firing of all porcelain and brick. the fine. like porcelain.

V. which is fatal then both to the texture and colour. if possible. or in what proportion. . what proportion of process of firing. but mainly upon two air is admitted to the combustion of the fuel in the kiln that is to say. For the production of fine red brick. of oxide of [PT. and of heat 29 especially. on the contrary. whether the brick is finally burnt with an oxidising or a deoxidising flame and whether or not. oxide of iron present in abundant proportion. when a small quantity colour iron. it will be seen that brick-making is one of the chemico-mechanical arts. which is but a branch of the latter. is still manganese darker and may become is present also. . but must not be fused into a silicate of peroxide of iron. we need scarcely say that the foundation of all accurate and predictive knowledge of it must be based upon a sound knowledge of chemistry. Upon an exact knowledge of the effects producible by the play of these conditions (chiefly) upon the brick in burning rests the power of the brickmaker to vary or maintain with certainty the good colour of his ware. and of the laws of physics. when at elevated temperatures.316 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Being so. and be fully peroxidised. [TABLE. steam or water is present in the brick. For light-coloured bricks the clays must be almost free from and the latter must not be peroxidised. says Mr Mallet. the clays must be pure. or to effect any desirable changes of colour of which his material may be susceptible. the quite black. or is brought in the state of vapour in contact with it. silicic acid not present in excess. From this very incomplete sketch. With a given constitution of brick clay the final colour of the burnt brick depends upon a large number of conditions in the viz. in the burning.

BRICKS AND CLAYS. 317 .CH. XIV.

"hydraulic cements and limes " are such as possess the power of " setting " or solidifying under water. CEMENTS. 30 exposed to the action of water. where Portland is so largely used. and to this extent the " Limes. as a rule. All limes have a tendency to 1 fall asunder. the less intense." greater is the resemblance of such limes to cements. and the cements which do expand and to not. and are said to become "slaked. Certain impure limes. Definition of Cements and Limes. from pure oxide of calcium 318 down to true . or notable evolution of heat." The purer the lime the more energetic and rapid is this action. " fall " or crumble when therefore. where the cost of Portland cement is often prohibitive. AND PLASTERS. the engineer and builder in Great Britain. It may be assumed that limes of every different degree of calcareous energy. V. resembling in their composition the constitution of cements. a knowledge of the uses and geological distribution of the various limes and limestones is of comparatively little value.PT. but to those employed on works of construction in Greater Britain and India." as distinguished from limes. To cement XV. Intermediate Limes. as distinguished from cements. as by a proper admixture of suitable substances the engineer may greatly add to its hydraulicity." or such as occupy a position intermediate between the true limes. while conversely the greater the quantity of clayey matter combined with the lime. are materials which are capable of solidifying when in contact with water without perceptible change of volume. and the slower is the act of hydration. some acquaintance with the different limes is of the highest importance. is the chemical affinity for water. CHAPTER LIMES. which undergo disruption when exposed to the action of water. apparently. Especially is this the case where the ordinary lime of the neighbourhood is a " fat " lime. have been appropriately named "intermediate limes. or to crumble into powder when treated with water. "Cements. become changed when so treated.

exist in nature . In the oxide itself 40 parts by weight of metallic This calcium. thus there is an enormous range of varieties of action to be studied. an absolutely dry powder. speedily attracts moisture from the atmosphere. or the oxide of calcium. and "quicklime" (calcium oxide). tempered into an extremely rich and unctuous paste. the chemical symbol for which is CaO. Combination of Lime with Water. when placed in the kiln. We obtain quicklime. it shrinks and forms a porous mass of no great hardness. contains a certain percentage of moisture which has also to be expelled. 319 cements. The chemical affinity of is one of the most powerful with which we are acquainted. The water which combines with the lime in the act of hydration is truly solidified. Ca. Quicklime. by calcining or heating to redness a carbonate of lime. or slaked lime.] LIMES. and which can be driven off in the gaseous form at a cherry-red heat (about 440 Centigrade). 30 Quicklime. CEMENTS. and any attempt to classify all limes under two or three sub-heads must be futile and untrustworthy. the limestone or chalk. or lime recently lime for water when exposed to the air. Calcination. CaC0 3 and by this means expelling the carbonic acid gas or carbon dioxide. caustic lime. On adding a further quantity of water. of rocks in all parts of the world. and in every different degree of purity (see Mortar Limestones. oxide cannot be decomposed by heat. and combines with such water to form calcium This hydroxide may occupy as much hydroxide. . and therefore the amount of slaked lime produced from a given bulk of quicklime appears in certain cases to be very considerable. AND PLASTERS. Generally speaking. If this paste is permitted to dry.CH. the bulk of this powder is much reduced. Lime combined with carbonic acid is found in a great variety . are combined with 16 parts of oxygen gas. XV. below). and it may be calcined. when the stone is thoroughly well burned and all the carbon dioxide is expelled. one of the earthy metals. when the exact proportion of water necessary for this purpose has been employed. nor is metallic calcium itself anywhere found in an uncombined form. C0 2 with which the lime is combined. 0. In a pure carbonate of lime 44 parts by weight of carbon dioxide or carbonic acid are combined with 56 parts by weight of calcium oxide. obtain more than half its weight of quicklime from a given weight of stone dealt with in . as three times the space previously filled by the quicklime. and thus the limeburner can rarely. 30 LIMES. and the hydrate formed is. does not exist in nature.

When H . even after the lapse of many years. [pT.320 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. the slaked takes place. boiling point. It is necessary to distinguish between the so-called "set" of the mortar. 2 0. and in the case of thick walls the internal layers of mortar never to Fuchs. but. V. 30 Acid. or of ages in the case of pure limes. when falling rapidly to quicklime. under these circumstances. will crumble into dust readily if the water is at the Slaked Lime. but this action is mainly in the superficial layers of the mortar. they were observed to combine with water. when slaked and used for mortar. according Lime slowly recombines with Carbonic CaC0 3 + Ca(OH) 2 or consisting of equal equivalents of the carbonate and the hydrate of lime. Great heat is evolved in this process. Some writers have attempted to classify the different varieties of lime in accordance with the quantity of slaked lime produced. When exposed pure caustic lime is converted very slowly and without notable increase of temperature into a rather coarse powder. by the simultaneous absorption of moisture and carbonic acid." which will scarcely slake or fall to powder when cold water is employed. The action of carbonic acid mainly superficial. It is not. of . and the action Ca(OH) 2 is expedited by the use of boiling water. The carbonate thus produced would seem to result from the decomposition of the first-formed hydrate. and poor if they are impure and become slaked slowly. 30 lime becomes " slaked " it is found that 56 parts by weight of quicklime combine with 18 parts by to form 74 parts of calcium hydroxide. years must elapse before the penetrates very slowly. of lime. they are . it is resolved into a double compound having the formula. yielding relatively but little dust . Lime made from pure carbonate of lime. though in theory the yield should be 56 per cent. which is merely due to the absorption of the superabundant water. for when moisture is wholly excluded no combination between the lime and the dry carbonic acid gas In order to expel the water of hydration. or with the speed with which For instance. and the actual induration by means of the carbonic acid gas which is a process of years. become completely hard. 30 or. as the gas In fact. Certain "poor limes. limes are frequently classed as fat or rich limes if they readily become slaked and furnish a large volume of powder. the kiln. lime must again be heated to dull redness. wholly converted into a carbonate of lime. weight of water. to the air. 30 Classification of Limes. recarbonisation of the lime is thoroughly accomplished. likewise gradually recombines with the carbonic acid gas present in the atmosphere and becomes indurated.

poor. alkalies. they are regarded as hydraulic and when requiring. they . they are poor .^ 1 It is. It is not necessary. both by heat and in the humid way. AND PLASTERS. It is. as nearly all limestone rocks. or they may be ground up along with the It is this fact which needs lump lime before it is slaked. Certain of these substances which are added to pure limes to bring about this action are called These are clayey or siliceous matters of pozzuolanas or trass. XV. now known that this slaking action depends upon numerous conditions which have to be specially studied for each class of limes. All that is necessary for the due action of these clayey matters is that they should themselves have been roasted or calcined either artificially or by volcanic heat. Absolutely pure limestones are only met with in exceptional cases. 30 Artificial Admixture of Clayey Matters. The Influence of Clayey Matters. and it is upon the proportion of these ingredients present that the behaviour of the calcined lime principally depends. and eminently hydraulic limes is still met with in many engineering books. as we shall see.CH. etc. however. hydraulic.] rich LIMES. The silica compounds are of a very complex character. that these substances so far influence the slaking action that they may even bring about the ultimate setting of the mixture without change of volume the characteristic property (as already stated) of cements. are highly or energetically hydraulic. that is to say. 1 HYDRAULIC LIMES. it may be. and the greater part of the Chalk formation. however.. iron. 21 . medium. 30 Pozzuolana. owing to the presence of certain of these clayey matters that limes pass over by gradual stages into the form of cements. and may be produced. . 321 when falling only after eight or ten minutes. Trass. careful consideration when we have to deal with the influence of heat on mixtures of lime and clay. they may be conveyed to the calcined lime by admixture with it at the time when it is treated with water. etc. and the nature of the changes effected in the kiln. contain varying percentages of clayey matters (silicates of alumina). several days to break up. they are medium . CEMENTS. in fact. when they require fifteen or twenty minutes. that the limestone should have been the source from which these clayey matters were derived . and that any general deductions founded on the act of hydration alone are likely to be inaccurate and misleading. 30 The old classification into fat. and as a rough guide is of considerable value if due caution is observed. when requiring an hour or more.

for every description of lime- . and have the power of imparting to them the attributes of cements. of manganese. again. 30 Influence of Heat on the Silicates." etc.). and of numerous other substances. The minerals which contain the carbonate of Subdivisions.. of limestone is more especially applied to such of the above mixtures as contain at least one-half of their weight of carbonate of lime. V. The volcanic ash found in the island of Santorin. LIMESTONES. Mineralogists distinguish the subdivisions by the names of " argillaceous. as in the ca. mechanical admixture of clay (either bituminous or not). concreted. magnesian.322 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. When limes. of The name quartzose sand.se of the pure limestones. and burnt clay or ballast. (see Chapter VII. is thus a double change to be effected in the kiln. These clayey limestones are thus burnt more readily than the 30 pure limestones they also require less fuel and less time. lime and which are designated under the generic name of " limestones " or " calcareous stones " are of very various natures. This nomenclature is important. and the expulsion of the water from the hyd rated silicate or alumina in the clay may go on side by side with the dispersal of the carbonic acid." etc. bituminous. of oxide of iron. volcanic origin. They are mostly composed of carbonate of lime. all of them. ferruginous. of "lamellar.. of silica. this substance is relatively high. and the clayey matters assist in its expulsion. but roasted shales. possess this influence on the pure limes. compact. pseudomorphic. . brick dust. sandy. pulverulent. etc. and there is much less iron than in the case of trass and pozzuolana. combined and they are also found with a in variable proportions . granular. and of alumina. [PT. chalky. are burnt in the ordinary way in the kiln. and the steam produced There in this way facilitates the expulsion of the carbonic acid. saccharoid. owing partly to the affinity of the silicic acid for the lime. is typical of many kinds of scoriae which have been used successfully with fat or pure limes to impart to them The proportion of silicate of alumina in hydraulic properties. such as are combined with varying percentages of silicates. and known as Santorin earth. are often characterised fetid. the carbonic acid gas is first expelled from them. and partly to the fact that the free and combined water in the clay is driven off. The subdivisions. Section II. of magnesia. by varieties of form and contexture which are known specifically under the names oolitic. more or less.

CALCINATION. The limestones containing insoluble silica in the state of sand. either separately or in combination. or such as contain only from : 1 to 6 per cent. yield moderately hydraulic limes. it is desirable to have the kilns as central as possible to the face of the quarries. the limestones yield 31 eminently hydraulic limes. 4. and the longer the stone has been exposed to the air. of the whole mass. or in draw-kilns. and especially in the degree of hardness it is capable of assuming when made into mortar. calcination is and in remote ordinary pit coal (1 ton to 4 or 5 tons of limestone). The pure calcareous rocks. AND PLASTERS. etc. 5. magnesia. The limestones containing silica in combination with alumina (common clay). 3. after being quarried and broken into moderate-sized pieces. magnesia. but with the soluble silica in the proportion of at least one-half of them. the less fuel will it require to drive off The fuel employed in the inherent moisture or quarry-water. Kilns and Fuel. XV. 31 Chemical Nature of Stones furnishing Different Sorts of Lime. of the whole mass. magnesia. yield poor limes. but for some sorts . alumina. When the limestones contain more than 20 and up to 30 per cent. but within the limits of from 8 to 12 per cent. of the above ingredients. either in temporary or in continual kilns that is. of silica. Experience alone should be the final guide of the engineer or of the builder.. the oxides of iron and of manganese. are calcined. But stone weight. but limited to between 15 to 30 per cent. CEMENTS. in various respective proportions. districts peat and brushwood .CH. where the removal and charging proceed continuously. distinct in colour and its avidity for water. in various respective proportions. A chemical analysis of a hard sample also frequently gives different results from those obtained in practice. but the silica in its soluble form always predominating.. When the above ingredients are present in the proportion of from 15 to 18 per cent. and traces of the oxides of iron and of manganese. gives rich limes upon being burnt. in open kilns which are blown out till the calcined charge has been removed. The limestones. in the physical and mechanical nature of a stone are far from being certain guides as to the quality of the lime it can yield. To avoid carriage. iron. the limestones yield a hydraulic lime. A chemical examination of the stones which furnish the different limes of the old classification shows that 1.] LIMES. 2. 323 yields a lime of different quality.

Those. and underburnt particles are eliminated. and are likely to dislocate the masonry executed with them. use of these slaty coals. of limestone impure or shaly coals (while also much cheaper) are better adapted than the pure coals. It is. when not slagged or covered with a siliceous glaze by too sudden ignition the limestone loses its carbonic acid. it arises from the fact that the decomposition of the animal matter had previously affected the nature of the limestone in contact with it. excess. or from that of the different action of the calcination upon the shells. much silica in the composition of the clay. adds to the expense of burning. to keep out the ash and clinker. but fewer cores and slags will be found among the lime. or dolomites. as burning the stone more slowly and equally. For use of the plasterer. When properly burnt that is. appear to be the least exposed to these inconveniences. as in nearly all important works it is customary to prepare the mortar in a mill. it is certainly worth while to 30 endeavour. Limestones which contain many/om7s produce a lime exposed Whether to the risk of slaking at various and uncertain periods.or quick- lime. or which retain their avidity for water to a later period . if possible. and to retain without alteration their original bulk. the lime is slaked and run through a sieve. Results of Calcination. by means of which all the impurities used commercially. and is converted into caustic. which would crush up these substances along with the lump lime and incorporate them in the mortar. are likely to shrink and crack. less essential now than was formerly the case that the lime used by the builder should be kept apart from the ash of the fuel. as well as keeping it open and preventing More kiln-dust may be produced by the slagging and sintering. and in either case they swell and dis31 integrate the mass around them. and free from the ash or clinker arising from the fuel. is 11 For many purposes for which lime very important that it should be as pure as possible. The limes obtained from the Oxford Clay generally swell those from the Chalk Marl contract. A much better-looking lime no doubt results from the use of kilns in which all contact with the fuel is avoided and although the cost of doing this . in which the alumina is in The magnesian limestones. it is Admixture with Ashes. Those limes which are obtained from the stones containing swell in setting. .324 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. V. [PT. we mostly find that the fossiliferous limestones contain black spots which do not slake at the same time as the rest of the lime. perhaps. on the contrary.

on the other hand. the following mode of analysis is sufficient for all practical purposes The stone should be powdered. before burning. and consequently after calcination it does not separate as a gelatinous bulky mass. This solution as long as any precipitation takes place from it. preferably with alumina. precipitate must be collected as quickly as possible upon a filter . when the effervescence The solution is then to be ceases. in fact. the lumps of quicklime ringing when struck together. stirring it up continually with a glass or wooden rod . as is usual with the silica in samples of hydraulic lime. In order to confer hydraulic properties simply as inert matter. 325 TESTING LIMES AND LIMESTONES. Many of the beds of impure limestone in the Carboniferous deposits contain free silica as sand in considerable quantity. with iron and manganese. a tolerably hydraulic lime : . of insoluble matter forms. and it is not in a condition to enter into combination it is present. no more acid is to be added. upon the lime much of the silica must. it is then desiccated and It is magnesia. to be not. close. 31 The condition of the silica present in impure limestones has an important influence on their value when employed for the manufacture of hydraulic lime. 30 When treated with muriatic acid. a limestone that leaves about 10 per cent. when treated with hydrochloric acid. even structure. Lime prepared from stone of this description is easily recognised by its friable granular appearance. CEMENTS. and by degrees muriatic acid is to be poured upon it. This substance is to be dried and weighed. Lipowitz (Manufacture of Cements). occur in combination. or Mode fit of Analysis. . Berthier's be. and passed through a silk sieve 10 grammes of this dust are to be put into a capsule. Further. it is unacted upon by a boiling solution of sodium carbonate. . evaporated by a gentle heat until it is reduced to the state of a paste. has a dense. XV. often combined weighed. the desiccation being made as perfect as Lime water is then to be added to the remaining possible.CH. and filtered . To ascertain whether a stone be burnt for the purpose of obtaining a hydraulic lime. as is the case in the beds of the Lias formation and in some of the Carboniferous deposits. while. that which is burnt from stone in which the silica exists in combination with other substances. AND PLASTERS. it is then to be mixed with half a litre of water. according to M. . Any silica existing in the uncombined state as quartz-sand is unacted upon by the lime at the comparatively low temperature of the kiln.] LIMES. the clay will remain upon the filter.

the second stage in the calcination is reached the silicic or rendered capable of attacking the lime. the same clay-limestone to prepare (a) an hydraulic lime .326 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. after which After process it often produces the best hydraulic mortar. This change in the oxide of iron is only acid is When liberated . calcination and slaking. The calcination of these varieties of cements plays a very important part in their subsequent Thus it is possible from behaviour. the stage of approached when silicates and aluminates are formed in the kiln and when the material acts like a Portland cement. such limestones as the blue lias require careful screening to remove unburnt cores. While. cement in character. passes into that of a protoxide (as is always the case in perfectly prepared Portland cement). not more than 1| sand to 1 of lime. and which may take as many hours to set as the former substance does minutes. We have thus the quick-setting cements of the Roman cement type. At a low temperature in the kiln the mixtures of lime and clay have not mutually reacted the one on the other. which become indurated mainly by hydration in a few minutes. The energy of a cement depends upon the rapidity with which the lime and the silica. and are often improved in hydraulicity by the addition of a small percentage of pounded surface-clinkers. under still more intense firing. Influence of Calcination. under the agency of water. such a lime will not slake after burning without first being powdered. which had during the first and second degrees of calcination remained in the condition of a peroxide. 11 CEMENTS. which depend for their induration on a rearrangement of the silicates. which is most characteristic of the 30 imperfect setting action of a lime mortar. or the lime and the alumina. and we obtain a material in which the energy due to the hydration of the lime overcomes the tendency of the silicic acid to enter into combination with this lime. It should be here noted that when we speak of the setting of cements we imply the act of induration and not the mere absorption of the water. V. calcination is lastly. but when leaving from 20 to 30 per cent. moreover.. combine in the presence of water to form stable compounds. when tempered with wa'ter. and the dense cements resembling Portland. and when the iron. or with which the ready-formed silicates and aluminates become hydrated when water is added. yielding a cement which sets with comparative rapidity. (b) a and (c) a cement resembling Portland quick-setting cement . [FT.

the clay had been less in quantity. in the form of detached nodules of a dark-coloured. and furnishes a certain indication of the production of a dense. the Yorkshire stone contains 34 parts of clay. XV. discoverer of this kind of cement was Mr Parker. sometimes brown. The colour is sometimes blue. and of being employed The first without the admixture of any foreign substance. and very frequently in the Tertiary clays. difficulty. 327 at very high temperatures. The mineralogical composition of the stones from which the cement is made differs very much . previously broken into small fragments. clay. 49 of carbonate of lime." the and then reducing it to 31 powder by some mechanical operation. If. of London.] effected LIMES. AND PLASTERS. Subsequently a similar material was found at Harwich and in 1 and Yorkshire. especially when the nodules are obtained from the Lias . found in the Island of Sheppey. 38 of lime.CH. also on the coast of France and in Burgundy. but the characteristic type and below 60 per cent. 30 Roman Cement. the mass would have probably become vitrified or partially fused before the temperature necessary for the final stage of calcination was reached. in England at least. in the Tertiary formations. and which would be If of "after-slaking. doubtless it is to be met with in all the marl beds intercalated between the principal stages of the limestone formations. to a point equal to the commencement of vitrification. we should have obtained a hydraulic lime which would slake with effects liable to the evil proportion of the bases contained in the clay. owing to the presence of the oxide of iron in very considerable quantities. relatively to the amount of silicic acid present. with coke or coal. and 4 per cent. of clay combination with the carbonate of The Sheppey stone usually contains 55 parts of lime. had been greater. His process consisted in calcining the stone. requires a considerable degree of attention. argillaceous limestone traversed by veins filled with calcareous spar. 62 of carbonate of lime. oxide of iron. The mode of burning and. in the case of this clayey limestone. from the septaria nodules of the London Clay 'formation. slow-setting cement. for experience has demonstrated that Parker was mistaken in supposing that a . of iron the Harwich stone contains 47 parts of clay. CEMENTS. and 7 of iron . A peculiar class of the argillaceous limestones yields on calcination a species of lime capable of setting under water with considerable rapidity. The cement stones are burnt in conical kilns with running fires. or a deep red. of acquiring a great degree of hardness within a very short space of time. who in the year 1796 took out a patent for the manufacture of what he called Roman cement. and 3 of may be said to consist of above 30 in and other extraneous matter .

GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Tutbury in Staffordshire. when scraped with the point of a knife. especially when derived from the Blue Lias formation. and it sticks very decidedly to the tongue. but in Europe it is found mainly in the Trias and Tertiary. so largely. supplies can be obtained from Chellaston in Derbyshire. differing with the stones from which the cement is obtained. and are frequently calcined at a white heat. and . the trisilicates are fired at a lower temperature. Sewage Sludge PLASTERS. the stone is of a fine close grain. and are more of the nature of Roman cement. v. that the precise point of calcination does not appear to affect its qualities. cements composed of bisilicates of lime and cement. 30 Portland Cement. 31 These are either rock Magnesium Cements of America. and Cements formed from are artificial cements with regard to which the reader is referred to special text-books such as Calcareous Cement. It sticks easily to the tongue . and somewhat warmer than the surface of the stone. On the contrary. and gives off nitrous acid gas. its presence in beds of great purity in the Wealden being a recent In Britain available discovery of the sub-Wealden borings. but with us chiefly for interior mouldings and ornamentation. and at Kirkby-Thore Westmoreland. Examined with the microscope. magnesia. of a peculiar pasty appearance. and the colour becomes of a brown tinge. commencement of vitrification was necessary. Gypsum occurs in several formations. the surfaces of fracture are rather greasy to the touch. Plaster of Paris. of the Portland cement type. or trisilicates of lime. [PT. Before being burnt. which may be either crystals of carbonate of lime or of some of the other constituents. Cardiff in Glamorganshire. It effervesces with . by Redgrave and Spackman. is a greyish white for the most part. and leaves upon the fingers a very fine dust . etc. The bisilicates are. This material differs in this respect also from the ordinary limes. Syston in Leicestershire. with the object of economising the expense of grinding. Droitwich in external in Worcestershire. employed in France both for and internal work. nitrous acid. During calcination the cement stone loses about one-third of its weight. it exhibits many sparkling points. the beds being of various colours. texture. the practice of manufacturers at the present day is rather to under-burn the cement. it does not strike fire its dust. and alumina. Selenitic Cement. When burnt it becomes soft to the touch. as a rule. is derived from common gypsum or sulphate of lime.

. and then moistened with a solution of alum. it falls into . and where the beds took a degree of compactness different from that which is to be found on the borders of the basin. etc. a hard plaster is obtained that takes a high polish. GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION. By degrees the matters held in chemical suspension in the waters. immediately after the cataclysms and the great erosions (which. where the materials brought down by the currents could not arrive. and which were in the beginning mingled with those in mechanical suspension thus brought down. and throughout the whole extent of the basin. CEMENTS. in fine powder. plaster of Paris becomes stucco. 329 Being baked in ovens to discharge its water of crystallisaa soft white powder (the plaster of Paris of and this powder. 13 . as soon as the geological condition of the basin had resumed a normal state. borax. when worked into a paste with commerce) water. had given rise to the new order of things). In the first periods. in greater relative proportions. Parian with borax and Martin's with pearl ash. purity.] LIMES. XV. whose deposition corresponds with the various periods of existence of the marine basin in which they were formed. for the most part. or sulphate of potash. Keene's and Parian Cements. sandstones. soon sets hard with When mixed with glue considerable strength and solidity. etc. and in the very deep waters. and after soaking for some time is taken out. It is known. AND PLASTERS. If. though plastic and pliable for a while. in disturbing the status quo of the preceding geological epoch. of agglomerated rocks. to quote nearly the words of M. At times recurrences of the great agitations of the strata were reproduced . instead of water. which marine basin must have had its hydrographical limits. They must have taken the form. This plaster is called Keene's cement if made with alum . began to deposit. is thrown into a vessel water. tion. plaster containing a saturated solution of alum. in the great depressions of the bottom. that every stratified geological formation comprehends a series of beds. General Laws. the sedimentary deposits must principally have owed their origin to the matters held in suspension in the liquid. instead of being used with of Paris. Parandier. A knowledge of the laws which appear to regulate the geological distribution of the rocks which supply hydraulic and other limes may prevent many useless researches and save perhaps some injudicious outlay of capital. rebaked. clays. except in the isolated points of the affluents. once more reduced to powder. its affluents.CH.

with less intensity. with the same phenomena. we find the magnesian limestones. we find the marls. In England. from what is stated above. and their definite epochs of appearance. and. but always during a shorter period. and the secular action of the exterior agents. Probable Position of Different Materials. But these phenomena have their particular laws. however.330 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. or at the points where these last pass into the purer calcareous rocks. and without any regard to the positions in the series that the beds of that formation may occupy. in the same geological epoch. then the limestones with all the different varieties of texture and composition. the formation of the different strata often modifies these last. The upper members of all the series may be regarded as being too free from argillaceous matter to furnish anything but rich limes. for instance. that the Lower Chalk marl passes into the clays of the Gault. or posterior to. [pi. the ferruginous strata. which are very curious. Hydraulic limes are to be obtained from the beds of limestone intercalated between the marls of the Kimmeridge Clay . and in the Liassic series. be converted into artificial pozzuolanas are generally to be met with at the bottom of the sedimentary formations. or the Upper Greensand. in the Oxford Clay. The contact of certain formations either contemporaneous with. and that it yields a lime which is often In the Greensand there are few solid eminently hydraulic. in the lower divisions of the secondary strata. It is easily to be conceived. 31 Lias Lime. there are few also in the lower members of the Cretaceous formations below the Greensand. changing even the chemical and physical properties of the rocks. The limestones likely to yield hydraulic limes occur amongst the marly or argillaceous beds. it is the general practice to receive the blue lias lime as a good and a satisfactory hydraulic lime in all cases. and we can calculate with a tolerable 31 degree of certainty upon the extent of their action. Amongst the secondary formations we find. that we should be able to predicate within certain limits the points at which the rocks are likely to contain the elements the most favourable to the attainment of the object in view in such researches as the one before The materials likely to furnish us the sands and clays fit to us. at the passage between the upper and lower calcareous groups of this division of the sedimentary rocks . also often produce very remarkable modifications or alterations. The presence of certain ingredients. the siliceous sands and clays. Thus. where the "rule of thumb" prevails so extensively. It is. and lastly. V. and which are marked by the intercalation of strata of limestones and clays. the calcareous marls. calcareous rocks . necessary to . and even some molecular transformations.

the differences that occur are as great as between about 8 per cent. its coralline. its coralline and shelly marbles. the Old Red. Dorsetshire.. lias 331 limestone contains a alumina. The limestones. its gypseous and nummulitic strata recent. but as some builders have a fancy for the " employment of lime hot. Leicestershire. of carbonate of lime. and 64 per cent. nor yield to the effect of the water before about two to five minutes. at least until the precise nature of the beds has been ascertained. A lirne of this description requires to be slaked before being mixed with the sand for use in a building . the latter would yield. of the latter. Thus the lumps of burnt limestone should be rather large. its coralline and shelly beds. . of the silicate of alumina. its chalks. if burnt and The peculiar properties of the blue lias ground. of course. encrinal. a most energetic cement. from the oldest to the most deposits. In Britain the most of these are abundantly developed . its crystalline marbles. has its limestones the Metamorphic. shelly. and . . and that therefore the powers of setting under water must be very different in the limes obtained from them. It would be. lime have been established upon the results that have followed the conversion of the middle beds of the series. mortars. which contain from 16 to 20 per cent. its lacustrine marls. . and they should present on all sides a conchoidal the lime should swell but little in slaking. tion of all limes. its oolites Wealden. its cornstones. of AND PLASTERS. of the former ingredient to 34 per cent. the and the PostTertiary. its shelly beds. and the Trias. the Cretaceous. blue lias lime are obtained from Warwickshire. Tertiary. but they are all of them of very variable composition. 31 British Limestones. in combination with the carbonate of lime. easy to distinguish the best qualities of blue lias lime. Even at the base of the Liassic series. and it fracture should not give out much heat. as in fact it is easy to predicate the nature of any description of that material. every system. which lie at the founda- remark that every bed different proportion the blue of the silicate of . The first of these would yield only a moderately hydraulic lime ." as they call it. and they require to be used with great precaution . the neighbourhood of Bath. Rugby. . Aberdare. XV. it is safer to employ The best descriptions of the blue lias lime after being ground. the Carboniferous.CH. the Silurian. etc. : . of the silicate of alumina and 90 per cent. the Devonian. its dolomites the muschelkalks and gypsums the Jurassic. CEMENTS. on the contrary. its fresh-water beds the Permian. and cements. are abundantly diffused through the stratified formations. there being scarcely a system which does not present one or more horizons of calcareous Indeed. J LIMES.

