DESIGN OF BOX TYPE CULVERT

1 In side diamentions

3.50

2 Super imposed load

12000
45000
18000
30
50
20
7

3 Live load
4 Wieght of soil
5 Angle of repose
6 Nominal cover top / bottom
6 Cocrete

Mσcbc

Thickness of top slab
Thickness of bottom slab

3.50

m

N/m

N/m2
N/m2
Degree
mm

50
25000
m
13
σst
190

Nominal cover side
wt. of concrete

N/m2

σst

330
320
350

8 Thickess of side wall

x
3

Water side

415

7 Steel

m

N/m2

150

mm

thickness of side wall is OK

mm

O.K.

mm
kg/m3
N/m2

mm

9 Reinforcement
Top slab

mm c/c

mm Φ @

130
130
200
120
120
300
300

8

mm Φ @

130

mm c/c

260

mm c/c

20
8

mm Φ @
mm Φ @

Vertical

8
20
8
8
20

Distribution

Main
Distribution
At supports

Bottom slab

Main
Distribution
At supports

Side vertical wall

20 mm Φ @

mm Φ @
mm Φ @
mm Φ @
mm Φ @

8 mm Φ @

200

mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c
mm c/c

Through out slab at bottom

mm c/c

Both side

mm C/C

8 mm Φ @

130

mm C/c

320
20 mm Φ @

700
20 mm Φ @

130 mm C/C

300 mm C/C
3.50

8 mm Φ @
130 mm C/C
20 mm Φ @
120 mm c/c
350
20 mm Φ @
240 mm c/c
330

8 mm Φ @

8 mm Φ @

200 mm C/C

130 mm C/c

3.50

330

O.K.

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

1
2
3
4
5
6
6

In side diamentions
Super imposed load
Live load
Wieght of soil
Angle of repose
Nominal cover top/bottom
Cocrete

7 Steel
1 Solution

DESIGN OF BOX TYPE CULVERT
3.5
x 3.5 m
12000
N/m3
45000
N/m2
18000
N/m2
wt. of water
30
Degree
50
mm
Nominal cover Side
M20
wt. of concrete
2
σcbc
7
N/m
m
Out
side
σst
Fy
415
water side side σst

9800

N/m3

50
mm
25000 N/m3
13
190
N/m2
150
N/m2

Genral

For the purpose of design , one metre length of the box is considered.
The analysis is done for the following cases.
(I) Live load, dead load and earth prssure acting , with no water pressure from inside.
(II) Live and dead load on top and earth pressure acting from out side, and water pressure acting from inside,
with no live load on sides
(III) Dead load and earth pressure acting from out side and water pressure from in side.
Let the thicness of Horizontal slab
Vertical wall thicness
Effective slab span
Effective Height of wall

330
320
3.5
3.5

mm
=
mm
=
+ 0.33 =
+ 0.32 =

0.33
0.32
3.83
3.82

m
m
m
m

2 Case 1 : Dead and live load from out side of while no water pressure from inside.
Self weight og top slab =
0.33 x
1x
1 x 25000 =
8250
Live load and dead load =
45000 + 12000
=
57000
Total load on top =
65250
Weight of side wall =
3.82 x
0.32 x 25000
=
30560
)=
3.83 )+(
2 x 30560
∴ Upward soil reaction at base = ( 65250 x
81208.22
3.83
1 - sin 30
10.5
1
0.5
Ka =
=
=
=
=
1 + sin 30
1+
0.5
3
1.5
∴ Latral pressure due to dead load and live load = Pv x Ka
p = 57000 x
0.33 =
19000 N/m2
Latral pressure due to soil Ka x w x h
=
0.33 x 18000 h = 6000 h
Hence total pressure
= 19000 +
6000 h
Latral presure intencity at top
=
19000 N/m2
Latral pressure intencity at bottom
= 19000 +
6000 x
3.82 = 41920
w =

Fig 1 show the box culvert
frame ABCD, along with the external
loads, Due to symmetry, half of
frame (i.e. AEFD) of box culvert is
considered for moment distribution.
Since all the members have uniform
thickness, and uniform diamentions,
the relative stiffness K for AD will be
equal to 1 while the relative stiffness
for AE and DF will be 1/2.

