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Do-It-Yourself Guide to Vintage Home Electronics Repair

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This guide is made up of selections from a: larger source. The, table on contents is accurate. but you will find some pages that appear to be missing. This was done. intentionally to remove some material that was not needed.

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CONTENTS EMERGENCY GUIDE ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEMS RECEIVERS AUDIOCASSETTE RECORDERS TURNTABLES COMPACT DISC PLAYERS SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES TOOLS & TECHNIQUES 8 12 18 28 42 52 60 126 I .

use and maintenance of the machine. Do not use ex. a repair procedure that is properly performed can prevent hazardous conditions. Never use or work. dial 911 in case of a life-threatening emergency. most of them can last a lifetime . and make sure air vents remain unobstructed and oust-free. if you have misplaced it.outdated only by newer. Make sure grounding wires are properly connected.suppressors to protect computers and other sensitive electronic units from voltage spikes. When making outdoor repairs to antenna and cable systems. even with the latest in engineering technology. Do not service any system near overhead utility lines. have the unit checked out by a professional service technician. Although rare. and do not hesitate to use them. 4. If you are in doubt about the safety of an electronic unit or about the nature of a repair. Perform a. And even in non-emergency situations. it's usually only then that we pay belated respect to the electrical current coursing through the intricate circuits housed in these machines. worryfree use. table thaI is well lit. Read the Troubleshooting Guide on page 9. do not touch him. It lists quick-action steps to take and refers you to the steps on pages 10 and 11 for detailed instructions. 9. on electronic units under wet conditions. locate and label your home's electrical service panel. Turn off and unplug the electronic unit before a repair. 8 . and learn how to. 11.. Keep food and beverages away from electronic units. Never took directly at the laser ina compact disc player that is plugged in and turned on. Keep medical emergency numbers posted by the telephone. it provides invaluable information on repairing electronic unit components and on the safe use of tools. Bafore attempting any repair in this book. utility company and repair service numbers near your telephone. do not set them down insloe the unit. Never spiice power cords or remove the grounding prong from a three-prong plug. Deprive fire of its sneak attack by installing smoke alarms judiciouslythroughout the house. 15. Post emergency. 3. The list of safety tips at right covers basic guidelines for the maintenance and repair of any electronic unit. use a wooden broom handle or wooden chair to push him free (page 10). Famlliariza yourself with the specific safety information presented in each chapter. Use only replacement components of the same specificatiQns as the originals. You can easily prevent most electrical emergencies by proper installation.If in doubl about the safely of repair. Read Entertainment Systems (page 12) to understand the interrelationship of electronic units that are hooked up together. 7. Avoid tciuchinganylhing but the-contact points being tested. 10. in your home. Install surge . Referlo Tools & Techniques (page 126) for instructions on the proper use of tools and on getting help when you need it. The repair of electronic units need not be any more dangerous than their routine use.f'professional service technician check it. Store tools safely. Cover the power. 5. it can cause eye damage. Also review Tools & Techniques (page 126). Consult the manufacturer of the electronic unit or a reputable electroniCS parts supplier. consult the chapters on individual units for more specific advice.EMERGENCY GUIDE Preventing home electronics problems. 6. Set it on a clean work. 16. 2. Install smoke detectors and fire extinguishers 18.tension cords. which places emergency procedures at your fingertips. or at least within earshot of someone else. With proper care and maintenance. Familiarize yourself with the owner's manual that came with the unit. 14. electrical emergencies are the most likely and serious threat to the user of an electronic unit. calm day. have a qualifiet. Dlsconnect the cables and any ground wire hooked up to il (page 12). 8. a cold check for leaking voltage (page 141) after reassembling an electronic unit but before plugging it back in . Unplug electronic units and disconnect external antenna connections from the television before going on vacation. an inspector from your utility company or fire department can answer questions concerning the condition and proper use of your home's electrical system. in most areas. work oil a dry. Do not alter the larger prong on a polarized plug. Yet.use it before you need it (page 1 J J.•Avoid running power cords under carpets or through heavily trafficked areas. The electronic units in your home are expertly designed for years of safe. Have the correct fire extinguisher on hand to snuff out a blaze before it gets the upper hand. Wear eye protection when making repairs inside a television. more sophisticated units. Get technical help when you need it. If you must rescue someone stuck to an electronic unit by live current. Electrical shock and fire are life-threatening emergencies that can happen in even the most safety-conscious of homes. emergency situations can occur. Removewalches and jewelry before starting a repair.supply components (page 138) with a nonconductive shieJo as a precaution during voltage tests. 12. do not touch any inter' nal component you cannot see. Work with a helper. SAFETY TIPS 1. Prevent injury from picture-tube implosion by asking a qualified service technician to dispose safely of an old set. read the entire procedure. . Prepare yourself to handle emergencies before they occur. Cover the electronic unit if you take a break while working. order a new one from the manufacturer. I 17. Indeed. 13.

Use fire extinguisher rated for electrical fires (p. 'do not touch the component: electrical current may be sterad in it even !hough the unit is turned off and unplugged. If not.EMERGENCY GUIDE TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEM Fire In unit. police or fire department Treat every fallen line as if it were live with electricity. 10). including a flashlight or candles Leave a light on so that you will know when power is restored Lightning storl)'l Unplug all electronic units or use a surge suppressor to protect them Slay away from windows. begln artiiicial resuscitation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if you are qualified.er cord from wall outlet (p. Uhplug unit power cord from w<!-II outlet or shot off power at service panel (p. including fences. since electrical burns can cause internal injury Turn off all units that have molars. 10) Unplug unit power cord from wall outlet or shut off power at service panel (p. place victim in recovery position (p. powereordor wall outlet GUIDE PROCEDURE Call fire department . or take unit for professional service Unit gives oft sparks or shocks. 11) Beverage or other foreign material spilled Inlo unit Unplug unit pow. breathing and has pulse. user Smoke coming from unit . A triangle with an sxctarnatlon mark. radiators. unplug unit power cord from wall outlet (p. 9 . unplug. 11) if necessary Reposition unit with air venls unobstructed Unit Is flooded Do nol touch unit or any plumbing iixture. doors. sinks and pipes Utility line down Call utilily company. 10) Take unit for protsssionat service Burning or other peculiar odor coming from unit Turn off unit and unplug unit power cord from wall outlet (p. Otherwise. to). Stay faraway anything it touches. 10) Dry unit With absorbent cloth and hair dryer if wet. laser warning. fireplaces. then. Usually.leave house and wait for fire department Unit power cord or plug sparking or hot Shut off power at service panel. to prevent overloading electrical system whim power is restored Keep emergency supplies on hand. then. or clean the components (p. 10) Check unit air vents and clean air vents (p. 10) Locate and repair cause of sparks or shock. This symbol may be found on the back or bottom of a compact disc player. Never look directly at anoperaling laser: its intense light can cause permanent eye damage. A triangle or square "Yith a sunburst symbol warns of possible danger from a laser. 10) If flames or smolgering continue. and call for help Electrical burn Power failure Soak if1jury In cold water arid cover with sterile gauze if severe Seelunedical attention immedlately. stoves. iNait until odor dissipates before servicing unit Locate and repair cause of odor or take unit for professional service Unit is excessively hot Turn off unit and unplug unit power cord from wall outlet (p. Voltage warning. unit power cord from wall outlel (p. warns the user to consult the owner's manual before operatjng the unit. 11) Shut off power at service panel. trees and antennas . then. 10) Dry unit with absorbent cloth and ~air dryer (p. 10) Check whether victim is. A triangle with a l!ghtning bolt warns of a potential electrical snack hazard. police or fire department I SAFETY SYMBOLS ON ELECTRONIC UNITS Operation warning. from the line and Antenna fa{len against utility line Do not touch units hooked up to antenna Do not attempt to dislodge antenna Call utility company. dry yourself if you are wet Shut off power at service panel. 11) Electrical shock If person is immobilized by live current. this symbol can be found on the back or bottom ottha unit. If the symbol is posted on an internal component. push him away from source with wooden broom handle or wooden chair (p. unplug unit power cord from waUoutlet (p.

Instead. Tiltthe head back with the face to one side and the tongue forward to maintain an open airWay. rigbt) or shut off power at the main service panel (step above. As an added precaution. Ata fuse panel. flip off the main breaker (ab9ve). Locate and repair the problem before using the electronic unit ortha outlet again. If the victim is breathing and has not sustained back or neck inju(Ies. your hand away from the panel. give mouth-to-mouth rasuscltatlon or eardiopulm()nary resuscttation (CPA~ only il You are qualified.ord plug. use a wooden broom handle or wooden chair to knock the person free (above). .or if the wall outlet itself is sparking or burning. Do not touch the. Handling a victim of electrical shock. service panel. grip the main fuse block by its handle and pull itout (inset). RESCUING A VICTIM OF ELECTRICAl.shift it to the OFF position. Keep tM victim calm and comfortable Until help arrives. If the fuse panel has a shutoff levar. around tha service panel is wet. If the floor around the wall outlet is wet. Pulling the power cord plug from the wall outlet. inches from ihe plug and pull the plug out of the wall outlet (above). But sometimes muscles contract involuntarily around ill wire or component. shut off Power at the service panel (left). Protect y. SHOCK I Freeing someone from a live current. If there is no I:lreathing or heartbeat. that way. Wear heavy. use your knuckle. At a circuit breClker panel. Othel'Nise. dry rubber gloves and use only one hand: keep the other hand in your pocket or behind your back. stand on a dry board or a rubber mat. disccir1nsct the power ·c.our hand with a thick. left). Withouttouchingfhe wall Qutle. II the power cannot be cut immediately. 10 . victim or the unit.Check the victim's breathing and heartbeat.EMERGENCY GUIDE CUTTING OFF ELECTRICAL POWER Shutting down power at the. If the floor. do not touch the power cord or the electronic unit. Or wear ruboer boots.. place 'him in the recovery position (above). Usually a person who contacts live current will be thrown back from the source. P\lll the power cord pluglrom the wall outlet (step above. grasp the power cord several. any shock wilt jerk. dry towel or a heavy work giove. Call tor help lmrnediately.!or the alaetronic unit.

. Find the cause of the fire and remedy it before using the electronic unit or the outlet again. CLEANING UP SPILLS AND DIRT I Turn off the electronic unit and unplug it from the wall outlet.EMERGENCY GUIDE CONTROLLING AN ELECTRICAL FIRE . holding the extinguisher upright. leave the house to. apply denatured alcohol to metal or plastic. Using a fire extinguisher. rubber-cleaning compound to rubber. lint-free. 6 to. use a drychemical fire extinguisher rated ABC or BC. Using a clean.calllor help." or rekindling. Qisconnect its cables and any ground wire hooked up to it (page 12). aim the nozzle at the base 01 the flames. Watch carefully for ·flashback. aim with slow. To remove sticky dust or dirt particles from components. Keep spraying until the fire is completely extinguished. spraying in a quick sideto-side motion. accessible lire in an electronic unit or at the wall oullat. To snuff a small. carefully soak up pools of liqUid. Dry the internal components thoroughiy using a hair dryer set on the no-heat or low-heat position (above. Finally. Squeeze the two levers. of the handletogelher. If there are flames or smoke coming from the walls or ceiling. and electronic contact cleaner to circuit boards and switches. and be prepared to spray again. sweeping motions to avoid heating up a component. You may also have to shut off power at the service panel (page 10) to remove the source of heal or sparking causing the fire. lubricate moving parts by applying light machine oil to metal and white grease to plastic. absorbent cloth. Perform a cold check' for leaking voltage (page 141) after reassembling the electronic unit but before plugging it back into the wall outlet. Use foam swabs to clean components. 1Oleet from the fire. Refer to the chapter on the electronic unit for instructions on reaching the internal components. left). spray them with short bursts of compressed air (above. Call the fire department inimediately. Stand near an exit. right). Have the lire department examine the area even if the fire is out. Drying and cleaning internal components. Pul the lock pin out of the extinguisher handle and. 11 . Set the unit on a clean work table.

Video output ~e (shown) to the televiSion.•. most units perform best if the cables between them are kept as short as possible. ..and left· and rightchannel input and output cables (shown) to and from audiocassette recorder. electronic. 1. .. Video and audiO input cable (snown) from tha videocassette recorder. problem are rare and can be logically deduced from their symptoms..=. and audio output cable (shown) to the television or receiver.. this is less of a worry. Ground .-.~ . As a general rule... reducing electrical resistance and interference that weaken the audio or video signal. .'-"' ."-~'-~~' ... connect with phono plugs or coaxial connectors..pI1ono plugs orcoaxial connectors.•... which is highly sensitive to vibration and signal interference.and right· channel audiO input and output cables to and from the raceiver connect with phono plugs. . An exception is the turntable.(shown) and output cables to and from videocassette recorder... - lIeI I D . ceps or sCreWS. or shielded twill·lead with caps or screws connecting its wire ends: signal cable from the cable. or just a modest receiver... but a typical entertainment system (below) is an investment in leisure that can cost thousands of dollars. Signal cable from an outdoor antenna may be coaxial. 12 .~. The wire ends connect to spring-loaded terminals..."---.. position it at least 3 feet away from the speakers. may be connected by..-.' turntable and speakers. Refer to the appropriate chapter to troubleshoot your telephone system (page 100) or your computer and printer (page 110).~ II t> .==r==r=r~1 I. 1111 . . or audiO output cable from television.. it also complicates system hookups and problems diagnosis.' -./1 . To answer questions about the set-up or cable hookups for your entertainment system. connect with phono plugs.._. Thanks to solid-state circuitry..--'~'"-'. wilh a screw-on connector.and right·channel audio output cables to tha receiver are connected by phone plugs. : .I i ~~:.> To outlet AudiocaBSette _rder left..0. .. I. VldeocliSll8tte recorder . I~ll E5 c:s 0 Receive.~ __ • e DO o II v_.""""!'-----=..~ • c.---. 0Toreceiver outlei n " .'-~. with a-screw-on or poshon connector.-~... check the owner's manual that came with each unit or consult the manufacturer. 1. While each additional unit adds new entertainment options. have phono plugs or coaxial connectors.signal cable from the cable system is coaxial. .1iI showrr) from turntable conl'18C1so the grounding ( t screw. Compact disc pll!yer Left.==r=. I~I I t_p:=====~~.. I ~o Television Signal cabla irOn) anouldoor antenna may be coaxial. Speaker cables (shown) provide left· and right-charmel audio output to speakers.ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEMS It may boast a top-of-the-line compact disc player and videocassette recorder. if the cable is coaxial. signal cable from the cable system is coaxial. .left· and right-channel output cables (sbown) from turntable or compact disc player •.}OO... Audio input .. -~ . systam is coaxial. Signal cable (shown) from an outdoor antenna may be coaxial. . and audio output cable 10the receiver... An indoor FM antenna (Shown)connacts with spada lugs 10 screws. or shielded twin-lead. or shielded twin·lead with a matching-transformer.· . 4. .--- l :{!//ll//I/l///!////t -. with spade lugs connecting to a matching transformer.. But consult the Troubleshooting Guide in this chapter (page 14) first before referring to the chapter covering a specific audio or video entertainment unit. A ground wir. _... ....'---'-' .=-. To FM dipola antenna.

way interfacing d~ce thai Changils computer signals iilto telephone Signals and vice versa. with a 1/8._ Handset A jack accepts the plug on the handset cord from the tele· phone base. Ensure that the wire connectt. 13 . Main unit Cablesl.. oompati disc player. A ground wire (shawn) connects to receiver grounding screw. which can shield sensitive electronic equipment from power surges. tag it first. ·... positive terminal. Some are available with a voltage spike protector. Base One jack acoeptsthe handset cord plug.K1 to the. videocassette recorder or televlsion. If you 'must disconnect a cable. TELEPHONE SYSTEM May be connecied to the computer system through a modem. connect to jacks in machine.ENTERTAlNMENT SYSTEMS Many entertainment system problems can be resolved by adjusting cable hookups. Always turn off the units before tampering with their cables. tag each one.should be labeled as carefully as those at the entertainment system units. a two-way Interlacing device lhal changes telephone signals into computer signals .~ . is the same wire connected to the positive terminai at the receiver.® I speaker s· May tie CQnnectad to the telephone system through a modem. and vice versa. especially if other household appliances will be running at the same time.-' Monitor Cable fr9m monitor connects to main unit with 0825 connector. i_-__. Left· and right· channel audio output cables 10 receiver (shawn) are connected' by_phone plugs. reposition the units instead.. terminals. The wire ends or spade lugs connect to spring· loaded. Headphones . Do not use extension cords. if necessary. Keyboard Cable from keyboard connects to main unit with 0825 connector. answering machine or modem to . . . To tame the profusion of power cords in an entertainment system..rom monitor. Another jack accepts the plug on the line cord from the walt jack or answering maclline. Then consult the unit's chapter.Connects line cord from :telephone base. service the unit itself-First refer carefully to the Emergency Guide (page 8) and Tools and Techniques (page 126).).Connect 10 a iack on the receiver (shown). Cable connections at a splitter box. telephone syslem. a two. if there is more than one wire or connector' at the end of the cable. indicated by the color red or a plus sign (.. Answering mllChlne Plug on line cord from wall jack. a F>o/litive and negative lett-channel or rightcchannel audiO output from the fe(.. ! 'o_-·. __ .. install a grounded multiple-outlet plug in the wall outlet.or114·inch head· phone plug. and plug on line cord from telephone base. COMPUTER SYSTEM r. _. may have a jack: . audiocassette recorder.8jveris sent through speaker cable (shown). -. pay special attention to the introduction and familiarize yourself with the exploded diagram before beginning work. . which routes a signal to more than one unit. Cable Irom printer has parallel-port or serlal-port connector. First check your fuse box or circuit breaker panel to make sure the circuit cart handle the load.=======::::. 0 ~ """_1 ! WaUlack .. caps or Screws. !__ ~""'-'" L:J '_00 To outdoor cable Terminal block Interlace between outdoor and indoor cable. keyboard and printer connect with DB25 connsotors. 1 lumtllble. noting at each end the specific terminal to which it connects. Once you eliminate cable hookups as the source of a problem.

Receiver turier control set incorrectly Antenna posltloned incorrectly Cable hookup faulty between speaker and receiver or between receiver and antenna or cable system Antenna or cable system faulty Speaker or receiver faulty Sound intermittent or distorted from the audiocassette recorder. service receiver (p. service audiocassette recorder (p. turntable or compact disc player faulty Display lights. 18) Adjust !receiver tuner control Adju'st antenna Adjust receiver selector control to other modes.ltte recorder. service audiocassette recorder (p. if sound not OK. 60). If sound not OK from same speaker. If sound is OK. 42) or compact disc player (p. check cable hookups between receiver and audiocassette recorder. 18) Adjust receiver controls. if sound not OK from other speaker. service audiocassette recorder (p.and righi-channel cable connections. compact disc player (p. no sound POSSIBLE CAUSE SYSTEMS Receiver and/orotherunit or turned off unplugged Plug in and turn on receiver andlor audiocassette recorder. or between receiver and antenna or cable system. 52). 28). If sound not OK from same speaker. turntable or compact disc player Audiocassl. 52) Reverse receiver left. check i. audiocassette recorder. 42) or compact disc player (p. 16) DO. 76) Reverse receiver left-and right-channel cable connscnons. service speaker (p. 17) DO Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. 50).lalance control Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. if there is still sound from only one speaker channel. 16) DOor between receiver and audiocassette recorder. . turntable(p. turntable (p. If sound is OK. buzzing or rumbling noise Speaker vibrating or too close to turntable Cable hookup faulty between speaker and receiver. 60). service receiver(p.wer controls set incorrectly Receiver.check receiver volume and tapemonitor controls Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. 136) DO Reset breaker or replace fuse (p. service antenna or cable system (p. turntable. 16) DO Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. 42) or compact disc player (p.or compact disc player Service remote cornrol (p. service speaker (p. check cable hookups between speakers and receiver (p. turntable or compact disc player Cable hookup faulty between speaker and receiver or between receiver and audiocassette recorder. turntable or compact disc player (p. If no sound from same speaker. turntable (p. If there is sound irom both speaker channels. 18) Adjust receiver selector control to other modeS. service receiver (p. If sound is OK. turntable (p. have outlet serviced Service receiver (p.IO) DO. . . 16) DO. turntable or. service speaker (p. 42) or compact disc player (p. cable hookups between receiver and audiocassette recorder. but. 16) DO. service receiver (p: 18) Reposition speakers Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. 60). turntable or compact disc player faulty Sound from only one speaker channel Receiver controls set incorrectly Cable hookup faulty between speaker and receiver or between receiver and audiocassette recorder. service speaker (p. 28). if sound not OK. If sound is OK. check. If sound is OK. if sound not OK. If sound is OK. check cable hookups between receiver and antenna or cable system (p. audiocassette' recorder. or compact disc player Audiocassette recorder.and right-channel cable connections. in particular. or audiocassette recorder. 16) DO Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. 28) or turntable (p. if sound not OK from other speaker. 16) DO. turntable or compact disc player faulty Speaker or receiver faulty Humming. check cable hookups between speakers and receiver (p. turntable or compact disc player Ground wire hookup faulty Antenna or cable system (radial. check cable hookups between receiver and antenna or cable system (p. check cable hookups between speakers and receiver (p. 42) Or compact disc player (p. if sound not OK from other speaker. turntable or compact disc player controls.ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEMS TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE SYMPTOM AUDIO ENTERTAINMENT No display lights. no sound Receiver and/or audiocassette recorder. 52) Reverse receiver left. turntable. 16) DO Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. 18) • Over 3 hours PROCEDURE Remote control dirty or faulty No power to outlet or outlet faulty Receiver. in particular. check cable hookups between speakers and receiver (p. 28). 52) Adjust receiver andlor audiocassette recorder. turntable or compact disc player faulty Speaker or receiver faulty I DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY: ESTIMATED TIME: o Less DEasy ~ Moderlilte • Complex than 1 hour' ~1 to 3 hours 14 . II sound not OK from same speaker. service receiver (p. If there is sound. turntable or compact disc pl. turntable or compact disc player (p. 28).and right-channel cable connections. 76) or audiocassette recorder (p. 52) Reverse receiver lell. If there is sound from both speaker channels. if no sound from other speaker. 18) or audiocassette recorder (p. if no sound. 16) DO Check ground wire hookups (p. service antenna or cable system (p. or between receiver and audiocassette recorder. turntable or compact disc player faulty Speaker or receiver faulty Sound Intermittent from the radio or distorted .

