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Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix

A: Stem-Changing Verbs ending in -ir B: Summary of the Subjunctive C: Verbs Used Reflexively D: Prepositions following verbs E: Definition of Grammar Terms F: Transitional Phrases

Appendix A: SPANISH STEM-CHANGING VERB SUMMARY All Spanish verbs have a stem (la raz) and an ending (-ar, -er, -ir): pensar, volver, pedir. There is a large group of verbs that change their stem in the present (indicative and subjunctive) tenses when the stem vowel is stressed. There are three types: -e to -ie-, -o- to -ue-, and -e- to -i-: pensar (ie)piensopiensaspiensapensamospensispiensan(to think) volver (ue)vuelvovuelvesvuelvevolvemosvolvisvuelven(to come back) pedir (i)pidopidespidepedimospedspiden(to ask [for]) Common verbs following these patterns in the present tense: e > ie: cerrar, comenzar, empezar, entender, invertir, mentir, pensar, perder, preferir, querer, sentir e > i: elegir, (im)pedir, repetir, seguir, sentir, servir, (son)rer, vestir o > ue: contar, dormir, encontrar, morir, mostrar, poder, resolver, volar, volver Jugar has a different stem change, from u to ue in the same places: juego, juegas, juega, jugamos, jugis, juegan. -ir verbs of this kind also change their stem from -o to -u and -e to -i in the following forms: Gerund (-iendo) sintiendo, durmiendo, pidiendo present subjunctive "nosotros" form: sintamos, durmamos, pidamos preterite "l" and "ellos"forms: sinti, sintieron; durmi, durmieron; pidi, pidieron all the past subjunctive: sintiera; durmiramos; pidieran

Appendix B: SPANISH SUBJUNCTIVE SUMMARY. USE THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN CLAUSES PRECEDED BY: 1. an expression of INFLUENCE (indirect command):* 2. an expression of EMOTION:* 3. an expression of DOUBT or DISBELIEF: 4. an expression of DENIAL: 5. a hypothetical or nonexistent person or thing: Quieren que funcione.*

Es bueno que funcione.* Noun clauses (46) No creen que funcione. No es verdad que funcione. Buscan un programa que Adjective clauses funcione. (47) Lo usarn cuando funcione. 6. a conjunction presenting a hypothetical Adverb clauses No lo usarn hasta* que or anticipated event:* (50) funcione. Si funcionara, lo usaran. 7. the conjunction "if" (si) (Never use the present for unlikely or contrary-to-fact events, "if" clauses (52) subjunctive (past subjunctive only): after si) 8. Ojal (que), a menos que, no hay +nada/nadie/ningn+ que ("No hay nada que funcione") * in these cases the infinitive is used when there is only one subject: Esperan hasta terminar. (they

wait until they finish)

APPENDIX C: VERBS USED REFLEXIVELY APNDICE C: VERBOS PRONOMINALES Spanish uses many verbs with a reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nos, os, se) in order to convey the following meanings (see 40): a. any action perform No me conozco. I don't know myself. ed on oneself: b. a reciproc Nos queremos. We love each other. al action: c. a nondeliberat Te caste? Did you fall down? e action: Me romp el brazo. I broke my arm. d. to stress the totality of certain actions, generally related to consumption: Nos comimos el arroz. We ate up the rice. Me aprend las palabras. I learned all words (thoroughly). e. with many transitive verbs (those which require a direct object, such as "to communicate something": comunicar algo), in order to show they are being used intransitively (without a direct object): Es importante comunicarse. It is important to communicate. The following list includes common verbs of this kind, some of which have different meanings with or without the reflexive pronoun. The prepositions shown in parenthesis are usually attached to these verbs when followed by the infinitive or a subordinate clause with que: se aseguraron de cerrar la puerta / de que la puerta estuviera cerrada. See notes below for verbs marked *, , , : acordar acostar acostumbrar alegrar* apropiarse (de) arrepentirse (de) asegurar asustar* atreverse (a) callar cansar* casar comportar comunicar confundir* convertir decidir despertar detener divertir* dormir to agree to to put someone to bed be in the habit of to cheer someone acordarse (de) to acostarse to acostumbrarse (a) to alegrarse (de) to remember go to bed get used be glad, happy that...