N/m2
N/m2
N/m2
N/m
N/m2
0.33

N/m2

65250 N/m2

19000

19000
A

h

E

B

3.83

19000

3.82

6000 h
D

F

C

41920

19000
w

=

### N/m2

Fig 1

22920

83 + -15948 + ### + 56035. And reactions are shown in fig.D.5 N/m2 Similarly.5 x 65250 x 3.5 x 81208.5 124627.83 x 1/2 + 1/2 x 22920 x 3. including loading.82 MFDA = x = -23105 12 2 10 The Moment distribution is carried out as illustrate in table N-m MFDA = - -16723 = -39828 Fixed End Moments Member DC 98751.83 ) + 55075 .91 22920 D 41920 D 69810 71023 155514 77881 155514 69810 81208 Fig 2 For horizontal slab AB.m 12 12 Where W is the total tringular earth pressure.2 For the vertical member AD.33 Fix end moment 98751.83 x 3.L.2 From which.pk_nandwana@yahoo.83 x 3.67 0.91 DA -39828 AD 34254 AB -79346 The moment distribution carried out as per table 1 for case 1 Joint D A Member DC DA AD AB Distribution factore 0.82 2= + = 98751. ha = 46852 . carrying UDL @ 65250 N/m2. Vertical reactionat a and B = 0.co.Thus ( -ha x 3.91 -39828 34254 -79346 Balance -19641 -39283 30061 15031 Carry over 15031 -19641 balance -5010 -10020 13094 6547 Carry over 6547 -5010 balance -2182 -4365 3340 1670 Carry over 1670 -2182 balance -557 -1113 1455 727 Carry over 727 -557 balance -242 -485 371 186 Carry over 186 -242 balance -62 -124 162 81 Carry over 81 -62 balance -27 -54 41 21 Carry over 21 -27 balance -7 -14 18 9 Final moment 71023 -71023 55075 -55075 55075 65250 55075 46852 124627.91 N .82 m 7197 71023 1.91 3.82 1/2 = 1+1/2 Distribution factore for AB and DC= 1/3 wL2 65250 x 3.82 3.82 = 15 34254 pL2 WL 12 15 19000 x 3.M.loads @ ### N/m2 Vertical reaction at D and C = 0.82 x 3. B. Mfdc= MFAD = + 2/3 + 22920 x 2 2 3.33 0.22 x 3.82 2-.71023 + 19000 x 3. the horizontal reaction at A is found by taking moments at D.83 = ### N The body diagram for various members.67 0.82 2= = ### N-m 12 12 wL2 ### x 3.in Distribution factore for AD and DA= 1 = 1+1/2 Fix end moments will be as under : MFAB= MFAD = + pL2 12 19000 + x 12 WL 15 3.82 = 124627.83 x 1/3 -ha x 3.5 46852 19000 55075 64569 A A 55075 1. for the Bottom slab DC carrying U.22920 x 3.

at E = 119644 55075 = 64569 N-m 2 81208. At mid span 19000 x 3.### = 7197 N-m 2 3 Case 2 : Dead load and live load from out side and water pressure from inside.83 .M. The various pressures w = 65250 N/m2 are marked in fig 3 . In this case . free B.83 x 3.M.M. Simply supported B.83 2= 2 Mfdc= MFAD = + = + 14516 x 2 2 3.61 DA -12579 AD 16128 AB -79762 The moment distribution carried out as per table 1 for case 1 Joint D A Member DC DA AD AB Distribution factore 0.83 2.33 0.5 23451 45069 73951 A A 45069 1. at F = 148904.co.83 2= Simply supporetd at mid sapn = ### 8 71023 + 55075 Net B.M. = = 63049 . 16128 N-m MFDA = - -12579 N -m Fixed End Moments Member DC 99269. at mid point E = 119644 N-m 8 Net B.67 0.61 -12579 16128 -79762 Balance -28897 -57794 42423 21211 Carry over 21211 -28897 45069 65250 45069 23451 124627.83 = 10 pL2 WL 12 15 4484 x 3.14516 x 3.The vertical walls will thus be subjected to a net latral pressure of 19000 19000 19000 Itensity And = 19000 = = N/m2 At the Top A E 41920 37436 2 4484 N/m at the bottom 14516 B 3.M. is acting.42 71023 = 77881 N-m For vertical member AD . at F = ### N -m 8 Net B.46852 = 69810 N pk_nandwana@yahoo.83 3.83 2= Free B. in addition to the pressure considered in case 1. MFAB= x 12 WL 10 3.22 x 3.83 MFDA = x = 12 2 15 The moment distribution is carrired out as illustred in table.91 30523 .67 0.83 = Similarly.82 = 37436 N/m2 At D.5 19000 124627.33 Fix end moment 99269.61 N .83 4484 ### N/m2 Fig 3 3. water pressure having an intensity of zero at A and 9800 x 3.m 12 12 Where W is the total tringular earth pressure.Hence . hd =( 19000 + 41920 )x 3.83 3.in 2 65250 x 3.M.83 2= = 99269.83 2+ 1/16 x 22920 x 3.82 F D C 41920 41920 w Fix end moments will be as under : MFAD = + pL2 12 4484 + wL = 65250 x ### N-m 12 12 wL2 ### x 3.

