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WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE

'with a
prehistoric people
The

AkiMyu

of British East Africa

BEING SOME ACCOUNT OF THE METHOD OF LIFE AND MODE OF THOUGHT FOUND EXISTENT AMONGST A NATION ON ITS
FIRST

CONTACT WITH EUROPEAN

CIVILISATION

BY
f

W. SCORESBY

ROUTLEDGE
AND
(born

M.A.(Oxon.)

KATHERINE ROUTLEDGE
PEASE)
SOM. COLL.(OXON.)
;

M.A.(TRIN. COLL., DUBLIN)

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND A MAP

LONDON

EDWARD ARNOLD
(pufifie^er to t^e
I

Jnbto dfftce

9

I

o

[^// rights reservedl

S..R.D. F.L.TO EDWARD B.. D.C. TYLOR. LL. LATELY PROFESSOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD THIS SMALL CONTRIBUTION TO A GREAT SUBJECT IS BY HIS PERMISSION DEDICATED .

.

and travelled thence some sixty miles to the north-east till he reached Fort Hall. R. had just reached its terminus. He there put his goods on porters' backs. At the time of my arrival the railway. it is perhaps needless to explain. with the title of sub-commissioner. which had been constructed from the coast. To reduce and control this vast area Mr. In the face of : . and left it at Nairobi. it had no boundaries even. Under him he had at first but two young white assistants. at the time I speak of. practically unknown and its people unsubdued except for a few fixed points. was as yet on paper only. which had then been recently established as the first station of the province of Kenya. The province was. The Fort consisted of a rough stone building. Mr. of Europe. Hemstead and Mr. Lake Victoria Nyanza. The traveller who wished to reach the heart of the Ki-ku-yu country then. enclosed for purposes of defence by a wall of loose stones. Humphery. as now. part of that which has fallen to our share in the general division of the African Continent between nations It had but been nominally taken over by the Foreign British rule over the greater proportion Office in 1895. The country named is.PREFACE In August 1902 I found myself by accident so among the A-ki-kii-yu people of British East Africa. and a ditch some twelve feet wide. W. traversed the line for about half of its length. Sidney Hinde had lately been appointed.

I help and hospitality. started a company of five. but that two of their number had been Idlled on the road by fellow-tribesmen of another district which was opposed to submission to the white man. explained at great length to them what the advent of the white man meant. the leading men of the guilty were summoned to the Fort. they said. to my I have heard of the death of this very great regret.X WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE difficulties often heartbreaking and discouragements these three gentlemen achieved results of which they each have good cause to be proud. These three old men had. happened to be near to Mr. They were all murdered en route by those who were opposed to take up and to tell to their mission. Mr. He placed Mr. Later on more junior officers were given to the subcommissioner. and he was thus able to establish a station at Ny-er'-i.^ To give an example of the way in which territory was which I gradually brought under control I will quote the following instance. to travelled with the sub-commissioner. and I am it. Soon after my arrival at Fort Hall. They came without hesitation or mistrust. returning from leave his command. but more especially from Mr. and dismissed them. Hinde. Neligan in charge of my fixed camp. Not one of the three ever reached home." and that therefore they would not oppose its orders by force of arms. The sub-commissioner then explained to them that " the Government " Avould not permit the murder of its friends or sanction the 1 misdeeds that were constantly i)0])iilar Since tlie above was printed District Officer. On district the news coming in. C. As it saw a great deal of particularly indebted to him for much W. From them all I received the greatest help and kindness. and Mrs. gave them presents. Neligan. young . Hinde received the survivors cordially. three native elders came to see him him that the people of their district were prepared to accept " The (White Man's) Government.

As part of the work of thus bringing the country under control. some five hundred of the Masai tribe. and the women. or accept war. part of the making of roads. whilst another chops the roots with the tip of his sword. The men were killed. and with the addition of some regular native troops and police the country would be scoured. from The Akikuyu share all with the majority of native races an intense dislike to the coming of a road. the hereditary enemies of the Akikuyu. and never themselves make a visible track can be avoided. the in a The indemnity exacted from the natives usually consisted in first object of the Government newly acquired territory being to make it accessible. however. one man seizing the tussock by its top. with thatched roofs . and they were told to go home and think it well over. Such which wide.PREFACE occurring. xi and that they must now either surrender the murderers and pay a heavy fine in cattle. They are. experience having been dearly bought. a new station was formed at Ny-er'-i. Failing compliance in such a case. The buildings I put up were a rough stone room for photographic work. and the futility of resistance to the power of " the Government " was clearly pointed out to them. A date was fixed for compliance. large erections. as the any time was not forgotten. very expert at thus making a path. resembling barns. another meeting procured the requisite submission. and obtained and entrenched a small plot of ground in the neighbourhood. being shrewd enough to see that its presif it ence conveys. and herds taken captive until such time as. a road consists of a track about twelve feet the tussock grass has been cut away. possibility of a native rising at The cleared track was carried as far as feasible along high ground. would then be summoned. some thirty miles to the northward of Fort Hall. so that troops may it be readily moved backwards and for- wards through for the purpose of preserving order. children. and what are known as bandas. I was present at the selection of the site.

Hinde's permission and advice. Invitations would be gossip. friends with various influential became great men over a wide extent of inseparable companion.— xii WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE sides. chaperoned in Kikuyu society. and availing myself Mr. attractive lad of about seventeen. his influence such that I always found myself committed to influential sponsor. to ledge. shooting. I travelled about the Using this little country notes. markets. of homestead as a depot. the conversation. and by him I was Where he could not introduce was the care of an me himself. the younger and only brother of one of the principal chiefs became my He was an especially widely bright. country. on the contrary. photographing. Much from information regarding native custom was gathered various retainers during long rides my and shooting conversation expeditions about the country. I once counted up as many as thirty as having been killed. In particular. but. . known and universally popular. As I looked northward from my door there was nothing but wilderness between me and Abyssinia. when I made a practice to have a big fire in front of my tent and every one was welcome. Lions were not infrequent visitors and rhinoceros abounded. and so induced one the others. as in the case of certain rites. and the like. perhaps asking a question. man to give an explanation which would be corrected and amplified by In this manner I also got in touch with local and learnt what was going on in the neighbourhood festivals. dances. They sat around in order of social consideration. and open underneath which tents can be pitched and goods stored. within a radius of a mile of a point near my own knowmy fixed camp. talking I presently joined in amongst themselves. naturally turned on the objects around us fruitful season but the most it was it in the evening. collecting and taking and not only never on any occasion had any serious trouble with the natives. when the .

They extend over a period of some five and a half years in all. though frequently each party was speaking . Our upper servants were Swahilis. between two and three of which were spent in intimate touch with the Akikuyu. office. and these in their turn opened out " fresh fields and pastures new. The language employed was Swahili. rifle. that of it made no pretence of being grammatical. he was immediately engaged for some small such as carrying a camera or regular retinue. and forms the lingua franca of this part of Africa. This is. which made him one of our and brought him into constant touch ^vith Thus. time with a wife. and spoke their language. but it was in addition possible for my wife to visit among the huts and thus come in touch with the women and domestic life. for doing which she was particularly favourably placed. there was with care no barrier to communication with the natives. ourselves. A few of the younger Akiku}^! have picked up Swahili." Going to England this for a while in 1904. the tongue of the Swahili people.PREFACE given and expeditions xiii made to be present. We although our own knowledge each found. a coast race springing from the union of Arabs and native tribes. and whenever we found such an one. It has been carried by them into the interior on their trading and slaveraiding expeditions. Hence the following pages may be taken as dealing with matter carefully collected and noted with a special view to accuracy. as is well known. and on presenting my native friends to her she found them so interesting that she devoted herself to gathering information in directions that I had passed over. more especially in the case of those with whom we were in daily intercourse. but they had in many cases been much with the Akikuyu. I again returned. The methods of collecting information were much the same during the later visit as those already described. soon after arrival.

especi- taken to guard against misunderstanding as a possible information being. It is unnecessary. by us and subjected to correction. all a foreign language. way suggesting an answer No payment was ever given for information as such. Great care was taken to avoid leading questions. or even with our fellow-countrymen of the classes.xiv WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE an interpreter. re-stated source of error. It was also checked in other ways in order to ensure as great accuracy as possible. and often with considerable intelligence. A list of those native friends who more especially gave us assistance is appended. Every advantages and drawbacks. however. for instance. however. a disability we shared with every Government official who has been in the province in our day. however. For communication with the older men and with the women we were obliged to rely on the services of interpreters. that uneducated under the most favourable circumstances it is often difficult and arduous work to arrive at a straightforward and clear understanding of such facts as we desired to learn. or with religious propaganda on the other. after considerable . but a gain in certain directions undoubtedly arose from the absence of all connection with officialdom and hut-tax on the one hand. and intelligently interested in what we desired to know. The information asked position has its for was in almost every instance given readily. who acted in this capacity were accustomed to our ways. Our practice was to obtain information regarding any subject from as many independent sources as possible. made often appeared at first hopelessly When not unfrequently. we gained the advantage of being able to dispense with ally Pains were. except in one or two instances where folk-stories only were concerned. or in any expected. that as much idea as possible may be gained of the value of the evidence. The various statements thus contradictory. Our servants. to say to any one with experience in dealing with natives.

though he might occasionally desire to throw us off the trail. he is. an unusually large establishment. There was in another case entirely contradictory evidence as to whether a man who "inherits" his father's wives becomes their guardian. and of the ceremony of the second birth.working. if ever. The solution proved first. In this Avay. in view of which the whole carefully constructed The difficulty arose in part from edifice tumbled into ruins. The rule is thus given without the exception. to be that the son may : not take in marriage either the second. and cases of would not always have come to the knowledge is this sort of our younger informants.PREFACE trouble. rarely. a satisfactory grouping of facts XV seemed almost to have been arrived at. which at one clear. For example. and accidental circumstance confused with primary necessity. much of the difficulty found in arriving at the qualifications necessary for a ruhng " Elder. as for instance in the matter of iron. and the whole becomes It should also be borne in mind by the anthropological . or any other wife of the deceased. time looked so hopeless. but it would have been rash to assume that this was always its explanation. to these he stands in the position of guardian the fourth. still less did he intend to mislead us. however. may properly add to his own household. when once the key glances back through his list gained. gave us information which was incorrect. The native. the inquirer of confused notes. some new statement was made or fact transpired. we found. naturally finds it almost impossible to look from the outside at facts or customs which to him are second nature. whereas it in reality signifies merely a member of the older generation. or their actual possessor. Such however. the fact that there are undoubtedly variations of customs in dilferent districts. the exception without the rule." arose through the use of the word "M'wan'-gi " as if it were an official title. The uncivilised man. or third wife of his late father.

for further research. not occur again. There are some it is possible to speak from our own definite and observation. In addition. we think. and events of a like nature. childhke. statements are also included which are believed at least to contain truth. as for example various social customs. to be abandoned. are human. On is the other hand. The books cannot be taken out of the shelves and restored to them at will. to our very keen regret. and remarks on these matters must be regarded as tentative. McGregor in his Dictionary and Grammar.xvi critic WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE who " sits at home at ease. matters on which knowledge be relied on. The value of the evidence has. but other work arose towards the end of our sojourn in Africa. While all pains have been taken that such information it is as has been given shall be accurate. needs a change of occupation. In other cases. as far been made clear in the text." that for the spade-work of the science. as possible. These pages make no pretence of being an exhaustive The subject of the language has treatise on the Akikuyn. and must be taken will in their own time and way^ is An oppor- tunity missed. and they had. becoming bored. certain religious ceremonies. and only a few unusual and technical words No detailed study has been attempted with are here given. it is regard to the physical characteristics of the people. obvious that its reUabihty must vary. the evidence is of such a nature that its general correctness may. but which in the time at our disposal it was impossible altogether The very obviousness of these and other deficiencies to verify. because the student tired or out of humour. and. the inquiry often has to be dropped when because the informant most interesting and productive. as well as the students. origin Their and clan organisation have been but Arrangements had been made lightly touched upon. such as handicrafts. the authorities. . been adequately dealt with by Mr. and which it would have been a misfortune to leave unchronicled.

t present little-known country. and the dead Britain's tumuli go once more about their daily avocations. generalisations it is obvious that on any point connected with these people must be regarded as premature. Until a mass of accurate data. . in their civilisation and methods. yet greater differences will be found. field xvii we trust. hence it may certainly be concluded that. Saxon forefathers becomes a of living reality watching the potmaker and the smith. The great interest of the subject lies in the fact that the Akikuyu of to-day are. is make easier the path of future labourers in a which well-nigh inexhaustible. the is liand of the clock put back yet farther.t trial Present by ordeal. Even in these districts there is considerable divergency in practice and custom. the life of our . at the point where our ancestors stood in earliest times. induced my native friends to give me informa- them that " when we were back in England the white women would wish me to tell them about the women of Kikuyu. My husband has made clear in the previous pages how the : information contained in this book Came to be collected some explanation seems due I frequently for its publication. W. has been collected. as stated in the text. «. SCORESBY ROUTLEDGE. It is essential to recollect that the districts described are but a small part of the country occupied by the Akikuyu." It is believed that some account of these thousands of our new fellow -subjects. according to locality and clan. whose destiny now lies in the tion by telling ' I am c regulations. drawn from every part of this a. when other areas come to be carefully examined.^ PREFACE will. for we all now belonged to the same great white Chief. certain districts were closed to civilians. informed that a change has recently been made in the Government by which.

Anthropology For a hundred educated is a study as yet but little known. persons who have sympathetic understanding of the evolution be popular. While the main object of this book may thus be said to it was collected from a more purely scientific point of view. and At the beginning of the time covered by these investigations a white man was in many parts a thing unknown. in many direc- The data is are still being collected the stage of assured deduction If hardly yet reached. and his The explanation of this indifference is may : perhaps be found in the fact that the science tions in its infancy. Whilst this was in many ways to be regretted. without any technical knowledge." An apology is due for the fact that my own share of the work was undertaken purely through interest of circumstances. and the results of ignorance be lamentable. also hoped that the information given may possibly prove of use to the newcomer. Opportunity or inclination may often prevent the acquisition of such knowledge. and. and the shields borne by native boys preparing for tribal initiation are decorated with "Reckitts' Blue. there is but one who has given thought to the further story which concerns itself with man's conquest over nature. it was felt on our return to civilisation that under the circumstances the wisest method . the gradual development of his social powers.xviii WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE of the British hands to It Padiament. to contribute their share to the the Kikuyu nation is worl^ing out of these great problems. We were also removed from almost all access to literature. in the district described. may not be without interest some at any is rate of the British people. religious thought. certain of the information held in of species.. the need for exact full record of native habit and custom is urgent. apart from some slight knowledge of our own early constitution. To-day it is difficult to discover the original mode of government. whether traveller or official.

lines in dealing xix with the matter All reference to books sedulously avoided until final on the subject was therefore these notes had been cast in their this form. where the meaning is identical. In dealing with nomenclature. has been allowed to remain. They have are therefore. the two are employed interchangeably. has not proved feasible. clamours for as numerous and accurate details as possible. not without considerable confidence. The use of the native word alone is in such cases apt to be confusing to all but the reader. of advantage. words have been employed in only a very few instances. With scientific. an English word has always been preferred to a Kikuyu. fore necessary to rely. The scientist. a certain difficulty has arisen in the preparation The general reader naturally what may be termed an " impressionist " view of native life. y' that they a record independent in observation and unbiased by the theories of others. in order that each subject be comprehensible on its own account. such as N'gai and God. tv/o diverse objects view. in his armchair at home. N'go-ma and Spirit. which occurred in the original essays. as explained elsewhere. the popular and of the pages which follow. while that of most conscientious the English term itself is somewhat misleading. at least. attempt to solve the problem by relegating lengthy It is theredetail to the Appendix. may Where the Kikuyu and English terms represent in the main the same idea. whether their immediate relevance to any point at issue is or is not desires obvious. but with a certain difference of meaning. From this aspect a certain amount of repetition. An on the discerning pov»'er of the reader to skip those parts which to him personally are not of interest. they have passed SAvahili into common use amongst Europeans. where.PREFACE was to proceed on the same collected. .

words are inflected at the beginning and not at the end. those appertaining to the life. speaking that generally. and to social and political contained in Part III. In all native words and names the Geographical System of spelling has been followed : in this the consonants are sounded as in English. The folk tales were obtained by me in left the time at my disposal during his shooting or other expeditions. It is obvious that there are certain drawbacks. my husband's observations were those which dealt with crafts of life. is. These has been sought to reduce it is. from the of personality in the it reader's point of view. and its constant repetition in this manner might seem unnecessary and pedantic. thus. but in certain cases as Avill be seen. from the individuality of the recorder. and of the vowels as in Italian. the greater portion of Part my own. . II. M'ki-ku-yu (singular) makes A-ki-ku-yu (plural). to be hoped that there may also be corresponding advantages derived from the impressions of two observers It is approaching similar topics from the different aspects in which . as far as possible. On the difficult subject of reUgion. Part as we each made notes or attended ceremonialsseemed feasible. No hard- and-fast rule has been followed in the form of presentation words .. writers. it has been thought that the interests of the reader will component be usually best consulted by dividing these into their but this syllables and noting the accentuation . and the arts and I. women. dress.XX WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE In this family of languages. abandoned where a word very frequently recurs. With regard to the responsibility for the collection of practice has been material. associated with this dual authorship. ornaments. and the consequent change especially in Part III. impossible to dissociate the description of events witnessed. or the account of a conversation held.

It is a pleasure also to acknowledge our obligation for help and hospitality to Dr. W. or that it be that such a sense arises from half unit may be also comes to us from a time when our forefathers lived in simple of the world. and is the greatest authority on their language. C. Hobley." which springs from of daily and nightly intercourse with nature and with nature's It children. and Mrs.. Hants. who has kindly aided us by his interest list and advice. has permitted us to reprint a obtained by him of Kiku5ni medicines. Mr. Our most of this grateful thanks for help given in the preparation book are primarily due to Mr. November 1909. Waterside.M. McGregor of the Church Missionary Society. " coming once more to one's own. McGregor found leisure in a busy life to give us invaluable assistance both in East Africa and England. the writer down under the feeling. xxi man and When only of bility the best has been done that the circumstances have sits rendered possible. may conscious recollection of our days of childhood. Crawford. Burlesdox. He has by his tact and kindness won the confidence of the natives. who are doing excellent work at the Kenya Medical Mission. in the childhood Katherine Routledge. not many scientific shortcomings. and who gave us much information.G. communion with nature. Mr. A. . who ha^ resided amongst the Akikuyu since 1901.PREFACE they naturally present themselves to the minds of a a woman. of in some mysterious way. but also of the impossi- conveying between the covers of any book that sensation of rest and space and freedom.

and he has been good enough to make an analytical study back.S. but also for his kindness in constantly acting as adviser in all matters connected with photography. 0. dealing with Of this offer we have gratefully availed Dr. not only for arranging a photographic outfit. Dalmeyer Limited. Read. Bart. which proved eminently suitable to the conditions. P. London. Mr. He has : species of those of more immediate interest the collection is now being examined. We owe to Dr. F.R. and Mr. Joyce this book owes much. the colleague of Speke. .working.. F. T. To the encouragement and help of Mr. has most kindly personally looked through a collection of some two hundred determined the the remainder of and fifty specimens made for by us. offered to place at our disposal a hitherto unpublished sketch and letter native iron. Stapf of the Kew it Herbarium.. Metallurgy at the Royal School of Mines.S. H. C. Whilst this book was in the press Sir Hugh Bell. A. Chfton of Messrs. add greatly to any interest possessed by our work in this direction. Myers the suggestion that records of should be obtained of native music.. M'Lintock of the Survey have given us valuable aid by reporting on specimens submitted to them.. A. ourselves. place occupied we tender our sincerest thanks for his most valuable note showing the by Kikujru iron-smelting in the evolution of that art.M. Mr. J. The notes of Mr.xxii WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE wish also to thank Dr.R. C.A. W. Marett on the Comparative Study of Religion. We Athol Joyce of the Ethnographical Department of the British Museum. S. those we brought Professor of To Professor Gowland. Allen Howe and British Geological Our obligations are also due to Mr. J. P.S. by Grant.

and spoke the language well. Head groom. Wa-nang'-a N'jar'-ge the chief Wom-bu-gu. Gura River.. child specially intelligent. but had been long in the country. a constant companion. carried camera. six different districts The routine contact with of daily travel brought us also into intimate Kakuyu retainers. and various The foregoing represent clans. Ali bin Sha-ku'-a Ali bin Salim . The following natives in our employment were not of Kjkuyu nationality. N'jar'ge. . many . an educated Swahili. Ka-kan'-ja Ki-lan'-go wa Ki-ra'-ttt wa Gun'-du . With me both . Swahili. with wide African experience. wa Du-ku'-u WA Bat'-I-A . With us for Brother of six months... Son of chief Mun-ge. Their help was often valuable. Swahili.— SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Akikuyu were in our employment and in daily intercourse with us for months together.. Ka-no'-hi-a Kl-KAN-Ju'-I A friend of employed as personal attendant. Wa-ma'-htt . personal servant. employed groom by my as assistant —very shrewd. Headman for eighteen months over all Akikuyu in my service. other of our Do'-SA BIN Mi-sha'-mi . personal servant. From south-western visits to Kikuyu Kikuyu. had in some cases Kikuyu wives. They all spoke following SwahiU. An orphan picked up as man Dosa. .

. rather than the which corresponding words in Gekikuyu.An A armed retainer.— — xxiv WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE . together with others. for which there is no English equivalent. also well- known to me. father Other Akikuyu throughout the country who more especially gave us assistance were Mun'-g:^ An important knowB well for chief whom years. the son by a Masai mother.. with one exception.. have been accepted from us British by the Museum.. an agreement. . the method of making a primitive pot. All the articles figured in this book. McGregor. I had some Ka-ku'-ki N'du-i-'ni Ra-zi'-mi Another influential chief. list does not. also the result arrived at. " Jash'-u " N'JO-Ko'-Gi WA Ka'-eu'-ri . . step by step. cultivated plot of ground. The following Swahili terms. take into account the numerous artificers in iron and pottery. Discussion. . My wife on one occasion resided near his headqiiarters. and other natives of Kikuyu with whom we constantly came into contact. Father of N'duini.. This elders. Lou-be'-a bin Cha'-ris My wife's personal of a Swahili attendant. in East Africa : . Compensation paid to the family of a girl by her intended husband for the loss of her services. A chief.. Shamba Shaxjri . . Crawford. will there Particular attention is called to a series be found that illustrates. they having passed into -common use among Europeans AsKARi OR AsiKARl Marli or Mali . of course. of the subject in hand. Servant to Dr.. brought up in Kiktiyu. The above visit was paid in order to gather information from him.. Under instruction by Mr. have been employed throughout. and who all added in greater or less degree to our knowledge Medicine-Men.

...... INTRODUCTION FAOE 1 9 and 12 THE PEOPLE AND THEIR PURSUITS Men and Manners ..... —Waefare PART I . .CONTENTS The CoMiNa of the Akiku'yu Chkonology The AKTKu^Ytr Trade in eelation to their Neighbours .........

Dress of Inheritance 139 142 Social Customs and Ceremonies — 147 151 Customs at Birth Ceremony of the Second Birth Ceremonies on Initiation into the Tribe Disposal of the 154 168 Dead . 117 Women Position of 120 Early Years Betrothal and Marriage 123 124 Polygamy Children .. 103 105 108 111 PART Family Life II — SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE Homesteads . The Drinking of Warm .. 133 135 137 Old Women Women ..— xxvi WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE {continued) Arts and Crafts Pottery — 97 Methods of Carrying Loads Markets Art Music . Women . Blood 174 176 Blood Brotherhood Reception of a Stranger 176 Dancing 178 Games 192 ..

CONTENTS Political LifePolitical Organisation XXVll .

Tales 5. Letter descriptive of European Life amongst the Akiku'yu II.. . The Smelting of Iron Ore by the Akiku'yu The Place of Kiku'yu Thought Study of Religions „ List of Books is and Papers published to Date made to the Akiku'yu Glossary ... . ... 13.. ... worn by Warriors when performing a Spectacular Dance „ IV...... .. the Hair of the N'jenge 324 326 329 The Man who became a Hyena Conclusion —Kiku'ytj under the English .... 6. {continued) The Girl and the Doves 301 The Greedy Hyena The Elephants and the Hyenas Stories Concerning the 303 305 307 Rainbow Water 8. The Giant of the Great 309 312 . The Masai' Attire „ III... M'wambia and the N'jenge The Girl who Cut Girls The Forty .xxviii WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE — ..... .. The Snake from the Great Water Tales Dealing with Legendary Animals 315 315 321 10... 7.. 9. Appendix I.. . 12.. in the Comparative in which 335 344 350 353 357 Reference 363 367 373 381 Index ....... —English-Kiku'yu Kiku'yu-English .. 11. V..

Gorge of the Chania River. XXI. X. (in text) . IX. Neck Ornaments XVIII. XIII. Kiku'yu War-Pit V. XI. 32h 32j 32k XIX. N'gu'o — Garment of Men and Boys XXV. „ Sword and Scabbard Quiver and Arrows 16a 16b VIII.. 32e 32g XV. XVII. Armlets . 32m 32o XX. Standing at Ease Design of the Clan Anjiru (in text) Another Manner of Standing at Ease Snuff and Snuff Bottles A Kiku'yu Warrior Ordinary Dress An unusual Form of Head Covering Portrait of Chief Karuri 18b 21 22a 24c — 28a 28b 32a 32c Ear Ornaments XIV. XXII. photogravure . An M'kiku'yu of Middle Age XXVII. XVI. KiKu'yu VI. XII.. XXIII.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE A Young Kiku'yu I. 32q 32s 32t XXIV. 1904 1907 8a 9b 14 IV. Frontispiece II. VII. Two Young Warriors in Mufti XXVI. 36d 36a . Warrior. 36a 36c .. Aberdare Eange MoFNT K:enya xxxiiA xxxiiB III.

XXX PLATE WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE .

.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS I'LATE XXXI LXVII.

Initiation Dance CXIII. .xxxii PLATE WITH A PREHISTORIC PEOPLE PAGH CV. Figures and Steps in Ceremonial Dance 156b 156f 156g CIX. Girl Candidates for Initiation CXII. At end . . A Rattle and two Bells CXVI. Boy in Ceremonial Dress 156h . . A Kiku'yu Elder CXXII. An Ornamental Club CXXIV. Cekemonial Weapons CVI. Masai' Warriors Map of part of Kiku'yu and Adjacent Coun . A Kiku'yu Court of Justice CXXV. A Medicine-Man CXXVII. ex. Lake Naivasha CXXX. Dance by Women CXVII. A Kiku'yu Image (front view) (side view) CXVIII. Ceremony of Leap Gathering CXI. 160a 160b —Distribution of Gifts 160d 180a 180c A Dance Performed by Boys CXIV. SwAHiLis Making Tents CXXXII. Pack Donkeys CXXXI V. . Native Gathering to discuss Hut Tax CXXXI. . Our Homestead at Nyeri CXXXVI. 180d 188a 188b 188c 188d 190a 198a 198b in text) 201 208a 208b 232a 248b 256a face p. Our Camp CXXXIII. 310a 328b 336a 336b 340a . Kiku'yu Porters CXXXIIIa. Ceremonial Waist Fringe 156c 156d . 340b 340c 340d 344a . Bag and Gourds of a Medicine-Man . A Kiku'yu Sacrifice CXXVI. Dance before an Image CXX. CVIa. „ „ CXIX. Travelling in Kiku'yu CXXXV. Dancing Garments CXV. Dance before an Image CXXI. A Veteran's Spear An Official Drinking Party (diagram CXXIII. „ „ CVII. CVIII. Falls of Kitongi (photogravure) CXXIX. 307 To CXXVIII.

I Aberdare Range From north cif Xveri .PL.

I-J a. < a L^ ^ ^ G O 3 o s c .

^ imperfectly known. rises to a height of over 17. The portion eastern mission. . Icuyu fig-tree = country of fig-trees. but is mist. frequently veiled in The sun has tropical power. the Masai. and it rises above its surroundings somewhat like a giant ant-hill. but the summit is crowned by a striking mass of sharp jagged ' Possible derivation Ki locative. and a bul- wark on that still side against their neighbours. and therefore enemies. the following pages lies in the highlands. about 6000 coincides.. with the peak of Ki-nan-g'op. its above the sea. The base is large in relation to the whole. to penetrate the of it dealt within ft. Its proportions are not of remarkable beauty. and formed an outlet their to the Akikuyu for an ever-increasing population. lately remain untouched by man. but owing to elevation the climate temperate. or people of The British Government it has not hitherto been able to reduce the whole of to sub- and the civilian is not yet allowed and northern districts. On the east the great mass of Ke-ny-a.000 and dominates Kikuyu.— INTRODUCTION THE COMING OF THE The great area occupied is still A-KI-KIJ-YU Ki-kii-yu. in its primitive state. and the nights are cool. The northern boundary is as nearly as possible. through which runs the railway. ft. On the behind him as he south lie the plains of Athi. On the west the mountains known to the white till man as the Aberdare Range. with the Equator. by the A-ki-ku-yu. traveller gradually leaves and which the enters the hills.

2 rocks. KIKUYU which. divided by well -watered valleys. to make a see Kenya The time best is in early morning or towards evening. is reminded of the waves all now dotted over with groups of brown trees huts. The Akikuyu say that A-kam'-ba. while here and there at intervals still remain small patches of virgin forest which have escaped destruction through their being used as places of sacrifice. . The country between these great landmarks consists of a sea of ridge-like hills. or lit up with glorious colours of sunset.^ the fission as being remote ' the Akam'ba are to-day their and the Akamba Vocabularies " The Akikuyu of the southern part of the Kt'nya province. But Kenya. at its snow. the itself in mist for weeks together. and their adjacent patches of cultivation. has obviously been originally covered by a dense forest of giant and impenetrable undergrowth. striking. there till it is a felt need in the landscape again appear. of the adjoining Kitui district. whether beautiful or not. readily understand each other." Kamba and Kikuyu Language (H. which gradually merge into plains once more on the northern side. great mountain veils presence. high. The traveller for many miles around lives under a sense of its and when. and a traveller standing on the higher levels of the Aberdare- Range and looking tov/ards Kenya. as an examination of the although certain evidence points to . At those times clouds frequently veil the base. standing out amidst glaciers and perpetual strong appeal to the imagination. two languages will show. Hinde). of a heavy cross sea. arresting. These hills and ridges are from 200 to 600 ft. majestic. The tradition of the- people gives support to this statement. is always Kenya. which is their nation is derived from the probably correct. No wonder that the god of the Akikuyu lives on Kenya. and the summit is bathed in the purple mist of dawn. This undulating land. as happens at certain times of year.

" or " the fierce little people. " children's eyes. whom the}'' term A'si. 6 in. 127 Hobley in the periodical Man." or " the people that look at you means According to tradition. There was nothing of the nature of acquisition by force of arms under one or more military leaders." In another form. The two last named have appeared since the above was WTitten. chi-a-na. •January 1909. a difficult one. or small bands of individuals united only by family ties. living on the elephant and other wild game. 1903. v. A-mai-tho ma can be translated it either " the enemies of the children. but that there were also spread over it in part a diminutive race known as the A-gum'-ba. 1906. leaves. and nothing definite is yet known. and were roofed with and earth. J/an. and on wild honey. McGregor. p. Maitlio ma chi-a-na. a Masai term. they say. or occasionally A-ki-e-ki. strong and fierce. and owned no goats or cattle. which last they say is the old name. built no permanent huts. End Ajrica Protectorate. The name given them by the Akikuyu. . however. The A'si were. effected by individuals. They made pots." forests and dug banana pits in which their huts were built. Dundas.hich the belly than those made by the Kikuyu. or any- — definite method of preserving the history of past events —they obtained the country by a system of peaceful penetration. they lived in the as a child w^ould. when their fathers first came into it. 76. 78. They made no attempt at cultivation. They say that the country. on the other hand. . «f that part of The statement referred to was made to us in at least five different localities Kikuyu here dealt with.PREVIOUS INHABITANTS neighbours to the south-east. These houses were large poles.^ 3 As far as could be gathered from the Akikuyu for there is nothing of the nature of regular tradition handed down from father to son. The question of the source or sources of the nation is. 283 . No. in height. the same as the people to-day known as N'dor-6-bo. were a race about 4 ft. were larger in 1 and communal. No. whom the Akikuyu also found in possession. The Agum'ba. was held by a race of hunters. See also Eliot. p. Church Missionary Review.

seem most probable that the " eyes " preceded the A'si or N'dor'obo. The Agum'ba. by hand were constantly found in the surface priori. across which a trench was dug about two feet wide. running north and south. At the same depth there were brought to light fragments of pottery. each some three feet in diameter. site and excavation made by us at the spot indicated. When levelling the surface for tent-pitching. so as to define the distance from the surface of any article found. and banana seeds. The natives point out to-day saucer-shaped depressions in the ground as the of the huts of these Httle people. which the authorities at the British Museum assure us have been worked by hand." The suggestion that if we dug we might find thearms had been of stone. which some- PI. We selected a site on a ridge containing four or five of thes& saucer-shaped depressions. Below this level nothing was discovered. it of the children It would. used bows and arrows. pieces obsidian worked soil. and also had other weapons. If so. and chose one for excavation. but not in circular depressions. our friends told us. We made an expedition to another site pointed out. and devoted two days to digging. At about three feet from the surface we came across fragments of obsidian. " They must therefore have possessed iron. and another running east and west. such as are used by the Akikuyu to-day to form the terminals of the reed petticoat at ceremonial dances. a would be quite possible for them to retreat before the more . the charcoal remains of fire. substantiates the tradition. At the present time in some places huts are built in semi-lunar excavation on the hillside. roused considerable interest. cvi. but came to the conclusion that the depression was natural.4 THE AGUM'BA and these had been seen by one informant near the holes where their houses used to exist. times involves cutting of down to a depth of three feet. Each trench was kept at one level.

Each clod was taken by hand and beaten. an M'kikuyu had decided to strike out for himself. When. and constantly scraping away the charred portion. and these were then piled and burned. The two tribes. and overturned. so the two peoples Uved side by side in different villages. Now the though they had no goats of their own. and that later the The A'si German territory. even went so far as to intermarry. therefore. that the A'si preceded the Agum'ba. Such was the condition of things. while the Agum'ba took charge of herds. to separate the soil from the tangled roots. that such. when first they commenced to migrate. however." to them for the land he took.. formation. The ground thus broken up roughly was again gone over. Placing fire at the foot of a tree. until sufficient land had been brought under cultivation to of ash. whilst the is density of the vegetation of nature. it was stated. prised up. a sod of tangled roots was loosened. seem to have much appreciated them for food and for sacrifice. as was obtained was definitely to the opposite effect. the giant of ages was soon a mass The light undergrowth he cleared with his sword then taking a heavy crowbar and driving it deep into the soil in four or five places close together. men and flocks when the country is in a state who desire concealment can Such in- fade out of sight like water spilled on the ground. come into contact with The peculiar character of the country with its labyrinth would be all in favour of such a proceeding. Each year this process was repeated. this time with a short stick. and the work of the man was finished all cultivation for the future now resting with his women. — . he soon threw it down . wandered far and wide. CLEARANCE OF FOREST where they would not be them. of hills likely to 5 powerful race to those districts where game was least abundant. and paid in goats " He would pay thirty goats. even reaching what is now Akikuyu A'si. he went to the A'si and asked leave to make a clearing in their forest. Around the plot thus formed a fence was run. heaping brushwood along its length. say.

there was plenty of country for them." he did not interfere. reported to have been made by them. He must clear more forest for cultivation. In the midst there was the homestead. With his harmless little neighbours. so have the Akikuyu cleared the forest. . a collec- by a strong stockade. Their progress was like that of the locusts — the ranks at the rear. but they gradually disappeared from the land. now vanished. gradually fell back their numbers were limited. said that his father had never seen the Agum'ba. but he himself had known a track. scarcely a tree remains." A very old man. and by boundary tion of beehive huts surrounded stones sunk deep out of sight. taking wing over the backs of the main body to drop to ground in the forefront. one half in fallow —the — fallow being to him the equivalent of pasturage. The boundaries of the estate thus built up was indicated by the planting of trees in line. In the heart of Kikuyu. too. " the children's eyes. But his estate was complete one half under cultivation. The A'si. supply the needs of him and cattle fed in the forest glades. and possibly one for his unmarried sons. his own house and a house for each of his wives. And as locusts clear a sturdy crop. finding the food supply exhausted. Meanwhile his goats soil and But gradually the became exhausted by the constant repetition of similar crops. the father of the chief N'du-i-m'. and he acknowledged the jurisdiction of no man. whilst the exhausted clearing now became " the inheritance of the goats " sustenance — for —for the forest where the goats had previously browsed had been now brought under cultivation by another. with pounds for the cattle at night. Possession of that which he had thus won by hard work he maintained by the power of his sword. So the Akikuyu pushed on and on. by regular hedges. One tradition states that they went " west to a big forest. and game was no longer to be found near inhabited districts. and the Akikuyu were numerous. except for a sacred grove here and there. 6 CLEARANCE OF FOREST his..

each denoting the fall of a giant. above all. in all directions. process Drawing a line between the spots thus indicated gives the boundary of cultivation seventy years ago. The method adopted to gain this information was to ask any very old man at what definite spots he could recollect having seen elephant droppings numbers and the western when a boy. and the surface soil denuded by the ." Nevertheless." we were told. boundary of the country has been brought under cultivation by a breadth varying from ten to fifteen miles within the niemory of people still alive. rising in every direction. and much so there rain. district dealt with. is spreads one huge garden. columns of smoke may be seen ward during the dry season. and even accelerated. more especially in the case of the river Gazing westravines where the damage done is irreparable. trees are all dead and like earth. and. It has gone on under our own eyes in a manner that is heartbreaking to witness. the process has continued. of it It is calculated that. Now the big rain. and the preservation of such woodland as still remains has now become not only in order to retain a heritage of great natural beauty. that private property with care- have been bequeathed from father rate of expansion of the nation to son for generations. every square inch of which fully marked boundaries. of the The inhabitants themselves are not " In old blind to the importance of this last consideration. is The same probably at work on the eastern side of the country. In the Aberdare Range imperative. This work accomplished. but in the interests of timber supply. since the coming of the British. which gave the natives security is little of property and freedom from the necessity of self-defence.CLEARANCE OF FOREST As far as the eye 7 can reach. These are the words of the ancient men. The has been great. days. " there were many big trees and few people rainfall of the country. known districts Kenya. the slopes of the but Government rules forbid investigation. in the half a million souls. alone retain their primitive groAvth.

and all endeavours have been futile to induce the officials to use the very simple methods by which it might be terminated.8 CLEARANCE OF FOREST protection in the shape of is cultivator of every particle of shrub or weed. or swept off by the fierce deluge of the rains and carried down the stream. the habits of the native mean- the water-supply. the vegetable mould of ages soon driven away by first the high wind of summer. on which very possibly a European settlement may depend. This process has gone on for years within a mile of government station. When the goodness of the is soil is exhausted the same work of destruc- tion continued still higher up. The Protectorate (xovernment has at last shown signs of interfering through its forest officers. and it is sincerely to be hoped that effectual measures will be taken to put an end to this destruction of what is at once the glory and salvation of the country. while defiling .

Ill .PL.

8b .PL. IV I A' A' phot. to Kikuyu. The squared log shown was of the only piece All other timber used for any useful purpose. was burnt as it lay on the ground. The Gokgk of the Cha'-ni-a River near Nyeri visit Photo taken during second 1907.

Ma-i-na Mivan'gi is off. For a slightly the ten ages. have been acquainted with against the Somalis. One Kikiiyu authority placed the Ndemi 2 . Ma-thd-thi— The Akikuyu are said to have come in this age from the tribe of the Akam'ba." Some persons now alive (1908) Man-do-ti Chi-era trees. — The people increased greatly. N'ji-ri dug channels. see Hon. The era of uprising — The generation now dying — The generation in middle Mu-i-run' -gu — The rising generation. this generation. 1908. The name of the next generation not yet known. and when he came to the sea built up a bank of sand. The following Man-ji-ri When God had finished the world He spoke to the first man. are the son in every case bearing are the ages since the creation of the world ^ : the appellation of the one succeeding that of his father. Masai— Smearing with red earth became fashionable (no connection with tribe Masai). Dundas. R. identical with generations. before the Mathathi age.2 CHRONOLOGY The Akikuyn arrange their ideas as to sequence of time when duration of any length is concerned by reference to The persons belonging to each epoch bear successive ages. first five 1 The of these ages have been given of East Africa. McGregor since we left them had not been met with by us. Man. ^ The tradition different version of by Mr. life. its name. as far as our inquiries showed. Mam'ba told his son N'ji-ri to separate the dry land from the waters. — I-re-gi — The age of evildoers. N'de-mi— Eoot stem " to cut " — during this age the Akikuyu cut —Meaning " the revolters. Mam'-ba. No. 101. K. These ages.

gave the names is of his ancestors for four generations. many sweet potatoes ." recalls the rare occurrence tha. The following are names ^ which have been given successive annual celebrations 1891. It did not transpire that events occurring in the intervening twelve months are in any way associated with or dated by the to the names of the circumcision eras. who would belong to the " Mathathi. : Ngan'do." of another chief.— 10 CHRONOLOGY The Chief Mun-ge. carried beyond the time of the "Mathathi. that date Thus the name of the festival in 1897. —The year of the this An individual circumcised at the particular festival known by name is known as "an Ngige." ^ We are indebted for the list to Mr. McGregor." signifies that there were at." only got as far as the names of his father and grandNo memor}^ father. while that of 1907. Ngi'-ge. .t occasion ran away." literally " the year on the back. It would be interesting to ascertain by what authority these names are bestowed. and was forcibly operated upon in that attitude. belonging to the M'wan'gi. by which they were and each annual it festival of circumcision has a name bestowed on in accord- ance with some marked feature of the time. himself of the " Maina. and also that that a boy on given to the generation. "Ki-an-gwa-chi. the latter of the generation " N'demi. and are not confined to any one district. " Ka-ban'- go. that as far as his great- great-grandfather." reckoning thirty years for the generations. —No explanation could be obtained for "large variety of locust " the bestowal of this name. 1892. N'duini. (ngige)." The aged father we encountered or. and a Men reckon age amongst themselves according to the year initiated into the tribe. for they apparently obtain throughout the whole country. about a century half ago.

but the sweet potatoes w^ere more 1898. — The year connected with a spear. CHRONOLOGY Nyon'go. Nga'-ra. The age of a child is always explained by holding out the hand to show its height. 1903. failed. Ka-gi'-cha.1893. Ki-angwa'chi. 1895. Nu'-THi. Ka-ban'go. Name not decided on at date of our departure. wound went wrong 1900. — No explanation." 1894. Ka-man'di. Mo-CHi'-Ri = a judge). 1905. Ndi'-mu. — The year of the jigger or the burrowing Ki-en-je'ku. 1899. — The year of the hyena or hyenas 1902. Mothers sometimes plant trees on the birth of appear as a rule to lose count of their ages their children. failed. — The year of putting in —The year of lying on the back. — The year that the manioc crop 1901. — The year when the circumcision (septic poisoning). — The crop of grain known as m'wele prolific. (hitti). but before very long. and any allusions as to the years of children made in these pages must be taken as computed on this data. Thungu'-ya. 1907. 1896. 1908. . — The year of a skin disease all over (small pox). heaps. —The year of a particular scented flower. Kan-yo'-to. Hit'-ti. —The year of a certain animal. Ki-hur'i-a. — The year of a cattle by Mutung'o. flea. particular clan which 1897. — This year was named in reference to a we have been unable to identify. — The year of the scratcher or something ( to do with scratching. 1904. little 1906. 11 characterised disease that was " a rotten belly and running from the nose.

preserved the Akikuyu from the access of almost any external influence. compelled by poverty or the necessity of leaving home to escape being put to death. hills of Between the cultivated the one and the pastoral plains 12 * . the Agum'ba. until the coming of the white man. and their countrymen savages. and consequently Their country was contiguous to that Akikuyu on the south. sometimes take to the woods. Of the N'dor-6-bo little which is accurate is yet known they . has entirely disappeared. dwellers in the open. accident.THE AKIKUYU For many IN RELATION TO THEIR NEIGHBOURS. whilst the other was the predecessor of the N'dorobo of to-day.—WARFARE AND TRADE generations past. or even for the mere love of an adventurous life. Certain of the Akikuyu. whose territory is to the southeast. but by so doing practically cease to be regarded as Akikuyu. refer to them as N'dorobo. roam in small bodies over the vast areas of uncultivated land which adjoin the Kikuyu country. With the Akam'ba they appear to have lived in a state of slight intercourse and desultory warfare. one of whom. No sharply defined boundaries separated these neighbours. It has been seen that they are wholly or in part an offshoot of the Kam'ba tribe. Akikuyu are the well-known Masai of the a pastoral people. and extended also over the great plains on the other side of the Aberdare Range. They even rounded the extreme end of that range. geographic and political. and reckon them as The most influential neighbours of the tribe. had. and descended on Kikuyu from the northern side. and that when they migrated to their present abode they found in possession two peoples.

was not such as to attract the invader. was especially to travel at night. Their method of defence also might strike terror into the hearts of the boldest. -The accompanying sketch will convey a pretty good idea of the probable deterrent effect of a butr a full valuation of their number effect of these defences moral can only be formed after being dragged of falling into their depths. of back as one lurches forward on the verge For a man of the plains like one the Masai. for at the shortest notice they had warpits ready that rendered any track or path almost impassable either to advance along or to retreat by. Not only were they numerically strong. amid dense forest and underwood. but their country. Taken as a nation the Akikuyu are good swimmers. formed watered. and a from it general beast. where the game roamed undisturbed. The Akikuyu were in their own domain a people to be reckoned with. METHODS OF WARFARE by country great insufficiently 13 of the other existed a neutral territory of irregular width. whose custom victims. They swim after the manner of a dog. to allow himself to be tempted into such a country meant more dense Old men still chuckle as they recount it the terrible fate of these adversaries. and not particularly attractive to either party —a Tom Tiddler's land. sword. armed with a large shield and long spear and annihilation. obvious that it With was impossible for the flocks and herds of either to be allowed to graze without a considerable neutral belt intervening. . Between the two nations reigned perpetual war.. with its labyrinthine tracks winding up and down a sea of hills. A people who dwelt in a mountainous country also possessed an advantage over their adversaries in their power of negotiating rivers. as pit after pit claimed its and the poisoned arrow whistled from out of the The Akikuyu used from time to time to imprint a lesson on raiders that was not forgotten. and foliage. feeling of danger lurked in the air both man and is both people skilled cattle thieves.

on their own lines. and nothing on earth will induce them to go into water out of their depth. wdth its double line of as a waving plumes and flashing spears. whilst their KIKUYU WARPIT. a race of fighters. every one plunges in and gets across somehow. was as stampede of their own cattle. who would have given their lives to possess them. action of the legs. J>ectional dra^ving showing sharpened spikes in interior. I have seen a fighting party of two hundred Masai absolutely stopped by a deep channel in a ford not ten yards wide. adversaries on the opposite fashion. and between the herds feeding in their thousands on the Masai plains and our Akiktiyu. ever stood their long gaunt owners. however. however. bank reviled them in true Homeric The Masai are.14 I THE MASAi If a river have never seen them employ the breast stroke or the ordinary has to be crossed. shoulder to shoulder. The Masai neither can swim nor will learn to do so. irresistible . whose ordered charge.

belonged to to the generation Iregi. and.^ It is reported that in the generation of the I-re-gi. availed them. An M'kikuyu warrior dresses his hair in Masai fashion in a pigtail. N'dorobo. but also by the Masai. All knowledge the chief war was. and planted in the country of the north.SOMALI INCURSION the fashion 15 The Akikuyu have conceived a great admiration for in war of these redoubtable adversaries. but they in their may each have attacked the enemy own way and manner. A Somali woman left behind still at that time was said to be of this great alive in 1908. makes a miserable display until he reverts to his old tactics. denied by Ra-zi-mi. the Akikuyu were brought in contact with the Somalis. . The English. from intercourse with the but They were not entirely it affected them but The great route for slaves and ivory which ran between the Great Lake and the sea. and are incHned to copy their arms and accoutrements. as has been said. and the Akam'ba. which now forms a station on the Uganda railway named Kikuyu. when it comes to real fighting. with its dark ostrich plumes which he has managed to pick up by trade. the caravans from the coast used to stop to refit and lay in fresh supplies of grain. and at that point. in contact with civilisation in any form. just touched its borders on the south-v/estern side. The Akikuyu did not cut off any appreciable extent come coast. The Arab and slave raiders never little. ^ open line The Masai have now been removed from their southern plains to leave them for white colonisation. and arms himself v/ith a Masai shield and spear but he has no idea of military organisation. It cannot. father of N'duini. however. whose own father. selves of the Masai in the subjugation of the Akikuyu. the Uganda road. They were opposed not only by the Akikuyu. while a fast has been drawn by the Guaso Nyro River between the two tribes. mIio came down from the north and endeavoured to establish themselves in the country. drill. dons the Masai war mask. be concluded that these nations united in the defensive. as has been said. necessarily. and obedience.

p. war-pits (p. 16b) and the n'juguma or life-preserver. had practically nothing but vegetable produce to sell. in the dense cover does all that required is and the true weapon of the people. is in appearance a poor weapon is : a stick tapered at Still. 14). situation border the Akam'ba." would soak into the Kikiiyu country. however. and myriads of sharp. The Kikuyu bow round of it. The Masai. nor did they make raids for the capture of slaves. were far more in touch with passing caravans. xxv. 116c). hand combat they use the spear (PI. The Akikuyu employ as missiles the poisoned arrow (PI. they have gradually become universal as the country lost its forest. Slavery as an institution did not exist amongst them. fire -hardened bamboo skewers set betwixt the herbage. . vi. of the military instinct as individuals they do not cultivate proficiency in arms. procured by them as " hon'-ga " or " leave to pass payment. p. 36c). p. similarly The Akikuyu carried on a limited commercial intercourse. the shield (PL cxxxvi. works are growing stockades (PL xc. Copied apparently from the Masai. and the sword (PL v. suited their purpose better to maintain friendly relations with those living in that part in order to make sure of getting the absolutely essential food supplies. who were from their more in communication with the coast. It is the handle transfixes deadly. is With the sword the M'kikuyu As a nation they are devoid really proficient. 344a).) whilst defensive . For hand-top. : The n'juguma hurled with accuracy up to 30 yards the object. The peculiar spear and large shield are obviously impossible weapons for use in dense cover. .16 CONTACT WITH THE COAST it seem to have thought it poHtic to interfere with the Akikuyn . except a little On the southern ivory. is both extremities and kept permanently it strung. and in a desultory fashion simple articles of commerce. such as trade salt and brass and copper wire.

. 9I oz. Sword balances at a point 16 in. 31J ScABBAK'I) ..KiKUVU SwORU AND Total length of sword. . 16 a . belt — N'do'-ho. weight. .. The leather cover is invariably dyed a bright red with the bark of a certain root. The scabbard. handle — Mu'-ti wa ro'-hi-yo. i lb. It is made of wood. in. covered with goatskin. lies between the belt and the body. when worn. scabbard — N'jor'-a. Sword . — Ro'-hi-yo hi'-vo). from the extremity of the handle. (pi.

i6b . VI ^1 41 3 4-H' eir /hi/. Miis.PL. [A'.

The length 2. 2'\ It is always heavily poisoned. barbs (upper end) are not here well shown. solid leather. Detachable extremity of arrow in. 2\ An arrow ready for use. of a stem of grass. The shaft is of solid The pluming is attached by a wood — length. of the sling can be adjusted by sliding either of the two collars up or down. and is that used for hunting. 21 in. This iron tip is secured in its place by being forced into a cleft in the extremity of the short shaft. which also indicates the whipping that prevents the socket from splitting. 4. It is made . due to the thick coating of poison. The movable end is one The shaft is solid wood.Plate vi KikCyu Quiver and Arrows 1. it Below the barbs assumes the form of a long spindle. Its cap. with heavily poisoned detachable heads. A highly finished war arrow. Reason unknown. — consisting is of a short length of shaft (4| of which one end socketed into the main shaft (2*) whilst the other carries a triangular tip of thin iron. 4^ The shaft of Fig. 26 l'\ in. The object is to pi-event wound by the weight of All arrows and hunting harpoons are thus made. The The movable end This end is of a special aiTow used for shooting birds. is The bulky appearance from socket to tip 3. This the common form of arrow. piece of carefully wrought ironwork.). the arrow head being drawn from the the shaft in the animal's flight. of which the dome- shaped and sewn in. Round bottom sewn upper extremity is in. Quiver — of . The socket into which it fits is shown at (b). girth. carved out of one piece of wood. whipping. Length. 4. 7| in. which is then made to tightly pinch is it by means of a whipping (a). An arrow shaft from which the movable extremity (Fig 2) has been separated.

.

PART I .

PL. VII IV. S. phot. A'. Standing at Ease i8b .

muscular.viiL . the habit the same not infrequent of standing on one leg. whilst at time the sole of the other foot placed against the inner side of the thigh of the leg that carries the weight.PART I THE PEOPLE AND THEIR PURSUITS MEN AND MANNERS In dealing mth the Akikuyu people it is as yet impossible to this matter. The Akikuyu are exceedingly strong. to be learnt. much yet remains They speak undoubtedly a Bantu language. and well set up. They differ widely also from the inhabitants of the West coast in both form and feature. The sit nature of their employment requires that they shall not down for a moment. The carriage of the women lacks the grace that is often seen in native races. Their hair is short and curly. . and not on the head. Another common attitude of these people 19 is crossing the Pi. however. Amongst boys and is lads when herding is the flocks. use. McGregor informs us that they possess another language in addition to that in generally about 5 ft. the reason being that loads are carried by them on the back. common 4 in. as speak definitely on the subject of race. but Mr. This statement is not. and their skins are black. The colour of the latter is however of a less pronounced shade than the ebony tint which characterises the West African native. healthy. or they would lose some of their charges amidst the tangled shrubbery on which goats prefer to browse. In height the considerably men are the women less. based on any measurements specially taken. On on that of their more recent origin and history.

20 legs of CLANS when standing warriors. a man murders fine one of his own clan in his own district no murder need be paid. the arrangement has the curious result. It was denied in the case of one member of the clan Agachiku . and is corroborated by Mr. but this may have been due to a misunderstanding. but are not restricted to any particular geographical area. and in each case was successful. headman. Such a person was once challenged by Mr. It is also and discuss any subject and hospitality to its and thus arrive at a concerted course of action. to own members who were on a There is no distinction in dress and ornament mark to what clan a man belongs. which can be collected from all members of the clan over a clans have a recognised Some very large district that if . xxxiv. not marry a member of the clan of either his father or his mother. but certain persons profess to be able to state the clan of any individual by examining his hand. There are said to be certain other restrictions as to marriage between particular clans which cannot be broken without penalty of barrenness. McGregor. A clan Avould always provide journey. vii. A pecuKar habit of children and young adults is the placing of one finger against the teeth when thinking : it is not appar- ently an expression of shyness. 1 This was the general result of our investigation. others have not. The chief N'duini The head of the Mwesaga is said to live near Karuris. reported that members of a clan would meet offer sacrifice. The chief bond of solidarity is mutual responsibility for the murder fine. A man belongs to the tribe of his father.' but may return to that of his grandmother. The Kikuyu nation is divided into thirteen Clans (i-ri-ka). : this is an unconscious trick or mannerism young PL PI. The members of each clan have a blood tie in common. they live He may side by side. McGregor to name the clans of three men in the missionary's train. . and his father are heads of the Anjiru.

5. 6. the Ethaga.^ CLANS Bee boxes. In two other clans. It has been stated that certain lands may be thus entailed by parental direction. Achera. and the Anjiru ^ may eat wild game. An-go-i. and may not be sold. calls his sons. especially as regards food.e c-A£<-\/\ 10.s2. as sold in markets. E-tha-gi 12. " ki-ru-me. and hands on the instructions given to him by his father. Ai-zi-e-ge-ui. some 1 One member of this clan said be did not do so. 4. — c5». -^ 9. His dying curse. DESIGN OF THE CLAN AN-JI -RCT. "^"v Ai-ze-ran'-du 13. others not even out of a pot where such has been cooked. 11. 8. crn. An-ga-ri or Ai-the-ka-hu-no. Am-bu-i. apparently those of the makers of the boxes. the Ambui.. 7. Angari and Aizeran'du. ^^Xt»-^'> ~i LIST OF CLANS 1. Cx^ci. This we have not been able to trace. Some may theoretically eat wild game. . An old man dying. 2. A-ga-thi-gi-a. A-ga^chi-ku. except as far The as regards the preservation of some land under timber. 3. 21 may be seen marked with designs which are said to be connected with particular clans. The traditions in various clans are hereditary and difEer from one another." is invoked on those who depart from these instructions. Ai-cha-ka-mu-yo Ai-ri-muv A-ki-u-ru or M' we-sa-ga or 'bu-ru. An-ji-ru. A-che-ra.

They have also certain mysterious powers. Thomson's gazelle. Totem. etc. . families. Kahuno M'wizaga Anj iru Agachiko Achera Aiziranuu Agazigia . that in each there were originally two brothers. 1906: " Classification of the Kikiiyu by their totemic clans : Clans. The Agachiku clan must not work iron.. one of whom went and killed game and the other did not. W. — — 22 CLANS eat wild may game and some may not. Their medicine can cure but the cure is expensive. Hippo. McGregor considers that totems exist in particular same totem would not obtain throughout a whole clan.G. . Men are even met with to whom all meat is forbidden. who makes mud with spittle and touches with it the temple. If admiration is expressed without bad intent. Swala. M^ J>^ '"''^y^K ^^~yyf 'M J> . All males of the clan can see rain coming and can stop it. of working iron. All wild game. V^ Aiziageni " Every clan has men. there no particular clan of medicine clan are supposed to be under a curse. Fish. They are also by filial duty to preserve certain land as woodlands. no harm will result. and stomach of the victim. gives the following notes on this subject in the Journal 3Ian. and this. Elephant and Zebra. C. costing thirty goats. C. many forests and wander about in a mad state. throat. . This difference is accounted for by tradition. and must not act The M'wesaga are the clan most strongly as circumcisors.^ ^ Mr.." Mr. and their respective descendants adhere to the precedent thus laid down. eventually die. . of a sheep. Hobley. -yt/ V)" (ZT J^ ' . all birds. .. but that the . Wart hog. bound The clans are again subdivided into families. is medicine man . " The people of the M'wizaga members of the tribe go off into its . IMpala. and for them to express admiration of any person is to bring about evil this can be counteracted by the Medicine-Man. The stomach. They share with the Agachiku the prohibition differentiated.M.

S. VIII W. Another Manner of standing at Ease .Pl. K. phot.

.

but the warrior yield the road to Avill always at all an old woman. The custom of spitting on an object in order to secure good luck is found amongst the Akikuyu. tricky. children. His moral code is dealt Avith more fully later on. . though never behave considerately and very differently from the little European wild Even the to. This habit exists amongst our own lower orders in the custom of spitting on a coin. They is are naturally polite in their intercourse with one It another. He may be summed up as being exceptionally good native material.MEN AND MANNERS In disposition 23 cheerful : the Akikuyu are naturally merry. and laughter-loving. trustful and truthful in contact with one European. and a very definite code of good manners exists. and . they are wanting in the ever-present greediness that characterises the Masai. and endorse the infliction of the severest punishment if they know they are in the wrong. but of so plastic a character that if badly handled at the outset it is spoiled permanently. Though shrewd enough in matters of business. he becomes stupid and unreliable. troubles Soon forgetting their and lacking the spirit of vindictiveness. the custom for women and children to stand aside for warriors to pass on the path. or harshly treated courteously beasts . The M'kikuyu is by nature extraordinarily honest bright and intelligent. in the hands of another : it all depends on how he is treated. treacherous to a degree. They much dislike and are hurt by the hectoring rudeness of the European of the " damned nigger " school of thought and manner. loquacious. The order kept functions is very striking. They have a great sense of justice. spoken who are permitted by their parents to conduct life themall selves in such a way as to render a scourge to the other passengers on board the mail steamers to East Africa.

: and the female I visitors spit on the newly-arrived youngster as a sign of welcome. was very frightened. The old fellow suddenly saw it coming. A small portion . to offer snuff to any one a form of courtesy. according to my experience. the hollow An unarmed old man was going across a large boarhound puppy and galloped after him for a frolic.24 MEN AND MANNERS To spit upon a person or thing is also an expression of goodThe blacksmith spits upon the sword he has forged before handing it over to the owner so. spat into the palm of his hand and extended it to the pup so as to express amity in the same way as he would have done to its master. once saw an amusing instance of this spitting in accord- ance with poKteness. and the dried tobacco leaf is made up in the form of a rope for the purpose of preservation and convenience in trading. a sober people. it so. for the Akikuyu have no dogs. Then it dawned on him that it was the strange beast of the white man. when it reached paw. Tobacco. like native beer. The old men are inveterate snuff-takers. The plant is casually cultivated. seems to be reserved as a consolation middle life and of old age. and such a request is never directly refused. courtesy demands that a man should spit in his hand before offering it to a friend. for no M'kikuyu smokes. of its course. and turned to fly. but in a snuff of is bottle is not often seen decorating their bosoms." him. and the friendliest relations were established between them. too. knelt down. The Akikuyu in the districts here dealt with are. but it has been stated that sat up and extended some other districts it is far otherwise. not an uncommon thing to see one traveller accost another to try the favour of a pinch. It is Still. The young warriors occasionally take a pinch. and never having seen such a creature. so he stopped. Now the dog had been camp square when sprang on its legs taught to " shake hands. will.

.