. check cable hookups between receiver and speakers (p.cable system. service television (p_ 68) See audio entertainment systems {p. 68). 10) 00. but no picture and no sound Television or videocassette recorder controls set incorrectly Television or videocassette recorder laulty recorder PROCEDURE Plug in and turn on television and videocassette recorder Plug in converter Reset breaker or replace 'fuse (p. have outlet serviced VIDEO ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEMS No display lights.16) 00 Turnoff videocassette recorder and tune in television. service videoCassette recorder (p. service television (p. service videocassette recorder (p_ 88) See audio entertainment systems (p. or cable hookup laulty betWeen receiver and speaker Television or videocassette recorder faulty Speaker or receiver faulty DEGREE OF DIFFICUL TV: ESTIMATED TIME: o Less ~Easy IO. service receiver (p. II still no picture and no sound. If there is sound from both speaker channels. service video. and between receiver and television or videocassette recorder (p. service television (p. no picture and no sound. or cable hookup faulty betwe.ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEMS TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE SYMPTOM POSSIBLE CAUSE Television orvldeocassene unplugged or turned off Cable converter unplugged No power to outlet or outlet faulty Television or videocassette recorder laulty Display lights. 16) 00.. recorder Television or videocassette recorder faulty .Complex than 1 hour ~ 1 to 3 hours • Over 3 hours 15 .16) 00 Turn off videocassette recorder and tune in television. 16) DO Tum off videocassette recorder and tune in television. il there is picture. Turn off videocassette recorder and tune in television. 68) or antenna or cable system (p. 88) Adjust television and receiver controls. check audio cable hookups belWeen television and videocassette recorder. II. II still no picture. 88) Adjust television and videocassette recorder controls. service television (p. in particular. 68)ar videocassette recorder (p_ 88) Adjust television and videocassette recorder controls. and between receiver and television or videocassette recorder (p. check teleVision and receiver volume' controls and receiver tape-monitor control Check audio cable hookups between television and videocassette recorder. 68). 16) 00 Adjust receiver selector control to other modes.t MOderate . service television (p. If still no picture.cable hookups between television and vldaocassette recorder (p. check audio cable hookups Qetween television and videocassette recorder and between receiver and television or videocassette recorder (p. il stlll sound from one speaker channel. service videocassette recorder (p. if there are picture and sound. II sound is OK·. in particular. cassetie recorder (p: 88) Adjust receiver selector control to other modes. in particular.. or between one of these units and receiver Receiver faulty Television or videocassette recorder faulty Sound. II there is sound from both speaker channels.k cable hookups between receiver and speakers (p. 88): if there is sound. 14) Adjust antenna Check cable hookups between antenna or cable system and tslsvlsian or videocassette recorder (p. 88). . Service television (p. no sound TeleVision or receiver controls set incorrectly Audio cable hookup laulty between tetevlslon and videocassette recorder. 14) Picture. service television (p_ 68). il there is picture. television (p. service videocassette recorder (p_ 88) Adjust television and receiver controls. it sound not OK. 76) Check video cable hookups between television and videocassette recorder (p.en receiver and speaker Television or videocassette recordertau Ity Speaker or receiverlaulty Picture and sound Intermittent or distorted Antenna positioned incorrectly Cable hookup faulty between antenna or cable system and television or videocassette recorder Antenna or . but no picture Television or videocassette recorder controls set incorrectly Video cable hookup faulty between television and videocassette recorder Television or videocassette recorder faulty Sound from only one speaker channel Television or receivercontrols set incorrectly Audio cable hookup faulty between television and videocassette recorder. 18) Turn off videocassette recorder and tune in television. or between receiver and television or videocassette recorder. or between receiver and television or videocassette recorder. balance controls Adjust 'receiver selector control to other modes. I Sound intermittent or distorted Audio cable hookup laulty between television and videocassette recorder. 68). If still no sound. no sound. service videocassette recorder (p. if there is still sound from only one speaker channel.but. in particular. 88). chet. check channel selector controls.. 16) 00. if there is sound. If still no sound. 16) 00 Service videocassette recorder (p. check television brightness and contrast controls Check video . 16) 00 Turn off videocassette recorder and tune in television. or Video cable hookup faulty between television and videocassette. television or videocassette recorder faulty Picture intermittent distorted .

If the cable tests faulty. If the cable tests OK. Set a multitester to lest continuity (page 128). If the cable tests OK. Checking phono cable connections. replace it (page 131). there should be continuity onceand only once.als on both units. clip one probe to its center pin and touch the othet probe to its outer shield. To test each plug. To test each connector. Clean the connectors and terminals (pagp 11). clip or touch a probe to each center pin (near ten).and tighten the caps or screws. If a. reconnect it. there should be continuity only once. 16 .and lauch the other probe in turn to each wire at the other end (near left). ScreW or push each connector onto its terminal. replace it (page 133). Loosen the caps or screws (faf left) I and remove the cable wire ends or spade lugs from the termin. repair it (page 132). there should be continuity both times. there should be no continuity. wrap the wires clockwise and tighten them. Unscrew or pull off the connectors at both ends (far left). Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). Clip one probe to a wire and touch the other probe in turn to each wIre at the other end (near left). Push each plug firmly into its Jack. clip or touch a probe to sach center pin (near left). repair it (page 132). Clip one probe to a wire at one end of the cable . replace it (page 131). then to each shield. there should be continuity both times. coaxial cable connections. Checking Checking shielded twin-lead cable connections. If the center pin or the outer shield is damaged. If a connector tasts faulty. Test the other wire the same way. then to each Shield. Wrap the wires clockwise around the terminals . (page 17). replace it (page 131).ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEMS SERVICING CABLE HOOKUPS Checking speaker cable connections. Press the tabs and insert the wires.wlre end or spade lug is darnaged. Pull the plugs out of the jacks on both units (far tett). replace it (page 133). replace it (page 133). If either plug tests faulty. If the cable tests faulty. Set a rnultltester to test continuity (page 128). Press the tabs (far left) or loosen the caps or screws and remove the cable wire erids or spade lugs from the speaker and receiver terminals. replace the plug (page 133). reconnect it. Set a rnuintestsr 10 test continuity (page 128). To lest the cable. there should be no contiriuity. Replace a faulty cable (page 131). If a wire end or spade lug is damaged. Clean the plugs and jacks. clip a probe to the canter pin and touch the other probe to the outer Shield. Test again at the other wire. If the cable tests faulty. at cap or screw terminals. I! the center pin or outer shield is damaged. To test the cable.

Clear away particles by spraying electrohic. spray short bursts of electronic contact cleaner or compressed air through the opening (above.contact cleaneror compressed air into the connector. replace it (page 132). right). left) .. 17 . or use a loam swab moistened with denatured alcohol. both to troubleshoot problems and as a preventive measure. To clean a plug connector. To test a ground wire.~ SERVICING GROUND WIRE CONNECTIONS I Checkingindl)()r and outdoor ground connections.e connections. It can also be a hazard in the event a circuit is shorted or a cable is struck by lightning. apply only moderate pressure to avoid bending the pin. left). If the ground wire does not have continuity. Tighten a loose turntable ground wire at its terminal on the receiver (. Repair any damaged wire end or spade lug (page 132). To clean inside the terminal. disconnect one end of the wire and touch a probe to each end 01 the wire. Be sure to run an outdoor ground wire in the shortest and straightest possible path. set a multilester to test continuity (page 128). Use the pencil eraser as well to clean any accessible contact points on the terminal. use the eraser end of a pencil. Rub thoroughly around the outer shield and along the center pin (above.lbove.ENTERTAINMENT CLEANING CONNECTIONS SYSTEMS Cleaning cableconnectors and unit terminals. A loose or damaged ground wire can be an annoying source of humming noise. right). as well as at the grounding rod (above. Carefully inspect ground wir.Tighten the outdoor ground wire from the antenna systemdiscliarger or grounding block at the discharger or the grounding block.

or a component may test defective.Systems (page 14) first. Disconnect the cablesand wires hooked up to it and set it on a dean work table. the preamplifier accepts the incoming signal. WaighilJd shati rOtates .. Special parts may have to be ordered from the manufacturer. Often.supPly Components.it to power·suppIY components. 'Before attemptingany repair to the receiver.. a multitester and a soldering iron make up the basic toolkit for receiverrepairs (page 126). S tore fasteners and other small parts in labeled containers and write down the sequence of disassernbly steps. tum it off and unplug it. an integrated unit consisting of an analog or digital tuner. 18 . Tuner cord Turns th9capadtor orum a~slicles the lunerpointer..120-vo~ '!hemating t:Ull'snt (AC) to pOWer. cortex of most sophisticated audio systems is a' receiver (below). amplifies it ana routes it to the power amplifier. a preamplifier and a power amplifier. flaw Balarice potentlometsrcontrol Regulates sound level . Oniofl switch StarlSand of . and directions for desoldering and soldering (pages J30~J31). stop. . Consult the Troubleshooting Guide in Entertainment .~'"" '. A set of small screwdrivers. Treble. polenlloilieter Miustshigll·frequsney coritrol ~!gnaJ. Sometimes a wire may be loose or broken.nwind tuner cord. Tuner control FM antenria shoWn: may be SiJbstituted for by an OIiIdOQr antenna Or a table hookup. Lisuallya dipole wire..- .belween laft and right cftaI1~!S. Po~cor~ Out. Despite a jungle of cords and cables. There. resistance and voltage tpages 128. are readily available from an electronics parts supplier. Refer to Toots & Techniques for tips on disassembly and reassembly (page 141). Supplies 120-voli aRernating current (AC] to the J:!OWBr blOck which routes .let Supplies 12(}'volt aaei'nating currant lAC] through the recelver to power either units in the system: reduces Jumble of cOrds at weJI outlet. as AManteriii. and most replacement components. instructions for testing continuity. ~. From the tuner..----. . usually to the speakers. Perform a cold cheek for leaking voltage (page 141) after reassembling the receiver but before plugging it back in. problems can be remedied by adjusting cable hookups or by cleaning switches and potentiometers. arid then the one in this chapter (page 19). The. 10 wind and. receiver problems can be logically deduced from their symptoms. Cleaning materials. or from an auxiliary unit such as the turntable through cables hooked up to the receiver. the signal is further strengthened and sent out through cables.129).

27) !.m only one channel . 26) .Q Take receiver for professional service Adjust receiver controls Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. scratchy or doesn't work Tuner pulleys sticking or tuner cord slipping Tuner cord loose or a-oken . no display lights Sound fro.Q Tesi and replace electrolytic filter power capacitor (p.ng noise Auxil iary unit faulty Electrolytic filter power capacitor taulty Analog.22) DO Take receiver for professional service Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 14) DO Take receiver for professional service Replace display lights (p. 2.. no sound POSSIBLE CAUSE Receiver unplugged or turned off Remote control dirty or faulty No power to outret or othlet faulty Power cord faulty Power fuse blown On/off switch faulty Power supply faulty Circuit board faulty Display lights. 'balance or tone control abrupt. 20) 00 Restring tuner (po 21) IiiiiiIQ Clean variable capacitor (p.RECEIVERS )' TROUBLESHOOTI NG GUIDE SYMPTOM No display lights. 24)00. 27) Take receiver for professional service • Over 3 hours I Burning odor Air vents blocked or dirty Heat sink dirty Power fuse blown Power supply faulty Electrolytic filter power capacitor faulty Circuit board faulty ~O DEGREE.Variable capaCitor dirty Variable capacitor or circuit board faulty Selactor switch dirty Selector switch or circuit board faulty Speakerfau Ity Control potentiometer dirty or faulty Circuit board faulty PROCEDURE Plug in and turn on receiver Service remote control (p. test and replace potentiometer (p.IO Service tuner (p. 24) 00.. backg round noise from another unit Volume. 134) 00 Adjust receiliercontrols Troubleshoot entertainment system (p.. 23) 00 Test and replace on/off switch (p. 23) 00 Take receiver for professional service Troubleshoot entertainment system (p.10) DO. 14) DO Clean variable capacitor (p. 25) DO Service power supply (p. 136) DO Reset breaker or replace fuse (p.3) 00 Service power supply (p. 14) DO Clean potentiometer (p.oF DIFFICULTY: ESTIMATED TIME: o Less o Easy ~ Moderate • Complex than 1 hour Q 1to 3 hours 19 .. 22) DO CheckFM antenna wire connections: test and replace AM antenna· (p. (p. Display lights faulty Receiver controls incorrectly set Speaker or auxiliary unit faulty Volume or balance control potentiometer dirty or faulty Circuit board taulty Intermittent sound from an auxiliary unit ..IQ Take receiver for professional service Adjust tuner control Adjust antenna Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 14) DO Clean potentiometer (p. (p. 14)DO Test and replace electrolytic filter power capacitor (p. 26) . 24)!. tuner control erratic or doesn't work Scratching noise when analog tuner control is adjusted Scratching noise when selector control Is adjusted. 22) 00 Take receiver for professional service Clean selector switch (p. 137) DO Test and replace power luse (p.!ulty Sound. no sound Receiver controls incorrectly set Auxiliary unit faulty Selector switch or ci rcuit board f.IQ test and replace potentiometer Take receiver for professional service Troubleshoot errtertainrnem system (po 14) DO Clean potentiometer (p. Speaker or auxil iary unit faulty Volume or balance control potentiometer dirty or faulty Circuit board faulty Intermittent the radio sound from Tuner control set incorrectly Antenna positioned incorrec1ly Speaker or cable system faulty Variable capacitor dirty Antenna loose or faulty Circuit board faulty Humrni.IQ 19S1 and replace potentiometer Take receiver lor professional service Reposition receiver orclean air vents Clean heat sink Test and replace power fuse (p. have outlet serviced Test and replace power cord (p. 24)!. 24) DO. 24)!.

Pull off or unscrew any controls too large to fit through the front panel. Use a dean cloth to rub a little of the same lubricant on the pointer rail. Rotate the tuner control. 1 Resetting the pointer. Rotate the tuner control fully in one direction.screws are on the edges and sometimes in the feet. When the tuner cord travels easily and the tuner pointer slides smoothly. avoiding contact with the tuner cord. Rethread the luner cord snugly through the notches or clips on the pointer plate. left). Remove the top panel (step above). Reinstall the top panel (step above). . 2 20 . and sometimes on the back or bottom. Unscrew the front panel and gently pry it away from the frame (above. restring the tuner (page 21). plug in the receiver and turn it on. If the tuner cord does not travel easily. n'ght). reset the pointer (step 2). reverse this sequence to reinstall the panels. then slide the pointer by hand fully in the same direclion.RECEIVERS ACCESS TO THE COMPONENTS Removing and reinstalling top. then cold check for leaking voltage (page 141). checking the motion 01 the tuner cord and the tuner pointer inside the receiver. Unhook the tuner cord from the notches or clipson the pointer plate. sides or bottom. unplug it from the wall outlet and disconnect the cables and ground wire hooked up to it (page 12). Unscrew the bottom panel and 11ft it pff the frame (al.center). Front panel screws may be at the top. After working on the receiver. front and bottom panels. spray a tiny amount 01 silicone-based lubricant on the axles of the tuner puHeys. Work in the lubricant by rotating the tuner control (above). Secure the tuner cord to the pointer plate by applying a small dab of nail polish to each notch (above) or by pressing down the clips with a small screwdriver. slide it out f(om under any lip on the front panel and lift it off the receiver frame (above. Unscrew the top panel.ove. SERVICING THE DIAL TUNER I Lubricating the pulleys and rail. Tum off the receiver. reinstall the lop panel (step above). If the tuner cord is loose or broken. Top panel screws are usually located on the sides. Reconnect the cables (page 16) and ground wire (page 17). If the tuner cord travels easily but Ihe tuner pointer does not slide smoothly. . The bottom panel . TUrn over the receiVer.

Reinstall the top panel (page 20).. . 1 Tying on cord at the capacitor drum. tie the cord to the capacitor spring. To keep the capacitor drum stationary. then loop lt. If there is no sketch. retrace the routs taken and look for errors.and numberof urns the tuner cord makes around each component . poinier plate. route cannot be determined. If the tuner cord. if required. wrap the tuner cord tautly around the tuner pulley at the end of the dial farthest from the tuner control shaft. or attempt to retrace the route using a replacement tuner cord of about the same length. 2 Wrapping cord around the tuner control shaft. consult the receiver manufacturer. Finally. loop.RECEIVERS RESTRI NGI NG THE DIAL TUNER Remove the top· panel (page 20) and check inside the receiVer for a sketch of the luner cord route. to allow the pointer to traliel the full length of the tuner dial. at the capacitor drum. draw one as complete as possible. Slide the pointer by hand as claseas possible to the tuner control shaft. wrap the tuner cord around the tuner pulley at the end of the diaf. Undo the knots securing the damaged tuner cord to the capacitor spring and remove the cord. Wrap the tuner cord once around the capacitor drum in the direction opposite to the initial. Following the direction and number ol turns noted in the sketch. Wrap the tuner cord around the tuner CQntrol shaft the direction and number of turns noted (above). Knot one end 01 the tuner cord 10 the capacitor spring (above).. ( \ I Puli the tuner cord across the back of the front panel.c. start by assuming once around each pulley in the same direction as the initial loop around the capacitor drum . If the new tuner cord ends up about the same length as the old tuner cord. same direction as the initial loop around the capacitor drum. cut off any excess and apply a small dab 01 nail poush (aboYfi). feeding il under the . reset the pointer (page 20). Still following' the direction and number of turns noted in the sketch. Rotate the tuner control to ensure that the capacitor blades can open and close fully and that the pointer can travel the full length of the tuner dial. 4 Tying off cord 21 . at least two or three turns are required in the. if you are proceeding without a sketch. Purchase the required length of tuner cord at an electronics parts supplier. If the new tuner cord ends up much shorter or longer than the old tuner cord. noting the sequence and the direction . Pull the luner cord to the pointer and thread it through the notches or dips on the pointer plate (above).losestto the luner Gontrof shaft and pull the cord back to the capacitor drum. 3 Threading cord through the tuner pointer. turn it fully in the direction of the loop. wrapping it around any other pulleys indicated in the sketch.aroune the capacitor drum. In most instances. wrap the tuner cord tautly around the tuner pulleys on the route to the tuner control shaft.

2 Replacin . back panel and push the antenna onto the grommet. they lend to le. Solder the wires to the circuit board (page 131). however.l the top panel (page ~O) and locate the antenna Wire. If the circuit board is not COde. Order an exact replacem€nt antenna {rom the receiver manutectorer.ircuit bQard. gromrnetand thread the wires through the opening in the back panel. or dust.teenthe blades (inset). antenna wire Colors. repair thewlreconnecton (page 132).RECEIVERS SERVICING THE VARIABLE CAPACITOR Cleaning a variable capacitor. open it and slip out the wires (inset). Pry the grommefoff'the back· panel. Reinstall the top panel (page 20).bely. To qislodge pariicles that are difficult to reach. If the multitester shows that the antenna is OK. To clean the blades. Slide the open grommet onto the wires. or apply a. spray thElmqarelully with short bursts at compressed air (left). wires from the circuit board (pagfl 130) and pull Iheantenna off the grommet (above). note \tie wire contact points . Repeal this stspto test each terminal against each other terminal.dto the g 22 . Touch one probe to one antenna wire terminal on the circuit bQard and touch the other probe in tum to each of the other antenna wire terminals (above). try using a vacuurndeaner. If necessary. Remove the top panel (page 20). the antenna.li a wire IS loose or broken. Fit the grommet into the. termin~ls on tbe c. reinstall the toP panel (page2Q). SERVICING THE AM ANTENNA I Removf. srnatamount of tuner cleaner or electronic contact cleaner. Use tuner cleaner and electronic contact cleaner sparingly. Close the. Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). If the multitestercbes not register the correct rasults. and inspect the variable capacitor blades for dirt. Rolalelhe tuner control as shown. The multitester should register continuity at least once. pressing it against the lnsulatedsleeve.ave a slight sticky residue that traps dirt and dust. Dasolder the . . Reinstall the top panel "(page 20)... 1 Testing the antenna. replace the antenna (step 2).gently use a toothpick or a folded sheet of paper to dislodge particles from .