M.82 Hence earth pressure at depth h is = 4000 + 6000 h D 26920 F C 26920 14516 .82 .M. As before .82 2= Free B. N/m2 4000 22 A E B Lateral pressure due to dead load = N/m2 12000 = 4000 1/3 x 3. The top slab is subjected to a load of '= 65250 N/m2 w = 65250 N/m2 and the bottom slab is subjected to a load 4000 4000 Itensity = 81208.M.balance Carry over balance Carry over balance Carry over balance Carry over balance Carry over balance Carry over balance Final moment -7070 -3211 -786 -357 -87 -40 -10 58813 -14141 9632 -6422 2357 -1571 1070 -714 262 -175 119 -79 29 -19 -58813 19265 -7070 4714 -3211 2141 -786 524 -357 238 -87 58 -40 26 45069 9632 3.76 From which. At mid span 4484 x 3.M.82 2= Similarly. for the Bottom slab DC carrying U.82 2357 30523 58813 1.5 x 81208 x 3. Simply supported B.82 ) + 45069 .23451 = 21404 N 2 65250 x 3.5 x 65250 x 3.Thus ( -ha x 3. at E = 119020 45069 = 73951 N-m 81208 x 3. at mid point E = 119020 N-m 8 Net B.3 For the vertical member AD. at F = ### N -m 8 Net B. the horizontal reaction at A is found by taking moments at D.16 + 70607. ha = 23451 Hence .58813 + 4484 x 3. carrying UDL @ 65250 N/m2. B. free B. And reactions are shown in fig.82 x 2/3 -ha x 3.82 x 1/2 + 1/2 x 14516 x 3.D. at F = 148127.M. Vertical reactionat a and B = 0.82 = ### N The body diagram for various members.loads @ 81208 N/m2 Vertical reaction at D and C = 0. = = 51941 . hd =( 4484 + 19000 )x 3.86 58813 = 89315 N-m For vertical member AD .M.91 4484 D 1070 D 21404 262 89315 58813 155108 155108 21404 119 81208 29 Fig 4 13 -45069 For horizontal slab AB.82 + -13744 + 32716.83 Lateral pressure due to soil = 2 1/3 x 18000 = 6000 N/m 3.82 = 124627. it is assume that there is no latral oressure due to live load .82 2= 21418 Simply supporetd at mid sapn = 8 58813 + 45069 Net B.82 x 3.82 2+ 1/16 x 14516 x 3. in this case.21418 = 30523 N-m 2 4 Case 3 : Dead load and live load on top water pressure from inside no live load on side.5 N/m2 Similarly. including loading.82 x 3.M.L.

82 = 124627.D.33 0.Thus ( ha x 3.m 12 12 Where W is the total tringular earth pressure.61 DA 5757 AD -2209 AB -79762 The moment distribution carried out as per table 1 for case 1 Joint D A Member DC DA AD AB Distribution factore 0.in Fix end moments will be as under : wL2 65250 x 3.67 0.5 x 65250 x 3. the vertical wall lslab subjectednto water pressure of intensity ZERO at top and N/m2 at Bottom.loads @ 81208 N/m2 Vertical reaction at D and C = 0.91 D 49646 155108 5200 99258 155108 81208 Fig 4 For horizontal slab AB.83 2= = ### N-m 12 12 wL2 ### x 3.L.83 WL 10 3. acting from inside . Vertical reactionat a and B = 0.6 For the vertical member AD. for the Bottom slab DC carrying U.82 = 26920 N/m2 In addition to these.5 N Similarly.67 0.83 x 3.83 2= = 99269.91 3.83 x = 12 2 10 The moment distribution is carrired out as illustred in table.83 3.82 x 1/2 . The lateral pressure on vertical walls Is shown in fig 5 and 6 37436 pk_nandwana@yahoo.82 ) + 35902 .83 = 15 x N-m 5757 N -m ### 14516 x 3.33 Fix end moment 99269. the horizontal reaction at A is found by taking moments at D. including loading. MFAB= Mfdc= MFAD = + MFAD = + MFDA = - pL2 12 4000 pL2 12 4000 x 12 + WL 15 3.82 x 3.82 = ### N The body diagram for various members.5 35902 4000 A 35902 1.61 N .83 - 2 14516 x 2 ### - 3. MFDA = - -2209 - 2 Fixed End Moments Member DC 99269.49646 + ### x 3.M.co. carrying UDL @ 65250 N/m2. And reactions are shown in fig. B.Earth pressure intensity at top = 4000 37436 w= N/m2 ### N/m2 37436 Fig 5 Earth pressure intensity at Bottom= ### + 6000 x 3.61 5757 -2209 -79762 Balance -35009 -70018 54647 27324 Carry over 27324 -35009 balance -9108 -18216 23339 11670 Carry over 11670 -9108 balance -3890 -7780 6072 3036 Carry over 3036 -3890 balance -1012 -2024 2593 1297 Carry over 1297 -1012 balance -432 -864 675 337 Carry over 337 -432 balance -112 -225 288 144 Carry over 144 -112 balance -48 -96 75 37 Carry over 37 -48 balance -12 -25 32 16 Final moment 49646 -49646 35902 -35902 35902 65250 35902 = 124627.82 49646 0D 14516 83742 A 48748 1.5 x 81208 x 3.5 124627.