30 in. end end made of horn of bush-buck.PLATE IX Snuff and Snuff-bottles (Ki-lan'-gi kya am-bo'-ke) of 2. closed by a cap 2J in. Length of sling. 26i in. in. 'What have I but my n'ju-gu'-ma?'" Length. 5.. sewn leather ornamented with beads. Length Snuff-bottle is of horn. mixed with a little pounded soda) to render it more pungent. Length of sling. Full length of sling. Above is attached a plug of wood to close the mouth. Diameter 6. 36 in. I. 4. liin. is 24 b . Snuff-bottle fitted with a double chain to from the neck. 7 in. x ly^ in. length. The smaller is covered by a leather cap that slides up and down the sling by which it is carried over the shoulder. The larger permanently closed by sewn leather. . New unmounted snuff-bottle wood. of head. Plug to close orifice attached by fine strip of leather. of which the head has been hollowed out. of in. 3J in. done up of banana-leaf. you say. or life-preserver. x if A humorous snuff-bottle of ornamental wood. 3^ In use of it i-ga-ti (? some form Weight. sling it 3. in form of a miniature n'ju-gu'-ma. Snuff-bottle with neck-sling. 9 in. 2jin. " When asked for snuff. Prepared snuff as sold in the native markets. i oz. xi^in. in packets girth. 15^ in.

IX 4t^ V 4 24 c .Fl.

.

cane It Such a packet would would cost two good last man^ sticks of sugar —something approaching the value of half a day's work. Plate xxxi. just sufficient this the leaf is triturated being given to maintain it it in the condition of a is damp is powder. however. are employed in speaking of men Mu'-MO M'wa-na'-ke Wa-ka-ny-u-ku Mun'-du mu-ge'-ma Ka-ra-bai' M'zur'-i . figs.) grease is very carefully added drop by drop only. M'zur'-i a ki-a-na who needs a stick. (Exactly similar balls are shown in Fewkes. A warrior — an adult man. it is though exceedingly difficult to express values accurately when ^ describing dealings between native and native. Under by a movement imparted to the ball that is partly a push and partly a roll. g. The Aborigines of Porto From time to time more Rico. „ „ with a child. Fig. whose children are growing up. The upper stone employed is. perhaps three days. It is expensive. . f. An . A young man recently circumcised. similar in shape but much smaller than the lower one used in mealing corn. 5. M'zur'-i a bou'i of extreme old age. e. The form in which sold in the market shown on a PL ix. takes the form of a stone globe the size of a large orange. for it altogether different from the upper mealing stone. A big boy (uucircumcised). A married man. elderly man. The following terms Ka'-he Kl'-HE . A small boy. It is then laid on a flat rubbing stone.: THE USE OF SNUFF of such is 25 taken and slightly greased with sheep's tail fat that has been rendered down.

other than that of the scalp. taken together. carries on his person certain garments and constitute his ornaments. of own is styles adorning the hair. His dress (thus defined) varies with his age and with the occasion. These frequent ceremonial shavings of the head. : Hair-Dressing The subject. as a white woman will shave off woman would commence wearing a cap. in whole or in part. Here we shall solely speak of the dress of the boys and men that of the women is dealt with elsewhere. curly. falls within one of the above heads. or a middle-aged her tuft. its different to the hair or ways of dressing the head. . appear to be dictated partly by a religious feeling and partly by a mere is obedience to the canons of custom. though occasionally a girl or young woman may be seen with a mop head for special reasons. To women PL IL these remarks do not largely apply. either by adding by shaving it off. Throughout life a man constantly having his head shaved. and that each item has its own story to tell. which.DRESS The M'kikuyu certain dress. he hunts for stray hairs. When an has nothing else to do. on any individual with whom one may be thrown in contact. convenient to consider that every article. Their hair is short. in the case of men. and as 26 fine as the finest Anglo- Saxon hair when carefully compared. is in itself alone a large Every little district has. and the subsequent permission of the hair to grow again. propriety. All hair. roots pulled out by the by both men and women. Some is parts of some It for utiHty. For this purpose tweezers M'kikuyii are constantly carried about the person. it are worn for the sake of and some simply to comply with custom. in accordance with passing events of moment to him.

the native attaches strips of feather as closely as he can. all When they are completed. a line is taken across the crown of the head from ear to ear. which hangs over and is well whipped at The whole is then anointed intervals to preserve its form. All cords arising in front of that parting are then . are pigtail. . The rest of the hair is left in its natural state —short. with a plentiful amount of red ochreous clay and oil rendered down from the tail of the sheep. PL x. The cords arising behind the string connecting the points. parting are disposed of by allowing the lower ones transverse divided into three equal portions to remain loose. as a thick fringe reaching well down over the neck . This pigtail : %. whereby the appearance process of a cord of all long hair obtained. shall be the same for all feathers on one side of the head. These strips of feather are then securely whipped by one end to tufts of hair. brought together to form a extends below the fringe. like a thin woven mat. curly. axis. The head is anointed with mutton fat and red ochre. extending from ear to ear. Another style of dressing the hair is to take the long wing PL plumes of the vulture (n'de-ri) and to strip the vane from either side of the stem.HAIR-DRESSING possible 27 One way and is of doing it is to take the smallest tuft of hair PL xi to twist into it the fibres of a wood is bark. and form thus three pendants. but These are carefully and tastefully arranged so that the natural curl. the length of the cords being regulated according to their position. the centre one of which falls over the middle of the forehead. The tufts are composed of all the hair arising from the top of the head over an area of the size of the hand where our religious bares the scalp by shaving. crisp. The ends of the cords of each division are finely whipped together. This repeated over the head. thus obtaining from each plume two curling bands of feather. whilst the upper ones. and the other two over the right and left temple They are retained in their correct position by a respectively. obtained by stripping the vane from the not so the feathers.

Fig. k. Arm ornaments — (1) Brass wire. (PI. . xxviii. (PI. here made of (Americano) . h. 1. xviii. e. of wearing. coil. Metal collar of beads. of fighting spear. P-.) (PI. Fig. d. Left arm bracelet — right armlet. (2) Strap worked with beads. 1. The shaved forehead. fillet c. xiii. /. /.) Part of shoulders and chest covered with red ochre and fat (showing dark above the clear skin of arm and breast).) and chain. The ornamental brow Chain earrings.— Plate x A Shows a. calico j. 1. (PI. Fig. xx. Fig. The body The strap of shells worn diagonally. String necklace. iron portion (i-ti-mu) (mi'i-ti) and part of the middle or wooden portion VI. 3. gai'ment. KiKtJYU Warrior — Ordinary Dress Special form of hair-dressing with strip of feathers.) Method Upper of wearing sword on right side. one method j. h.

28 a . . N. phot.. X If.v.Pi.

A' phot. 28 b . XI 1 1 '.PL. 5.

there shown. is The is anterior extremity tucked behind the anterior half of the This ornament PI. 2 a. shows Thfe hair dressed in the tails are. a. b. not yet been trimmed and ornamented. it covers the whole of the The cut that is customary when shaping the stomach This example has of the ox into a head covering. 1 shows style A common parted. 1.) d. however. A special form of arm ornament. is accurately shaped and bordered c. Fig. (See PI. of dressing pigtails till : the hair: lengthened.) A double row of raised scars on the left arm. d. (Cf. e. (n'gi-ri) fonned of a thin triangular plate of the n'gi-ri lobe. the worn passing over and around both manner always adopted for warmth. xxvii. same way as Fig. 3. The cartilage of the ear adorned with a special form of ear ornament. XXV. 2. here fashioned in a manner is The pigmuch more common than 6. The rope-like lobe of the ear is shown passed upwards lies over the cartilage. xiii. . whipped into that from the back of the head lengthened neck. Fig. Attached to the cartilage and dependent from it is an ornament of bone.) Fig. often attached to the hair at the back of the head or dependent over the forehead. PI. c. The cartilage beneath the head covering. (See The garment is shouldei's. The head covering with beads.— Plate xi Fig.

cords of the desired length having been attached to the head by twisting them into tufts of the natural short hair. roof of red ornamental tiles. the steel black of the feathers contrasting well with the coloured ointment. but little above the eyebrows and from its centre a pendant drops to the root of the nose. the appearance that of a Frontispiece. plaque neighbour above. a fillet. the naturally short hair having been lengthened by having bark string twisted up with it. not depending below the brows. an effect is obtained exactly like the roped coat of a prize poodle dog. placed low on the forehead. One small ornament only is worn dependent from the crown when the hair is thus dressed. From this central button others are each symmetrically arranged in concentric touching its circles. are The cords are of such a length as to reach to the shoulders. x. occasionally be warriors. . . seen. With the row PL XXV. hat nor cap is generally worn by the people a form xL of casque-shaped head covering. hair dressed thus. It is . is Another way of dressing the hair centre of the crown to take a tuft in the and to attach to it a pellet of clay the shape and size of a filbert. and laterally. the hair immediately above the forehead shaved off in order that the short cords in front may hang in the fashion desired.30 This HAIR-DRESSING efifect (PI. and consisting of a single is harmonising with the natural colour of the skin of the face. of small black and white beads (mu-ga-si). may. however. No PI. or perhaps it would be more accurate to say. but those falling over the forehead made short. is In fact. The hair thus lengthened is then allowed to hang naturally without any further restraint. This headgear made from the stomach of the ox turned inside out.) is very pleasing . worn. In this One of the commonest styles is very effective. is much worn by the Masai and the Akikuyu have probably copied it from them. is Being coated with grease and red ochre. The whole of the hair of the head is thus treated. below.

(2) cartilage (du-ge-ra) Those supported by the lobe (gu-tu). but five quills are usually only worn by the women. in the case of men. ixi. In some districts the men wear five quills instead of three. also In the simplest form these are single stems of grass having . The cartilage. getting torn. cession of rings of gradually increasing size. make good the damage. position. Pi. xvi. passed over the cartilage so as to hang it up and to prevent is is xL 'Fig. and for this the fee a Some (1) of the ornaments worn by (s. until an object Pi. thereby it formed at the Pi. and often reaches as a loop down lobe to the shoulder. has three holes made in its upper convex border to support three quills in an erect Sometimes another hole is made in it lower down. the size of the largest orange may be passed through it easily. ixxxi. the lobes of the boys' ears are pierced. The aperture is gradually dilated. hypertrophy of the lobe takes place. Together with dilatation of the aperture. for quills worn projecting horizontally. is the dilated loosely twisted up. The ear quills ron-i-or'-i. When not in use for the support of an ornament. men in the cartilage are chu-ma). until it becomes like a round india-rubber cord the size of a stout lead pencil. and the this eye. n. Should happen a surgical operation required to goat. but this are not is to carry some other form of ornament. end. ny-or'-i. Some months before the time for the circumcision rite to be performed. To achieve this condition is said to take about four months. 2. xiv.— — EAR ORNAMENTS Ear Ornaments The first 31 thought of a M'kikuyu is is to ornament his ears : to this even the dressing of his hair a secondary consideration. pi. Ear ornaments may be divided into (1) Those attached to the edge of the of the ear. by constantly wearing in it a suc- pi.

made in the upper border On each shaft are placed six dark blue beads. and have a deeply-concave border. -worn in the lowest aperture lage. xi.— 32 a bead of EAR ORNAMENTS gum at the base. A disc of wood. 6. the shape and size of a small cotton reel —from this depends short lengths of chain. Figs. 1. worn in the fourth or lowest aperture finest beads. in a different form. Fig. xiii. of the cannot slip out backwards. Each rachis passes through a corresponding hole of the cartilage. (4) An oval disc (go-so-rei-i) of lead. and the tip is finished off with one small white bead and a whipping of thread and gum. Fig. because its of the position PI. (2) PL xiv. xvi. (2) A helix of brass wire (hu-la-hu-li) forming a boss. (5) A cylinder made of twisted wire. Fig. Fig. Pl. because bead gum. Europeans say that these were originally beaten out of Maria Theresa dollars. plain or orna- mented. ' • the dilated lohe may support (1) A cylinder of ivood (mu-ti wa gu-tu). It of The free end is passed through the hole in the cartilage. it It does not slip out downwards. A tassel of the In men Pl. 1. 2. in which the rope-like lobe of the ear lies. pi. XV. threaded on a fibre of tendon. consists of a strip of leather placed in the hollow of the upper edge of the ear. into which are fitted the larger ends of the stems of three feathers. usually ornamented with inlaid beads. The same ornament. assumes in consequence of length. 3. Fig. (3) Hoops of various sizes. xiv. Pl. made (4) in the cartilage. formerly current on the coast. (3) made in the edge of the carti- A ring of the very smallest coloured beads. xiii. They are carved from wood. PI. .

Fig. The rest of the hair in its natural condition. 5. This. PL xiii. Fig. 6. PI. A typical Kikuyu ear: (a) The cartilage carrying a number of ear-rings. A pair of iron wire armlets. xiii. Shows 1.— PL. Xll ! v. Portrait of Kar-ur'-i One of the most influential of the Akikuyu. S. phot. in the case of a man of his years. is quite exceptional. Cf. Cf. ungreased and not artificially lengthened. : — 32 a . (I)) The lobe (reaching to the level of the chin) containing another peculiar ear ornament. The anterior portion of the scalp shaved. 2. 3. 6. 5. 4. The usual walking-stick. The way in which the garment (here made of monkey skins and of the long form) is brought together over the right shoulder by a thong and sliding wire stop. K. and a man of great ability.

but not nowadays. Fig. Length from top of curve to bottom of fringe. Kenya). 2 oz." Diameter. Ke-chu'-i ("a ring") is an ornament of the lobe. p. short length of iron wire (v) is whipped at each end small tab of copper is now with fine iron wire (x. " Formerly it was worn by old men. PI.) of chain are attached. To a bead span lengths (g^in. 2. ornament worn by anybody in lowest of the perforations in the cartilage. in. ring of iron ^vire whipped with fine copper Worn in wire. the chain 5. Ixiii. ^in. 4iin. Two mi-in'-do weigh | oz. Lengths of iron chain worn attached to the cartilage. PL xii. wrapped around each end and hammered into a boss of The bar is then bent to the the particular shape shown. By means of the tube the straightened is then threaded. Open A 6. The centre stands above the surface f in. 3. 32b . worn by elderly men only. Weight. spiral of iron wire. obtained from Meru (foot of Mt. a peculiar ornament of the lobe of One to six mav be worn. Method of making mi-in'-do. Hu-la-hu'-li. 32 a. rings are shown in use. x). 2j oz. 3 in. i to given and the final additional which the final shape has been whipping of fine copper wire added between x and x. m is Fig. 32 a. is Kamba (?). in the form of a cylinder. Mi-in'-do ornamented with short lengths of chain. I.PLATE XIII Ear Ornaments Fig. A A Length in the straight. The pattern of . ijin. Fig. Length when shaped. To fit it to On it an iron tube the ear the iron wire is straightened out. A number of similar but considerably larger the cartilage. Length. Mi-in'-do. 4I in. is whipped with fine copper wire at either extremitv. the ear. worn by men only. xii. to which is attached lengths of fine chain. PI. p. For comfort the wearer has added a wrapping of leather at top. weight. 4. required form and the final whipping added. wire is then coiled around the lobe of the ear to form the figure shown in use.

] .Pl. XIII 1^ 6 Brit. Mns. [/?.

position when in use. 7* in. Not Avorn ya gu'-tu). women. 3^. . similar to 5 and 4. A beautifully modelled wood ornament into which the rope-like lobe is slipped. 7. Worn by warriors only. 8| in. 3j in. Circumference. The lower inside tip has been shortened. of . pile i viewed from Circumference of the smallest. ya.. ya. 2(1. by boys and 2. Not common. Ki-lin-gi'-ti ya gu'-tu. a-b = if in. ornamented with beads ornament in the distended lobe. . jjin. . . A plain solid cylinder of (ki-lori-gi'-ti the neck are in pairs. the largest. 3a.. girls until 2b. il-c 32(1 = i|in. worn for wood. 7. 3. in circumference. wood. Examples taken from different aspects. ya. Largest specimen in collection 5. 4.. but larger and slightly orna- mented. but never preparing for initiation. ya. 3^. Referred to as mu'-ti wa gu'-tu. . 4 in.. is 9 in. 3. Is = 3^ in. 6. Solid discs of on outer face. depth. i^in. shaped at the ends The two points that come next to somewhat shortened. laid on its side to show construction. a-d-b — 3jin. 3n. . . also Worn by girls and young married by warriors and men of all ages. 11 in. 7iin. . — Lobe only expand- A pile of rings (n'de'-be) of different sizes for ing the lobe of the ear. Length. and made of solid ivory. Depth. Similar article to fl-^ 5.PLATE XIV Ear Ornaments 1.

] 32 6 . Mus.PL. [/?. O o^oo OO qOOOooOii .oo OO OO 01 <to O I O o O O o 000°"' 3b Brit. XIV " o >n j" . O O .2?oOOooc.

2| in.PLATE XV " Ear " Blocks 1. In this groove the hypertrophied lobe lies like a solid rubber tyre length. slightly stretched loop :!2f . The lobe is then slightly stretched to allow h. Extreme Length of prong. a-c. 2. which lies around it at the level d-e. Girth. cl-e. Uncommon. it to be slipped Between h and c is a shallow groove extending round the whole circumference of the over the lower point. Extreme length. Carved oniament is of wood (mu'-ti wa gu'-tu). A common form of ornament for the lobe fmu'-ti wa A hollow wooden cylinder carved into form indiThe extremities of the spikes are united by a string The lower end of the cylinder is thrust into the cated. 6iin. The spike a passed through the distended lobe of the ear. formed by the hypertrophied lobe. 5^ in. 6i in. Circumference 7} in. Length of prong. of beads. gu'-tu). 2| in. on a bicycle wheel. Interval between prongs. in groove. In wear the spikes maintain a position dn-ected upwards and slightly forward. outside to outside. 2| in. article. b c.

] 32 g . XV Brit.PL. [/?. Mhs.

XVI MM ^ . The piece of leather (a). into which the " sticks " are set. Its function is merely to support the sticks. as here shown is a The chain dependent from somewhat unusual addition. XXV. 32 h the leather Cf. lies in the gutter in the upper external border of the cartilage. [A'. the spikes (h-c).i..] Ear "Sticks" (Ron-i-oi'-i) Worn in the cartilage of ear One of the most The essential thing is typical ornaments of the Akikiiyu. which rise above the upper border of the cartilage. PI. .W'fj BriL M//S.PL. viii.lt. Pi.

Ornaments worn around the Neck See p. 33 321 .

2j in. General length of fringe throughout. The beads of the string are a dark blue (the most valued The extremity of each length of the fringe of chain is terminated by two milk-white beads tied to it. Length of necklace. Mus. 152 in. XVII Brit. 32 J .Pl. [A' ] Necklace colour).

f. 24 in. converting them into a tube. [A'. I in. 45°. around with fine iron wire. These are compressed laterallv. 2. .] Length of dependent chain. somewhat flattened and rendered homogeneous by hammerEach turn thus rests against its fellow at an angle of ing. XVIII XucK Ornaments Mu-lii-ni-o. Circumference collar. Kenva). Obtained from an M'kikuyu of the of flexible Mer'-u countrv (foot-hills of Mt. leaving a considerable and even The whole has been then interval betAveen each turn. or formed of a single rod of stout iron wire whipped I. From each tube four lengths of fine iron chain depend to the waist.l/«. Kenya). collar. Made apparentlv bv binding a core of smaller gauge wire with other much stouter.Pl. **»IUU\N\^^^^' of /y/z7. and then over them two pieces of flat iron are folded. One extremity of the whipping wire terminates in a hook and the other in an eve. One of the com- monest an d most graceful of the neck ornaments. Obtained from an M'kikuyu from the Mer'-u countrj(foot-hills of Mt. Worn both by men and \vomen never bv : children. Over the centre (where there is no whipping) lengths of chain are laid. 32 k . A flat ornamental collar iron.

Size. and elderly men. little girls when bird-scaring The hoop is formed by tying and used by them only. larger beads are formed of the wood mu-hu'-ti. i in. 15 in. — that of the wearer. 192^ in. The string passing through the grass stems is then drawn tight and secured. They are valued for the scent they are considered to give off when rubbed together in wear. 3 in. . grass plaited over a core of string. Ki-ban'-di. 2^ 5. It is simply called mi'-ti. satchel worn round the neck by boys. Total length of string. of smallest.PLATE XIX N li C KL AC E S 1. forming two necklaces. Hoops Made by worn. A necklace of beads with a fringe of trumpet-shaped Such is worn by boys and by old pieces of iiard wood. Fringe. Each compartment contains a "medicine" /. Worn doubled. . 2. i] in. at the each. together b)' a double string passing through the cavity of Another cord forming the neck string is. Length of trumpet. in. of fine (ma-li-gi-ri-gi). men not by others. Mon'-do. 2x2 32 1 in. a variety of different drugs as compounded for the wearer by the medicine-man to form a charm. A single string of beads of graduated sizes. same time. : Total length. The 4. the smaller ones of the wood ki-ra'-go. a neck ornament made and worn by 3. Length. 60 in.) are brought boys. The design and workmanship of the article is warriors.c. The only interest is in the design. Some half-dozen are together the two ends of twine. Five lengths of grass stem (li in. Circumference of largest bead. passed through each bight projecting at the upper end.

. Mus.Pi. [R ] 32111 . XIX Brit.

throughout entire length. Armlet formed of leather strap 2. Stated to be worn by small boys. Length (jf dependent chain. whipping a. 18 in. but never afterwards. and warriors. and young married women. (/). Number Length of cords in one necklace. N'gi-ta. On the inner aspect. spiral wire stop =^ Extent 3. whipped with copper its wire. Terminal tongue (a.PLATE XX Necklaces and Armlet made from lengths round cord woven with the fingers from bark. a cut hole {b} has been made with a chisel through each turn of d. 9 to of each cord. and carries the usual of wire through terminal ((/). a form of necklace of a peculiar necklace. h. The ends of the cords are whipped together to form one 1. c) passes the wire. big but not by elderly or old men . 14 in. at the From two to six such necklaces may 14. be worn same time. big boys. 321-1 . Mang-oi'-o. girls. c = i i in. also by small girls. or collar worn bv boys up to time of circum- cision.

.

their extremities united by single row of milk-white The treble row of by threading strings.. an ornament of fixed design worn by boys only up to time of circumcision. ... . pendant.PLATE XXI Necklaces 1. to and whipped with copper wire. 32 1' . To beads. centre row dark blue. l-ken-i'-a. 1 worn by big girls and married women. 21 in. he pattern is said to be very old-fashioned. i8i in... . red.. milk-white. which are attached six lengtlis of iron chain (14 in. Necklace: beads. . yet much wear. milk-white. white . two outside rows. ... beads. pendant. ii| in Pendant . beads. strips of leather pierced beads is maintained in ribbon form by three holes to carry the three Length . of collarette. forms 2. if of in. Represents details one of of obviously had source. row two specimens. Both have Each obtained from a different Neckof construction are identical. this is attached row of cowrie shells. A it string of blue beads (16 in.. .. Pendant : . a pendant. chain. Length . 3 chain. of necklace.). or collarette. . 11 in . centre row. centre row. in. 3. other one \\orkcd with blue beads. red.. lace formed of treble outer rows milk-white.. Ma-rei-me'-li.) has betwixt each bead in its anterior portion eighteen tabs of leather folded over A cowrie shell. two outside rows.

32 q .

obtained by trade The two larger specimens are 2^ in. 2. with the Akam'ba. the smaller i| in. It is flat (MI its posterior and somewhat convex on its anterior surface. formed from a sea-shell rubbed down and pierced. It is highly valued for making the ornament known as i-ken-i'-a (fig. is and in diameter. size of a crown piece. .PLATIC XXII I-KI'N-l'-A l-ken-i'-a. a milk-white disc. previous page).

Pl. Mus. [/?. XXII Brit.] 32 s .

consists. cone is held tightly against its neighbour by a knotted cord encircling its larger end J in. and hence were formerly only obtained through the Masai' by trade. xxin A Valuable Necklace leaves of The for their a certain plant are the much appreciated They come. The Kikuyu name necklace of the and of the plant from which it is made is ma-li-li-chu-a. The appearance of an open wire whipping is the Akikuyu. scent. sav.Pl. natives from the m^Ajn country near Lake Naivasha. From the leaves these necklaces are made by Each element on section. length I in. Of each element. Each due to the midrib. length 28 in. Of total necklace. . from the base. of one or more leaves compressed into a solid cone.

They do not seem to experience pain to anything like the same extent that a European would under similar circumstances. The Mas-ai. they declare. 33 and both of the lips are never in an}' way pierced or ornamented. For this purpose a vegetable dye is used that temporarily stains their naturally brownish-black skin to an intensely black hue. On the other hand. invariably remove an upper incisor in order. The natives are constantly polishing their teeth with a green stick which has been chewed at one end. of cordage.ORNAMENTS Ornamentation of the Face and Neck. As a rule their teeth are excellent. either files or removes any of his teeth. and each the size of a shilling. The dentist's fee is a load of flour. that they may be fed with milk when the jaws are clenched with tetanus. from earliest childhood. so as to form a brush. their neighbours. No M'kikuyu. and caries rare. The neck is always. . I have never seen them use a toothpick. This is usually composed either of beads of sorts. say. In addition. the nostrils. but he has seen it also amongst the Masai. as tooth-powder." Big lads and girls frequently decorate their cheeks with a pair or more of patches in the form of a star. They also sometimes adorn their faces with a painted domino of blue or red on the occasion of a dance it has no significance that the writer is aware of. In cases of decay and extreme pain. and breaking down " hke dried mud. a tooth is removed by breaking away the wall of the socket with the point of a knife tapped on its butt with a stone. when questioned. The nose. in the districts dealt with. or of wrought metal work. there is the chain sling of the universal snuff bottle. decorated by some form of collar or band. 5 . or a form of soft stone. that they find no necessity to do so for this purpose. The damage done to the jaw is considerable. too. but have been warned that to employ a porcupine quill for the purpose will result in all the teeth presently becoming friable. the Akikuyu. This is the more remarkable considering the fearsome practice of the Akam'ba. from whom the Akikuyu say they are descended. and they say they use charcoal.

own arm seller as the measure. and is usually worn. men often wear only a banana leaf. as a sash. The price is a fixed sum. passing over one shoulder and under the opposite arm when herding the goats. the manner in which an article For instance. depends from the midrib. Of these the best are made of goat skins selected for their colour. The whole effect is very graceful. The length required is three " hands." ^ This garment is worn in such a manner as to completely drape the whole of the upper part of the body. and are accompanied by detailed notes on their use. dark goat skin. belt that is edged with a fringe of chain must be worn around the waist in public. He is not off entitled to call in The purchaser is only entitled any long-armed The may not himself measure the stuff. forming a short petticoat. a form of cape. which may be either all dark chestnut. either just above or below its curve. to claim his friend. the shall be worn according to the occasion. Custom even prescribes. When working in the fields. or chestnut and white as alternate skins. The midrib forms a strap around the waist. which is sometimes preferred on account of its lightness. The right arm is thus free to manipulate the sword and spear. Raiment The one and only garment worn by men and boys protection is for the n'gu-o.34 RAIMENT Each age of each sex wears the ornaments pecuHar to it. This thong nips the right shoulder. The left arm is either covered or left bare according to the fancy of the wearer. Short bright lengths of chain are also attached to small rosettes of beads. whilst the blade of the leaf. and very effectively set off the rich. splitting into strips. It is considered improper. ^ " A hand " is tho distance from the internal condyle of the elbow joint to the tip of the middle finger. . too. from the corners. yet the same is permitted to be worn. This garment may often now be seen made of cotton. and ornamented with beads and raised leather work. Most of the different forms of ornament are illustrated in the plates. and is held in its place by an adjustable thong which brings together the ends of the upper border at a point 3| in.

whilst the ankle is commonly encircled with a thong on which are threaded a number of little bells which pleasantly mark the wearer's otherwise silent tread. ornaments for the purpose is as also are different sorts of bracelets. however. and brought before the elders of the village. Beyond this no form of tattooing is indulged in. On the upper arm some one of the many special PI. These lie below a band of black fur. A man. Pi. It is then made of the handsome pelts of the grey monkey or of the hyrax. as referred to above. Legs The curve of the shoulder and the outer part of the upper arm is often decorated by small lenticular artificial scars of a keloid character. Ornaments of Arms. Sandals are seldom worn except by travellers. But these long robes are not worn by the younger men. which is a strap an inch wide.RAIMENT 35 even when working quite alone. . On the fingers may sometimes be seen rings formed of a coil of fine wire again. Above the swell of the calf is usually some form of ornament. PI. some shapes extending half-way to the elbow. i. in some parts an incurved lozengeshaped plaque of iron forms the upper surface of a ring which covers the whole of the back of the proximal phalanx. deep. PI. xxix. Waist. '^" ' The short cape is sometimes seen in the colder and wetter parts lengthened to the knee and widened. xxvi. Round the waist is worn some form of fringe which varies in character with the occasion. xi. from which depends a fringe of fine chain 3 in. almost invariably worn. cxxi. Fig. and any one transgressing is liable to be reported. is considered fully dressed if he is wearing his mu-ni-or'-a. . This form of ring is very common amongst the Masai. to be unclothed.

44 x 22| in. show the cut. . p. 36c.Plate xxiv ^ \ The One and Only Garment THE N'gi5-o 1. 2. p. Size of this. viii. PI. of Men and Boys. 20c. ({p^r^ A ii'gu-o folded to show manner of wearing to it. flat Another specimen spread out in. Size of this example. 42 x 22 PI. show the appearance in wear. XXV.

] 36 a . Mus. [A*.I'L. XXIV Brit.

(d) (t') sachet. here made of trade calico. Fig. See PI. Another form of fighting spear.) Fighting spear. xi. with dependent chain reac hingbelow Two such are here worn. hand. ankle. The fillet of beads across the forehead. 2. left except that portion here grasped by the (/) (y) Ornamental Beads round garter. v. PI.) : (c) The garment. the and right a strap worn round . xxvii. See PI. Figure to right shows (a) (/. 5. The whole of wrought iron. is garment (o) Bracelets of iron wire. Peculiar triangular ornament (n'gi'-ri). PI.- — PLATE XXV Two Young Warriors Figure to (a) left in Mufti shows :— of Mode wearing the garment. (d) (e) The The ear quills. the waist. (/) The m cdeof wearing the sword. 2. xviii. See I. collar See PI. xxviii. Fig. left See PI. " Medicine " sewn into leather attached to ankle. (/. Fig. attached hair and dependent over forehead. xx. The hair lengthened sufficientlv to extend over the forehead and well down the nape of the neck. 36 1. in this case made of goatskins. xvi. (6) (c) Beadwork cap to of stomach of the ox. Fig. is The scabbard lies next to the skin on the side where the open. PI.

36 c . XXV IV.Pl. S. R phot.

— Pl. 1*1. wealthy. XXVI IV. : shows The large warm garment occasionally worn in the colder districts.xxii. R. S. An M'kikuyu of Middle Adic i'rom the Lower Slopes of Mount Kinangop A PI. (n) well-groomed. . It is made of picked monkey skins. The spear carried by veterans being lighter than the fijjhtinu. phot. one. c. of wearing" the {h) Method garment when warmth is (() not desired. and dignified old gentleman.

Waist. AND Legs 36 e .Orn/\ments of the Arms.

i. of its old and valuable ivory counterpart shown in Fig. I. Armlet and bracelet made the author. c-d = 2J for. arm. Fig. and worn by. bv means of an iron tube some 9 in. p.PLATE XXVII Armlets I. Cf. Kenya). greatest girth. he closely and smoothl}' moulds it to the arm or Avrist. carved from white wood. viewed from the side. It is worn slipped up the arm as close to the shoulder as possible. 36 f . xi. c-c = 6| in. Ivorv ornament (ngo'-zo) for the lower shoulder and upper arm. 3. i| in. h-b = 2f in. whipped over with line brass and copper wire. 28 b. and having its anterior and posterior extremities ornamented with coarse copper wire. II in. It has to be fitted to the limb by a professional expert found at all markets. i when It is worn as high as possible on the upper that is in use. Consists of three solid cylinders of hard wood threaded on strip of leather. f^g = 2| in. in. and 5. length of thong. A somewhat similar article. a-h (outside) = 4 4 in. and the leather thong (d) whereby the opening (i) can be adjusted to the exact size of the upper arm. e-e = 3I in. i((. 1 in. and then. It represents the appearance of Fig. An armlet carved in one piece out of buffalo horn. Length. PI. Formed of a single stout iron ^vire. i« is simply a cheap imitation. . and similarly to la. A charm worn round the ankle to obviate fatigue in the joint when travelling. He first straightens out the coil. made of wood. One end of the thong is pointed and the other pierced to take it. for illustration of use." Obtained from a native of Mer'-u (foot of Mt. e-f = 4I in. Fifj. a-a = 3^ in. These ornaments cannot be slipped on or off. . The cylinders are not hollowed out at their bases to contain " medicines. The ends are directed forwards and backwards. 2. laid on its side to show shape. long slipped over it.

iiife=^ \Brit. [/?.] .Mus. XXVII ^'' | jtewi.Pl.

Size. above the swell of the By boys and men above and around the neck. 3. and iij x ^^ in. Two other specimens of embroidered straps. 94 X I in. Size. j\. 2 to show method of fastening by a sliding bead. Each disc is \ in. 36 h . To show tongue at one end that is passed through the hole in the other end. ornamental tab). unmarried and warriors. 5 in. 2a. The common form of stop on any thong. being a cylinder formed of fine iron or copper wire. Cf. the calf. measure respectively ii| x \ in. not here shown. Process has not been observed. around the neck and around the upper arm. A necklace (rare) formed of discs of bone. or Embroidered Bands girls. 8| X I in. fat 1.PLATE XXVIII Ki-ni-a'-ta. 3(1. 2. girls boj's. Length of tongue. Worn by By biceps. is 2rt Fig. io| X f in. in diameter and concavo-convexof — probabl}' due to method manufacture. Size.

Mus.] 361 .Pl. XXVIII Brit. [A".

of belt (fringed). depend short lengths (2| in. The Mit-ui or'-o. as of sleigh-bells.i of chain. = claw. which is attached a Each of these averages stem (i in. The spiral of brass wire (c) that is slid along the pointed thong as a stop is here well shown. 13 in.). thong. or with a a claw of the ant-bear. 2. terminating one extremity. Univ^^rsally \vorn by warriors and by middle-aged men. in length. 3^] . is On movement chinking sound. a h produced. The pattern and ornamentation of the mu-ni-or'-o does not vary. It is fastened by passing the pointed thong. through a hole pierced in the other. which hollow. and is composed of short pieces of grass Each cord is terminated either by the addition fruit is of the upper extremity of the of the gourd. or W'ciisi Fniii^c.. An unornamented leather strap to fringe of cords.PLATE XXIX Waist Fringes 1. ornamented with a double row of blue and ^vhite beads. Length . From a leather strap. 8 in. eighty-five in number. = gourd (similar to tip of a cucumber). 30 in.

Pl. XXIX H Brit Mns.] 36 k . [i?.

.

LAND AND AGRICULTURE 37 .

P. Of these the is last is by far the important. The only problem for the student how a people naturally so unwarlike has contrived to possess and to hold so desirable a residence. such as the dancing-greens. the country having been denuded of trees. ficus. to remain in order 3S Isolated trees here and there are allowed . as has been soil is so wood and it water. Woodland is. or cultivated. In the case of famine in other of corn are bought here by the Government and forwarded for the purposes of relief. In addition to the sacred groves. seen. These some cases owe their present form to communal labour. non-existent. is a form of These trees may be destroyed by grass but are never intentionally cut down. large supplies Africa. 6. generally speaking. which the Virgin Land on the confines of the country is being brought into private ownership has been described. The present condition it of the land can best be made clear by considering fallow. In the heart of the country the only vestiges The manner which remain are the sacred groves and the in common grounds last preserved by custom. The land which in used for pasture — it most can scarcely be called pastoral land — is spoken of hereafter. usually found on hilltops. wooded. as virgin. while the suited for cereal crops that has become the granary of this part of districts. which are always preserved. a certain species of giant forest tree is considered sacred and is It is known as the mu-ti mu-gu.LAND AND AGRICULTURE The Kikuyu country is as fertile as is it is beautiful. and fires. in both In its natural condition it abounds. but there are the following exceptions.

are found amongst the cultivated land. Fallow Land is all in private ownership. in parts of the country. Certain trees. Their help is also required or of the . The obligation of the clan M'we-sa-ga to keep certain lands under woodland has already been pointed out. though a rich man might occasionally make a present to a friend who desired an additional shamba. It the duty of the men to clear the land of the virgin forest. The countryside. spared. and cannot be again brought into cultivation by any one except the owner. one or more the care of each wife of the head of the home- Interspersed are large plantations of bananas. For such permission. Lastly. half a mile out of his The traveller who goes way attracted by the hope of shade. — cultural nation. in the majority of cases. and they form con- spicuous objects in the landscape. xxxvii. will be doomed to find the bees already in possession. all too few in number.LAND AND AGRICULTURE that bee-boxes 39 Pi. small copses may be found preserved for timber. by hedges. payment would be expected in the form of goats. and sugar-cane." remains for other inquirers to show how far this a case of communal ownership. They is are said to belong " to the chief. manioc. up to about twenty feet in height. The arable ground is and a half to three acres. may be placed in them. presents the appearance of large allotments or of small fields divided generally in lots of one being assigned to stead. when not aAvaiting its turn of cultivation. and roughly to break up the surface. The Akikuyu are essentially an agriCultivated Land." or at times " to the It elders. These cannot be used without leave being obtained and payment given. The whole of the people are is cultivators of the soil. without his leave. They are pollarded stocks whose shoots are useful in hut-building therefore they are . brushwood that covers it after lying fallow.

hoeing. we got some of our native friends to set out for us what they considered to be a typical Kikuyu agricultural year. but as the Kikuyu ideal of a . and it is ground he not considered derogatory to do so. a spade. moon in its and with a supply of counters to represent rain.40 AGRICULTURE . and sharpened at one end into a long fine point. invariable. It must be taken. One is This the crow-bar (mu-ga-rti-ru) for the original breaking up of the ground. After due deliberation the subjoined scheme was considered by them to be so. The other is known as the ka-hi-yu. about as thick as the wrist.Fig. In practice. and harvesting as soon Its as the crop has ripened after their cessation. Their form and size are iron. passage is marked by two wet seasons. which proceeding has already been described. It is stabbed into the ground and the handle depressed. is a wooden stake seven feet long. and when an M'kikuyu speaks of " a year. they do if much more. Planting is done in all cases at the first commencement of the rains. not as an absolute statement of fact. birds. 5. There are tvv^o seed times and two harvests in twelve months. Two instruments only are employed See p. which occur in what are our spring and autumn." he means six therefore months. for to cultivate his a man is has not womenkind enough obliged to assist. xxxi. The ka-hi-yu are made by the native smiths and are of native They are not sharpened. to scare the birds from the ripening crops beyond this they nominally contribute nothing. planting and hoeing and harvesting. The power is chiefly derived from the wrist. Cutting out in paper in ample quantity the different phases. by which means the soil is prized up with great rapidity as with PI. and is a lanceolate instrument of iron like a spear-head.3. PI. in agriculture. etc. The equatorial year has of course no winter and summer. set into a short handle.. however. xciii.

Pl. CULTIVATKD LaXD IN THE NeIGHBOI'RHOOD OF NyEKI 40 a . A^ j'hoi. XXX ^s.

Botli figures (a II and h) show /. . A'. WoMIiN HoEINCi 1. h typical attitude in planting and hoeing. attitude of women at Held-work and method of holding ka-hi-yu. 2. phot. attitude in work. 40 b . shows attitude in repose. XXXI A'. 5. (( also the slight degree of flexure of knee-joint.Pl. shows attitude in repose. The spinal curves are remarkable.

AGRICULTURE typical year. and if they fail aether the crop per . 41 The rains are very irregular.

the Indian millet. All these grains are exotic. When have been gathered the bushes are pulled up and preserved for fuel. in the same way. the tribe situated between them and the coast. m'ta-ma. carried in bags of plaited string to the huts. . moh'-cha or mwu-i Kaffir corn (Sorghum vulgare) Swa." and have reached them in trade through the Akam'ba. : . 42 AGRICULTURE At harvest-time the ears of corn are gathered by hand and Plate ixxviii. mu-hin'-di.— . : Mive'-li. which is now the mainstay of the people. This is slightly unfortunate who has to guard from the point of view of the settler. are now becoming his crops appreciated by them. Other crops that are grown are different forms of bean. n'do-ma). a fine grain. They are then stored in huge baskets inside the enclosure of the homestead. n'ja-hi. m'bem'-bi Swa. is This last a shrub about 9 feet high. where they are hung up Plate xci. muim'-bi. and the Akikiiyu say have been derived from the " white man of very long ago. the sweet potato (Kik. which at first the natives would not touch. These are grown in comparatively small quantities. and n'ju-gu. The more important grains are Maize (zea mays) Kik. to dry. from theft in a way formerly unnecessary. It is interesting to note. Kik. Others of less importance are different forms of millet knoAvn to the Akikuyu as mu-kom'-bi. and often is very largely grown. the seed-pods The fire-drill is made of this wood. something like canary seed in appear- ance. to avoid the depredation of vermin. m'bo-shi-o. that the European varieties of maize introduced since the English occupation. u-gim'-bi. A chief told us his grandfather would have refused to touch maize. I in. the seed of which is long. or pigeon-pea {cajanus Indicus'i). a small variety. These baskets are roofed in : and set upon legs. The arum lily (Kik.

XXXII BrLL-ROARTR ( Ke-lui-iu'-ta 42 a and Smng i Ki-.Fl.iiu'-tha) [SKE OVliR .

— PLATE XXXII Bull-roarer and Sling 1. Made of bark twine woven by the fingers in the same manner as women weave their bags. xlviii. long. It is used from a platform erected in the centre of each plot of ripening grain. : The handle — a stick 26 in. When well handled it makes a loud sound of a character something between a pistol-shot and the whoop of a motor syren. The thong — made of bark twine. PI. 78 b. h. c. Bull-roarer consists of a. The or for principle of the sling is not emplovcd in warfare any other purpose. is In use the thong whirled around the head with the arm extended. It is pierced end to carry. n-b . and then twitched not cracked like a whip. 2. of Cf. Aflat tongue of at one wood— 4^ X I in. p. The long borders are sharpened to a cutting edge. — Used to scare birds. A small. roughly made sling employed to hurl pellets mud.

m'ba-ki) is largely grown.AGRICULTURE cultivated. of It difference in the plants. i-gAva). each differently esteemed. which are situated about 12 feet apart. 43 n'gwa-chi). The Castor oil of Oil tree (Kik. are also Plantations of manioc may be seen. most difficult to recognise any the appearance and character of the fruit varies greatly. Tobacco (Kik. in the form of and also as an article trade with the surrounding tribes. ki-gwa. both for snuff. ri-a-ri-ki) is cultivated. ma-ri-go). and trails much its resemble an English hop garden. but these there are many varieties. Each vine over supporting pole. pi. the sugar-cane (Kik. . home of consumption. the seeds used as grease for the skin and garments and the by those too poor to afford mutton fat. The only is fruit cultivated are bananas (Kik.

too. ! . 44 . touch in the folk tales 318. " Nothing more " The goat is taken as the unit of value. forgetful in old times that the possession of this form of wealth might not improbably cost him his life. and he is requested to say what next he desires. and goats. The live stock are prized for their milk when alive. perhaps the most See p. he replies.FLOCKS AND HERDS While the Akikuyu are in the main. however. When his wishes have been generously granted. If a man wishes to buy a wife he must pay so many "goats. in addition to their cultivated cattle are the of goats and sheep valued property of the few. as has been seen. an most possess. He asks first for goats and then for women. One of the chief objects agricultural people. but chiefly as being the embodiment of wealth. is that they may be used To those acquainted with the realistic Akikuyu. a certain number : : in the accumulation of live stock for the purchase of wives. They are appreciated." but the actual payment may take the form of cattle. his flocks and herds do to the M'kikuyu for them he would pawn his very soul. land. not so much as a source of food. So. sheep. All that gold connotes to the European. lies in the answers given to the mythical N'jen'ge. recorded by the boy M'wam'bia The animal whose life he has saved tells him to state what he would like as reward. in the purchase of ivory negotiations used to be carried on in terms of goats. The fixed ratio of value of goats to cattle is as 13 to 1. and for their flesh and hides when dead.

To these grounds the herds are sent. not supposed to drink other milk than that of the cow. PL Ixxxvii." and to particular marking may be considered as have protective power. and the skin stuffed with grass the cow licks it over and seems . whilst in height sometimes reaches above the head of lives. The calves are shut up apart from their mothers at night. It has been said that the cattle of the Akikuyu are branded with a tribal mark. where they are placed and guarded with unceasing both at pasture and in the stockade. In this sea of grass the rhino fire the Akikuyu set is in the dry season. This ground is naturally covered by a to grass so dense that progress it only possible along the game and tracks. All inquiries that I have been able to make point to such brands being purely for identification. and they are at night in strong enclosures vigilance. The cows will not give up their milk except in the presence of their calves and should a calf die it is skinned. and in the early morning the herd is milked to a moderate extent. and maintained.HERDS The total 45 amount of cattle held by the Akikuyu has always been small.^ The care of the cattle and everything connected with them is work that custom assigns to men and boys. and dictated by the fancy of the owner. : 1 Cf. It is therefore the general practice for herds to be sent to the confines of the cultivated land. man on it horseback. Occasionally some " medicine. A herd the property of an individual may vary from ten to one hundred beasts. in a its condition that permits of being pastured by their cattle. by a numerous armed escort to protect them from lions and raiders. and then the calves are permitted to suck their mothers dry. . Grazing ground in the heart of Kikuyu does not exist to any appreciable extent. 9. with the result that the country gradually brought. where in certain parts there exist tracts fire which have been denuded by is of thick forest growth.

it quickly it. should the owner be so happy as to possess such. whey. cream. which has previously been well rinsed out with cows' urine and then filled with smoke The consequence of its thus being put into dirty vessels. i. which quiet.' 46 quite satisfied. As the natives make no attempt view it is a very serious evil. is likely to make it go off its milk. with a view to sterilising if it. butter. done into a half calabash held with one hand.e. whilst. the three latter are unknown. poured into a long narroAv gourd." The boys. a pretty sight to see the flocks brought home for the . for a flock may be anything from ten or twenty sheep and goats to joint property of three or four hundred. In the evening the calves are turned loose as the herd approaches the homestead. generally sometimes referred to as " the possession of the goats. into a European white enamelled bowl. and cheese are never prepared in fact. Their grazing ground is . what between counting is is his goats and the contents of the lot bottle. so that. ' that immediately it is heated. is Milking From this it is ' ' . but by mutilating the ear in some way. not heated. vessels in which the milk ferment is present. Every sheep and goat is marked not by any form of brand. the fallow land. it breaks up into curds and whey. and even for bad fever it is most valuable hence it is most unfortunate that the natives often think that to milk an animal into any vessel other than the usual half calabash. our M'kikuyu It decidedly quick at figures.g. FLOCKS AND HERDS and permits her milk to flow. sometimes accompanied by a few odd cattle and calves. Curds. and have the whole is of the day's milk. but from the European traveller's point of When attacked . at keeping these drawbacks do not matter to them. when the country is is have charge of the smaller the flocks . The sheep and goats are pastured together. neighbours. e. turns sour. by dysentery a supply of pure boiled milk is almost essential to recovery. The flocks are counted every morning and every evening as a matter of routine.

46 a .

^ ^ ^ CU a < U X 46 b .

and call to their youngsters. are not milked. in consequence of the Every wife has her own house. The kids. are liberated woman from their common pound. Their presence thus in the house is of the greatest value. Eventually they are put away for the night on the floor under the bedsteads. In the case of a heavy rain shower they assert themselves still more energetically. They career like young rocking-horses down the little short greensward without. which alone gives access to a Kikuyu homestead. helter-skelter. off. perhaps as simultaneously by a many as fifty in number. she can claim on behalf of her own children against the other wives should her husband die. whom all but the youngest recognise almost immediately. children and sick persons their fingers jiggers in may be seen with and toes dropping their hands and feet. presently to jostle there with their owners. as the alkali in their urine prevents the ingress of the burrowing flea or jigger. On these. Every sheep and goat is sheltered for the night in the hut occupied by the owners. waggling their tails.FLOCKS night. they wend their way with calm assurance into their respective homes and stand round the fire in the centre. and often tumbling over each other in their eagerness. though not in any quota of goats — sense her property. but the visitor constantly tumbles over one in the perpetual gloom of a native hut. warming themselves. but the she-goats are. and scamper for all they are worth through the low archway of growing greenery. and as such used by . for thej'- are those which. and every house has its own the term "goat " being used indifferently by the Akikuyu for both sheep and goat. Where no goats are present. hillside 47 The mothers break on which the into a trot as they climb the village stands. she has practically a lien. on some ground or other. as in the case of very poor people. Ewes Their milk is is re- garded as the perquisite of the women. and as the chill of sundown comes. as they run straight to their mothers.

PL xl. as though the quality is rich and delicate the yield is small. p. . however. and the larger proportion is required for the kids. amounts to no large quantity.48 FLOCKS for the them young children. in every A trough containing such earth 59 and is found homestead (cf. It is an interesting fact that unless the goats are kept well supplied with saline earth they will not give thick milk nor keep in condition. 66a). p. This.

grit ANIMAL FOOD Theoretically. being unaccustomed to flesh in any quantity. they are soon attacked by dysentery. is always. any cereals or vegetables other than those they are accustomed to. If he does. with plenty of coral article. The Akikuyu may be As regards food. but practically no M'kikuyu who has not been much in contact with the gameeating N'dorobo or Akam'ba. and only partaken of in small quantity on occasions of sacrifice or festival. suspected of being poison. however. he is looked on by his fellows as a pariah. they are very conservative in their taste. and grubs of any sort are never 7 . Meat.FOOD AND COOKERY on as essentially vegetarians. insects. certain of the Akikuyu clans are by custom allowed to eat a few sorts of wild game. and refused. accept with avidity the crude yellow-brown crystals. mutton. reptiles. and have a real repugnance to even try. when offered to them. which is the trade and obtained by the evaporation of sea water. is the luxury of the few. Nothing but dire starvation will induce the Akikuyu to try to eat wild meat. though it is frequently eaten. in the form of beef. . looked. amongst them. and goats' flesh. and then. in its refined white European form. White European bread and biscuits are not sugar and salt are. will touch it. Birds. by strangers. They. to their palate attractive This last.

As regards fish. that the crowing of the cocks would betray the whereabouts of their homesteads to raiding parties. Cattle. and weight of one of his hind legs. fat. and it is unusual to kill any female. or is thrown to the ground. sheep.— 50 eaten : FOOD the locust and the white flying-ant are not recognised as edible. but it is not customary to fatten them in the same way. that the eating of makes a person ceremonially unclean. too. such being reserved for breeding. and is collected into a calabash held to receive . are not used as food : the Akikuyu give as their reason for not keeping fowls. are eaten. and his tail. He is the only animal in the country that ever gets really whereon his fat chiefly tends to accumulate. On very great occasions a bull killed for The favourite animal for slaughter is a full-grown castrated ram that has been kept in the dark under his mistress's bedstead for three months and fed on sweet potato tops. even when they die a natural is death. with its fore feet tucked under breast. in the case of sheep or as follows : The animal is held as it stands. escapes. It is then placed across a man's its knees in a resting attitude. it is specifically laid it down. Thereupon nearly the blood in the body it. and a sword all is thrust into the root of the neck. and goats. by custom and tradition. A sheep makes no struggle or resistance. The nostrils are then closed by grasping the muzzle with one hand whilst its windpipe is tightly pinched with the other. Eggs. Hegoats are castrated with the view to ultimate slaughter. Animals are not killed until they reach maturity. food. is of slaughter. grows to the size Manner op Slaughter The Kikuyu manner goat. and in a very short time is dead or almost so.

Of these the ends are supported by the two bars first mentioned. is as a special luxury. apart. meat killed in this way is uneatable. Mutton thus made for the white man's table. Made of green sticks of suitable strength. While the sheep or goat collected. Boiled meat never a sort eaten by men. wooden grid is the customary way of cook- Occasionally. does not somehow disappear with the remarkable celerity that is so usually the case when the beast has had its throat cut by the hand of the True Believer. after child-birth. this grid neither sags with its load nor catches fire. to Methods of Cooking Flesh Broiling on a ing flesh. a large fire is being killed and the blood stirred. at one end are of the fire two Y-shaped sticks driven into the ground. say 3 ft. Swahilis from the coast. The same thing Then transversely is done at the other end the face of of the across the glowing mass of embers are laid some half-dozen other bars to form the grid. from the hot coals.COOKING FLESH A knowledge of this 51 is method of slaughter of practical importance. When it has become such. a small portion may be is roasted on a spit stuck into the ground. but the natives say that of Irish stew with women make meat and vegetables when given a sheep. as Mohammedans. long. so as to rapidly made and of break down into a mass of glowing embers. fire. The joints and black puddings are then placed on : it turned about occasionally no attempt is made to baste and them . and for presents to his Kikuyu friends. though removed but some 3 in. In the fork each of these rests the extremity of a rod some 4 ft. hoAvever. as the cook and boys of the traveller are usually whom.

pi. Ki'-gwa. Sweet Potato (Kik. with the teeth. N'do'-ma) The plant is gathered and prepared in the same way that we do celery.52 VEGETABLE FOODS pieces of fat by placing of on the top of the joints. bit by bit. for their marrow. The long bones are cracked though inclined to be a bit raw in places. Arum Lily (Kik. sword. it is Its value in the fact that a stand-by in the event of the failure of other crops. foliage of the first importance as fodder for fattening the stalled rams and Sugar Cane (Kik. liked. The mouth of the pot is closed with a mass of the green leaves placed over it to keep in the steam. The tubers are boiled. i'-gwa) The hard outer coat of the stem is shaved off with the off. or torn sing. but lies is not particularly appreciated. and very excellent it is. It is then packed into a tall jar and boiled and steamed. and universally grown. The plant is largely grown. In the case prime animals there is sufficient surface fat to prevent the flesh from becoming dried up. the for the milch goats. N'gwa'-chi) It is much is The tubers are boiled or roasted on the embers. VEGETABLE FOODS of vegetable The following is a fairly exhaustive list of the different forms produce on which this people subsists. the fat occasionally catching fire scorches the surface of the joint. and the soft white . They taste like an inferior potato. with the result that all the juices of the meat remain in it. Moreover. In addition. and of the ways in which it is prepared for food.

It is not Kikuyu custom embers. sustaining. miele) (Swa. {pi.).) Mu-rai-ya (Kik. as the Swahilis do.). Mwele /i.) mu-he-ha {pi. foxtail millet. I'-kwa) are roasted over the embers usually. A Form The tubers of Yam It is (Ge'-kwa. Uwimbi (Swa. dough-like mass . mwe-li mwe-bi mwe-re.). even to reduce the maize to flour. . The seed u-gim'-bi u-gum'-bi mw-im'-bi Mkonyori (Swa. and is very thirst- quenching and refreshing. Millet Mtama n. Someand much- appreciated food. (Kik.s. mo-hi-a mu-hy-a. a dwarf millet. More usually the cobs are shelled and the grains boiled.) ? = Kik. the abundant snow- white woody fibre being spat out after each mouthful.VEGETABLE FOODS cellular interior masticated for its 53 juice. Kaffir com. (Swa. M'bembi) This grain occupies the same position in does with us. sorghum. . Though locality very sweet permits. Largely grown where Eaten by all. a valuable.). . Maize (Kik. times they are boiled. it does not cloy the palate. a variety of millet. Kik. „ This is is the next most important grain to the maize. mit-gim'-bi. It is largely grown.s. is uwele s.). are similarly parched and masticated.). moh'-cha. {pi. and. (Penicillaria spicata Sac. pi. being at the same time blended with some of the different sorts of bean.) Mu-kom'-bi (Ejk. mawele) (Swa. . A form of millet. flour. Kikuyu as wheat The yet unripened cobs are roasted over the when quite ripe and hard. The name of the plant of the Bulrush millet mitama) (Swa. It ground into and made into a stiff.

They are also carried about unground. to bruise the grain. The pods containing the young seeds are never used as a green vegetable as with us. A heavy wooden pestle. some 5 ft. These are two flat slabs of granite. Behind this raised end the woman kneels. with a stabbing action. of which the lower one. the larger stone is let into the ground so that one end may be raised a few inches. Often small quantities of maize and different beans are added. . about 24 in. wide. leaving the hollo wed-out portion alone above it. length of the trunk of a tree. thick. is used.54 MAKING FLOUR by boiling. M'we'-li and the other kinds of millet are usually rubbed otherwise they have a scouring effect. long. N'ju'-gu . long. as down They are Beans (Kik. forms the bed or table. Tho-ro'-ko Thu'-u) These different species of bean are not rubbed into flour. employed in making gruel. and eaten by odd mouthfuls when travelling. N'ja'-hi . which the other is sunk into the ground. M'bo'-shi-o . wide. The upper stone or rubber is some 18 in. long. In use. and 3 in. but are boiled. Method of Making Flour The method first of making flour is as follows : The grain is placed in a wooden mortar (ki-no) formed from a short in. hollowed out for about 20 at one end. thick. and tlie mass. when cold. into flour. 16 in. and eaten either hot or in the form of a cold cake. and 3 in. is employed as a food when travelling. When this has been done it is brought to the rubbing stones. either separately or mixed with maize. and eaten hot. She places a handful of the bruised grain on the of and . 9 in.

a man will keep contented and in good condition. lays the 55 rubbing stone transversely across the lower. 8d. should at the earliest opportunity learn to recognise these and make himself acquainted with their He must know. and holding it by its extremities. It is very desirable that any traveller or resident in Kikiiyu seeds.MAKING FLOUR upper end of the slab. The upper stone is thus made to travel over the face of the lower. whilst the material is fine meal. varied. of out of the common. too. and the length different peculiar dietetic qualities. load. brings a certain amount of grain betwixt the two. or condemns them to a if. say. She then suddenly throws her weight forwards and downwards whilst stiffening her arms. required to prepare a meal from each. and forty such loads were prepared at three days' notice on one occasion without its being considered anything betwixt them reduced to a value of 60 lbs. diet of beans many days in succession. to parent. . what vessels will be required for cooking them. making 15 miles per diem under a 50 lb. On of maize. every third any of the day by beans. the way in which each sort of food has to be dealt with prior to cooking. or of weeks. and raising one edge." but he will find that his family of of time that is perhaps a couple of hundred hungry porters will soon lose all affection for their of nowhere. The leader of a " safari " (caravan) is respectfully addressed " my father. and desert him in the middle by want of knowledge or forethought. different forms of meal. In 1906 the market meal thus prepared was goods to the value of 2s. and do so for many li lb.. he offers feed them on unground m'we-li.

To say that there are no wild edible fruits or roots is. but fruit but Uttle. may be seen isolated In every tree is and some- . is collected everywhere. it is not more than a subsidiary element of the food-supply. Certain sorts of them are eaten unripe. All over the country.56 FOOD AND COOKERY Fruit The only cultivated fruit is the banana. however. But all the foregoing are only gathered for the pastime of the idle moment. or buried in the ground in a large pot. trees. PI. but the pulp becomes soft and ripe. whilst the pulp is still quite hard. they are recognised as edible and gathered by the passer-by. The. remains quite green. These are peeled and thrown on the embers to roast. Another The peel of these kind is allowed to grow ripe on the tree. At no time of the year can a man keep himself alive on wild vegetable produce. berries Now and then a fruit like a green medlar is met with. Honey Honey. Still. Yet another variety is cut and plunged into the store of newly ground m'ta-ma flour. only an occasional practice. where inhabited. The " elephant " of the Lai-ki-pi-a plains yield an occasional handful. one. Though the banana is universally grown wherever possible. of which the Akikuyn are exceedingly fond. and again there is a large forest tree whose fruit contain pips that are sucked for an adhesive sweet pulp with which they are coated. an accurate statement. xxxvii. practically speaking. At the higher elevations the blackberry and the raspberry grow rankly. rind of these turns yellow and the fruit has a delicate This burying is. flavour. The poverty of this part of the world in this respect is quite remarkable.

///(//. like one of In mortars the pounding sticks here represented. formed of sections of tree trunks. The butt of mortar is set into the ground slightly out of the vereach The mortar is hollowed out by means of an axetical.FL. blade set into the extremity of a heavy shaft. ^6 a . A'. XXXV k \Vo:\rEX POUN'DINC. (iRATN .