magnesian limestones. Northumberland. (Heublas). which stretches across the country from Whitby on the north-east to Lyme Regis in the south-west. and the mountain limestones of Ireland. . . and mountain limestones of England. or bituminous. . are also used (Coalbrook Dale) in the manufacture of hydraulic cements and the septaria from the Lower Lias and London Clay are . or in whatever formations they may occur. [PT. and other places. as well as to its importation from the north of supply. V. argillaceous." containing about 10 per cent. great and small. well known to 11 cement-makers for their strong and energetic hydraulicity. Whatever the varieties. and in the Lothians at Dunbar. Lanarkshire (Arden. 11 England and Antrim. and are consequently quarried in open workings hence the numerous openings. in composition. and hence the more frequent recourse to mining of it in that country. Such beds may be distinguished in the field by their tougher and earthier texture never being so crystalline as mortar limestones by their not effervescing so violently under acids. while these varieties may again be more or less siliceous. and others sulphates or gypsums . coast of Fife (Blebo. the most of these limestones come to the surface in long stretches of outcrop.332 for its GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. ferruginous. some being almost pure carbonates. Cousland. area few countries can boast of such a varied and available As mixed rocks they vary. Some of the argillo-calcareous ironstones known as " curl " or "cone in cone. XV. and by their weathering more slowly into a deeper brown surface.). England and Ireland are magnificently supplied with limestones Scotland but scantily so. some dolomitic or magnesian. CH. of course. The Lias of England. but available beds also occur among the Carboniferous limestones of Flintshire Hurlett). on the chalks. etc. is our main repository of water-setting limestones (blue lias) . of iron. oolites.

as it were. a source of income for the permanent maintenance of the highway. clay-pits. though expensive. from his geological knowledge of the district. shortness. Section I. Road-making. The first step is to ascertain the position of the watercourse and watershed lines of the district to The general direction having been selected. be passed through. which are never stable till the soft boggy sludge is squeezed out. easy gradients. and the country carefully examined on each side of these trial-lines before the route is finally decided on. and the ascents to and descents from the watershed contoured. may often show great skill in avoiding expensive cuttings in making cuttings which. but in some instances it may be worth while to deviate from the selected . and in keeping clear of peaty and marshy hollows for his enbankments. The actual survey can then be proceeded with. from the summits downwards so as to ascertain the points at which the hills are to be entered.CHAPTER XVI. The approaches to the bridges must be carefully set out. the river-crossings must be examined and decided upon. and the requirements of the district are. by three or four times the amount of carried material that would be required on a firmer bottom. be chosen. In choosing a new route. where they are to be in side-cutting. the engineer. The general series of operations preliminary to the formation of a new line of communication are the examination or reconnaissance of the country 333 . prime considerations . may more than repay themselves by the utilisation of the excavated rocks . Trial-lines should then be run between the points thus fixed. track in order to come in closer proximity to quarries. 11 Determination of Route. and the points determined at which the watersheds are to be crossed. Reconnaissance. and the increased traffic arising from which may become coal-fields. SELECTION OP ROUTE. no doubt. 32 Laying out New Roads. EOADS AND CANALS. Where a new route has to Value of Geological Knowledge.

which. like and greenstones . though expensive to remove. V. as sandstones and shales. may be utilised as roadmaterial or through sandstones and limestones which may be Some applied to the erection of bridges and retaining walls. 33 ROAD CONSTRUCTION. its geological formation and sources from which materials for construction may be obtained. canals. Have the surface of road exposed as action of the air and sun's rays. CH. their nature and conthis : dition as to dryness. XVI. between the points to be connected. according as the cutting may be through tough boulder claythrough an admixture of drift sands and clays. as granites . much as possible to the Cross valleys and passes at right angles. accessibility. tabular.334 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. In laying out a line for a new road. Examine beds of rivers at proposed crossings. and what bridges will be necessary to render the road of easy traction as to In the matter of excavation it requires some skill. Flying-levels are generally taken concurrently. work the engineer will be greatly aided by obtaining the best and most reliable maps of the district. and for stones suitable for the road-covering. and the In probable requirements of the district to be passed through. such as passes across ridges. and of rivers and streams. [PT. roads. or in alternate hard and soft strata. Every formation has its own lie and structure. Road-cuttings. and valleys. Examine sources. culvert. the following data should be carefully noted and recorded in the field-book Examine the inclination of the strata. what embankment. and distances of the supply of material for the erection of structural works. and excavating in accordance with these is always the cheapest and most expeditious method. the engineer has next to inquire what excavations. also points where structures of magnitude may be required. in so far as these may be jointed or full of cutters" like some limestones. Having selected a route. which are apt to slip by the percolation of water through greenstones and basalts. columnar or subcolumiiar. acquaintance with the structure of rocks will also be of use to the " backs and engineer. Where basalts . taking note of the physical features of the country. with a view to secure stable foundations for bridges. General Principles in the Field. and up and down stream. such as railways. in order to ascertain the elevations of detached points. Ascertain accurately the level of all existing lines of communication. gradients. etc.

the material in railway cuttings much of the expense has often been entailed. however. and should be protected by facing up immediately From want of this precaution and especially after excavation. The resistance to slip arises partly from the friction between the grains composing the soil and partly from their mutual adhesion. for future quarrying 11 only for the working. The forming of the side-slopes requires considerSide-slopes. as it is generally termed. the natural slope at which different kinds of earth.SECT. if the situation being so available. I. the only force which can be relied upon for permanent stability. a free face should be kept. Some care is also necessary when excavations pass through strata at high angles. and that not till obstructions and accidents have happened through such contingencies of themselves costing ten times slips and falls the amount of any walling-up that might have been at first adopted. but where the material is of unequal durability. which otherwise would. free egress must be made for the outflow. or. will remain permanently stable. its condition as to internal moisture and the atmospheric influence. suitable for building or for roads. not possible. of sandstones. and clays. The angle of repose. this being especially the case during alternate frost and thaw. little care is needed either as regards retaining walls or slope of excavation . as alternations of sands and clays. the weathering of the softer beds is sure to ensue. Friction is. so as to prevent slips from the rising side and when water-bearing beds occur. 335 is of uniform character. shales. is shown in the following table given by Professor Rankine in his Civil Engineering : . Where cuttings pass through rocks the strongest retaining wall. so as to ensure stability and prevent slipping. but for the removal of the quarried material. by friction alone. able attention. in process of time. therefore. as the adhesion of the earth is destroyed by the action of air and moisture. combine in fixing the inclination of the side-slopes.] ROADS AND CANALS. bring down . The nature of the soil.

or nearly perpendicular. to face them with stone. but if the strata lie horizontal. this will. if it be hard. In the primitive strata such as granite. then the slopes may be made 1 to 1 . by its hydrostatic pressure. it is necessary to make the side-slopes with : . in a great degree." If any beds of gravel or sand are found intermixed with clay. will. the water. which will find its way into the gravel. The nearly. slopes will stand at a J to I. or are as much as 4 to 1. or gneiss. V. In limestone strata. in chalk or chalk marl the slopes will stand at 1 to 1. but as this would exclude. slopes will stand at a J to 1 . which is essential to keeping the road-surface dry and in good order. If the line of in fact. in such cases large masses of the stone become detached. are many instances of slips in sandstone and marl strata under such circumstances as those now described. and which varies according to the nature of the soil. even though there should be thin layers of marl between the beds of stone. " If a sandstone stratum alternate with one of clay or marl. the road is parallel to the line of the bearing of the strata. XVI. slopes 1. In sandstone. it is difficult to say at what inclination the slopes will stand . and uniform. and in such cases the slopes should be 1J or 2 to 1. and here the slopes If the road is across such strata. and 2 to 83 most frequently adopted for earthwork are 3 to 2 corresponding to the angles of repose 33J and 26| With regard to the slope necessary to be given to the side of an embankment or cutting. solid. of marl exceed 12 inches in thickness. CH. which does not disintegrate on exposure to the atmosphere. at right angles to the line of bearing. drains should be cut along the top and even in the sides of the cuttings. depend upon the inclination of the strata. the slopes will stand at a J to 1. Parnell plastic Clay formation it will not be safe to make the slopes of embankments or cuttings that exceed 4 feet high with a steeper In cuttings slope than 3 feet horizontal for 1 foot perpendicular. slate. and when this occurs it is extremely difficult to re-establish them. the But it will be necessary. if they be solid. the sides might be made perpendicular . the action of the sun and air. for if this precaution be not taken. as will be observed from the " In the London and following details given by Sir H. but in most cases limestone is found mixed with clay beds. and slip down There over the smooth and glassy surface of the subjacent bed. force the body of clay down before it.336 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. [PT. this should always be greater than the inclination which the earth naturally assumes. 34 In excavations through solid rock. and slips will take place even when the inclinations are as much as 4 to 1 . if the beds slopes will stand at a J to 1.

or too expensive. The stratified soils and rocks. covered in like manner on top with a layer of sod to prevent the drain from becoming choked with earth. If the sources can be easily reached by excavating into the side-slopes. . Drains formed of broken stone.] ROADS AND CANALS. 35 Methods of Drainage. and the excavation made for the drain filled with good earth well rammed. the inclination of the slope on the south side in northern latitudes being made less steep in order that the road-surface may be more exposed to the sun's rays. when exposed to moisture and the action of frost. may be placed to give an outlet to the water. and prevent its action upon the The fascines may be covered on top with good sods side-slopes. the drainage may be effected by excavating trenches a few feet wide at intervals to the depth of 22 .SECT. 337 an inclination varying from 1 in 1 to 2 in 1. soils of this character are those formed of alternate strata of clay and sand. or brushwood. Where the sources are not isolated and the whole mass of the soil forming the side-slopes appears saturated. I. structed at the foot of the slope in cuttings. 33 Where slips occur from the action of springs. The slaty rocks generally decompose rapidly on the surface. should be carried to the most convenient watercourses but where this is impossible. may be used under the same circumstances as fascine drains. are liable to slips. drains formed of layers of fascines. and to cut off all springs which run towards the roadway from the side-slopes. The best preventives that can be resorted to in these cases are to adopt a system of thorough drainage. to the side channel. These. and then be covered by a layer of vegetable mould sown with grass seed. from the rising ground. in which the strata have a dip or inclination to the horizon. it frequently becomes a very difficult task to secure the side-slopes. the water may be conveyed down the slope in a pipe 18 inches below the surface. Great pains should be taken to thoroughly intercept. or even more. by one stratum becoming detached and sliding on another which is caused either from the action of frost or from the pressure of The worst water. . particularly if the clay is of a nature to become semifluid when mixed with water. to prevent the surface-water of the ground from running down the side-slopes. according to the locality. These side channels or drains should be con. This is readily accomplished by forming catch-water ditches or drains on the uphill side of the cutting a few feet back from the crest of the slope. The sideslopes in rocks of this character may be cut into steps. if possible. which insinuates itself between the strata. or to give way. or else the earth may be sodded in the usual way. any flow or filtering of water towards the road bed. laid with the grass side beneath.

It is the argillaceous and allied soils which require careful treatment. The side drains in cuttings and the open ditches in the level portions of a road will. as in the case of a road parallel to a coast-line passing Two modes of treatment are over the spars of a coast-range. 33 MOUNTAIN ROADS. a narrow trench has been excavated. When some this is deemed necessary. of the side-slopes. and it should be sunk sufficiently below the roadway surface to give it secure footing. When the route lies across the Crossing Watersheds. CH. in some cases. with buttresses at intervals projecting into the earth further than the general mass of the drain. even where the roadway is of a great width. as a rule. The front face of the drain should. from the top surface to a sufficient depth to tap all the sources which flow towards the side-slope. The drainage of such soils may be effected by forming transverse or cross drains the apex away from the direction of in the form of the letter V flow with 2-inch or 3-inch salt-glazed pipes laid about 15 to 18 inches below the formation level. feet into the side-slopes. 35 Subsoil Drainage. or else by arranging an open conduit at the bottom to receive the water collected. XVI. by sinking wells or shafts at some distance behind the side-slopes. be sufficient for this purpose. from the top surface to the level of the bottom of the excavation. V. as their porous nature assists in securing a dry and solid foundation. The drainage has been effected. being of a retentive nature. . it will be well to arrange the drain like an inclined retaining wall. and upon this a layer of good earth should be compactly laid to form the face of the The drain need only be carried high enough above side-slopes. they become very unstable when in contact with water and the action of frost. in this case. also be covered with a layer of sods with the grass side beneath. [PT. as. the remainder of stone. and filling them with broken stone.338 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and properly connected to the side drains. by pipes. over which a layer of brushwood is the trench being filled with broken laid. and a drain formed either by filling the trench wholly with broken stone. into drains at the foot In others. and leading the water which collects in them. Soils of a siliceous and calcareous nature and rocks generally do not present any great difficulty. the foot of the side-slope to tap all the sources . or else a general drain of broken stone may be made throughout the whole extent of the side-slope by excavating into it. (1) valleys. parallel to the axis of the road.

by cutting off the spurs. saddle connecting the head of one valley with the side of another. The . leading from a point near the one valley to a corresponding point in another.] ROADS AND CANALS. often requires a great deal of careful The ends of the upper valley forming the pass are often study. and the next step is to ascertain its actual altitude and the distance from the foot of the ascent to the summit of the pass. culverts. as it is difficult to keep the slopes of cuttings in repair at high elevations. the only question generally being whether the summit should be cut down or passed over by surface gradients. or the road may be contoured on the hillsides so as to obtain a surface-line of greater length with The second course is in many cases preferable. enclosing peat swamps and deep pools of water. The third case. 32 Mountain Passes. it is (3) head . where economy is important . valley between steep hills. to say nothing of the risk of a road being blocked by snow-drifts in the cuttings. in order to allow for passing through the most favourable ground. classes (1) (2) : A A A of simple saddle connecting the heads of two valleys. I. The latter plan should be adopted where practicable. of a principal valley crossfirst thing to be done is to ascertain the lowest point of the range to be crossed. and it may be laid down especially as a general rule that the expense of deep cuttings should only be incurred where the total rise can be reduced by so possible. than to set out These involve either a number of additional straight road-lines. The first two cases are generally very simple in treatment. It will be a matter for consideration whether the morasses should be drained or skirted. blocked by moraines. As a general rule. From these data the gradient can be calculated approximately and it is to be borne in mind that the actual gradient must be steeper than the calculated gradient. 339 Either the crests of the hills may be cut down and the up to the extent required to obtain a suitable gradient on the most direct line. easier gradients. short. however. than which nothing can be more objectionable.SECT. valleys filled doing. or the breaking up of the road into a succession of Where sloping ground occurs it is lines with long stretches of easy gradients. sometimes of sufficient extent to be dignified by the name of lakes. These generally come under one of three (2) ing the When the route follows main watershed at its the line head. alternating gradients. and whether the moraines should be cut down or passed over. better to follow the contour and to flatten the curves. where necessary.

the floor of the cutting will be in the solid with tight side cutting . CH. a trial gradient through the work. route. 32 although to avoid as far as possible both to adopt surface gradients. at [PT. (2) Carefully examine the stratification of the rocks to be cut through. 90. and the amount of cutting increased . Road-cuttings in mountain pass. road. In selecting the line of descent the following directions should be observed (1) Take the sunny side of the valley if the ground will : permit. . V. 89. points so as to obtain the most advantageous levels for the execution of the work. Thus in fig. whilst if the level were at b. and avoid. if the level of the road is fixed required. at a. embankments and cuttings and ever practicable. It sometimes happens that advantage can be taken of the (3) Run intersects difficult . 89 the side cutting at a would not be safe without the protection of a retaining wall whilst that at b would be perfectly secure without any artificial protection. if at c. high elevations. and readjust the gradient as may be For instance. if possible. a retaining wall would be necessary.340 desirable. XVI. GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. all strata overhanging the line of FIG. and find where it Then lay out the line at these ground. the available width would be considerably reduced. wheninvolving a somewhat circuitous Line of Descent. in fig.

New Zealand. and the excavation The alterawas made chiefly in soft material.SECT. in the air above it. on cu'tti n g R d in mountain pass. at Port Lyttelton. formed by a succession of lava streams. in " roads and " . whilst the upper portion The line was was soft and easily worked. or mainly.] ROADS AND CANALS. Dobson in the case of a road over Evan's Pass. Classes of Roads. and water." wearing weathering made. " Wearing " In dealing with roads have naturally been the more studied. and in the . heavy traffic would wear out faster under their traffic in ideal perfect weather than they would in the actual weather without the latter for instance. II. however. which would have entailed a series of cuttings through the hard rock. are wear-resisting and weatherThe former for instance. the lower part of each lava stream being hard volcanic rock. as being wholly. to that of the lava streams. The descent of the pass was on the side of a long volcanic spur. the retaining walls were dispensed with. as well as in the cost of maintenance. Apart from classes. stones. originally set out with a gradient of 1 in 17. Water. But in the 36 aggregate such roads are of considerable importance. tion effected considerable saving in time and first 32 cost. Careful observation and study of roads under different conditions of weather give colour to the opinion that the last word has not been said nor the last thing done with earth. Section II. 341 natural stratification to economise work in a long side cutting. most moorland roads would traffic wear out faster in the actual weather without traffic than they would under their traffic in ideal perfect weather. Road Materials. This was done by Mr E. if we may conveniently regard them " well other classifications of road. The variable amount of water which there is at any given time in the crust of a road. a solid floor was obtained throughout. roads with resisting respectively. By altering the gradient. and retaining walls in front of the softer portions. which. dipping at an angle of 1 in 12. " " there is less knowledge of what are weathering roads economical and efficient methods of construction and maintenance and what are the best materials to use. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER. all one or other of two roads.

[PT. the clay will swell when it becomes wet and ooze out on to the surface. cyclists' point of view. Heretofore little has been done. even then usually depending upon water to give the subsoil some consistency. CH. particularly on the best and the On the former. but. and to providing a more or less waterproof The object of the latter is to save the binding material surface. there are many roads of a secondary character. to which drought does much harm. One has to think. and many such roads. and render it less liable to injury from heavy rains. as an ingredient of the road-crust. the wet weather getting the blame. and many by-roads. either in choice of materials or treatment of environment. when every part is muddy. on roads of a modest class. not only of what happens when soil gets dry. by undue camber. XVI. or unreasonable exposure. Cycles are now much used on by-roads. Again. while without water we are driven to the use of squared blocks. the roadmaker has mainly directed his efforts to getting rid of superfluous water by drainage. accentuated. V. too. In the latter case. but of what happens to a dry powdery soil or to a clay soil when wet comes. subsoil under it. While the injury done to the metalled part of a good main road by an ordinary dry spell is comparatively small. or some quite different construction. it may be. With just the right amount of water an earth road affords excellent going. to prevent denudation of the subsoil under the crust. make this part of the subject of much intricacy. will well repay the trouble. a little extra mud. become worse very quickly. One advantage of a nearly waterproof surface is that it retards In dry weather anglers search for evaporation from the subsoil. from the Much after a few days of dry hot weather. too. in from the scouring effects of water trickling through it. excessive drainage. if the cracks formed have been beaten in. it is allowable to aim at slow drying rather than at quick drainage. keep it on the whole firmer and less dusty during the period of greatest use. realising that a water-logged road more easily gives way under traffic than a dry one. as well as the influence of surrounding objects.342 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. binder of such materials that it will hold up traffic even when water-logged. is kicked out and ground up. may well be borne if it imply such conditions as will prevent the road from breaking up in drought. in the south of England particularly. having a crust of road metal and poorest roads. so that the road may recover better under traffic. and not in loose earth. by way of combating the adverse conditions of drought. stone. and generally to keep both road-crust and subsoil drier than they would otherwise be. But a further study of water. On an a good deal of injury to the easily denuded soil drought does . worms under hard-beaten ground.

which shows it up. ensure a rough surface under wear. which are exceedingly hard and of fine but as they necesgrain. the logical system of under drains being (since 1 inch of clay can stop water) drains of 1 foot width. and only give way in proportion as it is interleaved and mixed with water by surface action.SECT. a clay soil the treatment is radically different. and the ditches need not be deep so long as they are big enough to carry off the water which. will remain quite capable of sustaining the road. giving foothold for horses. though strip of land served On becoming quite damp in time during rains. much superior. A stiff clay gets damp very slowly even in rain. runs along and off the surface. seasons. in a general way. . 343 edges of some roads. such as Penmaenmawr. the best materials. Recent wet influences the water conditions of a road very much. Local Circumstances. and sometimes even superior cheapest. though the bulk of such injury is usually ascribed to the wet weather. which includes two sets of crystals of different hardness (quartz and felspar). Telford pavement the logical outcome of placing drains close enough to drain any particular soil. even if they were . although. The material for roads will necessarily depend on local circumstances. Under it the clay. for example. though less durable. The stiffer a clay is the less use it is to drain it. they always have a tendency to retain a rough surface. It may be said. that all stones of uniform texture. owing to their composition. 12 inch This is the principle of the apart. centres. will be the The chief quality for a good road-stuff is hardness combined with toughness. 36 MATERIALS FOR " WEARING " ROADS. the fall in water-level after rain being much more rapid in the narrow road-strip than in the wide by the same ditch. are unfit Thus limestones of for roads over which the traffic is very large. they are ill-adapted for cities exposed to Granites are for this alternations of wet and dry. and have a high value in some cases sarily wear smooth. cold and heat. II. have shown up very well how a road gains by being cut off from the neighbouring land in porous strata liable to become water-logged. as. during and after heavy rains. and dries very slowly by evaporation through the surface. in value to granite. just as rain is blamed for turning into mud dust which ought to have been preGeological position viously removed or never allowed to form. Those basalts which do not readily decompose are equal. and a texture sufficiently uneven to There are certain stones. all kinds would be inadmissible on this ground. however costly. composed of one ingredient.] ROADS AND CANALS. where there is a very rapid wear.

road-metalling purposes. dolerites. altered chemically is the felspar. the principal being granites. which from their hardness would seem valuable. mountain limestones are much used for macadam and are very suitable for light traffic. combined with a coarse texture. are also inadvisable for want of some cause of roughness. Sandstones are much used for bottoming roads. may be taken as reliable The quartz and mica are practically unmaterial for road metal. mica schists. and gravel. 33 . Those which are compact and fine-grained. present. not too soft and too readily worn into dust and mud.344 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Owing to its foliation It not a suitable stone for repairing roads for heavy traffic. quartzites. Most varieties are eminently suitable as material for Basalt. binds well. used for road repairs in Scotland. they are generally hard and durable. composed of muscovite and orthoclase. The durability of syenite . and Granites. which tempers the natural brittleness of the quartz. syenites. and when the component minerals are fine-grained and compact they make very durable and satisfactory road metal. V. but create much mud and dust and are quite broken up by frost and weather. macadam . XVI. Syenite. decomposes rapidly into clayey mud on being subjected to the disintegrating influence of air and water. many of these have a sufficient admixture of felspar. which creates on the roads during wet weather large quantities of mud. ragstones. quickly decompose and form clay. Flints. however. especially when the crystals are large and have a dull In most cases syenite forms an excellent stone for appearance. diabases. those which contain soda and lime felspar. 13 The hard igneous and metamorphic Suitable Road Metal. Mica schist is much used as a road material in the Highlands and in some parts of Wales. and makes a very good surface for light of Scotland it is in wet weather. CH. however. diorites. flints. especially when oligoclase . [PT. Ragstone is greatly used in Kent for road material. but are too soft for metalling. basalts. is greater when quartz and hornblende predominate felspar and mica are weak and of a perishable nature if present to any great extent. combined with the other qualities upon which depends the value of roadmetalling. as well as limestones. but dries quickly. rocks are chiefly used. sandstones. Quartzites and greywackes are the best among metamorphic rocks . and disintegrate rapidly. These rocks form a large proportion of the material Diorites. On the other hand. is very Carboniferous muddy or thaw.

For roads of quite an important class. For a very cheap road flints may be used to top a loamy gravel. and are Though some flints are tougher than exported a good deal. less damage to the road-crust. others. as a rule. shoulders being made of the larger pebbles raked out. and detritus. flints have some uses. there are many of the tougher and more durable of other stones which are suitable for any except the heaviest traffic. but are apt to yield a more irritating dust. and bottoming or partly Gravel. others which have special advantages on certain 36 soils. such as giving side support. Limestone wears evenly and smoothly. such as a little clay or marl. and some which are valuable on weather-resisting roads. very irritating kind. There is a kind of interlocking between flints of irregular shapes which enables them to sustain traffic to some extent with little disturbFor the carriage-way proper they should be broken small ance. they are generally too brittle for main roads.'' and the fractures are Unbroken small flints are often sharp and bad for cycle tyres. II. " on " weather-resisting roads a fairly soft stone may be quite suitable for light traffic. while the lessened radiation diminishes frost. and yields a cementitious It is therefore a good weather-resisting material. Siliceous limestones have the advantage of producing a less slimy mud than purer or than marly stones. Gritstones are usually better than sandstones proper. the gain is. the presence of carbonate of lime in considerable quantity in the sandstone having a good effect upon the binding and toughness of the broken stone. the stories do not cut rubber tyres. and though the glare on white limestone is sometimes rather trying. Limestone. and produce irritating dust. and shifted material does. Besides igneous rock. which forms a means of draining the carriage-way without a scour. 345 MATERIALS FOR WEATHER-RESISTING ROADS. on the whole. and well consolidated with a binder. 36 Flints are largely used for by-roads in their districts. suitable for the "shoulders" of a road of a modest class. filling spaces where vehicles occasionally as is pass. There is less shifting of material on a limestone road than on most other kinds of similar cost . filling the cuts to drains. 36 little from a mass The materials commonly known of pebbles by themselves to what "gravel" vary more than . with a road which absorbs less heat than others. They break "unkindly. and several useful stones for road purposes lie on the border between sandstones and limestones. Water does not rest upon the surface of such a strip. Among such stones limestone is the most imThe dust formed on a limestone road is seldom of a portant.] ROADS AND CANALS.SECT.

however. the superfluous clay is But such a method . of pebbles. more importance may be attached to the binder Someas a packer. and as the road made with clay may gradually be removed.346 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and less to its direct effect upon the traffic. that does not soon work up into mud or grind into dust. sand or grit is the chief or sole 36 detritus. clay is a better binder than sand. of sand. and 20 per cent. material for by-roads. With sufficient cohesion in (especially soda) which they contain. in such cases. times watered. XVI. with a few pebbles or fragments Pebble beds often yield very good distributed through them. that sandstone is better than limestone. When a stone wears to a slimy mud. or sandy matter. and hard limestone is better than slate . loamy. gravel roads may be fairly weather-resisting. and a little of just the right material for the stone used as a wearing layer. and. with a top layer of hard stone. V. 30 per cent. The choice of a binding material is frequently affected by the kind of stone employed. and the consolidates. carriage. with cheap stone in the lower layer. 13 BINDING MATERIAL. of a fair wearthe materials. It is cheaper and easier to make a road with a good deal of or marly material than to make it of solid stone with clayey binder crushed in at the surface . marly. or chips of siliceous rock are better binders than a clayey material . times more than one kind of binder may be used . combined with the right kind of 36 drainage. however. be easily understood that for country roads any hard material. while basalts and granites are exceedingly good or exceedingly bad. will be selected. and the prevention of excessive dryness. [PT. the pieces of stone must be jammed tightly together. when. for instance. It will. a cheap local material. and the objection to their use on more important roads is often based rather on their shape than their material. sand or grit. or stones and chips which are jammed On a road which is regularly swept and sometightly together. on which the camber must be more accurately adjusted. or of broken. and that has the advantage of requiring no expensive It is well to remember. clay 50 per cent. CH. will bind well together. of and generally gravels with a proportion of ferruginous clay . not suitable for main roads with much traffic. according to the proportion of alkaline earths the larger pebbles well make roads resistance. Large quartz pebbles are often broken up for road Successful roads have been made with gravels containing metal. On main roads clay should never do more than fill the interstices between stones.

found at various places in the Rhone Valley and the Jura. and the detritus such that. 14 The Val de Travers works are situated in the Upper Urgovian . one predominant evil in winter and one in summer. Given a certain kind of stone as most suitable or economical on any particular road. 29). 36 PAVING MATERIALS.. containing from 7 to 15 per cent. when perfectly free from water and pressed together by heated cast-iron stampers. is constantly met with in connection with (cf. Rock asphalt is a granular limestone or dolomite. heavy rains being relied upon to remove the detritus from time to time before it becomes very fine dust or mud.] ROADS AND CANALS. Usually. but the quality best adapted for paving purposes is mostly obtained from Val de Travers. Sicily. p. or petroleum is permanent. Where water can easily be got. return to a normal state after stress of weather must be more automatic. near Lyons. 347 whole crust so compacted that the area of subsoil on which a wheel rests is as large as possible. Savoy. in New Granada. of bituminous substances soluble in bisulphide of carbon. and the Dead Sea. it is capable of being rolled down into a good surface again by the traffic as it dries. decrepitates and falls into powder. and Syria. in Neufchatel. Egypt. p. notably at Seyssel. near Asphalt mud Carthagena. and is used for street paving. 6 Asphalt is essentially a product of the partial oxidation of petroleum after the loss of the more volatile constituents. Among the more striking localities are the pitch lake of Trinidad. and when heated to about 140 C. the engineer can let his choice of binder be influenced by the way he intends to treat the road. producing a material scarcely differing in cohesion from the original rock. in 1801) and yet be found plentiIn other districts the discharge of asphalt fully fifty years later. This. It is of a light or snuff-brown colour. conditions of cost and want of time for attention reduce the problem of maintenance to the mitigation of. 72) It may sometimes be volcanoes (see Chapter II. on a by-road. 36 On by-roads. and as such occurs where oil springs rise to the surface. after drizzly weather. absent (as when Humboldt visited the caves of Turbaco. reconsolidates. and roads are much exposed to the sun. Limestones of this character are tolerably abundant in parts of Germany.SECT. rather than let them come to pieces in a drought. which is known as compressed asphalt. it would sometimes pay to give gravelly by-roads a good soaking. the " gum " beds of the Canadian oil regions. say. II. and Val de Travers.