If the fuse is located inside the receiver. purchase an. Spray ashor! burst of deaner into the switch and rotate ihe selector control fully dockwise and counterdockwise a number of times to work in the cleaner (left). To test either fuse. I 23 . Turn off the receiver and unplug it from the wall outlet. If the fuse blows repeatedly. insert it into the casing. plug in the receiver and turn it on. If the mullitester registers continuity. service the power -supply (page 26). If the fuse Is located insicte the receiver. gently push It into the retaining clips and reinstall the top panel (page 20). remove the top panel (page 20). turn the fuse cap counterclockwise and pull the fuse out of its casing. Touch one probe to the cap at one end of the fuse and touch the other probe to the cap at the other end (inset). Using electronic contact cleaner. If the problem persists. If the multitester does not register continuity. suspect a faulty selector switch or circuit boal'd and take the receiver for professional service. /~ SERVICING THE SELECTOR SWITCH Cleaning the switch.RECEIVERS REPLACING THE POWER FUSE Removing and testing the fuse. direct the nozzle through the opening in the switch casing. set a muttitester to test continuity (page 128). If the fuse is externally mounted in the back panel. screw the cap into the back panel. Remove the top panel (page 20) and locate the selector switch on the circuit board behind the selector comrol.exaet replacement fuse atan electronics paris supplier. Aeinstall the top panel (page 20). reinstall the fuse: If the fuse is mounted in the back panel. Grasp the fuse With a fuse puller and gently pry it out of its retaining dips (left).

tum over the circuit board and gently pry all the potentiometer. and touch the other probe to one of the outer pins in the row. il required. and set a multitesler to test resistance (page 129). Remove the top and bottom panels I Removing a potentiometer. 4 . 2 Testing a potentiometer. unscrew one end of the frame and pun it out slightly (inset). if necessary. Oesoider the pins of the faulty potentiometer (page 130). the.··. To take out the circuit board on which. Spray ele. If you do not get a variation in ohms each time. Rotate the control from left to right (above). reinstall the bottom and top panels (page 20).. Lift out the circuit board. remove the front panel (page 20) and unscrew the shaft locknut for each potentiometer on the circuit board (above). Reset the control to ils left and test the same way between the middle pin and the other outer pin in the row. tum over the circuit board and solder the pins in place (page 131)_Slide the potentiometer shafts through the openings in the frame and reposition the circuit board. Reinstall the top panel (page 20). 1 Cleaning a potentiometer. If the potentiometer is OK. if it tests OK. potentiometer is located. test each row the same way. suspect a taulty circuit board and take the receiver for service. If there is one row of pins. Reinstall the. replace it (step 4). Purchase an exact replacement potentiometer at an electronics parts slJpplier. test the potentiometer (step 2). then screw it back in place. replace the potentiometer. The multitaster should register a variation in ohms as the control is rotated. If the potentiometer tests faulty. Remove the lOP panel (page 20) (page 20). Again.··C~Il:!. Gently push the potentiometer pins into the circuit board openings. 3 24 Replacing a potentiometer. Test its resistance again to confirm the potentiometer is faulty (step 2).pulling the shafts through the openings in the frame. front and top panels (page 20).lfthere are two rows of pins. behind its control. hook one probe to the middle pin in the row. bottom. you should see a variation in ohms.11 the problem persists. Sc[ew on the shaft locknuts for each potentiometer.ctronic contact cleaner through the openingS in the potentiometer casing and rotate the control b~ andlorth to work in thecteaner (above).'·. _ RECEIVERS SERVICING POTENTIOMETERS and locate the potentiometer on the circuit board. Set the cootrot fully left. pull out one end of the frame.

sUp the switch shaft through the opening in the frame and screw the switch in place (above.32). If the switch tests OK.using a soldering stand . It a wire is loose or broken. if necessary to keep the switch stationary (above. Purchase an exact replacement on/off switch at. remove it (step 2). Oesolder the wires from the switCh terminals (page 130). Put ~ the on/off control and reinstall the front and top panels (page 20). AE!move the top panel Removing the switch. left). put bed< the on/off control and service the power supply (page 26). replace it (step 3). Solder Ihe wires to the switch terminals (page 131-). right). Remove the front panel (page 20) and pull the control off the Ol1l0ff switch shaft. 2 · I Replacing the switch. an electronics parts SUo pplier. Clip one probe to one switch tsrrninal and touch the other probe to the other switch terminal. Set the switch in the ON position and then in the OFF position (above). 1 Testing the switch. If the switch is faulty. Unscrew the on/off . rssolder the wires (page 131).Set a muffitester to test continuity (page 128). pull the shaft through the opening in the frame and lift the switch out of tt1e receiver (above).RECEWERS TESTING AND REPLACING THE ON/OFF SWITCH (page 20) and locate theon/off switch terminals. service the power supply (page 26). repair the wire connection (page 1. The switch should have continuity only in the ON position. reinstall the on/off switch on the frame. To confirm that the on/Off switch is faulty. switCh. II the switch still tests defective. If oil now tests OK. test for continuity again (step 1). Release the switch from the soldering stand. 3 25 .

If a wire is loose or broken. II the rnultitester does not register continuity. Set a mulntester to test continuity (page 128). Clip one probe to one contact point tora wire and touch the ather probe to the COntact point at the other end of the wire (abOve). The multitaster should re:gistet continuity. Remove the top (sf8P 2). If a wire· is loose or broken. test the wires between the power block and the fuse 1 Testing between the on/off switch and the power block. 26 . replace the wire (page 132). contact paintal the ~other end of the wire (Jeff). lf the mullitester registers.. If the multitester does not register continuity for a wire. suspect a faulty Circuit board and take the receiver for protesstonal service. If the multitester do\:Is not register continuity for a wire. Repeat this sfep for the other wire. The multitastsr should register continuity. Sel a multilester to test continuity (page 128). Locate the contact points for the two wires that connect the orv'offswitch. Repeat this step 19r the other wire. repair the wire conneclion (page 132). If the multitester re:gisters continuity for each wire. 2 Locate the contaCt points for the two wires connectIng the transformer 16 the fuse terminals. repair the wire connectiori(page 132}. Set a multltester to test continuity (page 12/3). 3 Testing between the transformer and the fuse.RECEIVERS SERVlel NG THE POWER SUPPLY panel (page 20) and identify the power supply corneonents (page 138). terminals to tbe powerblockterminals. If a wire is loose or broken. test the wires to the transformer (step 3). Locate the contact paints for the two wires connecting the fuse terminaislo the power blOck terininals .. Repeat this step for the other wire. Clip one probe to the fuse clip and touch the other probe to the transformer Wire terminal (abOve). test the transformer (step 4). If the multitester registers continuity for each wire. continuity. The mullitester should register continuity. repair the wire connection (page 132). Clip one probe to one contact point for a wire and touch the other probe to the. replace the wire (page 132). I Testing between the fuse and the power block.

suspect a faulty circuil board and take the receiver for prolessional service. or the power block. Purchase an exact replacement transformer from the rnanutacturer. Locate the transformer-wire contact points on the circuit board. 4 Testing Rep1acing the transformer. 2 Testing and replacing the capacitor.. Clip one probe to the odd-colored wire and hook the other probe to a matchingcolored wire (above). locate the capacitor contact pins on the circuit board. Set a multiteste'r to test resistance (page 129). dip the probes to a matching wire pair. Wait 30 minutes for the capacitor to discharge com- and touch the positive probe to each positive pin in turn (above). arid carefully note their posnions for reassembly. or buy a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. Reinstall the bottom and top panels (page 20).'.. and to the circuit board (above). multitester does not register voltage. two transformer wires connecting ·to fuse terminals. the mulliteste( should register low ohms and then a rise in ohms. Remove the top and bottom panels (page 20).. the multitesler should register voltage. For each pair. 11 the. purchase an exact replacement capacitor at an electronics parts. if there are negative·and-positive pin pairs. Set a rnultitester to test voltage (page 129). Tag and desolder (page 130) the . Desolder the pins (page 130) from the circuit board (above). Desolder the wires (page 130) and isolate them. Plug in the receiver and turn it on. '· . replace the transformer ($tep 5). test each pair. ". turn over the receiver and gently pull the capacitor of! the circuit board. on/off switch terminals or power block terminals (step 3). Clip the negative probe to the negative pin 27 .."-:"'~··i=8 .. 1 Removing the capacitor. Find the capacitor near the powersupply components. if there is no odd wire. Repeat this procedure with the odd wire and each other matching wire. If the capacitor is faulty. 5 SERVICING THE ELECTRO LYTIC FILTER POWER CAPACITOR pletsly any stored voltage. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the receiver for professional service.~ . RECEIVERS the transformer. Turn off the receiver and unplug it. If·the circuit board is not coded to. Then reinstall the top panel (page 20). or the onloff switch. Screw in the transformer and solder the wires (page 131) ·to their terminals at the fuse. note the wire positions. supplier and solder it to the circuit board (page 131). Unscrew the transformer and remove it from the receiver. the wire colors. or with each matching wire pair. If the capacitor tests OK. If the multitester registers voltage.

may have to be ordered from the manufacturer. speed and direction at the tape tl:!rough the tape travel path.oadlng door Holds the audiocassette in place in the taps. During the record mode. when the head will route it back through the receiver and the speakers. 28 . Power transformer Con~erts 120·volt altemallng current to the low voltage required by clrcult board components. Consult the Troubleshooting Guide in Entertainment Systems (page 14) as well as in this chapter (page 29). Disconnect the cables hooked up to it and set it on a clean work table. Record-level potentiometer .!ognetlc'pattems on the tape.AUDIOCASSETTE RECORDERS The audiocassette . in the reo cord mode. Play/record head In tha play mode. Store fasteners and other small parts in labeled containers and write down the sequence of disassembly steps. Perform a cold check for leaking voltage (page 14 J) after reassembling the audiocassette recorder but before you plug it back in. Tum off and unplug the audiocassette recorder before any repair.travel path. Cleaning supplies and tnost replacement components are available at an electronics parts supplier. and desoldering and soldering (pages 130-131). Refer to Tools & Techniques for the basic tool kit (page 126 J. as well as instructions for disassembly and reassembly (page 140). L. which pulls it from the reel. Mode-switch control assembly Controls that set the audio mode. A rectifier the ACto DC. Some audiocassette recorders nave seearate play and record heads.recorder routes sound in two directionsout of the unit in the play mode and into the unit in the record mode. Many recorder problems can be remedied by adjusting cable hookups or by cleaning and demagnetizing the tape 'travel 'components. stores electrical current as m. electrical current received from another audio unit is "written" by the head as magnetic tracks on the audiocassette tape for later play. Era_head Electronically removes magnetic tracks from the tape. EJKt mechanlsm. however. :Capatan motor Turns the capstan by driving a bell wrapped around capstan flywheel.contml Secures and releases l.Adjusts the sound leyel ofthe recording. interprets magnetic patterns on 'the tape as eleCtrical current. Pinch roller Hard rubber wheel presses the tape againsllhe rotating capstan.. testing continuity and voltage (pages 128-129). During the play mode. Tap8cOuntet' Indexes Ihstape position for locating and liming recordings. usually to the receiver and from there to the speakers. invisible magnetic tracks on the audiocassette tape are interpreted by the head as electrical current The current is sent out of therecorder through cables.h9 loading door. a specific motor.

AUDIOCASSETTE TROUBLESHOOTING SYMPTOM No display lights. scratchy.~ Test and replace capstan motor (p. have outle! serviced Test and replace power luse (p. no display lights Sound from only one channel Sound intermittent distorted or Service drive belts (p. 30) DOA Adjust play/record head (p. no sound Controls set incorrectly Audiocassette tape torn Receiver faulty Drive belt loose or broken PlaV/record head faulty Play/record switch dirty or faulty Capstan motor faulty Circuit board faulty Display lights faulty Controls set incorrectly Receiver or speaker faulty Play/record head faulty Record level potentiometer dirty or faulty Circuit board faulty Receiver or speaker faulty Audiocassette tape damaged Tape travel patti dirty Play/record head misaligned Drive belt dirty or loose Capstan molar runs too fast or too 510". 39) 1iiiI0 Take audiocassette recorder for professional service Clean play/record switch (p. 38) 00. no sound RECORDERS GUIDE possr9LE CAUSE PROCEDURE Plug in and turn on audiocassette recorder Reset breaker or replace fuse (p. 38) . test and replace (p. 39) PO. 30) DO. 38) . 36) 1iiiI0 Clean potentiometer (p. replace audiocassette Crean and demagnetize tape travel path (p. 32) 00 • Over 3 hours ASpecial tool required o 29 . or doesn't work Mode control can't be set or releases prematurely Noise In fast forward.S8) DO. 33) DO Adiust capstan motor speed (p. Record leval poterniornerer Circuit board fi3. 35) DO Service. 39) 1iiiI0 Take audiocassette recorder for profess.Q Test and replace capstan motor (po 41) 1iiiI0 Take audiocassette recorder for professional service Replace display lights (p. 134) DO Adjust audiocassette recorder controls Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. Take audiocassette recorder tor professional service Tape transport assembly dirty Record level potentiometer dirty or faulty Tape selector or noise reduction switch dirty or faulty Capstan molar faulty Circuit board faulty Record level control abrupt. 32) 00 system (p. 37) 00 Take audiocassette recorder for professional service . 14) 00 Splice audiocassette tape (p. 39) . 39) DO.1iiiI0 Take audiocassette recorder tor professional service Clean potentiometer (p. test and replace switch (p.ional service Troubleshoot entertainment system (p.' Service audiocassette safely tab {po 30) 00 Adjust play/record head (p. 39) 1iiiI0 Clean switch (p.ulty Play/record switch dirty or faulty Circuit board faulty Mute switch faulty Circuit board faulty Audiocassette safety tab removed Play/record head misaligned Erase head faulty Play/record switch dirty or faulty Loading door doesn't open Eject mechanism faulty Audiocassette tape lammed DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY: ESTIMATED TIME: DEasy IiiiI Moderate • Complex Less than 1 hour ~ 1 to 3 hours dirty or faulty I Audiocassette 'ape can't be erased or recorded over (p.35) 00 Olean potentiometer (p. 38) 00. test and replace (p. 40) 00 Service power supply (p. 14) 00 Test and replace play/record head (p. test and replace (p. 40). ServiCe mute switch (p. 1$7) DO Test and replace power cord (p. 34) DO Replace pinch roller (p. 41).tape transport assembly (p.0 Take audiocassehe recorder for professional service Adjust audiocassette recorder controls Audiocassette recorder unplugged or off No power to outlet Power fuse blown Power cord faulty On/off swi1ch faulty Power supply faulty Circuit board faulty or outlet faulty Display lights. 33) DO Sound. 33) DO Test and replace erase head (po 35) 00 Clean play/record switch replace switch (p. 35) DO Clean play/record switch (p. 14) 00 Service drive bells (p. 34) DO Test and replace play/record head (p."._. 137) 00 Test and replace on/off switch (p.. 33) DO Test and replace head (p. replace switch (p.'" Service eject mechanism {po 32) DO Remove jammed audiocassette (p. 38). :10) 00. Pinch roller faulty Play/record head faulty or jammed Splice tape (p. 39) 00. 39) DO. Troubleshootentertainment remove jammed tape (p. pause or stop mode rewind. 10) [JO. replace switch (p.

AUDI00\SSETIE

RECORDERS

SE RVIClhlG AU DIOCASSETTES

Splicing audiocassette tape.

Locate the audiocassette safety tabs on.the top edge of Ihe housing. usually indicated by arrows on the side edges. To prevent the audiocassette tape from being erased orrseordsd over, break off each safety tab using a small, flat screwdriver (above);. if the safety tab falls into the audiocassette, remove it using long-nose pliers. To erase or record over the auoiocassette tape, cover each safety tab opening with a.small piece of plastic tape.

Removing and restorii1g the recording .safety tabs.

Touching the undamaged audiocassette tape as little as possible, snip off a length of rumpled tape withscissors .. Slip the tape ends, shiny side up, into a splicing block,overiapping them slightly atthe cutting groove; Push down the levers, cutting through ~he tape ends with the splicing blade,and blow away the tape scraps. Use the blade to slice 011 1/2 inch of splicing tape, taking care 001 to touch the sticky side. Pick up the splicing lapewith Ihe blade and center it, $ticky side down,acro!?S the cut ends of the audiocassette tape (abovej; Run a foam swab over the splicing tape to press it firmly onto the audiocassette tape. Lift up the levers and remove the auclocassette tape from thesplidngblock Turn the:alidiocassettel<lkeup reel with a pencil to rewind the tape,

SERVICING

THE TAPE TRAVEL PATH
Cleaning and demagnetizing the tape travel path. Unloa:panyaudiocassette, turn

I

off the audlocassene recorder and ,unplug i.tfrom the outlet, Using a foam swab dipped in denatured alcohol, wipe the audio heads, the.capstan and the guides;, for easier access to the heads, press the play or pause control. U,se a foarnswab dipPed in rubber-cleaninq c'ornpound to wipe the pinch roller (Isft, top), turning it with a finger as you clean. Purchase a demaqnetizerat an electronics parts supplier. Plug the. demagnetizer into a wall outletand turn it on at least 2 feef away from the audiocasseite recorder, Slowly bring the demagnetizer within 1/2 inch of an audio head (left, bottom), draw it about 2 feet away and turn it all. Hepeatthls procedure for the other audio head as Well as for the capstan, the guides and any other metal component that contacts an -auotocassene. Plug in the audiocassette recorder.

30

AUDIOCASSETIE RECORDERS

ACCESS TO THE INTERNAL COMPONENTS

8ackpanet

Removing and reinstalling the top panel.
Unload any audiocassette, turn off lind unplug the a.udiocassette recorder, and disconnect the cables hooked up 10 it (page 12). Top panel screws may be located on the sides; back or bottom. Unscrew the top panel, slide it out from under any lip on the front panel and lilt it off the frame (above). To reinstall the top panel, slide it under the front panel lip and screw it to the 'frame. Cold check the audiocassette recorder for leakirig voltage (page 141). Reconnect the cables and plug in the audiocassette recorder.

Removing and reinstalling the front plate or panel. Remove the top panel (Iliff).
If there is a front plate, check for tabs and screws securing it to the. frame. Unscrew the front plate. press in the, tabs and pull off the front plate (above). If there is no front plate, unscrew the front panel. Pull off or unscrew any controls t09 large to fit through their openings, and pull the front panel off the frame. To reinstall the front plate, snap it onto the frame and put back any screws. To reinstall the front panel, screw it onto the frame and put back any controls removed. Reinstall the top panel (Jeff).

Removing and reinstalling the back panel, Remove the top panel (far left). Unscrew the back panel, carefully pull it out from the frame (above) and turn il face down, exposing any interior wire corinections, such as those leading to the power cord. To reinstall the back. panel. set it against the frame and put back the screws. Reinstall the top panel {far leN}.

ACCESS TO THE TAPE TRAVEL PATH COMPONENTS

Removing and reinstalling the loading door. Removing and reinstalling the mode-switch control assembly.
Remove the top panel and the front plate or panel (steps above). Press the tabs at each end of the mode-switch control assembly toward each other and pull the assembly off the. frame; for easier access, upend the audiocassette recorder (above). Tape the ends of the mode-swltch control assembly to prevent losing the washers and springs. Reverse the sequence to reinstall the mode-switch control assembly.

Push the eject mechanism control to open the loading door. Check for tabs securing a front plate on the loading door; press In the labs andslide off tbe front plate. If there is nQ front plate, remove the mode-switch .oontrol assembly (ieff). Press the tabs on each side of the loading door toward each other arid pull off the loading door (above). Reverse the sequence to relnstau the loading door.

31

AUDIO€ASSETIE RECORDERS

SERVICING THE EJECT MECHANISM

Checking the mechanism. Remove the top panel (page 31) arid locate the. eject mechanism components, If the lever is bro. ken, replaceit (step 2). If the lever slides poqrly, use a foam swab to apply a little white grease to it, if the lever has worked loose, tighten its mounting screw. Reconnect an unhooked spring using longnose pliers (aqavetor tweezers; if a spring is damaged, replace it (page 135J Reinstall the top panel (p?ge 31).

· 1

'2' . Replacing

the mechanism. Unhook any springs connected to the lever4sing long-no$e pliers or twee~ers. Remove the lever . mounting screw (abeve) and pull the lever free. of any retaining clips. Order an exact replacement eject mechanism lever from the man.ufactureror purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. Press the lever into the retainihg clips, put back the mounting $Crew ;md rehooK the springs. R.einSlali the top panel (page 31).

REMOVING

A JAMMED

AUDIOCASSETTE

Releasing the audiocassette. Tum off and unplug the audiocassette i'ecord~r. Press the eject control to. open the loading door. If the loading door opens and the audiocassette can be Iiftedout easily, retrieve the jammed tape (st~p 2); If the loading door does-not open enough to reach the auclocassette, or if the audio' cassette cannot be removed easily, take oHlhe: top panel (page 31) and the capstan plate (page 36). Pull out the capstan flywheel to release the audiocassette from the capstan, then press the eject control (~bove). Carefully lift out theaudlocassette. push in the capstan fly" Wheel and reinstall the capstan. plate, reversing the sequence used to remove it (page 36).

1

Retrieving jammed tape. Reslingthe audiocassette on lop of the aUdi.o. cassette recotde.r,ge.ntIY eidr~ct the. tape from. theta. pe . travel path components (above);,avolp touching undamaged sec' lions of tape with your lingers. If the tape is difficult to retrieve, CUI it with' scissors, making sure not to leave behind any stray pieces. Relnstall the top panel (page 31) if you. rernovadlt. Jf the tape. has been cut or badly damaged, splice it (page 30), II the tape is OK, turn the audiocassette take!1P reel with a pencil to rE;!wind metape. being careful not to twist it.

2

32

AUDIOCASSETIE RECORDERS

ADJUSTING THE PLAY/RECORD HEAD
Resetting the azimuth adjustment Screw.
Without disconnecting the cables hooked up 10 the audiocassette recorder, unplug it and re· move the mode-switch control assembly (page 31). locate the green or red azimuth adjustment screw an the play/recard head and twist it slightiy with a screwdriver to break any bond. Plug in and turn on the audiocassette recorder. Load a prerecorded audiocassette, preferably ane with considerable high frequency or treble sound. fasVfarward or rewind the audiocassette tape to midpositian. Turn downlhe bass cantrol, turn up the treble conirol and play the tape. While listening closely, slawly turn the azimuth adjustment screw clackwise and counterClock· wise until the saund quality is optimum (left). Lack the screw in position by applying a small dab af nail polish. Remove the audiocasset1e and turn off and unplug the audiacassette recorder. Reinstall the mods-switch control assembly (page 31).

SERVICING THE DRIVE BELTS

I

Cleaning a belt, Remave the top panei (page 31) and locate the drive belts On the tape transport assembly. If a belt is worn or broken, replace it (step 2). If a beit is sticky or aily, clean it moroughly on both sides using a foam swab dipped in rubber·cleaning compound (above); never apply anything oily and avaid touching the belt with your fingers. Turn the belt pulleys or the capstan flywheel with a clean foam swab to reach the entire length of the belt. Reinstall the tap panel (page 31).

1

Replacing a belt. Use lonq-nosa pliers or tweezers to slip off the belt and any other belt in its way (above). Note the belt positions on the pulleys or the capstan flywheel; be careful not to pinch a belt, To. reach the capstan drive belt, remove the capstan plate (page 36). Purchase an exact replacement belt at an electronics parts supplier. Ho.lding the belt loosely, wrap it around its pulleys or the capstan flywheel. ReinstaJiany other belts you removed. Put back the capstan plate by reversing the sequence used to remave it (page 36) . .Reinstall the top panel (page 31).

2

33

~ssemblysp~in~ is damaged.. thetaps. Remove the mode" switch control assembly and the loading door (page 31) . Play the audlocassette.-----. noting its position. preferaIJly one with conSiderable mid-range frequency or VOice passages. 1 Installing a new pinch roller assembly. . AUDIOCASSETTE RECORDERS ADJUSTING THE CAPSTAN MOTOR SPEED Resetting the motor speed. then fast/forward or rewind it to midpositicin.professional service.-. Slide the pinch roller assembly off its shaft.fum it on and load a praraeordedaudtccassatts. replace it (page 135). tape for about fiVe minutes to warm up the motor. 2 34 . Fil the tip of a small screwdriver under the locking washer and gently pry lt. reinstall the top panel (page 31). If there is no motor-speed adjustment screw.~.•. Pressing the pinch roller assembly against the spring. turn ciff the audiocassette recorder. 'If there is a motor-speed adjustment screw. push the locking washer onto the shall. IS OK. unplug i.. take the audio" cassette recorder for . use one hand to hold the pinch roller assembly stationary. If the pinch roller . Reinstall the loading door and the mode-switch Control assembly (page 31). slowly turn thE! motor-speed adjustment screw clockwise and counterclockwise . REPLACING THE PINCH ROLLER I Removing the pinch roller assembly. While listening clOSely to..-- _ . Locate the pinch roller assembly and note the pinch-roller spring POsition. plug in the audiocassette recorder. Purchase an exact replacement pinch roller I."e the motor speed adjusted.ott (above). if required. leave I! In place..•. Without disconnecting the cables hooked up to the audiocassette recorder. if the ~pring .until the sound quality lsoptlmum (/e't).. Locate the motor-speed adiustmen! screw in the opening on the back of the motor.lssemely at an electrqnics pails supplier arid slip it onto thE! shaft (above). to ha. " .' and reinstall the top panel :(page 31). Remove· the audiocassette... unplug it and remove the top panel (page 31).

