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When asked what is Interpersonal skills, the answers quite straight forward, people interacting with other people, that's what interpersonal skill means. We all start doing it from the moment we're born. And if all goes well as we grow up, we get more skilled at communicating our wants and needs, our feelings and thoughts. We also learn to interpret other people’s feelings in turn, so that in adulthood we are aware of how our behavior impacts on others. People with good interpersonal skills are easy to be around. They tend to connect with other people effortlessly, they seem to know the right things to say and they make communication in general an easy process. Interpersonal skills are one of those things that we really notice when someone lacks it. When we're in new or awkward situations or when we imagine that there are rules of behavior that everyone else seems to know but us. Mastering interpersonal skills is very essential in today’s globalized business world. As communication is the corners stones of modern business, how are we supposed to survive and thrive when we can’t communicate with our peers? Interpersonal skills are not only required for running a business but also one of the key components of performance appraisal. If any of the two parties in performance appraisal namely, appraiser or appraisee lack interpersonal skills the appraisal will not be effective. If the appraiser lack interpersonal skills he/she will not be able to convey his/her messages to the appraisee regarding what he/she expects of the appraise and thinks of his/her performance. On the other hand, if appraisee lacks interpersonal skills he/she will not be able to convey his/her end of the discussion thus jeopardizing his/her career progress.
This paper aims to help readers indentify why interpersonal skills are essential for performance appraisal and how they can be incorporated in a Performance Appraisal. 1.3 Objective of the study The objective of the study is to implicate the need of interpersonal skills in effective performance appraisal and point out means to include interpersonal skills in a Performance Appraisal Interview. One can learn how to deal with the feelings that arise in difficult situations instead of being overwhelmed by them.2 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal It is quite possible to develop effective interpersonal skills. The purpose of the term paper is to give students more in-depth understanding of the concept of Performance Appraisals and its components through reviewing existing data. I. It also provides pointers to readers on how to incorporate interpersonal skills in Performance Appraisal. 1. with a little effort.4.2 Implication of this study This paper will help us draw a relation of dependency with performance appraisal and interpersonal skills. 1.1 Data Source .4 Methodology: The methodology of the study is as follows: 1.1 Origin of the study This paper is a requirement of Performance Appraisal and Compensation Systems (HRM 604) offered in School of Business in North South University.
analyzing data of qualitative type. They can also be referred as people skills or communication skills. if you intend to get some information from your colleague we can say “Excuse me I need this year’s financial statement urgently” This statement will allow the professional to make their own judgment regarding the importance of their current task versus entering into a discussion with their colleague.4. In the world of business the term "interpersonal skills" is used as the measure of an individual’s ability to work utilize social communication and interactions within business organizations.0 GENERAL BACKGROUNDS Interpersonal skills are the skills that an individual uses to interact with other individuals.3 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal Secondary information has been collected via the course text book. Not being able to collect a larger amount of data The study was developed by 2. Following these kinds of heuristics to achieve . For instance. published Journals and the internet.3 Limitations • • Researchers lack of experience. While it is generally understood that interrupting someone with an "urgent" request will often take priority.2 Research Design This is basically a secondary research. We understand that communicating respect for other people or professionals within will enable one to reduce conflict and increase participation or assistance in obtaining information or completing tasks. 1.4. 1.
." Success may be elusive until the importance of face-to-face communication is recognized.. Henry Mintzberg concluded that private sector managers typically spend approximately 80 percent of their time communicating with others. Organizations echo too frequently the refrain: "But I thought I told you to. Employee participation is critical in gaining the initial acceptance and understanding that is essential ." followed by "But I thought you said that . Yet another classic study indicates that in no more than half the instances studied did a subordinate receive the message sent by the superior. activities of organizational life. Gary E. And the specific need for effective face-to.' 2. Roberts' research at the municipal level of USA government led him to conclude that the second most important factor leading to employee acceptance of performance appraisal is the face-to-face communication.face communication is nowhere more critical than in the performance appraisal interview. One conclusion to be drawn is that interpersonal communication is among the most central. yet least utilized. to increase similarity of performance appraisal information interpretations of both the appraiser and appraisee. to develop more valid measures of performance and. In a classic study.1 WHY WE NEED OF INTERPERSONAL SKILLS Managers generally spend more time communicating than in any other activity. to present alternative explanations. Hence. Employee participation in the appraisal interview and goal setting grants the appraisee an opportunity to disprove inaccurate performance appraisal information. to set achievable objectives .4 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal better professional results generally results in a professional being ranked as one with 'good interpersonal skills.. one of the most valuable skills that a manager can possess is the ability to effectively communicate with others. to provide new information..