M. at F = 148904.3 = 0.155 x 2 83742000 = 2365 mm BMx100/σstxjxD= Ast = 150 x 0.82 )4000 x 3.1/2 x 14516 x 3.14xdia2 3.24 450 100 Ast = 0.155 1. at F = ### N -m 8 Net B.14 x 20 x 20 using 20 mm Φ bars A = = = 314 4 x100 4 Spacing of Bars =Ax1000/Ast 314 x 1000 / 2365 = 133 say = 130 mm Hence Provided mm Φ Bars @ 20 130 mm c/c Acual Ast provided 1000 x 314 / 130 = 2415 mm2 Bend half bars up near support at distance of L/5 = 3.83 2+ 1/16 x 14516 x 3.83 = Similarly.14 x 8 x 8 using 8 mm Φ bars A = = = 50 4 x100 4 Spacing of Bars = Ax1000/Ast = 50 x 1000 / 380 = 132 say = 130 mm Hence Provided mm Φ Bars @ 8 130 mm c/c on each face . = 1. at E = 119644 35902 = 83742 N-m 2 81208 x 3. B .M.80 m 0.5 x 7 x 0.378 / 3 = 0.82 x 3.874 x 270 3.8 35304 From which. hd =( 14516 x 3. = = 42774 + ### = 2 - 1/3 7245.874 R=1/2xc x j x k 0.83 2= Free B. = 83742 N -m for water side force wt.91 48748 N-m 5 Design of top slab : Case (i) (II) (II) Mid section The top slab is subjected to following values of B.5200 = 2 65250 x 3.87 x 0.378 K = 0.378 13 x 7 + 150 m*c+σst j=1-k/3 = 1 0.M.83 / 5 = 0.D 1000 x 270 = 84216794 > 83742000 O. Simply supported B. At mid span 4000 x 3.155 = Provide over all thickness = 320 mm so effective thicknesss = 270 mm 2 2 Mr = R . and direct force B. of concrete = 25000 N/m3 σst = = 150 N/mm2 7 N/mm2 wt of water = 9800 N/mm2 σcbc = = for water side force m = 13 m*c 13 x 7 k= = = 0. at Center (E) B.82 + -13744 + 29184.82 .83 2= Simply supporetd at mid sapn = 8 49646 + 35902 Net B.M.24 x 320 x 10 = 759 mm2 area on each face= ### 3.874 J = 0. ha = 5200 Hence . at mid point E = 119644 N-m 8 Net B.378 = R = 1.M.M.M.1 x( 320 100 % Area of distributionn steel = 0.82 x -ha x 3.M.M. at ends (A) Direct force (ha) 64569 55075 46852 73951 45069 23451 83742 35902 5200 The section will be design for maximum B.M.14xdia2 3.42 49646 = 99258 N-m For vertical member AD .56 5973.K. free B.