56 b . XXXVI K. Kikiiyu manner. author's camp. flour.PL. by the kneeling : Servants' quarters. R. KiKUVU Rl BBING-STOXES IN USE in tlie The grain Scene is being rubbed into figure. phot.

phot. 56 c . The two main stems of the tree are united by a dead branch lashed to each. R. Bee-box or Hive bank a stunted specimen of oak is growing and overhanging a wet valley beneath.Pl. and to it the bee-box is From the side of a steep the African secured. S. XXXVII W.

p. xviii. Both figures are clad alike. Bracelets and broad garters of iron wire.PL. R. — The woman cooking of ear. XXXVIII K. used as a dish. 140 e. The PI. is behind the standing figure. Numerous long necklaces of woven cords. 56 d . Fig. Woman making Gruel is Illustration shows: The way in which the Kikuvu pot supported on three stones and the fire afterwards started beneath it. PI. illustrates the adaptability of the garments to the requirements of the moment. ci. p. phot. i. 32 k. 5. Fig. A half gourd. is wearing bead hoops in cartilage PI. Collar and chain.

are fitted. from its edge. all the wood from Eventually he obtains a hollow This is nicely dressed externally with the axe. the bees to it. by successive stabs. on the inner aspect. often a mimosa. each one obtained by adzing down a solid tree trunk. The finished article looks like a properly headed-up barrel. bunches of sweet-smelling flowers are tied to one extremity when it is first put in place. As many as half a dozen of these bee-boxes may be seen at a large native market on sale. the girth twice the size of a man's body. as peculiarity of the A the Akam'ba do. cylinder by adzing with an axe. and secured in place by lashings of tough creepers. hollowed out by means of the blade of an axe set into the a shaft some 6 ft. No holes are intentionally made anywhere to admit the bees these find their -way in through the interstices in the fitting of the end-pieces. They are laid upon suitable forked branches in the isolated tree. In some . placed there for the wild bees to comb in. worthy of notice. into which flat boards.. and weighing altogether about lbs. and then one end into a true of the length of tree trunk is set upright in the ground at a The workman for the making of suitable depth and angle. Considering that they trace their descent this point is from the Akam'ba. The timber chosen is some soft wood. bee-boxes. Round the margin of each extremity. — bee-boxes is always the work of a man — now proceeds to remove. The idea is to attract . The exterior is first wrought and about 5 ft. shell a couple of inches thick. These boxes are formed from short lengths of trunks of trees. Akikuyu is never to suspend their boxes beneath the branch. in length. a deep groove is cut about 2 ins. In the case of new boxes. by means of a span and bridle. secure from the attacks of the different honey-eating birds. the centre of the trunk. for no curved cutting tool of the is nature of a gouge known.HONEY build their 57 times half a dozen. end 6 of long. so as to form a chisel.

though brand his box with a clan design. it is easy to keep a wayside . SALT No of the saline deposits are known in Kikuyu. usual for a man The honey is then collected into leathern bags. It is eaten in the condition in which is it black with age and smoke. seem to experience any it though they much appreciate as a like With a thimbleful of salt doled out by the crystal. comb. No attempt it made is From a form of drink prepared. perhaps. often much broken at separation or purification. which may be miles from the owner's home. which smouldering covered by an impenetrable growth of this to a height of the of rises fires 12 ft. salt. The bees are driven out of their hives by holding smoked torches beneath the box. and a amount of snuff by the pinch. by way of trade through the Akam'ba In . towards the are ornamented of the border. In the part it is country here described such never done. even in the opened-out districts. the bee-boxes by simple designs to in poker work. The ash-gatherers are still to-day to be seen. Theft of honey from these boxes. for long past. more. The Akikuyu do especial craving for gift. is a recognised offence of a serious character. many places the winding valley between is two or hills forms a marsh which grass.58 SALT Akam'ba is parts of Kikujoi. however. A small amount of coarse salt has. but the people generally have had to content themselves with the ash obtained by burning the papyrus rush. not. been obtained on the borders country from caravans passing to the northward to Ugan'da. and their product to be purchased in the markets. and mixed with happens to be obtained. The honey is gathered by night. and some too. but trade salt is now rapidly displacing it.

but it is not used as human food. in this with a little water. 77 and fire. to take They also make sell it up into flat cakes of 20 lbs. home. pp. not practised. nor is frying. To some of these places the Akiku5ru drive their flocks to lick the saline earth. Of whets to the appetite the Akikuyu know nothing. home pi. and to gather the scandal of the neighbourhood. when the flocks greedily lick it up. The cooking is usually done on small it is fires outside the hut for convenience. has in the past been excavated by elephants and other game. Every homestead has. on its surrounding green. Cooking amongst hot and stewing are. I gallon to 4 or 5 gallons. animals. Baking embers. boiling. the natives going to great expense and trouble to procure it. 59 all The clay lying beneath the surface mould in certain marshes. gather the proceeds for use. and in the face of past and present river banks. it done by the women. recognised methods of preparing food. xl. but sometimes inside. The saline clay is broken up or to in the markets.FOOD AND COOKERY acquaintance alert and vivacious for hours. is They cultivate the ground. fire done nected with the other form of There are no ceremonies nor rites conat which cooking is done. Though they . unknown. The owners consider this clay essential to the health of their and all over the country this practice maintains. in any form grilling. Pots are described under Pottery. THE KITCHEN All cooking. They fetch the firewood too a great and also the water. except that of meat. form of lid or stopper is made for them. They vary in size from No There are only two shapes. and : transport labour. a trough some 8 to 20 ft. each. long hollovv^ed out of a tree trunk. nor with any Roasting is is Cf. as has been seen.

Food i. Each is set betwixt three stones. and the fire built beneath.e. or else gathered up as a bolus with the fingers. common dish. sizes. made of flour are prepared of such a consistency that they may either be drunk as a soup from the dish. A native hut. : Cooking vessels are not formally cleansed the nature of the work they do renders such unnecessary. A special whisk. Calabashes or gourds of different eaten out of one of bisected longi- form the only dishes and receptacles for food. made is like the butt of an arrow plumed with strips of leather. Stirring in cooking is done with a stick. by closing mass of green tudinally. and a couple of gourd each fitted with sling and leather cap. nor are they being of The character of the food and the nature Kikuyu customs alike preclude any such formation. to carry milk or gruel when absent from home. Messes. of kitchen middens exist. and so carried to the mouth. will have three or four earthenware pots. the home half a one wife. to do so makes a person ceremonially unclean. . is The narrow-necked vessels are only used as The lack of covers or lids is made good the mouth of cooking pots when in use with a leaves. sizes as dishes. . and may sometimes be found man's quiver.60 THE KITCHEN No have lugs they are never suspended over the fire. food can be cooked in or eaten from a cracked pot purification. No form formed. nor is any form of ring made for their rounded bottoms. dozen half-calabashes of different flasks. however. and involves an expensive receptacles for fluids. used for stirring up the gruel in the long narrow gourd in which in a it is carried on a journey.

and much dysenteric trouble ensues. spoon. If chopped in half with the touch of a sword point. help. nor asks for a further If the meal meat. the whole on the grid first. The natives quite realise . No knife. however. The principal cedence his portion. The consequence is that the rivers and brooks become abominably polluted with the rush of the first rains. The Government officials could do an immense amount of good by simply proclaiming the sanctity of water. generally distributed at first It is the rule to eat slowly. Benedictus benedicat. The morning meal is some that has been Men and women never eat together. It is 61 of the day is that partaken of at eaten usually outside the hut. The mouthful taken must be spat out on to the ground. still less does for him. is man hands to each diner in order of preNo one exhibits any eagerness to begin. is A man drinks when he thirsty. is nor hurries with what has been given him. FORMS OF DRINK No kind of drink accompanies a meal.FOOD AND COOKERY MEALS The only formal meal sundown. or fork are a piece of meat wants dividing it is employed with any dish. The Akikuyu have no idea of preventing water becoming contaminated. kept over from supper. but inside the enclosure. : water freely on a Many known porters on the march drink cold road they reserve themselves for particular sources of supply as being the most palatable. A woman is she cook it not allowed to see a man eat meat. In a general Vvay only equals in rank eat together.

and a and treat despised. and in the consideration in which it is held. Sup- may frequently be seen being carried about in large narrow-necked calabashes containing up to 5 gallons. not made. It the is mouth being stoppered with a screw not made as an article for sale. is No is water added to it.62 FORMS OF DRINK of the the effect of contamination. garrulous. has attained the position of an elder the idea does not seem to attract the younger men. Still their friends recognise them sot is as being under alcoholic influence cordingly. of sweet leaves. Gruel (Mu-thor'-a) Watery Gruel is largely drunk cold by all in daily life. but they do not seem to be inclined to become sleepy or physically incapable. noisy. On it the natives sometimes become intoxicated to the extent of becoming muddle-headed. In the manner and extent of use. Drunkenness is is them acnot considered ludicrous. A quart would be a reasonable amount for a man to take. It the chief alcoholic drink of the Akikujru. or treacherously aggressive. either in manufacture or in use. No man allowed to drink n'j6-hi before he . and is much liked. it occupies much the same place It is as beer does amongst our labouring is classes. who never express any wish or exhibit any inclination to be alloAved to partake. . made from any of the smaller rubbed down into flour. Native Beer This is (N'jo'-hi) the pure juice of the sugar-cane slightly fermented. but from maize it plies of gruel grains mentioned. It has a slightly acid taste yet somewhat resembles a soft cider. and would welcome the enforce- ment most stringent rules at the different Government stations.

The white material on the ground is the snow-white to carry the sticks of peeled cane cut into sliort lengths ready for pounding.S. The peculiar habit at ease is of crossing the legs when standing left. The used Fig. XXXIX U'. series of its of the tree trunk. seen in the case of the bov on the large platters (PI. 62 a . 98 b) arc- pounded pulp to a group of men near by (not shown) whose duty it is to wring out the juice. p. in which are Down shallow mortars for pounding the length the women stand alternately not — facing one another. R. phot. Ixviii.Pi. Native Bei:r-making Shows an end view excavated a cane.. i.

.

is described somewhat fully on p. They are called in order that important news may be imparted to all in the most formal manner. together with a quantity of strong twine. into short lengths. N'j6-hi is made as follows : The trunk of a large tree. 200. and 18 in. Hence everybody who is anybody is invited. long. me to his people as a close friend and ally. 63 summoned by a meetings lished which are very serious functions. and takes care Such a party. depth.. are about 9 in. Every step at these is taken in exact accordance with precedent estab- by custom. The 10 pestles employed are about long. In the next stroke she makes she is . at intervals of about 18 in. summoned by a chief to present to be present. which runs all the way round. explanation v/here it fell. cut large gourd bottles for storage of the juice. On this or surface. The upper surface is then wrought flat.— MANUFACTURE OF NATIVE BEER Occasionally formal drinliing parties are chief. whilst at the same time rising above it to a convenient height. is roughly squared on three sides and bedded firmly into the ground. cup-shaped cavities forming mortars are worked. of the gymnasium with a long and much is The sugar-cane when cut forthwith stripped of its dark hard outer surface with a sharpened kai-hu or si-me. . apart. Such a log may be seen anybeing that 6 lies where. is now thrown into the trough the women range themselves on either side alternately. and resemble the Indian club shaft. some 10 to 20 ft. The now snow-white sticks are made up into bundles and carried by the women to the log. They it ft. with the exception of a strong edge 3 in. and The cane. deep and as much wide. are clubbed at the end. more in diameter. across and the 6 in. half calabashes of large size. and one gives the lead by driving her pestle into her mortar and starting an impromptu song. some large platters. weigh about stouter lbs.

This spindle he now takes in his two hands and slowly wrings over the calabash. long. accompanied by the indorse. anticipated. to one end of which a few yards is As soon as a portion of the cane crushed it is of strong bark string is attached.e. the juice is ready natives say. who sit around the large half calabashes in order to wring out the Each man holds in his left hand a stick. that toxicating. to set for drinking. the size of a juice. These are sold in the native markets effect of the introduction of this fruit and dried. and the dry snow-white its fibre that formed the spindle from central stick axis to the ground. in the form the soloist. i. two parts of is water to one honey. and of a chorus. it is and taken home. From the calabash dishes the juice ladled into large narrow-necked gourds. the up fermentation. finger and about 10 in. Neither of these beverages remains potable for more than a day. The result is a spindle-shaped mass of pulp secured round the central stick by a number of strings passing over its surface. who take the time from her. It is is stated that another form of alcoholic drink Water added to honey of in the proportion of is made. He rests the stick against the face of the pile of pounded cane. and opening his grasps the mass of pulp in the centre of which stick with its string dependent. made from honey is As might be much the more in- . The whole mass is thus treated. Next morning. in about eighteen hours from being expressed. When no more falls is juice flows the string is cast off from around the mass. the sentiments expressed by piled up on the great platters (ki-ta-ru-ru) and carried to the men. The strained fluid ready for drinking in less than twenty-four hours. Into then placed some of the dried pods of split the alofa tree. hand the now lies with the right He then passes hand up and down the length of the string the stick. The is.64 MANUFACTURE OF NATIVE BEER others.

A stiff hasty pudding or cake made by boiling together mixed grains. . and then tied with a strip of the tough inner bark of a bush. — KIKUYU FOOD — 65 EPITOME OF KIKX^YU FOOD The 1 dishes of Kikuyu cookery is are few : Black pudding or sausage made from the blood. 2. meat. 2. heart. 3.. It is eaten hot or cold. and flours. and is a favourite food to carry on a journey. mixed with pieces of fat. and other viscera chopped up small and placed in the stomach. Plain boiled maize or beans (the hard seeds). kidney. whole beans. are The beverages 1. i. 7. 6. raw. or the tubers of the 4. and into lengths of the great intestine. These are first secured with a skewer. 5. arum lily and its green stems. Sugar-cane peeled and chewed. Native beer. Meat broiled as previously described. : Thin gruel.e. Honey mixed with plenty of broken comb. fermented sugar-cane juice or mead. Parched maize also a small grain like canary seed eaten .

is following the procedure : Site. of any depth desired up large soil to the length of a man's arm. — Into each of the nineteen holes is placed a post the size of the wrist. (njoim'-ba) is a strong. T^. The Kikuyu hut built structure. as will be pointed out later . the inner Ring of Holes. It lends itself to the Its merits are manifold. users. —A is circular mark. as a matter of fact. whilst the surrounding remains undisturbed. 124c. and it demands no tool as essential for its construction. employment of any form of vegetable growth available.— ARTS AND CRAFTS HUT-BUILDING Pi. No guide beyond the eye Digging scratch. the digging-knife or equidistant from one another. and of any means is of ventilation beyond the door. and yet only enough for the arm to pass down it. and removing with the hand the earth so loosened. xciii. about 15 ft. hut. A hole is thus rapidly made. and bifurcated at its . comfortable. To build a hut the Marki?ig out the diameter. employed. xcvii. large and small. though the universal digging and slashing knife Every (ka-hi-yu) is always. wellits admirably adapted to the requirements of PI. Setting up the Inner Ring of Posts. is constructed in exactly the same way. in scratched into the ground on the used. is — Holes. nineteen in number. site selected. its chief faults are lack of light. are then dug in the line of the Each hole made by stabbing a pointed stick into the ground.

4. : Tyi'ical Kiki'yu Hut. 3. 2. A Shows 1. The enclosing stockade (poor and temporary). with Woman entering THE Doorway The terminal spike of roof. 66 a . XL ir. The trough for feeding the flocks with saline earth. s R phoT. 59. The heavy The row side of grass thatching. 5.— PL. See p. of posts that support the eaves on either doorway.

XLI •b a Doer •b Fig. I. DiA(iRAM Frame for Apex of Roof The axial stake. b. to give rigidity. indicate the ties passing from wall-plate to wall-plate. b oi- II. . b. Rods that are lashed to ends Main hoop on which the frame Supplementary hoop 661) of rafters. c. b.PL. Diagram to show System of building a Hut I). a. a. a. Wall-posts. c. b. Posts to support the eaves. h. c'. c'^. a. Central pillars to carry weight of roof. c. is built. c. b Fig. a.

next marked in the centre of the circle. and then its turn is lashed to the hoop at the point where is crosses it. A strong hoop. upon the ground. It the bark at grows in great profusion. —A shrub known as kam'-ba Its habit of ft. ends. . Bundles of bark are thus prepared as required. with one pull. supplies the place of string or rope. xli. pi. midway between the one and the A framework is thus obtained that in shape resembles the bloom of the convolvulus. of which it forms the summit of the dome. in diameter. growth is in the form of straight shoots some 8 to 12 high. free extremities bifurcated. wands. are similarly set up. of the thickness of the Fig i. at the centre of the hoop. The smaller ends is number of pliant rods are now lashed to the middle of this axial stake. . sharpened at both some 4 ft. is made of pliant rods bound together — Pi. some till Preparation of Frame for Apex of Roof. long. so as to take a curve with the convexity directed downwards. 6 in. 2. of a Into the earth. This framework will presently be required in the construction of the roof. the whole of the bark leaves the rod to the very tip. These likewise have their and stand above the ground some 5 ft. whilst the axial stake may be likened to the stalk of the blossom. 3 ft. Further rigidity presently secured first by adding axial another ring stake. Then. driven a stake. Material employed for Lashings.HUT-BUILDING upper end. Setting up Interior Pillars to carry the Roof. each rod each rod in it forced towards the ground. they form a roll is rather thicker than the wrist. when completed. like hazel Throughout the year the bark strips readily. upper arm. 3 ft. At each corner of this figure four posts. ofif —An oblong by 4 ft. Fig. and then. The wands are cut the end of the stick freed with the thumbnail or teeth. laid flat is This hoop. one by one. xii. 67 level of the These posts rise above the ground is about 4 ft.

the hut has been completed this wall is When : daubed with clay is not with cattle dung. — more high. but is usually about .68 ARTS AND CRAFTS every roof in Kikuyu the axial stake From may be noticed projecting as a terminal some 2 ft. whose butts are about the thickness of the wrist. smaller uprights being introduced between the main uprights as required. Below and beyond the wall-plate these ends project for some 4 ft. are now rested on the wall-plate. when interwoven. will The method of making these planks be dealt with elsewhere. is now adjusted into position. The rafters or roof poles. while their smaller ends are brought together in the centre to form a conical roof with a pitch of 40 degrees. but such Seen in the case of a wealthy peculiar only man in a forest district. and the small ends of some of the rafters lashed to it. the walls are filled in with fine wattling. —When the curb-plate has been finished. in the form of long tapering saplings. and applied edge to edge. The Rafters in relation to the Terminal of Apex of Roof. so as to form complete hoops or horizontal bands. or Curb-Plate. —Flexible rods are same time twisted. previously constructed. and lashed to it with strips of bark. The Walls. Into and around the Ythen bent long pliant a ring of great strength.. Sometimes the wall made is of planks set on end. the upper end of a rafter in each case being laid parallel to one of the vertical rods of — which the frame is composed. to form the eaves. Provision for the Attachment of Thatch. The interval between each of these bands depends on the length at the of the thatching material to be now woven. form On this ring the sticks that support the load of thatch will presently rest. The frame to form the apex. or The Wall-Plate shaped upper ends rods. around the rafters. which embrace each rafter in the substance of a form of wooden rope. of the wall-posts are These. and employed.

carefully cut and bound into long. by one they are opened. Four supplementary bands complete the framev/ork of Thatching. the roof. and forms the edge of the eaves. securely tied. 69 The strongest and most carefully-applied band is that which embraces the butts of the rafters. each containing as much as can be grasped in the two hands. At intervals of about 4 ft. flexible rods carried beneath the them. Each hole is of such a depth together with a specially strong that a post with a forked head can be slipped into raised it. and lashed to on their The other two central posts carry a similar arch resting Y-shaped extremities. resting in the —From the curb-plate on one side. one by one. and each weighing perhaps ninety pounds. Provision to support the Eaves. runs an arch of rafters. . conical bundles. beyond the wall-plate deep eave or verandah also. that their butts are connected woven and twisted band of flexible rods. the centre posts. tapering to a point. flags. and compels it drives the earth beneath the to carry its load. earth and well heel of The hole then gradually filled rammed. ft. thatching lowest hoop or band that embraces the lower ends of the rafters they are. To the these having been got ready. —A Some hundreds of now begins. — It has been stated that the to form a rafters project some 4 . and then with upwards from the bottom of the hole sufficiently to take is the weight of the rafter. or long grass. number of loads of reeds.HUT-BUILDING 18 in. and the material made up into a number of wisps. holes are now dug beneath the extremities of rafters. Each wisp is carefully tied at its butt with a scrap of tying-bark (kam'-ba). of Y-shaped ends of two down to the curb-plate on the opposite strong. which the post. Transverse Roof-Ties. One are now brought in and thrown down near the house. side.

so as to form a ceiling to that part of the roof comprised within the four PI. the wisps or sheaves Another circle is now commenced. carried is The wisps gradually upwards by tying down circle after circle of it. It is a neatly -woven wattle hurdle made from a tough creeper. Into the forks of these pillars are laid two cross-bars. but of grass in this case. and on the cross-bars are laid horizontally broad planks. At night it is set up against the entrance on the inner side. xxxviii. This ceiling is obviously a great safe- guard against a conflagration. its inner face and the nearest The Fireplace. whilst the upper surface of the boards form a platform on which firewood and articles are laid. The door is always made the same shape and size. There is no window.^ betwixt which the fire is made. ^ See Marriage Customs. each overlapping that its beneath and each having is butt upwards. for the white ants and other destructive creatures do not attack arrived at. the possibility of which. as in all future ones. is with the thick end. being lashed to the roof hoop next in the free brush-like ends project well beyond the eaves. whilst upwards. A thoroughly good thatched roof thus decay in a wonderful way. have their butts series. who do not hesitate to throw on small sticks in quantity to make a brilliant blaze when temporary illumination is desired. nor is there any provision for the exit of smoke it seems somehow to leak away through the whole surface of the roof. or downwards. having been once started in this way. however. It resists it smoke that permeates throughout from the fire beneath. thatching. On the floor beneath p. sfid. . and there firmly secured by wedging a in consequence of the it the whole of — : strong piece of timber between of the four inner pillars (c. are three stones. of grass. p. never seems to be taken into account by the Akikujn.70 HUT-BUILDING hutt of the wisp. The Door. A com- plete circle of closely applied wisps thus completed.c). — pillars. 131.

A'. phot. oi- a Hut by the craftsman of the purchaser 70 a .PL. XLIl H\ S. The Door Being taken to the home who' has made it.

.phot. R. A TnI-K-TRUNK BklDGIi OVKR THK Cha'-M-A RiVKK NliAU NyKRI is A warrior. S. \\ itli the scabbard of his sword well shown.Pl. XLIII IV. watching the photographer from the middle of the 70 b bridge.

can only be in the wilder parts. stream and rest felled so that it shall fall across the on done where cUjfflike banks rise above flood level. BRIDGE-BUILDING Kikuyu is a land of streams. As paths were made purposes of defence.— ARTS AND CRAFTS General 71 Summary. it provided be occupied. The usual form It is of bridge. If. often takes flat more or less of a twist. is a suspension one : a sort of spider's-web of creepers carried often no easy matter to recogas unobtrusive as possible for from one nise it. however. or the trunk would be swept away on the occasion of the first thunderstorm in the mountains above. This. when one part of the surface looks upward. Should circumstances permit. such as described. —A house. with occasional repairs. will not permit of overflow. will last a lifetime. The people have in consequence become expert a tree is bridge-builders. the force of the current renders a ford dangerous or impassable. however. built of good materials. with a very small rise of water. however. This form of bridge is consequently only seen either shore. near at hand. A first-class bridge would be built thus The so that : biggest and tallest In drying. Coming from the mountains rises and fallings of cut Their rocky channels. so a bridge was for choice constructed in a spot and in a manner calculated to screen it from obser- vation. tree to another. through mountain gorges. Hence. it be deserted. flat tree available it is felled and axed flat on one surface. the remainder of the surface faces somewhat to the right or . whilst at the same time the gradient is considerable. it will entirely disappear in the course of a few years under the ravages of white ants and boring beetles. they are liable to sudden considerable amount.

" a large number of smaller cords are attached. so as to make good the defect. equally applies to the other. one bank — and are connected by a heavy crossbar. another pair of fairly strong tree trunks. this cross- bar one end of the foot-plank By or the side of the posts that carry the crossbar are erected ft. Thus is the footway made. . A pair of strong posts — tree trunks with the first bifurcation of the branches left on — are then set up a few feet apart on On rests. smaller piece Should no larger tree be available to make a footway. The lower extremity of these short lengths are attached to the footway. and any load that may be placed on the footway.72 to the left. The width may vary from the breadth of a man's foot to a plank broad enough for a cow to traverse. forming a hand-rail as it were the second cord is attached ft. or so along the length of the cord referred to as the " hand-rail." thus taking part of the weight of the load." The second cord. a spindle-shaped fascine of sticks and creepers supphes its place. another is sewn to it. is thus carried by the " hand-rail. each some 30 more above the ground. What has been said of one end or half of the bridge. which vary in lengths in accordance with the sag of the hand-rail. the weight the footway. is now carried somewhat beyond the middle point of the " hand-rail. BRIDGE-BUILD ING Should this defect be very pronounced. of Hence. To each at a point of these tall posts : two cords may cord is for the present be said to be attached the first attached to the post above the level of the foot-plank or footrope. previously stated to have been attached to the upper extremity of the 30-foot post. . Every 12 in. similarly pass Many other cords between points along the " hand-rail rope " and the vertical post of its own side. some 18 to the upper extremity of the post — its use will presently be explained.

.— _fi Q c It :/^ •-. ^1. 1^ o o a.

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posts. The result is admirable. and wire. stays are carried to the tall 30-foot posts that support the " handrail " ropes. as all that is sought The soundness of the prinis attained by the simplest means.BRIDGE-BUILDING 73 A series of Y-shaped uprights and crossbars form an inclined plane of varying length from the ground to the commence- ment of the foot-plank. two great leafy trees growing on either side of a almost touching.) illustrates one where the footway was made of a rope of sticks. these short posts that thus carry the approach. Another great point in favour of these bridges that with a few touches of an axe pursuit can be checked. The approaches. to pass about four hundred men. When such a bridge is carried between river. Avith their women and goats. ciple and practice is shown by the fact that in the grounds of the Staff College at Camberley is a large demonstration bridge constructed of planks. The whole structure is made of tree trunks and of tough creepers. The suspension bridge shown (Plate xliv. it did not part. their branches almost defies detection. in order to meet the strain put upon them by From the weight of the bridge transmitted to them. all to be about to fall to under the pressure of necessity. This had done so much work that the footway had stretched until the whole thing was admitted by pieces . In other words. by strict discipline. it and often with is. . and still yet. our sappers cannot evolve anything better. too. Every part yields till each cord comes to do some share of the work. are often covered by war-pits to cool the impetuosity of raiders. over it in a steady stream. identical otherwise in every respect with that of the Akiktiyu. I managed.

is and to l^ in. a lead pencil. When It using the longer drills 24 in. Ru-gu-tu or Ka-gu-tu Sp. is a straight rod like 1 in. and the upper to 2 J in. the palms of the hands are not applied more than two-thirds of the way up. . and gradually brought to a glow by drill. is . that " one the : . The Akikuyu other is is the man and the woman. Again. (? Vernonia Sp. tapered to its a point at either extremity. the friction of the It is oval in sections. fire may perhaps friction be well here to explain that to obtain by the between two pieces of wood it is essential that one shall be hard and the other soft. long its by 1| in. 13 to 24 in. nor has it any place in social or religious ceremony. Mu-cha-sa (Vernonia Mu-li-ka (? Vernonia It The Lower or Fire different stick (je-ka) made of an altogether wood. flattened on lower aspect. The Upper. in The lower end of convex.. The texture of the wood of the one has to bear a certain relation to the texof the other in order to ture of the wood produce fire.). is is of the pulverised tissues of this stick that the tinder formed. the are formed to receive the end of the drill. not any drill will do with any fire stick.— 74 ARTS AND CRAFTS FIRE-MAKING No tradition or explanation of the origin of fire exists amongst the Akikuyu.) Sp. or Drill." The upper or drill stick (u-lin'di) may be made of the wood of the following trees Ni-u-gu-o Mu-lin-di-ki Mu-gu-mu Mu-chu-gu Mu-gi-o say. . in length. circumference. . On surface of middle third. The implements for making it — vary but slightly in pattern. The wall of each .) . to 12| in. . size of half a pea. in circumference. 9 in. in explanation. stick (u-lin'-di) in. It is produced in one way only by the friction between two pieces of wood. about half a dozen cavities. of which the harder shall be the drill.

74 a . IR. 2.'] FlRIi-MAKING 1.PL. A fits. Lower or Fire stick. XLV Brit. Upper or Drill stick.

2.e. The method drill stick ((() of returning the palms to the top of the The left hand b}' third and fourth fingers presses the point of the drill firmly downwards into the cavity of the (b) fire stick.is been thrown upwards to the it is it top of the drill. whilst its of pressing the point of the drill into the cavity companion it. The riglit hand h. The opposed palms in their do\vn\vard course are here approaching the limit of their range. : Method work drill stick prior to beginning by the thumb and finger-tips of right hand. of holding the i. travels upwards to be again opposed to 74 b .e.— — — — PLATE XLVI F R E-MAK N G I I Shows 1... 3. which grasping. work now being done by the in the fire stick. in order that now in the act of may presently do the left i. and b}'^ the third and fourth fingers of the left hand.

phot. xlvi K. . 74 c A'.Pl.

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By the right hand the drill is now retained in position. The fire-maker then rubs the palms of his hands. its point directed towards the man about to use the drill. Mu-te-i (? Vernonia) . the third and little finger of When hand are the lower borders of the hands have arrived within fire stick. The sword lies on the ground between them. They sit on their heels opposite to one another. of rotation is As the palms pass down the stick the speed increased to the gradually maximum. at the same time steadily pressing the drill downward into the cavity of the fire stick. Mu-re-vu. he causes the flattened palms backwards to rotate by moving the and forwards against each other. He drill then applies the fiattened palms of his hands to the upper end of the drill. and also the tip of the drill. Down this gutter the pulverised woody fibre insensibly trickles as it escapes from beneath the drill. on the dry ground. Proceeding quite slowly. Mu-i-goi-a . Mu-chu-gu . 6 inches of the the left whilst the right thrown around the drill to retain it hand is rapidly thrown upwards to enable its third and little fingers to grasp the upper end of the drill. The fire. None of it remains in the cavity of the fire stick. and drops a minute and a little quantity of earth into the chosen concavity on the fire stick. two natives proceed as follows One from drill and fire stick. and places a small handful of dry crumpled grass handy. : To make his quiver takes his assistant then firmly holds the fire stick transversely across above the tip of the weapon.— FIRE-MAKING cavity 75 is cut down to its bottom at one point. From his scabbard he draws his sword. This lower block or fire stick may be made of the wood of the following trees : Mu-rin'-ga . and a tiny gutter made to proceed from it. In this cavity the convex end of the drill is now placed. . whilst firmly in position.

travellers. and on the dead bushes of the bean (nju-gu). Thirty to forty seconds is three or the average time required to produce the mass ready to blow up. fire. . up a few blades of dry grass. can be blown up into a solid red-hot ember. form of a smouldering brand. A flame is fairly uni- formly started in three-quarters of a minute from the time of This statement is based on a number of observations carefully Fire is made with a stop-watch. Hence. 180. particles forming the pile cohere. having made his little pile. powdered the gutter from the cavity in which the drill The is rotating. again opposed to one another. At a particular dance a small fire is made in the centre on which the branches of a special tree are placed before and during the performance. leisurely picks tilts The man. also carried about from place to place by herdsmen.76 the left is released FIRE-MAKING flexed fingers The and brought upwards opposite to its fellow. to cultivators. therefore. smoke appears. When the mound has attained to the amount that would lie in its side leading wood made of the stick gradually dribbling down on a threepenny of it. on to which he little from the sword blade the mound of coherent dust. beginning to drill. length of the drill. whereupon the grass bursts into flame. and the flattened palms. beyond a few isolated sacred trees. piece. forms a little mound on the sword blade. are now extended. make another journey down whilst the the As the drill rotates. fuel is often exceedingly scarce. of which large crops are grown.^ But it is the 1 Cf. p. but do not smoke or glow. it and encloses it in the grass. He gently blows on four times. for fuel. it is found by experience that a portion the size of half a pea. In the settled portions of Kikuyu. Nothing that interferes with cultivation is allowed stand. of the ground. in the and the natives depend on the small brushwood from land lying fallow.

Mu-lin'-da n'gu-rti-e is .^ is but no special consideration first fire given to the making of the within their circle. in offering sacrifice. 131. special herbage. The native names of the trees employed for making string are : of which the barks are to all Mu-gi-o string. 3 cf. a living man pursued by the " Bad " was able to make good his escape by interposing a People On fire betwixt himself and the ghostly pack.'^ When a the fireplace new hut has been built. is is on sale in most made of from the bark of certain trees. fire is for employed but it has no sanctity. 242. which to be found is used for various purposes.) Mu-ke-o of . . or from the bark of trees of any other kind. 2 Cf. the other hand. and the last to roll (ku-o-go-sa) the masticated fibre into a yarn of the desired 1 Cf. and of the native markets. being simply a necessity the preparation of the cooked meat that constitutes the sacrifice. (Abutilon. and not the that the point of this proceeding. Again. the three stones of which is formed must be new and uncontaminated.^ The idea fire in of a spirit also seems to be associated with the a hut. Mon-du-e Mu-gu-mu. — this . sp. p. the second to chew (ku-ta-nu-ka) the stripped bark. p. plant gives its name vegetable whether such be made from the mu-gi-o tree itself. p. . is The process employed.— ARTS AND CRAFTS smoke derived from the is 11 fire. and also from the tendons animals (ro-ga). STRING-MAKING String (mu-gi-o). manufacture the same whatever plant The first step is to peel (ku-nor'-a) the rods. -244.

and for other purposes by the women. xiviii. They are then dried . to tie up the daily load of sweet-potato tops. mon'-do. thus separating the flesh from the ligament. is used for the making of snares. into bags which vary in size from those that would be only large PI. to string beads together. The tendons of which string is made are chiefly obtained from the domestic animals. too. pi. Custom ordains that string for some purposes shall be made by the men. . The twine that the ki-on'-do) is women weave into bags (sing. with the fingers alone. The mending. of cracked calabashes is done by the men. the goat. and to bind together the sugar-cane pulp in order to wring out n'j6-hi) its juice (ku-hi-ha when making the national fermented drink (n'j6-hi). After the beast is skinned. binds together the daily collected truss of sweet-potato tops. and as they are formed they are again rolled in the reverse direction into a two-stranded cord. to others big and strong enough to contain a sack of potatoes. is afterwards plaited. they are taken up singly and placed in a cleft stick this is then gradually worked backwards. L enough to hold half a dozen pennies. a made by them. in different sizes and qualities. On the other hand. the men must make the cord they require for the manufacture of n'j6-hi and for the setting of snares. to repair calabashes by sewing. the sheep. mother must chew and make the morsel of cord that binds together the tiny bunch of leaves that plays so important a part in the ceremony of her son's circumcision. and the ox. The same form of string. or woven. A very small amount is derived from the wild game by occasional barter with the race of wild hunters — the N'dorobo. the one immediately This cord after the other.78 fineness. carcase of the animal The method by which the tendons are extracted from the by the Akikuyu shows some ingenuity. too. PI. The men also make the cord which So. STRING-MAKING Two of such yarns are rolled. nightly taken home for the milch goats and the fattening ram that lives in perpetual darkness beneath his master's bedstead.

xlvii I i '.S". 78 a . A'. phot. . Weaving a String Bag (Mon'-Jo ox: Ki-on'-do) The work in hand is slung. bottom upwards. in order to support its weight and to leave her hands free. by a cord that passes around the maker's neck.Pl.

] Thk Commenckment of a String Bag To show the "stitch" or manner in which the long double working cord (a) is woven around the short lengths 78 b . Mux. [A'.b b Pl. xlviii /v/ Brit.

. 78 c . introduced to when being photographed. lJ?.-\ A Shows distend it. xlix Biit Mus. which it liangs from the neck in (The white mass is paper.j Pi. String Bag Three Parts Finished the position in process of making.

Mus. is made in the same way ?ind They vary only in the degree of flat the same fineness ot the twine. pressed the smallest (shown against a sheet 2 white paper) measures the other 10 x 9 in. x 2 in. Ixxviii. . the largest 32 x 32 is The large one shown in use. PI. L Brit.PL. When of in. 104 a. [A'. .] 1 HREK String Bags of Each materials. p. 78 d .

Such a weighs 3^- oz. 4d. A fibre sisting of a single yarn. (weighed) and contains 70 yards (measured). have never seen anything heavier than the above.). immediately after- wards the two yarns are twisted together by a return movement of the hand directed upwards and inwards. and the Manufacture of Iron from it hills that form Kikuyu. we In the labyrinth of is to-day feel we are standing beside primitive man before the dawn of history. For this purpose wild vines are e. to-day (1908) ball 1 pice (1 rupee = 64 pice = Is. or snares for The customary price for a ball of strong well-made twine. roughly twisted together. say from the size of the smallest knitting needle to that of a moderately sized one. : : . each strand conEach yarn is made by rolling the employed between the right palm and the right thigh. I or of the character of rope. as we watch the different steps he takes to achieve his end. the native of found smelting iron in a manner so simple that. is as used for bag weaving. Kikuyu cord in a direction downwards and outAvards .ARTS AND CRAFTS in the 79 split sun and carefully preserved. large animals. fathom and his diswas allowed apparently to go everywhere and to see everything I was treated with the greatest politeness everything that would be likely to please me was of the native is difficult to I The mind position to gauge. in making bridges.g. IRON Winning the Ore. being only is up and twisted into thread as required. formed of two strands. String is thus made of varying degrees of fineness.

— 80 IRON my part to the subject done. " The hole could only right I would enter it. the prevarica- formed material for many a joke. in the heart be descended with a rope. whilst a man or woman may perhaps hold as much as ten or fifteen pounds in different forms. ." I would make a new rope specially. The population may amount individual is to perhaps 500. situated due east." All ! . Could not I climb any rope ? The rope was decayed and might break. but for use or ornament. distant about five miles ! Politeness and patience.ould be said that my hosts had killed me. " Iron came from a place a great way off " Never mind. nevertheless refer to articles made : of iron. and it v. : ! : of their own country. Every the possessor of at least some iron a child may have all. " But the spot was in the heart of a hostile district a really bad people to the west of us. and leave a letter to absolve them from blame. work wonders." I would take a strong I felt sure they escort and make friends by giving presents " No. Yet all the time the spot was an open quarry.000." and so on ad infinitum. though dealing with times so remote that the animals are mythical. " It was dug from a great I would travel there specially. The following is a fairly exhaustive use amongst the Akikuyu that are made list of the articles in : of iron . but any question or allusion on of the winning and. less than an ounce. have a little. Those branches of the Akikujni that I have been amongst cannot imagine a time when iron was not in use I have made : careful tales and wide inquiry to establish this point." " . extraction of iron was always met with replies calculated to lead the conversation into other channels. . and when long afterwards they did take tions of the past me to the spot. however. To take me there would provoke would like me hostilities with their neighbours it was politically impossible for me to go. hole. . no. Their folktoo.

. R. p.PL. phot.' p IV. is a girl with her head unshaved. LI :M K^. ^. Typical View in the Iron-sand Quarries All material to the sky-line has been artificially washed The figure in the foreground C/. 80 a . A away.. S. 140.

.

my impression is that such trade has never existed to any appreciable extent. 81 Spears. which P!. near Kilimanjaro in exists. based on knowledge of the conditions. as a in is They form a continuous exposure of one side cliff some 150 feet in height. J. branding irons for smiths' cattle. The original rock. is a much decomposed granite. ^ ^ A portion of the rivulet. stilettos. and that perhaps a certain amount of that metal has been soaking into the country for generations past from Arab caravans passing through. ceremonial thigh rattles. even when they were in full swing. spirals of wire (used as stops on thongs). supplied the needs of so large a population. li. cattle bells. earrings. wire. finger rings. deflected at a point to 'Mr. creamy pink colour and devoid of vegetation. even then. still it is difficult to understand how the existing workings can have. chisel). tweezers for extracting the beard.IRON knives. large (size of lead pencil). from this source would involve trading with the Masai or the Akam'ba. small (size of fine twine). the workings are found. for Howe. The natives say that the spot that is I am now going to describe the only one in Kikuyu. broken down by water to yield the iron-bearing sand. arrow heads. but that 50 miles away. however.. Allen I am very much indebted of the British Geological Survey. axes or adzes. necklets.Sc. swords. Curator of the Museum most kindly examining and reporting on specimens submitted to him. through which flows a perennial stream. from which can also be extracted a good deal of micaceous clayey matter strongly stained with iron oxide. rattles. small ornamental ankle wire. B. razors. which to-day they are obviously not. wiredrawers' tools (clamp. German East Africa. and. goat bells. agricultural or digging knifes. At the lower end of a secluded and narrov/ gorge of sharp fall. II . Granting that the waste of the stock of iron by daily use must be comparatively small. drawplate. another deposit To derive metal. chain. scabbard tips. black- hammers and tongs. of the ravine.

ing away. are constantly breakli. artificial led. and for 2 feet on either side. the material of and at any point. The cliffs of the ravine being thus gradually deprived of the support of their natural buttress. Its shape is somewhat that of a scollop shell. as an occasional employment the cultivation of the soil is still their primary occupation which they have not renounced. and carried down into the brook below. After this manner have apparently millions of tons of material been removed by the directing hand of man. he builds a wall a few inches high of sticks and grass. Thus is excavated. leaving an opening about 9 inches Avide in Selecting a spot is ground hard. the native smooths out a shallow pan. over the surface of the detritus of the its cliff. This opening he then temporarily closes with a separate wisp of grass. for the greater gain that would arise from collecting the iron sand. or the middle. At the point where the shell would be hinged to its fellow. difficult. whilst those portions that are somewhat harder remain in situ.82 AVINNING THE ORE is nearer the head of the glen. to any considerable extent. Its dimensions are 3 feet by 2 feet. with steady fall. in an channel. In this way action can be brought to bear as desired against the glacis at any level. end of the pan farthest from him. the ferriferous sand formed from the more disintegrated portions of the rock. The winning of a of the ore is done by the women and children : few families living near by. throughout the greater part of the length of the gorge. as huge boulders and isolated masses. he scoops up the water and at the . by the side of the stream where the some place in the course of the flume. and standing with one foot just outside his little grass gate and the other in the stream. Holding the gourd by its neck. associated with the action of the torrential rains. he takes a half gourd in his hand and begins work. making a chaotic scene and rendering progress bounding Pi. Making a pile of about ten quarts of the iron-bearing sand.

II

'.

S. R. phot.

Children washing Iron-sand

The washing-pans, described on
series

p. 82, here

extend in

along the

Icft-liand

bank.

82a

Pl.

liii

1

1

'.

S. R. phot.

Drying the Washed Iron-sand

A

pile of

on the top

of a

washed ore is shown smooth rock.

in the

foreground spread

82 b

WASHING THE IRON SAND
dashes
it

83

against the face of the pile Avith a rapidity and
is

accuracy that

obviously the outcome of practice.

The
out

water flows away in a steady stream, turbid with the lighter
materials in suspension.
of the

Larger pieces he lightly

flicks

pan with the

finger-tips as he pauses

from time to time.

So he continues until most of the pile has disappeared. The sand now covers the floor of the pan, and has assumed a much
darker colour than formerly, owing to the larger proportion
of iron ore

spot in

mixed with it. Again it is piled up at the same the pan, and again the same process is repeated. From
lifts

time to time he

the wisp of grass that closes the opening

and scrapes up with his hands the rich deposit accumulated in front and beneath it, as also that Mhich by now covers the floor of the pan. This process of alternately piling and washing is repeated some half-dozen times. AVhen the iron grains spread over the floor of the pan fairly mask, by their black colour, any sand mixed with them, he scrapes up and puts into his half gourd what he has gained, and moving knee-deep into the
in the little fence,

stream proceeds to give the

final

washing.

Time

after time he stirs with his

hand the contents
it off

of

his gourd,

At last the water comes away perfectly clear and he can do no more. The result is a wet mass of black sand, which is, to
turbid.

adds more water and pours

when

describe

it

accurately, a magnetite ore.^

It consists

of

a

mixture of quartz grains and magnetite, the latter often in
well-formed octahedral crystals
is
:

a small quantity of ilmenite

present.

This wet sand
is

is

at once spread out

on a

flat PL

rock to dry, and

then poured into a gourd bottle ready to

be carried home.

To gain
are

a pint of well-cleaned ore would

take a native a good hour.

The

iron smelters

blacksmiths, some half-dozen in
of the quarry.

number, who

live in the
^

neighbourhood
Kik. Mu-than-ea.

The

84

THE FURNACE
is
is

collection of the ore

done by their

women and
raw

children.

To-day only enough

collected for their working needs, in

addition to perhaps an equal

amount

sold as

iron.

In the

past the production must have been

much

greater, judging

from the extent
of the white

of the old workings,

but a knowledge of the

prior to the advent man, leads me to think that only those Akikuyu resident in the immediate neighbourhood of the deposit ever worked it. It is inconceivable that it was ever treated as other than the private, though common property, of the natives in the immediate vicinity. There may, however, have been a much greater local population than now working
political conditions that existed in

Kikuyu

energetically

at

it

:

moreover,

the splendid virgin forest
:

existed close at

hand

until within the last three generations

to-day

it

is

20 miles distant.

Two

out of

the

thirteen

PI. Iviii.
"

^'

PI. liv.

Akikuyu are divided ^ do not Vv^ork in iron. No member of these two clans can become a smith. There is nothing of the nature of a trade guild amongst the ironworkers, nor is the smelting of iron associated with any ceremonial rites. The curse of a smith is, however, considered to be particularly biting and adliesive, and is expensive for him who has fallen beneath its ban to " spit out." ^ The furnace or " hearth " consists of a hole in the ground lined with tempered clay, similar to that of which pots and bellows' nozzles are made. Its shape is that which a round bowl
clans into which the

assumes when lateral compression has reduced its diameter by one-half the edge becomes depressed at the extremities
:

of the long axis, forming, as sides lining
rise
is

it

were, two spouts, whilst the
their level.

up considerably above
all

The

fireclay

brought well over the edge, forming a wide, convex,
around.

everted border

The

interior of the furnace has

1 The clan known as the Mwe-tli(.'--f];<i or Ai-ki-u-ru, and the clan these last also do not circumcise. A-ga-chi-ku - Cf. " Ceremonial uncleanness," p. 258, No. 24.
:

known

as the

PL.

I.IV

FURNACK OR HiiARTH FOR SMELTING IrON OrE
Viewed from above.
edge
is

(Object on right-hand

a half calabash.)
:

Measurements
Interior
:

Anterior depression to posterior
in.
;

depression, 28
23. in:

right side to

left side,

Exterior Anterior depression to posterior depression, 47 in. Apparent substance of wall, lo in.
84 a

PL. LV

1 1

.

^V.

A',

phot.

The Interior
Shows a
pass.

of a Smithy
their ^vooden nozzles,

pair of bellows

and

and

the earthenware blast-pipe into which the ^vooden nozzles

An anvil,
(to left,

as^ainst
:

which

rest

two

tools for

wire-drawing

:

hand-vice

to right, draw-plate).
(side view).

A A

blacksmith's

hammer
Against

stone anvil, the upper surface of which shows
tlie

distinct grooves.

anvil rests another

two hammer,

handle uppermost.
84 b

SMITH'S

BELLOWS
lip,

85

the form of a blunt truncated cone, laterally flattened. substance of the clay forming the

The

where alone I could observe it, was, I think, about 2 in. thick. Over the whole was thrown a well-built permanent roof a circular hut with-

out sides
skins,

— about 15
ft.

ft.

in diameter.

The bellows
about 4
Into the apex
is

consist of a cone, or fool's-cap, of

sewn goat
large end.
in length.

pi. iv.

and 6 in. in diameter at the whipped a carved wooden pipe 6 in.
long,
is

This pipe,

when

the bellows are in use,

securely pegged
is

down

to the ground,

and over

its

extremity

loosely fitted the

expanded butt of another pipe, made of pottery. This earthenware nozzle is about 3 ft. long, and of the size throughout of a man's wrist. It rests on the lip of the hearth, with its nose directed somewhat downwards. Its distal half is buried beneath the mass of black charcoal that occupies the top of
the hearth, but of
heat, as
is
it

pi. iviii.

the nose alone

is

in a position of great

shown by that part alone becoming
of the belloAvs,
of these,
is

fused.

The

circumference of the brim of the leather fool's-cap, that constitutes the
parts.

body To two
sewn.

roughly divided into three
stretched between

on

its

outside, a straight flat strip of
is

wood

is

An

adjustable thong

the two extremities of each stick to form a becket.
Slipping
all

the fingers of one

hand

into one loop,

and the
the

thumb

of the

same hand

into the other, the lad

who works

bellows brings together the butts of the two straight sticks,

and rests them upright on the ground. Retaining them there by pressure, he next proceeds to separate his thumb from the fingers and palm, which results in the upper extremity of the sticks becoming separated in other vv^ords, the circular opening of the bag is constrained to assume the form of a V, and
;

through this V-shaped opening the
Still

air enters

the bellows.

keeping the sticks vertical, he

by

closing his hand.

upper surface of

now brings them together That done, he depresses them on to the the bag in the line of its long axis with a steady

86
squeeze.

SMELTING IRON
A
blast
is

thus ejected through the earthen nozzle

equal to the capacity of that part of the leather cone, compressed by the two sticks.

The continuity

of the blast is

maintained by the resiliency of

the uncompressed portion.

Two

such bellows are always used simultaneously by the

on either hand of the blower, who sits on his heels between them, and works them alternately. The ground is made up so that the bellows, as they rest on it, shall The same form of slope gently downwards into the fire. Other instruments bellov/s is used by all Kikuyu smiths. incidentally employed are the usual blacksmith's anvil, hammer, and tongs. The only materials made use of are the clean- washed iron sand and charcoal nothing else whatsoever. The charcoal is made from the wood of a particular tree
native, one being placed
;

(mu-koi-i-go).^
I

have not seen a furnace actually being started

:

they

commence operations at dawn. When I arrived the furnace was full to the top and the bellows working, but, as the mass gradually fell in the centre more ore was sifted over it by the handful, and more charcoal added little by little. The
top surface of the mass in the hearth always remained black,

become concave in consequence of the combustion of the central core. The blast is maintained till sundown. The mass is then left in the hearth for the night

and kept tending

to

to cool.

Next morning

I

was summoned to

see the next step.

All

loose charcoal was, as far as possible, scraped

away from
it
:

the top and sides of the mass in the hearth, thereby giving
it

a semi-globular form.

A

little

water was sprinkled on
its

a rope of green banana leaf midribs slipped beneath
diameter, and
it

greatest

was capsized on to the depressed lip of the hearth and so rolled clear. Its appearance was then that of a coherent mass of hot charcoal. More water was now sprinkled
*

Mu-koi-i-go

—Bridella micrantha. Mull. Arg.

PL. LVI

W.

S.

A',

phot.

The Interior The smith
to see that
is

of a Smithy
is making shown in the

looking along the sword that he
true.

it is

The

large anvil

is

that

preceding figure.

In order to

thatch of the smithv had previously been stripped

take the photograph the off, with

the consent of the owner, on the understanding that he

should have a

new

roof for the old one.

86 a

IRON
on
it,

87
with round water-worn
it

and the smith and
slag

his crew,

boulders in their hands, proceeded to knock

to pieces.
as

The
it

was found distributed throughout the mass

has flowed, whilst the pure iron had similarly run together
Carefully picking out the pieces of pure iron, the smiths then

into small lumps.

€arried

them

to the adjoining forge,
"

into the

little

blooms "

of Kiku}^!

about 2

lbs. each.

Ten quarts

of

and heated and beat them commerce. These weigh sand, which is about the
" blooms,"

usual charge, might produce half a dozen such

whose value in the market would

be, to-day, a small goat.

On

examination, the iron thus obtained proves to be a
steel,

very pure form of

that can be

drawn

into wire or

fashioned into cutting instruments.
pered, maintain a keen edge.
It
is

These, though untemdifficulty

welded without

dimply by heating and hammering.^

THE BLACKSMITH
A
may
of iron.

good blacksmith makes all the articles that are formed He is by far the most skiKul workman, in fact he

be said to be the only highly skilled craftsman to be

found amongst the Akiku5rii. When a man wants a metal
order
it is
is

article

he does not simply

of the smith

and pay
There

for it or arrange for

payment.

Such
that
is

never done.

is

a certain customary routine
it

not departed from.

Let

be supposed that a spear

required. The first step a man takes is to call early some morning on the smith, and give him a small present of about a quart of n'j6-hi. The subject of making a spear is then fully discussed, particularly the number of little " blooms " or blocks of iron and loads of charcoal that will have to be provided
^

A

lantl,

F.R.S., A.R.S.M., will be found in

most valuable note dealing with the foregoing matter, by Professor GowAppendix IV.

88

IRON
;

by the customer

for

on him

rests the

onus of collecting the

necessary materials for any proposed job.
barter, either direct

Having obtained from the producer at his home, these by or in the market, and having settled with the smith for commencing the job on a certain day, he tells his women to arrange
to

brew a supply

of n'j6-hi accordingly, for n'j6-hi takes

days to make.

All being ready, in the early

appointed day he starts for the

home

of

two morning of the the smith with his

women

bearing a large calabash of n'j6-hi, the bits of iron,

and the loads of charcoal. The smith, his partner, and the lad who works the bellows, for such is the usual party, then set to work, and the article is got out in the rough in the presence of the customer, all but the boy refreshing themselves with the drink from time to time.
It
is

essential that the

customer should be present to see
v/ill

the lumps of iron beaten out, otherwise the smith

prob-

ably assert that

bits,

that appeared to be iron, proved to be
out.

nothing but slag
is

when heated and hammered

There

a fixed scale of remuneration for the smith, according to the

article

Now

thirty

made, the fee for making a spear being a good goat. good goats is the fixed customary price of a

wife, or, to express it

more

accurately,

is

the

amount

of the

present given

by a

suitor to his future wife's father to

com-

pensate him for the loss of his daughter's services.
native world a

In his

man would

by

it

as

hard unskilled labour

for the remuneration of

what would be considered months one such goat. Hence we can form
give
for a period of three

some estimate of the value attached to the blacksmith's The tools employed by the blacksmith are

skilL

Anvils, Hammers, Tongs, Bellows
Pis. iv., hi.

Anvils

(i-hi-ga).

— Four of these are required in a smithy
and two
different ones to

:

two

to

make a

spear,

make a sword.

above ground. : . by 8 in. and across it is incised a single V-shaped groove. A smith has usually three of them. in. The following exact description is taken from one of medium size. hii. they pass from father to son. . The blow given is that caused by the fall of the Pi. These stone anvils are oblong in shape with wrought surfaces. By it excellently finished Mork is turned out. or — acceptable I have never seen a broken stone lying about a smithy . The upper is smooth and convex in all directions it has its corners well bevelled off. told him that of his four anvils. difficult. By means of the groove the two lateral stiffening combs of weapons are raised. on the contrary. which occasionally becomes severe when heavy work is being done. and specialise in 89 "They are blocks of granite fashioned by people v." — what you please that renders one spear infinitely more It to him than another apparently identical. In this case one It The Hammer (ke-li'-ha) is a tool of great interest. whereby it may be held. had no grooves across it. But they do not appear to break.ho are said making them. and its use has never seems to be previously been noted. . and weigh about The value of a pair is one big goat. each. A particular curvature of face and depth of groove is required for different work a spear It is is not made on the same anvil that a sword is made on. on inspection to appreciate much difference between the grooves and curvatures of two such anvils perhaps 11 50 lb. he had inherited one pair of his four anvils and bought the other.BLACKSMITH'S ANVIL to live near the Sagana River. into the side of which is firmly fixed a wooden peg. The lower face of the stone is set into the ground for a few inches. but then none save a skilled spearsman can appreciate that special something in the finished article call it " balance. Briefly. may be thought that these stones would fracture under the eonstant concussion. by 7 in. unique amongst hammers. A smith well known to the writer. the tool is essentially a long heavy bar of iron. however.

lie same The convex bevelled face that terminates the long arm rests on the work all the rest of the hammerhead lies to the right-hand side of it. as a sharp ridge. to receive the handle. with its bevelled extremity. From the point of greatest girth the short arm rapidly tapers to a sharp point. The hammer-head is a round bar of soft steel weighing 2| lb. The hammerhead thereby passes from a horizontal to a nearly vertical position.) throughout. the appointed spot. is At the point pierced by a hole f in. 6 in. At the same time. when it terminates in a slightly convex face. He tightens his grasp of the slight round handle. as the long arm of the hammerhead falls from the vertical to strike. side of it. is of greatest girth the bar of in diameter. head makes an angle of 45° with the plane of the horizon.. according to the force of blow . and is of equal calibre and the long axis of the (2| in. It is 10 in. The smith then raises his hand by a few inches to a higher level than the work. but still maintains the handle parallel to and to the right-hand . long and 6 in.. whereupon the slight handle rotates in his grasp. This face looks dov/nwards when the tool is held in the right hand.. and simultaneously rotates his wrist outwards.90 THE HAMMER bar from the vertical to the horizontal position in consequence' of the grip of the hand on the peg being released. This point of greatest girth is situated. It projects from the hammer-head 6 in. The handle is a round stick driven into the hole in the hammer-head. He then relaxes his grip. and is not wedged. from metal the other. or from the elbow. in circumference at theits point of greatest girth. whilst the long its arm is only reduced in calibre until circumference becomes 3 in. left side of This handle hole pierced to the the line of longi- tudinal mesial section. from one end and 4 in. When the smith picks up his hammer for use he holds in the it in such a v/ay that the handle and the iiead both horizontal plane. from the wrist.

is being employed given in the same manner from native iron by Kikuyu the spike is 90 a . 1908. however. except when (with this spike a direct blow as we use a hammer). Gura River. Made smith in author's presence.^ Thk Hammer The head show t]ie of Kikuyii specially phiced with of the hammer is hei^e its face directed towards the reader's right hand. its In use. in order to its slightly is convex striking surface. tool held so that pointed end is totvards the right hand of tJie siiiitJi.Pl. Mus. Lvir Brif. VK.

and one cooking-pot with bottom knocked out. in pattern. are shown. though identical into the bvilbous ones. lviii ir. S. fhot A Blacksinjith's "Mkdicine" Here five earthenware nozzles of a blacksmith's bellows. the wooden extremity of these pottery nozzles attached permanently to the leather in use. A'. are laid when 90 . bellows. Each smith : of the nozzlts is of the short variety used by the those of the iron-smelter are four times as long.1 Pl.

to bring it in contact with its neighbour. The smith's Tongs (mi-ha-to) are 15 in. and such " strong iviii. long. The jaws. hovrever. nothing.ed. Between and by these two flat surfaces the vrork is grasped. say that the tongs of the blacksmith have always been identical in pattern with those to-day in use. but are somewhat smaller. In working. is not unusual for a smith to put up an old bellows' is nozzle to protect his property and crops. from hinge to snout. 91 the tool. a flicking movement is convej^ed to similar to that employed to crack a hunting-whip. medicine. whilst its nose. and only in doing the heaviest work. with the whole of the soles of his feet ground. so as to half embrace the work. earthenware nozzles are It and only about a quarter the length of those employed for use in smelting. 85. The Bellows (mu-ra) have been fully described and figured on p. over all and weigh 2U oz. it can only be flat grasped with one hand. The extremity of each handle is pointed. They are identical in pattern Mdth those used for smelting iron ore. as no hammer handle is more than 6 in. in width. suggests that a case of death." employed : so large a The accompamang illustration shows five thus Pi number is quite exceptional.. The smith never stands to his work he sits on the back : of his heels. nor are . | in. Circum- stances prevented the facts being gathered. near by. long. of the nature of a flux is used. The two parts are united by a well-burred pin. whilst their lighter. on the Very rarely indeed. is the hammer ever swung from the shoulder. and is used for making and enlarging holes. The proximal portion of each jaw is bov. is flattened for I in. the broken it is pot too. and then. The people. are 4 in.TONGS AND BELLOWS required. This tool so much resembles a European article that particular inquiries were made regarding it.

Yet such a spear is simply tapped out bur- under the hammer. giving a rounded section to that portion of . placed on the glowing coals. A list of most of the articles made by the smith are given on p. in. weighing some two pounds or so. WIRE-DRAWING The smith its first cleans his stone anvil for work by scraping- face with a sword (rohiyu). their are beaten do\\ n. is picked up with the tongs (mi-ha-to). It is a highly finished weapon of it complicated make. A bit of iron. As it lengthens out under repeated heatings and hammerings. Nevertheless.92 WELDING to clean the surfaces to be brought together any steps taken when Pljxxv. nished by means of a succession of balls of a soft granite the and finally given a keen cutting edge by rubbing on a suitable stone. which The bellows' enables the bar to be grasped without the aid of the tongs. then pegged down on a banana size of a goose's egg. is each face of which about {\. When bright hot. and a broken not often seen. skill of from defective workmanship the The Kikuyu spear is a good instance of theKikuyu smith. 81. it is taken out of the fire with the tongs. has a beautiful balance : it poises one- so delightfully that merely to handle a good spear makes log. and by them held on the anvil whilst it is hammered out into a four-sided bar. welding. The bar is thus worked out into a long rod of square section. and then more of them are heaped over it. and afterwards with the wooden (ke-li-ha). one end is presently made pointed and driven into a wooden handle. article a thoroughly good union is is made. yet feel bloodthirsty. handle of a hammer boy (m'goi-o) starts his blast. When a few inches have edges been brought to the desired size in the square.

is forms the apex of the cavity. now passed. perhaps loosened into its handle. This li-ta (lit. The end is of the wire to be first drawn. is Before use the chosen hole almost obliterated by the face being tapped with the butt It is of a cold chisel. further material added by A fairly even rod of is iron is thus produced. may be noted that. Ix. tightly The next step is to reduce this rod-iron. each J in. point thus formed he in passes through the particular hole (u-ta) the draw-plate or sizing-iron of the gauge required.THE DRAW-PLATE the rod. each the size of a farthing. wooden handle given a smart bump on This has the effect of again driving the rod. 5 in. and the butt of the handle the anvil. From being thus conrequired. through the hole of defined The smith in Fig. "a bow") x is 1 a somewhat flattened spindlc-Pi. stantly tapped. by the hammering.lv. The apex of each of these cones appears on the opposite face as a small hole. wrought under the hammer. after each hammering. pointed as described. and then outwards. one face of the u-ta presents a series of slight — the is flattened one — depressions. in. shaped bar of iron. . x -| in. welding. specially demonstrating this point. in diameter across the base. It its 93 is As occasion requires. required for. Taking a rough coil of it. in the centre of each of which the hole that deter- mines the gauge of the wire. On one of its two faces are seven depressed conical cups. 95. then again opened out exactly the size by introducing into it the tapered point of an iron needle some 6 in. the craftsman proceeds to size it according to the purpose it is To do this he first makes a sharp point to one end of the m ire by rubbing down that end between The a maize cob and the surface of his stone anvil. to a wire of even gauge. into the base of one of the conical cavities in the u-ta. long (mu-ku-ha). size that p. the rod in held vertically.

I in. or draw-plate. on which is now threaded The wedge jaws of the pinch it. and is maintained in a position about half-way its dov/n length by the this wedge (ke-ra-si) is inserted By hammering hand whilst with the right the and adjusted inside the collar. cJiisel Length. wide. until they have become sufficiently apart to permit the end of the wire. thick. thick. to be passed betwixt them. the u-ta. 10 in. Its jaws are then of further separated by tapping the other end the wedge with a wooden mallet (ju-gu-ma). 2| in. and I in. and to project an inch or so beyond. | in. whereupon the split bar (ro-ga) close upon the inserted wire and The split iron collar (n'go-me) is then passed over the top of the rod (ro-ga). Weight. A ring or collar (n'go-me). to gather anything showing that the design has been intro- duced from without. jaws. so much so that I have made special inquiries respecting its origin. The clamp (ru-ga) is used in this Avay First the broad flat point of the wedge : (ke-ra-si) is inserted into the cleft of the split iron bar (ro-ga). (ke-ra-si) is now knocked away. of which the split bar (ro-ga) consists. deep. as threaded on the now either placed with its two extremities resting in notches cut at the same level in a couple of posts firmly . wedge (ke-ra-si) firmly home. its length. lOJ oz. Weight. 2 (h) 4| oz. 6 oz. however. (a) It consists of : A A bar of iron (roga). 1 in. The draw-plate wire. in diameter. split for two. very cleverly designed. (c) Y\^eight. I failed. long. cold or wedge (ke-ra-si). the two left . are thereby brought together so closely that the wire inserted betwixt them is held immovably. is or sizing-iron (u-ta). 7-| in. Like a tuning-fork.— — 94 THE HAND-VICE The now projecting end This tool is of wire is then seized by means of a clamp or hand-vice (rti-ga).tenths lbs.