3 35 . If a wire connection is loose or broken. right). forthe play/record head. Securelhe head in the soldering stand.AUDIOCASSEITE RECORDERS TESTING AND REPLACING AN AUDIO HEAD Soldering stand the mode-switch control assembly and the loading door and erase heads. 2 Testing Replacing the head. solder (page 131) the wires 10 the head terminals (above) and screw in the head. If the head has three wires. tesetthe azimuth adjustmant screw (page 33). If the head tests OK. noting their terminal positions. note the position of the green or red azimuth adjustment screw on the play/record head. Remove (page 31) and locate the play/record I the head. test the head (step 2). touch the probes to eachground/non-ground pair of terminals. left) and gently lift it out of the audiocassette recorder. If the problem persists.to th~ ground terminal and the second probe to each other termmal. Reinstall the loading door and the mode-switch control assembly (page 31 ). If the head tests faulty. In turn. Put back the head. solder (page 131) the wires tothe terminals and reinstall the head (step 3). repair it (page 132). Access the head as above. reset the azimuth adjustment screW (page 33).substituta at an electronics parts supplier. tnere are two ground wires. Themultitestershould register continuity for each pair. unscrew the head being serviced (above. Reinstall the loading door and the rnoda-switch-corurol assembly (page 31). Set a multitesterto test continuity (page 128). If the head has four wires. If you serviced the play/record head. Demagnetize a small screwdriver (page 140). replace It (step 3). The multitester should register continuity. Secure the head in a soldering stand and desolder (page 130) the wires (above. touch one probe . Order an exact replacement head from the manufacturer or purchase a. 1 Removing a head.

capstan with a foam swab dipped in t.toolhpickto dislodge dirt from the capstan gear teeth. usea clean foam swab to wipe off excess lubricant.Unclip the tape transport assembly from tabs securing itto the front panel (inset) and carefully lilt it out of the audiocassette recorder (above).ga foamsw~b dipped in denatur. for reassembly . Avoid touching or pinching any undamaged belt.)RDERS SERVICING THE TAPE TRANSPORT ASSEMBLY and unscrew the capstan plate (abqve). capstan flyWheel using long-nose pliers or tweezerS. replace it (page 135). transport assembly. Use a toothpick to dislOdge any dirt from the gear teeth. t. Remove the top panel (Mge 31) Cleaning and lubriCating the capstan. then reinstall the .step 1. S ."""f'II. reversing the sequence in.oil. To reinstaltthe .. which touches the audiocassette tape. taking care not to oamage the motor wires. .lEin'!tuted alcohol (inset). Lubricate the gear teeth by applying a tittle while gri.tase with a cleanstick (above). Use a toothpick to apply a little whlle grease to the capstanqear leeth.m flywheel. Clean the capstan flyWheel and the. Slip the drivj. noting their positions.tape transport assembly. Using long-nose pliers or tweezers. Clip it under the tabs on the front pansl. exposing the capstan. Pull the capstan fly. Unscrew the tape transport aSsembly from the frame. remove from it the play/record switch lever.ltS off the motor· pulley and the.· 3 Cleaning and lubricating the gears.wheel out of the tape transport assembly (above). 2 ' I Removing the tape. Use a.ed alco~ot. 1 Removing the capstan plate.lIIIIII_. . screw it totha frame. 4 36 . Wipe off excess lubricant with a clean loam swab. avoiding contact with the tip. Clean the tape transport assembly ge~rs u. AUmOCASSETTE REO.l be. . any eject mechanism springs and the tape-counter drive belt.and insert the capst. in. Lift out the capstan plate and the motor along with the capstan drive belt. any eject mechanism springs and the tape-counter drive belt Reinstall the capstan plate. Put back the play/record switch lever.uorlcatethe capstan base using a foam swab moistened with light machine .Iop panel (page 31).. If a gear is darnaqed.

Avoid applying lubricant to the control contact points. replace theswilch (step 2). to reach the pause/stop mute sWitch. Reinstall the loading door and the modesWitch control assembly (page 31). Tag the switch wires. Put back the tape transport assembly. Wipe off excess lubricant with a clean foam swab. If a wire tests faulty. use a toothpick to apply a little white grease iNhere the switch lever enters the switch. Put back the tape transport assembly. Set the switch in a soldering stand and solder (page 131) the wires to the switch terminals (above). 37 . Clip or screw the switch to the tape transport assembly. To lubricate the sWitch. Reinstall the top panel (page 31). Repeat this procedure for each switch wire. SERVICING THE MUTE SWITCHES f 1 Cleaning and testing the switch. noting their terminals. Order an exact replacement switch from the manufacturer or purchase a SUbstitute at an electronics parts supplier.reversing the sequence used (page 36). If the problem persists. and desolder them from the switch (page 130). Sat a multitester to test continuity (page 128). if you removed it. Touch one probe to a wire terminal on the switch and touch the other probe in turn to each wire terminal on the circuit board. the capstan flywheel and the tape transport assembly (page 36). repair il (page 132). If a switch leaf is damaged. also remove the capstan plate. If the probtern persists. Remove the mode-switch control assembly and the loading door (page 31). press in and release the lever a number of times to work in the lubricant. gently run an emery board over each leaf (above). suspect a faulty circuit board and take the audiocassette recorder for professional service. Fast forward/rewind mute switch I Remove the top panel (page 31). replace it (page 132)c If each wire tests OK. suspect a faulty circuit board and take tM audiocassette recorder for protesslonal service. The rnulntsster should register continuity once-and only once. tf a switch wire is loose or broken. Undip or unscrew the switch from the tape transport assembly.AUDIOCASSETTE RECORDERS SERVICING THE MODE SWITCHES Cleaning and lubricating the switches. reversing th'e sequence used (page 36). Use a foam swab dipped in denatured alcohol to clean the entire surtacs of each switch (left). jf you removed 11. prass in and release the switch lever so that it protrudes as far as possible. <2 Removing and replacingtbe switch. for easier access. Reinstall the top panel (page 31).

2 Turning over the switch.engage the play/ record switch lever connected to the tape transport assembly from the play/record switch. unscrew the circuit board. spray short bursts of electronic contact cleaner through the opening in the switch casing.turn over the circuit board (step2) to reach the play/record switch pins. Put back the circuit board. wiggle it to help release the pins. Turn over the circuit board and pull off Ih!. remove any components in the way and turn over the circuit board. Press in and release the switch several times to work in the cleaner (left). remove the top and back panels (page 31) and . Remove the top panel (page 31). Desolder the switch pins (page 130). Reinstall the lop panel (page 31). Locate the playJrecord switch on the circuit board.! switch. Reinstall the back andtoppanels (page 31). If the problem persists. Carefully dis. turn over the circuit board and solder (page 131) the pins (above). avoidinq damage to any wire connections.e circuit board. 1 th. 3 Removing and replacing 38 .AUDIOCASSETIE RECORDERS SERVICING THE PLAY/RECORD SWITCH Cleaning the switch. Rt the switch pins into the circuit board. reversing the sequence used to remove it (step 2). Carefully reconnect the switch lever to the play/record switch (inset). To clean the switch. Push th~ control levers off the tape selector and noise reduction switches (above). To reach the switch pins. if required. taking care not to damagetha hook-like switch lever connected to the tape transport assembly. Order an exact replacement play/record switch from the manufacturer or purchase a. substitute at an electronics parts supplier. use long-hose pliers or tweezers.

Put back the circuit board. audiocassette recorder for professional service. and pull 011the potentiometer. Test the other row of pins the same way. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the. If the problem persists. Spray short bursts of electronic contact cleaner through the opening In the switch casing (above). turn it over and solder (page 131) the pins (above). Removing and replacing the potentiometer. If the potentiometer tests OK. press in and release the control several times to work in the cleaner. Clip one probe to the center pin in one row on the circuit board and touch the other probe in turn to the other pins in the row (above). Reinstall the top panel (page 31). 2 Testing and replacing the switch. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the audiocassette recorder for professional service. lIthe switch tests faulty. For each switch setting. If the problem persists. pulling the shaft through the opening in the front panel. Solder (page 131) the pins into the circuit board (above. bottom).remove it (page 38).behind its control. 2 SERVICING THE FEATURE SWITCHES I Cleaning the switch. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the audiocassette recorder for professional service. If the potentiometer tests faulty. test' the potenliomeier. Desolder the potentiometer pins (page 130). Purchase an exact replacement switch at an electronics parts supplier. and reinstall the paneis (page. 1 Cleaning and testing the potentiometer. Test resistance again to confirm the potentiometer is faulty (step f). turning the control back and forth. but the problem persists. reversing the sequence used to. Fit the potentiometer pins into the circuit board. If the potentiometer now tests OK. Pull the control off the potentiometer and unscrew the sha'ft locknut.31J. Test as tora multi-pole switch (page 138): Touch one probe to the center pin in one roW and touch the other probe in turn to the other pins in the row (above. If the switch tests OK . remove it (step 2). screw on the shaft locknut and put back the control. Spray electronic contact cleaner into the potentiometer casing (inset) and rotate the control back and forth to work it in. Set a multitester to test resistance (page 129). 39 . wiggle it to help release the pins. Test the other row of pins.AUDIOO\SSETIE RECORDERS SERVICING THE RECORD LEVEL POTENTIOMETER Remove the top panel (page 31) and locate the potentiometer on the circuit board . remove Ihe top panel (page 31) and turn over the circuit board (page 38) to reach the switch pins. lift out the poteriiiometer and circuit board. Slide the shaft through the opening in the front panel. desolder the pins (page 130} and pull off the switch. Purchase an exact replacement potentiometer at an electronics parts supplier. Remove the top panel (page 31) and locate the switch on the circuit board behind the control. 1 Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). Reinstall the top panel (page 31). The multltester should register an ohms variation 'for each pin. top). the rnumtester should register continuity with only one pair of pins.

~ircuit board IS not coded With the wire colors. Touch one probe to the terminal for cnetranstorrnerwlra and touchfhe other probe to sach power blockterminal. Turn off the audioqassette recorder and unplug it. replace it (step ?J. II the multitsster does not register voltage. 2 Testing 40 .multltesterto testvoJfage (page 129). Desolder the pins (page 130). screw in tM circuit board and the switch. right). 1 Testing between . transfo.other probe to. put back the control lever. and turn over the . Set a multitl. If not. Plug in the . then to the OFF position.rnatchtnqpalr (above). reconnecttha control lever. If a wire connection is loose or broken.clip. TE'STING AND REPLACING THE ON/OFF SWITCH 'Remove the top panel (pay? 31). and reinstall the top panel (page.posjnons anddesolder them (page 130). in turn (abQve). suspect a. circuit board. test the' transformer (step 2). 2 Replacing the switch.lster to test continuity (P<lge 128). Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). the contact points for the. turnover the circuit board and pull oft the switch.one of the rnatchinq wires. If the switch tests OK. If the multitester registers continuity for each test.ester should register continuity once-e-andonly once.one probe to it and clip the. andidehUfy the power ~upply components (page 13B). SERVICING THE POWER SUPPLY the contact points ior the two transformer wires connecting to power block. faulty circuit board and take the' recorder lor protesslonal service . Locate. If there are only matching-colored wire pairs.switch or fuse terminals.rmer wires oth~r than t~ose tested in step 1: If the . Fit the pins into..audiocassette recorder and turn it on. If the switch tests faulty. The multitester should register continuity only in the ON position. nota the wirs. Set a. Screw in the circuit board and the swiich. Test the other transformer wire. The multitester should register voltage. clip the probes to one. Repeat this procedure with each matching wire pair or with the odd wire and each matching wire. left). unscrew tMe switcb and the clrcultboard. Purchase an exact replacement switch at an elsctronics parts supplier. on/off . Remove the top panel (page 31). suspect a faulty circuit board and taKe the audiocassette recorder for professional service. . Disengage the control leyer from the onloff switch (abOve.. Locate. The multii. and service the power &upply lbelowr 1 Testing the switch. If the multitester registers voltage. Set the switch to the ON position. 31). il there is one odd-colored wire. replace the transformer (step 3). Hook one probe to one switch pili and touch the other probe to the other switch pin (above.the transformer and the power block or the on/otT switch or the fuse. thecirtuit board and solder (page 131) the pins (above). · the transformer.AUDIQCASSEITE RECORPBRS. repair it (page 132).

Screw the motor onto the capstan plate and put back the capstan plate. Unscrew the transformer (far left) and remove it from the audiocassette recorder.e. The mulutester should register voltage. If a wire is loose or broken. and desolder the wires (page 130) from the motor. onloff switch or fuse terminals. repair it (page 132). Order an exact replacement transformer from the manufacturer or purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. reinstall the top panel (page 31) and take the audiocassette recorder for professional service. Install the transformer and solder (page 131) aU the wires in their proper positions (near left). II the problem psrsists. noting their positions. Set a multitester to test voltage (page 129). If the problem persists. Release the play/mode control.Order an exact replacement motor trom the rnanutacturer or purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. avoiding any contact with other components. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the audiocassette recorder for professional service. and turn off and unplug t_he audiocassette recorder. Remove the capstan and unscrew the molar from it (jnset). suspect a faulty circuit board and take the audiocassette recorder lor professional service. If the multitesterdoes not re-gistsr voltag. noting the wire positions. Tag the 41 . Reinstall the top panel (page 31). replace the motor (step 2). Touch a probe to each wire contact point on the motor (above). 3 Removing and replacing the transformer. If the multitester registers VOltage. Remove the top panel (page 31) and locate the two wires CCinnecthig the motor to the circuit board. Reinstall the top panel (page 31). 1 plate (page 36) motor wires. Press the play/mode control. Desolder (page 130) ths two SERVICING THE CAPSTAN MOTOR I Testing the motor. suspect a faulty circuit board. Plug in and turn on the audiocassette recorder. reversing the sequence used to remove it (page 36). Solder the wires (page 131) to the motor (above). 2 Replacing the motor.AUDIOU\_SSETTE RECORDERS SERVICING THE POWER SUPPLY (continued) transformer wires connected to power block.

Motor Turns the platter. Riiises'lhe cartridge Translates the interaction 01 the stylus and the record groll'(es into electrical signal. either w~h a be~ or directly.nl4lrwelght Adjusts the vertical trackihg f()rce. Tum off and unplug the turntable before attempting anyrepair.it· requires fraquen! replacement. Most problems can be remedied by securing cable hookups. audio system.of'. the signalis amplified and sent through cables to the speakers. whether belt drive or direct drive.a record turning on the platter. sending itthrough wires in the. I Cou. however. Replacement components are usually available at an electronics parts suppliensome. consult the Troubleshooting Guide in Entertainment Systems (page U) and in this chapter (right). ReCord mat Pads the record and keepsil from slipping. testing continuity-and voltage (pages 128-129). Disconnect' its cables and set it on a clean work table. fumed directly by the motor or by a belt from tile motor. mechanical unit of the. realigning the cartridge or servicing the power supply. usually a flne diainond. may operate on djrect current (DC) orilltemating current (AC). rebalancing the tone arm. may have to be ordered from the turntable manufacturer. IS the most.electroriic cornoonents.p. Speed selector control ·Sets the planer soeed usualty by controllim the flow of current 10 the motor. or WEli9ht. Dflve bell D~lien py motor to tum the plattEil'. To diagnose the turntable as the source of audio problems. Refer to Tools & Techniques for tips on disassembly and reassembly (page 140).TURNTABLES The turntable (he/ow). reCord grooves. tone arm to cables leading to the receiver. Shut-off mecllanlsm tOr\e arm and stops the platter when the SlYlu$ reaches the end of the recoro.ording to the tone-arm position.and desoldering and soldering (pages 130-13/). Ptatter Roond plate orr which the record SitS. POWer· cord ProVides 120·voltalternating . . automatic or manual. Houses the cartridge and stylus. On/off 42 . There. (AC] through the receiYjOtr or from a woilloutlel. of ths stylus. A set-of small screwdrivers.. The stylus tracks in the grooves. a multitester and a soldering iron make up the basic tool kitfortumtablerepairs (page 126).~O·volt attemating current (ACjte low voltage required by . Cold check for leaking voltage (page 141) after reassembling the turntable but before plugging it in. The cartridge transforms this motion into an electrical signal. May be an acluatorswitch ihai closes and opens . PoWer transformer Converts t. Stylus Tracks in .

Speclal tool required o Easy o Less ~ Moderate . turning or stops before end 01 record No. 10) DO.48) DO Take tumtable for professional Troubleshoot entertainment service Clean record and styl!Js (p. power supply (p. Tone arm unbalanced Cartridge misaligned Stylus worn or broken Cartridge faulty Tone arm wire loose or broken Circuit board faulty do Test and replace cartridge (p. 49)DO Platter does not stop. 49) DO system (p. 51)~O Take turntable tor professional • Over 3 hours service . 46) DO service (p. sound Cleanand lubricate shut-off mechanism Take turntable for professional Troubleshoot entertainment service (p. have outlet serviced Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. Replace stylus assembly (p. 46) DO Clean and lubricate shut-off mechanism Service power supply (p. 44) 00 system (p.14) DO Test and replace cartridge (p. 137) Service drive belt tp. 45) DO Db (p. 44) 00 Adjust cartridge (po 45) DO. 47) DO Service tone arm (p.Complex than 1 hour 1Oil1 3 hours to 43 . 47) DO Take turntable lor professional Check ground wire connection Troubleshoot entertainment • Humming. Replace stylus assembly SouM distorted. 14)DO Test and replace power cord (p. 50) ~O Test and replace motor (p. 14) DO Balance tone arm (p. 51) ~O Take turntable for professional service service 49) DO Test and replace on/off switch (p.48) DO Take turntable for proiessionalservice Clean record and stylus (po 44)00 Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 51)~O Take turntable for professional Service drive belt (p. 50} ~O 00 service Power supply faulty Motor faulty Circuit board faulty Test and replace motor (p. or hissing noise scratching Hecordors!ylus dusty Receiver or speaker faulty Tone arm unbalanced Cartridge misaligned Stylus worn or broken Cartridge faulty Circuit board faulty (p. 46) Sound from only one channel or intermittent sound Record or stylus dusty Receiver or speaker faulty . buzzing rumbling noise or Grouhd Wire loose Receiver or speaker faulty Cartridge faulty Circuit board faulty I Burning odor DEGREE OF DIFACULTY: ESTIMATED TIME: system (p. 50) ~O Test and replace motor (p. (p. 47) Take turntable for professional Service power supply (p.TURNTABLES TROUBLESHOOTI NG GUIDE SYMPTOM Platter does not turn POSSIBLE CAUSE Turntable unplugged Or turned off No power to outlet. 50) DO speed Drive belt dirty orloose Motor running too fast or too slow Shut-oft mechanism dirty Speed selector switch faulty Power supply faulty Motor faulty Circuit board faulty Shut-off mechanism dirty or jammed Shut·off mechanism faulty Receiver faulty Cartridge faulty Tone arm wires loose or broken Circuit board faulty. 17) DO Test and replace cartridge (p. Clean and lubricate shut-off mechanism Service. 14) DO Test and replace cartridge Ip. 14) DO Balance tone arm (p. 45) DO. 49) DO Test and replace speed selector switch (p. or outlet faulty Receiver faulty Power cord faulty Drive belt loose or broken Shut-off mechanism jammed On/off switch faulty Power supply faulty Motor faulty Circuit board faulty Platter turns at wrong or at only one speed PROCEDURE Plug in and tum on turntable Reset breaker or replace fuse (p. 45) DO Adjust motor speed (p. 44) 00 Adjtist cartridge (p. 47) DO Service tone arm (p.

With the tone arm at rest on its stand. 1 Dusting records. To prevent record damage. Jeff). Supporting the tone arm with one hand. Wipe off the brush on a clean. clean the stylus (step 2). lint-free cloth. With the tone at rest on its stand.TURNTABLES CLEANING RECORDS AND THE STYLUS Headshell Turn off the turntable. Applying steady. position a nylon StyIU. adjust the anti-skating control to the identical setting (above. Turn on the turntable. avoid any side-la-side or front-to-back motion. if any. Set the counterweight and calibrated scale to the midpoint the range specified by the cartridge manufacturer (abovB. Position a nylon record brush across the record and lightly touch the bristles to the grooves. perform this procedure before each record-playing session. s just below the headshelL Pull the brush slowly forward from under the headshell. BALANCI NG THE TONE ARM I Adjusting the counterweight and the anti-skating control. Turn off the turntable. Turn on the turntable. lightly touching the bristles to the stylus (above). right). rotate the counterweight with the other hand until the tone arm floats perpendicular above the plalter. then turn the caltbrated scale control until the 0 on the scale IS aligned with the mark on the tone arm (above. To prevent damage to the stylus or records. Flip up the stylus guard. if any. Wip~ off the brush on a clean. center). 2 Brushing the stylus. lint-free cloth. arm 0' 44 . perform this procedure before each play. liflthelone arm and position it over the platter. Place the tone arm back on its stand. Turn over the record and repeat this step. leaving the record in place on the spindle. flip :down the stylus guard. and set the anti-skating control to O. If the record sound quality is still poor. With the cueing lever loWered.. slowly rotate the platter wilhlhe other hand (above). gentle pressure on the brush with one hand. Tum off the turntable and remove any record from the platter. brush behind the stylus.