Radiolites. the greatest specific gravity is invariably the strongest. Among stones of the same kind that which has Specific gravity. the only rational and satisfactory means of determining the point is to make an experimental trial upon a section of roadway for a sufficient length of time. or "that disposition of a solid which renders it : difficult to displace its parts among themselves. XVI. and where steam-rolling is practised it is not of so much moment as when the metalling is consolidated by wheel traffic." The latter quality is of no value in (4) Binding properties. and over which a known amount of traffic passes.348 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and other fossils which abound in that rock. [PT. more particularly when opening a new quarry. These qualifications are by no means always found together. or weather. The source of the asphalt is not by sublimation from any underlying beds. and the selection of a suitable stone for road-metalling under any circumstances is a somewhat difficult problem. roads. In selecting a material for the Requisites in a Road Stone. 33 Physical Tests. V. Apart from the which one may possess of judging the quality practical experience of any particular rock. Its origin is attributable to the decomposition of the innumerable Requienice. however. limestone beds of the Swiss Jura. which has been hitherto chiefly used for paving. 1 SELECTION OF MATERIALS. stones for paved streets. The results thus obtained can be compared with those shown on any other section of road similarly situated. or (2) Toughness. purpose of road-making. The chief points to be attended to in preparing it are the cleanliness of the materials and drying the broken stone. These are frequently made use of and may be of great assistance. but great difference may exist in the durability of stones of the same kind and presenting little difference in appearance. but the results obtained have only a . the essential characteristics requisite may be summarised as follows (1) Hardness. in which the limestone is impregnated with it. CH. for it is confined to a special zone. which must not. and which has been maintained for years with a material of recognised quality." " non-liability to be affected by the (3) Weather resistance. be subjected to sufficient is now being used on heat to impair the cohesion of the particles of stone. 17 Tar-macadam." "that quality by which it will endure light but rapid blows without breaking.

The stone is weighed before and after (3) The absorption test. The drop test. The test is carried out by both the dry and the wet process . is of a very weak and perishable nature. especially when the soda or lime varieties exist to any great extent. the loss being recorded. 33 This quality depends partly upon Durability of Road Stones. This is carried out by placing samples (1) The abrasion test. 349 relative value. for road -metalling absorb. of broken stone in a revolving cylinder. is brought about by the decomposition of certain of the component elements causing the formation of a powdery clay. but to carry it out properly the stone should be immersed in water for twenty-four hours and then exposed to the actual action of frost. the chemical influences met with on the surface of a road. or black ferromica. 288). p. on certain stones. forming a continuous mass. of into the question. The stones suitable (2) . and in many instances the conclusions arrived at are extremely delusive. and after the test the The stones are dried and then weighed. (see Chapter XIII. more or less compact. II. and magnesian affects adversely rocks of which it is a component element. while the texture of the rocks also enters largely The disintegrating effect. The resistance to abrasion depends mainly on the composition of the component minerals and the manner in which they are aggregated together into a compact mass. after absorbing water. as a rule.. This is particularly the case with felspar. To determine by means of a hydraulic (5) The crushing test.] ROADS AND CANALS. (4) The weathering test. The efficiency of igneous rocks generally depends on their compact. cemented together in a siliceous paste. resistance to mechanical abrasion and partly upon its power to withstand chemical decomposition. This is carried out by subjecting the specimen of stone to repeated blows from a falling weight 15 Ibs. sometimes along with a number of small castings. This test is a very misleading one so far as road metal is concerned. Biotite. the least quantity of water. and . falling 10 inches has been used. accuracy of this test depends on the exact similarity of the samples. granular texture. in the latter case the stones are weighed first dry. immersion in water for twenty-four hours. Those in which the grains are so small that they are barely visible.SECT. to withstand the effects of the disintegrating It may be carried out artificially by Brand's test action of frost. water is added in the cylinders. press the resistance of carefully dressed cubes of stone to crushing. To determine the ability of the stone.

XVI. Mr to determine. are from chemical disintegration. relative wear. Many minerals. and the moisture or dryness of the road has often a great effect on the wear of the same material. those having a fine texture and composed of minerals which remain unaltered when exposed to chemical influences. the or matrix. liable to alteration as distinct . may be looked upon as satisfactory." The engineers of the French Fonts et Chaussees have endeavoured to arrive at a comparative numerical value of the the national roads. V. and though it is easy to see that one stone wears twice or three times as long as another. decomposing and producing much dust in summer and a large quantity of greasy mud in winter. being generally of a hard and durable nature. when as in the case of granites. Many rocks of the igneous series. CH. Undoubtedly the best materials for producing the most durable metalling are basalts. it is almost impossible to take into account all the circumstances under which they are exposed The nature of the traffic has a considerable effect on the to wear. : . The following list has been compiled from a return for 1876: materials. having a high silica percentage combined with a sufficient quantity of ferromagnesian constituents which tend to produce toughness. upon. their on whether the power of cohesion is durability depending destroyed or otherwise. Rocks of a crystalline texture may be adversely affected by the decomposition of one of the component cohesion is maintained simply by the crystals being minerals interlaced with each other or wedged together in mosaic fashion. give the best results. crystalline grains are compactly set in a siliceous paste which by itself is sufficiently durable to hold together and withstand chemical action.350 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. as well as on the actual wear of different materials. and qualities of the materials used on coefficients of quality are given for the various materials used in each department. show great variation. [PT. With some other rocks a more intimate union is observed . however. 33 Regarding the relative strength and durability of various road " It is a difficult matter Thomas Codrington says No test but actual wear in the road can be fully relied on. and syenites . A trial should be made of the wearing qualities of each kind of stone of a doubtful charThis is the only reasonable test which can be depended acter. even when they are of an apparently hard and durable nature. exposed to the action of air and water. diorites. even should the crystals themselves be adversely affected and become decomposed.

its natural formation. 34 life of road-stone first may like wood.. . . .12 to 20 . so that it may be exposed to the air for some time before being laid on the roads. Devonian schist Sandstone Granite Syenite Gneiss Silica . 9 to 12 8 to 19 (in one instance 6) 8 to 16 7 to 11-6 6 to 18 (generally about 10 to 12) Chalk flints . is green and unseasoned it is therefore desirable that a stock of stone should be quarried and broken the year previous to use. .. . however. .. III. stone. . 9 5 to 12 . . Compact limestone Magnesian limestone ..23 . . Jurassic limestone ..16 one instance 5) .11 to 18 . . Siliceous pebbles . . . It is... very seldom that In the country is so favourable as to allow this to be effected. Siliceous limestone . . . . ..12 . points have to be considered in addition to those which apply to them in common with roads and railways.SECT. .21 20 to 25 (in one instance 4'8) (in ..14 . most cases it becomes necessary occasionally to alter the level of the surface of the canal.. ''. . . . . Lias limestone . . Canal-making.' . . ..10 ... 5 to 10 5 to 8 5 to 12 10. . Porphyry Quartzite Schist .. .63 Mean The of all France be increased by seasoning. ROAD MATERIALS. . Limestone .. . Trap Quartz Basalt . In laying down and arranging the general line of a canal.. One of the most desirable points to be attained is a perfectly level surface throughout its whole extent. Section III. 351 COEFFICIENTS OF QUALITY OF Granitic gravel Quartz gravel ... and gravel .. .12 . . 4 to 12 to 16 6 to 20 (generally 10 to 12) .12 . when removed from ..] ROADS AND CANALS. .10 to 20 . . Carboniferous limestone Oolitic limestone . the water being retained at the higher many . .

if possible. becoming dry. XVI. and leading as much of their waters as may be required to supply the highest (technically called the summit) level of the canal. V. would carry off' the water so rapidly as soon to drain the canal. which by its action would be gradually enlarged until the puddle was rendered useless. a further waste is occasioned by the evaporation from its surface. and all the skill of the engineer in puddling and making an artificial bed is sometimes exerted in . and these. which object is usually attained by diverting some of the smaller natural rivers or streams. alternating with water-tight clays. would crack . and was applied by Mr W. and the absorption of the water by the ground through which it Chapter XII. as well as that which is necessary to pass vessels from the higher to the lower level. CH. the upper part of the puddle. to obtain some natural feeder (as it is (cf. or chalk. which consists of good clay. and when the water again rose it would escape through these cracks. Pure clay by itself would not answer. it is impossible to do so. the strata through which it will pass should be carefully examined. were found to be particularly liable to accidents of leakage. and then mixed with a certain proportion of gravel. to compensate for that which thus escapes. many canals were being cut in the west of England. Before forming a canal. thoroughly well-beaten up with water. impossible to prevent a small keeps them closed. being cut through open-jointed. 37 Leakage. Many soils. however. such as clean sand. crossing the oolitic hills. and therefore. and someIn times cavernous rocks. Section I. for that being properly supplied. termed) for the supply of the water thus lost. The importance of geological knowledge in canalmaking was long ago recognised. of not absorbing it. In addition to these two causes of loss. Where. and more especially when the summit-level of the canal occurs in them. in a very successful manner. and therefore it becomes necessary to have the means of supplying the upper portion of the canal with water. such strata should. sand. the water escapes almost as fast as it enters.). an object of considerable importance in the arrangement of a canal. or gravel. About that time Smith. that is. the lower levels will be fed by the water which escapes from the upper. by gates so placed that the pressure of water against them It is. flows It is. however. [PT. be avoided.. amount of leakage at the gates.352 level GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. in 1811. therefore. the canal may be made watertight by lining its sides and bottom with puddled clay. or tempered. because if at any time the water in the canal sunk below its ordinary level. the passage across the former rocks. more especially with reference to its powers of retaining water.

let through a portion of the water contained in that level of the canal. well versed in the knowledge of strata. nor indeed is it the greatest source of injury. existence of open joints and caverns is by no means the only. weakening by their irregular pressure every defence that may be opposed to them. III." for the 13 * * advantage of man by the skilful adaptation Phillip's Life of William Smith. confident in his great experience. emerge or attempt to emerge in the banks of the canal . p. separately lines of fault in manageable of science. This is a process requiring great skill and extensive experience . or between certain ridges of clay ('horses') which interrupt the continuity of the rock. 353 But the vain. some of the springs. there no ordinary surface-draining will reach. but further to regulate and equalise their discharge so as to render them a positive benefit. 13 The general remedy for all these evils was understood by Mr Smith and proposed by him for adoption. But Mr Smith. or along masses of displaced rock which extend in long ribs from the brows down into the vale.SECT. which really exist between and causing leaks which most districts. for instance. rendering them short in their courses and uncertain and temporary in their flow. This he would have accomplished by penning up the water in particular natural areas. and divide the subterranean water-fields into limited districts.] ROADS AND CANALS. but flowing naturally below the surface through shaken or faulty ground. or pounds. It is " the entire interception of all the springs which rise from a level above the canal. by a general system of subterraneous excavation. and none but a draining-engineer. can successfully cope with such mysterious enemies. 69. not only proposed. 23 . for innumerable small faults or slides traverse the country and confuse the natural direction of the springs. to intercept all these springs and destroy their power to injure the canal. and pass below it through natural fissures and cavities. and cannot prevent great and ruinous loss. which it is most important to intercept come not to the surface at all in the ground above the canal.

the less is the effect of This is the cause why a this disturbing rotary motion. but. streams the orbits are larger. to enable the engineer to fully understand the geological action of rivers. In flowing water the whole volume does not move forward in one mass. the velocity also ' increases. and the diameter of the orbits consequently becomes greater. whilst the hydraulic engineer must have more than a mere smatter- ing of geological knowledge undertakings. RIVERS. the geologist must be acquainted with the principles of hydraulics to enable him to trace the action of rivers. of hydraulic laws is essential. V. if he is to be successful in his MOTION OF WATER IN RIVERS. free flow of the particles decreases as the depth and width of the stream increases. Section III.. THE work done by running water has been briefly considered in Chapter L.[PT. rolling round and amongst one another in all directions. CHAPTER XVII. Motion of Water. a certain amount of knowledge In fact. as is the case with a solid body. but every individual particle is in motion. according as they are In deeper diverted by contact with the sides and the bottom. In shallow streams the particles are continually circulating in a number of small orbits. 354 . as the hydraulic mean depth is increased. As the volume moves forward. In other words. these particles roll round one another in orbits varying The in dimensions according to the section of the stream. and why. diameter of the orbit is governed by the distance from the surface of the water to the bottom of the channel and the distance between the sides. the further the centre of the stream is from the retarding medium. deep stream has a less eroding effect than a shallow one. and the disturbing agents fewer in Thus with the same velocity the disturbance to the proportion.

and the retardation decreasing towards the part most distant from the bottom and the sides being at a maximum at the former point and a minimum at the latter. or in deep rivers. and they therefore require a less rate of inclination to produce the same velocity. and each in succession being less influenced. to transport material of heavier specific gravity than itself. little below the There exists a point where the velocity of the filaments of the water is at a mean of the whole depth. The point of maximum velocity is found to be on a vertical line through the deepest part of the channel and a surface. to variations in the head and irregularities in the form of the channel causing disturbance to the motion and a loss of living force from the particles being reflected in currents contrary to the general direction of motion.] RIVERS. at 0'45 of the depth measured from the surface. it would be subject to a constantly accelerating force.CH. This point varies with the depth and other conditions of the river. owing to the action of gravity. the mean velocity may be taken at 85 per cent. are due to this upward and rotary action of the particles of water. . If. 40 Retarding Force. retarding to the accelerating force continually diminishes. the particles nearest the rubbing surface being most affected. flow of water in a channel is uniform. The velocity of a stream is not uniform throughout the whole section. The contact of the particles with the sides and bottom of the channel retards the velocity of the water immediately adjacent. the same quantity of water must pass each transverse section per second. Generally. and as the particles are reflected they transmit this retardation to the more distant particles. As rivers increase in size the proportion of the Velocity. of the maximum. This retarding force is due to the friction of the particles of the water against the sides and bottoms. and its power A large volume of water once in motion maintains its flow with a very slight surface inclination. consequently. the same quantity of water will be discharged at the lower end of any given length as enters at the upper end . water continued to flow in a river with no resistance. and to 40 turbidity of the water. and its position at the centre. there must be also a retarding force. the curved motion which a stream assumes. the velocity of the current increasing where the area is diminished Where the and decreasing where it is enlarged. XVII. but as its motion over any given length is uniform. 355 The existence of the deep pools which are found in the beds of rivers. to the adhesion of the particles of the fluid.

The bed also consists of a series of pools and shallows. observations have shown ately the whole velocity. an equilibrium is set up between the erosive action of the water and the resistance of the material of which the bed is composed. In these proportions for maximum velocity no account has been taken of the action of the wind. it may be taken that the bottom velocity varies from about 75 per cent. The course of the river. and at other times running with low velocity and at less depth.356 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Temporary alterations may occasionally occur. . in the same manner as occurs at the mouth of large After the contour of a river has once been detertideless rivers. and carrying along large quantities of solid material. consists of a series of curves. it would seem natural that the heavy materia carried by the water in suspension would be deposited in the pools. and proportionHowever. for large rivers. and. whether tidal or fresh. of the surface velocity for rivers of depths of about 5 feet. Generally. 40 Contour. of the particles is to move in a curved or rotary path. The minimum velocity is at the bottom. this equilibrium being once established. Gales have a considerable influence in retarding or increasing the surface. and its proportion to the maximum velocity will be affected to a large extent by the quantity of sediment that is being carried and the depth of the stream. [PT. The contour of rivers in their natural condition is never found to be regular. the pools are maintained by the rotary action of the flowing water. the water on the immediate surface being retarded by the friction with the atmosphere. and a straight reach of any length is very exceptional. and a river may change its course but where the course remains unaltered the contour of the bed will be found Without an investigation of the to remain materially unaltered. to 50 per cent. mined. cause of this. and that they would become filled up. for three times this depth. but that each particle is deflected from its course by the difference of level The tendency of the surface and the irregularities of the bed. 40 Rotary Motion of Particles. V. The point of maximum velocity is generally a little below the surface on the vertical line passing through the deepest part of the river. which maintain their shape and position without change. at one time running with great depth and velocity. although the conditions of the flowing water are continually varying. and 66 per cent. It has been already shown that the particles of water never move forward in a mass. that the effect of wind on a river (exclusive of tidal causes) does not reach beyond mid-depth. in which . and the bed raised throughout. either horizontally or vertically.

horizontally. instead of line of direction into play is . the curved motion of the particles is increased. therefore. Particles of solid material in suspension in the water are thus kept in continual motion. In flowing water. which presents an obstacle to the original by this dynamic action. or. when a state of equilibrium has been reached and the bank is sufficiently tenacious to withstand the impact. acting on the sides of the channel. will collide with those previously deflected.CH. being reflected vertically. Dynamic force Action. and longitudinally. in addition to the static which at the same depths presses against the sides and bottom of the channel equally in all directions. The consequence is that the full force of the water. 357 This rotary motion. This accomplished. If the direction of a stream be changed. dynamic action from the convex towards and on to the concave side. A channel which has once attained a state of equilibrium is prevented from being further eroded at the curved portions owing to the varying action of the particles of water as they pass round the curve. causing currents in that direction. or else to increase the velocity and raise the surface of the water on the concave side. tends to scour away such portions of the soil as are not sufficiently tenacious to resist the action. until finally they are caught 40 by the upper current and carried forward. the whole mass of the water participates. are whirled round in every direction. which tend to deepen the channel both horizontally and vertically . The particles next to these. the particles of water which are nearest to the concave side are the first to come in contact with the curved side of the channel. This action is increased by the fresh particles of water arrive. being later. As they descend into a pool they are thrown upwards and rolled round. and a similar action will take place as each parallel series arrives. but always moving onwards as particles of water. and so a series of curves is set up. setting up a centrifugal or screwing motion. the filaments of water are driven out of the straight path and reflected on to the In a pool the opposite bank. and are thus the first to be deflected from their course. there is also a dynamic force depending on the velocity. and to shoal and decrease it on the convex side.] RIVERS. XVII. The force thus brought absorbed chiefly either in cutting and carrying away the material of which the bank is composed. When water which is moving along a straight channel comes to a part that is curved. and gradually a hollow is scooped out. in heaping up the water and In all curves there is. having to descend over the edge of the pool at a sharp particles angle and then striking the bottom and being reflected upwards. the particles of water are impelled against the side of the channel. a radial creating a greater head.

40 See Bars at the Mouth of Rivers. owing to the shallow depth. Sections I. At certain velocities water has an eroding as well as a transUnder normal conditions the sectional area of a porting power. if a deep already impinged on it. V. Flowing water frequently passes along the bed over which it is flowing without exercising the erosive effect due to the A very slight cause may change velocity at which it is running. or stability. the transporting power of the water then carries away the soil. the reaction of the tidal currents flowing up and down and impinging against the sides and bottom will create an eddying or boring action which maintains the trough at its greatest depth and prevents deposit. will be gradually cushioned by that part of the stream which has Even in a sandy estuary. [PT. however. p. In the sion. it is transported over the sands and deposited near the banks during the time of slack tide. 40 Erosion. and the steep mounds of sand with deeps on each side which exist as bars at the mouths of some tidal rivers. THE TRANSPORTING POWER OF WATER. and On reaching the channel of the stream it becomes IV. Lynn Well in the Wash. any agency comes into play that disturbs the material composing the bed or banks. which break up and loosen the soil sufficiently to allow of its being washed by the rain into the river (see Chapter I. Lune Deeps in the Irish Sea.. thoroughly mixed with the water.). there is little or no scour. or else it is carried out by the ebb current and deposited in the sea. and the natural bed of the river remains in a state of If. and their turbid condition then testifies to the work that is being done in the transport of material. and the scouring of a pool where previously the water had passed over without any effect. and the sectional area becomes enlarged. part of this velocity into erosive energy. trough be once scoured out. A slight obstruction placed in the bed of a sandy channel will cause erosion. the velocity is sufficiently increased. acting directly on to the hollow side of the bank and eroding it. This detritus is the result of the disintegrating effect of frost and rains. river is sufficient to allow of a velocity slow enough to prevent erosion. causing salt marshes to accrete . 365. It is due to this action that the deep pools are maintained. where. such as the Sloyne in the Mersey. The deep pools always to be found at concave bends are instances of the development of this power. and is carried along in suspen- When this material reaches a tidal estuary. .358 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. All rivers during land floods are charged with a large quantity of alluvial matter which is carried away in suspension. Transport of Material.

while the finer particles may be altogether prevented from The motion of water in running streams is never sinking. 40 The quantity of material carried in suspension varies very In some rivers upwards of 2 per cent. however. Thus.] RIVBRS. . but if these sands are broken up by wind or wave action.. by impediments met with on its course. clay. 359 in a be transported away in floods when the velocity is sufficient to erode and stir it up. by which a rotary motion is given to the water. alluvial matter from 1'92 to 272. 117'5 Ibs. the total volume of water passing along the channel consists of solid matter. clay. . it will not take a greater burden. 103 Ibs. of coarse sand. will pass from a state of suspension to that of deposit when the water in which it is contained ceases to be in motion. but flows against the banks and over its bed without eroding them. A solid particle. 40 The matter to be transported. Taking the specific gravity of water as 1. but consists of a series of Motion of Particles of Matter in Suspension. uniform. 118-75 Ibs. it will pick up material from the soil over which it passes. silt. fine sand. cubic foot of water weighs 62'5 Ibs. being of greater density than the water. is continually tending to sink. also. . and of the individual particles of water.. however. XVII. the sand may be transported by the tidal current into the rivers. The bed of a river is rarely regular. 1'52. 1*90. same way detritus brought down at one time and deposited channel may and the velocity is sufficient to erode. Shingle beaches are only found where there is a considerable rise of tide and sufficient wave force is generated to erode the cliffs. in weight of considerably. the relative weight of coarse river-sand is 1-88. the time occupied being proportionate to its size and specific gravity. it is not over-burdened. fine sand. 95 Ibs. 120 to 170 Ibs. altered by the varying form of the bottom and sides. If a stream is loaded to its full carrying capacity. being much heavier than the water. and by the varying velocity of the whole mass due to the friction of the sides and bottom. and thus kept from sinking to the bottom.CH. If. Thus particles of considerable size may remain in suspension for long distances. and the relative position of the suspended particles is The direction of the particles is constantly being changed. and thrown upwards by the eddies. Continual eddies and whirlpools are constantly being generated.. The particles of water in running streams have. The particles of matter in suspension are carried forward by the velocity of the current. tidal currents may flow over sands without disturbing or removing them. a considerable upward motion which is sufficient to counteract the downward tendency of the solid particles. A alluvial matter.

does not necessarily produce a deposit. material is sand. If the velocity of the stream be checked by a widening of the channel. where the water was very highly charged. the distribution is more general. the greater amount will be found at the bottom and the least at the surface. the proportion was only 147 to 188.stream side often presents an almost vertical face. In the Rhone delta. These ridges are constantly altering their form. cause a rotary or centrifugal motion in the hollow . which have the effect of continually altering the direction of the particles of water. in two ways being constant.360 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. to the first. In a condition. 40 Effect of Alteration in Dimensions of Channel. however. a single pebble often altering the whole shape of the moving detritus. in its at the surface to 188 at the bottom. the author has found the proportion to vary as 8 to 14 and 12 to 28. the amount of material carried will vary directly as the velocity. with a more Even where the vertical inclination on the down-stream side. almost invariably a gentle slope on the upper side. and tends to restore the normal velocity. Even where the bed approaches to a level surface it frequently contains a series of These ridges have ridges. Increase in depth does not cause deposit in the way that increase of width does. A slight retardation of the current. when. the quantity depending on the variation in the velocity of the current. ordinary sandy estuary. the motion of the water becomes less disturbed. if a given quantity of water carries a given quantity : . the other uncertain. and due to the increase of eddies and whirling motions With regard set up by the increased momentum of the stream. the particles of matter brought into the depression are rolled round and directed upwards. The power of water to transport solid matter depends on the which governs the transporting modified by the depth velocity one certain. composed of the deposit in transit. and a portion of the matter in suspension is deposited. and ultimately carried off by the film of water moving above the surface of the pit. [PT. the amount at any point being determined by the greater or less disturbance of the particles due to eddies and whirlpools. and as affected by the time that gravity has to act on the particles while travelling a given distance . the quantity of water power. due to the changing size of the particles rolled along. When the water is highly charged with deposit. V. where the water was much undercharged. When it is undercharged. pools and shoals. The particles of water in the latter case. descending on one side of the deep and rising on the other. the down. 40 Proportion of Deposit carried. over which the moving particles are rolled. the proportion was found to be as 100 In the Mississippi. This deposit reduces the area of the channel.

The weight of sand and pebbles. impossible to lay down any rule for the second factor. sand. and the more the energy expended in rubbing and eroding the sides and bottom of the channel. and the velocity accordThis is no doubt the cause why shallow streams ingly diminished. are easily transported owing to the in a state of . frequently erode the soil of their beds and banks.OH. It has been shown that the particles of water of which a running stream consists are continually rolling round one another in circular orbits. due to the tides aided by the current acting on heavy bodies in a partial state of notation. it is 361 obvious that by increasing the pace the channel the quantity of material carried must also be increased. The strength of the stream is absorbed proportionally in this action. The deeper and wider the stream the less the rotary motion is impeded. The greater agitation in which shallow water is kept increases its capacity to hold matter in suspension and to erode its bed. frequent. however. and that the size of these circles depends on the depth of the stream. or shingle. as it must depend on the contour of the channel and the means for setting up the whirling or rotary motion that keeps the particles in suspension. They are therefore acted on by the dynamic force of the flowing current in addition to the transporting power due to the velocity alone. clay. of the particles. fineness rivers consists either of alluvial The first two.] of material in suspension. XVII. The larger also the diameter of the circle through which the particles move the more easily they will glide over the surface. stones of very considerable size are brought from deep water and left stranded on the shore. and therefore the greater the ability of the water to retain these in suspension. and effective will be their impulse. when immersed in water. The smaller the diameter of the orbits described by the particles the more disturbed is the condition of the water and of the particles of solid materials which it contains. carries these along and lands them in a position from which the returning wave has not power to move them. and the shallower the water the more direct. and when aided by the disturbance caused by waves. being only about half their weight in air. while deep water passes on over the same kind of soil without exercising the same effect. It is. pebbles lying on the bottom of a river present an obstacle to the free motion of the particles of water and check their momentum. The momentum contained in the deep water of the sea. throughout the whole of RIVERS. these materials are more Sand or easily transported by currents of moderate velocity. 40 The material transported by matter. It is to this cause that pebbles and shingle are moved along a beach by tidal currents of small velocity.

Gradually the forces of the erosive action of the water and the resistance of the soil balanced one another. is carried away in suspension. The quantity carried in suspension at a given velocity is not wholly in proportion to the specific gravity of the material. or the part where the coast-line opens out. and the struggle also between the tidal water and the ebb torrents resulted in an equilibrium being established between The fresh-water or non-tidal portion. a certain portion. as the result of observation and experiment. consisting suspension. The estuary. Even in still water it will be found that the relative time occupied in settling does not vary as the specific gravity of the materials. condition were formed by the flow of the water off the land to the ocean. Although clay will not yield to such a velocity as generally prevails in navigable rivers. may be divided into three parts : 2. Rivers in their original Origin and Description of Rivers. [FT. The remains of river terraces in many valleys testify to the magnitude of the streams which then poured off the land. Section I. Section III..362 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and their transport is effected by being rolled along the bottom. through which the tide ebbs and flows.. and the least effect is obtained from sand. then from clay. the gradient and the velocity of the water would be much greater than they are now.). require a greater velocity of the current to move them. of the very finest particles. 40 leaving a wide mouth or bay. Mr Wheeler has found. The vast areas of sand which are to be found in many estuaries In the early condition of the river are the result of this process. V. limited boundaries. as also shingle. 3. 40 THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF TIDAL Rivers 1. that the most effective results may be obtained by mechanical disintegration and mixing from warp or alluvial deposits. RIVERS. this part of the world they probably received their main characteristics after the breaking up of the Glacial Period (see Chapter IX.). When sand is disturbed. if it be disintegrated the particles easily mix with the water and are carried away. when the torrents due to the melting of vast masses of glaciers and icebergs. The part within the coast-line confined within . but depends more on the fineness of the particles. but all particles sufficiently large to be visibly angular. the development of their present shape and direction In being due to the work of ages (see Chapter I. cut deep channels and conveyed the material eroded in their course with them. pouring off the land and flowing to the sea.