Employees are more satisfied with their appraisal interviews and with their managers who conduct them when they feel they have participated more in the appraisal process. If the appraiser and appraisee lack the skills to communicate what they want from each other. effective interpersonal skills are very essential for a performance appraisal process. Another critical part of appraisal focuses on individual abilities. Performance appraisals are regular assessment of employees’ performance.5 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal for effective implementation. contribution and professional needs. particularly in the appraisal interview. These critical elements cannot be investigated and pointed out unless both the appraiser and the appraisee do not communicate it. recognizing the strength and weaknesses of performances and also to plan for the future activities based on business objectives. . An essential element for a successful performance appraisal interview has been found to be the concept of participation by the subordinate whereby they feel encouraged to speak and offer their views. their success and setbacks in the previous projects. especially the manager possesses good interpersonal skills. 3.0 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Appraisal is assessment in a structured way. This can only be achieved when both parties. This is better achieved when both appraiser and appraisee are equipped with adequate interpersonal skills. their level of knowledge and skills and their aspirations as a professional individual. Hence. the entire process will be nothing but a waste of time and company funds. The main aims of appraisals include discovering further personal and professional development requirements.
tools and necessary trainings which would help employees in developing the skills and experience needed in achieving the business objectives they are responsible for. Realistic and Time-based). team leader or a supervisor who is very familiar with employees’ job description and responsibilities and their current projects. Clear objectives help employers to assess how each employee’s input is towards the main goals of the business and if not how they can be guided towards the aims by developing further skills and gaining relative knowledge and experience. when and at what level of completion. to convey what both parties require from each other both must possess good interpersonal skills An appraisal will be successful when it sets clear goals and SMART objectives (Specific. The appraiser is usually a project manager. Measurable. A structured appraisal system benefits both employer and employees in the business. the process has to be mutually beneficial both need to convey their requirements. This aspect of appraisal also facilitate possible changes needed in the structure of the teams responsible for different projects. So. the way smaller components of the organization work . Since. Conducting appraisal in a form of discussion helps identifying needs to come up with resources. These objectives need to be set by discussing it with the appraisee. employers are stating what they want from an employer.6 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal Most appraisals are carried out once or twice a year or in some cases after every project. Achievable. By setting unambiguous and detailed objectives. SMART objectives help the employee to have a better understanding of what is expected of them and therefore provide them with a better framework to perform. An appraiser is not God who will know everything that will benefit his/her employee’s career. Here interpersonal skill helps appraiser to obtain insights into the views and attitudes of the appraisee and objectives that can be practically achieved based on the appraisee’s competence can be sorted out.
7 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal and can illuminates methods to improve their performances. The session should also recognize and acknowledge individuals contribution. . The success of an appraisal session depends on how much it motivates and encourages employees to perform to the best of their abilities and improve in the areas where it needs more development. We will now further discuss how interpersonal skills can be incorporated in a performance appraisal interview. If the appraiser lacks communication skills he won’t e able generate the above mentioned understandings in the appraisee’s psyche. 3. shares in the company or promotion. efficiency and hard work in the way of praise and financial incentives such as bonuses. We can see that utilizing interpersonal skills an appraiser can learn what they need to do to help appraisees improve their performance and learn about their effectiveness as a leader. It implicates that after the end of the appraisal discussion the appraisee should feel valued and learn how to make better use of their strengths and what is required to overcome shortcomings. pay rise. especially for boosting employee motivation (interpersonal skills in performance appraisal). If the appraiser lack interpersonal skills he won’t be much of a motivator. A professionally satisfied employee works more efficiently and diligently and benefits the business or organization immensely. Interpersonal communication theorist Alan Ivey has provided various useful means to incorporate interpersonal skills in an performance appraisal interview. Here we can see the appraiser has to play the role of motivator.1 WAYS TO INCORPORATE INTERPERSONAL SKILLS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL By now we have come to realize how crucial interpersonal skills are for running a business.