There is direct compression of 46852 N also.= 55075 N-m.378 = R = 1.M.155 = 99258416 = 294 mm 344 mm ∴ d = D = 1000 x 1.Section at supports :Maximum B. provide 8 mm dia.M.874 R=1/2xc x j x k 0.co.32 J = 0.32 J = 0.M.83 / 5 = 0.23 % 450 100 Ast = 0. But it effect is not considered because the slab is actually reinforced both at top and bottom . However.14xdia2 3.87 x 0.14xdia2 3.155 1. and direct force.5 x 7 x 0.378 K = 0. But it effect is not considered because the slab is actually reinforced both at top and bottom . at ends (D) Direct force (ha) (i) 77881 71023 69810 (II) 89315 58813 21404 (II) 99258 49646 7246 The section will be design for maximum B.= 71023 N-m.01 71023000 = = 1397 mm2 ∴ Ast . There is direct compression of 69810 N also.M. Additional bars @ 200 mm c/c 6 Design of bottom slab: The bottom slab has the following value of B.01 55075000 = = 1204 mm2 ∴ Ast 190 x 0.14 x 8 x 8 using 8 mm bars A = = = 50 4 x100 4 Spacing of Bars = Ax1000/Ast = 50 x 1000 / 400 = 126 say = 120 mm Hence Provided mm Φ Bars @ 8 120 mm c/c on each face Section at supports :Maximum B.in Area available from the bars bentup from the middle section = 2415 / 2 = ### mm2 1204 < ### Hence these bars will serve the purpose.378 13 x 7 + 150 m*c+σst j=1-k/3 = 1 0. of concrete = 25000 N/m3 σst = = 150 N/mm2 7 N/mm2 wt of water = 9800 N/mm2 σcbc = = for water side force m = 13 m*c 13 x 7 k= = = 0. σst = Since steel is at top 190 N/mm2 concrete M 20 k= 0.874 x 300 3. = 99258 N -m for water side force wt. Case B.89 R = 1. at Center (F) B. σst = Since steel is at top 190 N/mm2 concrete M 20 k= 0.874 J = 0.3 = 0.23 x 350 x 10 = 800 mm2 area on each face= 400 3.14 x 20 x 20 using 20 mm bars A = = = 314 4 x100 4 Spacing of Bars =Ax1000/Ast 314 x 1000 / 2523 = 124 say = 120 mm Hence Provided mm Φ Bars @ 20 120 mm c/c Acual Ast provided 1000 x 314 / 120 = 2617 mm2 Bend half bars up near support at distance of L/5 = 3.1 x( 350 100 Area of distributionn steel = 0.89 R = 1.155 Provide thickness of bottom slab D= 350 mm so that d = 300 mm 99258416 = 2523 mm2 BMx100/σstxjxD= Ast = 150 x 0.89 x 270 pk_nandwana@yahoo.M.80 m 0.378 / 3 = 0.M.

14 x 20 x 20 Asc = Ast = x = 1047 mm2 300 4 The depth of N.628000 - - 140000 n2 - ### n3 + - 628000 n -1256000 n -1256000 n 280 - -62800000 n ### + n 140000 n - x - -62800000 ### + -62800000 - 50 x 50 = 457 + 115 n = 572 ### ### n = = 0 572 .dc)(D . With cover of 50 mm and D = 330 mm 1000 3.n 2 .dt.n + (m . B.1)Asc 1 (n . hence additional reinforcement will provided.14xdia2 3. Additional reinforcemet required = 88. at ends (D) Direct force (ha) 7197 71023 155514 30523 58813 155108 48748 49646 155108 Case (i) (II) (II) The section will be design for maximum B.dt .5 ∴ e/D thickness of side wall is OK Let us reinforce the section with 20 mm Φ bars @ 300 mm c/c provided on both faces. 7 Design of side wall: The side wall has the following value of B.89 x 300 available from the bars bentup from the middle section = 2617 / Ast = 1397 > ### 2 = ### mm2 Fail . = 71023 Eccentricity = 71023 N -m.dc D .M. and direct force = 155514 x 1000 = 457 mm 155514 proposed thickness of side wall '= 330 mm 457 / 330 = 1.M.M.38 < 1.dc) n 3 3 D = e+ .A. and direct force.∴ Area = 1397 mm2 190 x 0.14 x 8 x 8 using 8 mm bars A = = = 50 4 x100 4 Spacing of Bars = Ax1000/Ast = 50 x 1000 / 89 = 567 say = 560 mm Hence Provided 8 mm Φ Bars @ 300 mm c/c throught out the slab. is computed from following expression: b n D . as shown in fig xxx .67 mm2 3.m Ast n n or 1000 n 2 1000 n+ 2 500 n 330 - 50 12 x ### x n 280 - 12560 500 n+ n n 3 - + n 3 + 12 x ### x n n n - 50 - 13 ### x 330 n n - 50 x - ### x n x n - 50 ### n2 + -1256000 - 500 n + 12560 multiply by n 140000 n2 500 n2 + ### n3 12560 + -1256000 n n.dt b n + (m -1) Asc n . at its bottom.dt .M. at Center (F) B.

65 7 23383 m c' 13 x 6.47 mm 12 x ### ( 91.K.21 N/mm2 < 190 N/mm2 O. .286000 n2 + 14967333 n -146000 n2 - 13711333 n -876 n2 + 82268 Solwing this trial and error we get.53 = 23383 155514 = < N/mm2 Stress is less than permissiable ∴ c' = 6.in or ### + 137.co.47 + x( 330 - - = 2538459733 -2475659733 14853958 91.91.47 ### x 188. Stress in steel is less than permissiable Hence section is O.K.47 ) n 91. n ∴ c' = ( 500 n = x 91.32 x 41.47 50 91.47 = 178.47 91.65 Also stress in steel t = (D-dc-n) = x ( 330 50 .47 ) 0 = 167 n3 - = n3 50 )- 13 x ### 91.47 pk_nandwana@yahoo.

in .co.pk_nandwana@yahoo.

cting from inside. .