The tidal water enters at the lower end. which brings detritus down from the upper reaches . raises the level of the water during a period of a little over six hours. river There are two sources from which the water flowing in a is derived. and the regime of the rivers as they exist now became established. Obeying the law of gravity. one tending to shoal and deteriorate the channel. distinguished respectively as tidal and fresh water. but by a different process. as its crest passes the mouth of the river or its estuary. of fresh water. Fresh Water. that is. The tidal motion continues as a wave so long as the depth of water in the low-water channel is sufficient for its generation. The water poured in at the upper end of a river also comes from the sea.] RIVERS. the currents assume the oscillating motion due The current alternately flows both ways. therefore. The supply intermittent. which erode the cliffs and banks . This supply of tidal water from the sea has enabled many rivers to be used for navigation which otherwise would not have had the necessary depth of water. This is due to the evaporation caused by the sun. supply of tidal water is thus constant. the other to maintain and deepen it.CH. until it reaches the lowest point attainable. XVII. between the purely tidal and the fresh water. the winds and waves. condensed again. which. filling the tidal basin and causing a run of water up the river . and is then collected into the brooks and rivulets which feed the rivers. 363 the contending forces. There are two principal agents always at work in tidal rivers. during a similar period. and running down and its level depressed during the ebb. but is converted into a current as the depth shoals. In the middle zone of the river. and the currents which disturb the sand-beds in the . Under certain conditions the action due to the tide may be simply a raising of the level without a reversal of the current. the vapour formed being collected into clouds. except during the time it is headed back by the tide. the trough of the tidal wave. variable. and is derived from the tidal wave of the ocean. 40 Agents of Maintenance. being to tidal influence. it ever continues a constantly downward course. The agencies which tend to shoal the channel are the transporting power of the fresh water. driven back and raised up during the flood tide. the process is reversed. is limited. the same quantity passing out of the estuary on the ebb as entered during the flood. and in the form of rain falling on the land. and This fresh water only travels in one direction. as the trough The of the tidal wave passes the estuary.

to which the low-water channel always reverts under normal conditions. examination of the charts of the coasts of this country will show that in the great majority of cases the line of direction of the main low.364 estuary. Under natural conditions.water stream where it enters the sea is nearly at An . In non-tidal rivers. currents. When unconfined by banks. Its capacity to transport the solid matter continues in a diminishing ratio until the termination of its course. of a more or less stable character. is the chief agent of transport which carries the material away out of the channel to the sea. giving undue influence either to the tidal or fresh-water agency. the forces at work in a tidal river adjust themselves so as to establish an equilibrium between the eroding agency of the current and the tenacity of the soil of which the bed and banks are formed. in which the current of the stream is always in one direction. [pT. until it is finally carried out to sea or deposited on the shores of the estuary. or of long periods of dry weather. As it approaches the tidal portion of the channel. and the constant reversal of the direction of flow. therefore. and the travel of littoral drift. as the current slackens on approaching the sea. where it settles and forms the salt marshes to be found on the coast. if left at rapidly subsides in the lower part and raises its bed. the direction and force of on-shore gales. of continued land-floods. the set of the tide. The angle or direction in which a river joins the sea is affected by the shape of the adjoining coast. and the slope becomes so regulated that the velocity is sufficient for the transport of the detritus. always flowing in one deposit. floods. give these rivers a great advantage over tideless rivers. the conditions of flow become so altered that the tendency to deposit is greater than the transporting force. In a tidal river this solid matter is kept in movement by the oscillating action of the tides. yet there is one course. V. 40 Regime of Rivers. rest. GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS. over several years will show that. The ever-continuous motion of the water in tidal rivers. the direction also of the low-water channels through beds of sand and silt is the result of a balance of forces set up by gales. the material settles at its mouth and forms deltas. although at times the course of the channels may be altered by the prevalence of gales from one direction. The continual oscillation of the water due to the tides is the chief agent which keeps the detritus in motion and prevents its The current of the fresh water. direction. 40 The material thus brought Junction of Rivers with the Sea. into the channel. and other disturbing A comparison of the charts of a sandy estuary extending causes.

Effect of obstructing the Free Flow of the Tide. or of the Humber and the Severn. except in stormy weather. the material channel. Although there may be excepwhich a river has to deal with is supplied from the interior. which rises so far above the general level of the bottom of the river. Any cause that obstructs the flow of the tidal water and the free propagation of the tidal wave is detrimental to the maintenance of a river in its most effective condition. 40 its channel and irregularities in BARS AT THE MOUTH OF RIVERS. 365 right angles to the main set of the tidal stream along the coast. very hard clay. Bars are not common to all rivers. owing to the great depth of water over them. contractions of the form. having deeper water both on the seaward and inner sides. Even where the tide flows over a vast mass of sands. XVII.] RIVERS. or occasionally of large boulders. At the mouths of most estuaries with sandy bottoms ridges and depressions similar to bars are to be found. and therefore do not form impediments to vessels going up or down the channel. and leads to the shoaling of the tions. as to render the channel useless for that class of navigation for which otherwise it would be fitted. they cannot be deemed bars. These bars consist of a shelf or ridge running across a river-mouth. such as those which lie along the coast outside the mouth of the river Mersey and the Kibble.CH. the crests of these do not rise above the general level of the channel inside. and not from the sea. but in many cases. 40 Bars composed of Hard Material not affected by the Scour of the Current. and that it only becomes turbid after it has mixed with the ebb. it will be found that the tidal water flows into those estuaries bright and clear. A bar across a tidal river (c/. In other estuaries where well-defined bars exist. consisting either of stone. 17) may be Description. and similar causes. In non-tidal rivers the bar consists of a long flat shoal at the mouth of the river. are destructive to the maintenance of a deep-water channel. or inclining rathr in the direction of the set of the tidal ebb and flow. The placing of weirs across tidal rivers. and the crest rising above the general level of the bottom of the channel adjacent. or shingle cemented together . described as consisting of one or more banks or ridges extending across the entrance channel. both at the outfall and in the channel above the shoals. and free from deposit. 40 Source of Detritus in Rivers. p. restricted entrances.

Rising in some cases as much as from 40 to 50 feet above the bottom. by which an enormous volume of water is poured into and discharged from the river twice every day. and the direction of which is reversed four times every day. through which currents run at a rate of from 3 to 4 knots. These sands are not continually accreting and forming deposits. but. In time large deltas are thus formed. consisting of one or more ridges or mounds of material. not only serves to keep the alluvial matter contained in water in suspension.366 with clay. of sand may be drifted along the coast during long-continued gales and form casual bars at the mouths of the rivers. 40 Bars at the Mouths of Sandy Estuaries. Bars due to the Deposit of Alluvial Matter. the particles of which have riot the slightest coherence. V. through which the water from the river finds its way to sea by several shallow channels. In a non-tidal river the alluvial matter brought down the channel continuously. [PT. These are to be found in tideless rivers. In tidal rivers. they maintain their positions across channels subject to a tidal rise of from 20 to 30 feet. yet stand with a slope much steeper than their natural of angle of repose. altering their position and shape. Exposed to the storms and waves of the open sea. This form of bar is the type most frequently met with. but maintain their original form and extent in a more or less stable state so long as the natural conditions under which they In the more open sea the accumulations exist remain unaltered. effect GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Such bars can only be removed by dredging. but this material will be transported away when the normal conditions are resumed. The large accumulations of sand found in most tidal estuaries vary considerably both in their composition and cause of deposit from alluvial deltas. . by diffusing it throughout the whole volume of the tidal water brought in on the flood. carries the greater part of it away on the ebb and deposits it in the deep water of the ocean. They possess features of a most remarkable character. and to a very much increased extent in floods. the ceaseless action of the tides. or the surrounding conditions may be such that the hard material may be replaced 40 by sand. The the removal may be permanent. where the current is checked and the velocity is reduced. and the bar reappear. yet having a normal condition to which they are restored when the 40 disturbing causes cease. or where the rise and fall of the tide is so small as practically to render the river non-tidal. settles at the mouth of the river. they are sometimes partly dispersed or added to. and also in the fact that they are in situations where there is generally a considerable rise of tide.

In a tidal channel where the current is continually being reversed. after discussing Theories as to Cause of Bars. decreasing in width and depth from the mouth upwards . and that the depth of water should be sufficiently shallow to allow of the action of waves and tidal currents on the bed. unless in situations where there is a strong littoral drift and the ebb current is not sufficient to keep this out of the channel. being once Sand is moved in an estuary formed. this opening into the estuary. still continues. are not liable to be reformed. XVII. 367 A tidal bar assumes the form of a having deep water on either side. or tip. the position of this face varies with the Formation of Sand-bars. when the ebb current is so directed as to have a preponderating force over the flood in the removal of material. when the momentum of the tide is not unduly checked . continually tending to scour it The current moving forward along the bottom is deeper. The conditions most favourable to the absence of bars are those where the estuary assumes a funnel-shaped form. On coasts where there is a travel of material along the shore. deflected upwards. sets forth the following views. various theories in a paper laid before the Institution of Civil Engineers. screwing motion is set up. and a steep face on the down-side. and which tend to build up or disperse them. At the foot of the ridge a rotary or of the tide. it is drifted in its course across the opening in the coast-line which The flood-tide. Over this steep face. which whirls the particles of material round the bottom of the hollow. and not to that of the land water. and when the outfall channel is continued into deep water. when there is a free propagation and long tidal run . if removed by dredging. For their formation it is necessary that the bed of the estuary and of the adjacent sea should consist of sand or shingle. which were almost unanimously accepted. direction : . tends to carry the material with it . however. the particles of sand are rolled.] RIVERS. The balance of forces originally set up. and may be taken as mainly correct The existence of tidal bars is due to the action of the sea. or that from which the current is coming. in a series of ripples or ridges.CH. ridge. And the chief factors in their maintenance are tidal currents and on-shore gales. Bars owe their origin and existence to the balance of forces which was established when the coast-line and estuary assumed These are forces which have continued to their original form. and rolls the particles up and over the ridge. operate ever since. aids its own maintenance. The ridge. 40 Channels where Bars are absent. Bars having been once formed and subsequently maintained by the action set up by their shape. having a long slope on the upper side. setting through forms the outlet for the river. 40 Mr Wheeler.

Along most of our fens. there is. and the tidal current. on the other hand. these superficial matters overlie and mask dykes and ledges of rock which cross the channel. Not infrequently. tends to carry it back and disperse it into the deep water of the sea. and consequently storms. and then these require subaqueous blasting and more expensive methods of removal. there is always a considerable margin of silt and low-lying land. sands. in the Tyne it may be harder strata of Carboniferous sandstone . and thus forming a bar by the action of the wind. in the Tees Triassic sandstones. and the methods of removal may be suggested by a study of their structure above In the case of the Wear. Geological Formation of Kiver Bed. generally speaking. 11 little difficulty in however. A LAND RECLAMATION. little if at all above ordinary sea-level. carses. and the interests of land-making and navigation are often incompatible. River works have frequently the effect of making land in the sense cf altering the disposition of existing materials rather than of accumulating additional materials." said Mr D. Embanking and Warping. It may be remarked. and being maintained by the action which its form sets up. [pT. for instance. liable to be inundated during flood-tides and protect such lands. the reader is referred to Mr Wheeler's book on tidal rivers. Stevenson. and other drift material. training. course flows over the magnesian limestone. the sand being thrown up and assuming the form of a ridge or ridges. deepening by dredging. may therefore exist across the mouths of rivers where there is no drift along the shore. the ebb-tide. waves. For principles of improvement. Wherever there is considerable motion of the water where any the bottom of the sea is mobile. the material invariably lies in Bars ridges. however. To reclaim and and further to . V. that when the bed of the river consists of silts. 40 RIVER IMPROVEMENT SCHEMES. and other particulars. these in some cases being of considerable height. careful survey of the country will generally reveal where such obstructions are likely to occur. harder dolomitic ledges may prove the obstruction to dredging . and in the Clyde it may be a dyke or dykes of columnar greenstone which reticulate the rocks in that area.368 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. gravels. and tidal estuaries. levels. which in its lower ground. from which the above extracts have been taken. but "Land-making is no part of sound river engineering.

to impound the water till the sediment has fallen and enriched the land. 369 increase their growth river embankments. to elevate and enrich the surface .] RIVERS. but permit the exit of water when the tide is back. are the objects of sea and Occasionally wood-and. to protect it . and intercepting. and not infrequently the sluices are so arranged as to admit the muddy tide. with sluices which intercept the tide.wattle jetties are thrown out to intercept the silt . 11 . with its burden of silt. embanking. and all require considerable ingenuity and skill on the part of the engineer. to increase its area are the main objects in view . by closing them. and elevation.CH. is constructed . as this latter process is called. Warping. XVII. at other times a strong embankment. and then.

COAST EROSION. In dealing with the subject of coast erosion we must first conhow the existing coast-lines originated. V. Outline. and headlands may have to be explained by discovering the courses of old rivers. successive steps would be traced by which a large mass of land may become broken into islands. though the ancient lands are now more or sider destroyed and submerged. Coast erosion is. CHAPTER XVIII. Inlets. however. in which distinguished by its own peculiar outline. are not a matter of accident . channels. Nothing perhaps will help so well to make intelligible the first and simplest law under which a coastline may change as to take a map on which are drawn lines showing the course taken over the country by contours indicating levels at ever-increasing heights such as would be marked by the Then the sea. the ocean marks a definite level around the land. straight extent on other lands. a subject of so much importance both to landowners and engineers that the geologist and the hydraulic engineer must again work hand in hand and give one another mutual assistance. Influence of Altitude. and scarcely broken. Coast-lines and their Origin. THE action of the sea and the effects produced by it in denuding and reconstructing coast-lines have been briefly described in Chapter I. but the coast-line has been produced slowly at successive ages of the earth's history. or the work of rain. 1 Section I. CH. is the sea-coast.[PT. and the kinds of rocks exposed . and the reason why the smaller less 6 370 . Its fantastic curves on some shores. if the land were submerged to that extent. Every part of the earth which rises out of the sea is This outline. bays. and parts of it have from time to time been portions of lands of far different outline to those of existing continents and islands. for the causes which raise islands from the sea also determine the main directions in which the coasts run. Section V. XVII..

by being merely uplifted so that the sea drains once covered. 371 islands are formed would be more or less clear. united together and into continents. even in recent geological times. and in Culver Cliff and the Needles at the east and west ends of the Isle of Wight. in the North and South Foreland. 6 Minor Features. terraces must inevitably have been produced inland in this way at successive heights.SECT. whose existence is only intelligible by help of a knowledge of the ways in which the several geological formations which make up the dry land have been accumulated. then inland cliffs will be formed which off it from regions which Wherever a coast-line rest. the wearing power of the tides will usually convert what had previously been a shelving shore into a sea-cliff. remains for some time unchanged in level. 40). sea . But when the deposits shelve down gently into the water.] COAST EROSION. folded. which are called cliffs.. Besides its direction every shore presents the minor features of bays. with periods of pause during which no upheaval takes place. since its removal is largely dependent upon the chemical power of water to dissolve the limestone and take it up into invisible suspenformations is Headlands. and capes. Hence. land is upheaved at intervals. I. p. when acted upon by the grinding power of the breakers. there are no weak places in the single stratum exposed which make it easy for the sea to cut a way through the formation. though in many cases the rounding influence of the action of rain has more or less modified and obliterated the earlier work of the sea. If. well . This arrangement of the strata into hard beds and soft beds is accompanied by an inclination of the deposits technically called "dip" (see Chapter III. and have the course of their coast-line changed. for the sea Similarly with the necessarily would cover the low land first. All these headlands consist of chalk. in the promontory of Beachy Head. cliffs. then. The position in which cliffs are produced is often governed by the way in which the layers of rock forming the country are arranged. it cannot be disintegrated and washed up into easily transported sediment like the underlying and overlying sands and clays. and upheaved so that the edges of strata are exposed on the shores where land rises out of the sea. inlets. and wears away the exposed edges so as to undermine the rocks and convert them into precipices on the seashore. and although chalk may be worn away by the sea like any other formation. Section The sea acting upon deposits so inclined abrades II. lines which mark depths of increasing amount in hundreds of feet enable us to understand how islands may be enlarged. 6 correspond to these intervals of This dependence of headlands upon geological exemplified in Flamborough Head.. has been elevated from out of the ocean. Since the whole country.

But the sea is often admitted into the land without any regard to the nature of the strata. where noble strips of land have in historic times passed. The most important class of inlets occupies the positions of what were formerly dome- and the sea admitted. though partly to the ease with which the sea could encroach on the loose clayey and sandy formations. And. remember the power which the sea possesses of throwing up around our coasts in stormy seasons not merely the spoils of life but masses of rock from great depths. not crumble away like those of Yorkshire. the shore. beds to our shores have been chiefly concerned in the production We know the rapid waste of certain parts of the of sea-cliffs. and the shore moved gradually with the depression of the When we land to a level which was progressively higher. and it may be that much of the material thus brought back again had previously been scoured from the present seaward slopes of the country in an antecedent age. V. both of which owe their existence to lying in synclinal folds. being a thick homogeneous formation. and though the changes which take place from year to year prove that the existing aspect 6 shaped or anticlinal folds. the rock is rest upon it and GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and with pebbles driven along the shore by waves lashed by the wind. often with towns and villages upon them. when. while on each side of it the strata are excavated by tidal attrition Of such bays. circumstances were more favourable for its work of excavation. and have been swept out But all our coasts happily do over the flow of the German Ocean. which often has its foreshore defended with a barrier of flint derived from the waste of the Upper Chalk already destroyed. when its level was These materials are ever reinforced with the hard higher. Sandown Bay and Compton Bay are into bays. Inlets. due to the removal of the soft underlying strata below the chalk.372 sion. owing to a different level of the land. [PT. more enduring than the associated deposits which which it covers. coast. and the Southampton water. 6 The same agencies which have brought the pebble Sea-cliffs. familiar examples. every portion of the land must in succession have been a shore. a mechanism becomes discernible which has brought gravel beds and our pebble beaches gradually into their present position in times antecedent to the The beach follows final shaping of the contours of the coasts. XVIII. The Shore. back into the sediments of which they were originally composed. part of which sinks below This is the case with the estuary of the Thames the sea-level. it happens that this formation juts out into the sea. simply because they happen to be bent down into a trough. As a district became depressed . OH. fragments worn from the nearest local source.

when hurled back by the tidal waters. II. and the cliffs are often high. The Tertiary cliffs of the east and south-east of England are mostly of moderate height. forced and free . because the level of these deposits rises so little out of the sea. innumerable cracks and division planes. while the land which they form rises to a fair height from the sea. This bay is usually a point from which the adjacent harder rocks may be undermined. The gap furnishes a ready means of reaching the sea. governed by the direction of the wind and the currents which move the water (see Chapter I. these fragments. though there are many exceptions. The Secondary rocks. have wasted at a more rapid rate. Section Forces acting on Coast and Sea-bed. The height of a cliff is governed chiefly by the height of the On some parts of the west coast of Scotland. from their loose texture.. and so eaten back that the traces of earlier denudation have become obliterated. in their upper portions. owing to the dip of the their substance contracts and becomes divided by strata. WAVES. 21). the former exist only during the continuance of the wind causing them. Some coasts are especially favourable to the formation of cliffs. when the underlying portion between.. for. because easily undermined. 373 many cliffs is of very recent origin. drained of the moisture they contained. while on many parts of this coast of Suffolk cliffs have no existence. p. evidence of denudation. and the cliffs often show in their retreat from the shore. and. 41 . and eaten back by the sea into a bay.] COAST EROSION. become battering rams for making further inroads into the sea-wall of rock. Sea waves are of two kinds. and thus the process goes on. tide-marks has been removed. the adjacent land. among the contorted and upheaved Primary formations cliffs are higher than among the newer formations. but the latter continue to run for some time after the wind has subsided. as a rule. and often owes its existence to a bed of of clay which had been exposed down to a low level on that coast. yet their geological structure often makes it probable. 6 II. Section V. that they too have come down to us from an immeasurably distant past. height of cliffs is immense . even when proof is wanting. because the rocks are hard and not easily worn away. But the waste is less rapid. Seaside towns generally occur where gaps appear between cliffs.SECT. and different relative positions of land and water from those which exist now. separating into blocks which have no support or firm coherence with the mass of the stratum. After falling. as may be seen in the Crag formation at Felixstowe and Aldborough.

it is moving forward when In other words. 91. From the circular motion of the particle it follows above the level of repose. [FT. the water the trough is moving backwards. The oscillation of the particles of water. Oscillation of particles of water. The motion of the water particles corresponds closely to that of a point in a long rope which is kept stretched out while one end is oscillated quickly up and down . having merely performed a position circular oscillation in a vertical plane. when below that composing composing In The trough always precedes the crest in point of sequence. movement or oscillation it must be clearly kept in mind that there is no alteration in the position of a particle of water relative it is left in the same to the bottom after the wave has passed by in which the wave found it. however." but there is another type of wave called a ivave of translation. a series of waves is seen to traverse the rope from end to end. It is most difficult to rid the mind of the impression of an actual shoreward movement of the water itself when watching from a pier or cliff a series of these waves rolling in. or free waves. or to a light floating Such particle describes the circle with object. remarkable way in which they retain their individuality. that. Free Waves. shall be dealt with later on. in which the water is actually permanently displaced by the wave . a circular motion. " They impart to a particle of water itself. this type. FIG.374 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. uniform velocity. moving backwards. of Wcw& Motion. " The diameter from trough to " of the circle is equal to the height of the wave crest. the water level." . These waves are called "waves of oscillation" or "free waves. CH. V. XVIII. but the rope itself is not drawn to either end. and in the direction of the motion of the wave itself. due to a wave of the . and the this . the crest of the wave is moving forwards . Mr Hunt : gives the following very concise defini- tion of the character of oscillating. as being that generally accepted "Such swells are composed of ridges above and depressions below the level of repose of the water.

which is disturbed by waves. 41 Breakers. the horizontal and of Translation. the transporting power of which may be very powerful in shallow water. their velocity and wave length are diminished and their height is increased . 41 Close to the breaker line the nature of the motion of the particles is very different. the particles travel in orbits in a vertical plane. which is slow and rhythmic. and their amplitude diminishes in geometrical progression as the depth increases in arithmetical progression. 41 Forced Waves. 41 As free waves approach the shore they become more or less waves of translation. so the excess of forward movement over seaward decreases as we move seaward from the land margin and the depth increases.SECT. but do not quite return to the starting point. the former being relatively slow compared with the latter. been proved that is.] COAST EROSION. 91). As the waves continue to roll into shallower water. however. the oscillation in deep water decreases in amplitude in geometrical progression as the depth below the surface increases in arithmetical first progression. but decreases as the depth and distance from land increases. the horizontal motion being nearly as great on the bottom as on the surface. II. vertical movements are nearly equal. extends downwards through the water. Whenever there is any forward movement of water. This probably exists in the form of an under-tow. the particles revolving in smaller and smaller circles as the distance from the surface increases. only a surface skin of the ocean (see fig. When the wave rolling shoreward eventually plunges or breaks. are not true oscillations . horizontal and vertical motion of the water due to a wave depends on the depth of the particle below the surface. The action of such waves when breaking on a beach has been usefully divided into three separate parts or phases : Waves . The velocity of the undulation or wave form is relatively rapid compared with the forward movement of water. is still open to dispute. there is always a slight forward movement of the water as well as of the wave form. and the total depth of water compared with the wave length. compared with the wave length. Such translatory movement of the water tends to The relative amount of generate a surface drift with the wind. there must be a compensatory seaward current to remove the water brought shorewards by the waves. caused by waves of translation. but what the thickness of the layer It has. even in deep water. therefore. and the orbits of the water particles are not closed . 375 type. its action becomes entirely changed. thus the waves are crowded together near the shore. Where the water is deep. until eventually the movement dies away It is.

the quantity of material carried by each determines the question as to whether erosion or accumulation is going on. is a very important factor. and if the waves strike the shore at such frequent intervals " " backwash " of one is met the " that the by uprush of the At following wave. a violent shoreward impact is transmitted to the pebbles. and there is a con" sequent deposition of material.W. assuming sand to be present. here is a case where there must be a " backwash " is met in great accumulation going on." but simply starts from rest.376 (1) GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS." thus completely glides up . which is left behind by the backsince it has no such violent start to help it as the " upwash. if only shingle is present. XVIII. the velocity has died away. [FT. since the this way by the "uprush." and its scouring action presumably destroyed. is the controlling factor. considering parallel to the shore. The amount of matter carried up by the "uprush" tends to build up a gradient such that the help given to the " backwash " by gravity will counterbalance the help given to the 41 "uprush" by the plunge. wave is one of the most complicated we have to consider. however. and shores tend to assume an inclination of repose near H." the waves alone." This action of the breaking rush. (3) The "backwash. It is obvious that the plunge must violently stir up the bottom. into suspension in the water " the " uprush following immediately upon the plunge.M. (2) \ suspended matter. Wave by Another. There is always a tendency for a balance to be attained between " the relative transporting power of the " uprush and "backwash. Gravity. a very peculiar state of affairs is produced. one would say. it simply over the surface of the "backwash. and on shingle shores the force of the backwash may be much diminished. CH. this is a most deceptive appearance. 41 Overtaking of One wave. and assuming them to strike Obviously. first sight. such that the shoreward wash and backwash act with equal ." or return seawards of this water. for instead of the checking of " the " back. but no. The "plunge. therefore. case. Percolation. V." or act of breaking. It will be noticed that this analysis of the action of the breaking wave assumes that the when it breaks. starts highly charged with effect. such as sand. The " uprush " of water shoreward after the plunge. The current then carries this matter up the gradient shore wards but on the water reaching its highest point. and is not borne out by closer observation. has time to complete its cycle before it is This is not always the interfered with by the following wave. or. and throw fine matter. or the sinking away of the water through the interstices of the shore material.wash by the water of the incoming wave.

therefore. and results sometimes from a crowding of the waves on to each other by an on-shore wind. owing to the greater surface exposed to wave and current action. although in the aggregate more material may be moved on a flat shore than on a steep one." uprush. the dotted line representing the shore-line. thus obvious that the landward current cannot pick up any material from the bottom. on entering shallow water. and the line of the wave is thus swung round. d. is more retarded than the seaward end in deeper water. it depends also to a great extent upon the gradient of the shore. all system being destroyed and the whole sea covered by a mass of broken foaming water. or any cause which is capable of increasing the frequency of the waves. for the depth of water in which waves break depends 41 upon the height of their crests. current. Waves rolling in from the open sea tend to approach the shore parallel to the general coast-line.SECT. 41 Direction of Waves. nor does the " backwash return down. c. for the shoreward end of a wave. and on the top of it a landward current. and some of what it may already have in suspension will be robbed from it by the down-flowing underThis overtaking of one wave by another is very common. the waves themselves being parallel to the shore-line. e are supposed to be such waves. and will best be understood by reference to fig. 6. and exert a force which is the resultant of that which either would exert alone . In shallow water the crests of these sets of waves may break where they cross. but at an angle. so that the intervals between them are less than the time taken for a wave to " " " go through its complete cycle of plunge. The velocity of the " uprush may be considered straight one at right angles to. Waves generated near shore may run very obliquely to the coast-line ." and backwash. and as the resultant of two components : .] COAST EROSION. depends The gradient partly on the gradient of the adjoining sea-bottom. has also an important influence upon the amount of material travelling the flatter the gradient the less material will be moved per unit area. The angle at which ocean waves strike the shore. Of course. II. the " uprush " does not travel straight " " up the shore. and we sometimes have two or more sets running at the same time in different directions." The surf seen during on-shore gales is a further development of the same thing. When these waves break. 92. In the above consideration it has been assumed that the waves strike the shore approximately at rightangles to the shore-line. In whatever way produced. 377 reversing our first conclusion . where a. oblique waves is very peculiar. the action of Oblique Waves. for here we have an undercurrent It is flowing seaward.

the final result being a movement of the particle alongshore from P to X. the shore. Hence these oblique waves cause a travel of material alongshore in the direction towards which they are inclined. if not deposited. and the wash " action may be We direction of the prevalent wind. the individual path of each particle being approximately parabolic. thus see that the direction of wave impact is an important This in its factor in the movement of material by wave action.wash FIG. Action of oblique waves. or seaward and The more oblique the impact of breakers is on the alongshore. coast-line. in other words. 92. and down again to X. when the wash of the wave travels up the beach. however. owing to the retarding effect of friction upon the horizontal component of the motion of the water particles. in the direction of the wind. In considering the coastal movement of material. turn is governed by the aspect of the shore. except by friction. [FT. to X will. its exposure. CH. are not equal. it is important to keep in view the fact that the power of waves to move particles on the bottom decreases rapidly as the depth of the water and 41 the distance from the land increases. or. and the most efficient impact of the waves is limited to levels between trough and crest. be The return path from somewhat steeper than the path from P to 0. the velocity at right angles to the shore is destroyed gradually by gravity. the more powerful is the alongshore drift. Now. . XVIII. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. The blows of large waves exert great disintegrating force on the shore material. V. and this is especially so when the forward motion There is no true wave of translatory waves is suddenly checked. " and "backIf the moving power of the " shore ward. the result being that a particle of sand taken from any point P is carried up in a curved path to 0. stroke at levels lower than the troughs. such as is described by a projectile thrown at an angle into the air. the resulting movement due to oblique wave either landward and alongshore. but the other component is unaffected.378 one along.