PL. l"he ke-ra'-si. The n'go'-me. (A) side view. put together and shown (w). The ru'-ga. side view. or wedge 6. (Bj : : : : : : 94 a . The ro'-ga. [A". (c) side view. The ke-ra'-si. LIX Drit. or clamp (A finnlv holding a piece of wire 2. or split bar 3. or collar 7. A/ui. or split bar 4. or collar Clamp B C). or wedge 5.] Thic W'iKi -drawer's 1. The ro'-ga. (A) front view. The n'go'-me. (B) as seen from above. (c) front view.

PL. 94 b . LX WiRE-DKAWING The smith explains the action of the draw-plate (u-ta) by resting it against his toes (it is usually rested against two strong notched posts). which is just indicated in the shadow behind his hands. and is holding the wire by means of the clamp. For demonstration he has passed a short length of wire (shown) through the u-ta (shown).

and of the thickness of a knitting needle. 95 2 ft. In pattern and in method of manufacture there is no variation .CHAIN-MAKING embedded a few inches ground . No form of chain. has Pi. It is employed solely as an article of ornament. ixit in length. I have seen copper and fine iron wire being drawn in this way. and then squeezes. down its close to it. but I have not seen the rough rod being drawn through the u-ta for the first time. The draw-plate (li-ta) is not tempered in any way. between his right forefinger like a . The vice (ru-ga) is then seized with both hands and the wire drawn forcibly through the ii-ta. sits usually placed over one of the jaws of a forked stick stuck upright in the ground. than fV inch in length. The native He then takes a metal rod some 24 in. To this purpose it lends itself admirably. The workmen told me. placed against the feet. other than that to be described. that they draw it cold. that one of ends firmly set into the long axis of a Avooden handle in. and projecting about it is above or else. is made or employed for any purpose by the Akiku}^!. apart. ix. One of the commonest gifts of a father to his daughter on her marriage well-off is a collar made from iron wire. about 9 round desk paper-ruler. by being passed pi. He then laps one end of the suspended hank round the lower part of the metal rod. through the draw-plate. If a man is he to-day makes a point that this shall be of w ire the native smith. and not of trade wire. in size it is not made with links larger A hank of wire having been is finally sized. in the case of Kght work. made by hand by CHAIN-MAKING Chain made from fine iron wire is universally and largely used through Kikuyu. and held in position by the toes. long. however. and the character of the metal supports this.

together. Figs. The Avooden handle Pi. Pi. is ° As the chain it formed. which thus becomes covered by an evenly applied whipping of wire as a long spiral around it. the rod with its whip- ping laid on a flat-topped stone. by hooking the slight in. is noAv This stick or laid roller. under strain. by means of a short wide chisel or punch struck with a wooden The wire whipping can now be slipped down the mallet. ixiii. coating of unriveted chain. 12 central core. for they lie in different planes. in order to preserve falling apart. the roller and stretched across the top of the anvil by the . the wire against the rod. and the end is temporarily secured. vertically above it. is now removed. bit by bit. is it. and one by by a finger. when . The flexible wire rapidly travels up the rod. Its ends are opposed by a couple of pegs driven into the earth. round from the middle two-fourths of a stick some 16 long and of it the thickness of a child's wrist. into which it is fixed.9G CHAIN MAKING and thumb. A short length of the yet unclosed chain is now drawn off [M. At the same time he causes the rod to rotate by rolling the wooden cylinder. betwixt the inside of his flattened left hand and the outside of his left thigh. the two free extremities each link do not at present face one another. of Having lately formed part of a spiral. it falls apart as a series of links or circlets of fine wire (ga-zi-ka). A pinch of loose links is therefore taken pushed forward and laid on a suitable stone. with its on the ground close to a stone Avith a rounded top. links carefully wound.vv. throughout its entire length. one precedina. but they are still separated by an interval equivalent to the thickness of the chisel edge A^ith which they were cut. each receives a blow from the butt of a chisel held Each link thereby becomes truly flat. ixii. l>dv. l. and a longitudinal cut made completely through the whipping. as PI. ixiv. This gap enables each link to be hooked on to the one. PI. therebv forming a chain. The two ends of each link have now been brought opposite to one another.

Thk First Sthp in thk Making oi< Chain WinJing the sized wire on to the iron rod.">. //lof. meter of this rod deciJes the size of each link. The dia- 96.PL. LXI W. A'. . .

Thu Second Step in the Making of Chain The iron rod. now covered by its wire whipping and with handle removed. phot. is next laid on a stone and a cut carried along its entire length. R. 96 b .Pl. lxiii W. S. by means of a short chisel and li</ht wooden mallet.

one by one. S. and flattened with a single smart tap of the butt of are rtlie now pushed chisel. 96 c . R. The Third Step The Step II in the Making of Chain wire resulting from little pile of circlets of iron forward. phot. with the finger.IV.

Sample links suspeneled by a thread. Fig. and the end secured so as maintain the Fig Fig. relative degree of fineness. Iron chain to show evenness. II. 2. I in the Making of Chain shows the result of vStep flattened by Step III. Fig. Copper chain to show 96 d . is are next hooked together. Battened by Step III. laid on a table. 3. roller. prior to their being being a sample of links. 4.PLATE LXIV The Fourth Step Fig. The links. 5. as cut. and the chain thus formed strained around a to wooden tension.

.

Fig. shown in use. 3). with its coating of links (PI. Ixiv. It is retained in position by a couple pegs whilst the chain is gradually drawn off it. 96f .PLATE LXV The Fiith Step in the Making of Chain is here of The roller.

S. phot.PL. 96 g . LXV ly. R.

the link closed. xiii. lxvi IV. 6. Thic Sixth and Final Sti:p in the Making oi- Chain stone. As drawn from the roller the chain is led across a flat by a tap with the side of the cutting end of is the chisel. where. in wear. S. 96 h . Also shows ear-rings.Pl. previously illustrated Fig. A'. phot. in PI.

ixvii. whose portrait 1 given. By its this single two free smooth even chain is produced. is Occasionally trade copper wire. The steel chain of everyday use has usually seven to ten links to the inch. piece of copper chain I obtained from is A A Pi. and made in the same way Such into chain of extraordinary fineness.ixiv. By rubbing with sand it is burnished and rendered flexible. and a beautifully evenly with its wearer's greasy skin gradually imparts to a brilliant polish. felspar. is seated on the ground facing both anvil and With one hand he grasps the finished portion of the if any such there be. fine Pi. character. which does not develop defects on long use. its maker. whilst friction it blow the once rounded link becomes oblong. roller. it is disintegrated granite rock in which quartz grains. evenness. uncommon. ixiv. This done. ends are brought into opposition. or. the size of bell wire. '^' copper chain is.^ ^ This sand is called li-um'-ba flakes . 97 chain. Pi. however. and mica make up probably the whole bulk. is 69 inches long and weighs exactly ounce. thereby maintaining a steady strain against the roller. and who fourth fingers. in the case of a new length of a terminal piece of string with the middle. similarly drawn smaller. 13 . and ornamentation to the prehistoric pottery of Britain. each inch of chain consisting of fourteen links. he proceeds to bestow a sharp tap immediately over the opening with the side of the cutting end of his chisel held in the other hand. whilst with the index finger and thumb of the same hand he its so manipulates the link he is dealing with as to bring opening uppermost. third. The material employed is a mixture of a blue clay and a soft sand. chain.ARTS AND CRAFTS smith. and smoothness. piece of steel chain of his make measures 89 inches and weighs exactly 2| ounces. POTTERY A porous pottery is made very similar in form.

98

POTTERY

These essentials are found in two deposits 10 miles apart. The pottery is made in the neighbourhood of the sand, which is

mined

in a hillside

bu-gu's country.

on the bank of the Gu-ra River in WomWhere sand is found, there pottery is made
;

but deposits of sand are few and far between in Kikuyu. No sharp sand is found in its rivers and brooks, for the face of the
country
is

everywhere covered with a rich red volcanic

soil

of great depth, resting

on igneous

rocks.

Hence a stream

consists of a channel in the basalt, partially blocked with

large boulders,

and choked with alluvial mud. The making of pottery is exclusively the work
of a

of the

women

few families living in the neighbourhood of the

sand deposit.
carry
It

They

fetch

the materials
pots,

to

their

homes

;

there they make, dry,

and burn the

and

finally

they

them long
is diflLicult

distances to the native markets for sale.
to understand

how

their output

can be

suffi-

cient to

meet the demand,

for every

death means the destruction

of all the deceased's pots, besides the loss
PI. Ixvii.

due to the accidents

of daily use

amongst a large population. The clay (m'bi-u) for pottery is carried by the women, from the marsh in which it is found, in wicker panniers, and is

spread out in the sun to dry, in the form of small rough pieces
like pulled bread.

the water which
this

is

The natives say that they do this because in the clay when collected is " bad ": beyond
it

they can give no explanation for exposing
air.

to the sun

and

When
it is

thoroughly dry
in.

it

is

placed in an elliptical
in.

hole in the ground 24
leaves
;

by 19

in.

by 10

lined with
is

banana
at once

then moistened into a plastic mass, and
It
is

ready for use.
PI.
1.

now knov/n
is

as n'daka.

From
is

the mine the sand

brought in bags woven with

the fingers from twisted twine.

The

acquisition of the sand
hillside

not devoid of
it.

for

risk. The natives tunnel into the As they do nothing to support the sides and
is

roof of

the drive, the miner

sooner or later overwhelmed.

This

Q X
S;

o

.i

PLATE

LXVIII

A Tray and
1.

Stool

Ki-ta-ru'-ru, or tray particularly used for
It is

grain, as also sand in pottery-making.

winnowing made from

It is Diameter, 25 in.; depth, 2 in. a rope of graduated size flemished down. The turns are then sewn together with strips of The result is a strong, flat, almost the same material.

the plant mu-gi'-o.

made

in the

form

of

light-tight platter, with

an even, upraised border.
of stool

2.

The

viniversal

form

found

in

every Kikuyu

home.

It is

carved out of the

solid.

98 b

Pl. lxviii

PL. LXIX

ir. S. A', phot.

PoTTiu'v

Woman winnowing

the Sand

The coarser particles have been j^raduallv worked downwards to a certain point of the circumference of the tray over which they are now in the act of being jerked. The white patch
rejected material.
IM. lx\
iii.

in the

foreground consists entirely of such

shows the tray

in detail.

98 d

POTTERY
event
is

99
but

attributed

by

his friends, not to natural causes,

to the influence of a spirit Hving in the bowels of the earth
in the direction in

which the tunnel

is

being driven,

who

is

annoyed at

his privacy being intruded upon.

When,

therefore,

he thus gives expression to his disapproval, they sacrifice a goat on the spot to appease him, and immediately start another
tunnel, diverging from the old one at the point of
fall.

This

they continue

till

the like event again happens,

when again
on ad
in-

they

make

sacrifice

and again proceed.

And

so

finihim.

Of course, any attempt at rescue is never even contemplated, for no M'kikuyu will approach a dying man, least of all, one absolutely in the very clutches of the
fiend.

The pottery is made in the shade of the banana plantation which usually surrounds the homestead in that part of the country, and comes right up to the ru-gi-li, or strong growing stockade, by which the collection of huts that go to make up
a Kikuyu homestead
First,
is

pi.

xc

encircled.
is

a small quantity of sand

placed on a large tray
PI. Isviii.

(ki-ta-ru-ru)

which

is

held in the two hands.

gently jerked upwards, the
wrists,

and

this is

done in

The tray is then movement being imparted by the such a way that, when the contents
air,

Pi. ixix.

are tossed (nen-gu-hu-ha) into the

the fine sand

falls

back
is

on to the

tray, whilst the coarser particles (mu-san'-ga) are
its

projected over

edge.

The

finished product (li-um'-ba)
is

a perfectly smooth, even, fine sand, which use in a half calabash.

stored for future

The dried clay too, in its turn, is carefully moistened, and worked up with the fingers to form plastic masses which are similarly stored. All being now ready, and the baby comfortably adjusted for sleep in the small of the mother's back,

on one
of

of the trays
it

used for refining the sand a couple of double
:

handfuls of

are thrown
is

on

this

about equal amount

placed.

sand a lump of moist clay The sand is then thoroughly

100

POTTERY

incorporated with the clay by kneading with the ball of the thumbs and with the knuckles of the fingers. A mass of dough is thus made weighing about 6 lbs. This is finally shaped into a rough bar (mun'-du-a) about 9 in. long by 9 in.
in circumference.

There are two distinct stages in the manufacture of every
PI. Ixx. Fig.
PI. Ixxv.
c.

pot.

The
half.

first

step

is

to

make and
to build

to perfectly finish off the
half,

upper

The second

is

upon that upper

when

completed, the

dome

of clay

which forms the lower portion

of the finished vessel.

A

dozen or so

of these bars of moist
first

tempered clay being

ready, the

woman

sprinkles a little dry sand
final

and proceeds to give a
them.
pats

on the tray kneading to one or more of
finally squeezes

She then

rolls this

material into a cylinder of the

desired length
it

and circumference, and
in.,

and

with the palms of the hands into an oblong slab of
in.

say 10

by

4

and perhaps

2 in. thick.

Spreading two
slab of clay
its

on two ends together. These she carefully unites by working betwixt the fingers. Should it be that it is a large pot that she is making, the ring is formed of several slabs with their ends worked together.
or three leaves

on the ground, she places the

its

edge on them, at the same time bringing

A
leaf.

thick collar of clay

This collar
half.

or

mouth

is now standing on its edge on the form half a pot, and that half the upper She now with her thumbs forces downwards

is

to

successively from every part of the outer surface of the collar

about a quarter inch
lip

of clay, to

form a massive rough base or

around its lower border, thus obtaining a secure base for her immediate work, and extra material where it will presently
be required.

The

fingers of the left

hand

are then placed

inside the collar to support the wall, whilst the inner border
of the half -flexed right hand, or rather of the half -flexed little
finger, is applied to the outside.

She then proceeds to reduce

POTTERY
the substance of the
increases
its
its

101

mud

height,

wall, whilst at the same time she by gradually scraping wpwards the

Pi. Ixx. a

material of

exterior surface.

This

is

of the right hand, the

movement

of that

done with the border hand being always

from below upwards.
the pot.

All the while she keeps

moving around
the upper half,

The part
belly.

of the vessel she

is

forming

is

being the mouth, neck, shoulder, and the upper portion of the

Proceeding thus, and always working her material
turn merges into the neck,

upwards, she gradually models the wall so that it tends inwards,
forming the shoulder, which in
its

and

by increased pressure of the inside or left hand, the broad upper border of the mouth of the jar is everted.
finally,

From time

to time, should the size of the pot require
is

it,

addi-

added to the upper ragged border of the wall, in the form of a roll of material shaped and sized like a heavy accountant's ruler. This is thoroughly blended with the upper border of the wall by kneading between the fingers before being further dealt with. The upper half of a jar is thus completed in the rough. It is then gone over again, but
tional material

instead of the border of the
piece of

little finger of
is

the right hand, a

the neck of

a gourd

similarly applied,

being

PI. ixx. b.

dipped into water from time to time.
exterior surface
is

A

perfectly

smooth
is

thus attained, whilst the pot, as a whole,
if

almost as symmetrical as

turned on a lathe.

With the sharp edge

of the piece of

gourd she cuts half

a dozen horizontal grooves about | in. apart around the neck. Two or more rounded lugs are attached to the side of the neck

by mere pressure. The half pot is now finished. A few leaves are now placed around the base to prevent that part from drying, and it is left for three hours to harden sufficiently to
handle.

PI. Ixx. c.

The potter then picks up the vessel from the leaves on which it is standing mouth upwards, and replaces it on them

102
PI. Ixxiii.

POTTERY

mouth downwards. The rough mass of clay forming the base now forms the upper border of the work. This border she now moistens, and works, and proceeds to mould as before, from time
to time adding additional rolls of clay.

PI.

ixxiv.

All the time she keeps

constricting her
PI. Ixxv.

work

;

first

the opening will no longer admit
fingers are driven out,
till

the whole hand, then one
finally
finger.

by one the

a ragged edge

of clay laps
is

The
the pot
vessel

finger
is

upwards around a single withdrawn the burr is smoothed
:

down

:

completed.
left to

The

is

now

harden for a few hours as
It
is

it

stands

protected by a leaf or two, but the potters do not seem to
fear the sun's rays or too rapid drying.
P. 70.

then carried into

the living hut and

placed on the plank platform over the

hearth usually devoted to spare firewood.
fire is

A

smouldering

maintained on the hearth, which

is

only about five feet

from the pottery.
firing.
PI. Ixxvi.

Here

it

remains

till

sufficient are

ready for

When

a batch of about forty pots are ready, they are

taken out and stood side by side on the ground, closely together

and mouth downwards. Between them small sticks, ends downwards, are packed. A quantity of light brushwood is then placed on the top of the pots, and the whole set fire to. They are then packed in light panniers to take to market. It is customary for the purchaser to again burn them within and without with an armful of dry grass before taking into
use.

PL

Ixvii.

PI. Ixxvii.
PI. Iviii.

The only articles made of pottery by the Akikuyu are the wide - mouthed pot, the narrow - mouthed pot, and the nozzles for the smith's bellows. These last are of two sizes
but are identical in pattern
3 feet long
; ;

those for iron smelting are about

whilst those for use in ordinary smith's
in.
'

work are

not more than 15
_,
Pis. Ixxx.
,

No

article

made

of fired pottery, other
"^
;

ana

,

than those mentioned, has ever been observed by the writer
models in unburnt clay are referred to elsewhere.

Ixxxi.

PL.

LXX

( I
'.

.S'.

A',

phot.

PoTTKRY

First Stack

:

Makini; the Upper Half

{a) Figure to right shows around the base a crenated appearance, due to the original roll of clay having been the finger-tips of the forced downwards by the knuckles right hand coarsely scraping the clay upwards, in order to reduce the substance of the wall the left hand supporting the wall from the inside.
: :

work

Figure to left shows the next step. The previous gone over again with a piece of gourd shell (shown). Between this and the left hand inside the correct substance is obtained, the desired shape is given, and the work left with a fine finished surface.
{h)
is

in centre shows the upper half of a pot (c) Figure completely finished. A few leaves are thrown around the base to keep that part moist whilst the rest hardens somewhat.

Pl. lxxi

Pottery

— First Stage
is

The put here marked b in PI.
morsel of gourd
whilst the
left

iiKirked h

in the

same

state as

the pot

Ixx.
is

In this case, howev^er, the curved

being applied to the inside of the pot,
affords the requisite external support.

palm

:

Pl. lxxii

Pottery

— First Stage

Shows
1.

The

act of cutting in the horizontal grooves that surround the neck, and of smoothing off the
lip.

2.

That
At
(I

this

is

done before the lugs are put on.
jar. The upper half The base will be added

3.

a

narrow-mouthed

is

completely finished.

presently, as in the case of the other shapes.
4.

The custom of w^omen shaving the head bare except at one fixed spot. Also the mass of bead ear-hoops that are worn in the cartilage of
the ears.
C/. PI. ci. Fig. 5.

clay that previously formed its ragged base is now brought incised rinj^s into use. Pottery Tlie perfectl}' — Second Stacik : Step i completed upper half. 102 d . R.Pl.. phot. ornamented with and with the handles added (PI. S. lxxiii IV. c). Ixx. The spare is picked up and replaced mouth downwards.

— Pi. lxxiv U'. .S. A\ phot. and the whole becomes quite homogeneous. PoTTFRY Second SxAGii : Stkt 2 As the material that formed the ragged base becomes used up. The new material readily blends with that previously used when kneaded with the fingers. additional clay is added from time to time in the form of one or more sausage-shaped rolls..

Fi<^. cxxvii. Shows — of a — 1 02 t . PI. lxxv PoTTKKY Si'COND StAGK : Al'I'ROACHING CoMI'LKTION a portion of the neck and shoulder the tool used gourd (cf.Fl. 2) the manner of holding the tool. and the methotl of supporting the work with the fingers of the left hand phiced inside it.

— LXXVI IV. Potter V Burning in The pots are arranged concentric is circles on the •ground in the open. Brushwood placed betwixt and on the top of them and the mass set Hi^ht to. . phot. S. R.

Bringing Water to thk Hill-tot irom the Kiver AT THE Foot Shows 1.e and rinu. 5. . 2. 3. R. Lower border of skirt tied round neck to keep it clear of knees when walking. Ouills in the cartlla<:. phot. : Method of can\in!4 a load. 102 h . narrow-necked pattern mouth stopped with leaves. in the distended lobe of ear. Earthenware jar.— Pl. 4. lxxvii [ I '.

To . at the particular point indicated. and carried across the chest instead. and level of the ears. round European bath. in such a way as to enable to be slung of the from the forehead. whilst resting on the upper part The length rest of the sling is so adjusted that the load shall comfortably on the shoulders and loins when the head and body are well bent forward. and it passes from one extremity of the longest axis of the load. for a temporary change. shortened. In some parts these conditions still survive. be they light or heavy. The sling across the forehead prevents the load slipping downwards. Whether the article be bag or basket. is to keep the load well tilted forward and to ease the shocks associated with movement. Sometimes. side about the when made by travelling over some good interlocking the fingers of Pi i^xviii. that were often so overhung as to partake of the character of a low tunnel. across the forehead to the other extremity of The arms are kept the strap is grasped on either the load. piece of path. are placed by the Akikuyu between their shoulders. a change is raised. It is not customary amongst them to rest anything on the top of the head in order to carry it. it will certainly it somehow be corded up back. or sheet of galvanised iron. This sling is usually a strong leather strap. Men do so more commonly than women. intersected by narrow winding tracks of severe gradient and bad surface. the elbows are bent.METHODS OF CARRYING LOADS METHODS OF CARRYING LOADS 103 All loads. the two hands over the nape of the neck. whilst every half hour or so. This method of carrying a load points to the time when the whole of Kiktiyu was one dense forest. whilst the effect of the hands grasping and straining on the sling. the sling is removed from the forehead. load of firewood.

a fair it he has to transport himself.^ ^ When travelling and beaver hunting with the Mic-Macs in densely afforested country in Central Newfoundland many years ago. The Mic-Macs. A woman. however. for generations past the conditions Hence.104 METHODS OF CARRYING LOADS is travel through such country. which is the MicMac fashion. A man load if on his own business considers about 40 lbs. and. fetching home firewood own accord makes up quite unequal to of. method of carrying an object is that of the days that were. of her her load to quite 100 lbs. lower arms are left free. with a load on the head out of all question. and found himself unable to do six feet. ground. Acting as a porter for others he will carry 65 lbs. striking the unseen obstruction overhead. to move forwards and downwards. even along the best native paths. to pick their trail. though he stands and is fairly powerful. and fields of the tropical forest and hedgerows have now taken the place nevertheless their as the result of the labours of these industrious agriculturalists. but the tight band constricting the chest is a grave drawback. at the same time. a distance of five to ten miles. . A Kikuyu man is carrying a load that his women think nothing The writer has often tried to lift a woman's load of firewood from the so. which passes around the front of This has the advantage that the hands and the shoulders and across the chest. to e. all As essential that they hold themselves they can do to progress with bent knees whilst for fear of the load moving forward with extreme slowness. the writer had to carry a heavy load almost daily for four months in the Kikuyu way. The traveller in Kikuyu with foreign porters will do well remember that nothing is more distressing to men bearing heavy loads on their heads than to have to reduce their stature. so he can vouch from practical experience of its many merits.. employ a second strap.g. though have changed. way down it is is a steep hillside along a slippery overhung erect.

S. made of stout wire. 104 a . R. around the ankle is a thong. and of dealing with when need be. Lxxviii II'.Pi . Harvksting the Maize Ckof Shows method of carr3ing loads. by bringing its lower border upwards around the neck. The lowest ornament the long upper garment.phot. on \vhich are strung rings the size of a crown piece. These jingle with each step.

S. R. lxxix W. phot.Pl. A Markkt 104 b Scene .

direction approaches another stream. and the grain to the more newly settled country. Persons of every kind and trade may be found at this common meeting-place. in accordance with the general convenience of a scattered population. with . the firewood homesteads in the food-growing have been carried back to the districts. A market is usually held on such a site every fourth day. and in more populous districts are frequently not more than some seven miles apart. In the evening the loads will have will been reversed. women. A stream of women will approach from the western or wooded district. both from an economic and social They are held at different places all over the countryside. from about men. and the dates are arranged so as not to clash with similar functions is in the neighbourhood. the old man to buy a cup of native beer and gossip with his confreres. and carrying with them the produce of their particular neighbourhood. attend several markets in the course of a market are filled. The site chosen for a market is an open and convenient space on a hilltop. portant part of native standpoint. bent on commerce can. be so disposed. if An he M'kikuyn therefore who week. but. each laden with a bundle of firewood while from the opposite to a large is The paths leading nine o'clock on the day it held. bearing grain or other articles for exchange. The herdsman brings his stock for sale. The iron ore is brought 14 . It is not selected as contiguous to any particular hamlets. the young man comes to buy accoutrements and adornments. The market in the iron districts is a peculiarly interesting one.MARKETS MARKETS 105 Markets for the exchange of native produce form an imlife. and children. in some locality which forms a rallying point for several districts. all converging to the one point.

at the list of goods sold on Wa-wer'-u market. 1 . . pice. and the only only certain commodities would be accepted.. Firewood. wend their firesides before sunset. 1908. and one markets in Kikuyu : of the Wom-bu'-gu most important A rupee = Is.. The Govern- ment altered the coinage towards the end of our sojourn. of some 4000 or 5000 souls. . sold for ». more or less satisfied with their day's work. situated on the confines of the districts belonging to the chiefs and Mun-ge respectively.5 pice each . To-day the use of money is generally understood.— 106 MARKETS it.. . Between eleven and one o'clock the fair is at its height. 4d. while the sellers and buyers. and would take back goods they had brought for sale rather than exchanging convenient cent. It is a special duty of the N'jama or native police to keep order on these occasions. to the extent. and the open space is a seething mass of black humanity. two sticks Salt for goats. way to arrive at their own In 1903 barter was the sole means of exchange. by those who have " won " while. 1 1 pice pice clod „ 5 pice Platters for sifting corn (ki-ta-ru-ru) . and the market-place is soon a desert strewn with litter and rubbish. the lowest denomination. in a large market. the tiny pigs of charcoal by the smelters. a pice = l farthing. is The following February a fairly comprehensive 16. except them no man may carry arms in or near a market. as coin was refused. although from some out-of-the-way markets our headman would return to report that he had been unable to buy food. loads appear for sale wrapped up in the petioles of banana leaves. one small gourd Salt earth. accept its substitute. from the woodland. By four o'clock the crowd is beginning to disperse. for the more The native understood the older coin. and beads medium in which payment was accepted.

All sorts of grain 2R.. .. . do.. 1 Tobacco.. . 5 pice 2 pice 1 pice for 2 stick? were also sold.. ..... . fifteen String bags.. 20 pice 5 pice 10 pice 2 pice 5 to 6 R. „ 2 R. per jar of say 10 J Gourds Wicker baskets Sugar cane .... smaller Do.. tree trunk 2 R.... Bee boxes Corn mortars.... ostrich feathers JR.. . .. . . . made of basket work Charcoal.. work of three . each Serval-Cat skins Bird skins Native beer (n'johi). 2R... one small gourd Bananas.. earthenware. . each pice pice Mealing stones String. a horn Red earth. each i R... per packet pice Honey.. per block Spears Knives .. Headdress.. larger 1 1 months Pots..... ..... .MARKETS Monkey skins 107 sold for 2 R. lbs.... 1 load full Fat. the pair 1 pice each 5 pice 8 to 10 pice 40 pice 10 pice 2 pice each 20 pice each Planks for huts Planks for beds Doors for huts. large. balls of ..

much interested in pictures with a little practice recognises familiar persons and photographs. as .ART ' Any presentation attempt to portray persons or scenes by pictorial reis unknown amongst the Akikuyu. one has the as in arms apart. in connection with ceremonial dances. Attempts at modelling animal figures are sometimes made by the children in the pot-making districts. nor could we find that any such existed. or is is not. This is princishown in their clothes and ornaments. but these are unburnt and incapable of preservation. The native is. bright colours do not appeal to them. or pally what we should call taste. Contrary to the usually accepted theory with regard to the black man. oxvii. of the dancing boy. while the colouring of made from selected goatskins is very There are also most definite ideas as to what is. Ordinary utensils and most weapons are not decorated. but this . The image. even when these are depicted on quite a small scale. would be a mistake to suppose that these people have no sense of colour. llo» el aeq. to some extent a matter of fashion. shields shown in the (n'dome) reproduced. Perhaps the is nearest approach to such the record of travel on the gourd Those caves which we have come across have been searched in vain for any drawings. beautiful in the form and colour of beads. which are those used by the boys exists. and one the hands it Though their artistic achievements are not high. but an elementary knowledge of design P. of which a picture is given. and and scenes. design. but only on rare occasions. Models of the human form have been met with by us. however. is said to be : made in three different forms by three different experts face. a man's garment when pleasing to the eye. one the hands at the prayer. hereafter given. PI.

who had made the above out ro8a . S.Pl. -bhvl. A'. lxxx IV. " A HVEXA MOTHKR AND HER LlTTLE OnE " Description given by bovs of sticks plastered with clav.

MoDEr.LiNG A Human Figtre in To ''see p. be used 191 in some w.iv reference to asking for rain 108 b . lxxxi ^uml^w.Pl.

ing is given to the boy Instruction in the art of this singing and writwho wishes to learn it. 156. and which has been formed into a rattle. vary considerably. The gourd is scored by him with signs which constitute a record . is who writing. Some of them are said to be of Masai origin. a gourd which he holds in his hand. and convey nothing even to the performer. dancing. and it is termed ku-i'-nya ki-shan'-di. No note as to the reason for this is forthcoming. 109 P.PICTURE RATTLES when dancing prior to initiation. Picture Rattles Occasionally a boy is to be seen going about by himself. red. singing. which an ochreous earth white from chalk . The indentated line uniformly shown on the inside is that whose use' is said to have been commanded by God when He met the first M'kikuyu on Kenya. . The colours employed are black. The knows all the signs for to a well-qualified teacher. This proceeding he continues for a month or six weeks. and blue purchased to-day from the stores of the Hindoos. charcoal . as will be seen. We have once seen a tree embellished with a floral design. Bee-boxes elaborately decorated are met with in some parts Kikuyu. and accompanying the song by shaking Pi. but no explanation was forthcoming for the adoption of any particular pattern. Ixxxvi. one goatskin. or brown. of his travel. but it is believed to be connected with its preservation as marking a boundary or of for a similar reason. but not in that here described. is made from . The designs. The words of the song are traditional they are apparently gibberish. and is reproduced also on the bodies of the dancers. by a "warrior " fee or young man. other than that it was dictated by the fancy of the artist and perhaps also of the purchaser.

but all such endeavours ended in failure. The two gourds depicted were obtained from two of these The signs were translated by two Akikuyu in our camp. The which are affixed to the gourd form part of the story those which are strung around it with chains of beads merely serve the purpose of decoration. by asking for other specified scenes to be depicted in the same way. and circumstances did not permit of a visit. ijQyg Qj^ different occasions. had been forgotten. understand more fully the method of writing. but the locality was at some distance. . the only shells : form of drawing or picture writing. it is These gourds constitute. who had themselves as boys gone Attempts were made to about singing in this manner. We were told where one of its professors resided. ixxxTii. PICTURE RATTLES jxxxMi!.110 Pis. believed. The art. it was pleaded.

Dancing Shields .

lxxxii liiit. 3.] I.I Pl. 2^5 X \o\ in. [/i'. TIO b . Mils. 26 X 20 i :iii X 1471 in.

Mits. 19I X 12. 20I X 14 in.^ in.PL.'. LXXXIII IXSIDE /.] 4.-//. 5. [i?. HOC .

A'. />/io/. lxxxiv j^^^^" 6r. 7 and 9 ja ga A'. no d .Pl.

DB .

.PLATE LXXXV. Those designs marked M The irt lUled by them to have been the Jiriwd Df3ign! from Masai. of all on the depicted inside the to ShitUi are believed be pure ICikiiyu. DESIGNS OF KIKUYU SHIELDS.hlch" ky fi- « The Dtsigns Duliide of (marked K) on ihe are said Ihe Shields by the Alokuyu to be of purely Kikliyu migiii. DANCING From .

lxxxvi Brit.] Picture Rattle no sr . [/?. ATits.Pl.

.

The 9. of the boy. pasture. The words of the boy. stockade round the The growing homestead. The moon. The boy's road. keep] them from being 10. The home The track of the boy. . of the boy. 16 —The blacksmith's wife (pregnant).The words The words The arm of the warrior who instructs the boy. by which the boy leads out the goats to pasture. The The blacksmith's tongs. children coming to dance a the blacksmith's. The blacksmith's family go foi a walk and come back again. Many people in a village drinkinj native beer. to NOTE. II. The mwe'-li growing in the shamba The boy's mother going into th 12. explains to someone tha he has had much rain. the cattle to ill. The road of the boy. shamba.— This (Shell) differentiates symbol added it from 36. The brand on The stars. in for The boy comes The boy much rain. 13. The shamba.

The boy's mother going into shamba. out the goats to much The pasture. of ttie old men with a woman between them who have gone away from the drinking party to The words Tht arm boy. big lake. Two the boy. A valley with no water. R. for = walk Tl>e and come back again. boy scores this rattle. . Tlie road of llie The boy meets a warrior shield who talks of war. The two outside ones are big snakes. • to 16 The head of the leopard. The centre one a tree snake. rain. have a talk. The boy comes in for much rain. of the boy. The (Shell) — A woman with one child. The shamba. The moon. by which the boy leads pasture. keep Snakes' home.ATTLE I. round the with a Ttie growing stockade A bird. A ^''^ boy's road. Three snakes which come out of the home.7he words inilrucis of the warrior who PLATE LXXXVII. boy. blacksmith's wife A shamba with a crop of mwe'-li. A shamba snake. (Shell) —A dead man lying in the uncultivated land. Themwe'-li growing in the shamba. The boy Sees takes out the goats. The instrument with which the The home The (rack of the boy. the A small animal (n'jar-ga-'zi). A leopard coming ou' of the mountain. homestead. A rainbow. ill. A valley with water. The brand on the cattle to them from bieing The stars. The boy explains to someone that he has had much rain. TOre^rtis symbol idded 'mmnliites it from 36. blacksmith's tongs. boy's hand. family The blacksmith's go Uncultivated land. Water. A big mountain with many trees. The words of the boy. (SWI)-The (pregnant).

his] ice understands eet ilst them. The boy's home finds The boy teaches rattle. The words The boy of ity and enter into has a fa len are The words of the ain . or He He He dances befoi lip dances bef >re father.a. en bef dances ds JC- friends. him t us srs He He dances befoi Dn dances befc mother. dances befor two children. Hed ances He befoi . lat The boy seesahj of •ty The boy The meets a claws of tb eir (Shell)— A wo )ns of tH The words The boy gst meet.1s. ne dll A road with mj water.

\. A and returns. A The where the boy woman (pregnant). to 37. iiis navel. The claws (Shell)-A '*"= A big road traversed by the homestead boy. He dances before iriends. string with which she ties her clothes. II. [110 k] . water. the The words The boy (Shell)— of the boy. of the maiden. 2. also Tte boy teaches rattle. ^•"S has a fall. fiods a warrior who 1. sleeps. The third day's journey on the road. own friends. ^'"«<"d»oftheboy. He He dances before his father. The head 6. 8. c. The boy's home. H. Rattle la. A homestead. dwces before molher. The boy. woman with girdle of the maiden. him to dance with the The mother. first words of the boy.PLATE LXXXVIII. asks for tobacco. lather. A girl. warrior's (till) girdle of the girl : see Pi . field of sugar cane from which ' '• The boy sees a hyena he gathers. day's journey on the The second the road. the warrior's The The The legs of the maiden. He dances before his (bb) ). A homestead. I He dances before his He dances before a two children. of the leopard. vertical strip of leather. day's journey on the road. A homestead. The The transverse rows of beads. i. ' A road with many people and no The bag of the boy. dances before the warrior's A maiden. The boy meets a leopard.

of fluent tongue and ready wit. each consisting of some hundreds of men. One is There man the at the head of a travelling party in single its file will extemporise against another in rear. often take the lead.MUSIC The Akikuyu as a race are gifted with the musical ear. . show their their emotions quite foreign to us. Their songs are almost always improvised solos with a chorus sung to a well-known of a trained choir. marked sense of musical time. whilst same time she expresses general sentiments of amity on behalf of all in a song of high pitch. at the Mill separate herself and advance the stranger with the most comical steps and posturings. air. strangers to one another. will thus strike up the same song as they arrive on the crest of the last hill before reaching the appointed spot. will join in a song with the dash and precision Each contingent of any large body of men. The rh3rthmical movements of their dances. The effect is very fine. when men are taken on a journey far from their own district they are liable to become suddenly home-sick after singing certain songs. whilst supporting them with a hearty chorus. assembling for some fixed purpose at a given rendezvous. are thus converging on one point from different directions amongst the sea of hills. with the result that main body are kept in a roar of laughter at the sallies of the two champions. By song and dance they give expression to with a spontaneity that a casual party of is too. with her face wreathed in smiles. when perhaps half a dozen bands. and may desert in a body in consequence. but certain individuals. no recognised conductor. Similarly. From amongst to greet women of all ages the senior. Some hundreds of persons.

— (a) An oval sheet of with the ends brought to a blunt point the edges are only \ in. In the side of the horn. the dancers at circumcision festivals. bamboo about 2 in. an opening. From it one note only is to which the lips are applied. blossom of the Canterbury bell. obtained. PI. 1. of the ankle. small objects to form a and its mouth secured with adhesive gum. cxv. cylinder of is One note only by the women. known (c) gate). the size of the thumb-nail. 3. They are made of two A gourd filled with rattle. These are used by boys. obtained. : — from the end. f. about 3 in. It worn strapped to in a horizontal position above the knee joint. Half a dozen of these as gin-gi-gi is threaded on a and form the lowermost ornament (g = Eng. PLcxv. at its closed and pointed extremity. — 112 . long — is is folded over until apart —the fruit. In the fold two holes string is are punched. (&) A open at PI. Rattles. The women never use it. The free edges of the metal are brought sufficiently close together to retain four small iron pellets. and the graceful spiral of the greater kudu. f. cxv. This instrument is used only Certain women blowing on these precede iron. 2. These rolling about give bells are the sound.— Musical Instruments The only instruments for the production of sound are (a) The straight. who go about singing and dancing. is made. Ixxxvi. (6) A piece of thin iron is folded the shape and size of the seed of a broad bean. These are made the shape of the 3. something like that of the banana form produced being Within this cylinder several iron bullets are enclosed. —6 in. 1. Goat and Coiu Bells. Horns. The mouth is applied to one end. in diameter. entirely each extremity. Through these holes a passed. cord. f. 2. PI. ciii. They are PI. and who inscribe on the gourd the story of their journeyings. pointed one of the oryx. This instrument is the war and dancing horn of the men.

C. ^ 3 : 3. brought quite together. The fourth occurs in four of 15 . which are regularly repeated. 4. sung with the third. the last two of three notes. 3. " You will notice that the first four of the airs are each composed of four notes. You wiU see that successive bars have the following number of beats " per bar : 2.' I have not attempted to determine the exact pitch of the notes. An iron clapper A similar bell also carved from a hard wood.— — MUSIC pieces of flat iron united 113 the loop for suspension. 2 and in No. however. —a striking characteristic of many is primitive songs. The Dumo song is very interesting for its rhythm. 4. I have received the following Notes and Music from Dr. as in No. as that cannot be done in the originals. . . 3. These have a wooden clapper. . ' : 3. Unfortunately almost impossible to tackle some of the songs. where two five-pulse bars are succeeded by a four-pulse bar. Since writing the above. . 4. ' The natives have sung one cannot see the forest for the trees. . and No. Both major and minor thirds occur. which forms Each piece is curved. so as to form of the bell. as in No. 4. and one it of the best examples I have ever met with. . 3. ^ 3 : 3. 2. airs I enclose half a it is dozen of the so loudly that written out. not is fitted. whether the measure is simple. 24 24 different We have here a grouping together of larger measures to form periods. " If the fourth air " should certainly be transposed a tone lower. 3. . The is sides each piece are. half by a connecting bar. The tempo is 1 very exactly kept. or complex. 6. S. 3 > . Myers. They are very uncommon. who has most kindly examined the wax records taken by us by means of the phonograph " : They (the cylinders) are full of interest. 2.

No. 4. 5 is built up very largely from the in No. Et>. and if No. F. major and major sixth F. lies The real tonic of these two songs probably a fifth lower. Bt?. F. A. 6 transferred so that written out) runs its key-note is F (instead of C.) of a fourth. of which the middle pair occur in Scale I. F. 1. — ) of the chorus is sung simultaneously with the last note. A. 3 is of interest. MUSIC Indeed. 2 and No. D. are "It is interesting to note that F be considered the tonic of songs No.)." . A. " The songs show a considerable development of form. so that F. and_^minor seventh. C. and in No. because in some verses of this song the first note. If this be so. G. the apparent tonic being actually the dominant. D. A. Thus these songs may be second. 5. F is its tonic. 5. as F. its four notes run No. but as in the latter this interval is sung there is some glissando (I have indicated this by the mark doubt about exactly fixing it. the alternation of rise one phrase with another. The major musical sixth occurs in No. if said to be based on a scale of a I. use of fourths. C. 3. the notes in each case form the scale F. namely. likewise transposed run 1. G. fifth. F. give the notes No. of the solo. Et?. and if fall of the melody. No. major sixth.114 the six songs. 4 be lowered a tone. 5 The fifth is employed only twice. fifth. No. major third. 4. B^ C. transposed to the scale of F. the evidence of this. A^. which gives a scale (Scale II. (Scale The other two songs No. G. The minor sixth in No. The alternation of chorus with solo. C. B^ O). forming the consonant minor sixth. these songs.

i^^g^^^ ifszjs Chorus. 5. Chorus. Chorus. Vocal Accompaniment to the Ku-lu-mi-si-a Dance. First Vocal Dance. No.TI B No. 6. 3. Solo.— MUSIC EXAMPLES OF KIKT^YU MUSIC. :S=:«=t-*= :5t=:::]*L=^ i^§ Solo. ^ Accompaniment ^5^^^1=g to the Mu-goi-i-o Chorus.^. 115 Ku-lan-gi-ri Solo. B3: 4. ^fci =^ * j- No. Du-mo —A Girl's Song. i No. Solo. Mu-goi-i-o —A Warrior's Song. f2_jJ4-ii3zg: W^F^ i ^ . 1. No. i No. 3r^ i^ nn^ -MM^ -J «_ :J: ^—^^ L^^S-g'4- . Solo. . hzit 3iZZ - =g -i»» — g 1* — --pt'- ^^—l-\ A War Song of the Akikiiyu. —A Girl's Song. 2.

.

PART II Social and Political Life ii6a .

J X D O O [l6b .

U a X X o w ii6 c .

o Oh a .'^ .

for defence. ordinary thickness. Each homestead has its own little enclosure.— PART SOCIAL " It " II AND POLITICAL is fidl LIFE {Archaic Laio) " in all not. hillsides. may assemble in proximity These clusters of mushroom-like huts are sown lying barren all over the country. than the damp. In fact. . there are generally two compounds. a it. the rich man's will consist of eight or ten huts the chief's of even more. in others separated by stretches of land and waiting its They are almost always built on the that such positions are chill of experience having taught warmer in cold weather. and in old days each was invariably surrounded by a high green hedge or stockade. there are none. in some parts with extraturn to be recultivated. this served as and for purposes of an enclosure concealment. In one. its that Society in 'primitive times was what provinces of the clearest indications it is assumed to be at present. 117 Each wife is . The poor man one wife . FAMILY LIFE HOMESTEADS The unit of all life in Kikuyu is the family and the family homestead. it collection of individuals. will have a single hut only for himself and his . was an aggregation of families. an outer and an inner The size of its the homestead varies in proportion to the wealth of owner. or as the evening comes on. which was entered by an arch of greenery usually so low as to necessitate stooping for the cattle. strictly speaking. though here and there several homesteads to the dwelling of a chief. low-lying valleys. Villages. such as the chiefs." and in view of the men who composed Maine's Ancient Law. the homesteads of very wealthy men.

or. The " thingira " sometimes stands a little apart. 2 p." . and is the joint sleeping place or bachelor lodgings of the boy friends from several homesteads. necessitating regular partitioned off sticks into small by sweeping. and where there are several the owner has is in addition one for his own accommodation. As each wife possesses her own. if this is unattainable. A young man marrying generally builds his hut just outside. R. In either case it is . There frequently also the " thin-gi'-ra. easy to see that where the head of the establishment dies and the grown-up son becomes guardian of his father's wives. In the centre is the fireplace. ^K. which are taken into the huts at night. which was not clean and orderly. The same usually applies to the bare ground of the is as a rule swept up and kept neat in a way which shames the camping-ground of most Europeans.^ The is interior of the huts is quite dark. The head is higher than the foot. Small belongings are kept in a jar or sometimes in a bee box.118 entitled to her HOMESTEADS own house . the presence of the goats. One partition usually serves as a cupboard and contains utensils. which acts as the guest-house. the arrangement works easily and naturally. of small sticks closely apphed. xci. I ^ have never been in a hut. who return to their respective families for food. contains little The homestead also barns or huge baskets for storing food which." or hut for the young men. and visitors should take a candle. The bed consists of one plank. —And so throughout " Family Life. but in close proximity to the parental homestead but such may sometimes be seen within the same enclosure. Wooden stools are used. consisting homesteads inside the enclosure. ^ The wall space compartments which form the bedsteads. Each homestead has also its own little estate. the number of these forms a guide to the inmates of the establishment. 70. and rarely in a homestead. ex- cept for the fact that they stand on legs. almost give the effect of an additional hut. which 1 PI.

living alone daughter One other child dead. said to be " a relation. His wife " had not yet bought another. Three huts Parents and small boy. Wife and two children. Widow — children Widow— Thingira 4. — 2. 3." Second enclosure 1. and first grandchild. — two huts. 1. and usually also of banana groves. wife. do." (At a short distance. 5. Widow thmgira. Son living with friends in . from the point of view of the black man. — Homestead O. Homestead C. if ground is not procurable." and going to her husband's 2. 3.) Married son. One hui had married. The greater part of Kikuyu may thus be said to be one vast garden city of the most approved type. Homestead A. mother. 1. and the occupants of the various huts which they contain. Five huts home of a Medicine-man Principal wife. Widow. —that of deceased father of young man ? ? Four huts. to the very simple needs of the Akikiiyu. 4.— HOMESTEADS of the 119 shambas. and children. the result being to combine. Young man. Wife and one young child. Another wife and two children. Particulars from my notebook of a few typical homesteads. 2. be at a little distance. but may. 3. . or plots of cultivated ground. belonging to These the various wives. Homestead D. be of interest. Another son stated to be at Nairobi. Latest wife. married six months. daughter just " bought. 1. are generally in close proximity to the dwellings. may 1. all the advantages associated in the mind of the white man with both town and country life. a large itself Owing population can support by agriculture in comparatively limited space. First enclosure 1. One hut Father. Homestead B. 2. Two neighbouring enclosures 2. Two huts Husband and wife. Medicine-man. Tioo huts A mother and daughter. Father and small boy. Widow and home. Homestead E. —other sons of family. three children seen. Homestead F. 2.

My first introduction to a Kikuyu home was by means an old lady who came to our camp to sell bags. passed between patches of cultivated ground. Kikuyu woman. motherhood.WOMEN Position of Women who sees the The stranger passing through the land fields. wifehood. rare exceptions in the absence of wearing anxiety as to and with ways and means. We sat under the shade of the hut. then men of the party were sleeping in standing down through springing corn to the little huts among a grove of bananas. women home The working with bent backs in the life or toiling along the road little with huge loads of firewood. with wide views over the smiling. A woman may has no legal status. increased certainty of the natural joys of home life. the young the sun. The winding path led along the hillside. who came with her baby to help to receive the visitor. to where. and that Avoman is little is position of such a in girlhood. . sinking away in the distance to the great Athi plains. obtains of a idea of the erroneous. in it many ways loses in preferable to that of her white it What breadth of interest. of undulating landscape. near the homestead. and felt that human and feminine interests were of more importance than the and lived in one of colour of skin. and discussed the weather. gains in the and old age sister. without being amenable to tribal . them with her remaining child another hut close at hand was the home of her elder and married daughter. We skirted the edge of the sacred grove. the crops. I went back with her to her hut to pay a return call. My friend was a widow. 120 Theoretically her husband treat her as he likes. and the grandchild.

She prefers to be the owner of a large shamba. substantially . It will be noticed in one of the folk-lore stories that although the hero has been provided with one hundred wives.POSITION OF justice . and though the ground." We work in the fields.—^the little girls make string bags. it is hardly necessary to say." we cook the brief it food. which the woman tends. however. no hard-and-fast line with regard to the work in the fields. "magic of property " turning "sand into gold. and this begins in earliest years. a man may not unfrequently be seen aiding his feminine work fall on him alone. The carrying of heavy loads of firewood and other produce work to which. . does not entirely cover The woman is essentially the home maker the man fights to protect that home. that was the it is epitome given to me by the wife of an old chief. proportionate burden. expressly stated that " it is "as no children were yet born he was ^ herding the goats himself. the women are inured from their earliest childhood. or shamba. the little boys herd the goats. true. is all. regardless of the extra work it may entail. Quite tiny girls may be seen trotting along by their elders carrying their own A girl of about thirteen came into the camp one day i6 at eleven o'clock. her own little granary in which to store her corn . while certain parts of the The old saying with regard to the . Custom prescribes the line between a man's work and a woman's. is looked upon as hers she can take a pride in its success or failure. Cultivation establishes ownership. we bring the firewood. the paramount duty of the care of the food-supply falls on the woman. Each wife has belongings. The plot of ground." is true amongst the Kikuyu. she does not share is it even with other members of the same homestead. which can be the envy of her neighbours. bearing a load of bananas 1 p. WOMEN 121 in practice she is protected by her initial value and by tradition. There is. 318. As he may be away on war raids.

and it is only of late. which every woman possesses. etc. carry the loads another 5.m. As the Akikuyn gener^^^^ build their houses on the steep hill slopes and tops. and slung with the strong leather strap. boys and girls. where they will arrive about 7 p. 10. Then they pick up their loads and start homewards. dry. POSITION OF WOMEN lb. which she had carried some 14 miles since Sometimes the women go as much as 15 miles Starting at dawn for the forest. or 15 miles.m. T^es^pp 299^ liOl. long. that they have taken to going so far from home. such as sewing skins. for the purpose. They then chop up the dead. By the time the loads are ready it is approaching noon. rest till about 2 p. The bigger children. and each makes up for herself a load of some half-dozen pieces. three hours." they are pro- bably only stating a PI. Their muscles become in this their fit way so used to the strain. wide and some 15 all to 20 ft. and in high spirits. running and for firewood. an hour after dark. assisting to build huts. the purchasers.. 2 in. since wide tracks have been cut and security established : under British rule. ixxvii. The load is then carefully secured. The men never assist. which fall to the share of the . also fetch the water. The women There are other duties. This description applies to the old settled country from which the forest is now far distant. and so forth. It is not customary to sleep out and to spend two days on a trip. then. that this is when it is male belongings state " fact. and the women do this. sweet-smelling pencil-cedarwood trees into lengths of about 5 ft. or should possess. to be carried by a woman. they do the distance in. arriving on the ground at 9 a.m. in their turn. a very heavy load.. not by a man. laughing. the water for cooking and drinking has to be carried up from the valley bottom. weighing in all perhaps 100 lb. say. therefore. The women. People still farther removed from it have to come and buy their wood at the home market of the wood-cutters .122 weighing 30 daybreak.

Once. as far as an outsider can gather. and I presently asked what was the topic of conversation. Things may be good. Our caravan was joined by some native women Avho were journeying along the road. they are all in the day's work. " She says. of her birth a girl is baby is even more welcome than a boy her work at home valuable." Early Years From she is the moment . and we were travelling by night as the most pleasant method. no washing day appals. and ride a horse and not carry a heavy load. it becomes inured to sun and flies. .EARLY YEARS women . The old lady previously referred to declined to express any preference with regard to the various duties. I do not think that she had "When we are not working in the fields we carry firewood. is many seasons when work required in the fields firewood has only to be brought home is occasionally. They chattered vivaciously to our men behind. and once only. no children have There are ." was all that I could extract. " that it must be nice to be a white woman. takes her position for granted. to be got little ready for school. Frequently. or indifferent . when the homesteads . that she are the portion of the latter. The Kikuyu woman. are visited. bad. one. The Kikuyu baby its first its makes view of acquaintance with the world from the point of mother's back. and takes part. where. I got a gHmpse of a woman looking at her lot from the outside. 123 to but life it must be remembered in any attempt com- woman with that of her more is spared many arduous duties which civilised sister. and when marriageable she will fetch thirty goats." I Mas told. secure in her cape in the form of a hood. their lot the women may be found practically at leisure incomparably easier than that of the ordinary working man's wife at home. No spring cleaning has to be pare the of the primitive faced. There was full moon.

all sitting quietly. as they inform us. that we never marry any one we do not want to and the other is. comes the would marry but they do not marry very young. A girl may occasionally bo bespoken as a child by some . I This quiet apathy of childhood the energy put forth in is in singular contrast with in later years. and none of them engaged in any way. These young years are very cheerful ones to the Kikuyn maiden. One is. The leading tell wife of the chief Munge was asked. No man . under the age of some fourteen years. occupation. with the exception of some of the little girls who were making bags." . for if they did not. movement and dances When great a girl is from ten or twelve to fifteen years. but she has an amount of gaiety which many an English girl would envy. Almost every moonlight night she can go to a dance. and they seem to need no carry them after the manner of their elders. " none of the girls would dance with them." a girl who has not gone through these rites Betrothal and Marriage A white girl's betrothal is entirely her own affair. where she chooses her own partner. She of course assists her mother in the household and fields. in the The elder children. as all the world over. not apparently before sixteen or seventeen years. "two things. generally head downwards. act as nursemaids to their little brothers and sisters." she said. have counted as many as twenty-two children together at one time. and endeavour in quaint fashion to The children of both sexes are singularly quiet and well behaved they are never to be seen playing games. that we like our husbands to have as many wives as possible. and possibly later.124 BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE work of the day. . day of her initiation into the tribe. "What I should the women on my return to England about the women of Kikuyu?" "Tell them. The young men come in properly adorned and turned out.

xcii 1 1 '. A'. 124 a .S".Pl. . phot.

circumference over collar. of which the the is and the back are each half the substance This collar is natural skin. immense strength. 22 in. and a Digging-knife shown some 7 feet long. Weight. 2. The its substance of the skin ness readily permits. it is then reduced hollow cylinder by a succession of stabs with this Thus are mortars and bee-boxes made. well home into the \vood. another is 14I Weight. another is 15I oz. li shape shown. in the line of is the pole's longitudinal axis. then driven over the axe-handle. A section of tree-trunk is first made somewhat concave with to a tool. an Axe. Length Maximum Fig. and exceedingly of handle. or point where they unite. the full substance of the hide. front is which great thickof A collar thus forined. efficient. of is as it dries. the axe . 3. and so into position. is The Kikuyu axe of the (i-than'-da). is ference of the axe-head. The agricultural digging-knife (ka'-hi-vu). more than of the split. This tool Every woman has one. strong. 13^ in. This chisel and the axe-blade are identical articles it is simply a matter as to how they are set into the handle. 7! Fig. 124 h .. and then half the circumdepth desired. in.PLATE XCIII A Fig. 13! o/.. . Width. in. whilst the sides. and a ferrule of green rhinoThe lower border is rubbed ceros-hide shrunk on to it. The small end of the iron (i-than'-da) here set into the butt of a pole to a keen cutting edge. The handle always made To form the collar a piece of rhinoceros-hide cut i in. . i2| oz. the only iron implement used Length of blade. max. light. through a cleft made in the face of the The skin is green hide collar. Length. Chisel. is in. and contracts considerably The result is the axe-blade is fixed immovably. I. 9J in cultivating the soil. in. Afterwards the axe-blade is driven.

Fl. xciii 124c .

A Family Grolp Sho\viin> method of carrvinc infant t24 d . phot.Pl. A'. xciv A'.

xcv A'. phot. R.Pl. Acting Xlrskmaid 124 e .

cii. bracelets and anklets copper wire. Method of wearing upper garment. Bead necklaces. See PI. Straps of cowrie shells across the chest. 124 f . ring of in lobe of ear. Ornaments.PLATE XCVI Three Kikuyu Girls Shows : Brow-band indicating maidenhood.

Pl. R. phot. xcvi IV. S. 124 g .

.

and asked pathetically what we did in England when people had debts to pay and no money to pay them with If the suitor is rich the goats are all paid up immediately if not. not an unfair arrangement. be made. Young warriors questioned on buying child wives. no doubt.BETROTHAL 125 older and wealthy man. and had. and the goats could not be returned. It was brought for decision to the chief Karuri. and judgment was given in his favour. after giving the decision. of course. but there was no father living. but due restitution must. Karuri turned to me. owing to the . one of the native commissioners informed me that. be held to her bargain. seeing that the lady had certainly been a consenting party in the first instance. perhaps. This was. and could not be replaced. second being delayed three is Thirty goats and five or six sheep . the subject. scoffed at the idea of break off her engagement even after the goats have been paid to the father. again." the young men who knew about the girl is also at liberty to A and an official (n'jama). enjoyed her share of the booty. the first on his case. proposal being accepted. the lady had changed her mind. The suitor pleaded that the girl should. Here. for they had been eaten. the customary value of a girl but the actual marriage will probably take place after twenty goats have been received. the or four months. and sat to arrange the return by the father of a girl who had changed her mind. One was a small court held on the green just outside the homestead of Munge. The other case was more complicated. in When South Africa. but she would not be obliged to marry him on coming to years of discretion unless she so desired. under these circumstances. they may be paid in two instalments. immediately after the war. the remainder sometimes not being paid over till the eldest child is eight or ten years of age. I have been present at two cases for breach of promise. The father went off straight away to get the goats. of the goats ! . consisting of one " elder.

" As a very ally rare occurrence. a prospective husband might appear who did not know aspect of the case naturally also presents ' . on the other hand. be seen with three patches the of an unmarried girl may occasionsize of a crown piece. with long pendant iron chain (mu-hu-ni-o). but after the marriage has been arranged other. Both the fiances may continue to attend dances. or some adhesive matter. and safeguards her from all interference. corresponding to our engagement ring. but with the understanding that the first-born daughter of the marriage should be the property of the wife's parents. would make a great fuss. composed parent.126 BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE destruction of live stock. is off unknown to her to a clandestine appointment. The man in such circumstances can either buy the girl. It was very definitely stated that the marriage value of a girl with such a history would be diminished but. is a collarette made of whipped copper wire. aromatic seed. the practical " The mother itself. An unmarried girl about to become a mother meets with the gravest disapproval from her parents. or pay ten goats and one sheep. say five goats. it is That is no longer correct for them to dance with each "very bad. For any second child born under similar circumstances. but would not betray the name of the father of her child. one on either cheek. and they can talk.' " The girl's companions would also disapprove. only a small compensation is required. in which latter case the girl and child remain at home. and take the child. . to say that this is It would be too much entirely a matter of morals. These patches are honey. xviii." but "he can visit her. Pi. The sister of a leading man was severely beaten by him. and a small This sign indicates that. she and one on the forehead. Why do you go far ? I like you to stay here. The first betrothal present. and if some one likes you they can buy you. native girls in his district were being given in marriage without payment.