If the. If the cartridge is not exactly parallel to the grid lines. unplug the turntable from the receiver (page 12) or wail outlet. Adjust the motor speed (page 46) if necessary. use a J. loosen the cartridge screws (above). Turn off the turntable. Reinstall the heads hell (page 47).TURNTABLES ADJUSTING THE CARTRIDGE Realigning a straight tone-arm cartridge. tum the platter face down and wrap the belt around the tracking rim (inset). Lift off !he record mat and locate the drive belt through the opening in the planer. Lift the tone arm and tighten the headsheU screws. I 45 . Use a straight toile-ann alignment protractor supplied by the turntable man!Jfacturer or purchased at an electronics parts supplier. lift off the platter and remove the bell. Still holding the belt. remove any record from the platter and lock the tone arm. Ii. Turn off the SERVICING THE DRIVE BELT Cleaning and replacing the drive belt.ft the tone arm and loosen the cartridge screws (above). Pull the belt away from the puKey (left). order an exact replacement belt from the turntable manufacturer or purchase a substitute belt at an electronics parts supplier. Place the tone arm back on its stand and remove the protractor. wipe if thoroughly using a dean. belt is sticky or greasy. If the belt is worn or broken. Lift the platter enough to reach the bali through the opening from the other sldeand turn the platter upright without twisting the belt. Put back the record mat and unlock tM tone arm. never apply anything oily. reseal the planer and puB the belt around the pulley. pulling it to the opening in the platter. If the stylus is not exactly centered over the stylus mark ontha protractor. Turn off the turntable and remove any record from the platter. Lower the tone arm to reseat the stylus and adjust the cartridge so it is exactly parallel to the grid lines.or S-shaped tone-arm cartridge. lint-free doth sprinkled with a little rubber cleaning compound. Position the headshell in !he protractor and checkthe cartriQge alignment by looking straight down at the cartridge from the front of the haadshall. Depending on the shape of the lone arm.or S-shaped tone-arm alignment protractor supplied by the turntable manufacturer or purchased at an electronics parts supplier. Realigning a J. To replace the belt. turntable and remove the headshell (page 47). Check the cartridge alignment by looking straight down from above the tone arm. Adjust the cartridge 50 the stylus is exactly centered over the stylus mark and tighten the headshell SCf8WS. If the tone ann starts and stops the platter. Position the protractor on the spindle and gently lower the tone arm to seat the stylus in the stylus opening on the protractor.

if required. if any. /eft). if you cannot determine how to lake out the stylus assembly. as shown. Grip the headshell in one hand and gently pull the stylus assembly straight out from under the cartridge using a thumb and forefinger (above.TURNTABLES ADJUSTI NG THE MOTOR SPEED Fine-tuning the 'speed using a strobe disc. Repeat this procedure. Lift up the tonearm to check how the stylus assembly' fits into the cartridge.Hie strobe disc markings. the stylus assembly is pulled straight off the cartridge. if required. the stylus assembly slides out from tracks under the cartridge. motionless band. Position the strobe disc an the spindle and turn on the turntable. for each speed selector switch setting. ' I Installing a new stylus assembly. Grip the headshen in one hand and pun straight up on the stylus assembly with the other (above. remove the headshell (page 47) and turn it over. Repeat this procedure. or press the stylus assembly into the cartridge and reinstall the headshell (page 47). for each speed-selector switch setting. In other cases. Turn on the turntable and observe the stroboscope markings on the outer edge of the platter that correspond to the speed-selector switch setting. In many cases. then. you must turnoff the turntable. For better access to this type. remove the headshell (page 47) and take it to an el99lronics parts supplier. 46 . If the turntable is not equipped with a built-in stroboscope. if any. turn on the turntable and again observe . REPLACI NG THE STYLUS ASSEMBLY Fine-tuning the speed using a built-in stroboscope. Tum off the tuITltable and remove any record from the platter. top or side of the turntable to the exact point at which the markings appear as a solid. Adjust the pitch adjustment control dial on the front. lift up the record mat and adjust the screw (above). Turn off the turntable and flip down Ihe stylus guard. motionless band (above). put back the record mat. Purchase an identical replacement stylus assembly from an electronics parts supplier. Slide the stylus assembly along the tracks of the cartridge until it' fits snugly. Adjust the screw corresponding to the switch setting to the exact point at which Ihe: markings appear asa solid. adjust the cartridge (page 45) and balance the tone arm (page 44). use a strobe disc supplied by the turntable manufacturer or purchased at an electronics parts supplier. Locate the pitch adjustment screws. either on the top panel or reached through apenings in the platter beneath the record mat. If necessary. right). Shine a fluorescent light on the turntable and observe the strobe disc markings that correspond to the speed-selector switch setting. Flip up the stylus guard. If the screw is under the platter.

Reinstall the stylus assembly. connect the wires ifl the identical sequence as at the headshell ter· minals. Reinstall the headshell (step 1). Set a mullitester to test continuity Installing a new cartridge.>helland check the cartridge wire connections . Flip down the stylus guard. test the cartridge Wires (step 3). note the terminal positions for the wires or remove and replace the wires one at a time. REPLACING THE CARTRIDGE tone arm. install a new cartridge (step 4). (page 128). 4 47 . turn on.TURNTABLES TESTING AND. set the receiver selector control to PHONO and adjUst the receiver volume control to slightly above its lowest setting. or remove the stylus assembly if it slides out easily from under the cartridge (page 46). the turntabl~ and receiver. If the wire connections are secure. If a wire is loose. check for signal through the tone arm (step 2). If there is an audible hum from the speakers at only two tone-arm terminals. 11the headsheU cannot be detached. adjust the cartridge (page 45) and balance the tone arm (page 44). To check the I3 Testing the cartridge. Unlod< the tone arm. If required. Tum off the turntable and lock the wire. If each wire does not register continuity. Purchase a replacement cartridge at an electronics parts supplier.. To remove the cartridge. for easier access. lightly touch the screwdriver tip to each terminal. remove the stylus as· sembly (page 46). disconnect the cartridge wires from the cartridge terminals and unscrew the cartridge from the headshell. Turn over the head!. turn off the turntable and test the cartridge wires (step 3). Reinstall the headshell and. wew the cartridge to the headshell (above) and connect the cartridge wires to 'the terminals using tweezers. Hook one probe to the crimp connector at the end of one wire and touch the other probe to the crimp connector at the other end of the wire. (f there is an audible hum from the speakers at more or less than two tons-arm terminals. at the end of the tone arm (above). 2 Checking for signal through the tone arm. 1 Removing the headshelJ. Supporting the headshell with one hand. put back the stylus assembly or flip up the stylus guard. Using a small metal screwdriver or holding a larger screwdriver by its blade. carefuliy reconnect it to its terrhinal using tweezers. wires. II the cartridge wire terminals are not coded to the cartridge wire colors. test the tone arm wires (page 48). If the cartridge terminals are not coded to the wire colors. pull the wire off its terminal (above). If necessary. if any. Test each wire. connections bey?nd the neadsnell. loosen the screw (above) or the collar (inset) securing it to the tone arm and gently slide it off. Reinstall the headshell (step 1). purchase an identical replacement set of cartridge wires from an electronics parts soppilar. If each wire registers eontinuity. if required.

TURNTABLES ACCESS TO THE INTERNAL COMPONENTS Unscrewing the bottom panel. Remove any record from the platter and lock the tone arm. The multitester should register continuity once--and only once. il one is faulty. Secure any transit screws. Order an exact replacement from the manufacturer or purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. epair it (page 13. - 1 Testing the tone ann wires. Touch one probe to a r wire terminal on the tone armand touch the other probe in tum to each Wire contact point on the circuit board (above). unlock the tone arm and unscrew it from the tone arm assembly. Thread the tonearm wires thr. turning over the turntable. Tum off the turntable and unplug it from the receiver or wall outlet. S. to reach the tone-arm wire contact points on the cfrcuit board. and reconnect the cables (page 16) and ground wire (page 17). 2 48 . unscrew it and carefylly turn it over. first remove the drive belt (page 46). Remove the headshell (page 47). replace thEi tone rum (step 2). Carefully turn the lurntable upright. Set a multltester to test continuity (page 128). If the problem persists. suspect a faulty circuli board and take the turntable for professional service. lift up the top panel.i! required.ough the opening in the tone arm assembly. 1 pull off the dust C?ver. If a wire is loose or i>r9k1. checking for hidden screws in the turntable feet (above). and reinstall the top or bottom panel (step above). and remove the headshell (page 47). if required. screw the tone arm assembly in place. Screw off the counterweight. Test each wire. Disconnect the turntable cables and ground wire hooked up to the receiver (page 12). Tum over the turntable and unscrew Ihe bottom panel. reverse this step and step 1 (left). Reinstall the top or bottom panel (step above) and the headshell (page 47).older the wires to the circuit board (page 131). lift off the bottom panel if the tone armassernolv is mounted on the top panel. slide the tone arm through the opening for the tone arm assembly (a/)ove) and relock the tone arm. If !he tone Replacing the tone arm. To reinstall the lap panel. NQte thE) wire positions and desclder the wires (page 130). if required. If the tone arm assembly is mounted through aoopening in the lop panel. 2 Lifting off the top panel. screw in the tone arm and lock it. remove the record mat and lift off the platter. Gently tum the top panel face down beside the bottom panel. Rebalance the tone arm (page 44). Remove the top or bottom panel (step above). remove the counterweight shaft and unlock the tone arm.!n.). If each wire tests OK. SERVICING THE TONE ARM I arm assembly is mounted on the-bottom panel. remove the top panel (step 2). as shown.

II required. Remove the top or bottom panel (page 48) and check the shut-off mechanism components. Lubricate the levers and any other mechanical metal parts using a little light machine. oil.circuit board. To dislodge stubborn particles. Ifa wire does not have continuity. 1 Testing the switch. If the switch tests OK. to each 01 the other twa terminals. replace it (page 135). · 2 Replacing 49 . SERVICING THE SPEED SELECTOR SWITCH I the switch.JQ t. locate the contact points for the switch wires on the. Tag each SWitCh.. ire. If the switch has three wires. test the motor (page 51). If the SWitch has two Wires. If the problem persists. replace it (page 132). use a toothpick to remove particles from between the gear teeth. test the motor (page 51). speedselectorswitchterminals. clean dirt or dust Irom the gears ahd levers (Jeft). If the switch tests faulty. the center terminal and touch the other probe.. The multifester should register continuity in only one position. ~et the switch to one position. . spray short bursts of compressed air. Repeat this test for the o. Buy an exact replacement switch at an electronics parts supplier. Set a mu!titesl~r 10 test continuity (page 128). between only one pair of wires. then the other. the multitester should register continuity. Reinstall the top or bottom panel. If each wire has continuity. Remove t~ top or bottom panel (page 48) and locate the. the other switch w~re terminal (above).H a wire is I?ose or broken. In each switch position. II Ihe problem persists. replace it (step 2). Rein" stall the lop or bottom panel (page 48). take the turntable lor professional service. z TURNTABLES SERVICING THE SHUT~OFF MECHANISM Cleaning and lubricating the gears and levers.ther switch wire . in turn. Screw in the switch and solder (page 131) the wires to the terminals (abQve). hook one probe 10 one SWitch wire terminaland touch the other probe to. Unscrew the switch from its mounting. II a spring or gear is damaged. Using a foam swab dipped in denatured alcohol. and w desolder the wires (page 130). Hook one probe to a wire terminal at the switch and touch the other probe to the wire's contact point on the circuit board (inset). hook one probe to. repair it (page 132). noting its terminal.JQUMJi&€.

2 " Testing SERVICI NG THE POWER SUPPLY I and the power block. Touch one probe to a wire terminal on the. test the switch wires (step 2). Repeat this' pmcedure for the other. 1 the wires. Set the switch to the ON position and then to the OFF position: for . replace it (page 132).1i8rvice the power supply (below). use a small stick to press in and release the side button (above). Unscrew the. If the switch tests OK. Touch one probe to a transformer contact point in one path and touch the other probe to the power brock contact point in the. lithe switch tests faultY. ON position. Reinstall the top or bottom panel (page 48).path. The path. Remove . Install the switch and Solder the wires' (page 131). Locate the contact points on the clrcuit board tor the wires conneC!ed. Remove the top or bottom panel (ppge and identify the power supply components (page 138).tothe switch terminals. Remove the top or bottom panel (page 48) and locate the on/off Switch terminals.e other switch wire.test continuity (page . Se~ a rnultitester to test continuitY (page 128). II each wire ha$continuitY.drcuit board (inser) and turn over the Circuit board to reach the twO' paths connecting transformer contact points. repair it (page 132).OOes not have continuitY. . switCh and touch the other probe to the. remove jhe plug from the drcuit board (inset).128). 11each path rf3gisters contihuitY. . path (left). Ita wire is loose or broken. suspect a faulty circuit board and take' the turntable for professional service. 1 Testing between the transformer 48) 50 .TURNTABLES SERVICING THE ON/OFF SWITCH Testingtheswitch.the switch and purchase an exact replacement at anetectronicS parts supplier. Set a rnultitester to. if the wires are connected to cornactpms In a plug. Repeat this procedure for th. test the transformer (step 2).anaetuator switch. to power-block contact points. Hook one probe toone liwitch terminal and touch lhe other probe to the other switch terminal. If a path does not have continuity. desolder ihe wires (page 130j from the switch terminals. wire's contact polnr in the plug (above) or onme circuit board. The switch shOuklhave continLiitYonly in the. rf a wire. slJould have conlinl!ity.

Plug the turntable into a wall outlet and turn it on. Carefully turn over the circuit board and puU off the transformer. 3). If the problem persists. Record the multitester result. If the. wiggling the pins if required. 2 Testing the transformer. The multitesler should register voltage. Carefully hook the probes to the transformer contact points. 1 Testing Replacing the motor. multitester registers voltage" replace the motor (step 2). noUng their . lor an actuator on/off switCh. use a small stick. turn over the circuit board and solder (page 131) the pins in place (above). turn off the mrntahle and unplug it. Unplug the speed-selector switch wires and unscrewlhe motor. If the transformer tests OK. Ii the transformer tests faulty. the transformer. test tlle motor (below). Ae" install the top or bottom panel (page 48). plug in the speedselector switch wires and solder the power supply wires (page 13t). Order an exact replacement motor and circuit board from the turntable manufacturer or purchase a substitute motor and circuit board at an electronics parts supplier. to press in and hoid the side button (page 50). Set a multitester to test voltage (page 129). lithe multitester does not register voltage. replace the transformer (step. Plug the turntable into a wall outlet and.TURNTABLES SERVICING THE POWER SUPPLY (continued) Locate the two iransfOl'msr contact points in paths other than to the power block. Desolder the transformer contact points (page 130). avoiding any contact with other components (above). Dasoldar the wires (page 130) from the motor's circuit board that oonnect to the power supply. Turn off the turntable and unplug it. Remove the top or bottom panel (page 48). Screw in the motor. 3 Replacing TESTING AND REPlACI NG THE MOTOR I the motor. for an actuator on/off switch. use a small stick to press in and hold the side button (page SO). positions. noting the transformer pin positions and checking for any orientation pins not in a circuit board path. repair it (page 132). Fit the Iransformerinto the circuit board. Carefully touch a probe to each motor contact point. 2 51 . suspect a faulty circuit board and take the turntable for professional service. Screw in the circuit board. Set a multitester to lest voltage (page 129). Order an exact replacement transformer from the turntable manufacturer or purchase a subStitute transformer at an electronics parts supplier. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the turntable for professional service. Reinstall the top or bottom panel (page 48). If a wire connecting the motor circuit board to the power supply is loose 0' broken. avoiding any contact with other components {above}. turn on the turntable.

or servicing a drive belt or a wire. performing complex optical functions. The objective lens focuses the laser onto digitally-encoded tracks stamped in the rotating compact disc. cleaning the compact disc or the objective lens. Cleaning supplies and replacement components are available at an electronics parts supplier. positions Ihe disc in the loading assembly. a Loading drawer guard Restricts movement of the loading drawer. A set of small screwdrivers. soldered 10 a circuit board. specific parts may have to be ordered from the manufacturer. Many problems can be remedied by adjusting cable hookups. and desoldering and soldering (pages 130-131). The optical pickup assembly transforms the patterns of reflected light into electrical signal. PQwer translon'rMIr Convel1s 120·volt '8Itemat· ing current (AG) to the low vol1age required by circuit board components. Usually mtcroprocessor type. this signal is sent out by cables to the receiver. Objective lens Focuses the' laser Spindle Centers and rotates the disc on the ple"er. 52 . on some models. store fasteners and other small parts in labeled containers and write down the sequence of disassembly steps.COMPACT DISC PLAYERS The compact disc player is the most intricate unit ofthe audio system. Loading drawer or tray S~des in and out along rails. Cold check for leaking voltage (page 14/) after reassembling the compact disc player.emitting diode (LEO)-the objective lens. testing continuity and voltage (pages 128-129). After further electronic modification. and transformed into electrical current Platter Round plata on whlclr. I OptlCl!I piCkUp assembly HQuses the laser-a special type of ligh(. ~Ircull board Routes low-vohage signal 10 electrical componenls. A rectifier changeslhe AC to OC. While working. l.oadlng mOior Orivss the loadingassembly components. Refer to Tools & Techniques for instructions on disassembly and reassembly (page 140). Driven by spindte motor that is activated by a switcl1. Activated by a switch. Flapper Holds the disc against the platter. Never look directly at the laser with the power on. To diagnose problems. the motor operates a swing·arm plckup assembly similar to a turntable tone arm. activated by a switch.lli disc sits. which amplifies it. The laser beam is tocused on the compact disc by the Objective lens. a multitester and a soldering iron compose the basic tool kit for compact-disc player repairs (page 126).dingplalform Houses the loading assembly components. Optical pickup motor Slides the optical picllup assembly along rails. consult the Troubleshooting Guide in Entertainment Systems (page 14) and in this chapter (page 53). also called the clamp or clampar. Lo. aneotner opti· cal parts. reflected back through tha lens.

test and replace motor switch (p. 14) DO Clean compact disc (p. no sound GUIDE POSSIBLE CAUSE Compact disc player unpluggeclor Remote control faulty NO power to outlet or outlet faulty Power cord faulty Power fuse faulty On/off switch faulty Power supply faulty Laser or circuit board faulty oft PROCEDURE Plug in and turn on compact. Loosen transit screws Clean compact disc (p. test and replace switch (p. 57) !IilO . 56) DO Test and replace optical pickup motor (pc 59) . 57) . 57) 1iiiI0 Test and replace optical pickup motor (p. 58) .~ Take compact disc player for professional service Replace display lights (p.~ Test and replace spindle motor (p. 137) DO Test and replace on/off switch (p. plays. 56) 00 Clean.~ Test and replace spindle motor (p.COMPACT DISC PLAYERS TROUBLESHOOTING SYMPTOM No dlspllilY lights. 59) . ~------~----~----------------------------~--~~~---------------Compact disc dirty or faulty Objective lens dirty Drive belt dirty or loose Optical pickup/spindle motor switch faulty Mode or feature switch dirty or faulty Optical pickup motor faulty Spindle motor faulty Circuit board faulty replace compact disc Sn DC). test and replace motor switch (p.Spindle motor faulty I Laser or circuit board laulty Loading drawer doesn't open or doesn't close Drive belt loose or broken Loading motor switch faulty On/oil switch faulty Loading motor faulty D. 14) DO Clean objective lens (p. ESTIMATED TIME.~ Take compact disc player for professional service Service drive belts (p. 56) DO Clean. 55) 00 Service drive belts (p. 56) DO Clean. 55) DO Service drive. 59) . 56) 00 Clean. belts (p.59) .Q Test and replace spindle motor (p. 136) 00 Reset breaker or replace fuse (p. o Easy o ~ Moderate • Complex Less than 1 hour ~ 1 to 3 hours 53 . 59) .~ • Over 3 hours Mode or feature control doesn't work Compacl disc loads.~ Service power supply (p. replace compact disc Clean objective lens (p. 57) DO. 57) . Clean switch (p. no display lights Sound from only one channel ~--------~~----------~--~----~~--------~-----------Controls set incorrectly Adjust compact disc player controls Receiver or speaker faulty Troubleshoot entertainment system Display lights faulty (I'. 54) 00. test and replace loading motor switch (p. disc player Service remote control (p.54) DO.EGREE OF DIFFICULTY.~ Test and replace loading motor (p. 59) . Ciean objective lens (p. test and replace motor switch (p. 134)DO Sound. 10) DO. Test and replace optical pickup motor (p. 58) !IilO Take compact disc player for professional service Adjust compact disc player controls Loosen transit screws TroubJeshoot entertainment system (p.~ Take compact disc player for professional service Clean switch (po 57) DO. have' outlet serviced Test and replace power cord (p. 56) 00 Clean switch (p. 14) DO Circuit board faulty Sound Intermittent Dr distorted Receiver or speaker faulty Take compact disc player for professional service Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. test and replace switch (p. 57) ~O Take compact disc player for professional service. then stops prematurely Mode or feature switch dirty or faulty Laser or circuit board faulty Transi! screws secured Compact disc dirty or faulty Objective lens dirty Drive belt loose or broken OPtical pickup/spindle motor switch faulty Optical pickup motor faulty . test and replace switch (p. 54) Disphiy lights. no sound Controls set incQrrectly Transit screws secured Receiver faulty Objective lens dirty Drive belt loose or broken Optical pickup/spindle molar switch faulty Mode or feature switch dirty or faulty Optical pickup motor faufty Spindle motor faulty Laser or circuit board laul1y 00 56)00 Service drive belts (p. 56) DO Test and replace onloff switch (p. 137) DO Test and replace power fuse (p.

Unscrew the front panel or. the tcip. Cleaning a disc. To remove the bottom panel. available at an electronics parts supplier.sides and bottom for tabs and screws securinglhe front panel or plate tothe. press in the labs (above) and pull it off.ft). Reverse this sequence to reinStall the panels. Unscrew the lop. Removing and. Secure any transit screws. frame. panel (above. right).t. Unload any compact dlsc. Or. push it 'Onto the frame to. ACCESS TO THE INTERNAL COMPONENTS I To reach components beneath the loading assembly. Holding the disc by its outside edge. plate. Using a clean. Reconnect the cables (page 16) and plug in the compact dISC player.ed alcohol:' A disc may be washeq with a solution-of !]"Ii!d detergent and warm water.Jpto it (page 12). avoid any circular motion and never wipe around the disc circumference. Removin'g and reinstalling the top and bottom panels. To clean sticky lingerprintsor dirt trorntha disc. Reins. apply a commercial compact-dlsccreaner. check fot hidden screws in the feli'. lock the tabs and put back the screws. reinstalling the front panel or plate..lall the top panel (Ie. lint·lree cloth moistened with deflatur. wipe dust 9ft the disc. straight strokes (left). Cold ct'le<* the Compact disc play. center toward the edge in smooth. first.check tor screws on the top. gently wipe from the. use a clean.JSCS Unload the compact disc from the compact disc player. bottom. rinse well and dry with a lint-free cloth. slide lt out from under any lip on the front panel. 54 . To remove the top panel.COMPACT DISC PLAYERS SERVICING COMPACT D. torn off and unplugthe compact disc player. lint-free cloth. unscrew the panel and lift it off the frame (above. dry. Check. back or. open the loading door (page 55).er 'lor leilking voltage (page 141). left). sides. and lift it off the frame. To reinstall the front panel or plate. Remove the top panel (left). 'and disconnect the cables hooked i.