If the tide rose and fell at a uniform rate. 93. hollows.. most efficient in carrying selves. . and L. and consequent travel of the water's edge up and down the foreshore . if the waves were accumulating.W. whether it be erosive or the reverse. is most marked just below H. Erosion by parallel waves.M. owing to differences of water-level and the reaction of the land upon the tidal wave. as whatever action is going on at the time. etc.M.W. (2) The effect of currents and eddies set up. but this is not so. since the rate of : FIG. and whatever erosive or accumulative effect is being .W.W. between H.W.W.M.SECT.W. There is another effect which is due to the travel up and down of the breaking point of the waves. produced by the waves.* 1 Tidal Currents.M. due to the breaking waves. this effect would be reversed. This may be considered under two headings (1) The effect of the slow rise and fall of the water-level. the parts of the foreshore about these points than about mean sea-level. and this is most important. When parallel waves are eroding the shore. and vice versa. the result would be to plane out a uniform gradient between the breaking points of the waves at H. 93. and L. Except where concentrated by narrow straits. We may dismiss the slow landward and seaward current as being too slight to have any effect in moving material unless the very finest suspended matter. hills taking the place of the . II. The chief effect of tidal currents is probably to transport material already suspended or disturbed by wave action.M. is applied successively to different parts of the foreshore. and The bearing of this consideration upon the length of groynes is obvious.] COAST EROSION.M.. as it indicates that they should extend from above H. or L. just above L. 379 TIDAL ACTION. rise or fall is very much faster at about half-tide level than at hence the planing action is applied longer to either H. however. . hollows being dredged as seen. Slow Else and Fall. they are not usually sufficiently swift to move coarse material of themThese currents are. to below L.W. the above consideration shows that the result will be to cut out a section of foreshore something like that shown in fig. and corresponding hills or bars produced seaward of each hollow whereas.

XVIII. V V V V V V V FIG. something like that due to the oblique wave action previously referred to. away matter suspended by wave rough bottom .. is taking place while a tidal current is flowing alongshore. the linear oscillation on the bottom. This slow. and as shown in fig. In shallow water near shore these currents are an effective means of transporting material. there is a forward translatory movement of water as well as of the wave form. in determining the direction in which fine material eroded from the coast is transported. pits at the lee of headlands to point in the direction of the floodtide and not in the direction of prevailing winds. the lower layers.380 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. We have seen that in the case of forced waves. due to wave action. The surface velocity of a current formed in this way is always less than the velocity of the wind causing it. [PT. V. is shown very clearly by the great tendency for sand. such as an . CH. and. and seldom exceeds one mile per hour. _>0 Joint action of waves and currents. The velocity of this translatory movement of water decreases from the surface downwards. eventually produces a movement of the whole body of water. for example. When the surface drift moves against an obstacle. each oscillation being deflected by the current . running in before the wind. 94. If. if not too deep. The combined action of waves and may cause the movement of material on the sea-bed when either alone might not be able to do so. action. Effect of Wind. or eddies due to a very and their preponderating effect. this oscillation must become a zigzag. 41 WIND-FORMED CURRENTS. so that the path of the particles on the bottom results of A A A A A. 41 JOINT ACTION OF WAVES AND CURRENTS. 94. rhythmical advance of the water is an important element of the wind-formed current. the upper layers of water are drifted with This forward movement is gradually propagated to the wind. in an alongshore movement. if the wind continues. currents Movement of Material. When the wind commences to blow.

This causes a surface current landwards. no one possessing even a slight acquaintance with geological science will deny . With such a wind we therefore get accumulation on the windward side and erosion on the lee of any obstacle which is capable of Hence the huge accumulation to the intercepting this drift. an off-shore wind may cause a surface current seawards. shingle. and the almost invariable scour at the lee. jetties. since the strength of the current depends to a great extent on the fetch or distance which the wind blows across open water. Subsidence and Upheaval of the Earth's Crust. A wind blowing alongshore is most Section III. winds denude a shore by removing material seawards . it is always more or less oblique to some part of the coast. the velocity of which may be very great.] COAST EROSION. 41 41 accompanied by an under-tow seawards. and there is. It will be observed that this current must assist the oblique waves in moving material in the direction towards which the waves are inclined. It is seldom that a winds blows directly on. relief streams are set up. Undercurrents. but there is no evidence to show that either upheaval or depression . PHYSICAL CAUSES OP DENUDATION. similarly. producing alternate upheaval and depression. or when its free onward passage is in any way partially obstructed. Any obliquity of direction causes the landward current to be partially deflected. Coast Erosion and Reclamation. consequently. Off-shore winds are never so effective in causing currents near the shore as on-shore winds. 381 island. The underdrift landwards will have little transporting power and will 41 probably extend only a short distance from the land. windward of high groynes. under certain circumstances.. which is compensated for by a lateral or It is an observed fact that on-shore undercurrent seawards. Alongshore Currents.SECT. That continuous earth movements are in progress. Such an alongshore current may be effective in causing an alongshore travel of the smaller particles of sand. It has been sometimes asserted that the continuous loss of land on the south and east coasts of England is partially due to subsidence of the earth crust. and. An example of this effect is seen in the case of a wind blowing directly on-shore. III. owing to the shelter of the land. etc. owing to irregularities of coast-line. etc. which is compensated for by an undercurrent landwards.or off-shore. an alongshore or littoral current.

and historic evidences are said to exist of the subsidence of land in Holland and Belgium. the smaller particles. too heavy to be carried in suspension . CH. on the shores of the Scandinavian Peninsula. considerable depression of the coast-line has taken place in comparatively recent times. it will be noticed that. silt. and ultimately at a level below finds a resting-place on the ocean the influence of wave action or tidal scour. remaining in a state of more or less constant Among merged movement until it is finally deposited to swell some accreting sand or shingle bank. large and small.382 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. a portion is carried alongshore by the combined action of wind. forming the detritus are still further disintegrated. tion of the larger material. Physical Causes of Sea Encroachment. evidences of geologically recent subsidence are the subforests and beds of peat existing in many places. and not in any appreciable degree to movements of the earth crust. and is perhaps buried under subsequent deposits. Similar proofs are met with on the west coast of South America. being rapidly swept away by the current until finally A certain propordeposited on the sea bed as described above. In Northern Europe. waves. or is driven against some natural or artificial barrier. The west coast of Greenland is probably sinking. The encroachment of the sea on our coasts is therefore due to the erosion of the cliffs and shore material. If the oldest existing charts of the North Sea or English Channel are compared with the latest issued. the most southerly part of Sweden. and on the Siberian coast. XVIII. is immediately transported into deep water . there is little or no variation in the levels of the sea bottom in 42 depths beyond the influence of wave or tidal action. and tides. It may be safely asserted that the whole of the changes in the coast-line of Great Britain since historic times are due either to accretion or denudation. with the exception of its southern extremity. and fine sand. in the form of mud. Historical evidences of actual subsidence are wanting in Great Britain. In the course of this lateral travel the particles. there are numerous examples of such elevation. Kaised beaches furnish striking proofs of change of level. bed The remaining portion of the solid materials. if at all. Of the detritus derived from such erosion. derived from the destruction of the cliff or shore. V. allowing for probable inaccuracies. [PT. The lighter material is carried off in suspension by the sea. In Great Britain the best-known examples are to be seen on the west coast of Scotland. during historic times. but in Scania. where it lies. affected the encroachment or recession of the sea on the coasts of the United Kingdom to anything more than an infinitesimal extent. has. round the islands of Spitzbergen and Novja Zemlja.

42 Relation of Littoral Drift to Eroded Material. may yield 20 to 30 per cent. or other similar material. it is impossible to form any exact estimate. Of the detritus derived from rivers and estuaries little or nothing is available for the replenishing of the coast-line generally. at the end of ten thousand years. while alluvial cliffs and those consisting of boulder clay. where it finds a 42 resting-place. On the whole. cause an elevation of the ocean level to the extent of at least 3 inches. but the deposit over large areas. of solids not immediately carried away from the foreshore into the deep sea. of the solid material falling on to foreshores and derived from the decay of the coast line remains above low. on reaching the derived from the land surface. Some of this alluvial material is. III. In the case of chalk cliffs and foreshores it is probable that the immediately removed material amounts to nearly 90 per cent. and this. and that other part which we may call littoral drift. and River detritus. The late Mr Tylor. however. The material which does stay for a time on the foreshore is subjected to constant attrition and wastage. as distinct from purely local cases. the remainder spreading itself over the deep sea bed. continuous deposits on the sea bed is enormous when we come to consider the accretion of geological ages. .SECT. however costly. and ultimately makes its way by gravitation into deep water. shares much the same fate as we have described in the case A part finds a restingof material derived from the coast-line. who made a very careful study of the subject. available for reclamation purposes in certain localities. is too small to be of appreciable moment in historic times. place in sand-banks and alluvial deposits at the mouths of rivers and estuaries. 383 for any considerable distance. in turn goes to swell the ever-increasing volume of the deep-sea deposit.] COAST EROSION. sea. The amount and is way into the ocean is vast. is drawn down the foreshore and bed of the sea by the under-tow of the waves. Gravel and rock cliffs naturally yield a higher proportion of heavy and harder particles. estimated that the quantity of detritus now distributed over the sea bottom every year would. of solid matter thus finding its increased to a large extent by the addition of detritus brought down by rivers and streams. As to the relative proportions of the material more or less immediately carried away to the deep sea.water mark for any length of time. No protection works of any kind which man is able to provide. it is unlikely that more than 20 per cent. Such deposits are purely local Eiver Detritus. 42 The effect of these Effect of Deposits on the Deep-Sea Bed. can prevent the loss of the large remainder. of the whole. too.

V. for instance.384 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. which would prevent the travel of material past them in either direction. gradual disintegration. With change of wind or tide the conditions may be reversed. but its prevention is an absolute impossibility. We will assume the lateral transportation of material along the coast-line to have ceased. but such instances are exceptional. and cannot be taken as evidence of the supply of any considerable volume of material from the sea. or other material to take its place. driven back on to the foreshore. such as. a distance of over 40 miles. XVIII. wind. Undoubtedly material lying on the sea bed below low water and in shallow depths is. At each high tide a little of the soft. frost. and is in many cases so derived. no doubt. will be returned to the sea. These agencies and the gravitating tendency of the particles continue at work until a condition of equilibrium of the opposing forces is reached. but this is merely a temporary phase in the progress of littoral drift. Such changes are continuously in progress below low-water mark. [PT. be seen how limited is the quantity of littoral drift in comparison with the total amount of erosion. It will. 42 PROTECTIVE WORKS. and sun aid in the The bulk of the material newly pre- . It is physically Impossibility of Entire Prevention of Erosion. It has often been asserted that material is derivable from the deep sea for the replenishing of foreshores. by the construction of barriers at each end. CH. and which no one with even a superficial knowledge of physical geology would accept for a moment. The evil may be mitigated. We use the term "deep sea" in this connection advisedly. boulders. Let us imagine it practicable to isolate a considerable length of coast-line. therefore. impossible to stop erosion over any considerable length of coastline. It must not be supposed that the process of littoral drift and erosion is confined to the foreshore or beach above low-water mark. and the deposit. Denudation would still go on. Rain. and a fall of cliff on to the foreshore would ensue. argillaceous material forming the cliff would be moved or dissolved at its toe. and pebbles dislodged from the sea bed in comparatively shallow depths beyond low water are sometimes cast up on the foreshore. in certain conditions. This is a fallacy which has no evidence of any sort to support it. where wave action or tidal scour is capable of affecting the sea bottom. Fragments of rock. except over limited areas. 42 Deep-Sea Erosion. and naturally do not occur in the immediate localities affected by coast erosion. in extent. the Holderness coast of Yorkshire between Flamborough Head and Spurn Point.

and subject to slight erosion in comparison with the softer cliff material to the southward.] COAST EROSION. The littoral drift is from north to south. and in course of time the remainder is so ground up into fine particles Thus that it too is swept away or gravitates into deep water. there is no shore to the south of the head. itself by gravitation towards the deeper sea. therefore clear that in order to increase the extent of any foreshore. and there is little or no travel of littoral drift past it. The wall 1 ? : therefore follows that practically all material trapped or intercepted between the two promontories is derived from the local cliffs. or from Flamborough Head towards Spurn Point. tide. toe of the cliff will not cure the will for a short time. and by removal in 42 suspension. jutting out into the North Sea. Bridlington. It is Effect of Protective Works on Adjoining Coast-Line. for instance. and on the South Coast from west to east. 385 cipitated on to the beach is at once carried into the deep sea. and becomes lost for the purposes of replenishing the On the other hand. The construction of a wall protecting the the erosion goes on. III. or to maintain it even in its existing condition. the natural and incessant losses must be made good by the accretion or trapping of material derived from other parts of the coast. straight line of coast this direction coincides with the main set of the flood-tide. at any rate. is thrown into deep water. Let us again consider the case of the Holderness shore. Deep water comes almost up to the foot of the cliff. evil. by the construction of groynes to be done or other works similar in effect . The former is a headland of hard chalk. The direction of the prevailing littoral drift is governed by the On a direction of the flood-tide and the shape of the coast. Any material drawn from the cliffs to the north. and will retain material dislodged by other natural agencies. and ultimately the collapse of the wall. The construction of walls and groynes in front of particular areas along the coast. and Withernsea. the direction of the prevailing winds often coincides with the set of the floodOn the East Coast the general drift is from north to south. although it may hinder it prevent the access of the waves to the cliff. in the case of England. but such accretion must in every case be accomplished to the detriment of neighbouring foreshores. but it cannot prevent the constant grinding together of the particles on the foreshore under the action of the waves and The result is the gradual disappearance of the foreshore wind.SECT. How is this The answer is locally. must of necessity result in the starving of the fore- 25 . and reaching the headland. as. but. down possibility of any of the alluvium or other detritus brought It the Humber being carried to the north round Spurn Point. The direction of drifts is varied from time to time by the wind. Hornsea.

but by preventing or largely diminishing the littoral drift. it may be after the lapse of many years. unintentionally. and ultimate outflanking of the On the other hand. is. bring about the depletion of the foreshore. and the groynes intercept littoral make good the natural wastage. of a preferential nature. This aspect of the question must be taken into consideration in dealing with the argument for and against national assistance in foreshore protection. Such works are undoubtedly effective. a uniform protected areas by the sea.protection works. effectually prevents the passage of littoral drift from its windward to its leeward side. viz. if For the most any. and. Effect of Pier Works and other Artificial Projections. the protection of any localities which are of sufficient value to bear the cost of defence must result in increased depletion of other areas. but 42 indirectly aid in the depletion of poorer lands adjoining. and projecting into the sea. prevent the erosion of the cliff face. Thus the erosion of the lee-shore is accelerated by the loss of the travelling drift. Travelling material is thus collected to windward. which in many cases is carried leeward. "windward" by engineers engaged direction whence the prevailing littoral drift proceeds. The construction of solid piers or other similar obstructions at an angle with the general shore-line. system of protective walls and groynes along the entire coast will. is far higher than the value of the land saved from the sea. the value of which is insufficient to warrant the construction of expensive works. . when occurring on a coast-line subjected to erosion. CH. In short. V. 42 National Aid in Coast Protection. The walls prevent the destruction of the cliff. [PT. and only a small portion of the drift. almost inevitably followed by serious depletion of the foreshore to The solid projection. in maintaining the foreshore and cliffs for a considerable period. in most cases. part the material which is swept past the seaward or deep-water end of the obstruction finds its way into the deep sea. Assistance given to seaside resorts or other localities where the coast-line is of considerable value would not only be. to " and ' windward " in the sense understood the coast. if properly designed. and "leeward" * We use the terms ' ' leeward ' in the direction towards which such drift takes place. and ultimately the destruction of both walls and groynes.386 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. But ultimately. these isolated works of protection must result in the increased wasting of the unprotected cliffs and foreshore on their leeward * sides. for the time being. ever reaches the foreshore on the other side. The cost of protecting long stretches of agricultural land is prohibitive. shore to the south of every such obstruction. XVIII. sufficiently far in a seaward direction to reach comparatively deep water.

and consequent starving of the Hove and Brighton beaches. generally speaking. however. thus accelerating the destruction of the cliff. 42 LITTORAL DRIFT.SECT. Another example is seen in the extension of the Shoreham West Pier.] COAST EROSION. and led to the accumulation of a large bank on that side and the denudation of the foreshore to the east of the harbour and towards Dover. On a straight line of coast the direction of travel coincides with the main set of the flood-tide. Dungeness Point. have resulted in the accumulation of a huge bank of shingle to the northward and serious encroachments on the town frontage immediately to the south of the harbour. has led to the denudation of the shore fronting Dymchurch and also Romney. a considerable influence on the drift. no continuous drift can take place. 387 to a partial instances of such stoppage on the English coast. At Lowestoft the construction and subsequent extensions of the Great Eastern Railway Company's harbour pier and works. the results are variable. The contour of the coast-line and the direction of the wind have. which project at right angles to the coast-line at the sea outlet of Oulton Broad. each bay retaining its . acting as a huge natural groyne. We have stated that the direction of the prevailing littoral drift is characteristic material. the latter sometimes aided to a material extent by the addition of large own governed. been starved. under natural conditions. and the beach in front of the South Foreland and in St Margaret's material. There are numerous examples of these conditions on the south coast of Devon and Dorset. and trapping the shingle derived from the waste of the chalk cliffs between it and Beachy Head. the ravages of the sea. many Bay has. Effects of the Coast Contour and River Estuaries. In cases where a coast-line is broken up by estuaries or rivers. which led to a stoppage of the eastward drift of the shingle. The construction of the harbour works at Dover has completely stopped the eastward drift at that point. which. falls of which have been peculiarly frequent in recent years. and forming natural groynes. in consequence. depending on the continual struggle which takes place between the opposing forces of littoral drift and the tidal inflow and outflow of the river. which is prevented from leaving it by the projecting headlands extending to low water or beyond. by the direction of the flood-tide. The construction of the Folkestone Harbour Pier has arrested the travel of the beach from the westward. Where a coast-line is broken up by bays and indentations. III. and in Northumberland. There are extent. makes good.

42 frequently lead to the accumulation of material on a foreshore. and . where the shingle drifts as far as Fleetwood. During strong winds in a direction contrary to the trend of the tide. on the occurrence of calm sea and This replenishing is due to the return of a cessation of wind. materially. SEA WALLS AND GROYNES. at any rate to a partial extent. on the other hand. If the tidal currents are strong and deep. [PT. and for forming promenades at seaside The conditions affecting the design of a wall differ so resorts. portion of the material previously drawn down into shallow water immediately below low-water mark. the streams running parallel to the shore. however. and its gravitaOff-shore winds. Generally speaking. where the outfall of the Adur has been deflected to the eastward. and drifts up the margin of the estuary. XVIII. Such deflections are invariably found to follow the direction of the littoral drift.388 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. that every case must be considered on its merits. That part which has been precipitated into the deep sea is. If the force of the current is insufficient to overcome the movement of the drift the formation of a bar results. 42 Effects of Tide and Wind. V. the drifting material is unable to cross the mouth of the river or estuary. the normal travel of drift may be nullified. as occasionally happens. tion towards the deep sea. We do not propose to discuss the design of sea walls intended for the protection of low-lying land from the sea. or. Sea Walls. separated from the sea by intervening shingle banks. although in heavy weather the direction of drift may be for a time entirely changed. The relative effects of tide and wind on the condition of a foreshore are matters about which there exists much diversity of opinion. direct on-shore gales result in the drawing down of the beach material. lost so far as the foreshore is concerned. is diverted. The accumulation of material on a foreshore is primarily due to tidal action in calm weather. but there is little doubt that the prevailing drift is primarily and chiefly due to tidal action. and is carried away to the deep sea. or the stream is Notable examples of the diverted. CH. and even reversed for a time. or even becomes closed. A beach which has been seriously depleted during a long spell of heavy weather almost invariably makes up again. as in the river Wyre. the preservation of cliffs. diversion of river courses by travelling shingle are seen at Aldeburgh and Yarmouth on the East Coast. A typical example on the South Coast is at Shoreham. where the outfalls of the rivers Aide and Yare have been driven miles to the southward. volumes of fresh water.

although it affords needed protection to the cliff or banks behind . whilst the vertical. Just as a sea wall cannot in itself be regarded as an efficient protection for a foreshore. Undoubtedly the immediate effect of the construction of a wall is detrimental to the beach in front of it. The conditions of littoral drift and other physical characteristics of foreshores vary so much that it is absurd to attempt the application of any one form of structure or system of groynes to all parts of the coast-line. for instance. the backwash is of serious moment. as. and the wall may become. face is more common in this country. or nearly vertical. III. 389 provided for accordingly. . before long. the beach in front of the wall must be protected and conserved by the construction of groynes. the smooth and more or less vertical face of the wall causes the waves to sweep along the front. but will not prove successful unless constructed in a substantial manner and deeply secured. 6 feet In certain situations. so groynes. perpendicular to the wall-line.SECT. In general. especially steep vertically sometimes occur. (2) low structures of inexpensive and light construction placed at short intervals apart. that at Dymchurch. Suffice it to say. sloping arid upright. will not in all cases prevent the waves reaching the toe of the cliff or bank and erodA combination of the two ing it to a greater or less extent. Generally speaking. each class having its advocates among engineers. in rear. Many groyne of the failures attending the application of this form of have been due to lack of foundation and holding power in the beach. walls having a sloping face are used in Holland and Belgium. Such groynes may often be correct in principle. Thus the construction of a sea wall on a sand or shingle foreshore is in itself calculated to bring about the denudation of the beach. a long flat sandy beach cannot be expected to give satisfactory results and resist destruction on a shingle beach where temporary changes of level of. the agent of its own Whilst the wall will prevent the erosion of the cliffs destruction. 42 Groynes. Again. and efficient on.] COAST EROSION. however effective they may be in collecting travelling material. perhaps. that sea walls may be divided roughly into two classes. Low groynes of light construction are undoubtedly successful on some beaches. This effect is the more marked when the waves strike the wall at an On the other hand. Groynes may be divided into two classes (1) high and substantially built structures of timber or other material . a type of groyne suitable for. light low groynes are suitable on flat sandy foreshores which are not exposed to sudden and extensive changes of level. scouring the beach in their progress. when the waves move in a direction angle. forms of protection is generally desirable.

thus allowing the beach to escape under the groyne to leeward. low-water mark. CH. In protecting a particular length of foreshore it almost always occurs that the leeward groyne of the series. 42 For further information on the subject of coast erosion the reader may consult Coast Erosion and Foreshore Protection. V. advantage of carrying groynes below the level of low water is therefore apparent. produces a serious scour on its lee side. by Owens and Case a very practical little book . favouring the deposition of material. The construction of spur groynes placed on the leeward side of the pier or main groyne is a remedy sometimes found beneficial.390 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. XVIII. and enables the groyne to withstand the temporary effects of denuding gales and much loss of material by drift to leeward. both on the windward and leeward sides of the groyne but especially on the latter being temporarily scoured away to a level below that of the lowest plank. etc. also The Sea Coast. there is a considerable risk of the shingle. especially if it be a high and long one. by Wheeler. the effect of the latter being to cause an eddy on its shoreward side. [PT. It is frequently overlooked that a considerable amount of erosion The consequent goes on at. Beach and sand are accumulated inshore of the spur. and seaward of. beaches subjected to large fluctuations in level. and often resulting in wrecking the structure. the risk of undermining. 1 . and driving the flood-tide seaward off the shore-line. Sheet-piling driven for a suitable distance into the beach obviates. The same thing occurs frequently on the lee side of projecting piers or breakwaters (see above). to a great extent.

and may partly be of Eocene age). North Stafford or " Potteries or "Black Country". and Pennsylvania. seventeen counties of Ireland. miles). North Germany. Coal. Rhenish Prussia. usually geological basins. Coal occurs in of iron annually. but nowhere in abundance. USES OF MINERALS. DISTRIBUTION OF VALUABLE MINERALS AND ROCKS. and Ramsay thinks much coal still lies buried under newer strata in and around the Severn estuary. etc. Of Oolitic age. including cannel. usually associated with rich iron ores.W. 3. Foreign coal-fields occur in Belgium at Liege. but coal occurs of other periods. in North Greenland. 4. Those in Britain yield 135 millions of tons of coal and 7 millions of tons The chief are The Forth and Clyde. from which oil is distilled. in Vancouver Island and the Rocky Mountains district from New Mexico to Canada (the vast deposits here are lignitic. Bristol: 9. called and found also in Devon. Lignite or brown coal. Spain. 8. e. called coal-fields. Newcastle. including Ayr and Edinburgh. 5. 2. North America. South Stafford Yorkshire 6. The three latter were doubtless once united. Coal in is of three kinds: 1. Anthracite or stone coal (used only furnaces and for steam engines) .CH. Borneo and Formosa.S. North France. Boghead coal is a bituminous shale. Philippines. 1. Kilkenny. 2.. occurs in many detached areas. at Brora in north of Scotland. jet. 3. occurs in South Wales. U. The above coals are of Carboniferous age.A. . Punjab. found in Scotland. Silesia. at Richmond. Of Cretaceous age. abundant in Central Europe. Antrim. N. " 7. Of Keuper age. Ordinary coal (misLinlithgow. south of India. Whitehaven. Lancashire and Cheshire. India. South Wales (900 sq. Dean Forest. etc. Labuan. Switzer391 . : . 10.g. bituminous).] CHAPTER XIX. XIX. Of Miocene age.

chiefly southeast part. and in Saxony. and the Andes of Peru and Bolivia at Pasco. in South Africa the Transvaal and Guinea coast are 2 important sources. occurs very abundantly. But the chief supplies are obtained from Australia. Potosi . The especially Canada. Greenland. Hartz Mountains. is British Columbia to Mexico . as Iron source of sulphur. as at Alston Moor also in Spain. above all in California .A. in Great Oolite sands at Northampton. and rich deposits occur in most also in Laurentian strata in Canada. Asia Minor. or Gold occurs in Carmarthen and in Wicklow. etc. Austria at Idria. Iron pyrites. and largely in South America and Siberia. the chief coal-fields. chiefly in lead ores.S. Peru. Yunnan in China.000 tons are raised yearly in Britain. Silver occurs in Britain. Tasmania. gneiss. Chili. but especially in Tenasserim and Banca Island in South-East Asia. New Zealand . in Brazil. Borneo. Russia in the Ural district. Piedmont. Norway. is [PT. . 2 Platinum is found only in alluvial deposits. grains. Yorkshire. New Granada.392 land. 2 Copper occurs native in huge masses. It occurs in Cumberland. Siberia in the Altai Chain. 2 Mercury (quicksilver) occurs in Spain at Almaden. in Middle Lias at Cleveland. near Lake Superior. 50. and so of coal. Bolivia . and in New Granada. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. and still shows Finland. Japan. in Silurian strata in Mid-Sweden. and the west side from still more It in these. Nevada U. Sweden. and Chili at Copiapo. Most of this woody structure. Bohemia. It is nuggets.. and the detritus gravel or alluvium derived from usually in a native state in crystals. and often only an extreme form of anthracite. 2 Mexico. Austria. It occurs both in the veins and in the rock near the veins. Cornwall. Minas Geraes. California. the Palatinate. and 500. V. is nearly pure carbon. etc. China. is and schists. Ceylon. Tin occurs in Cornwall and Devon (both in lodes and in stream deposits). Brazil. worked in Hungary and Transylvania. in South America. Spain. Hungary. Graphite. 2 Gold has been detected in almost every country arid every kind of rock. Siberia. and North America. Peru. Tuscany. and Nicaragua .000 tons are imported from Spain. Thibet. 2 slates. Bovey in Devon. the valleys of the Upper Rhine and Danube. Saxony. and only in the Ural region. especially slates and schists abounding in quartz veins. granite. but most abundantly in Mexico at Guanascuato. everywhere diffused. usually in chief supply is from Ceylon. especially in the Coal Measures. up to 1 ton in weight. both the east side from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Plumbago or black lead lignite. Spain. Bohemia.