to take possession of (abusively) (only used reflexively) to repent, to regret doing something (only used reflexively) to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to lock, to insure frighten dare (only used reflexively) silence someone tire someone marry someone else entail or bring about communicate something confuse change into. decide wake someone up stop someone, detain amuse someone sleep asegurarse (de) asustarse callarse cansarse (de) casarse (con) comportarse comunicarse (con) confundirse (por) convertirse (en) decidirse (a) despertarse detenerse (a) divertirse dormirse to make sure of to get frightened to stop speaking to get tired to get married to behave to communicate (with) to get confused or lost to become (see 40C) to make up one's mind to wake up to stop to have fun, enjoy oneself

to go to sleep to insist on; persist in to fall in love (with) to get angry to grow sad to make a mistake esforzarse (por) to make an effort to, to strive to (mostly used reflexively) to be puzzled extraarse* to graduate (from extraar to miss someone graduarse (de/en) school) graduar to graduate something hacerse to become (see 40C) hacer to do, to make imaginarse to imagine (to suppose) imaginar to conceive of, invent ideas independizarse to become independent independizar to make independent interesarse to be(come) interested interesar* to interest someone (en,por) to go away ir to go somewhere irse (de un lugar) to get up levantar to lift levantarse to be called...(name) llamar to call llamarse to take away (with) llevar to carry somewhere llevarse to go away marchar to march marcharse(de) to get better from an mejorar to improve mejorarse illness molestar* to annoy, to bother molestarse (por) to become annoyed morir to die morirse (de) to die (naturally; used negar to deny negarse (a) inf.) ocurrir to happen ocurrrsele a uno to refuse olvidar to forget olvidarse (de) to occur to one (an idea) parecer to seem (to look) parecerse (a to forget accidentally perder to lose alguien) to look (a)like (similar to) poner to put perderse to get lost; to miss an preparar to prepare something ponerse a(hacer...) event preocupar* to worry someone prepararse (para) to set out to quedar to remain, to be left preocuparse (por) to get prepared (for) quedarse (a) to be worried (about) to stay quejarse (de) to complain (about) (only used reflexively) rebelarse to rebel (mostly used reflexively) referir to tell of, recount referirse a to refer to to resist (against) resistir to bear, to stand something resistirse (a) to get broken romper to break; to tear romperse to sit down sentar to sit someone; to settle sentarse (a) to feel (with adjectives sentir to feel sentirse (+adj.)(de) only) sorprender* to surprise someone sorprenderse (de) to be surprised suicidarse to commit suicide (only used reflexively) unir to put together unirse to unite, get together unirse a (transitive) to join someone or something vestir to dress someone vestirse to get dressed volver (de) to return (from) volverse to turn round or into Notes: * Verbs that express personal reaction are often placed at the beginning of transitive constructions with indirect objects, making them similar to their intransitive, reflexive counterparts. Compare, for example: Intransitive, with reflexive pronoun Transitive, with indirect object pronoun Se alegran de que hayas vuelto. Les alegra que hayas vuelto. They're glad you came back. Your coming back makes them glad. Se cansaron de la astrologa. Les cans la astrologa. They got tired of astrology. Astrology tired them. empear enamorar enojar* entristecer* equivocar to to to to to pawn; to pledge make someone fall in love anger sadden mistake, mix up empearse( en) enamorarse (de) enojarse (por) entristecerse equivocarse

Among several other meanings, quedar is used in the sense of "having something left", as in Nos queda algo de dinero: "We have some money left" (used like gustar: see 39). Quedarse ciego/sordo/mudo/viudo/solo means "to become", particularly for a long-lasting sense of loss. These verbs can be used in a particular passive construction combining se and the indirect object pronouns to stress undeliberateness: se me confunden los datos, se les olvid la cita, se le perdieron las llaves, se te qued el paraguas, se nos rompi el telfono (see 41). "To occur to someone" in the sense of getting a sudden idea or impression is expressed by ocurrir in this kind of construction: Se me ha ocurrido una genial idea. Molestarse en hacer algo means "to bother do something" in the sense of not being inclined to do it.