I have many goods at my father's. The father paid up the regulation ten goats. or 127 and the parents would naturally make the best bargain possible. Twenty. You don't like any and she says. How many goats her father wants ? and he says.' and she says.' The mother says. I think. and they go and tell the young man's mother. was given most fluently. This is in the morning. notice was that of an unmarried girl who bore a female child. the various dramatis personce being represented by coins. The husband takes A rather curious history which came to our also the child. Yes. ' ' ' . If you do not like this man I will not drink. The young man goes back and tells his father that he wants to buy the girl.' So he goes to her father. and the father says. the girl. and the father asks. who was in the happy position of having recently completed the payment for his bride. Later.' and then he drinks then the beer is poured out again. and the mother drinks. Yes. the It ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . to make quite sure that I was following the story correctly. a big one and a little one. beads. which have been brought by two friends. the child in this case remained the property of the woman's object. who did not father. I should like to buy you. of sufficient interest to It is.' The father says it is all right. The account of a marriage is best given in the words of one of our Kikuyu servants. " The young man says to the girl. being still unbought. and you do your work very beautifully. .' The young man has made one else ? two gourds of native beer (n'johi). etc. In the evening. No. matches. when the goats come home. and the friends who have been called drink. warrant transcribing at length.' BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE of the past. and the same man was willing to take her to the extent of paying six extra sheep but as the consideration was so small. thought that she would like a husband.. and the girl takes the n'johi and pours it into the horn of an ox. and the father asks the girl. Do you like the man very much ? and she says.

his father all all the bridegroom's party.' and goes to his mother's house to get food and to the boy's hut (thingira) to sleep. looks at the goats and says they are all right and the young man goes home. and the young man says. and mother have collected friends. and two other The bride's father friends carry one cluster of bananas each. . take the sheep to the girl's home and he goes back. and goes to the shamba and cuts sugar-cane. The mother carries a little gourd of beer.128 BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE and the young man's friends take them to the girl's home. his and go to the bride's home. friends dance the ' Ge-ti-ro. and one of her friends a big gourd. friends. The girl's mother produces two gourds of gruel. and does not appear. he gets the other ten. and he returns to his own home. and the two mothers and their his friends. and the father girl's home. when the goats come in. and himself last. Yes. ' . and two others the bananas. " The next day he and his friends. and the man himself follows behind and delivers the goats. and says that he will want a sheep to-morrow.^ one behind and one before. take only ten that day if so. his own mother and her friends. take them to the The girl stays in the house. one before and one behind. But in the evening. His father asks if it is all right. beer. . and makes more native father picks out twenty. and all women go into the house. and gives one to the young man's father and friends. because he has not paid up ail the goats. necessitating the return of the goats paid. " The day following. " Two friends of the mother of the girl take the two gourds. . He may. however. and one to the young man and his friends. and his two friends.' " Then the father of the girl goes inside the house and ^ These friends form convenient witnesses if an action has subsequently to be brought for breach of promise of marriage. but the girl works in the " shamba " (her mother's plot of ground). the next day he does not go to the girl's.

and kill and eat the sheep. and says to the young 129 man young man's father and his friends. We do not drink The girl's father brings out two beer.' Have you finished drinking gruel ? And the young man and his friends say.BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE brings out the big gourd of beer. and finish drinking.' Then they join the circle. which might commend cares of the hostess. his friends drink out of one. and the girl's mother gets grass. and I have raised no objection. and the friends of the girl's father all go and his friends. and have an empty gourd. The girl's mother brings out the little gourd. " The girl's mother divides one cluster of bananas between her friends and keeps one for herself. and two of her friends give them to two of the friends of the young man's mother.' so they go away. * and they say. The two Your son fathers retire and talk. and the father of the young man and his friends drink out of the other." : It will be seen in this account. and the fatlier takes his one friend to look at the goats. and has brought the goats. and the girl's father says. and to the ' ' ' ' ^way except " one. and puts two pieces inside each gourd (this is a very old custom). and the mothers who have the This last being a legitimate outlet for satisfaction itself dance. Yes. " The father of the young man and his friends go back to the father's house. It must lessen the when the visitors provide the victuals. 17 elsewhere. and drink beer the girl's mother and friends drink Then the young man's mother comes inside inside the hut. and the mother and her friends retire home. haK gourds. and the party is finished. likes my daughter very much. and stays in her hut. that it is the bride absent from the feast. . of the adventures of the who is which reminds one of some renowned Alice. the hut and asks for her gourds. and the young man's mother and her friends come out at a little distance from the girl's father and friends.

to take the girl. Indeed. the young man and his When they friends go and cut sticks for the house and build it. I did come.' Then the girl and her two friends go and cultivate the shamba. and he says. The story continues comes to the girl's : " The third day the young says that he is man home and going to dig a big all shamba for her. while the be noticed that.' He says to the girl. and he father. in-law. women retire into the hut. and his mother puts grass on the top.' have finished drinking. The bridegroom does not come near her. and go and ask the father's leaveThe girl is in the house.130 BETROTHAL AND MARRIAGE three. or. the bridegroom's family are all through in their very proper places as the obliged parties. The young men's it will teetotal principles are altogether admirable. and they go and to be dig a big plot. He need not ask any one where it is except his own The girl goes and sees the shamba. as many as four sheep are brought for the feast. we feel ourselves entirely at home. When all is ready the girl is out walking. and when all is ready the young man and his two friends take some beer. and the mother and her friends having a little extra refreshment. AVhy did you not come to see the shamba ? and she says. and the two friends of the bridegroom seize her and carry her off to the new hut. ' ' ' ' He ' ' . When the scene closes after the departure of the guests. or working in the shamba.' see the girl. but does not go anywhere near the hut of her future motherShe sees the shamba that it is a beautifully big one.' Did you and she says. He has got ready ' a beautifully big shamba. No. The mother-in-law says to his mother. the father taking his particular friend to see the live stock. gets his friends. Yes. so that they may not see the men eat meat. and she comes back and tells her mother. and she makes much noise. but sleeps in his father's house. if Sometimes the family is wealthy. She weeps four days. and the girl's friends bring her food. according to etiquette.

large hand-wrought neck iron is two goats. the duty falls to the daughter by the bridegroom's friends. and it was subsequently stated. If he is wealthy this is made by hand by the native smithy if not. If the mother is dead. of the arum lily plant. These it is the especial duty of her mother to provide. and makes a noise in the house of her mother. entering. " even if she had been to see the shamba. not in the If there are already one or is more wives which the bride ground. a half to three acres. so that each wife .MARRIAGE Tarings her fat. she would tell the young man she had not. is. and she goes to her mother's house and stays three hours. " like a porter's ." The it size of the ground prepared for the bride Productivity is is one and size. Afterwards he gives the remaining ten goats to her father. Then the two friends go back with her and leave her. trade wire has to suffice. She and the girl go down together to the riverside to select readjusted. and her father has to inspect and pass as satisfactory. 131 and she puts it on her head. xcvii. and two girl friends of the bridegroom accompany her. from the foregoing narrative a certain amount of customary modesty connected with a girl's first visit to her future domain. the criterion. no doubt. an interesting survival of marriage by capture. and one more." The only further contribution to the new establishment on the part of the bride's family are the hearth-stones. the whole of homestead the shambas are may have a share in the new The father's wedding present is two hundred roots He also gives her the iron collar worn Pis. and the bridegroom comes and sleeps in the hut. them. Her state of mind must be somewhat nervous when she knows that all preliminaries are accomplished and any The absolute seizure of the bride moment her captors may appear to bear her off. by women. The value of There is evidently s. herself.

looked on unsympathetically. of course. sixteen years or possibly more. and were. About three o'clock a great noise was to be heard. I sat seemed down on a log As it under the eaves of another hut with one of the mothers of the off establishment. and was followed by twa girls whom I had not before noticed these last were turned out in gala fashion. and conversed on the event of the day.dorned with fat and red ochre. but a bevy of other girls. in ordinary Avork-a-day attire. I found myself at a little homestead under the hill in time to have a good view of the returning bride. Her struggles and cries. Presently the girl. She had sobbed herself into an absolutely hysterical condition. I was told. who. A bunch of leaves did its usual duty as a pocket-handkerchief. each hold one of the hands of the bride on her return journey. had been to the camp in the morning for a chat. There was no large concourse of neighbours. as conventional as the tears of the early Vic- torian bride. who acts as chief under the present regime. the relations of the bridegroom. been carried four days before. still sobbing noisily. The and ^ It need hardly be said that the tears of a Kiki'iyu girl can also on occasion be very genuine.1 132 load. heroine had. was fortunate enough to see the first visit ol a bride to her The leading lady of the district. who had just arrived. . She was a well-grown girl of about I old home. are. according to subsequent information. her dress and hair freshly o. Wan'-gu. very smartly turned out. and that she can clearly explain they are such. . went into the hut with her mother and some friends. Following the sounds as quickly as I could. I presume. somewhat after the manner of the bride. and v/as being held very tenderly by her mother and one of the other mothers of the homestead. and had mentioned that this local event might be expected during the day." as one MARRIAGE woman described it. better not to intrude on the family party. and people seen running over a hillside a short distance away.

we were told. not merely a question of domestic arrangement. woman tremely preferred to have her husband to herself. there were many goats. for a few hours with - the fat used for her adornment had been a present on the third day from her husband's mother. The bride was much pleased with her new house. The child might. for to eat sheep. and been told that the son-in-law had brought the drink to the house of his mother-in-law. was being held at the nev/ home of a girl who had married to another district. and was connected with the birth of her child. be any age. and lived at a little distance. girl friends. . cried on the bed ever since. The daughter had married about a year before. but she and the child had not come over to the festivity. I families continue social intercourse after the mar- have seen about twenty men drinking native beer outside a hut. in proper manner. The two riage. She was the first wife. the camp arrangement had to be younger men of the district had gone away in this instance. despite of these rosy prospects. The party. who would continue similar gifts for about two months. ventional howling continued inside the hut. but of The poverty stricken condition of the " rich " white interest. but such an entertainment would not be given unless one had been born. attended by . Polygamy Polygamy It is is of course an integral part of the tribal system.POLYGAMY had. and that the women were also enjoying it inside the hut. flat. up till the time I left." ex- Munge assured us. it was a most satisfactory marriage. On another occasion some all given up. social organisation. man in respect of wives aroused unfailing " that a white fell My husband's attempted explanation. 133 She had now come back." " Exactly an opposite view. and the bridegroom was charming The conaltogether. her mother .

ready. if they teach such nonsense they it is difficult On the other hand. " The missionaries. if it and her is child is any case regarded even should have been actually born after that of a later wife.134 as POLYGAMY sat we round the camp fire. . Two or three wives is a fairly ordinary allowance." how polygamy can . " tell us that a man should have only one wife . and independent establishment. and the fact that each wife has her own hut. She usually about the same age as her husband siderably younger than he is is. " obtained among the best ' The first wife would soon say. Why have I to do all the work why do you not buy another wife ? " The opinions of his spouse on the same lines have been already people in Kiktiyu. the greatest difficulty in the way of the spread of the Christian religion. the man's later wives are con- and the older he grows the more and his latest acquisition." according to one M'kikuyu in our employ. There gamy is. ' quoted. " If. but I have never heard of such. as the eldest. . places the whole on the footing of a village under one head man. . shamba. who perform a useful office sign of poverty. but this is by force of circumstance. It is impossible to suppose that there are no heartburnings and jealousies in a homestead. very easy for many. is no doubt that the endeavour to establish monoand will be. while the rich man has six or seven. and is a difference there in age between himself ." The in first wife also retains her pre-eminence. Sentiment and prestige are thus on the side of being an early comer in the matrimonial establishment on the other hand. in looking after his interests in various parts of the country. a person of considerable influence. some girls of a practical turn of mind prefer to marry older and richer men." she said. " there is much food it is or drink to get it is very hard work for one. It is quite usual to come across a man with only one wife many such exist. The chief Karuri is said to have as many as sixty. to see may as well go away.

and the usual killing of a goat and drinking of native beer form part of a prescription which is said to be efficacious. not only does she suffer in her natural affection. with a request to "come and see. Children are much valued amongst them. and made full inquiries as to their occupants. no doubt. as the children working in the The girls may be and the little boys away herding the goats.CHILDREN British conquest.^ said to be a cure for sterility. The childless woman. and neither of us have ever seen a woman or child ill-treated. I visited the huts. The inquiry is poUtely waived. . 253. My next plan of campaign was hardly more successful. but not from the point of view of statistics. with regard to the The natural method of conversing with the mothers as to the number of their children is soon found to be. It is difficult to arrive at figures. is one of those given to the Medicine- Man on his initiation. is much to be pitied . The young and growing family was of 1 See p. approximately correct. as amongst all primitive people. ever. and such it investigations as has been possible to make confirm the natural anticipation that the births in each sex are fairly equal. a tactless proceeding. if fulfils the purpose. a sentiment similar. in It is considered most unlucky to give felt such figures. fields. to the aversion Old Testament days to the numbering of the people. into touch with the lives of the people. to say the least. The medicine known as gon'-du. 135 permanently exist under the new conditions caused by the Tribal war has been suppressed. usually entering them myself to count the beds in This district visiting was of the greatest value in coming use. Children The Akikuyu are a prolific race. assembled at one time." This naturally by no means are rarely. Recourse is had to the Medicine-man. but loses in the favour of her husband. even size of the famihes.

the 35 give a total of 132 children. A family means in every case the children borne by one wife only. or another have only reliable to the returns from three sufficiently The method upon had the advantage of giving the greatest result for the least labour. be included in the following finally hit . incomplete. as erring on the side of under. it did not seem to affect those Kikuyu boys who were continually in touch with These answered readily any questions as to the number us. 15 girls total. young children only. of their father's wives. 156. be relied on. I think. while of the older and completed ones. The obvious drawback is that the statements are probably incomplete. and had died young. total. sex unstated. but for one reason figures. and seemed to have a good acquaintance with their relations. If these figures are subtracted. 24. Only 13 children v/ere reported as having died young. and in no way pretend to scientific accuracy. Forty-nine families were reported as having in 75 girls. . I visited some forty-six huts in this felt manner. 6 all : 75 boys. still Fourteen of these families were presumably i. or a fraction under 4 children per family. and the boys were not unfrequently reported as at work at Nairobi. therefore. and their respective children. statement. they may. These comremaining families 9 boys. The objection to giving family statistics was discovered not to be in force amongst other members than the parents at any rate. comprised a first child or very avIio two were those prised : of mothers .136 little CHILDREN use for my purpose . and this would certainly be the case with children who had died in early infancy. Those with v/hom they were not well acquainted would most likely escape their memory. are given for such interest as they may possess. and not of over.e. The figures. On the other hand. for the reasons given. the girls were married and had homes of their own. their grandfather's wives.

O CI- X .

Ku 136 b Woman .u-A(. phot. A Mn)i)i. xcviii 1'. 1 S.Pl. h'.

she can you the way to almost anywhere. and the amount wisdom. has something uncanny and old persons could probably " make medicine " and work havoc were they so inclined. and alone weathered of it was very pathetic. whether in man or woman. several recently married. 21 children. or the reputation for it. on the whole. as against 138 per thousand in England. and which is obviously of no value. who stated that his mother had borne 14 children. of whom had died in infancy. The 3 size of the families was. sex unstated." tion. but the average is raised by two One that of the chief N'duini. the only sur8 the remaining having died of starvation during a great famine. There are no such disadvantages of in a stationary existence. When i8 her first-born is initiated into the tribe a woman . was that vivor of of the family of 9. very uniform cases. I believe to for Munge's family. as the sharp boy of the family." says Sutro in one of his plays. one of our retainers. 4 which be the most accurate. Old age about it. his emotion as he spoke man. "is tell a policeman in Piccadilly. liable to alter in the course of a lifetime. The other to 5 children each. 5 of whom were boys. Old Women "A woman like of fifty. show for ten wives. 3 girls. He. It must be admitted that part of the deference paid to advancing years. and the remaining 6. is due to fear. which can be accumulated is in half a century prodigious. Only two instances were given of childless marriage. metaphorically at any rate.: OLD WOMEN The returns 137 a return which would give a death-rate of only about 84 per thousand. had been the storm in service with a white . Unfortunately in a progressive civihsa- the ways from Piccadilly are.

where she reigns with much capacity. was asked what would happen if the respective parts of the committee " The old ladies. though one who is alluded to hereafter described herself as the " wife of God. Under certain circumstances. anoints with anoints the candidates for initiation (male and female) with " ira. Wombugu's men and five who gave an animated account which he had just witnessed. but from the chief Munge would not allow his senior wife to a man wear these particular copper earrings. the new relegated to a committee of elders. The women do not take part in the sacrifices to God. termed " ki-chan'-ga." he added emphatically. oil. becomes entitled to the dignified appellation of " Mu-te-mi-a. .138 OLD WOMEN shaves her head entirely and permanently. "it is a great work to have borne a child. that she has bought her husband another wife. is A man The women call remarkable. " Avould have their disagreed. to her position by dressing exceedingly well. way. ." as they do not take part in the judicial councils but in one instance the head chief. such as when the chief site for Wombugu hut is married a new wife. Karuri. has appointed a woman to be his lieutenant in a certain district. because." A young warrior is taught to get out of this function. five women." and seems to have established a sort of cult. The mothers in Kikuyu in ritual also take their full share observances connected with initiation. of the road for an old woman." The only reluctance I have seen to increasing age came not from a woman. probably with truth. and diplomatically adds prestige . sonage of She appears to have been a perconsiderable character. "because he did not There are not precisely "votes for like to feel so old. the choice of a brother. braving without a qualm the scores of porters. It is said." and puts on copper earrings." he replied." an old woman follows and self-reliance and dignity of the older Such an one will come to pay a formal at the camp." women.

" she then " filled with intelligence. " so old that she has no teeth. in its greatest length. little Women boy runs about as nature made him. and sentry on guard to converse through an interpreter with a foreigner. as Browning is tells reserved for the When woman very old. The a is best. On two occasions. The top edge of this garment is straight. and then gradually diminishes in breadth. in different districts. chiefs One of these besought me to pitch my camp nearer to his homestead. a proceeding which would surely strike fear into the bosom many a middle-aged us. as to "he would not like a white woman who was visiting him be eaten by a lion.. and come up once or twice daily to see that things were going well and I was in need of nothing.. The upper part of the body is protected by a cloak (n'gu-o) 47 in. It is perhaps fair to say that these were women is of social position." a sentiment. DRESS OF WOMEN of 139 Swahili servants. such as milk or firewood. endorsed visitor. 41 in. female at home. by 21 in." burial. but the never seen without a leather apron (mwan'- little girl is In addition to this indispensable garment there is worn a petticoat (mu-zu-ru) 24 in. oblong in form and somewhat pointed at the end of the lower corners it is fastened by strings round the waist. in width. by the Dress of The smallest go). last. the lower half being oval in form. Can respect go further ? A when tribute is due to the chivalry shown by Kikiiyu chiefs to a white I woman. which he could supply. instead and on her death of being receives the high honour of put out for the hyenas to devour. the neighbouring potentate me under his care. has taken have been alone in camp. and is worn . needless to say. This is also tied.

and is very generally. save for one small tuft at the back. . or over both. These are bought in the markets for pice (= 1 farthing) each. passed through the hole. and the ambition of the women is to have 32 in each ear.140 DRESS OF way which WOMEN fancy of the wearer. All girls at their initiation wear the becoming brow band of till beads and shell disks. definite association The ornaments. is . is A bead is frequently strung before the thread sinew. with more life. at When work it is sometimes abandoned altogether. armlets. . the sign woman with an initiated child. These are the necklace. usually the betrothal present commonly the wedding present of the father of a and the of beads spiral copper ear-rings. ill-health. such as is occasionally seen covered with hair. peculiar to women are large circles of beads fastened in the upper part of the 1 ear. worn up the time of marriage. 5. Fig. With advancing custom ordains that even this shall disappear. and most of the ear ornaments are to those worn by the men but a form of ear-ring girdle The method The similar PI. or less with particular epochs in the collar of iron. although not universally. . anklets. A woman shaves her head entirely. either over one shoulder and under the arm. The thread to is of fibre or Elaborate hairdressing is left the men. ci. it is in a woman a sign of under which condition it is considered beneficial to allow to attain its natural length. years. till it was found that it was A head directed to the unshaven head of the white woman. have been first already alluded to. and shown in illustration. This ornament indicates maidenhood. Sewing is done by means of a straight awl and pointed thread. It appears to be worn for warmth and not with any idea of concealing the figure. made of wearing. or suits the indeed in any PL XXXV. It has been difficult to understand the rapt gaze of visitors to the camp. and worn by all women.

whilst the thumb is opposed to them in The little finger rests on the work to steady the front. ill in. well-rounded corners. maximum width.) Aborigines of Porto this tool Rico. made ic.Fl. In use the first. Length. Plate stone as a prehistoric Porto Rican XXX 140 a . It is also the appertains to women exclusively. xcviii Brit. (Fevvkes. in Washington. 3^ in. illustrates. . exactly. Formed end is of a thin sheet of folded over as shown. [AM Nat. ^vith Weight. and third fingers are placed behind the tool.07. Mus. size Razor Employed \vork (Ku-en'-ji. second. I oz. The upper The lower border is curved. object. This in shaving the head of both sexes. hand. and rubbed to a keen edge. instrument emploved in performing the rite of circumcision on women. apparentl)'. hammered iron.

Q 4 o > A 140 b .

/-/. Fl. its is attached. PI. ci. do. . C Wives Wanang'a. do. Length of girdle = 28^ Another specimen = 30 in.v. Fig. the few equivalent of money.] . II'. On lowest central row are threaded odd component parts from other articles of ornament. 4. A'. of To the lower border another girdle. shown little on a large scale. Cf. do. I he apron. 2. do. 1 he skirt. OUR Faithful Kikuyu One of the oi- Headman Shows : The girdle (mu-ni-or'-o wa the it is i-ti'-na) way in and which worn. in.— PL. F~ig. [/?. xcix. a bag to contain a beads.-/ B/i/.. Cf. Mus.

such invariably worn by every female. 160 b). of the wire keeps each The diameter For these ear-rin^is in of each hoop is 3I in. 5. 24 in. and jingle together like sleigh-bells. I. wire. one in front and one behind. . wear see PI. . X 4^ . The spring its fellow. Made of very small is beads threaded on fine Each end of the wire turned back to form a hook. — the Size. initiatory The terminals of the fringe of i and 2 are ma-hun'-gu claws of the ant-bear. 3.. p. but the more usual number. 9 X loi in. Size. of leather tape. . including claws. . 4.. . 2. xcvii. Thirtv hoops weigh exactl}' 4 oz. 1^ in. an ornament worn by prior to the initiated women.. and by when dancing ceremony (see PI. p. 3 to 4 in. fringe. -• 3. 140 c. cxi. by means of a strap round the waist. . 7^ X 85 in. i4od . 3 in.. c. . fifteen is hook straining against About thirty may be worn in one ear. Two are worn. 6 8 X 5! in. \ery thin sheepskin leather apron (mwan'-go). They are usually kept hung up in the mother's house as an ornament. in. .. being thin and hollow. Ear-rings (lu-hang-i) worn in the cartilage of the ear by women. Women Examples of the girls ri'-ra.. as is Length See PI.PLATE CI Dress and Ornament of I. They are very light.

[/?.] 140 e .PL. Mus. CI Brit.

2 in. in each specimen. deep it is equal length throughout. if. and terminated by a concavo-convex disc of bone. The intermediate cords no terminal. through which pass the threads (made of bark) on which the rows of beads are The ends of the threads are then brought together strung. are of milk-white beads. 1^0 f . pierced with holes. and elsewhere. p. Accuracy of fit is obtained by straining on cords essential for use. and afterwards until they are married. The top row. and this is (d) through leather piece For use see PI. and whipped id). forty-four. beads . i^. below (c-c). of The fringe in all specimens is about 3 in. fifty-two. at point a. fifty. in all specimens. . the next. Each consists of a strip of thick leather (c-c). The nine rows means point h. xcvi. which varies from the size of a sixpence to that of a shilling. as a fine black line. long. consists of white of blue beads. Every alternate cord is of chain. and every alternate row. ig. is composed of white beads exclusively. I24g. The numbers of separate cords constituting the fringe are respectively fiftv-nine. one specimen of eleven rows. The whole area marked a a a a. of a lacing that are retained in position as a flat band by is indicated. with of The length of each headband is 18 in. aha. Each row beads of headband is very slightly shorter than the one it. The following description is taken from four specimens.PLATE Headband CI I (Mu-ni-or'-o \va mu-tu'-ij Worn by girls at the ceremony of their initiation. Three specimens consist of nine rows of beads.

CII 'iPZ-'..£. [i?.PL. A/us.-<_*Sl.- w.#»lLJ^T|^V^.] 140 g ."Bit''t*-»i-.'» ^' •"' Brit.w.

Dancinc Drkss woman specially decorated with banana leaves for the initiation festival. cm IV S. and bearing in her left hand a length of bamboo. 140 h A . h\ phot.Fl. which she is privileged to have for the day on this one occasion only. rushes about the ground brandishing her husband's club. which she uses as a horn immediately before From time to time she posturing in a peculiar manner.

of a big to her becoming an exceedingly short skirt made of an Italian ballerina. mother of young children she addressed and referred to as MVa-na-mii-ke. A is betrothed or married.. Wa-bai Mu-Ti-Mi'-A I-he'-ti . .. a dress women. A toothless old woman. A small girl. The mother of one or more : initiated children. however. not yet a mother.. A big girl not yet initiated. A woman. On woman may add the occasion.. It is not unusual to see a woman with her abdomen adorned by a pattern formed of small raised scars. much foot gear. These are made by small cuts. „ after initiation.. which are artificially irritated. No female wears any sort of head or like that of and decorous banana leaf.— DRESS OF clothing of the WOMEN 141 Ordinary dancing does not demand any variation in the dance. The following terms are employed Ka-re'-go Ki-R]6-GU in speaking of women : Moi-re'-tu Mu-Hi'-Ki ..

as will be seen. serious to contemplate 142 when They when there are to be con- . somewhat depresslife appears at last to have been reached. is held in immense respect amongst the Akikuyu. is. even the testator has only one family to take into account. lives in precisely similar quarters to the One would imagine the endless acquisition of wives would pall. that after o£E death a wealthy man will be somehow better than his more indigent brother. Amongst themselves the man who can add goat to goat and wife to wife. The prestige of the European goes up enormously with each tent added to his possessions. or to indulge expensive tastes. It is even thought. and useful to defray the costs of illness. in savage not than in civilised society. for purposes of travel. is deemed fortunate and happy the poor man is looked upon with that pity which is akin to a manner which when the ideal simple contempt. and quite the usual interest attends the testament. is However this may be. The object of such accumulation on the part of the native is not very patent to the European. and while a number of goats are no doubt enjoyed for food. as possibly at times elsewhere. by no means an unmitigated source of sorrow. the richest chief poorest man. there is obviously a limit to what one man can use.. it must be confessed. the death of a rich relation in Eakuyu. With one or two exceptions. The become difficulties of will-making are proverbial. and the value of the various mounts of the white men in the district are most carefully compared. INHERITANCE Wealth in ing. in the cases of those who have come under white man's influence. No M'kikuyu wants riches to alter his manner of life. The solution may perhaps be found in the fact of the influence which less is brought by wealth.

143 sidered the claims of three. There is no odium three wives not to . on the other hand. the claims of minors and women may be. unwise to assume that because property inherited is said to have been by such and such an individual. and goats by custom to the custody of the heir-at-law. It is well to bear in mind the fact that in an uncivilised community. He inpasses herits all his father's widows. of famiUes. Translate " real " and " personal " by shambas and goats. If the eldest son is an adult he takes possession of the property. he is necessarily absolute owner his rights may very possibly be only those of immediate benefit with responsibilities attached. shambas. Meum and tuum are . and in their presence . — but only takes as his wives any if in excess of three. The whole of the estate women. but any children born are reckoned as of the family to which she . are about the same age as the heir. Possession must therefore pass to an adult. At the same time. or ten prospective widows. comprising children of every Property. attached to a widow preferring to live Avith another man. and we have a comprehensive catalogue of possessions to this. therefore. rights of property can only exist where they can be enforced by the strong arm. He has theoretically absolute power of appointment in practice. and his ultimate position that of trustee. is a simple matter. wives should perhaps be added. and are. though they occupy a position . and it is An old man on his deathbed old men. safeguarded by custom. his bequests are largely dictated by custom.— INHERITANCE and the same number age. It customary for a man who has married add to their number till his eldest born has been received into the tribe the younger wives. and these only is they have not borne more than one child. six. naturally less clearly defined in primitive than in civilised society. calls for his family and the makes the final division of the goods. apart.

for she makes a noise. " If According to one hypothetical a man dies leaving four wives. In the same way it is usual for a widow to be given the goats which live in her hut. This diminution of the size of a woman's plot coincides with the decrease of the claims upon her and of her power to work. . She has the aid of her daughters till they marry but as her sons grow up and bring wives. A less favoured wife would not be disinherited. to take ten goats and go. that . Any son buying a second wife would procure an outside shamba.144 INHERITANCE and the father could not claim the marli not. she surrenders part to her daughtersThus if a woman has three sons. of the property by him on behalf of by the will of his father. . In addition to this a portion can be " settled. the shamba may be in-law. He does not like the last. the wife receives a small share of Uve stock. but might be given a smaller share. however. in which personal preference plays a part. The position of the eldest son does is primogeniture in our present sense of the word. for the three daughters-in-law and held division is The bulk the family. say of the personal property five. But with regard to both shambas and goats there is a definite power of appointment on the part of a testator. divided into four divisions. take fifteen goats to two others. the younger " He " in the end the same share as the eldest. and its largely dictated . in trust for her children if they are minors. but any one not behaving themto ask the elder brother selves." If the children are grown-up. he may say to . On the mother's death her share falls into hotch-pot. son receiving (the testator) "would give ten goats to the younger sons. and tell them when they want meat or fat or dowries for wives. the principal wife. for any daughter by such a connection. ten and to the youngest. eight. the mother respectively." that is to say. example." As a general rule each widow retains possession of her former shamba and cultivates it on behalf of her family. convey legitimately belongs.

would be looked upon as a as tied-up capital. . no compulsion to take up such matrimonial disliked. and in the majority of . his wives and property pass to his brother or brothers. statement. but the will of the only to those who are younger than himself deceased decides whether they shall all go to one. and share with the younger brother the marh for any girl child who might be born to her. No man would refuse the obligation. if it is The widow may return home if or live with is another man but. when it would of appear as if the mother. own brothers the marli should go.^ The Girl who cut the Hair of the N'jenge girl herself. The property is by the family of the deceased as they come 1 p. (" There is a curious passage in one of the folk tales "). as in the former case. This custom secures that no woman shall be left without a legitimate protector. that killed. on pain of his dying curse. . or the had the option deciding to which of her If. on the other hand. however. or to several The idea is presumably younger brothers respectively. the elder brother of her late husband would offer sacrifice for her in case of illness. instances the woman apparently falls in with the arrangement. The price for a girl whose father is not living. There is. where the children are minors. and of the goats. robbery. of the shambas which they cultivate. if by another wife. The younger brother. with the wives.INHERITANCE such or such a female animal shall be its life 145 the testator expressly forbids. life. It then remains and only its descendants during can be used. that a younger man is better qualified to undertake such serious responsibility than are his seniors. 321. a child born it is the property of the late husband's family. a man dies leaving only infant children. goes to her brother by the same mother for the eldest son to appropriate it. where a According to one widow resides independently. but owns as is it no doubt only in the same conditional manner the case definitely claimed when the heir is an adult son. also take possession. ^9 .

An interesting light is thrown on Kikuyu ideas of ownership in the case of an action for trespass. Theoretically. . of goats to be surrendered hear that there are often protracted lawsuits over the number when the children come of age. the mothers meanwhile keeping a watchful eye over the heritage of their offspring. these are acknowledged. women perty. his mother and wives could claim the shambas. are said to have no rights of pro. quoted hereafter. 212. In the case of a man having no children and no relations.146 INHERITANCE It is not surprising to to maturity. 1 p. as has been shown. unless possibly in the case of extremely old ladies practically.^ The shamba was termed indifferently that of the boy or his mother. and it would no doubt have been equally correct to speak of it as belonging to the mother's legitimate protector.

and on the top the placenta the whole is then covered ^vith more grass and grain strewn around. place and the woman is shaved but childbirth does not amount to " tha-hu " or ceremonial uncleanness. and there is a feast. and some grain (u-gim'-bi) strewn on the ground grass is cut and placed over this. and no Medicine-man is The women eat together in the evening. The mother's first visit to the shamba. and all over by the attendants. 2 p. On the fourth or fifth day respectively. custom ordaining that she shall gather arum lily The shaving of the roots first and then sweet potatoes. however. may be seen sitting or taking short strolls outside. The child on its birth is washed and oiled The father is not present.^ The placenta is carried out into uncultivated land. 197. The statement may be connected with the called in.SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIES CUSTOMS AT BIRTH The customs connected with of use childbirth are those rather than ritual. and five no one is allowed to enter except days after that of a boy the immediate women friends or attendants. The mother. purification takes . It is said that six days prior to the con- finement the mother feeds on flour and milk only. . after which the daily round is resumed. which is the sign of his exaltation to the ^ official rank of Mo-ran'-ja. next day the father regulation shaving after the birth of the second child. is laid — . seems to be somewhat of a function. The hut is placed in seclusion for four days after the birth of a girl. but this is generally denied. 147 . placed varyingly on the day of the purification or the day of the feast. The kills a sheep. avoiding meat and vegetables.^ does not see the child for a day or two. father on the sixth day has been reported.

148 CUSTOMS AT BIRTH One Friday. one of them was seen to be closed. not of . shaved after the usual manner. I was informed that the midwives would come back . given without the skin . when visiting as usual among the huts. was brought out for my inspection. Returning to the same spot on the following Sunday. I again visited the hut about two o'clock in the afternoon. and washed themselves all over with leaves and hands. wife. its parents as a whole. it The mother finally came the out. this tuft is On worn smaller. Like many older members of a profession. It was unlucky to admire the infant. third child. wetted her head. a small. On Tuesday." I had some conversation with the elder mid- the shade. " as their work was finished. but. They brought water in a gourd. for the only time in woman out walking near the my experience. The next performance was a great cleansing of the hut. having been taken in for the purpose. if at a distance. so I took refuge in inquiries regarding it was a boy. leaving the little tuft at the back. I found the hut. An enormous accumulation of refuse was swept out. bunches of leaves tied together. pale-brown personage. and is learnt that the fee for a successful birth it is is one goat. that added. This depends the birth of a little apparently on custom or family fashion. leaving the centre piece subsequently to grow again. permission to enter the house was firmly refused. etc. carry water. I Avas told. This ended the drama. If she resides near. I sat outside and waited while the attendants went in. however. its name following information received. in progress. including many banana and had skins. but of that of the palms of their hands and soles of their feet. she viewed with suspicion the effort of its younger recruits. and I was told that a birth had just taken place. and named M'ganda. The baby. Some women have head entirely shaved after the birth of a first child. also a young girl to wait on them. and found two midwives busy outside the hut. The function of washing the mother and child was.

they are the first-born children they are both killed. If the child will not take its mother's milk satisfactorily. seen in the folk story. so strong. but no messenger arrived. Dr. As this applies to the children of each wife in turn. . a sheep is killed at once to bring about the result. those of the father's parents. . there are various boys in the homestead as is all bearing the name of the paternal grandfather. go next day and get the sheep for the to arrange to be told I endeavoured when the festival was taking place." and by nicknames. is the feeling against a stranger entering the hut at such a time. Crawford informs me that he was sent for once to a confinement where the woman was dangerously ill. as If among various other races. The custom. Twins. firstly. and then those of the mother's parents according to sex. 149 and that the husband would feast. or possibly sometimes only the last one. and found that she had been brought outside the hut and placed on a skin on the ground. instead of waiting for the feast after purification. The same apphes its to an iirst. apparently. and circumstances prevented another visit. 315. each called is made by prefixes such as curious and disappointing to find amongst a people where children are valued and loved that infanticide exists is to a certain degree.CUSTOMS AT BIRTH and have food late that evening. and one or infant born feet all are killed. Subsequent children are named after friends and relations. where " M'wam-bi-a. A child 1 which cuts upper teeth p. child is named immediately on birth according to • The names given to the successive children of a family are. are considered unlucky. Triplets are also unlucky. The idea is that they prevent a woman bearing again if they come later in the family the prejudice does not exist. without regard to their position in a family. we have two sons." "big " It and ^ Distinction " little.

An ill-omened child is either suffocated by the mother or is put out in the fallow land. 150 first CUSTOMS AT BIRTH may be killed. and the next puts wristlets on the child. ceremony is reported to take place when a child is very which is connected with the acknowledgment of its nationality. washes it. but are given two gourds to go and get water. and the midwife comes out and takes the contents of the stomach in her two hands. The father kills a sheep one day. cutting two small pieces If of flesh from young sheep. one leg. A his friends eat the rest. or the father may make an offering in its stead. and eat together inside and outside the hut. All the relations bring food. a sheep at once. allows it to remain there. the father kills a child touches the ground at birth. and the skin. which is reached when he is perhaps He then receives. " which becomes an M'kikuyu. father of a sheep. small. and pricked a foot and blood came. The father rewards each child with a leg of the sheep. either from the same homestead or another they do not come into the house. The first marked stage in a boy's life is when he is old enough to mind the goats. and gives it to its mother." The same day. of which he gives to his mother the belly. but this is optional. . and the boy and . and also with the resumption of matrimonial life by the parents. it would bring bad luck. and puts the same on its forehead and lips.. for if they walked abroad. a present from his five years old. which they bring to the house. and throwing them away. and while the infant is on the ground anoints its stomach and chest then takes it up. about six years old. and grass placed in its mouth and nostrils. are procured. and they remain that day in the village. two children. In some cases the mother gives the child a necklace on the occasion. to his father the head. The gourd must be held upright with especial care. it is said.

their place alongside of the Afterwards trouble took place on account of mere boys wishing to take young men and maintaining they were justified in doing so. Until an M'kikuyu is born again he is not capable of assisting in the disposal of his father's body after death. prevailing in all their clans. No amount The greatest reluctance to talk about the ceremony. but this was also a Word was brought It is back. it was deemed." 1 : Since writing the above Mr. At one time the new birth was combined with circumcision. nor of carrying him out into the wilds immediately before decease. but this. kindly supplied the following information on the subject Girls go through the rite of second birth as well as boys. It is sometimes administered to infants. McGregor has. failure. would bring immediate rite. death to the individual administering the genuine attempt was arrange for its An as a apparently made by one of our native retainers to celebration. woman. The old men then settled the matter by separating the two. . Unless the new birth has been administered the individual is not in a position to be admitted to circumcision. My husband suggested being allowed to go through the ceremony himself. of bribery or use of personal influence prevailed to permit either of us to witness it. nor take any part in the religious rites of the country. and to enable me. which is the outward sign of admittance to the nation. Any who have not gone through the rite cannot inherit property. in answer to questions. but is apparently generally about ten years or younger. " It was not the custom for strangers to take part. to be present. and so the ceremony admitted to the privileges and religious rites of the tribe. It is one of the oldest customs.— THE CEREMONY OF THE SECOND BIRTH To BE Born Again (ko-chi-a-ri5-o ke-ri) or To be Born of a Goat (K0-CHI-A-BE-I-Rt5-0 m'b6r-I) of The symbolical second birth is perhaps the most mysterious Kikuyu rites. and universal amongst them.^ was shown in almost every case and the knowledge of its existence is owed to natives who have freed themselves from tradition and come under the influence of Christianity. The age varies with the ability of the father to provide the necessary goat.

. If the father is dead another elder is called in to act as proxy in his stead. It will 152 not possible. and the stomach and intestines The ceremony begins in the evening. On the second day the boy stays with his mother in the homestead. The mother with the boy between her knees. and the relatives and friends come to a feast in the evening. by father and mother. After all is over the hut is swept out. to act in her place. all The women present applaud. groans as in labour. but no native beer is drunk. and that night the boy. : woman mother. or if the mother is not living another form part of the ceremonies as at a real birth. and afterwards the assistant and the mother wash That night the boy sleeps in the same hut as the mother.— THE SECOND BIRTH different sources. under the other arm. No men are allowed inside the hut. the sweeping out of the hut. but not his clothes. the father sleeps in the hut also. A piece of skin is cut in a circle." district of The other account was given us by an M'kikuyu from the Munge. was as follows " A day is appointed. an M'kikuyu from the Nairobi district. The boy again sleeps in the mother's hut. The stomach of the goat is similarly treated and passed over the other shoulder and one. round the woman and brought in front of the boy. On the third day food is brought. therefore. is Any woman thus acting as re- presentative looked upon in future by the boy as his is own A goat or sheep killed in the afternoon by any by the father. but sits women are present. any time of year. Crawford. to do more than copy the notes derived from two to the be observed that the shaving of the mother. usually not reserved. All the boy's ornaments are removed. another on a hide on the floor The sheep's gut is passed cuts the gut. woman The woman and the boy imitates the cry of a new-born infant. all and a formal visit shamba The account given by a servant of Dr. and passed over one shoulder of the candidate and under the other arm.

The women go inside. 20 . his mother. On the second day the skin of the goat is prepared. a goat mother on the ground. who " is old enough to be of intelligence eats the goat. After this is over both mother and boy are washed. had given him a bangle when he began to herd the goats before that he had only a necklace and beads from . but no man. but the child is stripped naked. a child is old enough to is killed the child sits in front of the An old it woman ties the string cuts in front of the child. " On the third day the mother shaves. he said. sugar-cane is cut and brought into the house. nothing else.THE SECOND BIRTH *' 153 When . Every one the father. describing the ceremony much as given above. but not the child. On the fourth day native beer of drunk. even of its ornaments it is not dressed up in any way. mind the goats. . of the goat behind the mother and It is folded up in grass and put outside the hut. but he would be so in about two years." One small boy about seven years told us that he had not yet been born again. not even The mother wears clothes. His father. They both go " into the garden and get arum is roots.

with complicated ritual. as he explained to us. it was impossible to persuade him to put it off. he can part in only do as the father of a circumcised child. and the elders now told him that if he failed to appear on the approaching occasion. he had already done so once or more. the father being unable to make the necessary payments for the presentation of a child. on availing himself of his right to take his seat amongst Kiama. 198. for admission means. By the rite of circumcision. On the other hand. especially in the case of the eldest or two eldest children. considerable expense to the family. In the case of one of our own retainers who came to say that he wanted to leave our service in order to begin the course of preliminary dancing that precedes the ceremony. because. the father to give presents to the Pp. with Kikuyu parents to its accompanying and obligations.THE CEREMONIES ON INITIATION INTO THE TRIBE The festivals and rites death hold but a small place in Kikiiyu imagination to that greatest of all and compared ceremonies whereby the boy becomes a associated with both marriage man and its the girl a woman. each individual passes f^om the con- dition of simply being the property of that of a member of the Kikuyu nation. privileges. 154 . The age at which the young people go through the ceremony It may be delayed for two or three years by varies greatly. 199. until a admitted her father cannot get those thirty sleek goats that he has seen in his mind's eye for many a year being handed over to him on his daughter's marriage. Custom obliges official classes. various presents to be given to those There are also formally who have taken girl is the ceremony. directly and rights. one goat to this the N'jama and two goats to the Kiama. indirectly.

and seniority amongst men a name is given to is decided by the date of their initiation each successive celebration.e. Very rarely indeed a girl of eighteen or more may be seen with her head covered with the hair of of being shaved in the special its natural length. 12. that year are differentiated from their predecessors. arms." i. and public assemblies. and therefore cannot be given in marriage. singing a particular song. . of age. and spends the whole of his time in going about the countryside to the different homesteads. by which those who are admitted . and to permit the hair to grow is considered to have a benethat way Under the circumstances she cannot come up In for the rite. and bodies in little groups of twos and threes. At first the lads begin by practising certain stereotyped movements of legs. and girls when from ten or twelve to fifteen years ficial effect. p. Cf. 155 they would not permit him to come up for admission in that The age at which a girl is to be initiated is settled at a formal interview between the father and mother and local elders. and in acquiring by practice the requisite strength to be able to last through the quite exhausting ordeal of the day of the festival. Dancing prior to Initiation Three or four months before the day appointed for the ceremony the boy begins " to dance. dresses. and adorns himself in a peculiar manner.DANCING PRIOR TO INITIATION district at all. but as they become more expert they gradually band themselves together into larger bodies. rehearsing certain com- plex steps and figures. The ceremony is held annually. The explanation given for this is that her health is abnormal. instead is customary.. he obtains certain essentialaccoutrements. the ordinary course boys are initiated when they are fifteen to eighteen. markets.

The such festival is not held the crops fail very considerably. to the pendant points which banana seeds have been attached Cf.156 DANCING PRIOR TO INITIATION many as seventy In 1903 as side young fellows might be met. is and carry certain articles. with the exception of one tuft on the centre of the crown. and occupied in resisting the if advance of the British. from which it hangs down to the knee. and both boys and girls seem to be put forward much younger than formerly. by lumps of dried gum. and painted like the body. and knee and anklets of the same. adorned on the inside and outside with various devices. p. the ornamentation of the limbs and abdomen with an it will indentated pattern in a white pigment. . and wears a dancing the dancing belt of He may wear made of dried grass. He is adorned with a strap of cowrie shells across the chest and round the also hip. a boy should be painted in a particular manner. He carries a staff and small wooden shield. as is considered an obvious indication of Divine displeasure. wear a particular dress. in which he painted varies considerably. travelling the countrytogether. bell at the knee. Since that date the number of candidates " dancing " seems to be less. employed in accordance with Divine command to the great M'kikuyu when he stood in the presence of God on Kenya. Should such be the case. In order to dance. The pattern that is. His head is shaved. A Serval-cat skin is attached to the back Tradition says that this pattern is of the waist. but the neophyte generally wears a cape of Colobus monkey. the probable explanation of the superior number is and age of the candidates observed at the time quoted due to the fact that few had been presented at the great annual festival of the preceding years. 109. The costume also is not absolutely uniform. turned out with punctilious correctness. the country being then in a state of war. but one characteristic in be found to be never wanting.

i). knee and ankle ornaments of monkey fur. 3 4 cowrie-shell strap across the chest. dancing shields (Pis. Fig. zigzag ornamentation of the body. civ A'.). long dancing staves. tail monkey serval-cat skin 156 a . Fig. dancing rattle on thigh (PI. cxv. ceremonial wooden sword (PI. Ixxxil. 2). garment (PI. Fig. expanded ear-lobes. dependent from elbow. et seq. 2). fhof.Pl. cxiv. R. Boys in Full and Correct Costume for Dancing prior TO BEING initiated AS AIeN Shows J The shaven head. cv.

cvii. 5 in. with the a cleverly These two articles are made by an expert who lives between Karuri's and Mun'ge's. 1. prior to Cf. bludgeon. A peculiar form of hard-wood bludgeon. Weapons These two articles are carried bv candidates the great for admission to circumcision during the period in which they go about ceremony. A sharpened hard-wood Cut out at 10 in. . . of the solid. 156 b . of special interest. position. of head. Carved from the solid. designed and efhcient weapon. very similar use.PLATE CV Ceremoniai. and so merges again into the rounded handle. b and c c this comb becomes more and more may be described as a comparatively sharp cutting edge. 5I.. From d to c this edge gradually becomes more and more blunt. Max.. that of the this everyday When picked up It is wooden sword automatically falls into cutting edge (</) directed downwards. which is given by a leaf that forms a natural glass-paper. in use the country dancing Pis. or sword. and cviii. 30J in. flattened form. is At 2^ in. when grasped to in the neighbourhood of a. At that point the rounded handle gradually assumes a and attains by degrees a maximum circumin. From to d the border The balance and fighting sword in feel of the is weapon. Length.. They have a highly finished surface. circumf. 3^ in. at 15 in. b the rounded handle has developed into a Between sharp. from the small extremity the circumference 2| in.in. ference of 5! in. They have not been observed by the writer on any other occasion. 2. with a transverse diameter of i| At point blunt comb.

Pl.] 156 c . [/?. cv Brit Mus.

M or Fringe waist part of the ceremonial dress the . = cord passing around waist: to it is attached 5 = upper row of grass stems to these are attached c = lower row of grass stems to lower ends of these : : J — seeds of wild banana. made in the reputed sites of the finding of these seeds. together with pottery A-gum'-ba dwellings result in and hand- wrought pieces rt of obsidian. cvi Biit. A/us.Pl. is6(l . prior to circumcision.] A Worn round worn It is FoR. known as the A-gum'-ba. with the seeds This particular form of girdle is said by the Akikuyu to have been that worn by their now extinct predecessors. Excavations of the stems of grass tipped of the made wdld banana. [A'.

Pl. cviA 1566 .

of the Neophytes PRIOR TO Initiation as Men . phot.R. cvii 11''. phot.liar Danck with i56f Sonc. S.Pl.ci. IV S. k. Figures in tiik Pi.

cviii W. FiGURlS IN THE PkCULIAR DaNCE WITH SoNG OF THE XeOPHYTES PRIOR TO Initiation as Men . 5. phot. S R phot ir. R.Pl.

below tail The monkey elbow. 9. dependent from W 1^1 31 6. The shaved head. f/ioL 15611 . The knee and ankle ornaments of fur. The thigh rattle manner of wear. 7. 8Bnf.J — PL. The fillet of fur around forehead. 2. The collar of fur reaching waist. 5. The long dancing staff. The dancing shield. 3. 5. 5.)//«. A'. CIX AxoTHtR Costume of a Neophyte as he dances PRIOR 10 Initiation to Manhood W'l 1. 8. The painted decoration of limbs and body. [A'. m I 7. 3. U". 4. .

and one may do him harm by putting " medicine in his path. as shown on page 32. and they are formally in so by him that many days. ' then given to the hero of the occasion to drink. is 157 the dilation of the lobe of the ear. the era when least labour is required in the fields. 1907. in the neighbourhood of Wombugu's. From him she obtains the requisite and manufactures a potion. similar functions are held in different districts all over the countryside. " ji-ma. 1907. May 21. The ceremony itself is held in April or May. rite is to be performed the ear time of the it will is and gradually dilated is till at the rite. for instance as the bone of a dead man. such." in which it is It is placed. During the few weeks at this time of year." therefore has recourse to a beneficent practitioner to counter- act the antidote. but the rains are very intermittent. 1908. accommodate a cylinder. his son will be admitted to the tribe. the mother devotes her energies to protecting her boy from any possible attacks from witch" Many people.PRELIMINARY DANCING An important part of the preparation for initiation Five months before the pierced. " are coming to the great craft." she argues. . that is after the grain has been sown. charm in advance. May but 18. festival Her son will be the observed of many " observers. This arrange- ment brings the festival in the middle of the wet season. when the period for dancing completed. Day before the Great Dance On the day before the great dance takes place. say four. with which the actual ceremonies begin. and before it is ready to be gathered. all Each function was on a difiEerent site. and the three festivals which we have attended have been favoured with perfect weather.^ A short time before the actual date selected a gathering is of friends notified held at the father's house. She on the morrow. April 4.

mothers. Any one passing through the homesteads of the neighbourhood the day previously. also a red-letter is for them first day of existence. It is held on some convenient site. and places of also given to the mothers. but the main features were always the same.). is some thirty or more boys. more especially their first- born is to be initiated. and cousins gathering up for the great event. The chief of the neighbourhood attends in state with his askaris. in proximity to the dwelling. The Great Dance The great dance (Mam-bu-ra) begins about noon on the appointed day. bodyguard of The dances at which we have been present varied slightly in detail. is surrounded by an even and orderly fifty black wall of spectators. which greatly adds to the comfort of Avearing the leather. perhaps to the number of a thousand. Inside the arena candidates dance. is The professional for to the value of one rupee (Is. will have seen the ladies preparing their ball gowns by adorning them with a coat of grease and red ochre. When fifty the management is good this arena.158 THE GREAT DANCE also The Medicine-Man bad medicine these services makes an arch. fathers. which must be in proximity to a sacred tree. The various paths which approach it are filled for some time before the ceremony begins with an expectant crowd. Their heads are then for the . who are attired in festival It if array and adorned with capes of green leaves. which may be some yards by fifteen. It difiicult to account for the much the larger proportion of boys than girls who always seem honour are to be presented. 4d. In one instance there were about forty or candidates. with sugar cane at the top. and six or ten girls. and to the initiated eyes gives a well-groomed appearance. so that no one shall bring fee to the homestead. A space is kept for the dance where the ground is favourable. uncles.

and are said to be subsequently placed on the bed. Each sex keeps together. Great importance is attached to the leaves and string as an integral part of the ceremony. which part of the only partially arrests the interest of the crowd. dance together to pass the time. When the work is finished they descend and hand the bunches of leaves. Girl relations or friends are also in evidence. Three or four men climb the tree and break off boughs from which they gather the leaves. at the same time sounding forth notes of jubilation on the tubes of bamboo which they carry. time. and they become acknowledged as *' mothers in Israel. and also bark ready for making string. As interest in the main entertainment begins to flag the company break up somewhat the men and girls forming a circle. extending the trunk on the thighs. The whole of this performance is a somewhat lengthy process." Their manner of taking part in the performance is to assume a semi-squatting attitude by flexing and whilst remaining thus. string These complete the preparation of the by mastication. as it is ended the candidates form up in a semicircle at the The older men have been meanwhile holding foot of the tree.THE GREAT DANCE 159 time completely shaved. At one dance they were observed to rush up singly out of the crowd. but we were unable to find that they serve any practical purpose. however. and other dances are held by the unmarried girls amongst themselves. Over this the boys hurl long staves. waiting at the foot. alternately flexing and the knees. to the feminine relations who are . The centre of the ceremony then becomes a special tree. The candidates continue to perform for some dancing and singing down the length of the arena. staves of some 6 feet long. They are held by the sponsor during the actual rite. beat the trunk and be dragged away by an older man. adorned with wreaths. with a tuft of Colobus fur at the . As soon.

the various homesteads where the children are to reside after the These initiation. ear. and anoints each candidate on the forehead and on crown of head and and to the cheek by the throat. an old man and old woman stand with their backs to one of places chalk in the the huts inside the enclosure. circle in front. and the girls with one of the same kind. During this performance the neophytes sing a ditty.160 top. two and two. and makes a circle in the palm of the hand by two sweeps with his to the right thumb left. rite The details of the seem to vary shghtly. and with oil by the woman. and down the He also touches the suprasternal notch and navel. The old man hand. and the old Avoman does the same. and with his right the eyes The candidates form a semipalm of his thumb marks each boy in turn between ridge of the nose. The company now leaves the original site and streams av/ay in two or three different directions. boys first. of . but the anointing in some form of the candidates with "ira " or chalk by the man. This may have been a small spontaneous donation. may be at distances varying from of the dancing. five to fifteen minutes' walk from the scene Arrived at one of these. and not part of the celebration. On one occasion the candidates formed in column before the tree. and processed singing. namely. The " mother " on one occasion also anointed the forehead and neck of the young man who was subsequently to take charge of the boys. CEREMONIES OF THE TREE boys. These are given to the who assume the head-dresses. The girls are touched on the The old woman follows. Each neophyte is given one of the bunches of leaves and pieces of string which have been prepared. to secure points of vantage at the next theatres of operation. They are-also presented with two sticks about 4 feet long. and head-dresses of eagle feathers. the two big toes. took place on each occasion. The old man then proceeds down the line blowing n'johi (native beer) over each.

h'. phot. CX A'.PL. The Ceremony At the of Leaf-gathering festival of initiation to 1 manhood. 60 a .

CXI A'. K. 160 b . phot.Pl.

Waist fringe (Figs. xxix. Pis. 4. i8oa) ceremony before the tree. p. PI. PI. Waist fringe. « and h]. xxix. a and o. PI. The n'guo. PI. or garment. 160 c . It is worn at the dance at the beginning of the dav. cxiv. worn in an unusual manner across the back of both shoulders. p.— PLATI-: CXI GiKL Candidates at Dance prior to Initiation Carrying wands and wearing 1. and resumed for the function at the hut. Anklets of fur of colobus monkev. c. 5. PI. 3. worn from waist. cvi. of cowrie shells and ropes of beads. cxiii.. Serval-cat skin. headband. 140 e. 140 g. cii. exchanged for the eagle's for feather headdress the (shown in PI. p. p. Bands PLATE CXI I [see over] Distribution of Gifts at Festival of Initiation Dress of Bov Candidates Ostrich-feather headdress borrowed from Masai'. Waist ornament (sira) (Fig. Girdle (Figs. and permitted by the old men to be used. : Girls' 2. b). ci. 36 j.

u O i6otl .

for I am no longer a friend of In the same manner there be a distribution of small coins to the young men. having resumed the worn at the beginning of the day. In this way the sword and club of manhood are successively found and brought out. such as salt. . at which our presence was accidental. distributes among the crowd." may thrown gifts of food. is 161 are tlie heroic determination. At intervals the boy dives among the thatch of the roof. " I will beat others now. The most curious of these productions witnessed was seen at a dance many miles from the dwelling of any European. and disinters therefrom various objects previously hidden amongst it. " for I shall be a young man to-morrow." boys then ascends to the roof of the hut. which he either retains. which. as he brandished a club. well. and exostrich feather head-dress tended laterally with the palms of the hands towards the people The fingers are apart." was brought out and exhibited. or else take the form of gifts for friends. bananas. when torn friends generally are and sugar-cane. The performer sings and dances.FESTIVAL OF INITIATION which the burden cut to-morrow. and the wrists flexed in harmony with the song. one of the boys saying. flexing and extending the instep and knee-joint. roughly modelled in clay. they either refer to the evolution of the boy into the young man. the ^ On one occasion as many as three took part in this way. but of the warriors. but." To the women and the children. ladies meanwhile applauding the quality of the performance. or more generally below. but no particular sanctity seemed to attach to it. "when we we The boys then take off and put them on the staves. generally speaking. their head-dresses. The arms are held half-raised. indeed there seems to be a certain seeking after novelty in their selection. These articles were not precisely the same on any two occasions. all being on the roof together. "He does not dance badly. One ^ of the will not cry. It consisted of a sealed newspaper packet. he dances In one instance a male doll.

' join them. The performer then makes a sudden leap down. It is far otherwise with the boys. destroyed. and goes through the form of beating him. and may be heard in the open howling nearly all night long. the day's performance. the spectators peace and sleep. and the come out and food. then I will " and have The boys who have danced together in the "Mambura. but the boys continue dancing. It was reported that This completes in old days this victim used to be killed.162 CEREMONY OF THE HUT of open by the performer. similarly attired. The girls go to rest in the house of the mother. He seizes. to say the least of it. It The paper had presumably fallen some mailbag. being carefully arranged. one luckless youngster. Go into the mother's hut the birds sing. or been abstracted from many months. the assembled multitude scatter to their respective Day retire to of Initiation As darkness falls after the great dance. and with the near approach of sun- down homes. and was soon quaint. ' Wait till cut you. its while another. held wrapper. proved to contain an old number the Bystander. dancing of nowhere. and been retained for excited no particular interest. was. while " still description of one of themselves. At the conclusion the staves and eagle crowns are handed up and piled on the summit of the roof. dancing again. dark. The father says." . however. and the small boys amongst the onlookers scatter in a paroxysm of terror. it is The next morning. on the roof of a hut in the middle and displaying this product of modern civilisation." according to the " the boys come to the girls homestead. dress The effect of a savage in a feathered head- and paint. who have been Avorked up to a state of almost hysterical excitement.

which on the occasion seen was a steep hillside facing east. and are completely shaven. The girls bathe in a similar manner. as the ceremony must They go up to their knees in the brook. while the mothers are present attired as the day previously. dipping themselves to the waist. shaking the wrist with the fingers extended. The operation is performed by a knife in two steps. concealing at They remain seated for some time before retiring to make room for the girls. . It will be remembered that the members of at any rate one clan are not allowed to act in this manner. The first is seated behind the girl. with a gangway kept clear for the operators. being even without ornaments. and are also arranged in a row for the subsequent operation. The boys are stripped entirely. A procession is then re-formed to the site selected. and places the outside of each of her ankles inside those of the first even his features. While still be completed before sunrise. who holds the tied bunch of leaves of the ceremony of the previous day. The circumcisor is a there may be only one man so qualified in a comspecialist paratively large district and he proceeds from one group to the — — other. and are each supported behind by a sponsor. INITIATION 163 divide into two or possibly more parties for the rite of circum- which is performed in proximity to the homesteads where they are subsequently to reside. The candidates seat themselves in a row. The spectators are kept back from approaching too near to the bank by officials with batons of the stalk of banana. and keeping up meanwhile the circumcision song. The general body of spectators stand around. The warriors superintend to see that the bathing is correct. Opposite are the officials and mothers. As soon as it is over the sponsor throws his cloak entirely over the boy. and bowing and posturing as before. The time in the water is half an hour. but are held by two sponsors instead of one. dark the boys go to bathe. holding up their arms.DAY OF cision.

the ^ girls in four or five. is The following account taken from the independent narratives of followers. and that the boys. The boys state that neither boys nor girls have internal pain nor headache. For this time various house parties have been made up." Two young men subsequently with so juncture they take charge of the invalids. the boys in two or three days. No one. She is in her turn supported is behind by a second woman. ever dies. they say.164 girl to CIRCUMCISION prevent her moving.and at this may be seen sitting about somewhat dolefully. A boy who is going through the rite has arranged many of his friends to come to his homestead. are not prevented from sleeping. They are encouraged by being told that they will soon be free from pain. old The operation is from performed by an woman. .^ Silence girls maintained. clitoris are The nymphae and removed. The young men erect for their accommodation a temporary hut termed the " ki-kan'-da. at any rate. four of our Kikuyu which agreed in their main these features though they varied slightly as to the respective days of the ceremonials. allow themselves to make any Immediately after the ordeal is over the children retire to their respective villages where they are to spend the days of their convalescence. Concluding Ceremonies We hood were unfortunately unable to remain in the neighbour- in order to witness the remaining proceedings. The next day there to see that they are all is a general inspection of the patients doing well. The girls forgather in the same way in the hut for of one of the respective mothers. and neither boys nor audible sign of emotion. It is probable may depend on circumstances. and are cared by the women. the tool being a razor such as is generally used for shaving the head.

the patients remain quiet. the third day after circumcision. The fourth day is devoted to shaving of heads ("Ku-en'-ja "). The beads are slept in one night by the mother of the homestead and given back. The work is said to be begun by a little girl. or the day after. that is. Each boy is thus treated. but chosen by the children. the father of the boys. These are put over one shoulder and under the other arm." and ties it loosely in a knot in the lobe of the ear." youth is then admonished. . who must be a relation but not his own mother. . stead. who must not be homestead. In each case one of the old men. " mo-i-ri-ki. and are become a man. She continues again. sees the further ceremony which womanhood and which is termed Ku-to-ni-a. " You have now finished being a boy. The The stem of a second plant. The process is the same for the The leaves which remain over are put above the door of the hut of the mother of the village. The function takes place outside the mother's hut in the Three old men and three old women in all are the celebrants they are not professionals." Only one ear is done. prior to initiation the lobe of the remembered that This process ear has been gradually distended in accordance with the custom of the tribe. The boy is adorned with beads which are the present of some young girl. at which the woman stops and puts on more beads.INITIATIOT^ ushers in man and It will be CEREMONIAL 165 This day. is then peeled. and the same proceeding is repeated. While the work is still in progress the boy shakes his head. The day following. who does a small piece of it. sleeping and eating in their homegirls. takes the stem of the plant " mu-chu-guchti-gu. and its bark put in the lobe of the same ear by one of the old women. and is to be finished by one of the older women. the knot being tied in the same way by the old man. is now formally endorsed and completed by the tying in the lobe of certain plants.

brought to them by their mothers. food is This festival is held about the fourth day. the head of the homestead where the boy has been received is given a present of the meat of the goat and some beer. or even retrogression to set in. and the young men who look after the boys have a consultation. they go to the father and say that n'johi will be needed and the next day sugar cane is cut and the drink made. It is a well-known fact that the native races show in childhood intelligence and adaptability which may be said to equal that of their white compeers. the " tipping. While the children are in the care of their neighbours. and the two young men who have looked after him also receive a present. The usual beer-drinking The women who of all solemn functions naturally finds place during the ceremonies subsequent to circumcision. and the inhabitants go back to their homes. fifth one at the beginning of the time and the other on the on day. and when all the boys and girls are free from pain. and all the fathers and mothers come care for the girls . the eighth day the boys can walk a At the end of the period the kikan'da is taken down and burnt." In addition to the present given to the mother who has done the shaving.166 INITIATION CEREMONIAL The lady barber is entitled to a handsome present. It seems hardly necessary to say that if there is any truth in this. The function of initiation has in some quarters been held responsible for this change. Both boys and girls have a further holiday of three months before they return to work. and partake. There still remains little. Convalescence lasts from eight to ten days . the . as the boys are completely shaved at the time they come up for the original rite. though the work can hardly be other than perfunctory. A goat is killed by the boy's family to welcome the returning child. and two sheep are killed. but that with earliest manhood and womanhood development seems to cease.

and are frequently unable again to settle the routine of a European establishment. not in any physical operation. entirely altered for the worse. during a critical It is certain that from the white man's point of view. but in the strain and excitement endured for many months. return. down to . epoch in life. young entirely satisfactory till Kikuyu servants who have been ceremonies. if the time that they ask for temporary leave to go through these they return at all.INITIATION CEREMONIAL reasons 167 must be sought for. more especially by the boys.

and be or left there for hyenas to do their work.DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD The method sentiment. and had died before they could reach their homes. where it If no one's business to dispose of the corpse. lot. of disposal of the dead is governed by two factors. and We had to return a short knew no power would have Nothing was to be induced the natives to handle the bodies. and being it satisfied in this case that energetic steps were being taken. and wholesome. the deceased was a denizen of a homestead there 1 is objection. a is man woman by themselves. but he soon efiicient. both natural to the and religious. ently with the very poor and living for instance This only occurs appar- friendless. His gruesome office fills the European at first with horror. ^ time after over the same road. seen of the tragedy except one or two untouched garments and a broken water bottle. physical convenience. to find the road strewn with corpses of natives who had run away of starvation from work on the railway line. a man may die in his hut. realises that it is absolutely speedy. There are four different methods of dealing with the dead or dying. It was our painful on one journey to the railway. was left by us in their hands. to The matter was reported Government. Firstly. 16S . and superstitious or religious In East Africa nature has provided a ready-made scavenger in the hyena.

ed. or there ' ' may some other and more abstruse explanation. common dwelling ground. ' away from other dwellings in the vicinity.' DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD visits 169 from an animal which. 1903. and a new small One M'kikuyu. as explained elsewhere. vol. In such cases the ordinary it is said." Secondly. p. view incurs See Prim. nor a wife that of her husband. 26. They is are not allowed to feed with others till The goat eaten by the elders. The object may be to keep the path of the hyena be .. and the body be left in kill subsequently taken out and uncultivated land. not touch the dead body of his wife. As the handling undesirable. who assists string. A woman A husband does not assist in the disposal of the dead. may be closed. however. 15. The Hottentots according to Dr. may defile the entrance of the hut. ^ death may occur in the hut. shave their heads. The practice is Cf. Tylor. except in the case of her will own child. Cult. purified. in A SwahiU stated that he had witnessed the dragged out by a gruesome sight of a corpse being order that defilement by touch might be avoided. So strong is the objection to carrying out a corpse. of the dead is thus both sentimentally of and 1 also from a practical point ii. 257. door made for the entrance of the hyena. Those who have carried out a body a goat. not a in this manner. No. that as sheep have to be paid to any man. told us he had never known it done. and sleep one night in the woods. many as seven relation. either male or female. p. . therefore probably either restricted to certain localities or is unusual. wash their hands in the undigested food. " remove the dead from the hut by an opening broken out on purpose to prevent him from finding the way back.

there of a is die. or from which the owner has been taken out to contradictory on this head. mark of honour for a man who is old and and has in the . This is said to be done is with his full consent. Statements are It seems probable that while objection to taking possession of the particular dwelling dead man or woman. or joint abode of the men. any one entering is would become unclean. both labour and expense it is therefore reserved as a rich. not to be wondered at that.170 DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD it is great expense. who must not be a relation of the deceased. the hut has been in joint occupation. but if it is amidst the others it is set on fire by some old man. inhabitants to desert it. as a third course of procedure. a person stricken with fatal illness is may be taken out into the wilds before decease. not necessary for the other This last was definitely stated to be the case where death occurs in the thin-gi-ra. If the weather inclement a shelter possibly built by friends and a fire made. " for fear that the children or goats might go in and take the grass " which will have sprung up through the fourth floor. is A little hut which not to be used again may. and some one If may remain near till death has actually taken place. The entails method of disposal of . the dead. where. and possessor is told that dead. A It hut in which the remains of the owner it have been left is never used again. or burial. The traveller not unfrequently comes across a is site its where former a dwelling has obviously once stood. and the left . less clear how living in a house is regarded from which a dead body has been removed. if it stands at a sticks distance from the others. on it is the other hand. is the sick man recovers he restored to his home. be pulled down.