which is made by driving off the water in the kiln from the rough gypsum or plaster stone.CH. it blunts the boring tools. used for small ornamental sculptures. but must be calcined before grinding. which can be carded and spun like flax or cotton. after which it is soluble in acids. and also to some extent as a nitre in certain 14 blasting powders and similar explosive substances. carved into beads and other ornaments giving chatoyant or " cat's- Gypsum. also called fielenite. Some of the compact and siliceous varieties are Anhydrite. fireproof cloth. used as building-stones. duction of plaster of Paris. The only variety of hornblende directly of economic value is asbestos. as. Devon. welcome . Gypsum is also used as a " manure. it will not set by absorbing water when in the natural condition. and increases the cost and labour of driving. variegated with blue or black The chief use is. OTHER USEFUL MINERALS. The applications The clear transparent crystals. and mill-boards. of gypsum are very numerous. and is largely used for steam-engine packings. and other barium salts. being first reduced to sulphide of barium by heating with carbon. ing green fire. where it is found in irregular nodules of The best kinds are very similar to fine statuary marble in clay. it . although anhydrous. are used for optical purposes in thin plates for producing definite colours in The fibrous silky variety called /Satin Spar is polarised light. in the proveins. near Pisa. 14 with extreme slowness. 14 Asbestos. North Wales. and as a filtering material for chemical purposes. and afterwards grinding it to a fine powder. It may be used for making plaster. colour and texture . are cut into vases. Generally these salts are made from witherite.J USES OF MINERALS 393 Various ores occur in veins in Cornwall. or Alabaster. and for this purpose when slightly tinged by brown iron ore it may sometimes be rendered The darksufficiently white by treating it with hydrochloric acid. etc. except In rock-salt mines its presence is unbeing tough and hard. This is principally got in Nottinghamshire and eye reflections. however. 2 Saxony. be used for a production of the chloride. finely granular kind. other kinds. XIX. being carved into vases and similar objects. which is soluble without any special Nitrate of baryta is used by pyrotechnists in makpreparation. nitrate. Barytes when of a good colour is ground for mixing with white lead in the manufacture of paint. the principal supply being from Volterra. is Derbyshire. brown stalactitic variety from Derbyshire is used as an ornamental It may also stone. The compact.

in fact. those argillaceous hydrated peroxides of iron. as Cumberland. known as ochres. the Sinopian. and usually in the haematiteyielding districts of the Carboniferous limestone. 21 iron peroxide. The supply is chiefly derived from Italy and Canada. which is merely a corruption of red clay. . ochre is a hydrated peroxide of iron. and Germany. and the Silesian. hue. boles. the north-eastern states of America and Canada. of a deeper red . 14 MINERAL PIGMENTS. of a pale yellow . and loosely applied . 11 Bole is the term usually applied to friable clayey earths coloured by the peroxide of iron. is another of Keddle.394 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. flexibility. one. though a fair ochre should not contain less than 15 to 20 per cent. usually of a deep It occurs abundantly red. Somerset. the French. both muscovite and phlogopite being used. in England. reddles. of silica. water . with minor proportions and properly a soft earthy combination of the peroxides of of silica. France. North Lancashire. a decomposed haematite. Bole occurs in irregular beds and disseminated masses in various formations. and the like. of a yellow red . 14 Mica. Strictly speaking. the Blois. alumina. and toughness of cleavage plates of mica render them useful as substitutes for glass in The purest and best crystals are obtained from special cases. where it appears as a product of decomposition. 11 Umber iron and manganese. and. 20 alumina. of the hydrate and 20 of water . but a useful variety may consist of about 32 per cent. The better-known varieties are the Armenian. of a bright red colour . is . and 17 water. Among the most common and abundant of these pigments or colouring matters are the hydrated oxides of iron. [FT. V. Finely ground mica has also been lately introduced as a lubricating material for machinery. India. the Bohemian. much of that used in Britain being obtained from the Coal formation. Russia. of a the Lemnian. and Devon. clay coloured yellow by hydrate of iron. Naturally it varies from pale yellow to a or brown . being unchanged by heat or mineral acids. The transparency. and varying from yellow to The term is rather an indefinite yellowish red and reddish brown. but the manufactured article is usually deep orange toned to any shade by treatment and admixture. of a pale red 11 yellowish red . being often. consisting of about 80 per cent. in fact. some of the finest sorts (Sinopian earth) being procured from Italy and Asia Minor. but it is very rarely found pure. of the hydrate. the percentages are about 48 iron peroxide. but brighter. It occurs in all formations. of a similar.

etc. manganese. It is manufactured principally in Germany and France. A great many pigments are obtained from the metals lead. or other cheap material. arsenic. chromium. The following table shows the mineral and metallic sources from which the different colours are derived White pigments. Terra Sienna. is merely an ochreous admixture . lead. when carefully and delicately A serviceable whitewash for prepared. rubbing bricks for external use have usually a basis of whiting or clay. and admixtures. 13 silica. Anglesea. from antimony. Red. 5 alumina. from umber.. and admixtures. Isle of Man. and 14 water. 395 20 manganese peroxide. etc. is obtained from the softest and purest white chalks by grinding and elutriation. zinc. hence the former high price of the pigment. chalk. and that from Cologne is said to be only Whiting or brown 11 lignite finely pulverised. colouring matters. manganese. mercury. from ochre. and occasionally. but as the processes are purely iron. Commercially it is obtained from the island of Cyprus. 11 Ultramarine was originally prepared from the lapis . which occurs in the old crystalline schists and limestones.CH. reddle. chalk. being added to tone the colour to special requirements. from ochre. It is extensively used as a whitewash. Table. heavy-spar. Orange. one of our most common. zinc. other localities. 11 Metallic Pigments. calcined sulphate of soda. they belong to chemistry rather than geology. however. reddle. : Yellow. Forest of Dean. and admixtures.] USES OF MINERALS. lead. . chalk. or sulphate of baryta. mercury. The artificial pigment can be made to rival the natural in beauty and softness at the same time that it admits of a greater variety of shades and tonings. arsenic. cobalt.lazuli. lead. chromium. as a cheap white paint. and appears to be a product of decomposition. is rather rare. arsenic. and pulverised charcoal or pit-coal other ingredients. but useful. the more brilliant the whitewash. chromium. and admixtures. bluestone. chrome. baryta. from lead. Spanish White. copper. di Broivn. and one possessing disinfecting properties. is obtained by diluting quicklime the purer and whiter the limeColoured washes and stone. It is usually found in veins in the crystalline schists. as gypsum. and consists of definite proportions of kaolin or silicate of alumina. calcined soda. and often treatment yields only a small percentage of the colouring matter . . This mineral. sulphur. XIX. and admixtures bole. external walls. and Much of the umber of the colourman. technological. the basis being obtained from ochre.

soda. Purple. iron. like compound colours. and admixtures. potash. 11 . XIX Black.396 GEOLOGY FOB ENGINEERS [FT. CH. V. Intermediate shades. from iron. lapis-lazuli. and from admixtures. and admixtures. are all obtained by skilful admixture. coal-tar. from cobalt. chrome. from gold and tin. potash. from copper. manganese. and admixtures. Green. asphalt. copper. arsenic. Blue.

96. rocks. | Alluvium. 20. 202. Abyssal rocks. Alabama. citric. 224.INDEX. 290. 15. 53. 300. 181. 294. 138. 145. 224. Agents of maintenance in 363. 57. Acidic. 306. fans or cones. hydrochloric. tidal rivers. 70. and metamorphic Africa. 164. 270. Alumina. 176. 225. 145. Aggradational processes. Actinolite. 154. 392. 45-50. rocks. Alabaster. 5. 168. tartaric. 188. 15. JEolian action. Altitude. 186. 233. 138. 16. Abney's level. 34. 53. Albite. 206. Altered andesites. 184. Agricultural purposes. Alongshore currents. 373. River. 95. 224. hydrofluoric. 119. 7. Absorbent power of rocks. Aldborough. in list of minerals. 349. nitric. Alliaceous odour. 224. 202. 4-9. 39. 147. 6. Alleghanies. muriatic. 4. 107. 170. 175. 162. sulphuric. Aerial deposits. 54. Alkaline earths. Aluminium. 176. 34. use of. Alps. 101. 171. Agates. 178. 81. 224. 175. 9. Adamantine lustre. 67. 113. Alluvial deposits. 77. 65. 230. 393. 144. AlgJB. 152. 172. 181. Acid. Agencies effecting change on earth's surface. Altai Mountains. 155. Acrodus. Aleutian Islands. Abrasion test for road stone. Alston Moor. rocks. 172. 134. 173. 188. Alcyonia. 366. 202. 180. 173. 168. Adularia. 5. 122-8. 224. Advantages of lakes. humic. 388. rocks used for. Adur. Algeria. in rock testing. 183. 226. 70. oxalic. ABBREVIATIONS 69. 98. sea. 187. 96. 4-7. 111. 325. 123-4. 392. 144. Acicular. 370-1. Acids. 397 24. 70. 267. 165. 216. solubility of minerals in. 7. 173. 175. 77. 88. carbonic. 231. 381. African desert. 53. Algonkian. Actinozoa. 173. 388. 392. 57. 94. 178. 202. definition of. Air. Alum shales. 179. 275. 232.248. 70. 217. 186. 191. 102-3. Acanthodus. 146. Absorption test for road stone. Acadian area. 349. Afghanistan. plains. on coast-lines. Amber. Agglomerate. Alternation of beds. in 295. Aberdovey slates. 8. 170. influence of. Alaska. 392. Almaden. .

138. Anthracite. 303. 7. Anthrocosia (misprint cosia). 70. Anorthite. 233. 230. Artesian springs and wells. 112-22. Amuri. Apophyllite. -granite. 176. 158. 283. Anomodonts. 206. Aryan group. 280. 146. Anhydrous calcium sulphate. 95. 149. Atlas Mountains. Amphibole. Amygdaloids. Anorthosites. 396. Arabia. Anglesea. 149. 71. 259. 178. Arenicolites. 396. 72. 161. 206. Artois. Asmanite. 184. 205. 395. Arvonian. 97. 188. 275. 161. 28. 110. Ariyalur. 186.186. 393. 138. 175. 61. 69.398 America. 178. 175. 140. Aplite. 63. 3. Ancaster. 394. Analcime. 170. Assay. 290. Asteroidea. 177. 224. 128. Asia Minor. 175. Animals. 34. Arctic clay. 151. 393. 143. 395. Australia. 277. 347. Atherfield clay. 185. Arenig. 26. 171. 187 Annulosa. Arenaceous rocks.185. etc. 391. Atmosphere. 107. Apparatus and reagents. volcanic. 150. 165. 130. 226-9. 187. action. 69. Anhydride. Angiosperms. 37-45. Ardara granite. 128. 184. 114-6. Anamesite. 179. 168. 332. 72-3. 70. 226. Australasia. Anhydrite. 394. 172. 54. 206. Arkose. 287. life Animal Ash. 392.179. blowpipe. Astraea. 175. 204. Ardmillan series. 172. 161. Armagh. 185. 299-301. 7. Asbestos. 147. 156. 69. as indication of rocks. 97. Antimony. Anodonta.. Annan. 173. 116. 282. 395. 157. 154. 167. silicates. North. 42. 69. Arran. 70. 232. Apatite. 185. 103. 174. 143. Anorthic system of crystals. 101-2. oxides.184. 128. Assam. 70. 160. 259. 186. 95. 164. 156. 185. Augite. 278. 58. 93. Aragonite. 137. 184. 146. 91. 70. Arkansas. Antrim. Architectural geology. 210-2. 25. Angle of repose of earth. 112-4. 180. 157. 182. 226. 148. Asaphus. 295. 179. 163. 203. table of strata. Armadillo. 187. Argentina. metamorphic rocks. Argillaceous. 194. Ammonia. Andesites. table of strata. 148. New Zealand.181. 69. 317. Amphibia. 166. 275. 175. 302-4. 297. 108. Asia. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. andesite. 181. 162. 133. 180. 70. 156. 173. Aqua regia. syenite. 335. Armenia. 171. 97. 176. Atrypa. . 153. 161. 69. 56. Anticlinal. 71. Augen-gabbro. 121. Appalachian Mountains. Annelida. 172. 184. Analyses of rocks. 80. 64. 290. classification of. 171. 229. Archseopteryx. 4-9. 392. 173. 172. -gneiss. Atlantosaurus. 114. -schist. Arachnida. 95. 187. Arsenic. Amorphous minerals. Ammonites. Aqueous rocks. 69. 72. 179. 156. 187. 224. 173. 391. 101. -hornblende group. 203. 93. 108. 144-7. 113. 34. 158. work of. Apennines. 87. 178. 138. 173. 98. 110. Archaean. 156. Articulata. 72. Astropoda. 57. Asphalt. 273. for Anthra- Anthropozoic. 178. 232. Andalusite. 70. 284-6. 168. Andes.

Basic rocks. Awatere. 150. 149. Batt. 73. 143. 168. Banca Island. Baton. 145. Basset. 161. 169. Bismuth. 162. 139. granite.INDEX. Bevelment of crystals. 182. 391. 391. 53. 160. 148. or strata. 389. Blastoids. Birkhill shales. 176. 170. Blackband ironstone. Beachy Head. 371. 182. 392. 188. 160. 183. definition of. 170. 343. 184. Bangor slates. Bakevellia. Banat. Barton series. 294. 393. 133. 180. Bilin. Baltic. 118. Biotite. 300. 182. 231. 278. 376. 53. Blowpipe. 73. 393. 62. behaviour of minerals before. Basin. 121. Binary compound. 151. Berthier's BABYLON. Big Horn Mountains. 233. 80. 183. 365. . 293. Bleached gravels. 226-36. 54. Bear Island. 225. 123. Balkans. 172. 290. 131. 306. Barium. 299. Birds. 105. 170. 299. 38. Axes of minerals. Basalt rocks. Base. Bitter spar. Binding material. Blue-bind. 344. 84. Bagneres. 176. River. 25. 110. 151. 73. use of. 282. Bardiglia. 73. 107. 230. lead. Bijawars. Aymestry limestone. Bannister 99. Bay of Biscay. 395. 40. Bats. 179. Avalanches. 387. Avicula contorta. Bellerophon. Bars. Bluestone. 143. 37. 392. Belemnites. 168. 190. 43. 178. Bitumen. 279. Bala. 80. 73. Backs. 168. 300. Bath oolite. mode of analysis. 161. Bagh beds. Ballow. 16. 69. Bituminous Black cotton soil. 185. Bind. 111. 22. 365-8. 22. Bihargebirge. 177. Base level of erosion. 346. Bluehearted rocks. Ballantrae. 170. New Zealand. 170. 399 Auvergne. Bagshot beds. Bacchus Marsh. Barytes. 24. 87. Ayr. Benton group. Baked shale. 36. Sea. 391. 303. Basement complex. 149. 73. 172. Blasting powder. 6. mica. 73. 97. 72. 306. Belgium. 38. 96. 297. 174. Bastion series. Awamoa. 183. Bass. New Zealand. 184. Available rainfall in drainage areas. 278. 177. 63. 226. Bag and belt. 325. 145. operations. Banded structure of rocks. Binoxide. 150. Beds. 185. rocks. Bedding. Backwash. 155. coal. 279. Forest. 282. Blois. Bembridge beds. Bavaria. tidal. 394. 139. 108. 283. 229-36. Bodmin Moor. 73. 167. Bivalent. 205. New Zealand. 287. 358. 62. 7. 275. Bengal. examination. 151. 57. 139. slates. 187. 228. Austria. New apparatus. 61. 17. 268. 140. 306. Blende. Zealand. 392. 132. Bhimas. 54. 172. Ben Nevis. 75. 306. 382. 310. 184. 114. Basaltic andesites. 102. 44. 87. 232. 207. Barriers at mouths of rivers. 151. 130. soil plains. Beavers. Binstead limestone.

164. 162. 174. British granites and syenites. 392. 177. 73. 394. 73. 54. 177. 142. 186. 180. 176. 147. 275-8. 140. 120. 83. Calceola. 205. 391. 278. 180. 73. Branches of geology. Bohemia. 150. 86. -breccia. Bolivia. Capacity of drainage area. 97. Canada. Brontotherium. 182. Building. Bog iron ore. Brazil. 116. 154. Caithness flags. 278. Brown Willy District. 307. 129. 101. 162. 24. Bracklesham series. 60. 392. 394. 193. 275. Bolsover Moor. 181. 188. 391. Bords. Boundary lines. 56. 83. Brick. Brecciated limestone. Brora. 140. Brunn. 1. 187. Bowenfels beds. Bokkeveld beds. Callipteris. 311-6. 150. science of. 169. use of knowledge of geology for. 172. Bradford clay.400 Boghead coal. 83. 27. 186. . 176. 139. iron ore. 185. 391. 157. 21. Borax bead. Bovey Tracey. Cambrian rocks. 291. 392. rocks. 181. Caelenterata (misprint for Coelen- Botryoidal. Cape Horn. Calciferous sandstone. Burgundy. 278. 302. 305-17. 158. 233-4. 65. Boskowitz. Breccia. 182. 34. Browgill shales. 331-2. tufa. 319. 141. 145. Calcareous grit. Brachiopoda. Calymene. 146. 73. Borotungstate of cadmium. 245-7. Caradoc rocks. Brachydiagonal. 127. 143. 288. 392. 307. 351-3. 290. Boulder clay. 230. 164. Brixham cave. 319. Brick earth and clays. 184. 117. 121. 291. 327. 173. 44. Bryophyta. Calcination of limestones. 142. 273. 391. Bundelkhand. Calamites. 279. Cannel coal. CADER Idris. 180. 283. 139. Bronzite. Borrowdale series. Brown Bombs. 183. 220. 138. 9. 392. 391. 183. 138. 270. 182. 185. 375. 179. 143. 173. Brooks. 178. 178. 395. Botallack. 2. coal. 2. 292. 167. 35. 176. Bb'hmerwald. 95. 272-304. Canadian period. 297. 117. 302. 12. 154. 308. Calcite. 385. 175. 290. Calc schist. British limestones. 231. 144. 138. 138. 114. 391. 176. Bosses. 392. 73. 394. 304. Brighton. terata). Borneo. spar. Botzen series. 183. 117. 279. 152. tracing. 392. 72. 300. Bridlington. Bone-beds. British Columbia. 183. of rocks for water. 120. 230. Bray Head. 326. 166. stones. Bristol Channel. Bristol. haematite. 184. 349. 250. Bog manganese ore. 178. 169. 167. 182. 65. oxide. 165. Burrum beds. 291. 293. 302. 300. 75. 387. selection of stone for. Brittany. 143. Canal-making. 247. British clays. Breakers. 138. 185-6. 391. Boron. Caerfai group. 116. Bournes. 69. 281. Bogs. Brand's process. Bunter series. Calcium. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Cainozoic. 278. 347. 184. Bognor series. 392. Bricks and clays. 182. Calais. Branchiosaurus. 215. By-roads. 170. 170. California. 185. Bole. 175. 323-4. 73.making. 177. 168-71.

394. 119. 395. Carboniferous limestone. 185. 295. river. Cincinnati limestone. N. Chlorite. Cham plain period. Catskill period. 1 48. 149. Cetiosaurus. New Zealand. 187. 276. 57. Carpathian Mountains. Christiania. 224. 231. Charcoal. 162. 292. 279. N. 224. 185. 74. 186. period. Citric acid. 91. Carbonates. 142. Chromium. 344. 296. 206. Carbonate of soda. Cephalopoda. Centroclinal dip. Cetaceans. period. America. 302. 98. 10. 294. 146. 204. 392. 182. 233. 74. 175. 64. 98. 351. system. 360. within the earth. 269. 176. 183. 74. 267. 305. of temperature. system. 144. 74. 401 Carbonaceous rocks. 287. Chemical balance. 148. 7. 120. Indian Empire. Chara. 149. Chitral limestones. 301. 160. Charleston buhrstones. 146. 318. 391. 395. 151. Chalcedony. 304. 151. Carrara marble. Carinthia. 185. 8. 140. 291. Cavan. 169. 18. 184. constituents of rocks. ossiferous. 74. Cements. 396. Carlow flags. 150. 144. Chrysolite. 303. 221. Chalybite. 148. America. Caustic lime. 298. Indian Empire. 144. 5. 148. 392. 218. Chalicotherium. 169. 136. Cirque. 162. 319. schist. 275. 170. 131. 176. Salt Ceratite formations. 177. 177. 294. Chabasite. 185. 26-32. Chellaston. 180. Indian Empire. 306. 234.INDEX. Chlorides. 55. 69. Cellular structure of rocks. Cipolino. 147. 69. 54. Chemung 182. Chert. 391. New Zealand. N. Chikkim series. Carmarthen. 274. Chari series. 298. 85. 154. 138. 54. 83. 69. 227. Central Asia. Cattin. 209. 146. 10. 63. 248. Characteristic fossils. 147. 117. 175. Chywoon Morrah. 180. Causes of success or failure in wells. 190. 226. 204. 183. 275. 55. 91. Carlsbad twinning. 71. examination of rocks. Ceylon. Claiborne group. 166. Australia. 54. 277. 275. Cawk. Chlor-apatite. 290. Ceratodus. Charnwood Carolina beds. 121. Caryophyllia. 89. Cardita beaumonti beds. Chillesford Crag. 227. 182. Caverns. 160. 118. 83. Caspian Sea. 136. Chazy epoch. 26 . Cave deposits. 179. Channel Islands. Indian Empire. 294. Cavern deposits. 97. 137. 127. 304. Catchment area. River. 10. 73. marl. 69. Chalcopyrite. China. 74. India. Chiastolite. 164. Charnockite. Chili. 174. 275. Carangeot. 219. 169. America. 278. Chlorine. 70. Celestine. 392. characters of minerals. 93. America. 178. Chalk. 30-2. Cephalaspis. 181. 161. Carbon. Cheshire. subterranean. 161. 69. 96. N. Clarence series. Carbonation. Channels. 392. 174. 74. Caves. Chisel. 209-12. 144. 326-8. 232. 187. 328. 120. Ceratites. 141. 65. 6. 261. Range. Carlisle. 117. 395. 250. 290. Changes in rocks. India. Forest. India. 122. clay. Carnivores. 170. 367. 43. 74. Clastic laminee. 179. Provinces.

40. Copper. Clinton. 121. Clinkstone. 138. 146. 177. nitrate. Conformable strata. red. 278. Compass. 13. 250. 299. 62. Cornbrash. 176. 110.. Colombia. 174. 307. tar. effect of. Continental Europe. 120. 48. Coal. 227. 99. 201. 167-8. Cleavage of minerals. Climate. 181. 392. 315-6. 191. Cleaved structure of rocks. 32. 118. 62. Corallian beds. Cleveland. 162. 186. 166. 151. Clays. 395. 118. River. 205. 132. glass. of rocks. 102. 129. 182. 77. 370-90. ironstone. 392. 177. 386. 181. 137. Corsite. 172. Coast contour. 102. 45. 137. etc. 117. 47. 294. Corallines. 166. 107. 282. T14.. 7. Coniston grits. 356. 289. 181. 292. 60. 219. 230. 24. 396. effect of. Clinometer. 182. 299. Cone-in-cone. 183. Contortions. protection. 201. 391. measures. Colours of bricks. Compound. 34. 311. Contemporaneous rocks. 395. 395. 246. on drift. foreign. erosion. 192. 138. -fields. 37. 392. 392. 79. 42. 147. 182. 154. 395. Coral reefs. of of road Coefficients quality Contours. Cologne. Cornwall. 179. British. Connemara marble. Colour and lustre of rocks. Coralline crag. 67. 72. structure of rocks. radicle. 160. 170. 140. 67. 372. Contorted drift of East Norfolk. acting on. 63. 219. 332. 307. 396. 298. Clastic rocks. 176. 309. 74. 174. 176. 111. 370-3. volcanic. 391. Clinochlore. 350-1. pyrites. and reclamation. 187. 185. 74. 52. 28. 274. 71. 179. 392. 131. Colloidal state of minerals. Closed tube. 275-6. Coccosteus. Connecticut. 25. Columbia. 372-373. Australia. 31. Contraction in bricks. 141. British. lines and their origin. Cones. forces. origin of.402 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 394. 385. 191. Clyde beds. 34. 172. 154. 184. 142. Colorado. Coarse tuffs. Corsica. 69. 232-3. 112. 65. 24. 138. Coral limestone. Compact structure of rocks. Cliffs. Cobalt. Consolidation. Corniferous period. Collyweston slates. 391. 234. 140. 175. 234. 104. 89. 67. 58. 180. 201. Colourwash. Clay. 114. New Zealand. 302. Contact goniometer. North America. Contour of rivers and river beds. 227. 273. in deep sea. Cornley sandstones. Coarsely fragmented rocks. 183. see Slate. 178. Compton Bay. 396. Ccelenterata. 65. 184. Copiapo. 183. 387. 291. Concretionary structure of rocks. N. 271. 83. Conifers. 100. 63. of minerals. 162. 39. 23. 174. Conchoidal fracture of minerals. slate. 100. Cornstones. edible. 174. formation. 307. 176. Conformability of formations. 182. 36. 280. 393. 305-9. 392. 15. Clinodiagonal. 101. 183. 231. alluvial. 368. 373-81. 103. effect of works on. 381-90. 186. 101. 202. 52. Clymenia. Coprolites. 56. etc. 150. Columnar structure of minerals. 300. America. 145. 315. 64. 74. 145. Conglomerate. 391. 98. materials. . 121. 74. 233. Corals. colouring of. national aid in.

176. Darley Dale sandstone. Australia. Cyrena. Deoxidisation. Cycles. 20. 179. structure of rocks. 19. 333. 111. 98. 201. Depression of land. Cycloid. CryDtocrystalline structure of rocks. 298. 223. pelagic. 38. 42. of large masses. 138. 391. Desert sandstone. 113. 273. 138. 7-8. 23. 293. wells. 23. . 58-62. 304. Craigleith sandstone. 198. faults. Denmark. 281. Deutozoic. Cyprina. Devonshire. 155. 223. 174. Crustacea. 219. 137. Cyprus. Cryptogams. Decomposition of silicates. 172-4. Cypris. 203. 5. marine. Crushing of rock-constituents. 379. 395. 175. 403 series. Dense liquids. 149. Indian Empire. Cuddapah. 225. 156. 155. Ctenoids. 98. Daonella. 20. 126. 301. 349. 176. forms. 387. Dew. Destructive action of rain. Croghan Kinshela granite. 294. 218-26. non-littoral. of rocks. Crevasses. 173. of route for new road. 100. 275. 381. 295. Dalecarlia. 384. 12. Deep leads. 218. 282. Decrepitation. Indian Empire. 365. Dakota. Cycads. 23. Dharwarian beds. 175. Devitrification of minerals. 172. Currents. 161. 29. 381. of rocks. 179. Deposits. Indian Empire. Cretaceous system. 392. 185. Detritus in rivers. 394. 58. 20. 174. Crocodiles. test for road stone. Curl. Derbyshire. 294. 328. 360-1. 176. 138. Devonian system. 156. 30. Deltas. 66. 14. 19. 217. Damourite. 10-11. shallow water. 181. 148. 295. 180. 160. 38. 292. 176. Deposition by glaciers. 150. Culm Culver type. 160. 183. 371. 16. 177. Dent marbles. 183. effects of underground water. Denbigh grits and flags. Crystalline limestone. 150 sea erosion. 34. Cubic system of crystals. 275. Cyanosite. 261. Dartmoor. Current bedding. Danube. littoral. Crust movements. 380. 177. marine. 180. 162. 158. 200-6. 23. systems. 391. 281. 23. Damuda 179. 290. 162. 117. 174. 213. 59. 287. deep-sea. 148. Cystideans. 275. Coulee. 215. Curvature. 290. 99. 158. of rocks. 332. Cumberland. 59. Denudation. 231. Crystal angles. oceanic. Density. of proportions of minerals in a rock. Deccan. Cross bedding. Crag and tail. 23. marbles. Deserts. Deposit carried in rivers. 393. 392. cliff. 20. Cutch. 184. Determination of minerals. 137. 124. 142. schists. 393. Crinoids. 133. DACITE. 136. Indian Empire. 149. 248. 290. 392. 15-7. 294. 181. 129. terrigenous. Cuddalore sandstones. 145. 22. Cyclopteris. 183.INDEX. Australia. by running water. 45. 4. 280. 7. 395. 29-30. 140. 289. 148. 102. weight of rocks. 162. 23.