to the U. This approach may seem unnecessary. Ivey identified and assembled these elements into a set of communication skill units that he terms the "micro skills. Alan Ivey. In the performance appraisal interview this means that the superior sits with a slight. has sought to identify and convey the elements of interpersonal skills that can be incorporated in a Performance Appraisal. State Department and Central Intelligence Agency. The micro skills are well suited to the needs of managers in the public sector . maintains eye contact. 5 )Reflection of Feelings and Feedbacks The effective use of the micro skills specifically encourages the participation and upward flow of communication from appraisee to appraiser.8 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal For more than two decades. but comfortable forward lean of his/her upper body. 4) Paraphrasing. but Ray Birdwhistell. and Siemens (Germany). 2) Open ended Questions.especially in the often stressful situation of the performance appraisal interview." These elements have been tested in hundreds of data-based field studies. Six micro skills will be introduced here. The micro skills are as follows: - 3. and have been adopted by organizations ranging from Fortune 500 corporations such as Digital. Prime Computer (USA).S. . These are 1) Nonverbal Body Language. and even peculiar. Amherst. and speaks in a very comforting voice.1 The Basic Nonverbal Body Language Micro skills Effective face-to-face communication has to begin by nonverbally attending to another individual. interpersonal communication theorist at the University of Massachusetts. 3) Closed Ended Questions. Ericsson (Sweden).1.
2 Open Ended and Close Ended Questions The Performance Appraisal Interview can bring resourceful insights if Open ended and close ended questions are utilized." "Would. Open and closed questions help the appraiser to keep the discussion centered to the topic. and spoke to us in a harsh. estimated in his research that 65-70% of all face-to. In open questions one can ask by beginning with the words "Could. 3." or "Why". One ended questions helps to ensure. closed questions encourage more specific responses. Combining these words with a nonjudgmental approach. . we can imagine how we would feel if our performance was being appraised by an individual who leaned backward (not forward) in his/her chair. the most general and. Each type of question has its own benefit." "What. avoided eye contact.face communication is nonverbal.1. or pointing out specific pieces of information. grating voice. On the other hand Close ended questions are useful in clarifying. help the most specific flow of communication. Close ended questions. But can be utilized where the Appraiser seeks to explore or understand a particularly complex or ambiguous area. or upon the retrieval of specific facts. The effective use of the non-verbal attending skills subtly but powerfully encourages other individuals to communicate with us. Open questions encourage the subordinate to provide more general information. These help steer the conversation to narrower areas. an appraiser will encourage lengthy. general responses." "How. To further justify the use of such body language. Open questions are particularly suitable at the beginning of the appraisal interview. and verbally follow the subordinate.9 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal a pioneering scholar in the field of performance appraisal.
. Effective paraphrasing clarifies for the Appraiser. and permits the in-depth exploration of issues that the appraisee may present." Basically Closed questions result to a response of "Yes" or "No". and factual.." or "Are.. matter-of-fact.4 Reflection of Feeling .3 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means a concise restatement in our own words of what another individual just has said." or "It seems that what you're telling me is . But one must remember that the paraphrase should be non-judgmental. literal.. or just a few words.. It also indicates to others that the speaker is on the same wave length. there is the introductory stem: "If I heard you correctly . Paraphrasing is handy tool to conduct a Performance Appraisal Interview. while encouraging a response.1..." "You're saying that . The power of open and closed questions to evoke different responses is demonstrated by imagining the spontaneous response to the same query asked first as an "open.1. The effective paraphrase has a sequential structure.10 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal A Closed question usually begins with "Did." and then as a "closed" question: Open question: "How is your progress on Annual Report coming along?" Closed question: "Is that Annual Report Done?" 3.. 3." "Is. First. thereby encouraging them to communicate further and share information. The structure of a paraphrase ends with closing stems such as "Is that all?" or "Is that what you're telling me?" Such concluding stems allow you to check the accuracy of your paraphrase." Then there follows the paraphrase-the concise restatement in our own words of what the appraisee has just said.
" Third. such as: "It sounds like you feel . One concludes with a final checking stem such as: "Am I right?" or "Is that about right?" . Bottling up emotions may be to hinder communication. I sense that you're really anxious about this meeting. one uses the Appraisee's first name. feelings and attitudes-verbally and non. Norman Sigband. role in interpersonal communication. individuals with serious problems should be referred to the proper professional for help.verbally-which produce a response. we tend to feel better when we do-and behave more positively toward an individual who seems to understand how we feel. defined interpersonal communication as "the transmission and reception of ideas. In addition." Very simply. Then one mentions the context in which the expression of emotion occurred. matter-of-fact.11 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal Our Emotions play a central and sensitive.. Appraisers are not psychologists. Am I about right?" Before using reflection of feelings we must remember. At appropriate times.. the knowledge and practice of these .."Rajiv." Next follows the initial stem. to effectively communicate is to take the human factor into account. one labels the emotion." or "I hear you expressing some . and timely restatement in our own words of the emotions we sense the other person is feeling. an early scholar of managerial communication. While it often may be considered difficult or inappropriate to express or deal with emotions in the workplace. The structure of the reflection of feeling is similar to that of the paraphrase.. the reflection of feeling is a literal. it may be helpful to encourage others to express their feelings before going on to more task-related activities. or the pronoun "you. By doing so. Similar to the paraphrase. First. we subtly encourage others to express the emotions they feel.