APPENDIX D: VERBS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS BEFORE THE INFINITIVE APNDICE D: VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE PREPOSICIN ANTES DEL INFINITIVO Many Spanish verbs need no preposition before an infinitive: Merecen ser libres: They deserve to be free. However, the following list shows some common verbs that do need a preposition before the infinitive, e.g. Sueo con viajar: I dream about traveling. - Verbs marked with an asterisk (*) take a for all direct objects, not just the usual "personal" a: Ayudan al desarrollo. - Verbs of motion such as ir, bajar, entrar, etc., always use a before an infinitive for destination, and de for origin: Vengo de hacer compras. Subi a ver al mdico. acabar de: acabo de estar ah acusar de *animar a (algo) *ayudar a (algo) cesar de comenzar a *condenar a (algo) consentir en consistir en *contribuir a (algo) convenir en cuidar de dejar de depender de *desafiar a (algo) dudar en empezar a ensear a forzar a impulsar a *incitar a (algo) insistir en invitar a llevar a mandar a *obligar a (algo) pasar a persistir en *persuadir a (algo) presumir de quedar en *renunciar a (algo) soar con *tender a (algo) terminar de tratar de volver a (hacer) I've just been there accuse of encourage to help to cease from begin to condemn to consent to consist of contribute to agree to take care to leave off, stop doing something depend on challenge to hesitate over begin to show how to; teach to force to urge on to incite to insist on invite to lead to send to oblige to go on to persist on persuade to boast about agree to (used informally) renounce dream about tend to finish try to (do) again

APPENDIX E: GRAMMATICAL TERMS APNDICE E: TRMINOS GRAMATICALES Adjectives [adjetivos]. Words to describe nouns: good movie, several issues, one flower. Adverbs [adverbios]. Words to provide information about verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. He speaks well. It's very good. They performed incredibly well. Articles [artculos]. Definite: the (el, la, los, las, lo); indefinite: a, an (un, una). Clause [clusula]. A part of a sentence including an additional verb (with its own subject): They hope(main that(conjunctio you go.(subordinate clause) n) clause) Within a sentence, clauses may serve the function of a noun (noun clause), an adjective (adjective clause), or an adverb (adverb clause). For example, in the sentence Her books are good, books is the subject (a function of a noun). If, instead of her books, the subject is another sentence such as what she writes, this sentence will be a noun clause: What she writes clause noun is good

Conjunctions [conjunciones]. Words that connect two other words or phrases: and, or, however, although y, o, sin embargo, aunque Conjugation [conjugacin]. Verbs may adopt different endings according to the tense (worked) or the person (he works). This process is called inflection or conjugation. In Spanish, a verb is conjugated whenever it is not in its infinitive, participle or gerund forms. Demonstratives [demostrativos]. this, that, these, those Gender [gnero]. This word is used to indicate whether something is masculine or feminine in Spanish: The gender of el libro is masculine, the gender of la casa is feminine. Gerund [gerundio] (or present participle) . Verb form (-ing) that combines with to be in phrases such as: is sleeping, was studying. (hablando, comiendo, viviendo) In English, the gerund is often used as a noun: I like the book (noun) I like studying (noun). BUT Spanish uses the infinite in this role: Me gusta el libro me gusta estudiar Imperative Mood [modo imperativo]. The form of the verb used for commands: Come! (ven, venga, vengan, venid)

Indicative Mood [modo indicativo]. Verb tenses that present actions or occurrences as factual: I lived here. He won't go. Infinitive. The basic form of the verb, as found in the dictionary: to speak (hablar), to eat (comer), to live (vivir). The infinitive is often used as the object of another verb: I hate to fry . Odio frer. Nouns [sustantivos]. Words to name things or people: book (libro), liberty (libertad), author (autor). In sentences, nouns are generally the subject or the object of a verb: Authors write books. Number [nmero]. This term is used to indicate whether something is singular or plural: house, casa (singular) houses, casas (plural) Object [objeto o complemento]. Part of the sentence that undergoes the action expressed by the verb. Examples: She wrote a letter to Pedro. the letter is the direct object (what did she write?) Pedro is the indirect object (to whom did she write?) She told him the secret. the secret is the direct object (what?) him is the indirect object (to whom?) She took him to a doctor. him is the direct object (what?, whom?) the doctor is the indirect object (to whom?) Past Participle [participio]. The verb form used either as an adjective or in compound tenses after the verb have (haber): As an adjective: He is lost, she was needed. In compund tenses with to have: He had lost the game. She hasn't needed anything. Person [persona]. In English, I is the first person singular, he/she/it are the third person singular, we is the first person plural, they is the third person plural, you is the second person singular or plural. Phrase [frase]. Any group of words that make sense together: the big city things generally kept in the refrigerator Possessives [posesivos]. Words indicating ownership, such as my (mi), yours (tuyo), our (nuestro), etc. Prepositions [preposiciones]. Words that convey a sense of position (spatial or conceptual): with (con), to (a, para), in, on, at (en), etc. Pronouns [pronombres]. Words that stand in place of nouns or noun phrases already mentioned:she, it, him, etc. Martha loves her city. She loves it.