152. Diplograptus. 387. 5. 179. Dynamical geology. England. Dungeness. of rocks. Encrinal marble. 182. 145. 360. 387. 9. 247. Dykes and veins. 116. reclamation. 282. Elasmobranchii. Durness limestone. Elephant beds. Electrical properties of minerals. Diallage. 179. 304. Elba. 165-6. Earthy structure of rocks. EARTH. 344. 387. Dolomite. Dudley coal-field. 385. 314. in rivers. 72. . Dynamo or regional metamorphism. 382. 40. Dresden. 182. Encrinus Drumlins. 177. 144. 24. 6. Doulting freestone. 129. Ecca beds. 69. 72. Dolomitic limestone. Elvan. 125. 38. 144. Encrinites. 162. 188. 7. Endogens. Enstatite. S. 273. 154. 281. 225. 54. Dunes. liliiformis. 298. Displacement apparatus. 65. 258. Dictyonema. Elevation and subsidence of land. 118. Dynamic action. 186. Edinburgh. 1. 274. Ecuador. Eocene formations. 349. 131. 138. Dravidian group. definition of. 118. Eozoic. 187. 391. 130. 281. Dimetian group. Africa. 176. 54-6. 203. 303. Drigg in Cumberland. 248. Diastrophisin. Dipnoid. 65. 161. 129. Egypt. Elk Mountains. Earthwork. Dunkeld. 59. Disintegration of rocks. 184. 35. 195-7. Drusy. 347. 275. 174. Dolerite. 183. 169. 177. Dioxide. 181. 187. 278. 149. Earthquakes. 203. Echinodermata. 155. Eozoon Canadense. 294. 310. 172. 45. Africa. 314. 283. Durham. Effervescence of rocks. 53. Diabase. 178. 111. Echinoidea. 138. 161. 141. 89. 181. 152. Edible clay. Drifts. 181. 161. 162. 47. 170. 187. Dipterus. S. gneiss. 174. 169. 154. 199. Elseolite. pillars. 162. 30. Drainage areas. use of geology for. 45. Dolgelly. 290. 5. 155. 155. Dome. 300. Dinorwig slates. 154. Dicotyledons. Dinas bricks. 186. 24. 169. 310. Drift bedding. 113. S. Dimetric system of crystals. 281. 177. 75. Indian Empire. conglomerate. 65. 391. 166. 99. 243. 44. 109. Dyas system. Didymograptus. Dorsetshire. 24. 174. Diatoraaceous earths. 143. 344. 181. Dinosauria. 201. 161. Dicynodon Gordonia. Embanking land for 368-9. 44. 108. Durability of road stone.404 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 297. Earthenware. 160. 30. 54. Donegal. Dimensions of river channels. 203. 42. Druidical remains. 357-8. Dry-weather flow. Elements. 53. Dymchurch. 111. Ductility of minerals. 186-8. 202. Down. 138. 208. 267-70. 171. Dislocation. of roads. 179. Dip. 75. Down ton sandstone. 176. Diphy cereal. 331. Edentates. 294. 394. 29. 144. Diatoms. 62. 185. 152. 282. 344. constituents of. 278. 186. 337-8. 332. Dwyka Dyad. 222. 277. 130. 389. 109. 179. 156. 3. 172. 387. 278. Africa. 139. 75. 175. 169. Dinotherium. Dover. 20. Diorite. Downthrow of fault. 52. 175. 79.281. Encroachment of sea. 303. 176. Enon conglomerate. 113.

301. 279. 162. -clay. Flags. Fault-line. Ffestiniog slates. 84. External form of minerals. 283. -gneiss. Faroe Islands. 291. 205. 230. Examination of rocks. 180. 385. 30. Fascines. European granites. Folkestone beds. Favosites. 166. 65. 204. 167. Fife. 49. 83. 127. mud. 44. 109. 44. 184. Felsite. 162. Fire-bricks. 71. 165. 281. 293. 127. alluvial. Flagstone. New Zealand. 153-62. 405 Epigene action. 103. Flexure. 176. 278. 181. 110. oxide. Fluorescence. Felspar porphyry. 99. 91. Finland. 175. 63. 332. 106. 332. 75. 229. 186. Fat limes. 293. Ferrosoferric oxide. 27-8. 162. 129. 81. by sea. 42. 153. Equisetum. Felsitic matter. Fluor-spar. -marble. in side slopes. 177. shales. 279. 69. Foliated rocks. Faults. 292. 388. 47. Flaghill beds. Fauna. 290. 160. sulphide. 138. Epidote. Fans. 81. Flora. 54. Evaporation. Erratic blocks. 21. Foliation. Flame-colouration. FALMOUTH. 158. 278. Foliaceous structure of minerals. 129. Fetid odour. 122. 124. Fluviatile deposits. 34. 104. Eye-structure of rocks. 392. 114. Felspars. 310. Ferric oxide. 172. 44. Estuaries. Eruptions. Eriboll. 278. Fluidal gneissic structure. 181. 125 structure of rocks. 65. 137. 166. Floating bricks. Erzgebirge. Fishes. see Rocks. 19. Esthonia. Flaser-gabbro. 310.INDEX. Florence. 220. Fleetwood. 155. 265. 183. 108. 138. 156. 205. Ferns. 64. 174. 201. 384. 276. 344. 183. 109. 177. 169. 96. 177. 45. 252-3. Fluorides. of surface water. 176. 28. 34. 294. Field-book for road making. Firn. Filiform shape of minerals. Fibrous structure of minerals. 128. Eurite. 179. 69. 57. 167. 368. 15. Extrusive rocks. Felixstowe. Essex. 181. 387. 179. Fluviomarine formations. 55. 121. 110. Estheria. Felstones. 384. Equisetites. 241-3. Ferromagnesian mica. 156. 187. syenites. 300. Euganean hills. 162. 64. 318. 305. 290. 103. Fluor-apatite. Indian Empire. 166. . 163. 144. Exogens. 283. 31. 62. 299. Flow of streams and rivers. 76-8. Fluorine. Equipment for outdoor work. 19. 190-1. 12-4. Ferruginous rocks. 79. 149. 42. 81. 337. 309. 279. volcanic. Flint. 202. Folds. 177. Fissure eruptions. 38. Fens. 69. -stone. Erosion by glaciers. Eurypterus. Flamborough Head. 182. 362. 87. False bedding. 162. 373. 351. 275. 199. 19. Eurypterids. 99. 119. 371. 103. by running water. Eskers. Ferrous carbonates. 101. Fluvioglacial deposits. 185. 151. 218. 137. 263. 358. 200. 309. 181. Fenestella. 334. Fichtelgebirge. 345. 69. -springs. 156. 278. Felspathic composition of rocks. 257-8. -plane. 103. of water in rivers. Flintshire. Feel of rocks.

Indian Empire. 3. Giallo-antico. 371. 26. 178. 186. Gasteropoda. 65. Globigerina. Gaspe. 131. 151. 140. Gneissoid rocks. 80. 294. 184. 170. 161. Fusibility. 362-3. Forest bed. 1. 191-4. Geode. features in reservoirs. 69. Germany. 99. 140. 395. 79. Giant's Causeway. of Dean. 180. 185. Ganoidei. 100. Gala group. 169. 136-7. 170. 314. 29. 185. 224. section. 187. 129. France. of bricks. Forced waves. Gneissose granite. 278. 25. 174. marble. 23. 387. Forms of bedding. 172. Foyaite. 152. Fuller's earth. 184. 292. 136. Gault. 138. 24. Galeosaurus. German Ocean. Ganoid. 279. 153. 172. Fracture of minerals. 206. 69. N. 1. 172. America. 329. Formosa. 165-8. 230-1. Forests. 281. 62. 203. 148. 374. Fouque's method. 138. 175. 20. Garnet. New Zealand. 180. 227. 177. 57. Girvan district. 169. 169. Gannister. observation. Forelands. River. of rocks. Glossopteris. 144. 130. 176. Gold. Fossils. Fragmental rocks. 178. internal. 281. 311. N. 192. 175. Forceps. 253. 229. Geology. 154. 179. 312. 177. Godavery alluvium. 330. 220. 375. Foraminifera. 169. 165.406 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 18. 392. 133. 1. Galena. Fusion-place. period. state of minerals. 47. Geological age of granite. 185. Glaciers. 107. 194. 281. 391. 28. 394. Galapagos. Fungi. 65. 233. Garlic odour. Fucoidal greensands. 279. Fucoid beds. 162. 214-5. 65. 278. 302. Glenkiln shales. Foxhills group. 274. Gaj series. 183. 271. 351. 283. 391. Galway. 184. 183. 178. French chalk. 148. 180. 174. decomposition of. 391. Indian Empire. 140. deposits. 174. 391. 394. 177. distribution of limestones. 181. Fusulina. 153. 145. 79. Forth. definition of. 281. Formations. 179. 63. 89. Forfarshire flags. 160. 105. Gneiss. 192. 372. Free waves. 101. 136-7. of rocks. plan. 169. 278. 104. blowpipe. 109. 69. 108. 395. 7. 141. 281. 174. Glamorgan. 347. Georgia. 125. Geromagny. 176. beds. New Zealand. 202. 114. Forces. 180. 278. practical uses of. 310. 183. 278. Fungia. 167. Galicia. formations. Frost. scale of. Glacial agencies. Glauconite. 187. America. 177. 175. 307. 232. . 160. 189-236. geological. 270. Freshwater portion of tidal river. 395. 182. Freestone. Glassy rocks. 175. Geneva. 279. for blowpipe work. Fumaroles. 392. 125. surveying. 231. 396. Gondwana system. 112. Indian Empire. 67. 38. 23. 23. 172. 174. Fusus contrarius. schist. Frangibility of minerals. Geotectonic geology. the. 147. 142. Gervillia. 148. 176. GABBRO. 151. Globular shape of minerals. Glatz. 201. 298. 17. 828. 17-20. Galashiels. Foreign bodies in clays. 111. 65. 19.

169. 160. 184. 26. Gully. 188. 278. 31. 330. 283. Hebrides. Hartshill quartzite. Hirnant. 127. 201. 289. Heliolites. Hollybush sandstone. 220. 98. 114. Hemicrystalline structure. Greenland. 22. 86. 344. 382. 186. 131. Karaites. decomposition jointing of. 293. 345. 345. 167. 172. 119. 104. 65. Granite. 156. 185. Graphite. Hawick. Heddon sandstone. Harlech series. 392. Homalonotus. 67. ore. Harz. 166-7. 108. Guinea. Hexacoralla. Holohedral. 278. 344. 175. Granitite. 65. 181. 392. 66. Goniatites. 81. 155. 158.INDEX. Himalayas. 179. Groups of igneous rocks. 37. Gulf Stream. 5. 385. Hawkesbury Headon series. 277. 258. N. 281. 180. Granitoid rocks. Australia. rough scale of. Hamilton period. 173. Grinshill sandstone. 64. 382. Guanascuato. Headlands. Greenstone. 248. 80. 277. Gordon river beds. Gothland. formation of. 176. 62. 107. Hipparion. 185. 114. Great Britain. 73. 283. 187. Herm. Gradation. 103. 395. 273-9. 181. Gymnosperms. Hippurite limestones. 392. 182. 382. Moh's scale 66. 144. 98. Gwaliors. 69. Gower. Indian Empire. 125. 160. Haematite. 170. 37. Harwich. 80. 281. 183. 278. Heterocercal. 389. 169. Guadarrama Mountains. 36. 130. 99. Hippurites. of minerals. 20. 184. 167. Goniopholis. 81. Guano. 281. gneiss. Hanover. Hardness. 140. table of strata. 392. 290. 393. series. Greece. Australia. 131. 183. 181. Holoptychius. Gypsum. America. 170. Granada. Heat. 161. Hastings sands. 162. 147. 100. 108. 177. Graphic granite. Hassock. 203. 250. 351. 173. Grampians. 388-90. 172. Holderness. 407 surface of minerals. 107. 160. 172. 204. 392. 184. of rocks. 169. 139. 139. 96. 82. Greensand. Hempstead beds. 201. . Gypseous composition of rocks. 170. Hensborough. 280. 35. 150. 36. Indian Empire. Graptolites. 99. 168. 139. beds. 62. 64. 246. 179. 98. of. 273-9. 207. structure of rocks. 13. Haimantas 149. of. Ground-mass. Green rocks. 293. Hemihedral. HACKLY Hade. changes in rocks due internal. 371-2. 69. 343. Hexagonal system of crystals. 71. Hammer. 44. 80. Homocercal. 178. Granular structure of minerals. 86. 24. 183. 138-43. 276. 134. 173. 149. 187. 186. 184. 327. 30. Hampshire basin. 181. of rocks. 155. 190. 181. 183. Guiana. 220 328. 143. 275. 293. Hard manganese Granites. 182. 384. 203. 290. 96. Holland. 106. Guernsey. Granulite. 133. to. 170. 149. 391. formations. 220-1. 186. 69. 99. porphyry. 150. Holothuria. Grit. 138. 231. Gryphsea. Heavy spar. 392. 158. Gravels. Grey oxide of manganese. 138. 121. 351. 310. 115. Hartfell shales. Greywacke. 61. Groynes. 176. Holocrystalline rocks. 62. 65. 160.

153. Hornstone. Illinois. 73. 148-9. 33-7. 391. 293. 36. Insecta. 35. 56. 318. 174. 182. 392. Interbedded lava-sheet. Irregular grouping of crystals. rock. 57. 127. 280. 281. Hydrocarbons. 287. 391. 394. Japan. 161. 96. 287. Ireland. 178. 193. and . 29. 149. 110. S. silt. 181. ICE. 95. 161. silicates. 85. 283. 277. limes. Hydrozoa. 161. Java. Intercepting silt. 202. 391. currents. Interposed strata. Human Hsipaw series. 98-101. 385. 290. 131. 69. 282. 318. Isolation of constituents. 325. 267. Wight. 127. 387.408 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 283. Jersey. 122. 97. 372. Icebergs. 278. Hydrofluoric acid. 166. 178. 385. 109. 107. 128-132. 183. Indurated talc. 34. 279. Irrawaddy 148. Ironstones. 17. Indoor work. Inlier. 312. 175. 8. 68. 369. 318. 72. Isle of Man. JADE. 148. 392. 176. 161. Hornsea. 38. 182. Ilfracombe group. Jet coal. 173. 185. Hornblende. 330. Italy. Hydroida. 310. Inversions. 392. 300. 332. 369. Intrusive rocks. 26. Intermediate group of rocks. 168. 321-3. Indian Empire. Hydro-metamorphism. Kimmeridge. 56. 42. neocomian sandstone. 167. Imbibition. 111. 183. 81. Idria. 204. 311. 81. 63. 180. 172. limestone. 176. 185. 395. 392. Impounding reservoirs. 207-36. 283. Hypogene action. Ilmenite. 84. Ilmenau. Ice-sheets. 40. 30. 3. Iceland. Hypersthene. Hydraulic limes and cements. 107. 109. 18. 187. 125. 172. 173. 100. Induration of clays. Impengati beds. 371. Hudson River. Hythe beds. relics. Sheppey. 108. 96. 314. 298. Iron. schist. Ichthyosauria. 185. Ichthyodorulites. 393. 94. 395. Hunstanton. 69. 131. 205. Hydration. 46. 69. 69. 147. 225. Indications of nature of rocks. Hydrogen. Hyperbyssal. Horny structure. 154. 186. 91. 81-4. 271. syenite. 302. 107. 152. Invertebrata. 62. 163. Huronian series. 146. 392. basalt. 212-8. 69. 204. Humus. Hyalite. Infusorial earth. 91. 175. 69. Inclination of rocks. Iowa. 327. 157. 172. Hove. 171. Hydrous oxides. Igneous rocks. Horse-radish odour. 54. Internal forces. andesite. 278. Jasper. Indus. Iguanodon. 244-5. Africa. Hungary. 72. 187. gabbro. Jetties for intercepting Joint action of waves 380. Humber. India. 224. 81. 217. 142. series. 175. 269. 265. 171. Indian Empire. 302. 396. 106-112. 54. pyrites. 81. 175. Hydrochloric acid. 233. 287. 24. 180. 147. granite. 82. 14. 184. Inlets on coast. 55. Insectivores. 394. 287. 107. 121. 131. 41. Hydrates. 146. Intensity of lustre. Hybodus.

KAIHIKU beds. 173. Leakage in canals. 281. Laterite. Koenigsberg. 78. 36. N. Lepidotosaurus. 273. 330. Indian Empire. 85. 121. 310. Lightning. 143. 396. 332. 293. 34. 297. New Zealand. Lagoons. 392. Lamps for blowpipe work. 175. hydraulic. Kansas. Africa. Laminae. Lapis-lazuli. Laminated structure. 182. 168. 347. 296. 151. Laying out new roads. 128-9. 331. Lepidolite. 29. 88. 140. Kakberg. 332. Keswick. Superior. 69. Africa. 187. 37. Ketton limestone. Lameta series. 27. Leicestershire. Keuperbeds. 163. 391. 311. 130. 5. 330. Lake Junction of rivers with the Jura. Lignite. 395. period. Leinster. Kimmeridge clay. Limes. Kirkby moor flags. 132. 38. 85. 290. Lime. 167. 177. Lias lime. 232. 49. 137. 227. 394. Africa. 391. 270. 394. Lamorna. Kremnitz. Lancashire. 166. 138. Kames. 132. 185. Lenticular. Killaloe slates. Keeweenawan series. 330. 132. Kent. Katrol series. 140. 281. Lapis ollaris. 152. Kaolin. 368-9. Lamellibranchiata. 278. 305. Labuan. 131. Lakes. Jurassic system. series. 184. 146. Libyan desert. 78. 149. Land's End. 38. Liege. of aqueous rocks. 43. 331. 276. 395. Jolly's balance. 146. N. . District. Lava. S. Indian Empire. 173. 278. 151. Kendal. 27. Kilkenny. S. Kentish rag. 351. New Zealand. Laccolites. 148. Kereru beds. 248. Kurnool series. and limestones. 348. Kilns and fuel for lime. 233. 187. 133. 301. 164. 223. 30. 292. 177. 148. 319-21. 152. 16. 69. 176. 297. 310. 169. Liassic series. Lacustrine deposits. 145. 85. 276. Indian Empire. Lake deposits. 6. Kenton sandstone. 392. 283. Katadgis series. 148. Lead. 174. 391. 30. 148. Laramie series. 148. 309. 140. 175. 275. 226. Landslips. Kimberley slates. 22. Indian Empire. 307. 183. 133. 267. effect of. of igneous rocks. 333-4. 392. 409 Jubbulpore 148. 176. 147. 141. 328. 35. 391. 34. Kudernatch. 364. Kerry. 325-6. America. Kinder Scout. 323. 352. Kienitz. America. Kentucky. 168. Labyrinthodonts. Lime felspar. 141. Leucite. 323. Laurentian. 215. 230. LABRADORITE. Klein's solution of borotungstate of cadmium. sea. Land. 176. Leipsic. Lewisian series. Life of road stone. 132. 76. Lanark. Indian Empire. 391. Lapilli. 64. 187. 318. 174. 148. 179. Kirthar series. 166. 294. Lens. Indian Empire. 215. 145. Lemnian. 277. Kellaway's rock. Kasauli Indian Empire. Karoo series. 280. 165. 85. Lebanon. 174-5. 298. 127. 11. 102. 391. series. testing. 183. 297. elevation and subsidence of. 278. S. kilns. Lamellar structure of minerals. reclamation. 158. 293. 274.INDEX. 187. 5. 283. 185. Joints of altered and metamorphic rocks. 392. 303. 297. 275. 161. 392.

60. 139. 141. 60. 84. 54. Marcasite. and plasters. 192-4. Maps. 81. 69. London basin. Londonderry. 116. 312. 187. 109. 83. 214. 183. 343. 322-3. 85. Lithophyse structure. 302. 308. 161. beds. Lyons. 175. 187. 148. series. Manchester waterworks. 164. terraces. Silurian system. 30. 271. Magnetic iron ore. 138. 186.410 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. drift. 294. 99. 85. Lithomarge. 143. 65. 296. Magnetite. 72. Mahadeva series. 187. 162. Manchhar series. 183. 105. 143. Llangollen Loam. Lubricating material. Lumachello. 394. 22. 347. 179. 151. 205. 136. Llanberis slates. 300. 88. 230. Madrepore marble. 293. N. Empire. slates. Linlithgow. 165. 383. 227. 303. Lustre of minerals. 283. 123. Magnetism of rocks. 56. Limestone. 65. Longmynd group. in blowpipe work. Marathon. 56. 23. 181. . 185. 20. cements of America. 143. Solenhofen. 169. 395. 299. 225. 54. Madeira. 387. 230. 332. 107. Lithoidal rocks. Mammals. 297. cements. Margapakeka 151. Manganese. 51. Marine action. 300. Maltha. 306. Lithology. Maitau series. 182. Marbles. 178. 142. Lizard. 294. Magnesian limestone. Ludlow beds. 387-8. 186. 168. 161. 54. beds. Regis. Magma. 85. 233. Llandeilo flags. 280. 85. Magnesite. 155. characters of formation. 67. Indian Empire. Mansfield dolomite. Lizards. 16. 303. 275. deposits. 47. 289. Limnaea. 20-23. 138. 30. 177. MACRODIAGONAL. 158. 98. 300. 139. 184. Great Britain. 168. 177. 171. 152. 163. 100. 91. 332. 69. 391. 245. 166. Mammillary shape of minerals. Lincolnshire. 181. America. 396. 81. 7. 133. 150. 66. 23. Australia. New Makran Zealand. Mandelato. Malvern Hills. 160. 115. 332. sandstone. 184. Lothians. 86. 351. Lowestoft. 290. 143. 283. 178. Llandovery group. 104-5. 69. 144. 297. 154. Manganite. 253-4. 68. Line of descent 340-1. 325-6. 147. 234. 247. Littoral deposits. Lustre of rocks. 294-5. 187. Lycopods. 328. 148. Lingula. 183. Madrepora. 255-6. Magnet. 169. Limoges. 327. Manatee. Malmesbury beds. Lynton group. Indian Empire. 162. 292. Lithological character of rocks. 205. 174. of saturation. Lombardy. South Africa. 169. Lower Helderberg period. 395. Limonite. 31832. 176. 67. denudation. 47. The. Lyme Lydian-stone. Eocene. Malleability of minerals. 332. 351. New Zealand. 175. flags. Lithium. 143. Liverworts. Lipari Islands. Liparite. Limes. 101. Indian 148. Long clays. 293-9. Lithographic limestone. Magnesium. 124. 345. Lithostrotion. Loess. Madras. 287. 184. 118. for mountain roads. 183. clay. Lithia mica. Lophiodon. 248. separation of rock constituents. 307.

202. occurrence of. 171. 169. vein. 107. limestone. 62. 361. 31. . Master joints. Microcrystalline structure of rocks. Medina. 15. pigments. Mastodonsaurus. series. Moa beds. 220. 187. Mole. 77. 125. 165. 141. 65. 185. 57-62. 169. 151. 371. 292. 52-68. Monad. 323. 278. Medway mud. 98. Moldavia. Modified forms of crystals. 282. 171-7. 391-3. 394. 174. Microlestes. mode of occurrence. Molybdenum. 306. 96 haematite. schist. slate. May hill Meagre sandstone. 202. extraction of. Mendip Hills. 58. Mississippi. Megatherium. 187. Melaphyre. 54. 66. 62-8. Molybdenite. 161. 235. Monoclinal. 306. New Zealand. 172. Miocene formations. 97. physical characters of. 124. 180. Merioneth. Minette. 169. 184. Metallic pigments. 44. Metals. 206. 82. 89. Microcline. Mercury. 391. external form of. 80. 145. 180. Monocotyledons. distribution of. 180. Midford sands. 185. 146. 110. 169. 392. Mohr's displacement apparatus. 29. 344. 6. 45-6. Miascite. 278. Micaceous composition of rocks. 147. 144. 141.. 411 Micaceous rocks. 358. 283. 171. Megalosaurus. 213. 290. 42. 392. Massive minerals. 143. -slate. 98. 161. Material transported by water. 169. Moffat series. distinguishing characters of. Monoclinic system of crystals. 173. 359. 162. River. 394. Metalloid. constituents of rocks. forms. Metamorphic rocks. 271. Mineral chemistry. 89. 360. Micas and talcs. 175. Metal. 162. iron ore. New Zealand. 278. 289. 291. Minerals. Miohippus. 129. 1 9. Mesozoic. Menevian beds. 139. Missouri. Indian Empire. 124. 51-93. 158. Modern era. 310. 161. Mastodon. 218. 51-2. 176. 307. definition of. 222. 243. 161. Molasse of Switzerland.INDEX. N". Microcosmic touch of minerals. Mechanical analysis of rocks. Molluscoida. syenite. 140. 86-9. 54. Marsipobranchii. 186. Minor features of coast-lines. Mer de glace. uses of. salt. N". Melbourne. Michigan. Methylene iodide. andesite. 337-8. 216. trap. 380. 302. Marsupials. 392. feel of rocks. 80. Moh's scale of hardness. Mersey. 108. 358. Microphytal earths. Minas Geraes. 45-50. 321. 157. 153. 116. 151. 144. Medium limes. 230. 161. 140. 186. 184. 391-6. 69. 170. definition of. 64. America. 161. Mica. 51-2. 395. 69-93. 395. Mexico. America. 108. 227. 281. 173. rocks. 52-7. 184. Millstone grit. Methods of drainage for roads. Mediterranean. Marsouin. 185. 391. 207. 33. Mollusca. Mataura series. 126. 218. 100. Maymyo 149. rock. Metamorphism. 16. 146. 138.forming. Mayo. study of. 281. 143. 146. 218. Meissen. Miliola. 24. 66. 53. 60. . Marl. 56.

granite. 148. 227. 53. 138. 144. volcanoes. Moraines. Mount Arthur 151. Norwich Crag. 225. 281. 152. 278. 332. Needwood. trachyte. 35. Mylonitic 127. 164. 109. Norite. Normal Nagel flue of Switzerland. 181. structure of rocks. Namaqualand Nantes. 339. Murray River beds. Moray Firth. Needles. 174. 110. 176. 205. 338-41. 171. 89. 144. 391. 334. 392. 176. Neozoic. 89. 175. Nickel. Mytilus. 278. 178. 172. Norman's Kill. Morven. Newfoundland. Notosaurus. 392. Jersey. 176. Norfolk. Australia. the. 164. 172. 103. 6. 278. 89. South Wales. 187. 293. beds. Muschelkalk. 167. 176. S. Niagara Period. Nile. Mountain limestone. see Narbada. 283. 149. Mosses. Neocomian. 168. 73. 325. 310. 87. 188. 172. 147. 224. of cobalt. 145. -littoral deposits. 178. Movements of land. 276. 275. Nepheline. New Zealand. 7. 23. 186. 19. Nephrite. 392. Nicaragua. 68. 347. 185. Motion of water in rivers. constituents of brick clay. 265. Nari series. 150. 89. 281. 69. Mull. Red Sandstone. Australia. 149. Neobolus bed. 148. Nith. * Northampton. 173.. Muriatic acid. 283. Mourne Mountains. North America. Zealand. 85. 191. 279. roads. 170. 171. Mortar. 68. 183. 154. Mosasaurus. Nevada. 137. 371.412 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Norway. 162. 69. Neolithic. 150. America. 160. 151. 168. 138 Moravia. 186. 176. Potts series. 179. Nitric acid. 182. 171. 202. 182. 138. meal. 180. 313. 72. 79. 295. Australia. 173. Indian Empire. Zealand. 392. 354. NACREOUS Nairn. 307. Muscovite. 305. 233. Native elements. 110. Mont Blanc. Newcastle. 175. 29. 140. Monometric system of crystals. Mudstone. Myriapoda. as reagent. Montmorency. 93. Mud springs. 109. 394. N. 158. Monzoni. Non-glacial deposits. Necks. Indian Empire. 150. Nitrate of baryta. 246. 164. Narbada. 168. Note-book. Nineveh. Moscow. 87. 183. 164. N. 175. lustre. 185. 175. 387. 181. 248. 171. Sorrel. 176. 227. 24. Natal. 19. 279. syenite. America. 82. Northumberland. Monograptus. 29-30. Neuropteris. Caledonia. passes. Murrumbidgee beds. 157. 173. 176. Monoxide. beds. 116. . 231. 178. 173. 172. 107. 150. 278. New Brunswick. 392. 179. schists. Natrolite. 182. 166. 161. New Neve. 332. Myophoria. 392. Nevadite. 393. 29. 181. 59. 391. Naphtha. Indian Empire. Nautilus. Niobrara group. 184. Nerbudda. series. 151. 177. 162. Africa. and pestle. Nepal.

Oceanic deposits. 156. 41. 181. 382. 174. New Zealand. Odontopteryx. Indian Empire. Oligoclase. N. 184. 162. 148. zone. 186. 387. New Zealand. 109. 24-5. 376. Oxide. Nuneaton. 140. 307. 169. 169. Orthophyre. 170. Ophite. Panchet Paludina. 89. 147. 293. 184-5. 138. 53. 149. -gabbro. 218. 60. 185. Pakhalis series. 117. 139. 169. . 229. 377-8. Ordovician system. 392. Ophitic structure of rocks. 10. 22. 231. Ohio. Orbicular structure of rocks. 176. 59. 370. 151. 391. 145. Oulton Broad. Osborne beds. Oxalic acid. 149. 156. 392. 151. 169. 156. 40. 158. 287. 161. Oregon. 41. 226. 184. 90. 330. 109. 198. Odenwald. 232. 156. 55. 147. Odour of minerals. 180. 248. Opal. 413 Organic acids. 90. 151. Paint. 136. America. 142. Parameter. 291. Palagonite. 141. 278. Paragonite. 162. Oberlausitz. Palaeontology. Olenellus. New Zealand. 182. 89. Oil shales. Ogygia. 181. N. 91. 65. 144. 160. definition of. 7. 186. 126. 22. 177. 89. Oolite. 184. 169. 43. Ossiferous caves. Ostracodermi. 181. 295. 227. 169. 155. 145. 156. 224. Orbitoides limestone. Open tube. 174. Oxidation. 182. 185. New Zealand. 177. action. 102. Orthoceras. 138. 180. America. 171. Oblique system of crystals. Old Red Sandstone. Ophiuroidea. 152. Outline of sea coast. N. 150. 299. 306. 83. Ochre. 111. 178. 393. 23. 235. 177. 278. Ordinary springs. 69. Orohippus. 151. Nullipores. 131. Orange River Colony. 137. 176. America. Palseoniscus. 24. Outdoor work. Oneida. Palestine. America. 392. Orthis. 139. movements. New Zealand. Oxford clay. Otapiri series. New Zealand. 198. Indian Empire. 181. 171. 60. Olivine. Oolitic structure of rocks. Oxygen. porphyry. Oreti series. Paraffin. 109. series. 248. Overthrust. 138. Ornithosauria. 395. 176. 100. Nottinghamshire. 158. Indian Empire. Orbulina. 206. 253-4.INDEX. N. Overtaking of waves. Otatara stone. Ostrea. Overfolds. Palaeospondylus. Oxidising flame. PACIFIC ocean. 175. 393. 100. 108. 132. waves. 310. 151. 78. Palaeolithic. 164. Novja Zemlja. series. 181. 184. Palatinate. 185. Paleozoic. Overlap. Nummulites. 297. 157. Paradoxides. limestone. 160. 151. Nova Oriskany period. 226. series. 23. 294. 224. 145. Palisade area. OAMARA beds. 177. Oligocene formations. 140. 164. 190-206. 109. 177. 394. 161. Outlier. decomposition of. Palseotherium. Onondaga. Ocean currents. 182. Outcrop. Olenus. 153. 303. -basalt. 77. Obsidian. 57. Pareora beds. Octocoralla. 147. Scotia. 184. Or thodiagonal. Nummulitic beds. 232. 42. 133. and Liassic period. Orthoclase.