If the The hut is head is to the east the children will die. which it. and was in fair agreement." It is to burial.BURIAL necessary rites. would never do The grave is nearly square in shape. seriously instance this it. that not even the head of the deceased first is visible the oxskin or other bedding either also used for this purpose. of the hut. and tied is up in the clothes usually worn. recumbent to is "huddled-up attitude. or put in the grave. on the palm of the right hand of the left if a woman." as he termed show the " degradation of the poor heathen. palms facing. its side. A woman of very advanced age is also entitled would have much intelligence. 171 ordinary course at least two grown-up sons to perform the If a man is very rich he would be buried. but a husband so." The whole folded entirely. on the palm — or it may I be placed on the two hands placed together. The succinct account which supplied most details was is obtained from a Medicine-Man near Nyeri. only slightly inclining to the oblong. if The body is placed on rests. The body watched after death to see site of no animal approaches. The ornaments are taken off and put in The head is placed to the \vest. The head a man. Information as to procedure was procured from many sources. so . with the knees bent and drawn up. in England. falls to The work of digging which the sons. even if he had no grown-up children. outside the door in itself defiling. piled pulled down and on the top of the grave. . because " she is not " good form " for children to whose parents burial due to evade the obligation. have heard a missionary (not from Kikiiyn) when speaking position. . the grave separately. and the old is is men choose the the grave. A father might possibly assist. four old men performing the ceremony.

but one who is poor and has no shamba. At the conclusion is slain. is days then elapse. a valuable pro- . and pray for the protection of the village rite. is They shave their heads. making five members and the two sons and two Kjama eat a very is (two legs and a part of the stomach). into the village The day after. of purification. and the Medicine-Man performs the ceremony They then return every one eats. is killed. and People will not travel. The women not go out for four days. the burial being over. one can touch the ornaments or cooking pots of a dead In the instance already alluded to. the goat It which the old man eats. and hut. and goats and sheep all will the inhabitants of the village shave their will heads.172 BURIAL of the interment. 258 et seq. in which they wash outside their homestead. held. and drink illness. and to go in the evening get down to the stream and get water. The Five day a drinking is killed. " killed as who has left many behind him." and fat is poured out as an offering to the dead. P. and the rest put as an offering on the grave. which is The fourth day native beer festival all is made. The sixth day a very bakgoods big sheep and receive a present of the fat. fifth to the village and kill another goat. after which a male goat sheesh for the departed father. not bear. etc. the sons On the day take a goat and go to the house of an old man. who have taken two friends part in the burial do not On the third day they shave their heads again. is lays himself out for the purpose. from This ends the funeral No person. On the next day the sons work. of the first month yet another male goat of the flock in little all. not necessarily an elder (Kiama). the two Kiama come beer. and they sleep in his also said that the day after the death has occurred an unlucky day.

borrowed a cane from one of our followers. and touched the eyelid with it. When we came across the corpses. a traces of the significant evidence of death long after all deceased owner had disappeared. . such as a good blanket. When he offered to return the stick it was refused with horror. to see if life was really extinct. 173 untouched for was left months by the highway. my husband. in one case.DEATH perty.

secured of the length of their by a whipping. its If. he is secured the crowd closes in. The beast struggles. in consequence of the blood being no longer able to pass forward to the heart. the flaccid external jugular vein to swell up. Now and then the group scatters. seeking to rejoin its herd everybody talks and shouts and gets in everybody else's way. in width. leaving only the tip exposed. flat. Each man screams his views.174 SOCIAL CUSTOMS THE DRINKING OF WARM BLOOD Occasionally. shoots self : it at the swollen vein. for every one has him- more than enough to do in keeping his legs in the general scrimmage whilst he vociferates his own ideas. or strong palisaded enclosure into which the herd driven every night for protection. however. in readiness. a few arrows have been prepared by winding a thong of thin sheepskin. like a handful of chaff thrown upwards into the air. A thong beast is then singled out and seized its : passed round neck and dragged taut. not relishing having half an inch of arrow point constantly . to which no one listens. he is not pretty speedy. the animal recovers wind. kneeling about 6 feet away. towards sundown. Eventually. but they are not put into or other. One of the warriors lays an arrow on his bow and. The it cattle are driven in from pasture to a convenient spot in the neighbourhood of for the ky-u-go. on the initiative of the beast. . however. lanceolate iron is round the greater part in length heads. by is \ in. the picturesque scene maybe witnessed of the warriors (A-na-ke) drinking blood. its He seldom succeeds at first in piercing the vessel because of toughness and resiliency. A number is of these and of the elders assemble outside the cattle ky-u-go. and with a keen cutting a turn of a hide This causes border. and. some reason Meanwhile. This extremity | in.

The splendid figures of the nude men beautifully greased. and excuris sions. alarums. v/hilst probably So it circulates until empty. the shouts. some and struggling to catch the spurting jet from another struggling beast. and the dark blood spurts out in a low jet in consequence of the compression. though not infrequently the whole drinking party is scattered in every direction. the movement. notwithstandis ing the fact that the same beast is essential many times in its life thus that the wound be made with an arrow In reply to a suggestion exactly in the manner described. and the stage. least Somehow everybody seems to get a mouthful at everybody gets smeared with blood. The animal having by this time probably recovered will breath. whilst those who have . The cattle treated. WARM BLOOD 175 being stuck into him. and every- Eventually the arrow does pierce the vein. . The whole proceeding conveys the impression that it is a surviving custom rather than an action of practical utility. The cord is eased up and removed. and what remains in the bowl wasted. : forgotten. It are said never to be any the worse. about a quart at last collected in a half calabash. and ornamented. not remain quiet. Meanwhile the warriors are all trying to drink the hot blood at the same time a man only gets a : Then some one picks up a handful of dust over the Avound. make a tableau that is not easily up. that a knife could be used more effectively. gulp before the dish sloj3ping is dragged from him." somehow or other. The difficulty now is to collect its it. routing the crowd in its path. Amidst " shouts. been really lucky and have succeeded in swallowing a often vomit it lot. again renews his struggles. and rubs it and the frightened beast gallops off to join its friends. groomed.DRINKING OF thing begins de novo. the information was given that such an idea could not be contemplated. by the rush of another party of its contents over his face chest. all smeared with blood the weapons. the hour.

the friends of both parties are present. JRise of our East African Empire (Lugard). The blood from each slit is placed by him from whom it has been drawn. p. The elders receive one leg of the sheep as their fee. ceremony was given me by him at the time. The question in a fresh What was the correct method of procedure for an M'kikuyu who wished to ? establish himself A hypothetical case was stated. For various reasons it seemed The following account of the wise to decline this offer. A slit is made over the end of the sternum. One of the elders cuts the heart in two portions. he proposed that he and I ^ should enter into the bond of Blood Brotherhood.- CEREMONIAL THE RECEPTION OF M'KIKI^YU INTO A FRESH DISTRICT FOR CHI-RA'-NA) description of a ceremony AN (KU- The next asked was. S. and each of the contracting parties eats one half. 147 . into the heart of the sheep. and in the forehead at the root of the nose of each of the persons to be united. member people. him Each 2 For a description of the ceremony of Blood Brotherhood see An Ivory Trader in North Kenia (Arkell-Hardwick).176 SOCIAL CUSTOMS BLOOD BROTHERHOOD During one of my visits to the homestead of the chief Mun-ge. and the heart taken out and roasted. A sheep is provided by the stranger. R. locality was also given at Mun-ge's on the occasion of the same visit. is A man who another district. p. dissatisfied with his people and would join goes to the leading man of there his and tells that he wants to become a iw. The sheep is killed. and custom requires that two elders should take part in the ceremony. 330. and other persons present eat the sheep. .

off. and both parties to the transaction extend their hands the elders pour a little blood into all the four palms. . Cf. and children —join in the ceremony. he were her own On 1 the third day a drinldng festival is This is probably a piece of skin similar to the oval slip left on the breastbone of the sheep that I saw killed and flayed in sacrifice. The occasion is made a public one. and make four wristlets the two coming from the beast of one party are placed on the right arm of the other party. be received. of the representative of the district The mother the head of the then shaves man to child. The elders (ki-a-ma) slit the two pieces of skin from the leg and the two strips from the belly.RECEPTION OF A STRANGER party to the transaction brings a sheep. are now of one blood. and is those resident in the district which the new-comer about to enter —men. cut. women. and hear the proclamation that the tw"0 Blood from each of the . and vice versa. 232. 177 or. is or oxen are killed.^ and also and from the "belly" of a piece of skin from a leg of each two animals is put into one leaf. The sheep each a strip animal. and this is passed from the palms of the one person to those of the other. p. The elders then take the two leaves containing blood. thus treating him as though held. All round are called to see that the blood is mingled. . and the contents of the two bellies into another leaf. if they are wellall an ox.

without losing stride. states : dance festivals. 1 Tate. with the help of certain enthusiasts amongst our who resolved themselves into a small informal comIt mittee to check the information given by one another. 179. childhood with is 1 the life of the Akikuyu. — "The following are the names death of enemy) girls) . 2. whilst running 1 which : at full speed. and the thigh half flexed on the body. Continuing to dance for hours with the leg half flexed on position of rest so. is also of an erotic nature. From that period early manhood they prac- tise certain elementary movements. ." Anthropological Journal. but love dances. the thigh. Springing vertically upwards from one foot.) 178 . of the 1904. Setting up and maintaining This tremor to special for a period of. a tremor in the muscles surround- ing the shoulder-joint. festival of warriors before war. 5. can only be considered tentative. half a minute at a time. the dance of the Elders and married women. is required to impart a vibratory shoulder. on the breast and back alternately. Ruhiyu wa ngonibe . movement shields attached to the The subjoined retainers. which are the basis on In the case of the all their dances are constructed. Mugoya (no explanation given)." Ngakare (to celebrate .iture of cattle) Trua (festival before circumcision of boys) Usegu (festival before circumcision of Kichukia. as a rigid whole. from both feet. Nguchu. a time of quiescence of approaching maturity comes till an epoch restless activity. " Notes on the Kikuyu Tribe. 4. Flexing sharply the head and neck. 3. "The dances of the unmarried men and girls are not festivals. — DANCING Dancing enters largely into As has been seen. . (See also footnote p. too. men. say.. from a . these movements may be enumerated as follows Springing from one foot high into the air. table of dances is compiled from our own observations. Muthunguchi. (to celebrate caj." Nguru.

outside ring .. The following are the dances enumerated under the heading "Dance" in Hinde's Vocabulary: "Muthun gimchi (elders). nduumo (young women). Dances of Uncircumcised Boys There are special dances for young boys. Dances of Women only- (1) Ge-ti-ro Dance of elder women at betrothal of a daughter. and body as if tattooed. (3) Mam-bii-ra The dance ceremony oi" Dances of Men only (1) N'dor-6-si — . namely. has been already described. dance. (4) Ku-i-ne-ne-ra A social dance. No notes available about dance. The great circumcision dance as ke-bo-i-a known ^ the Mambura. A festival of youths lately initiated (mu'-mo). warriors. This always started by the principal social is warriors and young women at any this large gathering. big boys wearing maizeat the great cob decorations. ngushu (children). A spectacular warriors. Dances of Men and (1) Mui-goi-o (2) Ke-chii-ki-a A social The dance dance. kishukia (warriors). kitiiro (old women). . (2) Ki-ba-ta and other young . together- Special description given. reegu (uncircumcised boys). (2) N'dii-mo No detailed notes on this dance." . (3) Ke-o-na-no .. dance given by (3) A peculiar dance on the completion of the maize harvest.DIFFERENT DANCES KiKUYU Dances^ Dances of Uncircuninsed Boys(1) Ke-boi-i-a 179 A dance by young boys with a special dress. initiation. with its preceding months of practice. Women . (2) N'goi-i-sa A dance by . the and the n'goi-i-sa.. The men form the the girls inside by themselves in groups.

saddle betwixt two hilltops. . When I first took up my position. and the festival lasts from six to twelve days. surrounded in below. Some of the participants go and guard the meat. in a poor district. to which no one admitted after initiation. The first Kikuyu dance that invited to assist at (Wom-bti-gu's. I ^ Dancing takes place on the third and sixth days. The warriors about to perform mustered in the valley far The men and boys occupied the two ends of the dancing ground. By the side of it was a young tree. The circle opened sufficiently to receive me. to time replenished so as to maintain a con- men rose from the and coming to me invited me to join them. S. or. the women the two sides. R. five very old and influential men were sitting around a small fire in the centre of the green. some 10 ft. wide The stage was a turf-clad by 250 yds. two hundred boys may thus assemble. sitting on my heels. only one between fifteen. On the ground was an armful of the foliage of some bush . parts with a remnant of the primitive forest. 1903) had the honour of being was of the nature of a theatrical representation or spectacular review of the troops. 1 W. fire. 80 yds.Dances of Men only The young men have a which till special festival of is their ov. The whole countryside assembled. artificially planted. long. high.n is named N'do-ro-si. A man of position home to would supply an sleep. as when the autumn crop of Rough huts are built in the unContri- cultivated land. The senior then spat into his right palm and extended it to me. is It takes place mwe-li about a foot high. butions are brought according to the wealth of the neighbourthere may be a sheep between every two persons. others stay ox. special with small quantities of this greenery the Presently one of the old fire was from time tinuous smoke. As many hood .

Q < 180 a .

PLATE CXIV Garments worn when dancing I.cxiii. and thence around the limb. p. is stitched to the top of c and encircles the upper part of the thigh. PLATE CXV A Rattle and two Bells 1. The warriors taking part in certain dances must wear it. 2. . in order that its two extremities may be fastened together. (Cf. encircles the thigh just above the knee. PI. A peculiar garment worn from the waist so as to fall over the buttocks. The strap c passes through b. Thigh Bell or Rattle worn in certain dances on the outer side of the thigh just above the knee. 3. c. with iron clapper.) a. Skin of serval-cat (nga'-li) as worn from the waist 156a) by boys when dancing prior to initiation. for which there is some special reason (unknownj. cvi. The rattle. p. h'on bullets roll up and down its interior.a. are all wearing it. Wide strap passing up outer side of thigh to carry the w^eight of the rattle. civ. The neck is folded back and cut to the same shape The forelegs pass around the wearer's waist to as Fig. (i(iat Bell of wooi.) The young men in Pl. Leather shield to maintain Leather collar 2. (It is part of the fighting costume amongst the Masai. 156 e. Goat Bell of iron. cross in front. </ c it [a) in place.. cix. Leather 1 80 b . then through hole in a thence back through another hole in a. p. ' wooden clapper. i8oa. p.1 wiih collar similarly cut through. Cf. I. and to protect the skin of the knee. b. through another hole in b. (PI. has been cut through to remove in haste from goats seized in war. 156 h. PI.

i8oc .

> o i8od .

a young warrior appeared in a lather of sweat and in an exhausted state. He then gradually moved along the wall of spectators and en- deavoured to allay their anxiety. " Very I much Peace indeed. He then After due pause. and tore down the length of ground. off the cattle. a most extraordinary compliment and mark of good.A SPECTACULAR DANCE saying. and made exactly the same complicated gestures as his fellow. through the crowd." and again extended He then spat with the words. who reported to the audience what he had seen when scouting. was. was then given of a few sprays of the greenery and told to make smoke. as the performance was about to begin. and my invitation by the elders as an equal. At that hour a lad suddenly burst. much it. The performance began at 2. faultlessly accoutred and moving Each man kept perfect distance and step. " Very into his again.30 p. to allow this appalling news to go home." I 181 spat in mine and accepted the proffered hand. crying out that a Masai raiding party when I had done so.m. and the commander-in-chief in a conventionally stealthy way. The making of smoke in this v/ay and from this plant. The whole body first made its way towards Wombugu and myself. received and ate a morsel were on them. in some way associated with the existence or the maintenance of peace. As he finished speaking. which rapidly gained in volume of sound as the warriors mounted the winding path. and banana drawn from the ashes. informed my host that need for anxiety." And so all round. far down in the valley below was faintly heard the war song. and were sweeping disappeared for good. at their head confidentially. shrieking. as there was not the least real his it were.will. In support of what he . as did each of the others. etc. " Peace. Peace. After twenty minutes or so I was told I ought to leave. They soon appeared from amongst the trees as a long single file. with the reply. as he well knew what the speaker and men were worth as warriors. I afterwards gathered.

which has a liquid sound . which were carried out with compHcated steps and gestures said he directed endless marchings all over the field of action. a either hand. as one looks down the encompassing wall of spectators. sitting On our arrival a few old men and boys were on their heels in the . having lasted about an hour and a half. Finally the General Officer Commanding left the arena unobserved and took up a position behind the spectators at one end of the ground. in the form of a bouquet of leaves. to the favoured individual. Numbers of the warriors thus independently burst into the arena. As this action is done rhythmically by all. is most pleasing. whilst at the same time they feigned as it were to throw their handkerchiefs. and were received by the women with rounds of according to the popularity of the individual. the wall of spectators broke and separated on his like a whirlwind. and down the slope he came magnificent specimen of savage manhood. by means of the peculiar trick previously mentioned of jumping vertically upwards from one apparently stiffened leg. at his shout. the effect. When a woman has made her complimentary remarks anent the individual.182 WARRIORS' DANCES and counter-marchings. rendered as a descending scale. like water gurgling from a calabash It much resembles the note of one of the native birds that greets the traveller in all directions in the freshness of the dawn in this part of Africa. with his shield half raised and his spear poised. whilst at the same time they utter a compliment. Thus the dance ended. in fact just behind us. she joins her applause. Suddenly. Very similar to the foregoing was a spectacular dance (ki-ba-ta) held at Mun-ge's (October 1907). which varied considerably in degree Applause was given by the women throwing one leg forward and then inclining from the waist. each of which he slightly raised still more as he sprang with a yell into the air at intervals of about 30 yards. fellows in uttering the peculiar cry of lu-lu-lu-lu-lu-lu.

walking down the course preceded similarly by a vanguard of children. The course was cleared. attached above the knee. and of velvet. and equipment. Warriors. For this occasion everybody appeared to have managed to afford the luxury that none. clubs. to a sort of grunting accompaniment. many of these carrying brothers and sisters even smaller than themselves. emphasised every movement. Little parties of standing when the women. spinning their spears and swinging their clubs from the wrist in perfect time. of a coat of sheep's-tail grease. to take up a position apart. irreproachable in form. He emphasised the time. rub down of castor- Their brown-black skins thus groomed have the sheen : The dance was a formal one none took part in it except those warriors who had undertaken to give the performance. They carried bows. As they came by they were greeted by the crowd of women in the usual way. whilst at the same time they leaped high in the air every few yards. but his status was indicated by his legs being whitened from the knee to the ankle.A SPECTACULAR DANCE shade of isolated trees that had been left 183 ground was cleared. Their trainer preceded them. as required by the . and alone was not specially decorated. with their babies astride their loins. however poor. walking backwards. who now appeared at the bottom of the green to the number of about eighteen. gravely strode by. They were all very similarly adorned with red and white paint. and the performance began by two of the performers running at full speed down its length. or at least a oil. and generally gave directions. while large iron rattles. were unanointed. Bevies of their girls chattered and laughed as they All were in made towards which means women friends. and wore a waistbelt from which depended a fringe of fine iron chain. dress. festival dress. This small body of dancers went round the green. gradually appeared. These were the messengers to announce the approach of the dancers. swords.

From all the flat of one foot they spring to the the next : flat of the other. as ex- plained above. hence constant adjournments have to be made to the dressing-room at the end of the green for renovations. the hair really consists of a series of weighted cords. never encroaching on the course. though to a European monotonous. indeed. special favourite. form part of the grand now appeared. : Their bodies simultaneously sway forward moment at the same and the face thrown upwards. which constantly moved about them. The muscular exertion is excessive. and the dancers stream with sweat. The proceedings. the ladies. With the master of ceremonies walking backwards at their head.184 A SPECTACULAR DANCE They then retired to particular step. the while remaining in a crouching attitude. There was no vocal accompaniment or any instrumental The men and boys did not applaud — only the women. and when the evolution was occasionally slovenly performed. For the elbows are thrown vigorously backwards time the head is violently jerked back. The dance consisted drill-like of various wheelings and evolutions of a character carried it out in a conventional manner. There was nothing in of the The audience numbered about six or seven hundred persons. were occasionally guilty of unduly pressing forward. music beyond the war-horn. while the front hair stands on end. now about seventy-five in number. who behaved in the most orderly way. but immediately yielded to the admonitions of an individual with a long white wand. This has the effect of making the back hair stream behind horizontally. and to the inspiring booing of the war-horn. came forward in ranks of five procession which abreast. the chief left his place to explain and to demonstrate how it . When carried away by their feelings in applauding some nature of a story portrayed in pantomime. the whole body of dancers. seemed to keep their hold on the interest of the spectators.

home amongst the hills Dances of Men and Women together Mixed dances are constantly held. their all 185 There was no feasting or merry- were wending their way back to around. We wound along a hill- shadow thrown by a sacred grove till we emerged at an open space where the African moon poured her flood of light. while in the centre was a blazing bonfire. "My name is Wa-ma-hu. torch in hand. marshalled the dancers." In the present case 24 was : . Four others assisted him. Of these we attended several. forming a complete ring round the fire. Small fires had been lighted around the green for warmth by the ancients and children. He was one of the leading warriors. their day's work in the fields finished. now I am a man and eat bananas. were assembled to dance. .DANCES OF MEN AND WOMEN ought to have been done. The director of the dance. their well-oiled bodies gleaming in the firelight. The following is an account of one to which we found our way one evening about side in the deep nine o'clock. and are very popular. and by 4 p.m. There they stood in perfect silence. The man then put his arms round his partner's waist. and at his side his sword in its scarlet goatskin scabbard. and held behind her with both hands his long wooden dancing spear. air about himself or another. making. The most picturesque of these entertainments are those which are held every night when the moon is full. his head elaborately decorated and adorned with a mass of vulture plumes. The men stood with their backs to it the girls faced them. the butt of it being driven firmly into the ground at her heels this was to prevent her moving backwards. and the people. or a subject of it common interest. The dancers took up their places. once I was a boy and minded the goats. placing their hands on the men's shoulders. One of the warriors then began by singing a verse to a well-known .

and lead them with stately step around the fire and out of the ring. gravely moved forward one by one. and taking certain favoured warriors by the hand. the great circle of dancers swaying from the waist in perfect time either backwards and forwards or from side to side. but the all in the ring assumed a semi-squatting attitude. In the semi-darkness outside the ring some chaperons watched their daughters. and assumed the same crouching attitude and movements. No talking was allowed. The principal duty of these officials was.186 DANCES OF MEN AND AVOMEN Whereupon the circle of dancers replied. with a few children as yet too young to take part. and swaying the body from the waist. now he is a man and eats bananas. Any transgressing couple were immediately corrected by a clout over the head with a burning torch administered by one of the deputy masters of ceremony. and marked the time by throwing the head to and fro. This movement so wrought upon the feelings of all that the chaperons and youngsters sprang up from their little fires. the women uttering their sweet treble lu-lu-lu in sequence. "Oh yes. everybody facing in- wards to the fire. joined in the song. After a while the form of the dance changed. measure changed . to support their chief in giving pantomimic expression to the statement made by the singers of the moment. oh yes! Once he was a boy and minded goats." at the same time emphasising this statement by clasping one another rhythmically. Each individual as he moved by being greeted with the plaudits of all . jerking the bent arms violently backwards and forwards. Thus they moved about within the ring with elaborate step and posture. their every movement displayed by the fierce firelight. The song continued as before. — the men men only gradually moved and aside girls till the ring was formed of in one part. only in the other. so that a wave of sound . When everybody was thus wild with excitement the master of the dance and his assistants ceasing their posturing. however.

for The young people of a district arrange thus for constant selected meetings. I have bought " you. The dance then broke up. The men put their hands on the women's hips. resting on alternate feet. The master of ceremonies declined to accept the excuse. A man takes part in only one child. for it was past midnight. which took place at sunrise. selecting man with whom they wished to dance. down their line singing as they went. one such. some fifty people." we were told in answer to our inquiries inconceivable. her husband would be very angry. He would say. as has been . say. jump three times vertically. such entertainments as long as he has ceases altogether as soon as she woman The idea that she should even want to do so seemed " If. different sites being the dances in various parts of the country-side.humouredly but firmly they were clubbed into taking part. The dancers returned home in small parties in high good humour. and tell her to go back to her own home. Another form with the girls of mixed dance is for a circle to be made within and the men outside. In one dance seen. and were too tired for further exertion. rotates accordingly. " she made a fuss. the as their partner the girls as they arrived took their places inside the circle. Some of the girls at one such dance wished to fields all sit out. they sway laterally.WOMEN'S DANCES rippled 187 and back again. then one jump laterally. and good . and you want to go to dances ' ! ' Women's Dances The dances in which a woman can take part subsequent to her marriage are the women's dances. The whole circle of. facing one another. but a marries. whilst the men kept up a steady deep grunting that formed an effective bass to it. and the women on the men's shoulders. pleading that they had been working in the day.

cxvi.— THE MAIZE DANCE is 188 seen. Wombugu. the journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute In 1903 I was living in the country of the Akikujm. they generally celebrate completion by a song and dance. The women and children. The following account is reprinted from Man (Jan. of people say 300 men and the rest women and children. far It occasion I was fortunate enough to witness this was soon after ray arrival in the country. I saw" at the bottom a large number. PI. dressed in the usual way. sky-line of province of Kenya in British East Africa. rhythmic steps and chorus by the other side of the square. but the image was apparently neither held sacred itself nor considered to represent anything which was so held. what proved to be a sort of huge natural amphitheatre. invariably the oldest The leader of the ballet woman present. availing themselves Coming one day suddenly over the — ground the better to took no active part whatsoever in the ceremony. of the natural rise of the see.) hollow square. performed by the mother and her friends on the marriage of a daughter. in : the district of the petty chieftain situated on the River Gu-ra. If a large number of women have been engaged for the day in any common occupation such its is as bringing in reeds. dance consists alternately of posturing by the ancient premiere danseuse in the centre. perhaps 500. but they . who sings a solo meanwhile. How it is a religious ceremony I cannot say. 1906). midway between Avhose village is the points in now the indicated on the map as Fort Hall and Fort Nyeri. women who form the Peculiar Dance on Completion of the Maize Harvest On one dance. who with The and of other ladies of mature years occupies the centre of a (Cf. stood around as spectators.

-^ ai cu z Q i88a .

phot.S.Pl. i88b . A Male Image Similar to the female one seen at the ceremony described and modelled by the same artist a few days afterwards. cxvii IV.R.

. The Same Image. cxviii IV. the prominent umbilicus.S.R. the Note the flat forehead. phot. Side View long neck.Pl.

PL cix. R. S. The monkey-fur ornaments ankle (c/. 156 h) is here represented by an arched cane attached to the upper arm. 156 h) are replaced 188 d . of the initiation rites [cj. PI. Peculiar Dance before an Image A group of dancers taken to sho\v^ the manner of their decoration ^vith the dried sheaths of the maize-cob.Pl. phot. by which time the shoulder frames had lost most of their decoration of dried sheaths. To this frame bunches of dried sheaths of the calf and by similar ornaments made of the whitish-yellow sheaths. are attached. The dancing-shield p. The photo was taken somewhat late. cix. cxix IV. p.

to which was attached about thirty maize sheaths. and formed up as a compact body in the arena. instead of being the fur of the Colobus monkey.ci^. The material of their dress was exclusively the dry. from which depended a bunch of maize sheath the equivalent of the white bushy tail of the Colobus monkey (gu-u) usually worn at the (4) — Mambura dance. The elements of the men's dress were the same as in everyday life. instead of the usual server (n'jo-gu-na).— THE MAIZE DANCE— DRESS 189 The men were specially dressed for the occasion. The costume (1) consisted of A A garland formed by a hoop. in the case of effective. . of which the ends. formed of cane. fibrous sheath that forms the outer covering of a cob of ripe maize. and consisting of an armlet passing round the arm as high up as possible. and the effect of such. backwards. is most An armlet worn just above the elbow. plus a special form of shoulder wing. whitish-yelloAv.) number (3) of dancers. as is customary. from which sprang a light cane ovoid hoop with its circumference directed forwards and the head about 9 backwards. In their hands they carried. extending about sixinches PL life-precix. allowed the maize sheaths to be arranged long white back-hair of the Colobus. p. leg. a stick about two feet long. standing out from the head Uke the rays of a star. (By constant informal practice an M'kikuyu can impart from the muscles of the shoulder a peculiar quivering to these shoulder dancing shields that action of the wings of a young bird movement much resembles the when anticipating food a large from the parent..p. (2) shoulder wing or frame projecting upwards above in. A circlet placed just above the curve of the calf of the like the P'. to the periphery of which was attached tufts of the dry maize sheaths. to the extremity of which a large tuft of maize sheath was attached.

(This particular jumping step is practised at odd times. Immediately on his so doing the crowd seemed to go wild with excitement. The whole party then departed to go through the same ceremony elsewhere. These images are sometimes male and sometimes female. The one I first saw and subsequently acquired was a female. supporting it on his extended palms." and explained to me that whosoever saw it must needs dance —he danced involuntarily. when had made very precise inquiries looks in a man and a woman . ^ each man stood. and one of A their The assembled performers then v. the sex being indicated by the small triangular apron which custom amongst the Akikuyu requires even the youngest . proceeded to dance it up and down. held at the level of his face. The Akikuyn always referred to the figure as " the little one. so they told me. apparently applauding and at the same time going through the set steps in perfect time. and what constituted good was then impressed upon me by them that perfect beauty required a low forehead. The proceedings took about times.ent through certain complicated Sir Roger de Coverley-like movements in a series of short jumping steps. a long neck. but more vigorously than ever. talking with the Akikuyu. and without moving from the spot where number addressed it. and finally ranged up in front of the elders. I as to it Some time previously.190 ELEVATION OF THE IMAGE small group of elders stood facing the crowd. The image was thus elevated for adoration three or four and then carefully wrapped up and put away. therefore. by the way in which the figure conformed to the canons of beauty thus previously laid down. and a pronounced umbilicus (slight umbilical hernia). and.) One of the old men then very carefully unwrapped a sundried clay image from its covering of green banana leaves. half an hour. I was much struck.

o o o 25 .

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it store of This festival takes place immediately after the in-gathering biennially. and that pounded m'we-li of the crops. but that no one would think of treating with disrespect. but never found one of these images. it was somehow so arranged that in the two whole years I was amongst them I never saw the ceremony again repeated. for. flour to was kept buried in the protect it from injury. value of curios. My in the friends explained to me that there was nothing sacred it image itself. it would certainly by the black troops. It is i. Being well known to everybody present. who quite know the . and made handsome presents to the image.SEX OF IMAGE indicated beyond being It 191 female child always to wear. cxx. have been brought in had one been found. a rather remarkable fact that two Government punitive expeditions raided this district subsequently. I had no difficulty in being allowed to be present or even in taking photographs.e. but the breasts were quite un- marked by a couple of blue beads. either personally or by repute. seemed to me at the time that the figure was not intended specially to express the idea of femininity or motherhood. a view that was proved afterwards to be correct by similar male figures being brought to me. PI. p. but though I expressed the greatest interest and devotion.

. winding course? ? hill ? yl. the hearth-stones remain. Did you snatch up your food hawk A. Ou-thi (scraps of food) and went like a to sleep." Such are the are known as "Guso. What takes a An N'dorobo on the road. Why do I hear Q.— — GAMES — — —— 192 GAMES The boys have form of a game amongst themselves that takes the a series of questions or statements. : What hangs down ? ? A." following Q. ? Q. and each is by heart previously. Q. Two boys recite in this way as fast as they can jabber. or "Do you hear. The Akikuyu also possess their share of the riddles which They are associated with savages or with our own child life. A. Q. the old men stay out. Question and answer have to be given instantly. little N'dorobo ? Ansiver. Like a hawk that has learnt lost his tail. each of which has to be replied to or parried ment. as it always excites interest and smiles. by a correlated question One lad begins by propounding a question : or state- Question. The A. What goes from hill to a noise A. The foot. Q. What did you eat yesterday. The game probably depends on plays upon words. and is not due to unprompted wit. Bananas. The ashes are poured young men go. The birds are in the shamba.

POLITICAL LIFE 25 .

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Relevant matter is forgotten. the details. lies in the fact that though only some six years have The willing elapsed since the English conquest. only after much agonised striving to make versions fit. He has a very good working idea. names and terms become confused. The strength reader of of English lay history in is taught that . about the realises power and position itself when he is that chieftainship in its present form an the English creation. fell before the Normans because they lacked government run mad. quainted with the old regime glorify their old men are apt unduly to own dignity in the past. The student looks sadly of the chief. irrelevant is introduced. that though leading principles are the same throughout the tribe. at the pages of his notebook. endeavouring to make clear to an Englishman the working of his tribal rule. the laid its hand on the old. the Saxons local government also. that they cohesion.POLITICAL ORGANISATION and intelligent M'kikuyu. and perhaps the greatest of all. is beyond his conception of what is reasonable. filled with information seriously given. 195 Kikuyu polity is local The unit . but to put himself in the place of any one so entirely ignorant as his questioner. finds himself in much the same position as an agricultural labourer at home trying to explain to a foreigner the ways of Local Government. It was ascertained also. vary in different districts. and to a certain extent the nomenclature. new order has already Young men are growing up unac. Another difficulty.

organisation. the white man may have his own views on the subject of their indefinite to obey his own. or possibly the local distribution of population consequent on the first settlement of new land. varying it is stated from two to perhaps ten of these homesteads. and expect double pay and rations. would. or as many as twenty or thirty. prior to the British occupation. If subsequent porters are needed.196 of all life MILITARY ORGANISATION is. The Medicine-Man bestowed a charm to be worn by the headman. and decline to acknowledge the first. others might have only five. Even these districts. A multiplication. however. the advice of one Medicine-Man. and such bonds would always be Umited by the rules of the clans as to intermarriage. The great bond of union was. the propitious A would be held. but himself judiciously stayed at home. The number of headmen in each district of course varied. As these leaders will do no work. As a matter of fact. a sheep killed. to and the influence of one of their have predominated. and usually declined The traveller is still a victim to this form of body of natives engaged turn up with their own appointed headman. the dwelling-place of the family. on occasion at any rate. it might be expected. For military purposes a number. These neighbouring headmen acted. however. these also will have their own head. generally fail to keep order. the homestead. or political areas. after some fashion in number appears council concert. Vague districts or larger groups of homesteads existed whose inhabitants would. be also united by a blood tie. as has already been explained. unite under a leader or headman. No man would serve under any other leader. One district was quoted as having perhaps ten of such leaders . the various clans do not seem to be associated with particular localities. . Geographical boundaries in an undulating country. suggested even to the Akikuyu some further combination. and lots cast to decide manner of attack.

according to a compiled by Mr. in the hands of the councils of old men. as far as arises to the dignity of a state. For stead is all civil purposes of government the head of the home- ipso facto a ruler. and keep The information regarding official ranks and administration is notes of interviews with some sixteen Akikuyu on about twenty-eight different occasions. These meet. at least one hundred and two chiefs in the land. the regions concerned are too small for the question of representation to arise it . The first official rank is reached when a man becomes the father of a second child. whose statements were very precise and definite. McGregor. under one Medicine-Man against an enemy such have Even in the present days of comparative centralisation there list are.CIVIL ORGANISATION if 197 they deserve so definite a name. The pre- tendency for one man in such assemblies to attain to eminence will be considered hereafter. depend not on the years of the individual. but on the relation in which he stands to the rising generation. or. the hillside. ^ He is supposed to shave his head. members of the grade to in districts this last ceremony it optional. confer. He then some enters the class of the Mo-ran'-ja. of which it is obviously impossible that account should have been kept. Official Ranks^ The degrees by which the official dignity of old age are reached. The most valuable help as to the status and duties of these different classes was finally obtained from Munge. were generally limited in . but no great conqueror ever seems to arisen to weld the tribe into one people. compiled from . ally unite Several districts might occasion- as the Masai. the extreme one valley engaged in warfare with another. and gives a goat to the celebrate the occasion is . There is no council of the nation. people in the valley fought those on the a small stream separated friends from foes. and act in varying numbers according to the interest or exigencies of the case. the government is patriarchal.

he is allowed to give in the first instance only one of these two last goats. the Mu-ti'-gi. the young warrior stage with but for lock being in theory a thing of the past . will fall to the rising generation. * This may . when a man's child is old enough for the formal admission into the child has gone through the rites. its adoption is compulsory. It will membered that head this is also the juncture at which he must office its cease to attend dances. The grade is not only of less importance. but also seems to be somewhat less definite than either of the two superior ranks. of the old men or governing class. in the Nairobi district place is apparently taken by attained the Ke-thi-ga.^ After the two more goats for the other Kiama to eat. he gives and he then gives one goat to the N'ja-ma. 1 This with a Kiama is See p. however. Ki-d-ma. and is then a fully initiated member tribe. office in Karuri's district its is known is as N'dun'-du . the Mun'-deren'-du. he is a poor man.198 OFFICIAL RANKS its shaved henceforth. Muirun'gu at present Mwan'gi this last in individual instance. be made from the wood of one of three trees. He is the respectable and established it In course of time was stated the . At the same time. There is also sentiment attached in his case to the bunch of leaves which Akikuyu often carry on a journey. of a family. — . The second first official rank. The equivalent members belong fact was checked to the older generation. 199. The Kiama has a wand of office. according to the chiefs of two different districts. and defer providing the second till his next child is initiated. holding meanwhile a somewhat inferior rank amongst his fellow Kiama. adorned this form be of re- denial. or the Mu-ta-zi. 2 and wears a particular type of ear-ring (ki-chan'-go). and which takes the place of a handkerchief. personal vanity is at times too strong. although in one district it might be deferred till after the birth of three or even four children The name as well as the conditions vary in different localities. If.

Pl. Meiiiertzlugeti phof. K. (by kind fei mission) A KiKUYU Eldkr (Kiama) Bearinsr staff of office. cxxi Capt. .

2. 13I oz. width. . . is shown in PI. PI.Ih-it. but hence this pattern is usually adopted heavy to carry by elderly men and by lads when herding the flocks. p. . 3 in. maximum circumference. r. [A*. — length. and bv which it is driven into the ground when not held in the hand. No spear is ever laid on the ground. 1 8 b. vii. shaft (c/. C/. 18 b) to Fig. PI. 13^111. p. . 36 c. weight. Length. which gives balance. vii.. — united by is maximum a wooden spike (mu-la). Mm. Vutkran's Si'EAR (Ki-an'-di) (i-ti-niu) The blade in. 16 in. The iron butt. or The it is fighting-spear .] A Fig. 3! weight. p. xxv.

more especially in regard to affairs or delinquencies outside the immediate homestead. told the It consists of are the representatives of the former military leaders. and ma-y therefore be presumed that the members of the force were persons of power and position. They pay their footing by means of the usual goat. generally speaking. who " In old days we were N'jama were as chiefs. Nairobi and Ko-ru-ri's) members of the N'jama are obliged to resign on becoming qualified to enter the Kiama. there exists in each body for which perhaps the best description of the is that of practical executive or glorified voluntary police." It and tell people not to kill Their position one of eminence. In some districts {e. in others {e." The body has a head. or in other words are co-opted. them rests the it may be keeping of order. body are dealt with by the Kiama.OFFICIAL RANKS formed of one particular herbage. They go far. but it is not surprising that the N'jama of a district have been known on occasion to become little better than a body of freebooters.g. Their powers are somewhat vague. one of the locality a little barns in the homestead. and which used when goes by the name N^jdma. can also be one of considerable tyranny. but placed on the top of seen using comes under his curse. Munge's) they can continue in the body if they desire to do so. but newcomers can only be received by consent of the body." is the answer usually obtained to inquiries on effort to this head. This term is speaking of the headmen it who used to take the lead in war. and include judicial attributes said that with . Besides the councils of the old men. young men. offences amongst this 1 The shrub is known as Ma-tu-ra N'gu-ru. but.^ it 199 and any unauthorised person When no longer needed the bunch must not be thrown away. and all are eligible.g. and one supreme make is clear their duties evolved the statement that they " go other people on the road. or in which more than one " district is concerned. Theoretically. .

where precedence and rank were strictly observed and the gathering was therefore of peculiar interest. com- prising the chief's own residence. which com- mands enters glorious views over the adjacent country first : the stranger the outer enclosure through a small archway in a hedge some 12 ft. some belonging to the homestead. and the rest visitors. was at a drinking-party given in honour of my husband by the chief Munge. in the administration of justice. These come from a distance. and who are always described by the Swahili word They act under orders from the N'jama and chief asikari. in the function. who watched The prin- and applauded cipal with their shrill little trilling cry. home The first real insight obtained into Kikuyu official circles.200 OFFICIAL DRINKING PARTY In addition to these regular functionaries. A lower. in height. and again through a similar archway into the inner dwelling ground. comprising thirty-seven persons. like all other compounds of the wealthier men. and amongst of another them their headman or leader. who form a sort of bodyguard. many huts. the bachelor quarters. The party took by huts were formed little distinct On the highest ground a removed were fifteen women. in- These were men mostly in the N'jama or executive force. on the right was younger middle the circle of honour. the dwellings of the respective wives. as be seen. life. beneath the eaves of a hut. Munge's homestead is on the side of a hill. different and in the shade given circles. Under the shadow hut a little to the left was . cluding the chief. in fact tainer in the household of the mediaeval baron. stay a few months. place in the middle of the day. It contains. and go but not pay. there may be seen to-day in connection with the entourage of a chief a number of young men or hangers-on. They receive presents take the same position as the armed reagain. and six so forth. will women little took a part.

who carry a wooden staff as a mark of office. two being given to each circle. A little gathering by themselves. the elders of the or tribe. two young married men. were six more old men qualified to enter the ranks of the Kiama. Munge 26 .OFFICIAL DRINKING PARTY a group of twenty old men. except to the circle of young men. but who had not yet paid up the necessary goats. the 201 judges Kiama. who did not drink. then took gourds of native beer (n'johi) and dis- tributed them to the gathering. while a Uttle distance was yet another group. the chief greeted him. By a hut on low ground near the entrance. fall to whom later would off higher judicial position . and introduced him to the circle of the N'jama. At what may ' be metaphorically termed the high table. were twentyIIZ22BBlMEa5Z2I A DRINKIXG PARTY SEATED ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL RANK. lower down. and consequently formed somewhat of a butt for good-natured jibes. On He the arrival of the guest of the occasion. comprised of Asikaris. Moran'ja.

Munge made a speech. Presents followed to the white strangers Munge gave my husband a rupee. one to the right and the other to the left. and fiUing up the horn offered it first to the chief guest the cup was again filled up and Munge himself drank. spilt or spat out a little of the liquor as a religious offering. and the ladies applauding. neck. he dwelt on the beauty of the situation. of the host.202 OFFICIAL DRINKING PARTY . is not without interest. whose pleasing platitudes were worthy of any . and lauded the popularity who. Two young warriors each sang a solo. as there up was a prospective scarcity. drinking about a pint and a half at a This procedure was the same in the other circles till gulp. the Moran'ja the back. The two gourds. and each man partook in turn. insisting on the necessity of being careful of food. the Kiama the belly and saddle. Munge's mother came up to the N'jama circle. proceeded to travel round the circle. he said. the young men the head. was nearly qualified himself to be a Medicine-Man. Munge made another speech. brought my husband a horn full of liquor to drink. and I received one from the head wife. and the chief's brother in the same way brought a special draught to him and Munge. One of the old men. The following list of the rights of different parts of society in the important event of the killing of an ox. According to custom the guests all the gourds were empty. from the group of Kiama. during which he offered prayer to God for rain and a plentiful harvest. The women are allowed : perfect quiet the inside. but this was not absolutely universal. began by washing his own drinking cup and hands. and the gathering then broke and dignified order prevailed throughout. and ribs. given by Munge. . and one from the eldest son. : after-dinner oratory . with their accompanying horns. A Medicine-Man followed with a discourse. but did not sit down had a drink and went away. The N'jama take the breast. all joining in the chorus.

. but it is The N'jama take part in the discussion. the goats paid into court by the suitors. Theft. The goats paid by the plaintiff and defendant are divided as follows Moran'ja take one leg. — It call falls to them in case of emergency. All the three bodies enumerated. Moran'ja. the Kiama who is receive all the fees. : — Religious Duties. also affix the bracelet of skin This they judge.— POLITICAL LIFE ADMINISTRATION It is difficult 203 to draw hard-and-fast lines as to the division of administrative functions. more particularly and include trying cases of It is offences against the Murder. Kiama also have one leg. and see that the goat is offered. Kia'ma Civil Duties involve person. Wounding. In which they worn as a charm in such cases. grades bring also with them religious duties. namely. part in judicial councils. they do not take part. Kiama. and the N'jama take the remainder. of goats is their paid to the father of the duty to see that the right number girl who has been wronged. They are present with the Kiama and N'jama on inquests for theft. primarily concerned lies may generally be seen taking to the department The best guide as in the distribution of the court fees. Seduction. to sacrificial together the N'jama. such as drought. conjointly with the N'jama. not right. and N'jama. Any share allowed to the N'jama of grace. The various Moran'ja Civil Duty. but they listen. as has been said. the Moran'ja being present.

its recovery would naturally be the duty of the N'jama. gave three which he had been judicially engaged. and markets . They perform various duties connected with ceremonial uncleanness other than those for Cf. In some cases.— ADMINISTRATION 204 Religious Duties. . The sufferer would appeal to which ever of the authorities was nearest and most convenient. such as seeing to the restitution of stolen property and deciding as to boundaries. since the English occupation. —To kill God's goat. a cow sold. eating the sacrificial sheep. To these. man who was lived about a mile away . —They take part in the in. added the somewhat prosiac duty of collecting porters. which a Medicine-Man must be called N'ja'ma Civil Duties include the following : To look after roads. Religious Duties. of marriage if . in this went and who instance the young man had friend My accused. 256. to bouring homestead had come to him. he to interview the father of the complain with regard to the seduction of his daughter. If. . to intervene in cases of riot at native is to see justice done in cases of breach . a Kiama. bridges. Judicial Procedure The following illustrations may help to : make clearer the working of these primitive arrangements One old man. stolen property had been removed to a distance. the duties of the Kiama and N'jama are apparently interchangeable. p. to catch If calf. illustrations of cases in A father from a neighsaid. sacrifice to God. and judge thieves is is to catch murderers necessary. of promise . etc. however. to see that the seller receives the gift of a to which he entitled by custom if the cow is prove productive. to decide in cases of dispute as to boundaries of land dances.

the N'jama one-half of The neighbouring chief wished for three rupees. or nearly all of the debt for the cost of collection. and one cut the other with a knife. but the law expenses were distinctly heavy. of whom my authority was one. had been at work in Nairobi. a friend who was immediately returning to his homestead. compUcations ensue. more especially as the friend had since died and his heirs taken possession of his belongings. One of our boys. are simple. take part. w^ent to cut wood they quarrelled about the wood. In the second instance. the respective fathers. and the dispute was settled by them. and would like to marry His father therefore had paid up the marriage portion . is kept by a simple device. though some little distance from that of N'jarge." The club of the first speaker is passed on from one to another of those who desire to express . the or discussion is held on some open space. fine of ten goats would have been exacted. entitled to be heard. When we were staying near the home of N'jarge the boy became anxious about his property. which he entrusted to The third case . The above cases . Here the judges were two Kiamas. apparently not denied. A shauri Those who are Order others look on. which was in Kikuyu. one the man's own daughter." was very fond of the girl.JUDICIAL PROCEDURE said that " he 205 her. and demanded a sheep worth five rupees. and a fine in sheep was paid up. a girls. the Bantu Lengthy debate on every second nature to the Akikuyu. N'jarge. two . or in our phraseology undefended when guilt is denied or is is genius for words possible occasion seen at its best. which takes the place of " catching the Speaker's eye. He therefore got two N'jama from his own The liability was district and went with them to claim it. — thirty goats if he had declined to marry her. and while there saved eighteen rupees. was a quarrel between two young men as two Kiama were to the boundaries of respective shambas engaged again.

puts the beetle in the banana and dries it in the sun. Independently. time. in practice. but chances are in his favour. The son may have no rights. as might expected. his arguments are overwhelming. has laid on this state of affairs that the English rule Melaspis Qlabripennis (Kolbe). as he It its himself has at the present time an elder brother relegated to private is life on account ^ of want of mental acumen. The hereditary tendency under such circumstances can hardly fail to be at work. must always be a powerful Munge for four men but this did not involve primogeniture. He finds himself gifted with many words. because after hearing the evidence he had intelligence to say that a Military talent also brought a man was or was not a thief. and no one knows that he has eaten the beetle. till JUDICIAL PROCEDURE and no man it is allowed to address the assembly he holds at in his hand. of such abnormal aids. and hangers-on. however. every one hangs on his utterance. A rich man many wives. it is power of conviction." man to the fore. he eats the banana and the beetle. was in old days a leader of shauris. into hands is ^ of those prized. .206 their views. " Such and such a man. qualified to exercise is Intelligence much carries most and the eloquence. A particular beetle with it an old man finds one of these he rejoices greatly. sons-in-law. The able riches. He takes a banana and makes a hole in it. man was the man who accumulated with and wealth is an even more potent factor in primitive than in civilised society. and tells no one. falls it. Two While the persons cannot thus all speak the same this theoretically old men be so are eligible for judicial function. force. or his father. claimed that his ancestors had been leading generations . where he is anxious that his words shall receive due attention. natives. Then the day before he has to go to a shauri. and if obvious that in every assembly one man with force of char- According to the acter will arrive at a position of eminence.

whether he would always be entitled to do so. exalting these leaders and making them responsible There is. now a tendency. administered. which would be paid in compensation for his death (his wergild in Anglo-Saxon phraseology). The N'jama But it also probably tend to stand increasingly in a personal relation- and act as a Council of State. men on it the tribute of honour due to old " He was only a young man. receive he were to world. The money people. and whether or no his priestly character was connected with his official position. for difficult cases to be referred from the old men to the chief.JUDICIAL PROCEDURE hand into the position of petty chiefs. chief who was responsible. die. is no greater than that of the commonalty. shows. as will be seen. or taken to the chief's residence and judged by the chief and elders in conjunction. for the collection of hut tax. " He would. be put out for the hyenas. was emphatically declared that the chief's power of appointment to the it body could always be vetoed by the body itself. 207 for purposes of administration. like the rest of the was explained." The Chief Munge. In the illustration given above of the method of the collection of a debt from the heirs of the deceased. or more democratic and monarchical. the older and newer. Disputes may even be brought to the chief in the first instance. . it was explained to me that in old days it would have been the business of the Kiama who lived now it was the ship to the chief. The greatest astonishment was expressed on the question being asked if if one of the principal chiefs would. A chief is still not distinguished in theory from the rest of the His daughter fetches no higher marli. of course." being accorded burial. two forces at work. took the lead in offering It did not transpire the sacrifice witnessed to N'gai (God). in the debtor's district to see to the matter. therefore. He is entitled to no special funeral rites. that Kikuyu justice as at present was primarily co-optive. it may be said. probably increasing.

goes and bakshishi which is tells the owner. chief join. and the elders agree amongst them- selves. ' : ' .' The defendant defendant. and claims the due to an informer. and other old men gather up. If this is unsuccessful. the court declares guilty . ask the plaintiff the accused still why he will said that the defendant was guilty if not confess." . the old men . concerned. " Any man who has seen a theft. from his district. both old men and and the defendant comes with his friends. the plaintiff. with the young men" (? N'jama)." The second version was given by a Swahili boy.— 208 JUDICIAL PROCEDURE of present procedure in the : The two following accounts case of a serious law suit seem worth quoting here The first is that given by an M'kikuyu. and of the defendant few and talk with your friends. ' say the defendant confesses that he will is guilty. who was well acquainted with the customs of the Akikuyn. The elders Each their side gives a present to the elders. come to the big chief. him but it is the custom of the Akikuyn every day to confess their guilt. and the old men. "go to the thief stolen property. all owing to the judges not being able to agree. Go and his party retire. and demand the property. he will not do so there is a local shauri. and they all assemble at the chief's quarters. both old men and young men. and the old men say and they say to the many. and his words are very few. from the big Every one has say. from his district. and the friends come back and young men. and he confesses his guilt to his friends. the defendant. The thief then restores the and if so. which he will not do in court. Two sheep are given. If the defendant not acknowledge his guilt. " The plaintiff comes with his friends. one to the elders and the other to the chief. The plaintiff and the defendant each has his The words of the plaintiff are say. he also gives a sheep to the young but if men for their trouble. Then the owner and the witness.

Such a stick would be passed from speaker to speaker. carved one piece. or " lifepreserver.] 208 a . in. This specimen and is is very old-fashioned. diameter of head. of wood. considered by the Akikuyu to be very choice." carried by a warrior or by an elder when paying a visit or attending a public meeting. [/?.long. Pattern unusual.N'JU-GU'-AFA YA Mor-a'-NI An ornamental n'ju-ou'-ma. Brif. i y. in 22iin.. ^rus. I MX.

CO 3 c/j o H D (J O !> P 208 b .

" later Wombugu himself. NOTES TAKEN AT KIKUYU TRIALS 209 NOTES TAKEN AT KIKT^YU TRIALS following are taken from my notes of trials at which was present. They all went off to a Uttle distance. .— . and discussed matters by themselves. at the time the opportunity offered. illness. The president of the court was at first an N'jama described as " clever of words and of much intelUgence. 25. plaintiff. 1 K. and as full information as possible obtained from those taking The I ^ part or through retainers. The actions of those concerned were noted. though severe full as I could wish. The accounts they are not as are accurate to the best of my belief. as I was. At the Chief WombiJgtj's Dec. One old man after was accused of stealing a cow belonging to another some discussion the president told the accused's party to go and confer. recovering from a somewhat and incapable of sitting for hours consecutively in a native assembly under a tropical sun. R. 1907. 27 . Cattle stealing. The accused confessed his guilt to his friends and afterwards to the court the compensa. The circle contained elders (Kiama from village of theft and from Wombugu's). witnesses. and defendant young men were seated outside.

saying if the guilty man did not pay up the blood-money he would kill him. saying. master. the It was decided to have been an affair of the market. about half from neighbour- hood of deceased. Boy. was a female with Sentence — " One goat to be . and then run away." killed Master claimed three goats. . I received information that the murderer had been sentenced to pay the due compensation. elders. present. Father offered to give compensation. saying that the one kid. The son of deceased made an impassioned address. 1907. " I am not Wombugu no to Nairobi. \^09>. 1908.— — . 3. All talked together. . Jan. Later. 210 tion NOTES TAKEN AT KIKIJyU TRIALS was mutually arranged. debate of an hour. Goat stealing An One of old man was elders accused of stealing a young man's goats. 28. son said turned on subject of reward to be paid to informer he had paid up once (a cow). Jan. killed. . so that it died. taken service. The whole sitting lasted about two hours. perhaps a quarter On the return of the judges to court. and father of boy present.— Murder. Another son also spoke. Dec. a thief. Elders went away and conferred. and he was sentenced to pay fifteen goats in six days. Small goat-herd had gone and struck the goat of his master The master pursued. and would not do so again The symptoms of the victim this statement was disputed. The elders again retired prior to decease were also discussed. thirty Some Kiama . for private consultation. and after remaining long absent the court was adjourned. Murder had been committed about six months previously murderer had run away and now returned he was not present at the trial. 8. presiding. if Wombugu awarded it. Goat accidentally presiding.

Wombugu presiding. Wombugu and elders of district concerned. . 8. The defendant said he had paid for the property. from Wombugu's district sued defendant from whom he alleged had detained two goats. the judges meanwhile partook of refreshment. plaintiff and defendant. or as friends only. Plaintiff it had borne three kids. Kiama of district concerned. plaintiff and defendant. Defendant was present. friends on both sides stated no payment had been made. also sent away Jan. and two others from Hen'ge's district whether in an official character. 1908. Detention of Goats. Young men had gone to a distance. defendant by his. Claim to inherit. —Purchase of Shamba.— — NOTES TAKEN AT KIKUYU TRIALS paid up. Master one brought. where four goats in all. — too small. making had resumed two goats and claimed . . Wombugu and Kaama from Wom- Plaintiff district of Chief Hen'ge. that he had not paid for the property. Finally. Jan. Large bugu's. a second brought. and died." 211 The father said he first refused to accept the would bring a big one. Present. Judgment given by Wombugu that the brother was to take possession. The defendant confessed to friends. did not transpire. One of the elders of the district had annexed the shamba the brother of the deceased claimed it. Present. 1908. and old man admitted the same in court. Court spUt up into three circles plaintiff was surrounded by his relations. circle. It appeared that plaintiff had placed a goat in the keeping of the defendant. 1908. 8. Judgment Plaintiff was to resume possession in four days. 8. etc. and subsequently to court. Plaintiff claimed defendant had bought shamba and not paid price. : defendant's property claimed ten goats in compensation. cultivated a shamba. Jan. saying it had no teeth . Present.