present-tense statements. Yet. The manager's conscious use of feedback provides a set of verbal channels to more effectively communicate with appraisee. the face-to-face interview in which the appraisal itself is delivered and discussed. One of the special strengths of the micro skills is that each one can be practiced on a self-paced. one-at-a-time basis until it becomes a natural part of one's range of face-to-face communication skills. The reflection of feeling is among the most powerful as well as dangerous of micro skills.particularly the neglected. 3. The effective use of feedback first involves clear and concrete data: literal. The effective use of the feedback skill involves: (1) clear and concrete data. when giving other people a chance to express how they feel. but crucial part of the performance appraisal process.5 Feedback Another useful micro skill for appraisers is feedback. control. (2) conveyed (as much as possible) via timely. while (3) employing non-judgmental.1.12 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal skills can be put to ethical or unethical uses. The micro skills can help a Appraiser communicate more effectively with individuals in any organizational situation . The insincere use of this skill can severely damage a trusting relationship with an individual. can help them deal more effectively with their problems on and off the job. matter-of-fact attitudes and behaviors about (4) correctable items over which the subordinate has some . there are moments when knowing how to exhibit a chord of genuine human concern.
and this time I've had enough of it. The negatively judgmental statement uttered by a appraiser may be perceived by a appraisee as an "offensive attack." Concrete: "This year you've increased placements by 20% while cutting complaints in half. Distant Past Feedback: "Habib." The second characteristic of the feedback skill involves employing nonjudgmental statements. a cycle may be established which hardly encourages the open communication that is prerequisite to positive behavioral change ." Timely/Present-Tense Feedback: . Thus. Judgmental statements evoke emotions. Your behavior could be interpreted as too pushy." to which his or her most natural response may be to "defensively" respond. matter-of-fact. you've messed up your budget for the past three years.tense statement. While performance appraisal by its nature deals with previous behaviors. Judgmental: "You're terrible in meetings with other people. Every time I take you. and turn people off. consciously choosing to deal with more recent incidences can be a powerful agent for more positive change.13 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal Vague: "Your work with clients has been very good this year. and factual." Non-judgmental: "You seem to be too eager in meetings. The next characteristic of feedback urges the use of non-judgmental statements that are literal. particularly if judgments are negative.one of the goals of the performance appraisal process. you foul things up." A fourth characteristic of the feedback skill is the timely present.
• Roberts. 525-548. and timely feedback is critical for performance improvement and it is unlikely that once a year performance appraisal can meet employee feedback requirements. Greater employee participation and goal setting can refocus the process from an adversarial to a cooperative and coaching atmosphere. Gary E. New York: Harper & Row.0 CONCLUSION It is important to educate appraisers on the importance of involving the appraisee in the appraisal process through a genuine invitation to participate. 4. Another factor that is important is the cultivation of regular. (1994). behavioral. employee attitudes and feelings. and rater. and progress. The Nature of Managerial Work. volume 23 no. . Municipal Government Personnel Administrators.14 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal "Habib. Raters should be made aware that they do not possess all relevant performance information and that the employee is an extremely important source. thereby reducing tension. defensive behavior. 4. feedback deals with correctable items over which the subordinate has some control. Henry (1973).0 BIBLIOGRAPHY • Mintzberg. Regular informal feedback increases communication and understanding of job requirements." Public Personnel Management. I've just made some specific suggestions to you on how you can improve this year's budget preparation. ongoing informal feedback. 5.ratee conflict. Specific. How can I help you become more effective in your budget preparation?" Finally. "Maximizing Performance Appraisal System Acceptance: Perspectives from Winter 1994. But you don't sound too enthusiastic about them.
Dwyer.D (2005) . Ph. B.. and Practice.Hong Kong February 2005 • Dale • David J. ICCE Coaching Conference . Responsibilities. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Integrating Skills. Theory. Mary Bradford Ivey and Lynn Simek-Downing (1987). Society For Human resource Management Carmichael Interpersonal Skills For Business Success”. Analysis-based Caldwell (2009) Performance “Developing Appraisal”. Allen E. 2nd Ed. • Peter G. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Practices. New York: Harper & Row. 490-92.15 Purpose of Interpersonal Skills In Effective Performance Appraisal • Ivey. • Drucker. Davis Ph. Oklahoma City University . Management: Tasks. pp. Peter (1974). & Jacob “Job S.D (2008).“Performance Appraisal for Coaches” .
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