Reflexive [reflexivo]. A pronoun that indicates actions performed on oneself, in which the subject and the object of the verb are one and the same (me, te, se, nos, os, se): We see ourselves clearly. I washed myself. Sentence [oracin]. A group of words including at least one (conjugated) verb and conveying a complete thought (subject, verb, object): Martha loves the city. Subject. Generally, the person or thing that performs the action in a sentence. For example "New York grew rapidly." New York (who grew?) is the subject. Subjunctive Mood [modo subjuntivo]. Verb tenses that indicate non-factual actions or occurrences. In the sentences If I were you, or I insist that he be here, the verb to be is in the subjunctive mood. Tenses [tiempos]. Forms of the verb that indicate aspects of time, e.g. past, present, future. A perfect tense conveys a completed action: I will have written the letter by tomorrow. An imperfect tense describes ongoing actions: I was studying. Verbs [verbos]. Generally, words that convey actions, such as to go (ir), to work (trabajar). Verbs that may take a direct object are called transitive: - John wrote the letters; he communicated the news to his family. Letters and the news are the direct objects of the transitive verbs to write and to communicate. Verbs that may not take a direct object are called intransitive: - John works hard and communicates effectively. The verbs to work and to communicate are intransitive in this sentence because it is unnecessary for them to take a direct object. APPENDIX F. TRANSITIONAL PHRASES APNDICE F. FRASES DE TRANSICIN CAUSA a causa de (que) because of debido a (que) due to por because of porque because OJO como because, since ya que because, since puesto que because, since dado que given that AADIR adems (de) besides, furthermore hay que aadir (que) it is EFECTO as (que) thus en consecuencia as a result como resultado as a result OJO por consiguiente therefore por lo tanto therefore por eso therefore, for that reason EXPLICAR es decir that is to say o sea that is to say en otras palabras

worth adding otro elemento es... OJO CONTRASTE en cambio on the other hand, instead por otra parte on the other hand por otro lado no obstante nevertheless, however sin embargo nevertheless, however a diferencia de in contrast to en contraste con in contrast to a pesar de (que) in spite of, despite por el contrario on the contrary al contrario on the contrary en vez de instead of con todo nevertheless, still pero / sino but aunque although, even though GENERALIZAR en general por lo general generalmente INTRODUCIR En primer lugar Para empezar En primer trmino Ante todo

esto es i.e. SIMILITUD as como similarly de la misma manera in the same way de manera semejante in a similar fashion del mismo modo in the same way OJO igual que like + noun igualmente similarly tal como just as tanto... como... both... and... OJO

ESPECIFICAR por ejemplo especficamente en concreto CONCLUIR

En conclusin En suma Para concluir Finalmente OJO: Nunca se dice "porque because of se expresa simplemente con la preposicin por: de" because of the circumstances : por las circunstancias Si no se est respondiendo a la pregunta "Por qu?", no es aceptable comenzar una oracin con Porque. Para iniciar una oracin, puede usarse: Ya que, Puesto que, Como, Dado que. "a result" se dice: Tambin existe el verbo "resultar". resultado. nunca se dice "un otro", "una otra", simplemente: otro, otra Atencin a la de esta manera, de tal modo, De qu manera?, un modo preposicin de: de... El adjetivo "ambos/as" slo puede usarse para referirse a dos elementos idnticos: "ambos libros", "ambas culturas". Para establecer similitud entre dos elementos distintos (both... and...), debe usarse

la expresin invariable tanto... como... : "Tanto las novelas como los poemas", "Tanto el amo como el esclavo". (ver 31)