Judgment Defendant to pay up two goats. Case referred to Kartiri on circuit by elders of cerned. her father and the goats could not be returned. friend privately. boy stated the young of firewood. 1908. Present. one N'jama. plaintiff remaining alone. Jan.") At Chief Munge's Jan. Dispute between a small boy and young man. had two goats in his possession . The entered his shamba in quest the boy of insulting him. defendant confessed to still remainder. to ratify return of goats to young man by father of girl who had changed her mind. and declined to fulfil engagement of marriage. 4. It is generally the affair of the Medicine-Man. or his mother's shamba. friend returned to court. Later. goat. 11. — Trial by Ordeal (Mu-ma) Trial by ordeal finds place among the Kikuyu. Breach of Promise of Marriage. 1908.— — — 212 NOTES TAKEN AT KIKI^YU TRIALS Discussion in court. are all the same thing. Trespass. and young men cognisant of the affair. for they had been eaten is dead. one elder. district con- A girl had refused to fulfil her contract of marriage. but sometimes is . Before Chief Ka-ri5^-ri Breach of Promise of Marriage. Case tried before Wombugu. Judgment She must marry the suitor. Small court. man had The man accused to Boy condemned pay the (In answer to a question — " the boy's shamba. .

In the particular instance reported the flesh came off the arm. A death had occurred where poison was suspected. . and also of having done to death other people in the same village. They brought a sheep." The following instance of such a trial was witnessed by . Three were bitten. The elders arrange a forced trial by ordeal of mixing the urine of the two parties. on the spare land adjoining the village of the Chief plaintiff Wombugu. therefore the man was guilty. . The accused demanded all sorts of persons. it " cannot burn both. In this case they did not die. the and defendant being present. down he is innocent. and young and old. " both have told lies. myself in April 1908. it does not burn. A father accused an old man of having killed his son by witchcraft by means of putting sticks in his path. the man is innocent . The guilty one will die in a month if neither die. the eyelids of both plaintiff and defendant if it falls if it remains and hurts the man he is guilty. The following account was given by a native eye-witness. A preliminary trial took place. The persons whose guilt was possible were ranged in a row the Medicine-Man went down anointing their nostrils with medicine then he took a small animal (not a rat) and held it to the nostrils of each in turn. which was killed and eaten if they were guilty. . God would kill them in a month. which both drink. but suspicion was apparently not removed. ." The Medicine-Man puts hot ash into boiling water.— TRIAL BY ORDEAL superintended by the elders. as it was generally said that one had committed the crime. also the chief himself. which has to be removed by the suspected person. 213 are : The following some of the methods by which Medicine is guilt or innocence are decided made and placed on . The Medicine-Man makes a knife red hot in the fire and touches first the tongue and then the foot of both parties if . and these had to go through a second ordeal.

" not taken and non-committal. the skin of which had apparently been cut so that the flesh protruded. therefore." his friends. neck he wore a rough collar of grass or sticks put across his shoulders first by the Medicine-Man. why did he say some time ago. but as to a this affair lies they did not know told. their sheep. the head with the right. retired They trusted The defendant and this suggestion. and . it. village will ' . 'Your The come to naught ? " Both plaintiff and defendant stood up to speak. spitting out protesting his innocence in some on the grass and a loud voice between the mouth- . Two sticks had been placed through the neck. in old days have been killed on the spot. now they were " afraid of the White Men. to accede to clusion. he had not been seized ? answered that he had been advised to do so. the father armed with spear and sword and brandishing his club all were much in earnest. who went with him to buy the medicine. The evil-doer would. the truth If a about dies it it. had subsequently confessed. The line taken by the friends of the accused was academic " He had. but had hesitated to comply. the ordeal was in a tree. being apparently a foregone con- A native onlooker informed me that the guilt of the accused was known. he explained." The inquiry was held in the morning. man dies it is a great deal. was left a small female sheep the legs were held at with the hand." he argued. deferred till about three o'clock in the afternoon. and had assisted in storing it and also later in putting it in the path of the deceased. "If. Round there his In the middle crouched the accused man. if TRIAL BY ORDEAL he was held to have done plaintiff it." they said. and hoped that if would not be goat is nothing. and consulted on that the case would go to the ordeal. This raw flesh he proceeded to bite off and devour. because an accomplice. "the accused has done no harm.214 why. the result. It took place on a piece of sloping ground which formed a natural amphitheatre.

One of the spectators called out that " the accused must never again be called a poisoner. and later. for he had partaken of ordeal very severe. Through the root of this two sticks had in the same way been placed so that the intestines obtruded. broke the collar round his neck. 215 from time to did people die The onlookers : interpolated " remarks time." Three men were told off to watch that he did not have recourse to a Medicine-Man for purification and thus defeat the ends of justice. The . so far as could be seen. which he threw away. no part in the affair. ate two pieces of potato. As we were at the time on the way to the coast his it is impossible to state whether or not he established innocence by triumphantly surviving the effects of the " ordeal very severe. The father of the alleged victim took. twenty minutes or half The whole proceeding lasted about an hour." CODES OF JUSTICE particulars were collected For personal injury penalties are exacted as follows. sugar cane. such as "If he has done no harm. The man then took off the sheep. so that was at his right hand. the village ? why when he came near Half-way through the its tail ordeal he turned the sheep on its other side. from three districts. This he again ate in the same manner.CODES OF JUSTICE fuls.

— If District 2. besides. . District 1.. District 4. Honey „ „ 10 goats for man 3 goats for woman. honey from < 1 „ „ bee box I 1 „ „ For each goat stolen. „ woman. Wamaheu. it 1 See p. repayment 4 goats and 1 sheep for elders. all he has is taken and he no possessions. goats.. boy. For 10 goats „ 20 „ „ „ „ 1 For 2 goats District 3. —For District 2.." or a man is given a sheep to go behind and stab him with a spear. Karanja.^ to seduction has been already dealt For abuse country of a child. burnt alive with grass round neck. and he will become sick and die. but killed and eaten. repayment 10 1 goat stolen." The procedure with regard to divorce depends on whether a woman has. or . — Information from N'jarge. Persistent Theft.3 brother of Chief Wombugu. — time if hungry is fined one sheep for the Second offence.. If caught again. the culprit is said to be severely beaten with a club. Court interpreter at Nyeri. „ Chief Karuri. „ 3 goats. is "killed at night like a sheep. . — goat stolen.. the additional animals Where two forfeits are are the fee to be paid to the elders.. If a man proves an incorrigible thief. If goat is not put with herd. " the deed may be seen by the N'goma. fined twenty goats and sent out of the was added.. . — — For stealing r 3 . repayment 10 goats. . 2 4 . . fine 10 goats. „ . The code with regard with. 126. repayment 2 or 3 goats. son of Chief Munge. Theft. mentioned. ... District 1. „ . the penalty or is the same whether to man woman. or very old man. 1 ox 4 oxen. . „ for man. . District 4. first elders to eat.216 CODES OF JUSTICE of Except in case the injury is murder. „ child. banished.. For 1 goat stolen.

The next day the elders again a-ppear. A woman who does not like her husband can return to her father.KIKCYU justice 217 has not borne a child. if may theoretically tell her " to go it is she continues in her evil away " . the goats paid by the co-respondent. who gives them court fees in the shape of a sheep. and she can become another man's wife. passes on to If he desires to retain her. doubtful if this last is ever done. as possibly as five or six. many and they go to the co-respondent. and the co-respondent pays up ten goats and one sheep. and she can be sold again. and if she wishes to go her husband will not attempt to keep her. If she has become or is about to become a mother. the father collects the elders. a wife who has proved unfaithful has not borne a child. while the accused prepares n'johi. If there has been no child the marli will be re- turned. the refund of the marriage price cannot be asked for under any circumstances punishment is bestowed for wrong. liability of If. If there is the husband will keep it. the co-respondent in this case was not however. 28 . and she cannot be married Wives are never sold by their husbands. and courses the husband practically. owing to the value of women. The clear. If the wife is to be returned as an unsatisfactory bargain. a child again. The procedure then varies according to whether the husband does or does not wish to keep the wife. the father keeps all pays back the marli to the husband. drink the n'johi. which they eat and retire to their homes. doing by a severe beating. the father him five of the goats. and the Avife takes back a sheep as a trespass offering. which are taken to the father.

or the powers were themselves implicated. and it can hardly have been unique. the . the responsi- family (dealt with more fully in considering the . although it may scarcely be guided by strict rules of evidence. which appears strongly in the record of cases. This is shown in the fate of persistent thieves at the hands of an aggrieved populace. and the carrying out power of public opinion behind them and of custom bility of the secondly. The following forces tend for order of the decision of the elders. Public opinion. but are called upon to repeat their donation at intervals to while the trial lasts. Cases must also have occurred where the criminal or criminals were too strong for the local powers of justice. as expressed by the elders.218 KIKIJYU justice EFFICACY OF KIKI^YU JUSTICE The question naturally occurs how far were. most likely does not go far wrong when it fixes on the criminal. Munge's son related that when he was about six years old there was . or are. One such instance was volunteered. as lynch law. in a prolonged case the plaintiff and and defendant have not only pay up their original fees of one sheep each for the elders. In addition to this there is a curious and childlike impulse to confess on the part of the guilty person. On the other hand. subject of clans) and it in the last resort. the court fees are no doubt a serious in the case of the less wealthy suitors. what may be best and murderers described. It has drawback been seen that half a debt may go in the costs of its recovery. though deserves a better name. goes unknown in a small and stationary community. Firstly. the Kikuyn methods of government successful in the detection Little crime probably of crime and the preservation of order. and information is encouraged by a substantial present being due to the informer from the injured party.

it goats taken. foreign to the Kikuyu temperament. as a rule. It would always be a great deal more import- ant to obtain the dead man's wergild than to reek corporal vengeance on his murderer. his father had been told they were no relations however. "The make father old men would " say. When his which gave birth old master returned he came back to of . he did not. The following little shows the state of affairs. " reif gretted the old days." But if a son killed the slayer of his " ? "Then the old men would say two men are dead. There he made enough money to buy two sheep. lies the tendency story to destroy local administration. they had no grievance. Private justice and feud can never be wholly eliminated in uncivilised in the foregoing community. native. you suffered wrong you righted yourself if you were rich you but if you were weak and poor there was Then. asked. went during his absence in England into service in Nairobi. paid for justice." Since the British occupation. An M'kikuyu named Ka-ran-ja. is of course and here again. justice for natives also administered in the English courts. even more than in the growing power of the chief. . because they wanted their The victims were If killed with the spear and their interfered he of his. gather. told in a would have The story was. Some less accurately people. the idea of revenge is. against whom goods. who had previously been with my husband." was the answer." The state of affairs was probably more or " summed up by one and were strong. a shauri." he said. way that showed had made an impression on the child's mind as something out of the ordinary run.KIKOYU justice a conspiracy of old 219 men to kill some rich neighbours. one to a lamb." was man wished to fight ? " "do not fight. and it has been seen to be threatened murder trial but as far as a stranger can . "if the relations of a murdered "What would happen. no redress. is the affair at an end.

What did. and the The present and avowed object ary is of the East African Judiciallowing for all to suppress native justice altogether as derogatory the British courts. but whether man's amongst an uncivilised people the methods on the native mind let off of a white court are always conducive to the ends of justice. except in the last resort. Not only has the native it is access to information impossible also extremely doubtful to his superiors. round at the time. have gone to the Kiama. and during was explained by the natives that in the old days Karanja would. of course desirable that a right of access should lie to the English courts. duly recovered. and appeal and that they should have endeavouring to the final word but for a white magistrate to spend also his time. seems both waste of energy and most undesirable. An official is allowed to administer justice accordit ing to native custom when he deems is desirable. in a position to by appreciate what but it Nor are his ideas of " making the punishment the crime " necessarily more successful. I believe. to the dignity of Even the imperfections of primitive methods. the owner's absence they were stolen. English disastrous to a degree. but the great chief Karuri happening to come laid before him. as a matter of fact. happen. of a culprit whose guilt is The effect well known. . this shows a point of view at which It is it is hard to arrive. no means follows that he that custom lit is.220 KIKUYU JUSTICE It his service. under these circumstances. recover three Kikuyu sheep. the matter was sheep. in grave cases . and they would have conferred much and got back the sheep . was that the boy went and told three Kiama . is because of some technical flaw in the evidence. entrusting the three sheep to a friend. now he would come Government official to the master and ask for a letter to the at Fort Hall (the capital of the province).

to East Africa. This comes with a peculiarly bad grace from a people who are fond of pointing to their own primitive government as containing the germ of future little if greatness. self-government. The courts in his district. namely. from time to time at the native This practice might be commended . am informed by a high official from Nigeria that the practice in that colony is for the EngUsh Government to depute a native to be present at native trials who has sufficient knowledge of English to make brief Since writing the above I notes of the same for the benefit of British official also attends the authorities. at a time when its methods can have been at all less crude than those found amongst the Akiktiyu of to-day.KIKUYU JUSTICE Theoretically also raising 221 of the natives it is an obvious absurdity to speak and at the same time deprive them of the best means of education.

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PART " III RELIGION Few who will give their minds it to religion will ever again think the rest of mankind. ridiculous or the knowledge of master the general principles of savage it superfltwus to- 223 ." —Tyloe.

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entirely undefined. were riding home one evening with a particularly A-V"^ ''^^ f4- We nt**- glorious sunset lighting up the summit rose above a belt of golden cloud. too. " He has no messengers {' askaris he does all his own work. religion was quite uncontaminated. which when our friend Wa-ma-heu lives on .PART III RELIGION CONCEPTION OF THE DEITY It is. a most difficult task to crystallise any human conception of that mysterious Power or Personality which transcends natural forces. It is said that the majority of Englishmen would find it impossible intelhgently to define their religious belief. even greater for the uncivilised mind. often creeps in through the mere act of formulating in words ideas. " God does not eat.Kenya.^tA (y wife nor children he is all alone. Error. He is neither a . but they are wrong. tions when feasible. The story what the Akikiiyu believe to supernatural powers in this life."' 29 . in their own words. and existence has been told. it need hardly be said. naturally. The Swahilis f 1^'^/-%^ a^-j^i/' t. volunteered. missionaries say that he lives in the il^ '^v/jl^ ^y^ 'l/' y He has no father nor mother. and think with regard after death. Until the last few years their natural of Christianity." In answer to a question." ') Another time he told us. "God (N'gai) of Mount Kenya. nor ^{^ i/^ ' A'.^ (Mohammedans) and the sky. \/{^ . which are themselves. Special care has been taken to disentangle as far as possible such concep- from any that may have been derived from the influence where it is at all possible that the two may have come in contact. . it of may be. and the difficulties in writing are.

the moon." with which is it compare the Kikuyn name for Kenya Ki-ri-nya-ga. as "all the same thing." turns for worship to the nearest object of reverence. THE DEITY knew The child nor an old man lie is the same to-day as he was yesterday." This God hears and answers prayer. a conception apparently not dissimilar to that of the poet when he sings of is One Whose canopy space. who has no " temples made with hands.: 226 . more especially on Kenya. The God is one and the same. " Do the missionaries say all this ? " The answer was " The Akikuyu is it before. be the same as that of the Akikuyu." The Being thus described is not visible to the ordinary mortal eye. the . great Power. the Sun. or Kenya." was. but also on Kinangop. of the To a question carefully worded as to the attitude Deity to men." The term usually employed in speaking of the Deity ( N'gai ) In solemn sacrifice he is addressed as is of Masai origin." " Whose robe the light. meaning " Place of Whiteness. Mwi-nin-ya-ga. I think. The prayer is of a Medicine-Man when he invokes Divine aid is addressed to God. or "Possessor of Whiteness. missionaries say there one God. The God of " And the God of the the Swahili would be the black God." localised in different In the same manner God's dwelling places. but the M'kikuyn. The reply received to a query as to whether the " ghosts of the dead (N'go-ma) could ever be seen. Akam'ba ? " " He would. probably in much the same way as an ordinary Christian regards a sacred building as the " House of God." Asked. known to the Kikuyu as Ny-an-da-rou. they are like God " but the sun." . for the old men say that they are all one people. lightning. " No. and in sacred trees. and rain are all in a sense worshipped as manifestations of the interesting to . This one is the white God the God of the Masai is the black God. but I think they are wrong.

give me goats. nor music. and State The and right to officiate the most solemn service. but such powers are held to be derived from N'gai. possessed was." of my beUef. The Supreme Being sacrifice." The Akiktiyu turn distress. performed as direct communion with flock. nor art. but if people are poor. and death. A brief and delightfully typical one was as follows "0 God my Father.RELIGION rather striking answer was received. give me sheep. " was a God of love. and are to be dealt J with accordingly. nature. give me children. God does not love him. is No religious service wooed rather than propitiated by could well convey a more it was The best which man awe-inspiring sense of the nearness of the Creator than the Kikuyu in sacrifice. but those who disobeyed him. From one in both resting on the same aspect it may be said to be State established. and it was most reverently offered for Divine acceptance. hereafter described. Presents to God estabHsh : a claim and prayers are of course for temporal blessings. or if a warrior loses his wife and child. to God ills in time of drought or great [ but the ordinary of life are usually ascribed to j the action of the spirits of the departed. devolves on the Elders and in the State. disease. but the beast of the in return. that I may be rich. . is conferred by rank On the other side are a body of Medicine-Men who are considered to be endowed with powers beyond the ordinary. Another M'kikuyu gave expression to the same idea before " God." he Christian missions had ever been heard of. to the best then he says. the sacrifice to N'gai. he said. the belief in N'gai. and exercised through his assistance. ) acting officials. neither building. This boy. in this case." Kikuyu rehgion has two sides. God my Father. " 227 God loves every one. foundation. or rather that Church are identical. punished by famine. had had no intercourse with missionaries.

188). I On nessed.228 RELIGION The performance of certain rites. is probably a development of patri- and as such the simpler and earlier. 108. It one occasion only a dance before an image was witThis has been already described (see pp. Ixxxi. which falls on the parents and Elders. and can be. that if such a thing as priority can be said to exist at all. fall under some circumstances to the Elders. The impression. left on the mind of a beholder was. is connected in some way with praying for rain. and in others to the Medicine-Man. such as ceremonial purification and trial by ordeal. It is quite conceivable that even at the present stage a clever Medicine-Men might greatly extend their claims body of and powers at the expense of those of the Elders. . The Medicine-Man takes no part in instruction other than professional. which PI. Speculation is idle and words no doubt vain where there are. what has been called the j State aspect of religion archal religion. to say how far it was of a religious character precise sentiments the figure is is difficult and with what Another image was regarded. however. no sufficient data. also made. and has nothing to do with the teaching of morality.

was selected. It was a ram with a white face. This I found on my arrival had been accomplished. and certain old men who were designated as belonging to the generation M'wan'-gi. into the waterless country of the Ren-di-li. . and its ears had not been slit : all these points being essential in a sheep for sacrifice. subsequently explained that this young tree would always Those taking part in the ceremony in varying degree. as I previously was aAvare. R. to the snowclad mass of Kenya. It was tree of the sacred kind A henceforth be sacred and never cut down. in addition to Munge and myself. Ki-a-ma. blended the On decided on. with views extending to Mount Kinangop and the Range of Aberdare on the one hand. S. To the south. 38). were the three official ranks. I accordingly sent word beforehand be found. ^ Mu-gu-mu. and who apparently 1 W. day appointed for the ceremony the site was first It was situated on a rounded hilltop. and all to request that an excellent sheep should be in readiness on a day when I proposed coming to his village. and Mor-an'-ja. A form of ficus. the land of the pastoral Masai. .SACRIFICE I^ TO GOD (N'GAl) HAD for some time discussed with my friend the chief Munge my desire to offer a sacrifice to N'gai in the orthodox Kikuyn fashion.^ though only a sapling. otherwise knovvai as muti mugu or sacred tree (see p. a sea of hills gradually merged into the plains of the Kam'-ba country whilst to the north the downs of Lei-ki-pi-a. In February 1908. possibly because our tents had previously been pitched under the shade of the ancestral tree of sacrifice. on the other. and. N'ja-ma.

This. A decoction is sometimes made of these shrubs to be drunk to Munge's : The company then adjourned in illness. immediately preceded by the wood for the fire and the grid. the grass second. Mu-im-bai Mu-gu-mu. When we vis-a-vis. Half a cup of n'johi n'johi. containing about a quart of (native beer). : n'gu-ru. and a solemn prayer in a low tone by Munge. Munge then filled his mouth with assistant in was offered was then formally poured over the sheep's head. This concluded the ceremony at the homestead. paying little attention. homestead on the side of the hill. Cho-cho. The women of the neighbouring huts pursued their usual occupations. eight different kinds in all two specimens of each were gathered. Mu-ta-mai-u. was the correct order. Mu-tha-qua. Of the articles required for its celebration the calabash containing the n'johi was carried first. The young warrior class neither took part nor was present. and opening his blanket. A small n'johi calabash was brought. and the sheep to be sacrificed placed Half a dozen notables were gathered closely around. thus forming Munge presiding. it was explained. spat also into his bosom all followed suit. and keeping at a respectful distance. The ground was cleared around the sacred * and blew it over the sheep's head. spat on the ground. Munge pointing out to the N'jama on the way various shrubs.^ Many of the plants chosen exude a milky sap. Mu-te- . and the sheep brought up the rear. arrived at the homestead I was placed under the eaves of Munge's hut. drank. A procession was then formed to the place of sacrifice. a curious and impressive group. such being particularly pleasing to N'gai. with the animal in the centre. Mu-ta-li. Munge poured about . The names of the shrubs were Mu-ku-yu.230 SACRIFICE were present rather as representatives of the older generation than in an official capacity. half a pint into a cup. The the ceremony did likewise.

let them not be very you.— PRELIMINARY PRAYER tree 231 by one of the N'jama. ill white man has come to my If the white be very his nor his wife. and I and the white man are even as of one mother. for the O God. Munge stood with of his face to the west. Let me not be very ill. white man and his wife get ill. because I and the white man unite in a sacrifice to cellent fat ram. the remainder retiring into the shade at a short distance. die. a big sheep have I dedicated. verse. and taking no part in the work. If the ill. ^ : The following " is a translation of Munge's prayer n'johi. because to you we sacrifice an exThe white man has come from afar to us. and has made an agreement with me to sacrifice to you. and the assistant then went through the same procedure. and then having translated. . for I have taught him how to sacrifice to you even as an M'kikuyu. accept this homestead. man becomes ill let him not The white man has come from . because he is good and is exceedingly well-off. ." Let him not — the sheep spread on ^ The branches previously gathered were then brought. God. home through the waters he is a good man the people who work for him he treats well let them not argue with him. and I also am good and rich. the assistant with his face to the east. Munge uttered a prayer. . During the prayer all of n'johi over the top of the tree stood with their hands held aloft. Wherever he may go let him not be very ill. verse by and at the end each verse poured a small quantity and down its trunk. The carcase This was obtained by subsequently inducing the chief to repeat his prayer it into a phonograph. All the N'jama and Munge then gathered together round the tree . The white man and his wife and I and my people go to sacrifice a sheep at the foot of a tree a most valuable sheep. As he did so the others repeated the responses. and its back and suffocated.

When the meat was ready it was carried to the precincts of the sacred tree. as women are not permitted by custom to see men eat meat. and carefully preserved. The carcase was carefully eviscerated and all the organs retained undigested food was thrown away. and two M'wan'gi all of these communicated by partaking of the meat. blood was collected in a calabash. and the ground . A part of the contents of this calabash was then placed in the stomach. The rectum and its contents were tied. an the breast bone. four N'jama. great care being taken not to break them. was given a discreet hint to retire. laid on the boughs. grid of the usual pattern erected over the embers.: 232 SACRIFICE in a resting attitude. myself. so that no blood should drop incision was made down the neck as far as One of the operators next blew down the sheep's nostrils. Portions of the piece in the leaf were put aside in the skin. The animal was now flayed. Munge then drove his knife into its heart. A long strip of fat was carefully prepared to wrap round the tree. The remainder was put in the ileum and secured in the same way. the kidneys. A big fire was made and allowed to . but the linear incision left an oval patch of skin attached to the breastbone. who had so far been made welcome. and a small quantity The bulk of the fat and this of fat enclosed in a leaf. except one of the . The eyes were removed from the orbit. the head being roasted first and the lower jaw removed. which was skewered and tied. and a large The meat was thus cooked. The company took their places in three groups. and. the clot being squeezed through the hands. and then the windpipe and great vessels were tied. burn down. with its was placed on a man's knee to the chest over the sacred branches. and the heart were next cut up and mixed with the blood in the calabash. Adjoining the tree were Munge. fat. thus making a couple of haggis or black puddings. At this stage my wife.

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but no meat. Munge first wrapped the strip of fat. before beginning the feast. my own pile of dedicated morsels was considerably fellow. Offering having thus been a.SACRIFICIAL FEAST N'jama. . The bulk of the fat meanwhile had been rendered down. The head was first placed to the west. did not. ^ No man who 30 has eaten sacred meat resumes marital relations the following •night. The penis of the ram was laid to the north.^ 233 of Under another tree was a group Kiama. . placed from time to time tit-bits on a pile in front of him beneath the tree these were the offerings made to God. When the last remains of the sacrifice had been disposed . he took a joint. but this being observed by Munge. and the thigh bones and other long bones split Avith a sword. tore pieces from it with his teeth. and severely reprimanded those responsible. and placed under the tree. round the root of the tree then. the others . larger than that of my The two black puddings contained in the stomach and ileum were dealt with last of all one was gnawed whole. the tip of the tail to the west. spitting also into his left bosom. The shank bones were gnawed 'pro forma. Each man. and the solid portion of it was also added to the pile of consecrated rneat. One half of the second pudding was then placed on the south of the tree. tough. as he ate. which had been preserved. was done very slowly. and cut with the sword or knife. he corrected it. Kiama under the The morsels other and all selected pieces for themselves.nd I did the same. two joints tree. Finding the half-cooked meat somewhat unappetising and exceedingly All eating . and the head to the east. He subsequently placed a junk of meat at the foot of the tree. Beneath a third tree sat the Moran'ja they consumed n'johi. were picked out and sent to the made to God. of whom two partook of the sacred feast. the other divided into two pieces. were held with the teeth.worshippers. spat them on the ground. and the remains of the joint were finally added to them.

where he may be heard moving amongst the branches. which early in the day were blue and clear. it was said. Meanwhile the heavens. was given me on It differs from that which detail. and retires. and the principal old man takes it and proceeds with it to the foot of the sacred tree at the same time he takes with him a small calabash of gruel. as God's answer The participants to our prayers. cooked first. all rose to their feet. The old man. facing west. and just as the ceremony concluded. hours. and pours out the gruel around. these broke in lightning and thunder. The following description the occasion of of a sacrifice my first visit to Kikuyu. then does God. and offering a prayer. preparation of the sheep. standing next to Munge.234 CONCLUDING PRAYER and held both hands aloft. between each outpouring The assistant. who stood facing east. and then retires a short way into the darkness. took the liquid fat. after a discreet interval. eat monkeys. returns to the tree . I witnessed. The ceremony concluded at 3. Munge. now descends from heaven places the offering like into his and. Immediately the last of the fat was finished all lowered their arms and burst into song. tree. followed suit. and leaving their gifts at the altar. swing himself down the climb back again into up the and depths.30. and poured some in small quantities over and down the tree. After the sheep is killed. N'gai. myself. The ceremony was described as taking place at midnight. singing a hymn. had been growing black with gathering clouds. He now places the meat offering on the ground. the much-needed rain. when the old man on the ground food. and recessed in the drenching storm. its one of the semi-sacred tree. and watched the . bringing with them. the black pudding is. who has seen the fire being made in his grove. but the account was given with great and I think it will prove accurate when verified. having lasted in all fiv& of. once more formed in order.

from amongst the branches high up. the elect. The Ceremonial Drinking op Native Beer AFTER Sacrifice to God (N'oaI) The of n'johi correct sequel to the solemn sacrifice to (N'j6hi) God is a gathering of those concerned two days later for the drinking . The old man then returns to the fire and to his and reports that N'gai has duly partaken of the sacrifice. to a summons. " N'ga-na were Munge. to the ear of his servant at the foot of future action. and seeks direction as to For this purpose he places his ear against the tree-trunk. replies in such a way that his words are conducted through the tree-trunk. . found the company already gathered inside one of the huts. and the proceedings are at an end. ^ The company responded and I K. and tinguish. My husband was unfortunately obliged to be absent from the camp. For a woman or child. the silence was barely possible to worshippers. R. assistants. while out of the darkness one voice after another arose in prayer. this also is a religious occupied by the manufacture of the drink. the headman of the Kiama. as it were through a stethoscope. The flesh on the gridiron is then eaten by the assembled party. I ^ arrived at The intervening day is When. I rite. or any but the tree. to witness this ceremony. dis- circle of Perfect and order reigned. Only the faintest glimmerings of light it penetrated within the hut. and has given certain instructions. the penalty is death. being made in all respects welcome." CEREMONIAL DRINKING FEAST and makes his 235 prayer to N'gai. and some of the women of the establishment assembled outside under the eaves. is pleased. was therefore the only white participant. and one of the at intervals. even accidentally. even in outline. in response the homestead of Munge. and. N'gai having partaken of the offering. Amongst those who took part N'jama.

and At this stage adjourned outside and sat under the . was passed around. and myself. shade of another hut in the compound there were then present six N'jama. all to the same effect. contained in a metal cup. and asked to grant these requests. two Kiama. identical with those It was not apparently necessary that part in the sacrifice two the persons participating in this service should be absolutely who had taken of the days before." The same blessings were then courteously requested for the white man and his wife." God was reminded that He had been given a sheep two days ago. fall The leader N'jama poured out a drink little of offering. and that our goods may be many. The vessel used for the liquor was first a horn and secondly a gourd. and women without. uttering a prayer. I was told. " That the clouds may give much rain. hear !). and. to given to sent to the me to drink. and I was specially requested to perform the office of passing it to them. the petition added. and letting a the liquor on the ground at the end of each sentence. The n'johi. one Moran'ja. with a perception of the situation which was almost pathetic. the chieftain Munge. that our wives maybe fruitful. The gathering way resembled precisely a dissenting prayer-meeting. . and " Sa-i in this Sa-i ! " (Hear. The prayers were. . we all my Kikuyu attendant. . " that the servants which they shall take unto them shall be filled with intelligence.236 CEREMONIAL DRINKING FEAST ! (Amen). More n'johi was drunk the wives were called up. and no sickness may come near our children that our herds may wax fat and increase.

known with regard to their certain that they have one point in worship of the snake. whose duty it was to instruct the neophytes in the mysteries. the In Karuri's country there are two rites is such societies. which is known 1 as N'da-ma-thi-a. Some portion of every hut was sacred. the other horn was reserved for the final festival. which is now in middle The first festival was held in life. 9. Preparation began for the second festival in September respect is severely beaten 1903. in all directions around the homestead of the chief tainess Wan'-go. It has been estimated that about half of the population are adherents of this cult. but it is common. and any one inadvertently touching it was fined. lives in the See p. The preparations took two years. namely. known Any outsider treating the subject with dis- obhged to forfeit a sheep. The part considered sacred was changed from time to time. One of these horns was used daily during the two years' course of instruction. which must be those of the animal N'don-go-ru. The snake.SNAKE WORSHIP In addition to what may be described there exist over as orthodox religion. and ceremonies. Houses of the ordinary description were built for the instruction of the neophytes. many parts of German and British East Little is Africa local societies of a semi-secret character. The worship of the snake has been twice celebrated by a great festival during the generation. i37 . In each of these temples were two horns. which as Ai-twi-ka.^ 1891. and known as M'wan'-gi. in default of which he is and his house burnt. Every hut was in charge of a senior.

dedicated to the snake. accidentally the Mu-i-run'-gu. stay in their houses.238 SNAKE WORSHIP is Ma-thi-oy-a River. which we were able to obtain with regard to the worship of the snake. and to protect from various ills. one man pulls out its hairs (sic) : these are used as charms. As soon as the snake has become intoxicated. beer.e. The sacrifice. and It is described as " very big and long.Such is the information. by becoming acquainted with those concerned. 2 p^ 307." in charge of a man named Mu-tha-ka. etc. 1 PI. A procession is formed to the abode of the snake. The horns are blown Avhen the snake is visible. we tell any man one word (about dying we will surely die. to discover much more. At the time of the festival oxen. every A portion of these are little district providing its share. The connection existing in the native mind between the rainbow and a snake is shown in various folk tales. It is considered to ensure plentiful rain.. for which we are primarily indebted to Mr. xl. he must instantly flee from him and hide. Those who blow the horns and feed him are held from behind to prevent their running away. the rest for his is reserved by the custodian own use. and again when he has finished feeding. bananas. On the day of the sacrifice all of the generation younger than the M'wan'-gi." The festival seems to be associated with the rainy season and appearance of the rainbow. Should a Muirun'gu meet a M'wan''gi. p. The this ceremony concludes with " because they say affair) if singing. is made into beer. which consists of meat. 66a.^ and sent out on to the water. They must not look on their seniors. McGregor. Secrecy is maintained. sheep. is placed in a goat trough. and by judicious inquiry. possible It would no doubt be by residing in the neighbourhood of the sacred snake itself. . The honey i. This was in our own case impossible. and honey are brought to him.

of eliciting his own views on the subject.CONCEPTION OF THE SOUL The Akikuyu have vival after death. with the object. the breath of Ufe. vol. is It also used as spirit. Cult. or ego . and his body in the grave ? " The conclusion was jumped to that there was no answering chord to strike." also applied to the will it is if a man suddenly stabs another on the road. according to Kikuyu ideas. it is and in a metaphorical sense as heart. The same boy afterwards gave considertheir interrogator aiming. about the habits of N'go-ma. vague but nevertheless existent. while the fact at which may be that they have not grasped the object is Our own experience was so much in point that it may be worth quoting. p. i. " live with God if he was dead. Tylor has felt it well fall to point out into error in at some length that Europeans are apt to too readily assuming that natives are without such ideas. . and a personal sur^ Dr. able information dead. but does not. a conception. but was met with bewildered astonishment on the part of our Kikuyu friend. ed. " How could a man. of spirit as distinct from body. 239 .. 1903. or the hit spirits of the The right phraseology had not been upon. Hence bad. said that " it is his N'gor'o which goes The N'gor'o it 1 ceases to exist with the demise of the body." he asked. depart See Prim. 418. it the expression of a man's individuahty. if possible. One of us had been talking as simply as possible to one of our retainers of what white men thought of a future existence. To the Akikuyu the is soul in life is the N'gor'o.

no difference between the state of the good and bad. " It does not exist. is Almost every disease caused by the action of a dis- . they are like God. Men fight shy of a bad man's hut and fields after his death otherwise there is. McGregor considered that on the disintegration the of the body it is N'goma till is set free. dance in words. say like me." *' No. shut up and calibre. A man's spirit after death is termed N'goma. though such ideas or €xist at the coast. Mr. to a man. " Do you ever see the spirits ? wife's shamba.240 SPIRITS during sleep nor trances. for instance. and the wilds and make a noise. they do not say A man's widow may be ill. doing harm. his hut. but there is not necessarily any idea of future reward or punishment apportioned If a man has been bad during his life for conduct in this life. It seems to be thought that the rich will be better off than the poor after death. In reply to a question. According to our information not a man's death that the N'goma comes into being." was one come together from different places. N'goma maybe bad may be of good nor bad. nor can it leave the body during sickness before the moment of death. " Where is my N'goma now ? " the answer was received." N'goma wander about. Again. " The spirit of a dead man comes and talks. N'goma wanders about after death. neither definitely Spirits cannot. and requiring offerings to keep it quiet. poshis sessing living persons. which is peculiarly unlucky to account . but it could not be explained how or why." According to another " they account." mind. relatives." " You can hear the spirits. There is no glorification of the warrior . but of a man's especially affect the locality death. be beaten. and tells him that one wife has taken another " Asked. " Spirits make a whirring sound. and the Medicine-Man says it is because the spirit needs the sacrifice of a sheep. it was said. as among the Masai. in the let Kikuyu neutral out of holes.

of a boy who had become and who refused to conform to the rite of circumcision. The Medicine-Man departed is called in. to the The spirit of a murdered as to man needs particular consideration in these matters. and interprets the fat. plained. for. a well-brought-up M'kikuyu spills a his drink before he takes any himself. it was ex- who had died at Nairobi. There intention of going spirits spirit. they act from without. but spirit of can also possess a man. as w^e say Grace little before meals. and long ago." and if one appears in the house it is said that " an N'goma has come. " ta-tu. made N'goma as well It is a little difficult at times to say for whom such sacrifices are intended. spirit's desires —usually the need of an offering of not satisfied.SPIRITS satisfied or 241 malignant spirit . a fat green object of about two inches long. It is interesting to compare this with the custom referred to by : Omar Khayyam when he says " And not a drop that from our cup we tlirow For earth to drink of. Just. Christian. If the spirit of the he will torment at night. and will eventually drive him mad." — The N'goma Thus the father is also at times invoked to work mischief. Amongst these is a certain caterpillar. The a father. to with strange noises. in addition to the which move about freely. declared his and sacrificing to the might go and die immediately. might enter into a child is at Nyeri. Possibly the distinction is not always of clear to the worshippers. there are some which have passed into particular forms of animal life. There was such great energy shown on the part ." A ta-tu caterpillar once crawled into the tent. is that his son also a modified belief in the transmigration of souls. Drink-offerings are N'gai. but may steal below To quench the fire of anguish in some eye There hidden far beneath. him whose duty it is make sacrifice. however.

but means instead good luck. of the natives in immediately getting rid of that unfor- tunately we failed to secure the specimen. seeing. spirit dwells in his eye If is all observes each good and bad act. and in each and every one of these birds is a spirit. If one of them comes of homestead and drops excrement. sufEocate A spirit or spirits are also said to administer justice with regard to another species of crime. a man enters and he an empty hut in order to and steal. and the offender become sick 1 The N'goma may and die. Such is and before crossing the river a handful of grass should be placed in some crevice in its trunk. The N'goma also reside in the hun-gu or kite.^ p. and one of any size crosses a man's path on a journey. and the returning owner will find the would-be thief dead on the floor. 22G. splitting its chest open. See . confidence seemed to exist that there were plenty more into which the spirit could go. Asked what would happen if one of them was killed. Hyenas inside the also contain N'goma. They kill a goat. three or four of the district are sent for. Accord- ing to it some accounts this contains a spirit. see the deed. a snake appears in fields it is unlucky. according to others does not. often situated at a ford. of leaves should be crammed into the it. the N'goma will spring out of the fire him by placing his hand over his mouth and nostrils. and that much food If will come the way of the traveller who meets if one. he will go back. N'goma Such a of some description can fire. and a little food and drink should be thrown on the ground before crossing a bridge. When passing an elephant's skull a handful reside N'goma in the sacred Mu-gti-mu tree. There the Kiama are also superstitions connected with the mongoose.242 SPIRITS it. also inhabit a house. Retribution can only be avoided by seizing a sheep. and remove them both. and pouring out its blood. mix its excrement with that of the hyena.

It is terribly cold there. said. which were then almost ripe. and its inhabitants have no clothes except a scrap of skin the size of the palm of the hand. and children. their faces when they sleep. freely. more especially looked upon as the residence of the dead of bygone generations. It is spective of moral or other considerations. or possibly elseis where. any rate. but no information could be gathered as to whether that would or would not be immediately after death. an under-world.— THE ABODE OF THE DEAD Whether I all 243 these last forms of N'goma are definitely connected in the native mind with the ghosts of the dead. a The following account was. which they place over spirits. questions elicited the very pertinent reply. Mi-i-ri-niya According to the description of one informant irre- resembles Hades in being the abode of the departed. am unable to say. While some of the spirits of the departed move about and others have passed into animals. but there The conversation " There is. the spirits who than a character other dates from pre-missionary days. women. given by one shows not only the at of belief in our It native friends during a late vigil round the camp-fire. Further dark. but that by some. tell you about the dead ? How can of I. and where it more could be extracted from this man The question. there Mi-kon-go-i. He was . " " living man. a vast number of bad These possess many cattle." this young man a dwelling-place where live is men. and is is a place from which spirits cannot emerge. " When I die. sheep. but nothing its locality about or condition. it also a dwelling-place of the dead. dwell there are considered to be beneficent." These assertions he supported by the following somewhat singular tale : " A friend of my brother's over his crops of was once keeping guard at night maize. however. " no God of evil. To approach a fire is for them an absolute impossibihty. shall I go to Mi-i-ri-niya Mi-kon-go-i ? " was answered in the affirmative. and goats.

and then the bad people could not seize him. and jumped into the hole and ran down it. and the man found himself among the bad people. and he followed. The bad people said " Why have you come here ? " and they seized him. So he came back to the place where my brother lives. At one it. The burrow extended an immense length. They were in number like the grass. and to him. pine retreated into the high grass and the his spear remained in the animal." It will be observed that in the first of the recorded folk tales the heroine also descends to the nether world. his spear He for from a distance and transfixed The porcuit. Three days from the time when he spoke he was dead. and sheep. however. . The hole extended for an immense distance. bound his arms and kept him many years. Eventually it opened out. I saw the man and heard his words. I was then a small boy. but it was very cold.^ 244 armed threw THE UNDER WORLD as usual with a spear and sword. And all the people came together. One day. o'clock in the morning he saw a porcupine doing terrible damage. man pursued The porcupine went down a big burrow. He also saw many cattle. goats. and went under the tree. men. The man ran and ran till he came to a fire. women. 287. like a path across a mountainous country. and children. he saw a great hole at the foot of a big tree. and he told them all these things that had happened to him. going first up and then down. 1 See p. The bad people followed him. so he made an excuse to retire.

' ' ' . Thou shalt not kill a man with a spear. following. they were said by God a long time ago. These are the words is my " father taught me. " Do the missionaries say all this 1 Answer." The next testimony is to the same effect. Don't steal don't say." The though the authority kill. He Thou shalt not strike thy father. Don't disobey your mother.' " Question. I would like some one else's things. The M'kikuyu third code is short and to the point. given somewhat different. and for them it is not wrong to steal. . a very definite traditional code of morals inculcated by authority. do not steal. but their words are words of fool- " ishness. I was taught by my father not to steal. This is shown by the sources. thou shalt not strike These words were not said by the MedicineMan. " They say half. They have. and his father before had taught him but some people have not been taught by God.' .' He said. These are not the not words of God. do take food out of other people's fields. bad." The prohibition to kill must be taken with reservations. like you that is very thy mother. received lives three different says. ' Kikuyu "God on Kenya. my father told me. they are the words of the old men. would be an entire error to suppose that they have no standard of conduct. Do not just quoted gave it as his opinion that 245 it would be wrong to . on the from contrary.' He said to children like this boy (a child of some twelve years). like this tent nor some one else's wife. .MORALS While consider it has been seen that the Akikuyu do not always that existence it after death can be affected by behaviour in this Ufe. " God said.

. or relatives by force custom in the case is immediate and clansmen anything beyond this a matter of expediency only. in the supplies of food voluntarily brought into the travellers' camp. He should have a small piece of meat This etiquette Europeans will do well to bear The visitor when leaving is not expected to make any return for the entertainment afforded to him and his men. On the other hand. his host gives him a hut. but not is if he were a stranger. A portion of the meat of the sheep. another for his retainers. or he would not have been sent. . Europeans frequently comment on the generosity shown as compared with other African tribes. given to him. also very fully regarded. a fat sheep to kill for himself. if your house. not necessarily looked upon as an obligation. the visitor should return to the donor. any stranger attacked in The injunction not to seniors is steal is obeyed. amongst friends. when The practice in Kikuyu. in mind. that is killed for his own use. by the Akikuyu This custom rises from mutual convenience. is that when a rich man who is on a journey puts up for the night at the homestead of another wealthy person. then his quarrel becomes your quarrel. and the Akikuyu are as a nation particularly honest. to other virtues not in the is The of virtue of Hospitality of practised as a duty. For a chief to fail to send a sheep as a present to a passing stranger of importance would be tantamount to an open expression of hostility. The duty of respect for With regard Truth-telling is accompanying list. and the man who his host accepts such gifts to-day in a strange country would be ex- pected to acknowledge the obligation in kind returned the visit. somebody of importance. for the latter's own even: ing meal. and a quantity of gruel and vegetable foods. Its skin he must send to the mother of his host is the messenger. too. 246 murder a guest if MORALS he were of his own tribe.

and where nothing to be gained from One of us came man. it is con- sidered gracious to accompany it with some Httle gift. in order to be able to provide for the comfort of any native visitor of importance. and who are not likely to have an opportunity of returning in either it. too.HOSPITALITY but when his host of to-day presently 247 his dwelling. and ill. across a . poor. however or goods. fact that the stranger has eaten his food hut for is no sufiicient To the M'kikuyu the and is sleeping in his reason why he should not murder him. as has been said. Those who receive hospitality from natives. or to protect the and property which is of the guest. if any reason such a course seems desirable. acknowledge no moral or customary life obligation to befriend the poor or the stranger. old. in a dignified fashion. the constant When asking a favour of any kind. otherwise visits. should. whether travellers or officials. The Akikuyu. A well-ordered head residence. visits of officials. money So. the who has sought and been accorded hospitality feels himself under no moral obligation to refrain from treacherously stranger taking the life of his host. or camp. with a supply of firewood and cooking pots belonging to it. Most there is callous instances it is may be witnessed of refusal of its exercise. that he shall not be generous. sitting in the wilds by little fire. except under circumstances is to which allusion has been made. nification of Xapcra<i a word the sig- unknown to the black. of course. Conversely. which he had approached so near in the endeavour a to keep himself warm that he had burned himself most terribly. Natives notice these little things. is sent. hospitality where not enforced by custom. at once discharge the obligation and more especially become very onerous. a present. when sending a message. of a Euro- pean ought always to have ready a guest hut. and too frequently also to the white in British East Africa. by merely giving a few words of direction. however. trifiing. less comes to custom requires.

though not frequently. where an old A similar case woman was allowed to stranger. " very bad. if possible. acting should be punished by others. ^ The . and that he could do His back was placed in a hollow tree to guard. drowning. or desertion by friends the methods are is. but no food. The practice regarded as reprehensible. the Medicine- Man in his being the usual refuge in distress. starve to death because she was old. and that the fear exists in such cases of being there accused of poison. supernatural benefactor It will kills be noticed one of the folk tales that the hero is himself causes when are slain. either of good or harm. that a great horror of the defilement which occurs through death in a hut." If a friend hanging he however. The father tried to stab kill herself himself and the mother twice attempted to by hanging. and stabbing. Cases of Suicide occur. as some measure of excuse. friendless. man was a stranger. 320. when remonstrated with. replied. It and a must be borne is in mind. a calabash of water was near him." also occurred at Nyeri. that " the nothing for them. his man saw would cut him down. generally poverty. from the attacks of the hyenas.248 MORALS The natives. An when instance is given in the Church Missionary Review for 1906 in which both parents endeavoured to commit suicide their eldest son refused to conform to tribal practices. hanging. rather than he occur where a man who had done wrong would by his friends. Bravery is not esteemed in the same manner as amongst some other tribes. but instances might be poisoned without his consent. . 1 See p.

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> O CN o I "^ o 248 b .

prophet.' To him he certainly turns in life. When he appears at such in the capacity of a prophet. of course." skilfiil man. the M'kiku3ru cannot be said to seeks be priest-ridden. a wise man. Ogi. particularly in regard to matters whereby the anger of the spirits has been roused. a This. most troubles which beset him in this present but he does not regard him as an intermediary between ' God and man. medical practitioner. Mundu Mogi = a clever man. The word used in connection with the tree that is held sacred— Muti Mugn. and is best be deflected. Kikuyu By his peculiar ascertain the decrees of destiny.Mugu is or noun = cuteness. he does so either of his own initiative. cleverness. petent to explain the causes of all misfortune. or in compliance with a generally V expressed sentiment that divine direction should be obtained in reference to the subject in hand. to my 32 . nor does he occupy official position connected with his special gifts. whose agency is essential if happiness after death is to be attained^ A Medicine-Man is not a public officer. mind. largely into is a personage who enters knowledge he can and advise how they may He has the gift of second sight. scarcely represents the idea conveyed. however. for he the aid of the Medicine- Man of his own accord. and in some sense priest. an At public deUberations and ceremonies he .THE MEDICINE-MAN The Mun'-du Mti-gu. and^he alone can prescribe the it. warned in dreams of events about to take place. McGregor me that the literal translation of Mun-dii Mu-gu is " a clever man. Every valley or petty guess ^ we may say tells district has its Medicine-Man. generally be found but only on the ground that he is a duly qualified elder. will. or Man of God/ combining as he does in his own person the functions of magician." to use the expression Mr. At a that these " doctors. abstract Mundu Mugi . I rites requisite to appease Nevertheless. He is comlife.

and where this family concerned the case the may often be found to have risen to wealth and influence. as much as from the fee demanded b^^ the practitioner./ influence and a substantial competency appear to be its general reward. as " the patient would not recover. The object of other medicines is scarcely so innocent these are dealt with under Witchcraft. but to pay a professional brother a price for the privilege of acquiring his knowledge of the rites and materials requisite for the working of a particular charm. Ra-zi-mi. but talks. No man otherwise than intelligent would attempt to enter the profession.! I The calling is not necessarily a hereditary one. . the father of the chief named N'du-i-ni. The simple native mind does not . heirlooms. nor does it seem to be associated with the accumulation of great wealth . In one case the Medicine-Man directed that three goats should be killed.250 THE MEDICINE-MAN in the widest sense of the word. stated that his clan possessed a medicine known only to him and to one other old man. that they act in good faith. but in a medicine for a disease. The reputation and prestige enjoyed by different Medicine- Men varies greatly. Certain medicines are is sometimes. a relation. The expense to an M'kikuyu of medical treatment is great. is essentially a specialist. derived from many is and from having been present at various ceremonies. and he did he would be refused. but refused a fee." The Medicine-Man in certain medicines. for us to realise the mental attitude of these soothsayers. however. but the is sum of their individual \ and if collective powers in the land very great. represent about five per thousand of the total population. but this results from the number of goats required to be slain. my impression of them. Certain men deal Kikuyu custom is not to buy a practice. not however in a disease. and from harm It is difficult This charm afforded protection from lions in war. himself one of the profession. fully believing in the efficacy of their rites and medicines.

in reply to inquiries. and with theological reasoning. that the Man of God bfecomes such inVobedience to a direct " call. and that the Medicine-Man. for otherwise these matters are never alluded to. As one man said. which appeal to that to it the form of the prayer it seems essential.THE MEDICINE-MAN trouble itself 251 the ritual. such as the murder of a old man or the drowning of an ox. THE INITIATION OF THE MEDICINE-MAN The Akikuyu say. Usually. He then returns to his house and takes a he-goat (n'sen'-gi) and goes to the homestead of . is to spend a night alone in the woods. Beyond that does not go. him misthe children and fortunes as a punishment for contumacy goats die. that he is a Mun'-du Mu-gu he has him leading a goat for sacrifice people coming to : : We revealed to him in sleep events that presently come to pass. His friends and neighbours are therefore prepared to hear that he he resist the call. It is the act of worship. The late first step of the candidate. and all men see that God has marked him out. then called in to treat him.'! One Mun'-du Mu-gu informed us that when he was a young man he had been ill. time he has visions of after time. and the inhabitants of the village become ill. may teach. who is probably a man in middle life. but it He talks to him in^ the night it comes into his head. a thing no M'kikuyu does Avillingly.]' Eventually he imparts these premonitions to his wife and Should friends. there is neither previous training nor prompting from withoutj j were told by laymen that he that is called finds that God (N'gai) makes him dream. in reply to the question as to whether the '1 profession was hereditary or not. it. God becomes angry. is A father God who : chooses the Medicine-Man. and sends : is taking steps to be received. however. had said that he saw that something in his patient which taken indicated that he too was destined to \ become a Medicine-Man.

" ished : to pluck out When is. on the site of his down-thrown hut. and return the day after to-morrow. " Go away. requires that the he-goat shall be either : all black or white one single white hair or one single black hair. and with his head entirely under water. a form of w atery for the admission of a man into the fold of the initiate made the occasion of a popular festival. must not have been a member of the flock of the postulant. and from is it he takes a small piece : a bit of the root. the population generally. his closest friends presents of skins of sheep and goats. His wife has prebring (n'johi). . The goat. the prophet goes into the fallow land." and selects a special kind of bush. and in particular the whole body of Medicine-Men of the pared a large supply of drink different sorts. by numbers. It must either have been given to him by friends or purchased by him of strangers. literally " seeds ") that are kept in his lot-gourd (m'wa-no). and all bring giftsof food of and of the universal beverage gruel is : called mu-thor'-a. and will be found. he has gone. who then says. These stones form the nucleus of a collection of counters (m'be-gu. Then.252 THE MEDICINE-MAN The occasion all the old prophet in whose hands he has decided to place himself. There are assembled all his friends and relations. would render the creature blemany hairs that disqualify the animal would be impious. On home the day appointed the future Medicine-Man goes to the of his Mentor. and brings the morsel home. is a Early in the proceedings he takes the flawless goat into his bosom. or a bit of the trunk. and into the art of divination public ceremony. This mystic piece eventually given to the neophyte in the course of his initiation. that into the "portion of the goats. Such is the animal he brings to his sponsor for approval. too. when he is dead. district. His initiation into the mysteries associated with certain medicines. he grasps two handfuls of stones. resting on the goat. He cuts this down. according to the case. and wades into shallow water accompanied by a small boy.

of all the Faculty he formally instructed. and a small piece placed in the neophyte's m'wa-no. cxxvii. Geological Museum. which. They each contain a different drug. and also inside the ear. at a respectful distance.INITIATION Emerging from the village. It is employed to mark different specific points on the body in many Kikuyu ceremonies. 9th June 1909. In so doing it of the river. (?) The fifth gourd contains i'-ra. whence rest presently 1 poured into the stomach. with a graceful narrow neck in its Your words are listened to. They are stoppered with banana is handed five pi. as thick round as the upper arm." Report by Mr. cxxvii. kind known as m'li-ge-ri. p. This medicine is essential defilement due to being it for ceremonial purification. P. upper is five inches. By partaking of strangers are disposed little is on the tip of The second gourd contains gon'-du.^ He is also given by his tutor the m'wa-no. the future doctor gourds (m'boo-thu). scrapes the trunk of the tree. F. Assistant Curator. on specimen submitted to him. The first gourd contains ru-s'Cc-ku. is " It — . is 253 he makes his way back to the arranged that he shall pass a tree Going up to the foot of it. The fourth gourd contains u-then'-gi. It is is cut and the blood collected it is first suffocated. after cursed by others. This is about fifteen inches high. The third gourd contains u'-mu. with the This is then cut down hoof. a white powder like precipitated chalk. he takes the right leg of the goat in his hand and. a cure for sterility. an antidote for poison. leaves for the present. W. with the a diatomaceous earth mixed with a large amount of the carbonatea of lime and magnesia. and the populace and friends. straight and narrow like a cucumber. In the presence the proceedings. p. in your favour. by the assembled doctors. A the tongue. Arrived at the homestead of his tutor. Pure diatomaceous earth consists of the skeletons of small organisms called diatoms. watch throat The he-goat is now killed. then its into a calabash. placed Pi. or lot-gourd. M'Lintock. every one about ten inches long.

is THE MEDICINE-MAN partially cooked on a large grid of green sticks. for his services. and his lot-gourd with its leather cap. The spot had been deserted and the hut intentionally thrown down. which is arranged over a mass of glowing embers. placed beside it. and one female sheep. I have. professional career. The Medicine-Men present have brought their lot-gourds. Custom requires that the medicine gourds and the lotgourd of the newly received Medicine-Man shall at first be stoppered with banana leaves. Each other practitioner present has one skin given to him. Each empties his m'wa-no on a skin apart from his fellows. on the Gour'-ra River in 1908. each with its mystic collar of goat skin around the neck. when it is impossible to obtain the correct plants to form brushes with. The neophyte then comes and grasps a handful from one pile. with their cowtail stoppers. but there. and friend newly received Mun'-du Mu-gu receives nine skins of goat or sheep. and varied contents. form brushes for the application of The long hair of these the medicines. Collars made of the skin of the right leg of the goat are placed around the necks of the five medicine gourds. The old of our practitioner — the guide. philosopher. A curse has to be brushed off. went to the late home of a deceased Medicine-Man. ^ A full description of the method of preparing a sacrifice is given on p. the contents so grasped are added to those already in the neophyte's m'wa-no. His wife follows him and does likewise. 51. but next day. and was confirmed from other sources.^ is The half- cooked meat partaken of by the Medicine-Men. . were his medicine gourds. Irregular practitioners are poisoned.254 of the flesh. he replaces them v/ith tips of cows' tails (ge-chi-si). and around that of the lot-gourd. With the two handI once fuls of counters thus obtained lots are cast to foretell his Finally. — The foregoing account was given to me ^ by a Medicine-Man in the neighbourhood of the chief Wombugu. or later.

M. giving herself out to be the wife of God. j .. never been present at the ceremony of the initiation Mun'-du Mu-gu. indebted to Mr. after a few days. In the Me-tu-me district. a native prophet named Ki-shu-ro went away with a friend to sleep in a native hut it was given out that he went up through a hole in the roof and came back in three days' time in a thunder-clap. was also said to have been translated. for these two instances.^ . and he saw God and heard his words. They taught no distinctive doctrines." The following is from another source and district. AVOCATIONS OF THE MEDICINE-MAN I^The status and functions is of Medicine-Men vary/ A few aspire to a position which transcendental and of pecuHar authority. with stripes on his back. . f The information "If a is now given is reproduced in the form it was received.AVOCATIONS of a 255 however. I S. and it did. a woman." Whom were they not to fight one another or the Masai ? " The Masai. McGregor.S. Both of these persons founded cults which lasted for about ten years. There was one such who lived near Munge's. returning subsequently to earth. God gave him some corn in a gourd and told him to plant it he told the Akikuyu not to fight. comes back. a little prior to 1898. for He went away two or three days and was with God. C. man is a great Medicine-Man. but no one asked him what God said to him they would be afraid. Nya-kai-ro. : . am R. 1 - W. " One man was on his bed. and sees God. He died when I " (the speaker) " was a child." In the Fort Smith district before 1897. A Medicine-Man of special pre-eminence may be at times translated bodily. and. and to live in peace. God came down like a wind " (illustrating by gesture) " and took him up. He said that a plague of insects would come. God takes him up and he not on earth.

not only by the Medicine-Man. thfi-hu is The word It therefrom. Defilement may also be brought about by means of witchcraft. some of them inevitable in the ordinary course The ideas connected with this ceremonial uncleanof nature. Tha-hu. it is it is For the_££ayer necessary to secure the services of the Medicinein his character of a cleanser Man. They have a moral code. purification is necessary. (a) Ceremonial Purification The Akikuyu have little or no conception of sin in our sense of the word. ^ By By stepping over a corpse. the exceptions. (6) He has the power of divination through the casting of — : — lots.^ following circumstances 1. ness are familiar to all readers of Leviticus. resulted. In addition to and combined with the above he practises as an ordinary medical man. which either protect from evil or bring it about. is used for ceremonial uncleanness and for not apparently employed in any other sense. priestly character in some sense appears. defiaflLce of Where such this^ in defile- ment has instances. The usual avocations of a Medicine-Man may be for want of a better classification placed under three heads (a) He is able to purify from ceremonial defilement. and from sin that his But even in this department some of the lesser and more ordinary cases needing purification can be properly dealt with. or by a parent's dying instructions.— — 256 THE MEDICINE-MAN Such men as these are. however. but impurity is incurred. either of the person or of the homestead. or ceremonial uncleanness. but by the elders. touching a corpse. : is incurred under the 2. not by its transgression. (c) He can influence events by the manufacture of charms. illness resulting . or of both. but through certain acts or accidents.

A long narrow gourd with a stopper formed from a cow's tail. This is the Lot Gourd. 2. A gourd of dif- ferent shape similarly stoppered. 3.Pl. CXXVII " Medicine " Gourds 1. It contains a variety of pebbles. 256 a . and various small objects which are used as counters. The leather bag which the " medi- in cine" gourds are generally carried from place to place. The "medicine" contained in it would be some form of dry powder. seeds.

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By eating food from fallen. 15. 18. 13.) By eating of a sacrifice when not entitled to do so. 21.^ by throwing a {e. a 19. By By woman striking sleeping in her upper garment w^hen it is inside out.^ By the excrement of a hyena being deposited within 10. By the entry of a hut by a hyena. 12. By eating food cooked in a smithy. The striker flock. 24. By being touched by the menstrual blood of another.^ must pay the cost of the purification of the namely. (Smith exempt. 7. By eating forbidden food. 257 5. By digging a grave. the flock becomes unclean. By a debilitating and incomprehensible disease. the enclosure of the hut. By eating food from a cracked pot or food cooked in one. 11. By being bespattered by the dropping of a kite. 4. By stepping on the skull or bones of a relative. By stealing from a medicine-protected garden. a pot into which a woman's bead has 9. certain birds francolin or kite) perching on sheep or goats.^ a hyena seizing a sheep or goat inside the palisade.^ a shepherd and drawing blood. By touching poison (u-ro-gi). stick). 8. 23. its a hut owner becomes unclean.g. and for the following account of the manner Can be purged by an Elder without the intervention 33 of a Medicine-Man. 22.^ By an Elder or an old woman falling down near 16. . being cursed by another list We ^ are indebted for help in the foregoing of ceremonial of their offences.g. 6. 14. By By By By a shepherd killing a bird or wild animal in the midst of the flock {e.CEREMONIAL UNCLEANNESS 3. 20. By a bedstead breaking wdth a person on it. one sheep. 17.

first towards Mt. and sweeps the floor of the houses of the patient and of his children. The broom — Leaving the patient. A goat is then sacrificed." vomit the sin. and his tongue is painted by the operator. purification. Certain shrubs are cut and formed into a broom. When defilement has been incurred. and after each the patient expectorates in the same manner. When offal. McGregor 25. the list is finished. which is laid beside the hollow. and the contents of the gut and stomach (ta-tha) are removed and placed on banana leaves in a hole previously made in the ground. the sheep's foot is dipped in the spits out pushed in the patient's mouth. . into the offal. He obtained the information through his native converts. The broom is then dipped in the offal the patient opens his mouth. a dog to die in the country. says. divine assistance. Kinangop. reports Mr. The patient sits on the ground and the operator on a stool. The Medicine-Man then cuts off the foreleg of a sheep and lays it beside the broom. and prays for the Kenya. 29. He next sweeps all his refuse . 26. the sufferer calls in He lifts up his medicines. man to be bitten by a dog. brushes the wall. The list of sins which incur defilement is gone through. a mother to drop her child. and secondly towards Mt. He is then commanded to " ta-hi-ka tha-hu. a 28. It is also Tha-hu. and addressing him. then divided into two parts and both dipped The Medicine-Man stands up and rubs the patient all over with both bundles. To marry a blood For For For For relation. " Ni-da-ni-na tha-hu wa-ku " I have purged your sin. a father to carry his son on his back. Different medicines are then added and stirred up. the Medicine-Man. and he is seven times. the Medicine-Man enters the hut. to Dr. 27.— 258 THE MEDICINE-MAN Crawford of the Kenya Medical Mission.