Removing the loading platform." COMPACf DISC PLAYERS ACCESS TO THE INTERNAL COMPONENTS (continued) Removlng the loading drawer. then remove the top panel (page 54). Lift out the loading platform. taking care not to. I 55 . Gently wipe the swab across the lens (IaN). damage wire connections. beneath the loading assembly. reinstall the loading drawer. remove the loading platform (right). To clean the lens. SERVICING THE OBJECTIVE LENS Cleaning the objective lens. Press the opent close control to open the loading drawer. use a fresh. dry swab to wipe oft excess cleaner. Reinstall the loading drawer (left) and the top panel (page 54). available at a photographic supplier. Carefully lift up the flapper and blow dust 011 the lens with short bursts of com pres sect' air. and then remove the top panel (page 54). Reposition the flapper over the lens and reinstall the top panel (page 54). To reach components . slide it in through the front panel and screw on the guard. Reinstall the top panel (page 54) and press the open/close control to close the loading drawer. To. sliding it toward the back panel (above). use a foam swab moistened with pnotographic lens cleaner. Remove the top panel (page 54) and the loading drawer (left). Press the opervclose contralto open the loading drawer. Unscrew the loading platform and disconnect any ground Wire connected tolt."". Reverse this sequence to reinstall the loading platform. Unscrew the loading drawer guard (inset) and set it aside. Press the open/close control fa open the loading drawer.---". Turn it face down inside the compact disc player. Gently slide out the loading drawer through the front panel (above).

is near .licky or greasy. ..IiPthe. Put back the loading platform. be careful not to pinch belt.! tests QK. noting their terminals. Purchase an exact replacement belt at an ele. Uncllp or unscrew the switch from the loading platform. Reinst(j.1Ithe loadingdrawer (page 55) and the top panel (page 54'). a belt. also remove the loading platform (page 55). never apply anything oily and avoid touching the belt with your fingers.S'et the switch in a Soldering stand and solder the wires (page 131)10.. If a belt is loose or broken. replace il (step 2).If a switch wire is loose or broken. to reach a belt on the bottom of the loading platform. Touch OAe probe 10 a wire terminal on the switch and touch the other probe in turn to aactr. the optical pickupl spindle motor switch is next to the optical pickup assembly rail. Tag the switch wires. Test each ~witch wire. Reinstall the loading platform (page 55) and the top panel (page 54). repair it (page 134). replace it (page 1'32). anddesolder (page 130) the wires from the swi. The niultitester should register COntinuity once . Set a rnulfitester to test continuity (page 128). if you removed it. the switch terrnlnals (abOve). Holding the belt loosely . Put back the loading platform (page 55) if you removed it. clean it using a foam swab dipped in rubbeH::leaning compound (abovf1). 2 56 . If a wire tests faulty. First use. Turn the belt pulleys to reach the entire length of the belt.COMPACT DISC PLAyERS SERVICING THE DRIVE BELTS Cleaning a belt.. long-nose 'pliers or tweezers to remove any oiher belt in the way..swltch-wira terminal on the circuit board. Remove the top panel (page ~4)alld then the loading drawer (page 55). Reihstall the top panel (page 54). 1 Cleaning and testing a switch. If each wirf. If a switch Illaf is damaqed. then reinstall any other belt removed. dam.. as shown. wrap it around the pulleys.the loading gears and lever. · 2 Replacing. Clip or screw the switch 10 the loading platform.ctroni~.tchterminals.If a belt is l.and only once. .with long-nose pliers pr tweezers. 1 noting its position. Reinstall the lo'ading 'platform (page 55) and the tap panel (page 54). . 54) and the loading platform (page Removing and replacing a switch. and the loading drawer (page 55). genily run an emery board oyer each l!lal 10 clean the contacts (above).. The loadillg motor switch . . replace the switch (slep 2). parts supplier. S a SERVICING THE MOTOR SWITCHES I Remove the top panel'(page 55). Order an exact replacement switch from the rnanutacturer or purchase one ai an electronics parts supplier.aged bslt off the pulleys (abOve).

Test each contact polntwlth. If the switch lests faulty. test the switch wires (slep2). checking tor acontlnulty pattern. behind its control. repeat this step with the switch sat in the other position. unclip the switch circuit board (inset) and lift HOUI: Unplug or desolder (page 130) the wires from the switch Circuit board.. Fit the switch pins onto the circuit board and solder (page 131) the pins (above). If there is a pattern. If a wire tests faulty. unscrew and . left). Clean the switch with electronic contact cleaner. desolder the swltcn pins (page t 30) and pull off the switch. Remove the top panel and the Iront panel or plate (page 54). Order an exact replacement switch from the manufacturer or purchase one at an electronics parts supplier. 1 Testing and replacing the ble with connectors at the ends.:. 1 Testing and replacing a switch. If each wire tests OK. Reinstall the loading platform (page 55) and the panels (page 54). Remove the top panel. Hook one probe to a switch contact point and touch the other probe in turn to the other switch contact points. and reinstall the loading platform (page 55) and the panels (page 54). 2 SERVICING THE ON/OFF SWITCH I switch. The multitester should register continuity once-and only once. Desolder the switch pins (page 130) and wiggle all the switch. the front panel or plate (page 54). If the switch tests OK. Put back the circuit board. remove the panels again to test the switch (step 2). Repeat the procedure at the pins on the other side of the switch. suspect a faulty circyit board and take the compact disc player for professlonal service. unplug it Set a muititaster to test continuity (page 128). directing a short burst into the switch opening (above). Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). Put back the clrculr board and reinstall the panels (page 54). If the wires are housed in a ca- 57 . Put back the switch circuit board. 2 Testing and replacing the switch wires.turn over the circuit board. Repeat the procedure for each wire. Set the switch to one position and touch a probe to each pin on one side of the switch . The switch should register continuity in only one position. COMPACT DISC PLAYERS SERVICING THE MODE AND FEATURE SWITCHES Cleaning a switch. prasslng in and releasing the switch for each test (ebove).each other contactpolnt..~ . :---- . (above.:: .and the loading platform (page 55). If n61. replace it (page 132). Reinstall the front panel or plate and the top panel (page 54). If the problem persists. Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128) and test as for a multi-pole switch (page 136). Test continuity again to confirm the switch is faulty. reversing the sequence used to remove it (slep 1). plug in the cable or solder the wires (page 131) to the switch circuit board. . Touch one needie to a COntact point at one end ota wire and touch the other needle to each contact point at the other end of the cable (abC)ve). Press the switch several times to work in the cleaner. Order an exact replacement switch from the manufacturer or purchase one at an electronics parts supplier. Solder the switch pins onto the circuit board (page 131). Push off the switch control lever. Clip a needle to each probe. Locate the switch on the circuit board.

Clip one probe to the odd-colored wire and clip the other. do not look at the laser. in turn. Turn off and unplug the compact disc player. Reinstall the loading platform (page 55) and the top panel (page 54). suspect a faulty circuit board and take the compact disc player for professional service. If not. Replacing the trariSfor. If not. clip the probes to each matching wire pair. If the multitester registers voltage. Order an exact replacement motor from Iha manufacturer. probe to each matching wire. The. avoiding any contact with olher components (above). Hook a probe 10 each motor wire. In turn (above). Reinstall the loading planorrn (page 55) and the lap panel (page 54). Unscrew and remove the transformer from the frame (above). replace the transformer (step 2). If Ihe problemperslsts.! compact disc player for professional service. 2 Replacing 58 .l1ler. Order an exact replacement transformer from the manufacturer or purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. Plug in and lurnon the compact disc player. if there IS no odd wire. Plug in or solder (page 131) the wires 10 the circuit board. Reinstall the top panel (page 54). replace the molar (step 2). 1 Testing the transformer. Solder (page 131) the wires to the meter terminals (above) and clip the motor into the housing. Locate the transformer wires connected to the circuit board and unplug ordesolder the wires (page 130). Sat a rnultltesterto test voltage (p~ge 129).COMPACf DISC PLAYERS SERVICING THE POWER SUPPLY TRANSFORMER R!. Set a rnultitester to test voltage (page 129). Reinslail the drive belt· using long-nose pliers or tweelers.lmove the top panel (page 54) and identify the power supply components (page 138). rnultitsster should register voltage for each test. Using long-nose pliers or tweezers. suspect a faulty circuit board and take 1hE. Reinstalilhe top panel (page 54). Unclip the motor and lift it from its housing. carefully slip the bell off the motor pulley. 2 TESTING AND REPLACING THE LOADING MOTOR I Remove the top panel (page 54) and the loading platform (page 55). Disconnect Ihe transformer wires connected to the power cord . the motor. do not look attha laser. Plug in and turn on the compact disc player. Install the Iransformer and reconnect the wires to the power cord.. 1 Testing the motor. Press the loading draweropen/close control and note the multitester reading. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the compact disc player for professional service. Desolder the wires from the motor terminals (page 130). If the transformer tests OK. .

Plug in and turn on the compact disc player. put back the loading platform (page 55) and reinstall the top panel (page 54). suspect a faulty circuit board and take the compact disc player for professional service. Order an exact replacement motor from the rnanutacturer. 1 Replacing the motor. and turn off and unplug the compact disc player. Unclip the flapper (above). do not look at the laser. If the mullitester registers voltage. Remove the loading drawer. Hook a probe to each optical· pickup motor wire (above). clip on the flapper and rehook the spring. Use long-nose pliers or tweezers to slip the bell off the motor pulley and remove the flapper spring. Remove the top panel (page 54) and the loading platform (page 55). do not look at the laser.off the ophcal-plckup motor pulley. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the compact disc player for professional service. 2 TESTING AND REPLACING THE SPINDLE DRIVE MOTOR Testing the motor. 1 Replacing the motor. Plug in and turn on the compact disc player. If the problem persists. Load a oornpact disc and press the play mode control. put back the loading platform (page 55) and reinstall the top panel (page 54). Hook a probe to each spindle motor wire (above). If not. Using long-nose pliers or tweezers. Unclip the motor and lift it from its housing. Slip the belt around the pulley. Reinstalilhe loading drawer in the platform (page 55). and turn off and unplug the compact disc player. put back the loading platform (page $$) and reinstall the top panel (page 54). Remove the loading drawer. replace the motor (step 2). Slip the drive belt around the motor pulley. If the multitaster registers voltage. Note the multitester reading. suspect a faulty circuit board and take the compact disc player for professional service. Desolder the wires (page 130) from the motor terminals. carefully slip the drive belt .ld the compact disc. Solder the 'wires (page 13 j) to the terminals (inset) and screw in the motor. Order an exact replacement motor irom the manufacturer. Remove the loading drawer. replace the motor (step 2). put backthe loading platform (page 55) and reinstall the top panel (page 54). Unload the compact disc. Note the multitester reading.COMPACf DISC PLAYERS TESTING AND REPLACING THE OPTICAL PICKUP MOTOR Testing the motor. Desolderthe wires (page 130) from the molor terminals. RemoVe the loading drawer. Remove tM'top panel (page 54) and the loading platform (page 55). suspect a faulty circuit board and take the compact di~player for professional service. Set a multitsster to test voltage (page 129). Unscrew the motor. Set a multitester to test voltage (page 129). 2 59 . If the problem persists. Reinstall the loading drawer in the platform (page 55). Load a compact disc and press the play mode control. Solder the wires (page 131) to the motor terminals (above) and Clip the motor into the housing. UnlO. II not. turn the opticalpickup motor pulleY'!9 move the laser assembly out 91 the way.

I Speaker enclosure Acoustic box of wood. Protective shell Houses driver and encases wire connecnons: may screw on or snap on. ODtional driver that reproduces mid-range frequencies.O"'~ SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES The final step in sound transmission by an audio system is performed by your speakers or headphones (he/ow). Mounting plate front of enclosure. 60 . often these units are not the cause. A special driver Of crossover network may have to be ordered from the manufacturer. where they are divided into frequency ranges and direeled to the drivers. Tweeter High·range driv9/' reproduces high frequencies as treble tones. srnallsstand lightest drivl!t': Driv. usually marked positive and negative.liberglass or other insulating material againSl mounting plate or side panels.ed posilive and negative. Two wires connect driver to crossover network: usually mati<. When disconnecting a speaker cable. MId-range driver Also called squawker. but can be a valuable tool in troubleshooting other units in the audio system. A set of small screwdrivers. tag the positive wire to maintain the polarity of the electrical connection. insulation Foam •. Often. Plug Rts into jack on receiver 0( auxUiary unit. divides signal into two channels aod grounds~ble. and may be protected by a ruse. Foam grilles may be glued in place. contans mounting holes for drivers. may contain any combination of capajitors. which reproduce the signals as various sound frequencies. In headphones.er wires CrosSOVItf network DivideS and direc)s soond frequencies to '1ha drivers. incoming signals are sent directly to the drivers. Pegs Support speaker grille. Woofer low-range driver reproduces low frequencies as bass tones: largest aoo heaviest driver. -. Inthe speaker. adhesive pads aso used. Consult the Troubleshooting Guide in Entertainment Systems (page 14) and in this chapter (page 61). Refer to Tools & Techniques for iristruclions on testing continuity and resistance (pages 128-129) and for directions on desoldering and soldering (pages 130-131). Replacement components are usually available froman electronics parts supplier. problems can be remedied by adjusting cable hookups. Crollsover networl! wlrell Connect crossover nelWof1<to speaker-cable terminal block. A wire may be loose or broken. plastic or metal. choke coils and resistors.on Provides comfort and blocks out external noise: may 'bEI foam or plastic. a multitester and a soldering iron complete the basic tool kit required for speaker and headphone repairs (page 126). Ear eushl. incoming electrical signals are routed to the crossover network. or a component may test faulty. Many audio problems are experienced through the speakers or headphones. Driver Provides left or right channel sound.

137) 00 Service. 14) DO Test and replace drivers (p. 63) 00 Intermittent sound from speaker Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Driver faulty Crossover network. 14) 00 Test and rBplace headphone drivers (p. (7) 00 Take . 67) DO Intermittent sound from headphones Receiver or auxiijary unil faulty Plug faulty Cable faulty Jack faulty Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 54) DO TroublashOolemtertainment system (p. 63) DO Servtee crossover network. 54) DO Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 54) DO No low·range (bass) sound from speaker Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Woofer faulty Crossover nEitwork faulty Troubleshoot entertainment system (p.unit . 66) DO Test and replace headphone plug (p. 14) DO Test and replace drivers (p. 14) 00 Test and replace headphone drivers (p. 63)00 Test and replace drivers (p. sound 'rom speakers Wear and tear Headphones unplugged Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Plugf'lulty Cable faulty Jack faulty Sound fr(lm only one headphone Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Driver faulty Plug faulty Cable faulty tp.. 62) DO Plug in headphones Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 64) 0.~ 1to 3 hours 61 . (po 54) 00 Troubleshoot entertainment system (po 14) DO Repair speaker cone (p. 63) DO Service crossover network (p. 14) 00 Test and replace drivers (p . 63) DO Service crossover ryetwork (p. 14)DO Reposition speakers Repair speaker cone (p. 67) DO Test and replace headphone cable No high-range (treble) sound from speaker Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Tweeter faulty Crqssover network faulty Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Mid-range driver faulty Crossover network faulty No mid-range (voice) sound from speaker Speaker grille damaged N9 sound from headphones. buzzing or rumbling noise from speaker Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Speaker vibrating or too close to turntable Cone loose or punctured Insulation loose Driver faulty Crossover network faulty· Apply rubber cement to comers of insulation Test and replace drivers (po 63) 00 Service crossover network (p. 54) 00 Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 14) 00 Test and replace headphone plug (p. 14) 00 Test and replace drivers (p.SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES TROUBLESHOOTING SYMPTOM Nos. 14) DO Test and replace fuses (p. 67) DO Test and replace headphone cable (p. crossover network (p. 14) DO Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 63) DO Service crossover network (p. 66) DO • Over 3 hours I Distorted sound from headphones DEGREE OF DIFFICUL TV: ESTIMATED T1ME: Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Driver faultY o DEasy Q Moderate • Complex Less than 1 hour . 63) 00 ~rvice crossover network (p.0 Replace speaker grille (p. (7) 00 Take unit for professional service Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. faulty Distorted sound from speaker Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Cone loose Driver faulty Crossover network faulty Or punctured Humming. sound from headphones Sound from only one speaker GUIDE POSSIBLE CAUSE Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Receiver or auxdiary unit faulty Speaker fuses blOwn Receiver or auxiliary unit faulty Speaker fuse blown Crossover network faulty PROCEDURE Troubleshoot entertainment system (p.for professional service Troubleshoot entertainment system (p. 54) 00 Troubleshoot entertainment system (p.ound No sound from speakers. (j7) 00 Test and replace headphone cable (p. 14) DO Test and replace headphone plug (p. 14)DO Test and replace fuses (po 137) DO Tfoubleshootenlertainment system (p.

the woofer. to break any. speaker grille is doth-covered. input unit and disconnect the cable from the speaker terminals . apply a small dab of cement to the Corners. · 2 REPLACI NG THE GRILLE Recovering the grille. Measure the old grille cloth and purchase replacement cloth at an electronics parts supplier. lithe replacement cloth is too large. If the cloth wrinkles'. any Screws Removing and reinstalling. repeat this procedure to remove the tweeter or the miMangedriver. Cut off any excess doth. Supporting the wooferon its rim or turning it face down . To reinstall the speaker grille. If the. Remove.tag the positive wire and disconnect or desolder (Page 130j the wires from the woofer terminals (above.(page 12). press it onto the pegs or adhesive tabs and put back any screws.does not CXJme"offeasily. especlaily at the corners. Hold the woofer securely by the rim and gently pUll iUree of themO\.inting plate. Carefully set the woofer aside. trim it almost to size using sdssors..SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES ACCESS TQ THE CQMPONENTS securing the front 'grille and gently pull . Turn off the receiver and any other. Remove Old glue from the frame with medium~grit sandpaper. right). If the grille is: foam. 1 Removing and reinstalling the speaker grille. Set the new cloth face down on a dean work table and lay the frame on it. if requirsd. Pull the doth snugly across the frame and staple it along the opposite frame edge (left). . tagging the positive terminal wire. left).Reconnect the cable to the speaker terminals (page 16). 10 avoid bulky pleats. Staple the doth smoothly along one side of the frame. I 62 . pry off any staples qr tacks fioldil]g the cloth to the frame using a' small . If required.glue bond. pull out the nearest staples.mling plate. If>the ·grille. UnScrew the woofer from the mounting plate (above. run a utility Knife around the edges.it oft the pegs or adhesive tabs (alxwe). screW the driver to the mol.' . if required. remove the wooter (step '2). stretch the cioth and restaple it. and put back the grille (step 1). runa small pUtty knife under each corner to break any glue bond. reconnect or sOlder (page 131) the wires to the drivertarminals. To reinstall a driver.screwdriver. Repeat this procedure on theotherlwa sides of the frame. Remove the grille (above). purchase an identical replacement grille. To reach internal components.

If a small section of the driver cone is separated from the rim. Allow the cement to dry. Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). . Remove the speaker grille (page 62). II there is a small hole in the driver cone. or frame. If mere is a small hole in the driver cone. remove the driver (page 62). cut a patch slightly larger than the puncture from paper about the same thickness as the cone. If the driver does not register what it 'should. replace the driver (page 64). resear the cone (left). Touch the positive probe to the positive driver terminal and touch the negative probe to Ihenegative driver terminal (above). saturate the patch with rubber cement and use a small brush to apply a light coat of rubber cement around the cone puncture (above). remove the driver (page 62). Repeat this step for the other wire. test the driver (step 2). remove the driver (page 62) but leave the wires connected to the terminals. 2 63.river. If each wire has continuity. the tweeter or the mid-range driver. If the woofer. tighten or replace it (page 132). If a small sectiori of the driver cone is separated from the rim. SERVICING THE DRIVERS o I Testing between the driver and the crossover network. P1ace the driver face down on a work table and set a multi tester to test resistance (page 129). replace the driver (page 64). gently· raise the cone away from the rim with a small pUtty knife and spread a small amount of rubber cement along the edges olthe cone and rim (above). then lightly press the cone against the rim until the rubber cement adheres. If the driver registers what it should. replace it (step 3). tweeter or mid-range driver cone is damaged.SPEAKERS AND HEAPPHONE$ REPAIRING DRIVER CONES Reseating a loose cone. If a wire connecting to the crossover network is loose or broken. Remove the speaker grille and the woofer (page 62). replace it (page 132). Hook one probe to a wire terminal on the crossover network and touch the other probe to that wire's terminal on the driver (above). Tag the positive terminal wire and disconnect or desolder (page 130) the wires from the driver ierminals. Totes! from the woofer. If the driver cone is badly tom or separated from the spider. Wearing a rubber glove. Sealing it punctured cone. service the crossover network (page 54). tweeter or mid-range driver cone is damaged. If the driver cone is badly torn or separated from the spider. seal the puncture (right). Reinstall the driver and the speaker grille (page 62). Remove the speaker grille (page 62). 1 Testing the d. Allow the cement to dry. The multitester should register close to the ohms rating indi· cated on the driver or specified by the speaker rnanutacfurer. II the woofer. lIa wire does not have continuity. then set the patch over the puncture and gently press it until the cement adheres. Reinstall the driver and the speaker grille (page 62). or frame.