5 64569 77881 155514 .-39828 55075 124627.

Net latral pressure diagram N-m 19000 45069 124627.5 73951 .

Net latral pressure diagram 89315 155108 N-m 14516 .

5 83742 99258 155108 .37436 35902 124627.

874 1.155 mm2 mm2 mm2 .N-m water side force 0.378 0.

874 1.mm dia. water side force 0.378 0.155 mm2 mm2 mm2 .

as shown -100 -n .mm2 N OK aces.

han permissiable .

.

50 330 .Box culverts 20mm Φ @ 260 mm c/c 8 mm Φ @ 200 mm C/C 8 mm Φ @ 130 mm C/c 320 20 mm Φ @ 700 20 mm Φ @ 130 mm C/C 300 mm C/C 3.50 8 mm Φ @ 130 mm C/C 20 mm Φ @ 120 mm c/c 350 20mm Φ @ 240 mm c/c 330 8 mm Φ @ 8 mm Φ @ 200 mm C/C 130 mm C/c 3.

00 and above Over all depth of slab κ Table 1.9 0.74 0.29 0.73 1.33 10 8.29 M 35 m σcbc k (a) σst = c jc 140 N/mm2 Rc (Fe 250) P (%) c kc (b) σst = j c 190 Rc N/mm2 Pc (%) (c ) σst = 230 N/mm2 (Fe 415) kc Grade of concrete M τbd (N / mm2 Table Grade of concrete jc 0.0 12.5 1450 11.18.67) M-20 13 (13.50 0.33 93.33 M 15 0.4 0.7 M 45 .31 1.98) M-30 9 (9.25 1.5 250 5.2 120 1.4 Grade of concrete M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 Modular Ratio σcbc N/mm2 18.4 0.25 2..98 8.3.15.87 1 1.73 0.9 0.33 7 10.99 2.2 3.46 1.0 800 11.00 2.33 93.43 0.75 1.71 1 1.47 1.89 0.89 0.2 100A M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 2. PERMISSIBLE DIRECT TENSILE STRESS Grade of concrete M-10 Tensile stress N/mm2 1.15 0.87 0.75 Table 1.25 0.4 bd < 0.9 0. MODULAR RATIO Grade of concrete M-10 Modular ratio 31 m (31.33 0.50 1.11) M-15 19 (18.0 2.8 80 0.6 60 0.11 11. VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS Table 3.4 0.0 500 4.5 1150 9.0 600 10.33) M-25 11 (10.33 93.0 700 5.4 0.9 0.89 0.0 400 7.25 0.4 140 3.43 1.87 0.33 93.29 0.0 1100 16.87 0.max Table 2.87 0.13 M 30 0.18) Table 3.61 0.33 0.86 0. Table 1.5 7.87 0.33 0.4 0.33 0.29 0.0 1600 1200 Permissible stress in bond (Average) for plain bars in tention (N/mm2) (N/mm2) in kg/m2 --0.03 1.8 3.21 1.5 850 6.33 93.0 1300 10.87 0.87 1.11) M-40 7 (7.33) M-35 8 (8.5 1.67 5 13.3 130 1.21 1.29 0.0 1000 14.64 1.65 0.9 M 25 0.16.0 4.1.0 100 1.24 1.5 9. Maxim Grade of concrete τc.0 900 13.0 1000 8.89 0.9 M 40 Rc 0.91 1.6 4.33 0.68 1.1 110 1.18 13 93.1.75 2.11 1.00 1.9 90 1.9 0. Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete M M M M M M M M M 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Bending αcbc Direct (αcc) 2 Kg/m Kg/m2 (N/mm2) (N/mm2) 3.89 0.Table 3.33 0.89 M 20 1.0 300 2.29 0.4 0.50 2.0 500 8.