31. Piedmont. motion of. 191. Polyzoa. Pitchstone. 392. 180. Pier works. 162. Phyllopods. Placodus. 306. Percolation on shores. 19. Indian Empire. 90. 24. 138. near Koenigsberg. 62. 392. Pentamerus. Pecopteris. Petrology. 391. Pentacrinus. 278. 56. 29. 142. Platysomus. 347. Pennsylvania. 173. Pea road stones. 143. Phosphorus. Pegmatic structure of rocks. Poole clay. effect of. Phosphatic rocks. 149. 174. Pasco. 71. 121. 80. 176. 102. 205. 70. Petroleum. 75. 53. Pisa. 293. Persia. 177. 19. 168. 117. 376. 137. 177. Pilton group. characters of minerals. Placoid. 187. 138. 111. 87. Point Levis beds. Pleochroism 62. 11. Platinum. America. Physical causes of sea encroachment. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. America. 107. 54. 183 Polishing slate. Pierre group. 393. Phlogopite. 77. 104. 172. Parker's cement. Pigments. Phanerogams. 176. 51. Phosphates. 69. 117. 313. 343. Pennines.' 161. 393. 62. Plate. 178. America. 24. Philippines. 120. 157. on impervious strata. rocks. 24. grit. 106-9. series. Peru. 169. 391. River. 110. 291. 179. 144. 99. 294. 254. 143. 124. stones. Pelagic deposits. 298. Peroxide. Particles of matter. 253. 94. Pervious between impervious beds. 23. Parthenay. Pondicherry beds. bogs. 72. Penganga series. 164. 180. 120. Pearl spar. 219-24. 174. Place bricks. 169. 307. 90. 347-8. springs. 182. 156. Pebbly structure of rocks. Indian Empire. Polarisation. 359.414 Parian cements. Phyllite. tests for Patcham Pau. 145. 179. Periclinal dip. 392. 42. 124. 124. Phosphate of lime. Penarth beds. Plunge of rivers. Picrite. 394-6. Paving material. marble. Periods and systems. 327. 227. 173. 155. Plagioclase. Pisolite. 138. Pebidian series. 100. Permian period. 164. Patagonia. 328-9. Plutonic action. Phosphorite. mosses. 90. 141. 162. 89. 168. 90. Pisolitic structure of rocks. 51. 169. 110. 174. 310. / Plesiosauria. 230. Plasters. Plication. Perlitic structure of rocks. 141. 160. 386-7. Pegmatite. Planorbis. Pariasaurus. 292. Perm. Penmaenmawr. 287. Plants and trees. 175. 160. N. Plumbago. Pleistocene deposits. 178. 36. 185. 157. Pocket lens. 176. system. 5. motion of water. Paris. 42. of. Petrifaction. Peat. 296. . 292. 132. 356. 131. Phacops. Persian gulf. 102. Perched blocks. N. Pliocene formations. of rocks. 145. 206. 148. 392. N. 206. Phonolite. 172. 152. Petrifying springs. 90. 183. Pennant 184. 329. 121. 382. 175. 29. Penrhyn. Pillau. 171. 184. Plastic theory of glacier movements. Petrography. 90. 376. 300. grit. 392. 178. 137. Phosphatite. 348-9. Peridotite. 3.

243. Quarry. 153. diorite. Protective works on coast.INDEX. Punjab. 181. Potash felspar. 77. 182. Empire. Indian Empire. Pterosauria. 140. 127. Potsdam epoch. 90. 177. 149. 110. 351. 91. Quantivalence. 140. 172. Pterodactylus. 173. Preliminary examination of forms of minerals. Porbandar stone. 26. Porcellanite. 391. 164. Quartz. Potomac. 218. Pyrenees. 319. 187. traverse. 225. Porosity of rocks. origin of. 169. Pools in rivers. 260. 36. Quartzose composition of rocks. 162. 56. 158. 98. 109. 138. 294. Pyritous composition of rocks. Protogenic granite. 82. of rocks. 90. 351. Pseudomorphism. of water in wells. 320. 99. Quicksilver. Purniceous structure 101. 42. 360. Primates. 220. 31. 90. 179. 249. selection of. 344. 114. Psilomelane. 279. Puddled clay. Pot holes. 174. Puddingstone. 181. Poor limes. 193. sediments. 161. sandstone. Pyroclastic 112. 290. Indian Empire. 111. 54. Pulverulent. 173. Quicklime. 321. QUADER Predazzo. Pterygotus. 72. 120. 13. Purbeck beds. Queen Charlote Group. 131. Pozzuolana. 173. Post-glacial deposits. Quartz-trachyte. Indian Empire. Quantity of water derivable from wells. 174. 23. 306. 162. 177. 120. Potassium. 69. 47. 172. Port Elizabeth. Potosi. Porpoises. 69. Psammitic structure of rocks. 64. 415 62. 294. Pyrolusite. Purana group. 123. 108. 323. 130. 391. 186. etc. 179. 76. 278. Porphyritic structure of rocks. Pteraspis. 90. 1. 314. 302. 86. Ptychodus. 137. 301. 185. 204. 46. Qua-qua. period. 96. Pututaka beds. sands. 392. Quebec. Quaternary period. Queensland. 275. 205. Portland beds. 279. 143. 162. 182. 148. 175. 114. . 151. 109. 106. 86. 161. 328. America. Pyrites. diorites. 35. 175. uses of geology. 65. changes in rocks due resistance to. 111. to. 34.versa! dip. 107. 107. 137. mica. 147. 93. 173. 204. 384. 298. 384-7. 156. 396. 96. Protozoa. N. 68. Prussia. Pyroxene. Porphyry. 147. Indian 148. 237. 87. 161. 163. 298. Potstone. 109. 358. Puddler's ore. Quartz-andesite. Productus. 185. 46. Proterosaurus. 147. Post-tertiary period. 148. 90. Quartzite. Quartz porphyry. Proboscideans. 123. Prehnite. 54. Primordial period. Prevention of erosion. 161. 351. 172. 161. 63. 174. Practical geology. 263. 307. Pre-Cambrian 186. New Zealand. 172. 134. Pteropoda. 262. Qualities of rocks. . 108. Prome series. 138. shales. | Porphy rites. andesites. 392. 279. 300. 84. 307. Prehistoric ages. Pteridophyta. 273. 248. 102. Proportion of deposit carried. 90. Psilophyton. Porcelain. Protozoic. 392. Pressure. of water in rivers. 303. 163. 230. 352. 111. cement. 137. sandstone.

144. Refractory qualities of clays. sites. 200. 353. 69. 176. 333-53. flow of water in. structure of RADIATED and divergent minerals. 238-40. crag. 168. 148. 138. 161. Roads and Roches moutonnees. 362. Rastrites. 153. Rio Janeiro. Reducing flame.S. effect of. . 138. cuttings. 24. Richmond earth. 271. 263. "Rich" limes. Reddle. 128-34. 368. 360. 308. 94-134. Regime of rivers. 267. Refraction. 12. terraces.416 GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 164. Rigidity of minerals. 170. 1. 297. 298. 265. 1. Reefton beds. Radiolites. 364. 368. 52. River. 165. Rhynchonella. Red Red Red clays. 163. Ranikot series. 54. 65. absorbent power analyses of. 9. Rhone. Rocks.A. 8. 59. Radicles. 54. use of knowledge of geology materials. 30-32. Rivers. 271. Ripidolite. 290. 280. Rhyncosaurus. 13. Rainfall and evaporation. Indian Empire. 209-12. 323. 45. 320.. 158. Reptilia. 355. 89. Indian Empire. Rhaetic series. Sea. motion of water in. 19. 271. 290. 283. of. 290. 174. Reniform shape of minerals. Rhizopoda. 264. 90. 270. 379. 90. 287. Ruddle. 64. 290. chemical examination. improvement schemes. Road construction. 138. 113. making. New Zealand. 153. 62. formed by chemical or organic 61. composition of. Rhombohedral system of crystals. 148. 306. 10. laying out. Rain wash. for. 382. geological formation of. 174. 363. 109. 141. on underground water. 151. Radiolaria. 267-9. system 72. 344. 354-69. 82. 94. classification of. 200-18. 348. Riccarton beds. 348. igneous. 183. fusibility of. 96-8. Remedy Rock-bind. 263-6. Rhombic pyroxene. 334-5. 341. Riverbed. Rhine. Raised beaches. U. 228. Rainfall. determination of. Regelation theory of glacier move- ments. 175. plains. 68. 310. 344. Rain. of crystals. Robschutz. Retarding force in river. 172. definition of. 175. extrusive or contemporaneous. 51. Regur. 238-43. durability of. 64. 23. 154. 263. 393. 12. Reticulated structure of minerals. 212. 251. 164. 90. 348. 16. flow of. 382. Reagents. see water. schemes. 94-5. 391. 129. Rise and fall of sea-water level. Rhyolite. agencies. self purification. 182. salt. 34. 66. 227-8. crushing weight of. metal. Rajmahal series. 341-51. Reversed faults. Rhode Island. 333. changes in. stone requisites. 116-22. Reconnaissance for new roads. geological features. organic. Requisites in a road stone. Recent or post-glacial deposits. classes of. Rock decomposition. 131. 334-8. 298. canals. 333-4. 264. specimens. for leakage in canals. 146. 333-41. Resinous lustre. 33-7. 1 9. quantity of water in. 203. Ragstone. 94. compound. ochre. detritus. Reservoirs. 119. 133. 7. 392. 138. 354-8. River.

160. 298. 186. 77. 173. 370. Scandinavia. 178. 220. 178. of. 172. Indian Empire. 178. 27. 33-50. 182. 24. N. 152. 276. 278. 130. qualities of. 66. Salterella grit. 180. S. Rotary motion of particles in 356-7. rough. 207. 351. 119. 246. 347. 172. Running water. 82. 248. 279. Sandhills. intrusive or subsequent. Sabathu series. 184. 148. composition of rocks. 185. 209. 275. 12. -dunes. SAAR. 94-5. 108. 112. 7. 178. Saarbriick. bed. 132. 278. 382. 79. 253-4. Ross of Mull. Sandown Bay. forces acting on. Lawrence. 392. of hardness. lithological character of. Saturation and imbibition. 98-103. 372-3. 186. 289-93. 283. Scale of fusibility. 248. 126. 167. 103. 177. erosion by. 392. 372. 77. 12. 14. 185. 351. 275. structural character of. Roman cement. 327. 181. 33. Santorin earth. 278. line. 31. 182. Sandy estuaries. Sea. 287. selection of. 129. 81. 53. 14. 299. 278. 322. preparation of material for examination. 29. 283. 245. 391. 101. Bees. physical characters. Scania. 244-5. 92. Route. Scotland. 125. 49. beaches. texture of. Sanidine. Salina group. Louis. 98. 168. 393. 294. 322. 171. 50. 373-81. 41' common. 179. 277. Rodents. 217. indications of nature of. 263. of. 395. Sardinia. Moh's. 360. 180. 280. 107. 5. 204. 126. 17. Ruddle. Schorl. 275. 98. 167. 15. Indian Empire. 344. 366. weight 391. Rottenstone. 182. 96. 27 . 162. aqueous. 90. 387. decomposition of. 187. 35. 184. Saliferous beds. 294. 49. Ruminants. 278. Schemnitz. structure of. 178. 148. 300. 100. Rothliegende. 170. source of. 333. 20. 5. Scorpions. 332. 162. Screes. 17. 168 Margaret's Bay. Rocky Mountains. 313. 382. rocks. 118. 294. 186. Romney. and metamorphic. Savoy. 290. transportation by. inclination of. 186. Satin-spar. 187. rivers. 276. transformation of. 113. 294. 15. 293. 255-6. Rugose corals. Sahara. 43. 290. 130. 186. Russia. Scoriaceous structure of rocks. 231. 7.INDEX. 173. 186. 90. mode massive. 183. 9. cliffs. Sandstone. Scilly Isles. Gothard. deposition by. Salt. 382. Schist. 40. Scoriae. 68. 90. definition of. 166. 186. 392. Saxony. Rocks. America. Scinde. Schistosity. Africa. 250. Saint Austell. Sandbars. 180. 383. 183. 206. 29. 82. relations between igneous. 90. 185. 283. 12. 49. 367. -drift. 393. 147. 394. 193. 184. of origin Sand. Rosso-antico. range of Punjab. Schistose gneisses. 176. specific gravity of. 203-6. 297. 387. table of. aggradational processes at work in the. 282. Schwarzwald. 394. 178. 149. Scaphites. coasts. 154. 289. 278. 174.

280. 388. Serpentine. 178. 337. Slips in road cuttings and slopes. 394. 320. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. Simla. 224. 300. roads. Side slopes of roads. series. 318. 69. 77. Silky lustre. 372. wells. Shoaling of channels. 115. Sinks. Siwaliks. Slaked lime. 57. Selection of materials for 348-51. Sirenians. 156. chloride. Septa. 230. 152. Sectility. 73. 232. 17. Solfataras. " Set " of mortar. 140. Shap Smaragdite. 185. Selenium. 132-4. Silt. Sind. marble. 129. 363. 96. 320. 233. felspar. 227. 335-7. 278. 8. Silver. 347. 392. 166. 394. 55. 283. 90. 186. Shineton shales. Siliceous composition of rocks. 290. Shrinkage planes. 168. 260-1. Snow. 102. 184. Sikkim. 174. 36. Sonstadt's solution. 90. 161. 169. 111. 294. 56. 205. 327. 184. 325. 182. 9. effect of. Shiver. 161. Sienna earth. 123. 396. Shetlands. Sedimentary strata. 52. Sloyne. intercepting. 278. Slickensides. 394. Shropshire. Snowdon. 185. 277. Snow-line. Sivatherium. 173. see Scinde. 273. variation in. 200. 335. 200. 30. Somersetshire. Solva group. 184. 154. 137. 183. 65. 164. 29. 393. 299. 164. 300. Shale. position of. 302. geological work affected by. 138. 205. 234. America. 178. 271. 230. 392. Servia. Shoreham. 392. 185. 90. 115. Secular movements. 387. 68. 12. 124. 299. 176. 45. 171. 168. 392. 347. 23. 35. 205. 233. Soft manganese ore. 24. 304. 302. 358. Silica. 56. Selenite. Snakes. slate. Selenitic cement. . Serpula. 175. Sierra Morena. Silicon. 184. of specimens of rocks. Solvents. 69. 248. 10. 29. Shell marble. granite. 76. Sesquioxide. Slate. Silurian system. 176. South Africa. 81. 131. 391. 304. River. Sequoia. 20. Sites for impounding reservoirs. 392. 69. 306. Smell of rocks. 388.291. 114. Shift of fault. 294. 92. 65. Skiddaw. rocks. Sicilian marbles. " Short " clays. 278. 351. 78. 202. 90. Siberia. 186. 187. 17. 105. 164. 54. 182. Severn. Septaria. Silesia. decomposition of. 54. 10. Shallow water deposits. Shiffnall red sandstone. 202. 224. Sinopian. 119. 382. 382. weeds. 373. Sommo Sierra. Soil. Solenhofen limestone. level. 225. 300. 161. River Mersey. Indian Empire. action of. Serpents. 148. 313. 29. 294. Sills. 86. 273. 186. Skye. Soda carbonate. Sicily. 83. table of sedimentary strata. Siderite.418 Sea encroachment. 180. 68. 369. walls. 148. 77. 391. 306. Shore. 165. on lime. 187. 53. 308. 382. 328. Sodium. Secondary period. 171. Skelgill shales. -polishing. Seyssel. 83. 183. Solubility of minerals in acids. 169. 295. 45. 332. Solway. 171-7. 175. 186.

290. 174. Sudetic Alps. Springs. of rocks. 38. Spherulitic structure of rocks. Structural character of rocks. 283. character of. 278. of geological formations. in side slopes of roads. 162. 62. 390. Spotted shale. Stegocephala. Summer discharge of rivers. 306. waters. 118. 11. 82. Steatite. Spongida. 253-62. 391. 185. 176. coal. Styria. 63. 52. 283. 265-6. 65. Stratigraphy and palaeontology. 195-200. 64. 98. 206. 93. 278. 99. 337. 224. 68. 207. 12. 10. 62. 263. 381. 373. 195. 10. 167. Spitzbergen. Sphagnum. 226. Streak of minerals. 236. 259. 66.INDEX. 105. 170. classification of. of rocks. petrifying. 161. Sub-aerial denudation. 391. 4. Submerged forests. 294. 392. 144. 83.' Stagonolepis. 175. 72. Africa. 146. Subsoil. 183. Spirifera. Specific gravity bottle. Strophomena. 65. 165. 37. 69. cause of earthquakes. definition of. . Spain. 181. 201. Sumter Superposition Stonesfield slate. Spurn Point. Sulphuric acid. 183. America. flow sulphate. 22. 310. Stereognathus. 228. 251. Stratification. 221-4. Sublimate. 83. Strontium. 280. 195. 310. 178. 45. Spur groynes. 266. 39. 232. 74. Submarine plain. 197-8. 172. or beds. 222. series. Stilbite. 39. 13. 55. 105. 181. 29. 391. 136162. 3. Stalactitic shape of minerals. Sulphates. 44. 69. Spring water. and wells. Splendent lustre. Stormberg Surface action. thickness of. Suffolk. Structure of minerals. artesian. 195-9. 118. Sweden. Stratified 136. 177. 3. 372. 187. as a source of supply. 158. classification of. 202. 182. Spheroidal structure of rocks. Surrey. 29. 163. 11. Swallow holes. 3350. 11. 92. Stellated structure of minerals. Strata and their inclination. 202. 382. ordinary. 131. Stinchar group. 92. 311. N. Steam. geology. Stockingford shales. 392. Streams. 179. 251. 64. Sulphides. 123. alternation of. see Heavy-spar. Subsidence and elevation of land. 265. Spathic iron ore. 158. America. and upheaval of earth's crust. Strike. 65. Step-faults. 69. Stone-bind. 298. Sulphate of baryta. 153. 92. Sparta. Specular iron ore. of saturation. 187. 185. 40. Swanage. 67. S. 168. 385. 29. 100. 68. 23. 263. of rocks. 382. gravity of minerals. 419 rocks. Stromatopora. Stalagmites. 82. Sphene. 30. 62. Sphaerosiderite. Subterranean channels and caverns. 253-4. 200. 338. 92. Stafford. 64. drainage. Sudd regions. period. 198. 186. 255. 137. Stalactites. 174. Stylonurus. 92. of. 69. 348. intermittent. 253-60. 230. 8. 140. -carboniferous period of N. 384. 251-3. 180. Southampton water. Stines. 260. characters of rocks. 161. Sulphur. 152. 201. 88. 92. 392. 172.

186. 279. 163. Syringopora. 95. Trachyceras. 62. Texas. 66. 176. Tin-foil. 173. Thoulet's washing apparatus. project. 115. 88. Syenitic granite. calculating. 362-5. Tintagel slates. 66. Titanium. 169. 275. 172. Tectonic geology. Syenite. 161. granite. 287. 396. 107. Systems and periods. 107. 138. series. 69. Tenasserim. 144. Tors. 234. Texture of minerals. 392. Tabular structure of minerals. 391. 174. Indian Empire. slate. 151. 348-9. 150. effect. 299.420 Switzerland. 69. South Africa. 16. bed. 165. 110. 107. 92. 166. 59. Syphon action causing springs. 351. Telerpeton. 111. on drift. 131. Terra di Sienna. rivers. 283. 311. 138. 148. 152. of strata. Thickness of strata. Tetracoralla. Titanate. 214. 92. 152. 171. 154. 294. 62. 108. 65. 278 344. 143. Thibet. 42. river. Tidal action. physical condition of. 301. 161. 174. 20. Tin. Taconic Ranges. currents. 98. 63. Teleosaurus. Indian Empire. N. Touch of minerals. 168-71. 57. 392. New 62. 146. 145. 191. Tar. Titanite. 167. 202. 395. Testing limes and limestones. 54. 206. 304. New Zealand. Taste of minerals. Tendula Terebratula. 328. 125. Tiree crystalline marble. 143. 171. Tourmaline. River. decomposition gneiss. 127. Talcher 179. 233. Torridonian Temperature. 148. 137. Synclinal. 228. 255. Terrestrial deposits. 155. 65. Talus. Terrigenous deposits. Thallophyta. Tides. Tape measure. Teneriffe. 224. 325. Thames. Thomsonite. 373. 170. 298. 278. Thuringerwald. 147. Terrace period. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 9. Terminations . North America. effect of. Great Britain. of rocks. Syenites. or contact metamorphism. 178. Ternary compound. 137. Teleostei. Tees. 151. Talc. 161. ide. 173. 131. Till. 392. of. Teanan series. ous. 97. of rocks. 308. 174. Terraces. 293. Trachyte. 203-6. 368. America. ate. 297. 158. Tcheskaia Bay. 92. 53. 109. 203. 176. macadam. Thermal properties of minerals. coal. Tenacity of minerals. 93. 5. 379-80. 161. 224. changes of. . schist. 164. 65. 69. 171. 396. 226. Tests for road stone. Tortoises. 205. 47. porphyry. 275. bars. 23. 162. Syston. 3. Tarannon shales. Africa. 127. 82. Trachytic andesite. 16. Tatra. Taipo beds. 269. 379. Tartaric acid. 278. 174. 175. 139. 187. Tetragonal system of crystals. Syria. Tasmania. S. Tetrad. 144. TABLE Mountain Sandstone. Tide. Tennessee. 388. ic. 52. granite.347. Tertiary period. Australia. Titanosilicate of lime. 151. 283. Terra-cotta. Thermo Zealand. Thanet sands. 64. Titaniferous iron ore. 197-8. New Zealand. 168. 372. 348. Tile clays. 183. 392.

Utica. 279. 339. Van Wyk's Vegetable 24. Utatfir beds. 381. by running water. Undercurrents. 62. 34. 121. 96. Urals. 171. 202. Vley. Under-tow. Undulations. 141. Valencia slates. Veins and dykes. 185. 392. 381. 14-15. Umber. 287. organisms. Africa. Uitenhage formation. 283. Triad. 112. 243. 93. Umtafana Unctuous Unconformability. 233. action of of. Indian Empire. 35. 186. 182. Triclinic system of crystals. America. 121. 108. 393. 376. Verrucano. Indian Empire. 19. Vesicular. 175. Uriconian series. Valleys. 347. Travertine. 35862. 173. Trilobites. Victoria. Tremolite. 395. 146. 168. Vegetation as 194. 248. 248. 292. 67. 160. S. 28. Upheaval of earth's crust. Venezuela. Transformation of rocks. Uranium. 294. 171. 21. Uses of minerals. 187. 147. 178. 185. S. 112. 169. Velocities of streams and 355-6. 148. 45. Tyne. 168. 173. Trass. Tremadoc slates. Trichinopoly beds. Trigonia. Africa. 391-6. Translucency of minerals. 351. volcanic. 83. Tufa or Tuffs tuff. 392. 73. N. Tyrol. 162. Turkestan. 175. 182. 138. 180. Tungsten. Vicksburg. Underground 251. 91. 144. Vermes. 377. Transportation by glaciers. Africa. 301. Ungulates. Transylvania. 179. 281. 234. Vale of Eden. 93. 278. Indian Empire. 66. 24. Trees. Twin crystals. 152. Valley drifts and gravels. preliminary. 143. 178. Turtles. 175. Vindhyan system. 22. 44. Transparency of minerals. Viborg. 41. 310. 279. 173. Ullersdorf. 31. 24. Umia beds. 145. 45. Vienna. 118. 152 183. 43. Trough-faults. 156. 278. 185. 28. Unio. 391. River. Indian Empire. Turrilites.INDEX. Truncation of crystals. Tracing boundary lines. indication rocks. 176. Uprush of waves. 137. 172. Utah. series. 243- marine. Vents. rivers. Useful minerals. Triassic system. 283. Tridymite. 42. Underthrust. 394-5. Traverse. 14. 175. 117. 281-7. 148. 41. Venetia. Trematosaurus. 93. 61. 193. 193. Verde antique. 178. 185. flysch grits. 421 beds. 172. 147. VAL de Travers. 199. 9-12. 11. 175-7. 62. 307. 392. Ultramarine. Tuscany. Ultra-basic rocks. Trent. feel of rocks. . 161. 279. 54. 153. 182. 177. and ashes. 143. United States. Transvaal. 188. 321. Transgression. S. Upthrow of fault. 234. 184 Vancouver Island. 160. 181. 158. Trap rocks. Vertebrata. 62. UlNTAH. 54. 313. 179. 148. 147. 13. Univalent. Tripoli. 392. River. 283. 368. 287. 174. water. Turf. 98. Trenton period. 152.

source of. GEOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS. 275. as a source of supply. 282. 86. 111. 290. 111. Australia. Wave Volcanic action. Wolverhampton. 273. 278. 183. 243. of translation. River. 258. on road Vulcanisra. 393. 145. New Zealand. 177. Waves. 341. action. use of. 243-51. Wainamatta beds. 150. Walker's balance. Weathering. 279. River. materials. 341. 150. Witteberg quartzite. 128-34. Walton-on-the-Naze. 328. 31. series. deposition by. source of. White White Warsaw. Withernsea. 170. Wenlock beds. in road-making. 393. 349. WACK. 7. 293. 12. Wear. 187. Witherite. Wexford. 9. 388. series. 373-8. Worcester. 380. on waves. 185. 12-17. 152. Whitehaven. 191. 231. fragmental rocks. -formed currents. 111. 183. 167. 260. 1. 380. Whitby. 20-22. Woods and forests. 144. 395. Water as a solvent. 129. Wolfram. 186. 139. Wanganui 151. 287. Westleton sands. Warping 368-9. effect of. 279. 180. 175. 272. influence of. materials. 263. 174. 187. Wairoa Westmoreland. 178. -bearing strata. Warwick. 307.422 Virginia. for jetties. Wash. rocks. 388. Vitreous lustre. New Zealand. 250. 328. Windstein. to. 14-15. transportation by. 9-12. superheated. 307. Woolwich and Reading 170. test for road stone. 222. Worm-burrows and tracks. 183. 224. underground. 101. 275. 177. 262. 146. 180. 15-17. 282. 30-31. New Zealand. for land reclamation. on road 341-2. 68. 391. 7. the. quantity of water derivable from. 20. 12-14. 20. 138. 68. Wattle. in rocks. 207. 138. Whitewash. Waxy lustre. Weybourne Crag. crossing. interstitial. slope. 231. 172. 338-9. 392. Wells. lead. Watcombe clay. 328. Volcanoes. 138. S. Woolhope. 143. Volterra. 151. direction of. Wales. 331. 214. 238-71. 343-4. 375. running. 212. supply. 109-11. 112. 140. 377. Whitchurch. agglomerates. Wearing roads. 5. Wahsatch beds. Wad. 391. Yarralumla. Westphalia. Wicklow. 393. 24. Whinstone. effect effect on drift. 368. 185. Africa. Von Kobell's scale of fusibility. 182. 170. White Crag. Washing of rock constituents. -sheds. -resisting roads. . 380. Wealden beds. 26-7. 183. 341. changes in rocks due influence of. 262. Whiting. 260-2. quality of. 186Wyre. Weight of rocks. 151. Waitotara beds. iron pyrites. 201. 282. 93. Australia. sands. 174. 247-9. 275. Vosges. Weather. 277. Walking-stick. 84. 395. 345-6. 358. Wind. beds. erosion by. 27-29. Wrekin quartzite. 332. YARMOUTH. 385. 184. 369. 387. Walchia. 393. structure of rocks.

93. 69. 69. 154. 174. Yunan. S. 74. 142. 302. 391. Africa. 144. 152. 372. S. 423 ZAMBESI. 395. Zoantharia. 232.INDEX. N. 178. 176. Yorkshire. EDINBURGH. 310. 291. Yield of water. Zeolites. Australia. . 148. 178. Africa. Zumberg quartzite. America. Zewan PRINTED BY NEILL AND CO. 155. 249. 384.. Yorktown period. Indian Empire. Yellow copper ore. 71.. 150. Zwartkop. 392. Zincblende. 327. sandstone. Zoophytes. Zinc. Yarsbeds. Indian Empire. 93. 149. 180. 181. LTD. 152. beds. Yoredale group. Yenangyaung series. Zechstein.

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