3 Replacing the driver. Connect the end with the crimp connector to the terminal on the crossover network and solder (page 131) the other wire end to the terminal on the terminal block (above).required. and the speaker grille (page 62). Connect or solder (page 131) the tagged positive wire to the positive driver terminal (far left) and connect or solder the other wire to the negative driver terminal. Supporting the driver by its rim. Secure the terminal block in a soldering stand and desolder the wife. il required.SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES SERVICING THE DRIVERS (continued) Purchasean exact replacement driver at an electronics parts SUpPliers. Purchase a length 01 replacement wire the identical gauge al an electronics parts supplier. if . also purchase a set of crimp connectors. If each wire has continuity. if required. replace it (step 2). Locate the two wires connecting the crossover network to the terminal block. set it into the opening in the mounting plate (near left) and screw it securely in place. Screw in the terminal block and reinstall the woofer and the speaker grille (pa(Je 62). If a wire is loose or broken. Repeat this step for the other wire. Disconnect or desolder (page 130) the wire. from the crossover network terminal. tighten or replace it (page 132). SERVICING THE CROSSOVER NETWORK I Remove the speaker grille and the woofer (page 62). 1 Testing between the crossover and the terminal block. remove the exterior terminal block screws and pull the terminal block off the back panel. Reinstall the woofer. To gain 64 . remove the terminal block (step 2). test the crossover network (step 3). Clip one probe to a wire terminal on the crossover network and touch the other probe to that wire's terminal on the terminal block. access to the wire terminal on the terminal block. Cut the wire to length and crimp on a connector at one end (page 132). 2 Repairing the wire connections. Set a multitesler to test continuity (page 128). II a wire does not h<fJe continuity.

and . Purchase an exact replacement choke coil at an electronics parts supplier. Disconnect or desolder (page 130) the wires from the crossover network. 5 Position. Set "a multitester to test resistance (page 129). 65 . If the problem persists. desolder the other choke coil wires (page 130). 4 Testing and replacing the capacitors.e capacitor wires (page 131) and test the choke colis (step 5). Position the capaCitor on the circuit"board. noting their positions. Test the crossover network capacitors (step 4) and choke coils (step 5). also reconnect the wires for the woofer. other choke coil. desolder its other wire (page 130) and remove the capacitor~ Purchase an exact replacement capacitor at an electronics parts supplier. Reinstall ttJecrossover network (step 6). resoldar the choke coil wires (page 131) and reinstall the crossover network (step 6). The multilester should register a. any mid-range driver . Desolder one choke coil wire (page 130) and pull it off the circuit board with long-nose pliers. Repeat this test for the. Reconnect or solder (page 131) the wires for the terminal block (sbove). Repeat this procedure for each capacitor. Tag the wires connecting the crossover network to the tweeter. and remove the Choke coil. the terminal block. II each Choke coil registers what it should. Reinstall the woofer and the speaker grille (page 62). If each capacitor registers what it should. and install an exact replacement crossover network purchased at an electronics parts supplier (step B}. Reinstall the crossover network (step 6). thread the wires through the openings and solder them (page 131). or. Seta multitester to test resistance (page 129) and touch the positive probe to the positive wire and the negative probe to the negative wire (above). noting the terminal positions. take the speaker for professional service. II a capacitor does not register what it shauld. leaving the woofer wires connected. thread jhe wires through the openings and solder t/:lem (page (31). Position it on the circuit board. I Testing and replacing the choke coils.SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES SERVICI NG THE CROSSOVER NETWORK (continued) crossover network. any mid-range driver and the tweeter to Ihe crossover network terminals. if required. If a choke coll does not register what it should. The multitester should register low. sharp drop and then a risa In ohms. Touch one probe to the mk:ldle choke coil wire and touch the other probe in turn to each other choke.the crossover network against the back panel and screw il securely in place. coil wire (above). steady ohms for both tests. noting the terminal positions. resolder th. tag and disconnect ihe wires 10 the woofer. Unscrew the crossover network from the back panel (above) and lift itout. 3 Removing tbe Desolder one capacitor wire (page t 30) and pull it off the circuit board with long-nose pliers. 6 · Reinstalling the crossover network.

remove the outer foam capard carefully pry ouf the qriver using a small sct9VOidriver (inset) . U$& a small putty klille to pry them gently apart.. shell.pull the ear eoshlon Off the ShEiIland remove any screws from the shell casings (left). To reinstall the shell. Touch the positive probe to the p(lsitive driver terminal and touch the negative probe to Ihe negative driver terminal (eeove) . remove. Solder (page 131) Ihe i.sting the driver. Position. the procedurBabovB. 1 I T.SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES SERVICt NG THE HEADPHONE DRIVERS Removing the. orinfinileohms. · 2 Replacing the driver.!r to test resistance (page 129). To reach thedfiver wire terminals on large headphones.ut of the shell anddesolder th~ Wire (pafje 130) from th.. the. I( the wire coonecnons iOOkSOO.solder the uninsulated wire to .lf the problem persists. Order an exact replacement driver froni Ihe headphone manufactqrer or purchase a substitute driver at a(l electronics parts supplier. fit the driver intolhe shell. the shell again an(! . solder the wire to the posltivedriver terminal (page 131). replace: it (step J). reverse.e.e fXIsitige driver terminal..test the driver (stflp 2). Desolder (page 130) the other wire from the driver terminal (aoove).Ire. driver in the' shell and rei nslall the shell (step 1).test the driver (step 2). reinstall the shell (step 1) ahdservice the headphone plug (Page 67).the negative terminal. To reach the driver wire terminals 'on small headphones. Unplug the headphonesfrom Ihe receiver or-other auxiliary unit jOO<. The multitesler shoUld register dose to the ohms rating indicated on the driver or specified by the headphonemaruJfacturer. If the caslngs do not separate easily. Place the driver face down on a clean work table.:er registers 0. either repair the wire connectiOn (page (32) or replace theenlire cable (page 67).. Lift the dtivero. If the driver regis~ ters what it should. 3 ·· 66 .nsulat~ Wire to the positive driver terminal and . and set a mlHtitest!. If the dri-. If a wire is loose or broken.

Set a multitester to test continuity (page 1.nsulated wire to the terminal farthest from the plug tip and the insulated wires to the other plug terminals (above). Touch one probe to a driver wire terminal and touch the other probe in turn to each wire terminal on the plug (above). apply a little cement around the casing edges. Sel a multi" tester to test continuity . Purchase an exact replacement plug at an electroniCs parts supplier. The multitester should regislercontinuity onoo-a_rl(j only once. Remove the other headphone shell and desolder the wires (page 130) from the terminals ·of each driver (above).(page 128). The multi tester should register continuity once-and only once. Unscrew the shell and slide it and any insulating sleeve onto the cable. ff the plug tests faulty.?8). Connect one side of the cable 10 each driver. If a wire tests faulty. Squeeze the plug dips together with pliers to secure the cable. repair it (page 132) or replace the cable (below). Snip off the plug using wire cutters or a utility knife and remove the shell and insulating sleeve from the cable. Slide any insulating sleeve and the shell over the plug wire terminals and screw on the shell. There should be an audible click for each test. 1 Replacing the cable. Desolder the wire (page 130) from the positive driver tarrnlnal.serviced. replace it (step 2) or the cable (below). If the plug is molded to Ihe cable. Purchase a replacement headphone cable-and-plugset at an electronics parts supplier. have the receiver or auxiliary unit jack .!g. have the receiver or auxiliary unit jack serviced. If each wire tests OK.repair the wire connections (page 132). If the problem persists. 2 SERVICING THE HEADPHONE CABLE I Testing the wires. touch both probes to the two sections farthest from the tip. replace the cable. Repeat this procedure at each Wire terminal. then. Press in the ear cushiOns or reinstall the foam caps. Remove the shell (page 66) and liftou\ the driver. fit the driver into the shell and [einslall the shell (page 66). put on the headphon~ and sel a multitester to test resistance (page 129). Using a soldering stand to support the pl1. If a wire is loose or broken. Touch one probe to the plug tip and touch the other probe in turn to the other two plug sections. Solder (page 131) the uni. replace the cable (step 2). Repeat this step for the other driver terminal wire.SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES SERVICING THE HEADPHONE PLUG Testing the plug. if required. have the receiver or auxiliary unit jack serviced. soldering (page 131) the insulated wires to the positive driver terminals and the uninsulated wires to Ihe negative driver terminals (above). 2 67 . If the plug tests faulty. II the plug tests OK. Touch one probe to one wire terminal and touch the other probe In turn 10 each of the three plug secnons (above). 1 Replacing the plug. matching their positions in the old plug. solder the wire (page 131) 10 theposilive driver terminal. Unplug the headphone cable and unscrew the plug shell to expose the wire terrninals. Position the drivers in the shells and put back any screws in the casings.

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are included. Compress. numbered 0 to 4: sizes 1 and 2 fit rnostPbillips-baad screws. Cleaning tiquide Denatured alcohol cleans metal and ptastlc components. Multitesters can often be rented from the same electronics parts supplier from whom you purchase replacement components. diagonally·cut blades can servea lifetime· of wire and cable cutting. Information on reading circuit boards and schematic diagrams.ed air Aerosol carr of"air used to blow dust and dirt oN components. An extension nozzle localites the spray. MetriC screwdrivers are useful . One blade strips off only the outer insulation: the other blade strjps' oN both outer' and inner . For the best results.lIlnozzle into tight spaces. from testing continuity. a tluerocarbon solvent that may contain a lubricant. the road maps Dian electronic unit. A wire stripper also has a wire cutter and a hole in each jaw to bend wire endS. graduated notches fit standard wire sizes. ~======:::. is best resmcteo to tuners. 126 . (t i==S!!1~~~§::J[D=)::::=~" Phillips screwdrivers Available in five sizes. potentiometers and circuit boards. To remove rust from a tool. servicing gear assemblies and replacing display lights are typical repairs for units that. CoaxIal cable stripper Parallel blades strip exactly enough coaxial cable for a connector to be installed. 3/16. You can handle most home electronicsrepairs with the basic kit of tools and supplies shown below. may not be performing at their best. with a secure lock if stored around children. Cleaning aerosols Electronic contact cleaner that is antistatic and leaves no residue is recommended lor most electronic components such as switches. on purchasing replacement parts. rub it with fine steel wool. notches for different gauges of cable. Protect tools in a sturdy plastic or metal toolbox. graduated. Advice. A multitester (pages 128·129) is virtually a must for testing components inside an electronic unit. appears on page 141. Tuner cleaner. along with several standard configurations of power-supply components. Flat-lipped screwdrivEtrs Tip widths of 1/8. Take the time to care for and store your tools properly. Checking springs. and on how to deal with a professional when your own efforts fail.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES This section introduces basic tests and procedures that are common to almost all home electronics repairs.insulation. spray may be directed through an e~tensiC.114 and 5116 inch tit most standard screwnsads. always purchase the highest-quality tools you can afford and use the right tool for the job.):15. Principles of the power supply. may be straight or bent-nosed.using a cloth moistened with light machine oil. A set of metric screwdrivers is an asset for repairs to many imported electronic units. notch at tip crimps small connectors.:::=:==:=======:a?. ~-:J L]: ~ Wire euners Hardened steel. resistance and voltage to repairing loose or broken wire connections and replacing damaged connectors. although possibly still functioning. dlvert heat from sensitive components. A mu lti-purposa 1001has graduated crimping notches. are presented on pages 138-139. Clean metal tools .slrlpper or mUlti-purpose tool Removes insulation without d'amaging wires. although it is usually possible to substitute conventional screwdrivers. the power supply is a likely source of total unit failure. ruboer-cieaninq compound cleans rubber components such as drive belts. D long-nO$$ pliers Have a wile cutter at the base at the jaws. Wire . when soldering. Grip components in tight places or form wire to fit terminals.for some imported electronic units. The cuiling edges ot pliers cir rnultipurpesa tools are less reliable.but never their handles .) ~~======. Theelectrical heart of an electronic unit.~~-~ Coaxlal-cable crimping tool Crimps connectors onto coaxial cable.

. when testing the resistance of a potentiometer in circuit. in another situation. comes wrapped in a coil. Be aware that although you may be performing the same test using the same procedure. Check the ruse cap for luse specitications.. In one situation. a screw to its tip. of easy steps.. the purpose is to confirm that the potentiometer is the problem. the weighted base stores a moistenedspooge used to wipe the lip. Or. FUSE! rED I II . for example. often fitted with a relractable blade.eezers Wlr_solder Use number 22 gauge with a rosin core flux.ltizes lools. ·Demagnetizer 1.J) __'-'. 011 a . also known as a volt-ohmmeter. Likewise. A magrietized screwdriver holds.i:!!r Magnetizes.. Soldering stand Ball-jointed arms with clips hold wor!< steady. continuity may mean a component is OK. _. interference. Work patiently and methodically. never take short cuts. is called-for to test continuity. the purpose is to confirm that the potentiometer is not the problem. to ensure that no wires are crossed or disconnected. higherwattage irons are faster and hotter. I - UtHttyknife General-purpose cutting tool.:_~ ~'--. freeing one hand..spool or in flat~ ribbon-like lengths. resistance and voltage. The spling·loilded plunger is pushed down the tube released by pressing thatrigger. ------ ]2 II ~ Applicators Foam swabS are liilHree and recommended for cleaning. the use of a multitester. when testing voltage. the purpose of the test may vary from one instance to another. Pick out dusl or dirt using a toothpick. Set up for a job on a clean work surface·that is well lit and free of clutter.:W (~ puller and cartridge fuse A fuse· puller grips cartridge luses saJely. A fine. Perform a cold check for leaking voltage (page 141) before plugging a unit back in. Keep in mind that even seemingly complicated tasks are seldom more-than a sequence. pencil·tip size is beSt for.:»: --[====================J==============J!. when testing the resistance of the potentiometer out of circuit. Magnetize screwdrivers to avoid time-consuming hunts for a screw dropped inside the unit. the results of the test show the voltage going to the motor. Always substitute a faulty component with an identical replacement. Throughout this book. for example. and €?+%~ T.. Replacement blades ate stored in the hollow handle. and demagni.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES Review the owner's manual for the unit before undertaking any repair. Desolderlng vacuum SuCks up heated liquid solder wh·en desoldering.._~-.electronic components. Prevent accidents while working on a unit by unplugging it and disconnecting the cables and any wires hooked up to it. Small sticks or toolhpicks 8(e handy for applying lubricant Magnetlzer/demagnotl.11 mag~tism lrom metal components to Electromagnetic tool discharges buildup prevenl static. ratherthan trying to force panels or casings apart. even a quick and simple job may void the warranty provided by the manufacturer. continuity may mean a component is faulty.. the purpose for the test may differ: with a transformer. ~=. 127 . Check for hidden screws and tabs. Soldering loon A suitable power range is 15 10 45 watts. the results of the test show the voltage coming out of the transformer: with amotor. :: -:. Soldering Iron stand The coil dissipates heat. bVt ris~ overheating sensitive components. Handy lor gripping delicate components in tight places. _It-. jawSatB niCkel-pjated to prevent solder from adhering.

Infinite ohms indicate-.. there is continuity. theanaloq multltester must . If the current does not pass through to the other probe.probe-so Set the selectorcontrol to the AX1 ahms setting. "zero. if required. Plug the probe.Jgital multltester. the mulntesfer registers the precise amount of electrical clIfr:ent flowing in a completed clrcutt. When testing continuity or rests- lance. ihere isa complete. Touch each probe to. there is continuity. Turn the range control to. le't) or an analog (above.cables into the jacks: if required. If !heneedle does nat swing from infinite ohms. conned hooks-or clips to the probes.s toial resistance. cantinuity. tha multitester sends a lo. no completed circuit.continuo ity. TESTINQ CONTINUITY I Using a tJ. 128 .en these two extremes. The muitltester then registers theeprecise amount of resistance to the elsctrlcal current Zero ohms. Set the on-conUnuitylolfcantrol to. rsslstance.the specified be scale: Clip the probes together and turn the aejusrrnent. itsohms selling.more expensive than the analcq. is' easier to use . indio cates a completed circuit or continulty. but the digital multltesler . Wh.en each prabe contacts a switch terminal. Touch each probe to the terminals indicated (above. If the needle swings to zero ohms. a digital (above. Plug the probe cables into the jacks.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES TROUBLESHOOTING WITH A MULTITESTER Using a multitester. If you hear a beep. If the current passes throu. If there is no. Using ail analog multitester. right) rnuttltester is required. center). zero. complete circuit and no. its lawest setting and turn the tunction control to.. oran absence of. the termlnals indicated (above.w-voltage"electrfcal current from its batteries through the component being tested. A component may have resistance betwe. For an accurate reading. connect books or clips to the.beep. the multitester trie-s to send low-voltaqa electrical current from its batteries through one probe. there is total resistance and no continuity.aenter).ctal to align the needle as closely as possible with the zero on the scale. then unclip the probes. clrctJiI and connnuity. CONTINUITY.ed" after the selectorcontrol is sst to. Testing continuity.ThEiir operating principles are the same.or voltaqe.gh the switch to the other probe. a switch on a circuit board is being tested (above). In this example. To test continuity. there is no contlnulty. there is no. the multitester (step ab9ve). When testing voltage. tota] lack of resistance.and read.

Set -the on-continuity/off control to ON and the range control to 30. Zero the muUitester (page 128).ohrns selting. TESTING VOLTAGE I Using a digital multitester. The amount 01 electrical current flowing through the multitester is registered on the display. Set the selector control to 50 ACV for a transformer. Plu!. Set the oncontinuity/off control to ON. Check the needle position on the scale forthe amount 01 resistance the circuit has. if required.l in the cables and connect hooks or Clips. Turn the range control to its lowest setting and 'turn the function control to its . Read the display for the amount of vollage flowing in the circuit. Touch each probe to a terminal (above. in . Plug the probe cables into the jacks. The amount of electrical current that passes through the driver to the other probe is limited by the driver circuitry. Testing resistance. or a motor not connected to a circuit bcarc: use DeV tor a motor conne. Using.cted to a circuit board. Touch each probe toa terminal (above. Set the selector control to the RX1 ohms setting. zero the mulfltester (page 128). Check 'the needle position on the scale lor the amount 01 voltage flowing in the circuit: 129 . Or a motor not connected to a circuit board. connect hooks or clips. tacts driverterminal (above). Read the display for the resistance in the circuit.the cables and connect hooks or clips. connect hooks or dips. a Using an analog multitester. the power to a DC motor from a circuil board is being tested (above). center). in ohms. With each probe contacting a motor terminal. this is displayed. center). Hook each probe to a terminal (above. as a measurement of resistance to the electrical current.an analog multitester. Clip or hOok each probe to a terminal (above. Turn the selector control to ACV for a transformer. a low-voltage electrical current is sent through the multitesler by plugging the electronic unit inlo a wall outlet and turning it on. il required. center). use DCVlor a motor connected to a circuit board. the multitester tries to send low-voltage electrical current from its batteries through one probe. center). When each probe can. In this example. Plug Testing voltage.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES TESTING RESISTANCE Using a digital multitester. Plug the probe cables inlo the jacks.

Prepare above). but not enough for it 10 travel very far if it is knocked off its stand. position it over the solder and press the trigger (above).as you use it.SoIdfl(ing irQn tip Setting up for soldering. DESOLDERING I a soldering iron (SU~p Lightly touch its tip against the old solder for a lew seconds. If the soldering iron is new. unplug the soldering iron and untie the power cord Irom the table leg. plug it into a wall outlet and wait several minutes. slack for the soldering iron to be used comfortably. Repeat the procedure as required. rub gently using a loam swab moistened with -denatured alcohol orwith flux-cleaning solvent (inset). Plug the soldering iron into a wall outlet and allow the solder to melt. left). II the soldering iron has been used before. After using the soldering iron.eat the procedure until the solder is completely removed from the terminals. Alter the solde. To clean off flux residue left by the old solder. use just enough to coat the entire tip evenly. Perform the same procedure to clean up accidental solder drops thai Occur while soldering.ring iron heats up.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES PREPARING A SOLDERING IRON )( . tin the tip by tightly wrapping a short length of solder In a spiral around it (above. Clean up stubborn traces of solder (step 2). Tie the solderingiron power cord around a leg 01 the work table: leave enough. Removing old solder. the heat generated may damage nearby components. Push down the plun. right). Dampen a sponge and place it in the tray on the base of the soldering iron stand. use desoldering braid. Keep the soldering iron in its stand until you are ready to use it. 1 Cleaning up solder and flux residue. sucking up the solder as it melts. Unplug the soldering iron when you take a break. wipe the tip on the sponge. Place the braid over the old solder. Rep. Lightly wipe the tip across the sponge to dlstrtbuta the solder smoothly and remove any excess (above.ger in the desoldering vacuum. turn the handle to help spread it. If you have never used a soldering iron before. if the iron is held any longer. practice soldering (page 13 f) and dssotderinq (steps below) on lengths of scrap wire or discarded components before undertaking repairs to an electronic unit. wipe the tip across the sponge to remove any old solder and dirt. until it begins to melt. solder (page 131) and then desolder. To lift off remaining solder. wipe the tip on the sponge frequently . 2 130 . II the old solder does not come off easily. gently touch the soldering iron tip against the braid for a few seconds (above) and pull up the braid.

Wires narrower than 18 are usually unmarked. Use the color. to coat the connection evenly. CoalCial cable Stranded or solidce nter conductor protected by foam insulatiOn. if necessary. Outer Insulation protects thecabls' from weather. Groond wire Solijj t O-gsuga wira. which is a grading of diameter or thickness usually marked on the insulation. When buying coaxial cable. use a larger gauge. Solid or stranded inner conductor covered with plastic insUlation. Lightly lauch the soldering iron tip to the wire for a law seconds (tett) and Hien touch the solder to the wire. usa the 'color codeto connect the \Vires without reversing polarity.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES SOLDERING Connecting parts with solder. Low-voltage wlr. Shielded two-conductor cable Spiral or braided shield acts as a Qround and protects the two insulated wires from interference. the heat can damage electronic components. Speaker cable Two-conductor cable cova/ed with plastic insulation. betore soldering wire ends. Prepare a sOldering Iron (page 130). low'vottaga wires within plastic insulation. If required. I Shielded one-conductor cable Spiral 01. Telephone cable Four insulated wires. Perform the same procedure for each wire in a' cable or for each pin on a switch or potentiometer. When in doubt. braided shield acts as a ground and protects the insulated wire fram interference. Shielded twln·lead cable Two inner conductors protected by foam insulation. Most electronics parts suppliers stock a wide assortment of wires. Purchase the correct gauge. hold it against the tarminai or twist it clockwise around it. strip back the insulation (page 132). Ribbon cable Mulli conductor. oftlln uninsulated. 131 . never apply an acid-core solder. Low-voltage multi-conductor cable Three to fi\l9 insulated wires. snip off a length of the old wire and take it with you. may contain an inner foil sheathing to protect tha Innar conductors from imetierenC9. may have outer insulation. coda or mark to cOnnOCI"he wires' t wittlout reversing polarity. Never install replacement wire or' cable of a smaller gauge. Wires for an electronic unit generally fall between 16 and 24 gauge. Avoid holding the soldering Iron against a wire or pin tor more than a few seconds. with the thicker wire having a smaller number. Ribbon cable connectors pierce the inSIJlation to contact the wires'. To solder a wire. Use· the colorcode or mark to connectlhe wires without rflversing polarity. and cables. first clean up old solder traces and flux residue from the terminals (page 130). commonly referred to as patch cord. avoid touching solder directly to the soldering iron. Always usa rosin-core solder. Outer insulation protects the cable from weather. Apply just enough solder. REPLACING WIRES AND CABLES Choosing the right wire and cable. Spiral or braided outer conductor acts as a ground. refer to its ohms rating.