45 1.46 0.18 0.44 0.15 0.00 1.26 0.93 0.75 0.35 0.5 0.97 0.17 0.34 0.47 1.18 0.25 0.27 0.44 1.38 0.53 0.26 0.70 0.31 0.27 0.64 0.17 0.23 0.26 0.33 0.91 0.36 0.72 0.37 0.31 0.00 0.42 M 50 tan 0.30 0.18 0.19 0.82 0.94 0.37 0.21 0.21 0.27 0.87 0.23 0.87 0.31 0.32 0.34 0.57 0.28 0.44 Reiforcement % 100As M-20 bd 0.39 1.16 0.57 0.29 0.18 0.2 0.19 0.25 0.38 0.21 0.38 0.46 1.32 0.13 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.25 0.49 0.29 0.97 0.82 0.51 0.96 0.33 0.30 0.35 0.49 2.50 2.39 0.44 0.92 0.19 0.48 1.36 0.96 0.22 0.22 0.65 0.58 0.29 0.73 2.18 0.71 0.88 0.27 0.36 0.22 0.24 0.37 0.22 0.64 0.75 0.33 0.92 0.45 0.40 0.21 0.2 0.00 0.3 0.29 0.24 0.63 Degree 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 0.43 0.63 0.98 0.34 0.21 0.77 0.36 0.2 0.25 0.50 0.29 0.23 0.91 0.41 0.28 0.30 0.16 0.50 0.41 1.42 0.5 0.50 0.39 0.27 0.24 0.26 0.47 0.24 0.6 0.47 0.19 0.4 1.42 0.24 0.27 0.88 0.51 2.41 0.32 0.21 0.95 0.97 0.25 0.82 Value of angle sin cos 0.43 1.24 0.46 1.18 0.19 0.23 0.21 0.29 0.7 0.28 0.77 0.4 0.43 1.82 0.32 0.94 0.47 0.29 0.42 1.48 0.42 0.31 0.25 0.35 0.19 0.34 0.28 0.41 0.55 0.98 0.30 0.28 0.95 0.52 M-20 0.45 0.2 0.38 0.19 0.71 0.25 0.24 0.18 0.21 0.26 0.08 0.23 0.84 1.27 0.98 0.3 0.19 1.22 0.93 0.2 0.64 0.14 .31 0.15 0.41 0.26 0.33 0.(c ) σst = 230 N/mm2 (Fe 415) Pc (%) Shear stress tc 100As bd 0.

35 0.34 0.33 0.8 0.7 0.82 0.31 0.38 0.38 0.66 0.35 0.33 0.36 0.86 0.38 0.30 0.30 0.99 1.33 0.76 0.37 0.32 0.33 0.02 0.57 0.68 0.67 0.94 0.39 0.81 0.37 0.98 0.89 0.88 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.72 0.59 0.6 0.34 0.36 0.96 0.36 0.32 0.33 0.92 0.85 0.36 0.58 0.38 0.75 0.01 1.61 0.62 0.9 0.84 0.87 0.91 0.37 0.55 0.71 0.64 0.31 0.32 0.93 0.54 0.36 0.34 0.39 0.31 0.53 0.79 0.00 1.37 0.38 0.83 0.38 0.35 0.77 0.74 0.97 0.69 0.36 0.35 0.73 0.37 0.39 .31 0.56 0.32 0.35 0.32 0.78 0.35 0.0.63 0.65 0.31 0.95 0.37 0.

1.41 0.22 1.44 0.43 0.43 0.36 1.03 1.50 1.37 1.45 0.33 1.43 0.43 0.44 1.45 1.49 1.40 1.48 1.15 1.44 0.41 0.4 0.27 1.10 1.41 0.12 1.46 1.21 1.4 0.41 0.4 0.42 0.41 0.4 0.44 0.23 1.4 0.28 1.42 0.41 0.25 1.42 0.08 1.29 1.07 1.34 1.24 1.38 1.41 0.44 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.13 1.47 1.30 1.4 0.39 0.26 1.44 0.42 0.45 .14 1.19 1.39 0.05 1.43 1.43 0.43 0.4 0.41 0.52 0.18 1.20 1.43 0.35 1.51 1.39 0.11 1.45 0.17 1.4 0.32 1.04 1.41 0.44 0.44 0.39 0.06 1.41 1.31 1.42 0.44 0.39 1.39 0.42 1.42 0.16 1.09 1.44 0.

45 0.69 1.48 0.48 0.48 0.84 1.62 1.45 0.00 2.96 1.46 0.46 0.48 0.67 1.59 1.58 1.49 0.47 0.66 1.93 1.91 1.45 0.45 0.86 1.47 0.01 2.02 0.47 0.48 0.47 0.55 1.48 0.79 1.92 1.48 0.46 0.76 1.74 1.1.47 0.87 1.54 1.46 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.81 1.71 1.48 0.47 0.56 1.46 0.48 0.49 0.75 1.47 0.94 1.90 1.46 0.49 .47 0.73 1.64 1.48 0.57 1.78 1.45 0.85 1.97 1.47 0.48 0.95 1.46 0.98 1.45 0.72 1.80 1.89 1.45 0.48 0.82 1.60 1.88 1.53 1.77 1.45 0.45 0.63 1.46 0.65 1.83 1.47 0.99 2.61 1.70 1.46 0.45 0.68 1.