GenUy lug each wire to ensure it is held securely. 132 . If the wire is solid. To install a crimp connector. take care not to Cr05Sthem. snip off any protruding untinned wire strands using wire cutters. touch the solder to the wire inside the sleeve. strip back the wire (step above). If you are preparing' a cable. Hold the soldering iron tip to the e. .. then solder them (pagfl 131) or inStall a cable connector (PfJge 133). repeat the procedure for each wire. or solderless. Hold the soldering iron tip against the wire for a few seconds. 2 Tinning wire leads. After tinning the wir~ leads. Soldering and crimping a spade lug. To prepare a cable. then strip back the insulation froni each wire as above. use a wire stripper to remove 1/4 lnchol insulation. Purchase a plug. If the wire is stranded.wire connection rs loose or broken and the wire is long enough to be reconnected. sleeve lor a few seconds.. Fit the wire inlo the notch for its gauge. strip back the wire (step above) and prepare a soldering iron (page 13PJ. then crimp it with a Wire stripper (above). the amount stripped depends on the connector (page 133). squeez. desolder (page 130) and replace it (page 131). then lauch the solder to the wire (above). Gently tug the wire to ensure it is held securely. cut all the outer insulation with a utility knife.. Snap each crimp connector into the plug (above). If you install a plug at the other end of the wires. Purchase crimp. first tin the leads (step 2). Prepare a soldering iron (page 130) . Purchase spade lugs to fit the terminals and the wire at an electronics parts supplier.e the handles and pull off the insulatlcn. connectors at an electronics parts supplier. desolder (page t 30) and cut off the end. Crimping for a plug. Apply just enough solder to coat the wire strands evenly. solder it (page 131) or install a connector (steps below). lit it into the connector sleeve and crimp it using the outer notch on a wire stripper (above). Fit tha wire into the spade lug slee. To prepare a wire for soldering or for a connector. It a wire or cable tested faulty or is too short to be reconnected. solder the wire (page 131) or install a wire connector (steps be/ow).TOOLS & TECHNIQUES REPAIRING DAMAGED WIRE CONNECTIONS Stripping back wire ends. be sure they are appropriate to tile terminals and the VJiregauge. Strip back each wire (step above) and install a crimp connector (far lett). 1 Support the wire in a soldering stand and twist the strands together clockwise between your thumb and torefinger. INSTALLING WIRE CONNECTORS I Crimping a connector. at an electronics parts supplier. and crimp connectors to fit its termi· nals and the wires. To install a spade lug. If a.

Cut off the old connector using wire cutters or a utllity knife. Snip off Ihe old plug using wire cutters or a utility knife. Purchase an exact replacement plug at an electronics parts supplier. Using pliers. rjght)_ 133 .& TECHNIQUES INSTALLING AUDIO AND VIDEO CABLE CONNECTORS ( . Using pliers. Snip all the old plug using wire cutters or a utility knite. If the plug pin is solid. axposinq the pin. with the longer blade l{Z inch from the end. terminal farthest ftom the plug tip. Unscrew the shell and slide it onto 'the cable. exposing the braided shield. Slide th~ collar onto the cable. CUlling It in two places. Cut 1 1/2 inches of outer insulation off the cable and strip back 1/2 inch oi insulation from the wires (page 132)_ Solder (page 131) Ihe uninsulated wire to the. Replacing a 118-or 1/4·jnch plug. Replacing a phono plug. Unravel the braided shield and fold it back over the outer insulation. Screw the shell onto the plug. Slide any insulating sleevaand the shell over the plug and screw on the shell. cut off 1 1/2 inches of outer insulation arid strip back 3/4 inch of wire insulation. Pull the outer insulation off the second cut. Unscrew the . Insert Ihe insulated wire into the pin and solder the wire to the pin tip. cut off 1/2 inch of outer insulation.strip back li4 inch of wira'insalatlon (page 132) and solder (page 131) the insulated wire to the terminal closestto the plug tip_If the plug pin has a hole.shell and slide it and any insulating sleeve onto the cable. Squeeze the handles and turn the stripper around the cable (above. and Solder the insulated wires to the other plug terminals (above). squeeze the plug clips together to secure the cable.TOOLS . Push the connector onto the cable (inset) and slide the cellar over the connector. and pull the braided shield off the first cut. Purchase an exact replacement cermactor at an etectronlcs parts supplier. Squeeze the plug clips together to secure the cable. laft) . Purchase an exact replacement plug at an electronics parts supplier. Solder the uninsulated wire to the remaining terminal (above) or 10 a plug clip. Crimp the collar securely using a coaxial-cable crimping tool (above. then fit the cable into a coaxial cable stripper. I Replacing a coaxial connector.

and strip i12 inch of insulationofi the wires (page 132}. snap the shells together (inset) and Install the screws. Fit the pins into the circuit board and solder (page 131)the pins. Use a screwdriver to unclip the connector'souter and inner plates. 0" Servicing DB25 cable eonneetlons. use a foam swab moistened with denatured alcohol. replace it. Consult the chapter on the unu to remove any panels.Solder (page 131) the wires to the terminals (above). Hook one probe to a pin on one connector and touch the other probe in turn to each pin on the other connector. Repeat the test with each pin on the connector. If a wire is loose or broken.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES SERVICING COMPUTER CABLE HOOKUPS Senicing ribbon cable connections. Hook one probe to a pin on one connector and touch the other probe in turn to each pin on the other connector. Order an exact replacement bulb from the manufacturer or purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. Remove the connector from the terminal at each end of the cable. Cut off 11/2 inchasof outer insulation.. relnstalltheconnector shells. Reinstall any components removed and cold check lor leaking voltage (page 141): 134 .e wires. Locate an LCD or LED on its circuit board. If the cable tests faulty. Purchase an exact replacement cable or connector at a computer parts supplier. If there are wires held by connectors to the back at the bulb. seta multitester to test continuity (page 128). WIggle it to help release the pins. REPLACING DISPLAY LIGHTS I R. Desolder (page 130) the pins and pull off the LCD or LEO. a light-emit~ing diode (LED) or a bufb.eplacing a liquid-crystal display (LCD). To lest the cable. Fold the cable over the inner plate and snap the outer plate (above). cut off the connector with a utility knife. and snap on the inner plate (inset). repair it (page 132). locate the bulb and unscrew or wiggle it out 'of its socket. leaving 1/2 inch of overlap. To replace a bulb. pull off th. there should be continuity once-and only once. unscrew and take out the circuit board to reach its pins. Fillhe cable over the terminals. Screw or press the bulb into its socket. purchase an exact replacement cable or connector at a computer parts supplier. Order an exact replacement from the manufacturer or purchase a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. Repeat the test with each pin on the connector. To test the cable. if a pin is damaged. push on the connectors and crimp them using the outer notch of a wire stripper (inset). cut off the connector with a utility knife.end of the cable. To dean the pins and terminals. Remove the connector from the terminal at each . Unscrew and pry apart the connector shells. there should be continuity oncB-andonly once. If the cable tests faulty or if a pin is damaged. set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). Reinstall any components removed and cold check for leaking voltage (page 141).

Fit the gear in pJace and install its fastener. note its position gear using a team swab moistened with alcohol. 135 . If a damaged spring cannot be shortened and reconnected. If a spring is unhooked at one end. Order an exact replacement from the manufacturer or hand. removed and cold check. applya little white grease to each Servicing gear assemblies. use a clean loam swab 10 wipe off excess lubricant. SERVICING GEAR ASSEMBLIES To lubricate a gear assembly. usea small stick to tug on it gently (above. Consult the chapter on the unit to access the gears. too much force can break or strip the gear teeth. reconnect it using long-nose pliers or tweezers_ To check spring lension. Reinstall any components are difficult to reach and cannot be turned. Use a toothand remove it. Consult the chapter on the unit to access the spring. Send the cut end of the spring into a hook using long-nose pliers and reconnect the spring.-nose pliers or tweezers to install the spring. order an exact replacement from the manufacturer or buy a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. Heinstall any components removed andcold check for leaking voltage (page 141). left). saving any clip. If Ihe spring does not snap back taully into a straight position when released. spray ihem with . right). left). try gently turning a gear by place. Use lang.srnall stick (above. washer or screw holdirig it in pick to dislodge dirt from between the gear teeth (above. Snip off a few spring windings with wire cutters. To clean a gear assembly. short bursts of compressed air or electronic contact cleaner. To reach the entire gear assembly. being careful not to stretch it (above. wipe off each gear with a . note lts connection points and use long-nose pliers or IV"eezers to unhook it. for leaking voltage (page 141).TOOLS & TECHNIQUES SERVICING SPRINGS Removing and histalling springs. right). If a gear is damaged. II gears purchase a substitute at an electronics paris supplier.

a to SERVICING A REMOTE CONTROL I Cleaning a remote control. A potentiometer . Some typical switches and potentiometers are shown at right. /eft). Determining the operating pattern of the switch or potentiometer then becomes much easier. typically balance control.Pical1y on/off and an volume contra. typica1ly'an onloll or a feature control. 136 . potentiometer varies ·the resistancE! In the circuit. Switches and potentiometers playa key role in routing. letting current flow. Use a foam swab moistened With denatured alcohol to clean the inside of the lens cover (ebove. Clean the keyassembly contact points by gently rubbing them with a pencil eraser and then Wiping them USing a clean foam swab moistened with denatured atcohol (above. Testing a multi-pole . snap the casings back together and reinstall the screws. you can locate pairs or multiples of pins in the same path and test between or among them. Unscrew and lilt out the circuit board. gently pry them apart using a small putty knife.. Combined switCh/potentiometer' Switch closes and opens a circuit. tr. To clean the outside of the lens cover. Closes or opens mota than one circuit. by re<.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES SERVICING SWITCHES AND POTENTIOMETERS Testing multi-pole switches and potentiometers. If the casings do not separate easily. To clean inside the remote control. ~~- ~ Switch ~ Pushes and off to close and on open a circuit. rub them gently using a pencileraser or spray them with short bursts of electronic contact cleaner. Tests performed between pins in the same path and another pin should register the same result in each switch ocsuicn. typicaJly a yolume or tone control. remove the screws holding the top and bottom casings together. A switch doses a circuit. typically an onloll or a feature contrOl.switch or a double potentiometer is sometimes a challenge. Cneck the battery terminals each time you change the batteries. il the terminals are dirty. Reinstall the circuit board and the pad. remove the key pad from Ihe circuit board. since they function in more than cne circuit. To reach the key assembly. keeping current from passtnq. reducing or stoppingeJectrical current thrQugh circuits. Multi-pole ganged switch Pushes and on 011 to cJ0$9 or open a number of circuits. Doublepotentiometer Varies resistance in two circuits Irom zero infinity. right). or opens a circuit. Potentiometer Varies th& resi!ltance in a circuit from zero to infinity.tdinga circuil board (page 138). wipe with a damp.' check for hidden screws inside the bat" tery compartment or under the manufacturer's label. varies the amount of resistance to current. lint-free cloth. However.

TESTING AND REPLACING A POWER CORD I remove any panels.caps are soldered to posts. If the power cord tests OK. If a luse doe-snot register continuity out of circuit. note their positions and desoJder one wire (page 130). If the power cord wires are soldered. Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). terminals (abOVe) or twist them together and crimp on a cap insulator (inset). Reinstall the panels and cold check for leaking voltage (page 141). If the fuse ts internally mounted and its caps are held in retaining clips. purchase an exact replacement-at an electronics parts supplier and install it. cut one wire with wire cutters. Solder tnewlras (page 131) to the.. 137 . arid locate the power cord terminals. If you removed any panels. turn the fuse cap counterclockwise and pull the fuse out of its casing. 1 Testing the power cord. Set a multitester to test continuity (page 128). 2 Replacing the power cord. Fit the power cord into the strain relief. Repeat the test with the other plug prong and each wire. leave it in place. Pry out any strain reliel with pliers and remove the power cord from the strain relief. Consult the chapter on the unit to desolder the other wire (page 130) or use wire cutters to cui the other wire. if they are connected to other wir_esunder a cap msulatcr. If the power cord tests faulty.TOOlS & TECHNIQUES REPLACING A FUSE Removing and replacing a fuse. . If a soldered fuse does riot register continuity. desolder it (page 131) and test again. ToinstaU the power cord. then cold check for leaking voltage (page' 141). and push the strain relief firmly into place. take the unit for professional service. Touch a probe to each fuse cap (inset). If a fuse blows repeatedly. if you removed it. Touch one probe to a plug prong and touch the other probe in turn to the erid of each power corp wire (ebove). reinstall them. If the fuse is externally mounted in the back panel. If the fuse is internally mounted and its . refer to the chapter on the uriit for servicing the power supply or take the unit for professional service. The multitester should register continuity once-and only once. grip the fuse with a fuse puller and gently pry it out (Ie(t). Purchase an exact replacement power cord and plug at an electronics parts supplier. strip back 3/4 inch of insulation from each wire (page 132). reinstall it (step 2). Consull the chapter on the unit to remove any panels.

However. their operajing principles are fundamentally the same. Tracing a path I B 00 a circuit board. When testinqa multi-pole switch (near tett).~'.:·:1·+".. A rectifier then changes the AC to direct current (DC). _ TOOLS & TECHNIQUES SERVICING POWER SUPPLIES . ""hen llachis leSt9d with any other pin. fuse. _ . II can be difficult to READING A CIRCUIT BOARD Solder9d pins Circuit board A and B are in the same path. vou can dstarmine whether current is being delivered to electronic components. Four typiCal power supptlas found in electronic units are shown above and on page 139.switch 10 translormer.11':"":. Pins in the same path should register the same result in both switch positions when each is tested with any other pin. through paths on clrcuit boards. commoniy found in a receiver. The onl off switch starts the flow of AC by closing a circuit in the unit. Simple tests can determine whether the power supply functions correctly.. a fuse protects the parts from voltage spikes...* . differentiate between pins in the same path and pins in other paths. The power cord routes 120-volt alternating current (AC) to the power block from an outlet. and onloff switch. has a fuse. and onloff switch to transformer.. you can determine whether current reaches the transformer: by testing the low-voltage output {page 129) of the transformer. The transtormersteps down the 120-volt AC 10 the low voltage required by circuit board components. The power-supply components are arranged in three typical sequences: fuse to on/ott . Identifying and testing power-supply components. A path consists of a strip of copper foil.1.. as well as the wires and paths between these components and between them and the transformer. easily identified byits contrast in color to the circuit board that sandwiches it. onloff switch and transformer each connected to the power block. as well as in the sequence and way the components are connected. Wires and circuit board paths (step below) are often used in Combination toconnect two components. Any components' with pins or wires soldered in the same path are in the same circuit (far lett}. Usually. Power supplies vary in their specific components. By testing the continuity (page 128) of the power cord. 138 .. for the' most part. A variation. on/off switch to fuse to transformer. The power supply provides electrical current to electronic components in the unit. The electrical current that flows through the components inside an electronic unit is routed... the resuns should be the same.

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES figure out which wire or path goes where and to remember whether or not it has been tested. Typical basic symbols you are likely to find on a schematic diagram are shown at leff. . The same procedure would lead to different. the on/off switch here is not directly connected to the power supply components. right)..R ~ OR T oAlI ORJ. then for low voltage from the transformer. by tracing the circuit board path you would test between the onloff switch and tha fuse. you would discover that the powersupply component to which its wires connect is also the power block. In the second example (page 138. by following the two wires from the transformer. there is no fuse. In the fourth example (above. but equally thorough. the component specifications and manufacturer part number. you would discover that the power-supply component to which they connect is the power block. But orienting yourself to one power-supply component at a time assures you of testing each connection between them. By following the two wires from the fuse. lelt). then test for low voltage from the transformer. a fuse and a transformer. When ordering a replacement part from the manufacturer or purchasing a substitute at an electronics parts supplier. for instance. you would test between the onloll switch and the power block and between the transformer and the onloff switch. you would locate the transformer wires leading away from the power-suppiy components and test for low voltage. ~ ~ -E:3- ~ I -vp-<f\. you could then test the wires between thsm. In the third example (above Jeff).D- OR !1TIJ =E:::) OR FUSE TRANSFORMER OR =O w))) ~LOR~llc o-@r OR MOTOR ::@r :::()= ANTENNA POWER PLUG ~ ~. READtNG A SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM COMPONENT SWITCH POTENTIOMETER SYMBOL ()'""'""'Q OR COMPONENT LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) LIQUID CRYSTAL DiSPLAY (LCD) BULB SPEAKER SYMBOL Identifying schematic diagram symbols. In the first example (page 138. the tuse and the power block. others vary depending on the manufacturer. there may be a part number for use as reference in a schematic dia. And. you test belweenthe transformer and the power block. r ~ 0] O~ O. Component specifications are sometimes listed right on the schematic diagram. A schematlc diagram uses symbols to show how the components 01 a unit are connected. testing of the connections between components in any other power supply. Finally. and the transformer and the onloff switch.gram manual. Some symbols are standard. OR GROUND 139 . Of. rig/H). The final test would be for low voltage from the transformer. Following this procedure from the onloff switch would lead you to test the wires between it and the power block. be sure to state. the power-supply components include an onloff switch.

if it is available from the manufacturer or an electronics parts supplier. any static buildup from yourself by touching an exposed. unit. all.er panel or te the trams (cenlerright). Adheri'ng to a few simple disassembly and reassembly guidelines ensures that your experiences in home electronics rapairars rewwding and. If a panel resists being removed.iunpatntad metal surface on the. . a wooden surface is ideal. Write down YC:>. Belore unplugging a connector (bottom left).! unit. Before undertaking a major repair. As you remove a panel. never force them. is still under warranty. welHil work tabla. After reassembly. Keep screws and other small partsin labeled trays. perform a cold check for leaking voltage (page f 4 t). Study the unit panels before beginning. check behind it for wires corinectinq it lo internal components.re likely to find on the back and bottom panels of a unit (page 9). check Ihat no toots are left inside and that. check the edges for tabs securing it to anoth.gh a magnetizer/demagnetizer (top left). screws covered by a tab (center left). a computer CPU chip. Pull or slide off panels gently.lccid~nt. 140 . such as a screw. soldered connections rarely need to be removed. keep one ha. an old blanket will do.cornponents are back in place.ur sequence of dtsassernbly steps fOTreference in reassembly.. jars or film containers .. review the owner's manual and check whether !h!. as little pressure as possible: the'Y are very easily damaged. Magnetize screwdrivers before you start to work by passing their heads throu. hold the frame to ground yourself before hafldling circuit boards and.nd ready to catch if.TOOLS & TECHNIQUES TIPS ON DISASSEMaL V AND REASSEMBLY Working methodically Magnelizer/demagnetizer and $<lfely. Protect the unit Irotn: scratches by covering the tabla with a clean'!llsulating pad.Keep in mind the warnings you a.rminal positions.ing. Discharge. Disassemble only what is rreaded to reach parts being repaired. Set up for repairs on a Clean. to determine the sequence in which they were installed. Carefully pry any srnatlcllp off a component (bOttom right). especially.. note lis te. I Unscrew circuit boards us.free. but before plugging In-the unit. Check for hidden screws under labels (top fIght) and recessed . I?efora reinstalling panels. To release a stubborn screw. press the screwdriver firmly into the screwheadand snap any glue seal with a sharp counter" clockwise twist. Refer to the unit service manual.

perform a simple test to confirm thaI no internal electrical circuits have been damaged or shorted .. screws through the pane is into the frame. Before plugging in . consult the manufacturer. Typical schematic-diagram symbols are presented on page 139. check the warranty provided by ths manufacturer. or consult your electronics parts supplier. Set a multitester to lest continuity (page 128j. other sources. toolsand basic audio and video supplies. Hardware stores. Many stock cable. take the faulty component with you. If the unit tests OK in each test. call your local electronics parts supplier to check whether the part is in stock. but their salespeople are not specialized. schematic diagram or owner's manual for your unit is the model and serial nurribers. If the warranty is sUlI in effect. there. You and your warranty. consult the schematic diagram. Audio/video stores and computer stores. you have several sources tram which to choose: Electronics parts suppliers. there should be no continuity. make ideal test points. When purchasing a replacement component. If you require professional service. It can be ordered.Clipone multilester probe to a plug prong and touch the other probe in turn to at least two or three unpainted metal surfaces on the unit (left). set the onloff control to the OFF position and plug the unit into an outlet.. Ask friends for references. or by asking an elecIronies parts supplier. 11 the unit tests faulty in any test. usually stamped on a plate or a sticker (above) on the back or bottom panel. Armed with this information.a unit that has undergone an internal repair. II individual components are not listed in the owner's manual. Electrontcsparts suppliers. Be sure the technician is trained to service your brand. -. in this test. Only an authorized service techriician should make the needed repairs. often have comparison lists of equivalent substitute components. Beforeattempling any repair. Your local Better Business Bureau or consumer rights otlice may also help you select a reputable technician.N YOU NEED IT Learning what you need to know for effective repairs. and cable terminals. The reference number for a circuit board component may be marked on the circuit board or listed in the schematic diagram. Sollie parts carry their own serial numbers. . either stamped on them or listed in the owner's manual or service manual. take the unit for professional service. GETTING HELP WHE. If you cannot locate it. In each test. from the manufacturer or may also be available at your local electronics parts supplier. 141 . should be continuity. Unclip the jumper cable and a touch a probe to each prong on the power cord plug. If possible. il you cannot determine the cause of the problem. Clip a jumper cable to the prongs on the power cord p. do not plug it into an outlet until you have located the problem and remedied it.. A dealer may be able to help you locate. If a store does not carry a part the dealer may be able to order it or tell you where to tind it. you will void it if you undertake the repair yourself. cleaners or software.lug and set the on/oft control to the ON position. Get the address and ·telephone number of the manufacturer from your owner's manual. choose carefully. Many do not sell more than basic supplies such as cables. Manufacturers. Any component found within a shaded area on a schematic diagram must be ordered from the manufacturer. I The key to obtaining the correct replacement component.~ TOOLS & TECHNIQUES A COLD CHECK FOR LEAKING VOLTAGE Testing for a potential electrical hazard.

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