14 2.51 0.50 0.51 0.48 2.20 2.49 2.31 2.49 0.44 2.35 2.52 0.51 0.15 2.50 0.51 0.51 0.50 2.49 0.30 2.22 2.50 0.41 2.10 2.18 2.19 2.51 0.50 0.16 2.51 0.49 0.08 2.07 2.13 2.09 2.27 2.51 0.50 0.50 0.12 2.04 2.51 0.46 2.17 2.47 2.43 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.25 2.42 2.51 0.49 0.51 0.51 2.23 2.05 2.24 2.38 2.36 2.51 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.40 2.29 2.50 0.45 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.49 0.49 0.03 2.51 0.51 0.50 0.26 2.51 0.39 2.32 2.51 0.2.50 0.50 0.34 2.51 0.33 2.21 2.51 0.06 2.28 2.51 .51 0.51 0.37 2.49 0.11 2.50 0.49 0.51 0.

51 0.76 2.70 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.01 3.57 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.75 2.87 2.64 2.58 2.51 0.80 2.71 2.60 2.74 2.88 2.66 2.85 2.51 0.99 3.67 2.51 0.73 2.54 2.90 2.61 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.59 2.51 0.51 0.95 2.83 2.51 0.92 2.51 0.72 2.51 0.51 0.89 2.69 2.53 2.51 0.91 2.02 0.51 0.81 2.79 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.2.51 0.51 0.62 2.98 2.51 0.51 0.55 2.84 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.00 3.51 0.51 0.78 2.51 0.96 2.97 2.51 0.63 2.51 0.94 2.51 0.51 0.77 2.68 2.51 0.56 2.93 2.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.65 2.51 0.86 2.82 2.51 0.51 .

12 3.03 3.51 0.3.51 0.51 0.15 0.13 3.51 0.11 3.14 3.06 3.51 .10 3.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.07 3.09 3.51 0.04 3.08 3.51 0.51 0.05 3.

48 0.18 0.8 25 0.44 0.18 0.1 40 1.39 0.55 0.35 0.31 0.20 175 1.2 0.2 0.1.50 0.22 0.75 2.75 1.45 0.31 0.52 0.6 36 1.76 33 1.8 44 1.96 60 0.6 20 0.52 0.58 0.38 0.57 M-30 0.6 58 0. Permissible shear stress Table τc in concrete (IS : 456-2000) 100As Permissible shear stress in concrete tc N/mm2 M-15 0.5.Y.40 0.3.25 Table 3.9 30 1 35 1.00 and above M-20 0.51 M-25 0.30 Table 3.22 0.44 0.50 0.2 M-35 2.62 M-40 0.23 0.3 M-40 2.44 0.25 2.6 Grade of concrete τc.49 0.15 150 or less 1.08 28 45 1.44 0.44 0.55 0.25 1.00 275 1.37 0.60 0.49 0.42 0.57 0.D.54 0.2 Table 3.75 3.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000) M-15 1.51 0.2 29 1.42 0. Bars (N / mm2) kd = Ld Φ 0.2 0.25 0.57 0.36 0.31 0.23 0. Facor k Over all depth of slab 300 or more κ 1.37 0.46 0. Development Length in tension τbd Plain M.50 1. Bars (N / mm2) kd = Ld Φ τbd H.S.45 0.49 0.56 0.10 225 1.53 0.max M-20 1.1 32 1.92 30 1.58 0.51 0.00 1.3 27 2.S.56 0.34 0.23 0.62 0.63 200 1. Permissible Bond stress Table τbd in concrete (IS : 456-2000) 10 -- 15 0.4 .00 2.50 2.47 0.51 0.45 0.6 M-35 0.40 0.9 M-30 2.49 0.29 0.60 0.5 Table 3.30 0.44 40 1 35 1.Table 3.44 0.41 0.05 250 1.42 0.55 0.23 0.19 0.37 0.46 0.9 39 1.51 0.4.15 0.2.44 bd < 0.32 0.8 M-25 1.53 0.3 50 1.28 45 0. Maximum shear stress τc.42 0.

95 0.21 0.77 0.14 25 Value of angle Degree sin 10 0.38 0.70 0.96 0.64 45 0.50 35 0.24 15 0.00 1.1.73 2.93 0.32 0.31 19 0.92 0.58 0.42 30 0.34 0.82 60 0.41 25 0.29 18 0.21 13 0.82 0.47 0.27 0.71 0.19 1.23 0.25 0.98 0.42 26 .37 23 0.57 0.43 1.64 0.84 1.36 0.19 12 0.95 0.42 0.33 20 0.98 0.97 0.91 2.23 14 0.39 24 0.26 16 0.93 0.98 0.94 0.91 0.17 11 0.97 0.87 65 0.57 40 0.96 0.29 0.87 0.40 0.45 0.19 0.50 0.24 cos 0.77 55 0.28 17 0.4 tan 0.71 50 0.36 22 0.97 0.34 21 0.31 0.92 0.18 0.