The flesh of the sacrifice is subsequently cooked and eaten by all except the patient himself. and value to about half a rupee in addition. I told him that somehow things had gone wrong of late the goats had gone off their milk the donkeys had got their backs chafed. The palms of the i-ra painted on them in the form of a circle the bridge of the nose. etc. He then ordered a few banana leaves to be brought to him. and forthwith departed to fetch his medicines and — assistants. and also a calabash of water to be fetched fresh from the tent. he appeared with his two assistants. The fee. or two warriors of equal rank. The following account embodies notes taken on one occasion in the district (December 1907). camp near my . stands before him. can be treated together. His assistants meanwhile went gathering certain plants near by. hands are extended and : A is family group. On to his return he chose a convenient spot in the and proceeded to excavate a hole in the ground the size and shape of a very small hand-basin. and the matter is at an and. which includes the skin of the sacrificed goat. and that he would soon put things right. patient. The Mun'-du Mu-gu having been summoned by my people. He told me to cheer up. " I drive uncleanness this 259 away from homestead. saying. If he were to eat any of the meal the defilement would return. Occasionally in different districts a Medicine-Man used to be called in to cleanse of Tti-so me or mine from sin. PURIFICATION clear of the village. Medicines are then placed in the palms of the hand and the whole swallowed. is now collected. Why was it ? Had any one made medicine against me ? He took the view that such was improbable.." then returns to the enclosure that surrounds the huts. etc. and that it was simply a case of personal ceremonial uncleanness that none could foresee. whilst a a bar of is it is drawn it down mark made with in the supra-sternal notch and above the navel. or patients if He and the more than one.

portion. and I had my lick the balance he then threw on to the surface of the proceed to business. Mu-zi-ma. This may be said to end the part of the three of which the ceremony consists. a little of the medicine. each of the nine plants was embodied in herbarium. He then proceeded to with a double layer of the green banana ground. or sweepy. I was : permitted to appropriate specimens of each plant for the me their names as follows Mu-ha-to (Waltheria Americana.about a quart of water into the basin. . and swallowing.— 260 river. until convinced that the oft-extended palm had become perceptibly cleaner than first it was at the beginning. When. for any reason. camp was refused. Mu-ho-a (Pentas Ru-thi-ru. removed its cow-tail stopper. Next he extended his palm to me. as previously explained. leaves. holding them by the unbound. thus leaving . Mu-che-za. water in the basin betwixt us . we could now From the calabash by his side he poured . Mun-do-in'-e. Mu-ke-ni-na. The Mun'-du Mu-gu now picked up the two brushes. Mu-te-i. Then from his medicine bag he took up a little gourd bottle.).). sp. L. and poured a small quantity of what looked like pounded charcoal into the palm of his left hand. each one about nine inches long. and he gave make two little One specimen of each brush. use made of the cow-tail stopper of the medicine gourds. The basin prepared and the brushes ready. squatting on my heels vis-a-vis on the other side of the basin. these particular plants cannot be is obtained when wanted. From these he proceeded to besoms. the basin he had previously formed in the Two handed specimens from each of nine different plants were then to him. and finished by licking up off his hand. These proceedings were repeated I felt with the different medicines involved. THE MEDICINE-MAN Clean drinking water already in the line. Mu-ta. He then rapidly repeated what appeared to be a set formula of words.

Leaning forward. Subsequently one handle was placed against the navel and the other handle sucked. Both handles were then crossed behind the right leg. was stirred with the two brush-handles again a similar formula dealing with sin No. now commenced. not be permissible for one of my retainers to take my To this no objection was offered. Again the bowl . as far as I could gather. the neck sinful retainer). the exchange having been made. it would place. with the as he did so. Immediately on finishing the last syllables of the passage he leant forward across the basin and pushed one dripping brush-handle into my mouth. after a little while I ventured to interrupt the Service and to ask the Mun'-du Mu-gu whether. 2 was repeated with the speed and precision of frequent practice. medicines. the Mun'-du Mu-gu placed the handle two brushes against the nape of my neck {i. till the last sin had been dealt with. recited the words. A sweep was then made downwards. thus bringing the brush against the back of the body.PURIFICATION the handles free. Again a handle was passed under one arm. "Spit out your sin. and. 261 stirred the With these handles he then first now floating on the surface. . words of a Litany of Ceremonial Sin. well into the water. considering I wanted to write notes. Part III. The right and left arm were . and subsequently behind the left one." No sooner had I done so than I found the handle of the other brush well between my lips and of medicine a similar injunction laid upon me. the Service immediately proceeded as before. passing over and then vicariously I the heels of the squatting figure. my words mouth and heard the adjuration to list Recollecting the length of the of the different forms of uncleanness. and. whilst the other handle was sucked and the form of spitting gone through. of the of my had to suck them three times then the handle of one brush was placed in the supraclavicular fossa. or that of the Manual Acts.e. I and again with its closing found the two brush-handles alternately in spit.

the back of the left foot. The patient repeated the formula.262 THE MEDICINE-MAN At each step the person being cleansed similarly treated. and drawn down the line of the tibial border of the right leg (with a female it would have been the of the nose. then the back of the right hand. spits and repeats the words. A medicinal plant (n'gor'-du) was placed in the patient's palm. finger with the medicine and stroked the back of the patient's left hand. The white powder (i-ra) was then produced. and the water defiled by the sin that it had washed off. " I spit out my sin. and finally the forehead above the nose. The sweet lu-thu-ko drug was then sifted over the patient. . the right foot between the big and first toes. A man and his wife were squatting on their heels outside a hut with the Medicine-Man in front of them a baby was on in progress near Ny'eri. as we were strangers to all parties. left leg) ." He was then brushed down in front and behind. and to carry it far from the camp to cast it away. . was placed on and on the tip i-ra four times. and subseThe Medicine-Man wetted his quently brushed upwards. the reward of his services was one sheep-skin. the medicines. and he was directed to eat it. then some of it the left side of the navel. As fixed by custom. The tip of the tongue was touched with the left as also afterwards the palms of both the right and left hands. and the Mun'-du Mu-gu was now at last free to carefully raise the banana-leaf lining of his bowl containing the brushes. and the balls of the and left thumbs. the insides of right and right index fingers. in the sternal notch. The following instance of a purification ceremonial was found and observed by us whilst ostensibly taking photographs. and he was directed to eat it.

who had eaten a certain goat in contravention of the instructions given by the father on his deathbed. It was explained to us that the child was ill as the result of the sin of the parents. out the house and touched over the roof with the brush The man and woman washed themselves with water from the gourd. and put it first in the mouth of the man.DIVINATION the wife's back . he touched the corner of the woman's left ear.^ (It is an ordinary custom for a dying parent to settle by directions that a female animal shall be regarded as sacred. and right foot. Divination of the It has been seen that some most important procedure of in the initiation of a Medicine-Man centres round the bestowal of the gourd. in order to ascertain the cause. and then of the woman. and only its descendants be killed. and instructions in the manner is obtaining lots. knowledge of the will of the Deity through the casting of This procedure used more particularly in cases of misfortune or illness. and sprinkled round all the patients. He swept . navel. 263 branches of shrubs were on the ground. which is almost invariably the " work of a spirit. too." and to prescribe the cure. This he did repeatedly. and a goat." The Medicine-Man then took i-ra and placed it on the man's sternum. (6). ^ This may have been a case of totem. and the woman washed the baby.) The Medicine-Man dipped a brush on leaves in water contained in half a calabash. saying the words. " Ta-hi-ka ki-u-ru. and a circlet round her ankle. They then went into the hut. made a circle round her navel. dipped it He then took the forefoot of in the gourd. but it did not so appear. . With it. also other words. "Ta-hi-ka ki-u-ru "(expel what is bad). the patients spitting each time and repeating the formula.

He had had. if if It is stated that in case of illness. which has been killed for its indeed. and as such assisted in pouring out the counters the point at issue was to find out from God whether a man who was sick was going to recover or to die. all eat the goat. If the sick man is only moderately ill. under the shade of one of the huts. cast. point Ues with the odd number left over. to whom he turns for advice. The owner of .264 THE MEDICINE-MAN is The method employed for a certain number of persons on the ground. it appeared. a goat is killed a very bad the patient number is is but not eaten is . it being customary for a own particular soothsayer. that a goat must be killed. an old man was the inquirer. very ill and this is consumed by two old men and two old women. interested in the event to sit round as possible been sorted in this way. a good number. The crucial fifties. In the first instance Wombugu was the inquiring party. The result was. whereupon . fully considers. when all have as far . parties were assembled The Medicine-Man and the inquiring on a mat. and seven a bad one. In the other instance. according to the Medicine-Man. solace.all present assist to The counters are stored first into heaps of ten these count. the spirit will not partake of the first goat. The first two were seen on different days in the homestead leading of the chief man to have his Wombugu. one of whom possessed a shamba which was the envy of his brother. in the heat of the day. a second goat killed. piles are then amalgamated so as to form next twenties. and then Two fifties are united to make a hundred. as. and then the patient would recover. . The following instances of divination by lot came under our notice. while the Medicine-Man pours out of his gourd at haphazard on to a skin a number of counters. if no one eats. passing These the practitioner to another. them from one palm and the whole number Five is of the counters are then returned to the gourd. two sons.

The sheep. and let none here be ill. had severe pains other than customary . ill. The reason proved to be that there had been great mortality in the flocks of the neighbour- hood. and honey. . without surrendering the coveted plot of ground. and not by the husband. Rs. that the spirit of a man who had lived no near and recently died desired a drink offering. w ho lived at Ny'eri. which was necessary." a sheep. or 7s. The sacrifice was made in Kikuyu fashion. Lou-be-a. was held in front of him. Rs. . door of the hut wife held the sacrifice him behind. that the young man was ill because he had eaten of the food of the shamba which the brother's spirit did not wish him to have. On visiting another homestead in the same valley. 1 drink : . and ascertained. by means of lot. R. God. however. for the spirit. and he must give it up. the woman was a Masai. however. In passing through a village the family was seen engaged in the manufacture of beer. Lou-be-a's " I have taken Lou-be-a said the prayer. information was brought that the final result of the sitting was that if the patient consumed the medicine of the soothsayer he would fell ill shamba and died.DIVINATION the 265 He. being pregnant. amount would be poured out 34 . but a Kikuyu Medicine-Man Avas called said that sacrifice He came and cast the numbers. total cost. doubt by casting lots. R. shortly afterwards also became and the brother took possession. 6d. The cost of the treatment involved was as follows Value of the sheep. A certain and the rest consumed. The mother of one of our boys. 4 fee to Medicine-Man. and the father now sought advice. recover. The Medicine-Man had explicitly stated that the sacrifice must be made and paid for by the eldest son at home. accept the fat. is always thus faced. 6. The Medicine-Man had been consulted. The oracle declared. and the outpouring of n'johi had already taken place. which had a white face. it was found that there also the sheep had died. by Lou-be-a. 1 . on its hind legs facing the in to be consulted. Later.

— 266 THE MEDICINE-MAN lot it was possible more carefully. A daub was placed on its bottom. the mountains being given their Kikuyu names Knowledge comes to instruct me. even as the white band of i-ra. A small fee in advance was asked for as customary. and finally a broad band was drawn round the inside of the mouth of the vessel with the thumb. the others squatted. The gourd was then held aloft to each of the four quarters." . much after the manner of Bond Street. I ask it . This was taken to mean that it was all right to proceed with casting lots. instruction. : no interpretation other than the truth. The performer being thus consecrated. the gourd containing the lots was next dedicated. I ask a clear Counters were then thrown out and counted into heaps. O God. The Medicine-Man sat on a stool. The matter in hand in this case was the foretelling of future events. He then took from his bag In the next example of divination by of medicine a calabash containing a white chalk aloft (i-ra. The Medicine-Man having six volunteer assistants. my head and instruct me in I ask it to put intelligence from Ki-lin-ya-ga or Ny-an-dar'-u. The business of divination proper then began. A shady spot was chosen under big trees near the camp.) It was held " into and the god of Kenya and Kinangop invoked as : foUows. and a mat placed on the ground. to enter into conference. as we ourselves were the inquiring to observe parties." A small quantity of the i-ra was then shaken into the palm of the soothsayer and the right thumb placed in it. I call Thee to witness that I give to the lots affairs. and an invocation uttered "I ask thee. The sun comes from very far. but by lot instead of cards or palmistry. a question was . j I The remainder was three. and a broad white mark made on the outer angle of the right eye. and a band drawn with the thumb from that spot to the lip of the mouth the thumb was then passed round the edge of the mouth. and the present given.

At the end of the seance the Medicine-Man declined to empty the bottle to allow of the counters being examined." The inquiry being made. the lot was again consulted. the result being apparently arrived at in part by the presence of a cowrie shell amongst the dice poured out." The white woman was asked how many children her mother had borne. DIVINATION propounded. Amongst the dice. which were mostly beans or stones. . whether boys or girls also. In order to make no mistake." Other questions and . . but could not say where. the other by his assistants. it was explained. and the result of the count was 700+20+4 200+20+8. answers Avere given on the same lines. but whether because of wives or war. was an affirmative answer. it being explained that one was for the white man and the other for his wife. Further information was volunteered that " the white man may commit suicide. but on arrival will find important business.. I do not know. to go home. the answer was again politely in the affirmative the numbers in this case being 90+3. but God will not kill him " and that " the white woman will not have bad luck on the journey. One heap was counted by himself. : . The same interrogation being made for the white woman. "That some one had died in her village in the past. if they were all in England? The dice in her case were interpreted as saying. The first question was " Should we have good or bad fortune in returning to England ? " The numbers were as follows 300+60+3 300+40+1. 267 The Medicine-Man shook the gourd and told these he out into the palm of his hand a number of dice divided into two piles. " He wants : : : . Some . which. The Medicine-Man then saw clearly that the white man was going somewhere. were the following objects with a history and significance. " If the white man will live to grow old ? " the count was 100+30+2. without a definite question being asked to justify it.

Piece of stick. whose skin had been put round the neck of the professional bottles. . which is bad manners or worse it happens again. with which a young man had brought home an ox carried off in war. who puts it in his gourd. meaning go and fight. He has met her . A piece of driving stick." Single coivrie shell. given by a successful hunter. Revolver cartridge case of foreign pattern. indicates " fight and prosper. Piece of wood from the tree of the Medicine-Man's initiation. and she increases the insult by looking at him with half -closed eyes. who Tiuo coivrie shells united by gum. indicate that a will woman bear twins. and the appearance in the lot of this twig . Woman's ring and piece indicate proximity of of Masai sandal strap. He then goes to her homestead. similar to those which may be seen in churches on the Continent. with which a European freebooter had shot a M'kikuyu. the appearance of this counter indicates that the traveller will meet a lion. This he takes to the Medicine-Man. If the question at issue in the lot be one of a journey. indicates white men near and hostilities. A razor or scraper. Piece of ear-ring of dead man. that a woman will not bear to any husband conditions as follows. are mementoes or thankofferlngs of important events in the lives of individuals. and draws his finger along her garment. as be seen. removing the nap. An overhand knot of ttvig indicates. for whom the Medicine-Man had previously made medicine. war trophies. Masai and desirability of hostilities. A man has a spite against a woman.268 of THE MEDICINE-MAN will them. The horn of the goat. given by a young man had slain another in war. on the road and she will not return his salutation. manages to touch her head. — Lion's tooth. signifies as above. under certain conditions. He makes medicine to " bind " the girl.

and a it portion of into each of the four divisions made by its four supporting thongs. A woman will ^ are also used part with her girdle. it across his tongue in the form of a cross he then put the mixture out of his hand into the water in the calabash. full of The old man filled the calabash half- water. uttering meanwhile certain formulae. but nothing will induce her to part with her medicines which are attached to for it. however. few of whom are without half a dozen of such " medicines " attached to the lower border of their broad waist-band. Charms protective purposes. He ^ The account of details is unfortunately incomplete. Into this mixture he dipped his finger and . A charm being asked for by the white man to preserve him from attacks of lions. and tipped powder out of each bottle into the palm drew of his hand. and at the same time transferring fully to paper the rapid and complicated action of the practitioner. man came to the camp with his Pi. owing to the difficulty both watching accurately. and a calabash strung by four straps and terminating in a single thong a stool was produced and a mat. The customer. The following are two instances ^ our request : of their manufacture at A typically weird old assistant and his small son. /_The charms usually. on which he spread his bottles. He brought his bag of medicines ^' cx.— CHARMS (c) 269 The Manufacture of Charms Belief in the efficacy of the lives of charms plays an important part in the Akikuyu. both men and women. require to be made by Medicine-Men. of . and sealed up in small sheep's horns the size of the end of the thumb.wi at first desired so to arrange it lion saw him first working that the moment the should run away. the Medicine-Man . its explained that this would hardly answer the purpose of being able to obtain a good shot. though not J always. and the medicine had to be adjusted accordingly.

The bag containing the bottles was passed nine times round the customer's head from right to left. quill. touched some more powder he had put brew with the He then tasted the same powder. red and black. Red powder was taken out applicant . repeating the formula each " Bad beasts. Finally some powder was tied up in a little package to be worn. The quill was waved five times round the patient's head and touched his tongue five times. placed on her lap. and the remainder of the concoction was gulped down with great gusto by one of the native onlookers. uttering incantations. as if he were about to sling a stone. and with it was touched the crown. and stirred the The quill was also put in the mouth of the assistant. and head. knees. . " All bad things. ear. crown. with the invocation. and feet of the a black powder then followed. elbows. The crucible was swung eight times round the patient's head. quill in his mouth. Two powders. whirling the calabash and its contents round and round his head. do not harm me. and he was made to taste the brew and spit once to right and left and once in front. were mixed in the palm of .— THE MEDICINE MAN 270 then got up and walked a few yards away. hair. be bound. and with it were anointed his shoulder." He was instructed time to swallow a little. all bad animals. and after another. The performer took a quill from a bottle. knees. feet. and put it into the brew in the putting the in his hand. with his attendant carrying his stock in trade. : to defend the white woman from evil : The Medicine-Man appeared. The performers sipped the brew and spat stirred the brew with an iron instrument and tasted. and addressing each of the f our quarters of heaven." The bottles without the bags Vvcre then passed six times round in alternate directions . The following charm was worked by another practitioner calabash. after one of the rounds they were given to the customer to smell. of one of the bottles.

so that he should not again come along it." it was said. He for this except the brief . and placed the undigested food from the interior on the path by which he. and knee touched with a black powder. forehead.CHARMS 271 the hand of the practitioner. back of neck. and the bottles without the bag were also treated in the same manner. he would have killed a goat. but first in one direction and then in another. knee. This indicates that medicine has been made for its protection will any one walking underneath the warning cord pains in the back. though strengthened and enforced by the profession. had passed. be afflicted with One of us passing inadvertently it beneath such a charm was made to come back while to be stepped over. and head. and she was given it to drink. Powder from various bottles was put into a cup of water. " if an M'kikuyu had seen a man in European dress go through his country. . right elbow. A black paste was used to anoint the sole of the left foot. the white man. A bottle was then passed round her head. and neck of the patient. The medicine was then sewn up in a small bag. elbow. It is a very usual sight to see a length of wild vine sticks along a stretched by the owner on high boundary. The bag containing the bottles was passed round her head two or three times in the same manner as previously. and touched on the two eyes. " In old days. " God likes it " The following is an instance of a charm manufactured by the laity. No explanation could be gained ! and conclusive dictum. and her lips. front of neck. forehead. the seam of which was rubbed with white powder and passed round her head and given to her to wear. two ears. was held down A skull may also at times be seen on a stick in the middle of a field of ripening crops. It was reassuring to be told that after this no harm could result from an encounter with the Mwe-sa-ga of Evil Eye. put the raw fat on his eyes.

The special powers of the tribe M'we-sa-ga have been alluded to." Midway between the charms manufactured by the practitioner and the layman is the special curse which a blacksmith attaches to the violator of his property by putting up the nozzles of his bellows on the land in question. When I was leaving for England. during He ex- some of my minor chiefs or would have been cheating me as regards the increase in the flocks. or scandal. By it my grandfather came to power : by It it is my father held the position to-day we hold our own. There is no fuss. Medicine-Men are skilled and unscrupuhave no doubt those with whom I have become acquainted always begged me above all things to give of the That many lous poisoners I . being the most valuable thing he could bestow. are hereditary in families." His father had a great reputa- tion as a Medicine-Man.272 would also WITCHCRAFT have secured medicine from the Medicine-Man. The Kikuyu word is o-ro-gi both poison and witchcraft. WITCHCRAFT The powers as well signifies of medicine can be used to harm your neighbour as to benefit yourself. headmen in my own country You put : : a little of it into their gruel : there is no pain or vomiting disposed the man gradually becomes more and more in- eventually he dies. : or unpleasantness. In the following instance the medicine was one of those which. the secret of our family. as has been explained. or the ladies of my harem been transgressing the rules of propriety. a small quantity of a certain plant. . m'ro-gi wizard. " my long absence from home. so that his gift would be the very thing for me. that the stranger might return by another road. plained that undoubtedly. a particular friend of mine brought me as a gift.

^ While poison plain and simple is. then lies down and fades out. /'But it they would never admit.. is an object that no man living has seen. then it has not gone. certain rites and anathemas. 35 . ever. " I have heard what you have said your words are the words of a fool." The sufferer replied that. or " that which is (or was) seen. He does nothing actively. namely from the Ma-tha-thi age. chief of Tu-su. The evil spirit left him the man was a changed being in a few hours. an individual under the jurisdiction of Ka-ru-ri. of course he would not die if I objected. of letting absolutely gone. and that . he has therefore necessarily been The M'kikuyu seems to possess the peculiar faculty himself go until he is poisoned.^ It is known as the Ki-tha-si. Near Tu-su. We are indebted to Mr. Had no notice been taken. though they were prepared to concede the fact that those who i. 9. as we were friends. for to look upon it is death. and now you say you want to die ? A spirit not your own has come into you. howI have not the least doubt that within a month he would have done so. but simply mopes about for a while. often used." ^ Report speaks of it as a stone say that he intends to me he had by special circumnow he had just heard that his brother was dead he therefore meant to die too. formall)' called him to me and said to him. in the possession of one De-gua wa Ki-ma-ni. . happy. I. sickened and must not be assumed that because a man " gradually fades away out and dies after having had " medicine made against him. died. and it must be driven out by j-ou need a beating by the guard. I say it is to go immediately. If I see you miserable. one of my men told stances lost his wives and his flocks. getting weaker and weaker. and you will be well and ^ As a case in illustration. A man will publicly and within a few days or weeks he will be dead. McGregor for first telling us about the existence of the Ki-tha-si. beatings.e. there are other and more subtle methods of injuring an enemy. Come every day at the third hour and tell me whether : 2 ^ See p. WITCHCRAFT them antidotes to the poisons of rival practitioners^ like 273 That defied they themselves did the their medicine. I have no doubt that he owed his life to me. This mysterious something is said to have been passed down from father to son for six generations. die. as has been seen. With much trouble I have taught you to grasp intelligence.

on some one else. specific.— I 274 WITCHCRAFT which was found by an ancestor of the present holder. when divination by numbers is sought at the hands of their Medicine-Men. As Kikuyu is a sea of hills and vales. with its occupants emerging at dawn to their daily business. and arrange for the Kiutter tha-si to be invoked. temporal and spiritual. and the two medicine " them retire to some solitary spot and " make i. and complete. and it is the custom the natives to build their groups of huts with the protective enclosure high in taking up on the sides of slopes. Hence this object. Then the is postulant. the two men then set up in front of them seven sticks pointed towards the victim's home.e. with the postulant or assistant. he would go to the holder and give him a present of seven goats. can be watched without the observer being seen. is considered of all the most unlucky. Now. avoidobservation. betake themselves in the early morning of to a point commanding a view of the victim's homestead. with its two sets of seven holes. inclining one stick in the direction the curse fly. the number 7. naturally lends itself in their imagination to mystic use of an evil character. Virtue then leaves the Ki-tha-si. it is and. In due course the guardian of the awful would then exhume it. to with his other hand behind his back touches the unseen Generalities are void thing at two of the holes and formulates in exact words one of the seven curses permitted to him. go through certain rites for the space of six days. On ing the seventh day they would take the Ki-tha-si and. takes the form indicated in the devotee's . we little by little learnt that if a man decides to bring ruin. On making inquiries discreetly. whilst there so held. and that in it are fourteen holes. Settling down in a suitable spot. carefully unwrapped. The Ki-tha-si in its coverings they place behind their backs. by the Akikuyu. as has been seen. each curse must be simple. seven on the one side and seven on the other. of thing. and direct. there is no difficulty up a position where the homestead.

the foot a person of higher rank (i-ki-ni-a) is If. and this is now given for what it may be worth. and discreetly made known that I was ready to conform. The insult may. whilst the guardian of the Ki-tha-si proceeds again secretly to bury his heirloom. and he wanders about everywhere without work or goods. value would have to be given to the extent of from : . and they get devotee returning home to await the fulfilment of his anathema. and a newly circumcised boy puts his foot on the top of another. it in To touch with gross disrespect. for they firmly believe that any accidental glance would mean instant them thence. and take to the Medicine-Man. its wrappings by its working with their hands behind their backs. young men are sitting round in a circle. as in a hypothetical example given. to all established custom. and to make. that of an older man. put it who so deals with that the intelligence of the boy departs. though I hinted that I wished to employ it. those little private arrangements that will certainly justify the popular belief in its efficacy. and then no other may get medicine and put man will wish to marry her. The next they separate. however. no doubt. 275 and stick. be expurgated by payment if it has been committed by a child. ritual. and fees. Other methods of revenge amongst the Akikuyu are as follows : A man refused by a girl her food. I could do was to gather from several different persons scraps of information to the above effect. The Ki-tha-si is then again awe-struck immediately covered up in users. the death. a different stick aligning the flight of each curse. Circumstances prevented my it ever getting into touch with the guardian of the Ki-tha-si. however. and both men shave their heads.— WITCHCRAFT prayer. as ever. flies to its destination in the direction indicated this is by the Seven times repeated. procure a hair of the offender. The most. On the following day (the eighth) a goat is sacrificed. the injured person may it on it grass.

a herb. . ill. it would have been very wrong for the husband to do so. who searches in and around the homestead with his horn to find the source of village is evil . The following curious history in the intervals of watching the said 1 was told by our Kiku5ni boy "If you think your trial : r- 213." The case. the water inside the goat ' . who .. 276 ." he said. and the victim falls ill accordingly." he said. would make a present forjfear of being bewitched. the fat had been given to God. the younger. rf:Again. and the ceremonially cleansed. Of the second goat. The third animal was the fee of the practitioner the fourth had been slain for the purification while the fifth had been cut in two An parts.proving a bad one. and. it a curse. such as a nail of the^Jead.however. if he offended.. Resource must be had to a beneficent Medicine-Man to counteract the charm. Ordeal. may be laid in the path which an enemy is to traverse. ^n object which brings with etc. WITCHCRAFT two to four rupees it would not be considered right to work a charm as above against a child. A young man offending against an old man would pay five rupees in compensation and even where the difference in age was merely between two young men. the husband had had one half and God the other. . the usual sheep are killed. " He would ' get. as the motherin-law had eaten the flesh. and so all would be well. and the husband had eaten the flesh. " had had to be slain. this kind of witchcraft is given under Trial by instance^ of kill a goat. our service asked leave of absence as his suffering from the effect of a spell placed before the door of One M'kikuyu wife was very in her hut. " the Medicine-Man. poor Kiranjui returned not unnaturally depressed by the expense of the treatment involved. The skin of the first was taken to wrap the sufferer in. " Five goats. would into the gourd of the practitioner would be poured and mixed with his medicine the patient would swallow the drink.

Journal of the Anthropological Institute. C. he Avill recover. and on the toes. also necessary to pass — . on the tip of the tongue. W. Marett has been good enough to deal in the Tate. C. a person has hsematuria. but if a friend is there he can seize the murderer and bring the victim home. xxxiv. vol. goat milk. See Appendix V. 277 you go and watch after his corpse has been put out in the wilds. and KikHyu Medicines. By oil.G. —Made of castor sheep honey. June reprinted by Mr. It is some of the medicine five times round the patient's head as he lies on the ground.M. a little of this medicine placed on the Cf. Hobley's kind permission : 1906. The ashes of the roots of a tree of that name navel. is a person sick unto death and a placed on the forehead. If magumo wood. and he will then come to life. " Mr. fat. Hobley. urine of a male and female goat and sheep. . the milky sap of wild little of this fig. water of various streams in Kikuyu. \^-ith the place of Kikuyu thought comparative study of religion. the tree has milky sap. on the on the buttocks. The victim then comes to life. A friend can get good medicine and apply it to the corpse of one so done to death and put out. R. It is also efficacious for a A spot Uttle placed on the gate of a If cattle is boma will prevent thieves entering to steal.- — MEDICINES friend has died from poison or medicine in the path." ^ The difficulty in altogether following this story is to believe that any M'kikuyu would have sufficient devotion or courage to adopt such a wizard comes and cuts thrilling course of procedure. R. Kagumo. is The following appeared in the Journal Man. If no one is at hand the wizard will kill him again. If ^ a person faints. p. a medicine placed on the end cough. Ghemhe. of the penis cures him. and the off pieces of his flesh to make medicine. 262.

taken with cures the patient. who may be even at a distance of three days' journey. Made from the bark of a tree of that name. necessary to call the girl. a httle of this oil. medicine. Mukosho. . Medicine to make a thin man put on flesh. Kanugu. This is taken by warriors during the periodic dances. — — Medicine to protect cattle. Muchanja Muka. It is not — . If —Made from the roots of a tree of that name. or tied on to an animal's tail. Made from ashes of the roots of the Kihinga tree.278 tongue and a spot of it MEDICINES placed on the forehead and on the navel will revive the patient. which apparently a species of temporary madness. Mukuyu. Kinoria. — — Medicine to call a person. If is —Made is obUged to come. some of the medicine and calls B. This medicine is put in a half gourd and mixed with water the gourd is then swung round the head by a string. she is obliged to come. he or if a lion comes to carry off the cattle it will will be caught be shot. If a little is rubbed on the gate of the cattle boma. It is also said to be a good thing to put a little of the medicine on one's weapons. —Made from ashes of the roots of a tree of that Medicine for gonorrhea. Mukuruka. . Made from the Muhukura tree. name. If A wishes B to visit him. Made from seeds of a tree of that name. Mixed with hot water it is medicine for a cold in the head. Kihoho. Lusuko. name. A eats B. from the leaves of tree of that a person is suffering from a disease called Ngoma. and a thief comes to steal the cattle. Its object is to induce some particular girl to come to him. little of this a hunter eats a medicine and rubs a little on each eyelid he quickly finds elephants or what game he wishes.

MEDICINES It is 279 not eaten. —Made from the roots of a tree called Mtanda Mbogo. Mwitia. Ngondii. This cannot be dispensed without payment. Ira. is medicine will rubbed on anything that a person desires article or to sell a buyer animal will be soon turn up to purchase. Omu. is This medicine given to youths when they are circumcised and they do not feel any pain. belonging to the Angare or Kahuno clan (Muhirika) of Kikuyu he belongs to the Tuso district. and the sold. forehead. If little a person is suffering and rub a little in a line . sterility This is a medicine for impotency in the male or . —From a tree of this name in Kikuyu. between the toes. throat. —A white earth from Mount Kenia. tip of the tongue. Men apply a spot of this to the nose. Karuris. from diarrhoea he is to swallow a around his abdomen and the also diarrhoea will be cured it is good for sickness during pregnancy. or Mundu Mugo. Siari. is This applied in each case when a patient has taken any it is of the other medicines and is recovering. a MedicineMan. River Muimbi. but women only apply it temples on each side of the head. loins. in the female it is not eaten. but a little is to be rubbed on the pudenda or the penis. If this —Made from the roots of a tree of that name. medicine is a little of this put in a camp fire. If will be cured. and in two days the patient Mururi. The ashes of the feathers — of the rhinoceros bird. The above medicines were obtained fromKahiga. navel. supposed to to the complete the cure. buttocks. but a little is applied to the throat. near . —Ashes of the bark of a tree of that name. no lion or other wild beast will come near to seize the traveller. between the fingers. .

cutaneous required stop. as might be expected in a country where every man and boy carries a " Hfe-preserver. plants as yielding emetics. however. " poisons. and no doubt such an is individual acquires a local reputation.e." For such. irritants. elements in the making of a charm but there they This manufacture of charms is so closely associated in the fide practice of the Medicine-Man with the bona use of drugs that it is is often difficult to differentiate between the two. astringents." or " medicines. surgical treatment is not attempted. recognise prove of practical importance in Medicine.NOTES ON PHARMACY. has as yet been observed by certain me in use amongst them. to a large number of wild plants. is practised by any one who naturally neat-handed. and attribute definite qualities. Of common accidents one most frequent is the rupture of the lobe of the ear it has been distended and undergone hypertrophy. No met case of bone-setting or reduction of dislocation has been practice is with. would not be likely to come under notice." . They i. no drug. case the surfaces In this are freshened 280 up with the knife . MEDICINE. One of the commonest forms of surgical injury depressed fracture of the skull. purgatives. AND SURGERY Though likely to the Akikiiyu give definite names. It is Surgery not associated with Medicine. Their surgical confined to dealing with flesh wounds —of these I have seen of the after many successful cases : the failures.

R. 163. See pp. MEDICINE. The slashes Sword to drainage. and similarly out through the skin on the opposite side. does not appear to produce the constitutional disturbance that arises in the case of the European. 281 when a good union is usually and spear stabs are sewn up with no regard One or more strong thorns are passed through the skin and muscular tissue well back from the border of the wound. A stitch of tough vegetable fibre is then passed externally. surfaces of the wound so. nor do they experience shock on injury to anything like the same extent that we do. the result quite neat. AND SURGERY and again brought obtained. 1 S. W. The key to their success seems to be in the fact that the until haemorrhage has practically stopped. are thus brought fairly well together and maintained bored -udth the awl. together. 33. wound is not closed Wounds with these rapidity. Hmited amount.^ Circumstances prevented any observa- tions being made regarding obstetric practice. to a people seem and the absorption of to heal with extraordinary remarkably deficient in sensibihty to pain. The edges of the skin are then similarly and brought neatly together by means of set a series of closely separate stitches each tied with a is reef knot. Dental practice and the details of circumcision have been dealt with elsewhere. yet they often do extraordinarily well. The path for the thorn is made by means of a sharp iron awl. 36 . in the form of a figure of eight. They are by nature septic matter. Should the patient recover. around the projecting extremities of the thorns.PHARMACY.

.

and from that gift all the Kikuyu flocks of to-day descended. "the descendants of an old man and his wife. God told the old man that his descendants should occupy the . and in accordance with God's command then given. who dwells there. and the old man went up the summit to see God (N'gai). called by them Ki-li-nyag'-a. 283 . the Akikuyu to this day paint present their bodies. " The Akikuyu are. or Ki-re-i-ra: both mean the White Mountain. As a memorial of this interview with God. but that the portion of the N'dorobo should be the wild game of the wilderness. 156." ^ Another version of the origin of the nation is as follows " Once there was a great hole with water in it the water : . who came to the present Kiktiyu country from the other side of the great mountain of Kenya." they say. Kikuyu country. and nought else besides. for certain great ceremonial dances. While they were on the slopes of the mountain they were on the point of starvation. and that they should Uve by tillage that the Masai should hold the plains. 1 See p. as differentiated from those of the Masai and N'dorobo. with patterns resembhng forked lightning. God on that occasion gave him sheep and goats.— PART IV FOLK LORE MYTHS The following legend is told by the Akikuyu as to their origin and the reason for their agricultural pursuits. and should have flocks and herds.

and then she rises again. When the moon comes to maturity. which is termed " Mu-ti-ru-m'we-ri." at the sides. nor sheep killed. The stars which attend on the moon are the moon's children. which was all forest. nor deluge be discovered. on the day after the death of the moon." goats and sheep do not bear. according to current belief." We are informed that when the moon is " dead. ^ No account could be arrived at as man and his wife in the water. A man and Then they came out of and journeyed to the Kikuyu and had many children." no journeys are undertaken. no sacrifices offered. I . and that. the sun fights and kills her. the water on to the dry land.— FOLK LORE in the centre 284 was deep and shallow woman lived in the shallow water. country. ^ See also p. 9. to the dwellings of the could any legend of a are accounted for as The monthly changes follows : of the moon " The sun is the husband of the moon.

as the product of the Kikuyu brain. slight alteration has been made where the language was somewhat primitive for modern taste. in a different part in these instances both versions are given. or by the elders of the tribe much astonishment was shown that the . to me ^ in Swahili by those to whom IK. not more than two or three at most. has been strenuously resisted.FOLK TALES {Sing. In two same story was met with again . good. translated into Swahili for my benefit. or this indifferent. They may therefore be taken. The white woman should care to hear anything so childish. with reservation. dramatis personce The not infrequent absence is curious. 285 . and in either to a process of double translation. R. or. even as they were The when the stories are most inconsequent. when the narrator spoke Kikuyu only." have been transcribed as far as possible exactly narrated. pi. and tales of proper names for the at times perplexing. is The source from which each tale cases the of the country derived is prefixed. more especially in such a tale as that of the " Four Warriors. bad. In very rare instances. N^gdnu) stories which follow were stated by the narrators to have been told to them as children by their mothers. but all temptation to embellishment or polish. their variations being of some interest. Ro-gd-nu. that they have in reproduction been subjected They were either told it was a foreign language.

round the camp fire after dusk has the flames light up dark faces. these half-clad children of a sunnier clime. "where God dwells"? Or it may be he is seated in the homestead towards evening. surrounded by happy mothers and little children. as will be seen. and beyond the circle fallen . and while some old dame tells the story the flocks come home to be in safe keeping for the night.286 FOLK TALES case have been of course again translated for the English reader. its little brown dwellings and ripening crops. which even so. under the shade of a sacred with gazing over the landscape. the boles of great trees are seen in the moonlight. the reader hear writer ? them in imagination as they were told to the Will he picture himself at noontide on some hillside. can hardly fail to have suffered by It has not in the process. when tongues are unloosed. been without hesitation that these offspring of Will the African brain are introduced to a northern sphere. he will at least deal tenderly with these romances of nature. . tree. under the eaves of one of those same little brown huts. away to snowy Kenya. he may form one of the gathering. Best of all. no means contemptible. is The descriptive power. while the mournful howl of the hyena his is heard in the distance seeking gruesome meal. Then as the reader thus lives in spirit amongst the surroundings which gave them birth.

. 287 . and yet a third year the rain failed so the people all gathered together on the great open space on the hilltop. there was no rain. " Tell us why there is no rain. " I am lost. . and the maiden is Wan-ji-ru. AND WHOM HER LOVER BROUGHT BACK FROM BELOW Told by Na-ga-ti5-u. and they said to him. the herds The sun was very hot and died. and again it happened a second.. for the purchase of the maiden. and this he did many times and at last he said. " We are lost" relations of and the together. old men and young men all gathered together." So the day they all after the morrow. where they were wont to dance. and every one of you from the eldest to the youngest bring with him a goat . and each brought in his hand a goat. and said each to the other. and she herself stood in the middle . and we shall die of hunger ? " And he took his gourd and poured out the lot. so the crops and hunger was great and this happened one year. Now Wanjiru stood and as they stood the feet of Wanjiru began to sink into the ground and she sank to her knees and cried aloud. The day after to-morrow let all of you return to this place.. THE TALE OF THE MAIDEN WHO WAS SACRIFICED BY HER KIN." and her father and mother also cried and said. " There is a maiden here who must be bought if rain is to fall. " Why does the rain delay in coming ? " And they went to the Medicine-Man. for our crops have died. Mother of one of of the Chief N'Du-f-Ni. stood in a circle. .

and they So she desisted. he pitied her sorely. and. and every one hastened to their own homes. and he fell back. and placed goats in the keeping of Wanjiru's father and mother. And he wandered the country day and night and at last. said. much rain will . and he his shield." And she vanished from sight. " Wanjiru is lost. but in a great deluge. But. and the rain poured down. and as one after another of her family stepped forward to save her. over he came to the spot where Wanjiru had vanished. : . I were sacrificed to bring the rain So he took her on his back like a child. saying. " Where has Wanjiru gone ? I will go to the same place. and her people would have rushed forward to save her. one of the crowd would give to him or her a goat. . " I am undone. " My people have undone me. for her state was miserable. and the earth closed over her. and he went by a long road under the earth as Wanjiru had gone. and her raiment had perished. indeed. and she said again." And he said. not. and the rain came in great drops. in showers. will take you back. and they rose . but come " and she sank to her breast but the rain did not come. as the dusk fell. and my own people have done this thing. and he lamented continually. as you sometimes see it. And Wanjiru cried aloud for the last time. And Wanjiru went lower to her waist. his feet began had sunk and he sank lower and lower till the ground closed over him." and sank to her eyes. and at length he saw the maiden. and she cried aloud. " I am lost." So he took and put in his sword and spear. but those who stood around pressed into their hands more goats. " You to sink as hers . Now there was a young warrior who loved Wanjiru. . and her own people have done this thing. He said to her. now the rain has come.288 FOLK TALES but those who looked on pressed close." and brought her to the road he had traversed. stood where she had stood. " Much rain will come " then she sank to her neck. as he stood.

and the warrior repented." but he said. . and But said he had business. and he said. . . and he allowed no one to enter. " Tell no one that Wanjiru is returned. But on the fourth day her family again came. his mother said." And she returned to his mother's house. and her lover went with the throng but his mother and the girl waited till every one had assembled at the dance. and he asked his mother to leave. and said." 289 together to the open air. So she abode in the house of his mother and then she and his mother slew goats. " You sold Wanjiru shamefully. been lost. . and all the road was empty. " Why do you hide this thing from me. and he wedded Wanjiru who had wait till nightfall ." So he paid them the purchase price. for he said.THE MAIDEN WHO WAS SACRIFICED people. so that she was attired most beautifully. . " Surely that is Wanjiru whom we had lost " and they pressed to greet her. and Wanjiru ate the fat and grew strong and of the skins they made garments for her. " Surely they are her father and her mother and her brothers. It came to pass that the next day there was a great dance. and their feet stood once more on the ground. for he said. seeing I am your mother who bore you ? " So he suffered his mother. and they came out of the house and mingled with the crowd. and the relations saw Wanjiru. but her lover beat them off. for they have treated you shamefully. " You shall not return to the house of your And he bade her and when it was dark he took her to the house of his mother.

the first from a young man. the second from an old woman.THE STORY OF THE LOST SISTER The two of the tales which follow are clearly varying versions They were obtained in different parts of the country. " Three men came here last night children. Now one day when he came back after he had been thus away. ^ h'ee frontispiece 2'JO . and M'wer'u was left quite by herself. . They lived alone. also p.^ and all the young women admired him greatly. A died long time ago a j'^oung warrior and his sister lived together in a hut. So7i of the Chief Munge had . while the woman is elaborates sympathetically the straits to which the hero reduced with regard to his food-supply in the absence of the heroine. 26. The Story as told hy N'Jar-g:^. The boy dwells in detail on the beauty same story. It is somewhat interesting to compare male and female points of view. The chronology the first is obviously more probable in the second than in story. so that he often went away from home to a long distance to see his friends. when they were there were no other homesteads near. of the hairdressing of the hero. M'wer'u said to him. thus making clear the otherwise pointless ejaculation of the sister in the first version as to the whereabouts of the gruel. Wagacharaibu had beautiful hair which reached to his waist. for their parents and the hut stood by itself The name of the young man was Wa-ga-cha-ra-i-bu. and the maiden was called M'wer'-u.

and they lifted her up and they carried her away. as M'wer'u had said. but they could not see one another and he followed and followed for one month. men have come and carried me away. and it said. with the three clubs and the three spears. " Who will shave the front of my head now you are gone. " Wagacharaibu." And Wagacharaibu cried aloud and said. and he felt strong again he went on and on a second month. and they took hold of the girl by the neck and by the legs. And the three men came back. see such hats even trees now among rain. and he became very hungry. you will find the gruel on the stool. out over the forehead so that rain could not touch the face . and among the the leather and of skin and a and he ate that. . and it had two holes cut in it and strings to tie under the chin. when he came to a big homestead he went inside. until he had travelled one year and four months. And he wore a hat such as men used to wear in the old days it was a piece of goatskin. for he was very hungry. till the hat was all finished and then he took his garment . and so he Avent on a fourth month month." But Wagacharaibu only said. and the cape was finished. When Wagacharaibu came home again he went to the house and found it quite empty." and he went away again as before. and the farther he went the farther she was carried away from him a^nd he heard her voice and she heard his voice. for we have no neighbours ? " And he plunged into the grass after M'wer'u. the mountains where there are many and much So Wagacharaibu cut a piece of ate it. and the voice was the voice of his sister. Go into the hut.THE LOST SISTER when I 291 was all alone. and you may Masai. and each had a club and each had a and if you go away and leave me all alone I know that they will come back and carry me off. Then being again hungry. . and as he went he heard a girl's voice crying from the opposite hillside. and again a third month. . . " You talk nonsense. and the skin stood spear. and he fifth .

never to be seen any more. . he slept there. fly away. like M'wer'u has flown away." So she Avent to her husband. and I have followed her many months and years. for the grain was nearly ripe. and Wagacharaibu ate of the flesh and became big and strong once more. and his sister took of the fat and dressed his hair. and as he threw a stone he would say. " Fly away. and she said. he told mother the words the stranger had said.292 FOLK TALES . and the four sheep were killed. but she paid no attention to the tale of her son and did not listen to it. " Are you truly my brother ? " for she had not known him. and she said. never to the little boy listened. who had carried her away in the old days. and the next morning he went out with the little son of the woman to scare the birds from the crops. " Fly away." and the woman's name was M'wer'u. and she was lost. so changed was he by his long travels. and when Wagacharaibu was not near. and the next day the same thing happened again. and I did not know you. fly away little bird. for she was indeed his sister." And the woman put her hand over her eyes and she wept. and he went home. and she got four sheep and three goats. " Why do you say those words to the birds ? " And he said. " Truly your hair is unkempt and your clothes are not as they were." his And M'wer'u has flown away. and the third day the woman went herself to the fields and she heard the words of Wagacharaibu. little bird. and I shall see if you are my very brother Wagacharaibu. and he took stones and threw them at the birds. like be seen any more. and she said. and put it on his shoulders and of the three goats two were black and one was white. but in a broken piece of an old pot. " I once had a sister named M'wer'u. . saw a woman cooking food and he begged a little and she gave him some. but you shall be once more dressed as in time past. but I have never seen her again. but she did not hand it to him in a nice And that night vessel.

And Wagacharaibu bought a maiden and brought her to the hut." And the husband of M'Aver'u loved Wagacharaibu dearly. . Now one day when the brother returned Wachera said to him. and he took ten of the goats and his sister's husband gave him twenty goats and he bought a second wife." but he said. and she took a spear and gave it him. and had many The name of the girl was Wa-che-ra. so that friends.THE LOST SISTER 293 and she made a cape. the name of the brother Wa-m'we-a. " You talk nonsense. but he gave it because of the affection he bore him. " Two men were here yesterday. She put on his arms brass and iron armlets." and she said. and the brother looked after the goats in the daytime. and along the path I will let it drop. and the goats of Wagacharaibu increased and multiplied. which was much more than the price of his sister. Once upon a time there were a brother and sister who lived and the mother died leaving many goats. but lived with the sister he had lost and with her husband. The Story as told by the old Woman NagatiJtj together. and if you go away and leave me they will carry me off. and it was the spear which her husband had carried when he came to the little hut when she was alone. " I am speaking the truth. and ornaments on his legs and round his neck. and he gave him twenty goats and three oxen. and gave it to her brother. and he built him a hut in the homestead and gave him thirty goats to buy a wife. Wagacharaibu. but when they take me I will bear with me a gourd full of sap which is like fat. so that Wagacharaibu did not go back to his old life any more. and then she " Now I see that you are indeed my brother said. but in the evening he went away from home. for he was very beautiful.

but again he went away. and to spring up into little plants. which marked the way she had gone. and so on till all the goats were finished. and he knew her at once. and he waited outside. but at last they were all gone. and at the end of that time he came to a stream. and if he himself prepared the food there was no one to care for the flocks. and Wachera came out. back next morning he found the homestead empty. but he had no one to prepare food for him when he returned at night. resembles the liquid fat obtained by melting the sheep's tail." So he and the children went up to the homestead." ^ Now that night when Wam'wea Wachera made a great feast and brought the goats home. and then he bethought him of to herd the flock." but the child refused but the elder child spoke to the younger and said. " Follow after where you see the trail. ' Now Tlic wild ])ulp gourd when ripe contains a soft pulp in which are its seeds.294 you can follow FOLK TALES my trail. his sister. had sprung were by this time grown to trees. and ever and again he heard her voice crying from the opposite hill side. " Give the stranger to drink. but he saw the track Avhere drop by drop she had let fall the sap which is like fat. and he said to the younger. and by the stream were two children getting water. for he was not the plants which . and when it was finished he slew yet another. so he slew a goat and ate it. and so he journeyed on for one month and half a month. but his sister he saw not. but she did not know him. and they lasted him months and years for the flock was large. Then he killed and ate the oxen one by one. for our mother said if ever you see a stranger coming by the way of the trees he is my brother. This . And at last he returned to his home and he took them out to feed. And Wam'wea followed over hill and down dale." The following day the sap began to take root. And when Wam'wea came gruel. for his sister had been carried away as she said. " Give me some water in your gourd.

for she said. And Wachera told her husband how she had found her brother. "Surely this is my brother Wam'wea. and she gave him food. " I have dwelt in the abode of my sister. . and he slept in the hut." and the young man took ten goats and said. as Wachera flew aAvay and never came back any more. till Wam'wea had received forty cows besides the goats and the oxen which Wachera had sent at the first. and as he threw a stone he would say. " Thy sister has sent these ten goats. and the young man returned. and said. " Take ten oxen and give them to my brother." and she went back to the house and sent for a young man. and she has given me no cup for my food but a potsherd. and again ten cows. and she said. " Send him yet more beasts." so Wachera sent ten other cows and again ten more. " Fly away. but he refused. and he . And the young man returned to Wachera. and still Wam'wea refused to come in. 295 into and he came on the her hut." and he would not go in. and told him to go and fetch Wam'wea to come . " He is my brother. for he said. and the heart of Wam'wea relented." but Wam'wea refused. Uttle bird. and so did others. and her husband said." And the young man went and told Wam'wea the words of his sister. and he would throw another stone and say the same words again. and how he would not be reconciled to her. to her." but Wam'wea would not and Wachera sent him ten cows. And Wachera said. but floor. and said. Now next day he went out with the children to drive away the birds from the crops." and another bird would come. " Why does he say the name Wachera ? " And they went and told their mother. and at last she came and waited among the grass and listened to his words. and this happened the next day and the next for a whole month and the children heard. but in a potsherd. not on the bed. and told her the words of her brother.THE LOST SISTER dressed as before with ochre and fat . " Take ten goats and go again and bid him come to me. not in a good vessel.

for you were not adorned as before. . Other relations all came and built eight huts for the wives near to the dwelling of Wachera. for she said.296 FOLK TALES into the house of his sister. " I did not know you. he decided that eight wives should be given him. and Wam'wea bought eight girls. some for thirty goats." After Wam'wea had been reconciled to his sister. and took the fat and dressed his hair and his shoulders. came And she killed a goat. and they brought in goats. so Wam'wea and his wives dwelt near the homestead of his sister. so the husband of Wachera sent to all his relations round about. some for forty.

p. 118. found a big tree near the place i see where the young man was asleep. and climbed up into it to what happened. Now he who had first said there was a hyena remained in the hut. the sons of one father. . and if there were I should not be afraid of him. Four young friend of the other warrior. and when evening came he went out on to the road and laid down upon it and went to sleep. and he took his spear. " I do not believe there is any such beast near here. the sons of another father. Now one day one of the young men came to the hut and he said. ^ The thingira is a hut serving as bachelors' sleeping quarters for young jnen and boys of one or more homesteads. in the road near here " and one of the friends said to him. but the other two young men of the thingira.THE FOUR YOUNG WARRIORS Told by an M'KiKtJYU in our service warriors built a hut (thin-gi-ra ^) and lived and two of them were brothers. one of whom was the friend of this first warrior." To which the first replied. 38 . and the other two were also brothers." So his friend said that he was not afraid and he would sleep that night in the road as had been said. a hyena. He therefore spent his time making his sword very sharp. and it Avas very sharp. " There is a very bad beast. Now as he lay on the ground asleep his sword stuck out from his side. and the other the together. " If you will go to sleep to-night in the road. and made that very sharp also. for I have not seen one. I will give you in the morning one ox and ten goats.

and so the first warrior was obliged to pay one ox and ten goats as he said that he would do. and those who had watched told him who had remained how the wild beasts had been slain. But the other two hyenas fetched yet another. And . when he saw that his also was slain. too. But the man awakened and sprang up and thrust his sword into him and he died. and he attacked the sleeping man. And in the morning the other two warriors came down from the tree and they said to their friend.298 FOLK TALES three hyenas came and looked at him. When the first one drew near he saw the sword and he was frightened and ran away back to his hole. Then they all went back to the hut. who was very big and strong. friends were dead. and he put his sword into him. was afraid and ran away. and he And the fourth hyena. Then the next hyena came on. " How is it that you are still here ? " And he showed them the bodies of the two hyenas he had slain.

don't eat my grain. all about the mother and the baby waiting and another old woman came down to ask what had happened to her. . And the bird said. and decked out and the old lady was so astonished at the sight that she stopped to look at him. . " Go away. and why she did not come back. and forgot in the hut .A TALE WHICH INCULCATES KINDNESS TO ANIMALS Told by the old Wornan NAGATtJU Once upon a time a young man married a Ka-cham'-bi and brought her home. stood and gazed at the bird in his ornaments. and forgot to go back. Kanionikan'ga in the midst of the stream. and the in her shamba." And this she did three times. and a third came. an M'kikuyu with necklaces of beads . and a fourth. and the third time she broke the leg of the bird. girl girl named ^ grew m'we-li and when the m'weli was ripe she gathered it and brought it to her homestead but a little bird called Kan-i-6-ni-kan'-ga. and the old woman who tended her went down to the stream to get water to wash the mother and the new-born infant. and said. leg. " Because you have broken my And he flew away. and then ^ - Fine grain. too. And when she got to the stream what should she see but the . and she. harm will come to you.came by and picked up grains of the m'weli and ate it and Kacham'bi picked up a stone and threw it at the bird. Described as a small bird — yellow breast — blue 299 back —jumps along. spluttering with his like wings and throwing water over him ." After a while Kacham'bi became ill and bore a child.

put down the babe and when she came to the into the bed. what should And at last Kacham'bi said. And the bird flew up to a tree. and the Kanionikan'ga ate and ate." Then Kacham'bi brought out corn and spread it on the ground plentifully. perched again on the bed and the child breathed once more. the Kanionikan'ga whose leg she had broken. and pinched it till the babe was suffocated. and stream. And when he had eaten he flew back to the hut. " Because you have given me corn have given you back your child. and found it empty." in plenty. in the midst of the stream with all his ornaments. and up to the hut. and " made medicine. Now the bird." So she got up. and all the people looked on." and . and he said. slipped out of the stream into the grass.300 FOLK TALES all I came down left in the rest of the people of the homestead to the stream one by one at all. when he saw Kacham'bi. and took the child's throat in his beak. . and he said. I . till there was no one " I the village must go myself and see what is happening. and so I have slain her child. and when the mother came into the hut. there was the bird and her dead child. "I have done this to the woman and because she would not give me grain and broke my leg I said I would work her ill. and left the hut she see but all the people gazing. and he perched on the bed.

" Do not tell any one at home that you have seen me and this same thing happened many days. and joined them together by means of little chains like women wear. and one who was very clever joined her back together. Wanjiru came out girl sat down and cried of her home among the stones and came across the water. who was dead." But her mother persisted. and she said. came down to the opposite bank of the river to get water. and one was the younger sister of Wanjiru and when the gourds were filled they each helped the other up with them on to their backs to carry home. " Who helps you to lift up your gourd ? Surely you are always last ? " And she said. But when it came to the turn of Wanjiru's sister. and there slipt it up myself." three children . and they Long ago — — found a house for her in a cave by the riverside. But she said.THE GIRL AND THE DOVES Told by the old Woman Nagatuu a girl child called Wan-ji-ru was beaten by her mother so severely that her back was broken and she died. they refused. for they said. Now — 301 . " I have seen my sister Wanjiru. And she became alive again. " I went among the grass. and she has helped me." and they went away. and took the gourd and helped her to put it on her back. and at last the child told. and the doves (du-tu-ra) came and gathered up her bones amongst the grass. . so we will not help you. and said. and the little and as she cried. " Your mother beat your sister and killed her. At last her mother noticed that the child always came home after the others.

and the doves flew away." and the mother refused. and they said to the mother. Then the doves all gathered together and flew to the home of Wanjiru. and the child came Wanjiru helped her as before but the doves saw her and said again. to help with the gourd. So Wanjiru refrained. and waited. So then they took back the chains they had given to make Wanjiru. the father and mother went too. " You must not help your sister. And the doves came once more and put Wanjiru together again. " Give us the chains you wear as ornaments." But when she thought the doves were not looking. " You must not help your sister when she comes for water. but they said. as was her custom. or we will again undo our work and you will die." .302 FOLK TALES So the next day when the children went down for water. they sprang up and seized her and took her home. . and when Wanjiru came. and all her bones fell to pieces again as before. Then the mother took all the bones and put them in the cave where Wanjiru had lived. and hid among the grass. and the one who was an expert took out from her head the long chain he had put in to join up the bones of her back.

so that nothing should escape. but the Hyena "That not nice. the rest of it black. and the Hyena liked it immensely. So all the hyenas took hold of the Kihuru some by his wings and some by his legs and his tail. The hyenas saw it." ^ Kihuru described as a big bird the neck white. " Among the stars." So the Sungura said. but the Kihuru became entangled in all the honey which came out and could not move . At last the Ki-hu-ru came. " Get The Hyena made friends me something with the Sun-gu-ra^ and said to to eat. and the animals came and offered to take out the stitches. and there he lay on the ground for six months until the rain came and washed it away. and he made the Sungura fasten up his mouth with pieces of stick. and he went where all the hyenas were assembled." So he climbed a tree and brought him down some honey. and said. and him he got to take out the skewers." And said. and he lay there ^ for ten months.THE STORY OF THE GREEDY HYENA Told by a small Boy. and he dipped some grass into the juice. : : — — 303 . and ate quantities. Servant of one of our askar'is him." The hyenas thought they would get some fat too if the Kihuru would take them. the Sungura is first brought him a skin. Then the Kihuru went and got a gourd which has white juice inside. an animal described by the Akikuyii as resembling a small cat tan and white underneath and having a short tail sometimes translated "rabbit. looking like melted fat. "I will find you something really good. " Where did you get that fat ? " And he said. and mounted with him up — ^ Sungura. but he said no.

. with only a broken leg wards the mother of all the hyenas there are now. would have been no hyenas at all to-day if just one had and she became afternot escaped. . and they were all killed. " Can you see anything below ? " And they said " No." Then he shook them all off. and up and when they were a great height up the Kihuru said to the hyenas. and they fell and fell from the great so that there height to the earth. but her children were born lame just like their mother.304 FOLK TALES in the air to get the fat as they thought. and that is the reason why all hyenas limp as you may see to this day.

THE ELEPHANTS AND THE HYENAS
Told by a small Boy belonging
to

our

Camp

The
ill

elephants once went to take

salt,

but one lady became

and could not return with the

rest.

Now

the others

saw

a hyena's hole, and they confided the sick elephant to his
care, telling

him

to look after her

till

she was better.

But the hyena betrayed his trust, for when a baby elephant was presently born he thought it looked so good that he
ate
it.

So when her friends came back the mamma elephant them what the hyena had done to her child, and they were very angry, but they said nothing, only told the hyenas
told

that presently the elephants were going to have a big dance,

and invited the hyenas to come and see it. And one hyena went home and consulted his wife as to whether he should go, and she said, " Yes, go certainly, for there will be much food." Now when the day came the elephants danced and the hyenas looked on, and a baby elephant, who was standing and talking to a baby hyena, said, " Can you root up that tree ? " And the hyena said, " It is far too big for me." But the little elephant said he could do it, and he went and rooted up the tree at once. All the elephants gathered up and began to fight the hyenas. Now the hyenas had gathered together the bones of many dead and put them in a hole, but the elephants went and got these and made them into clubs, and the elephants fought the hyenas and
the hyenas fought the elephants,
39
till

the hyenas were

all

306

FOLK TALES
down exhausted and went
to

dead, and the elephants lay
sleep.

But

just one of the

hyenas escaped, the hyena who had

consulted his wife, and he went
sorely because she

home and

beat her most

had advised him

to go, saying that there

would be much food. Then, being much beaten, she ran away, and took refuge with the elephants, but they said, " You are no friend of ours " so she had to go back again to her husband, and he beat her again, and that is the end. The moral is, it never pays to give advice but that is English, and not Kikuyu.
;
;

L

.^^m^

.:

STORIES CONCERNING THE RAINBOW (MU-KUN'-GA M'BIJ^-RA, LITERALLY SNAKE-RAIN)
The
Our
one
following two stories deal with the Rainbow, in
its

mythical aspect of a predatory monster which lives in water.
first

introduction to this animal was during a visit to the
falls

of

of

the

River Sagana/ near

the

chief

Kitongi's.

As we stood

in the gorge, looking at the falling

water, from below the natives related a somewhat incomprehensible story connected with a " bad beast which lived This beast " came out," they in the pool at the foot."
said,

" at night

and climbed a certain
It

which was pointed out.

also

on the bank," ate people. It had at
tree

one time travelled to the great lake of Naivasha, a distance of some forty miles, journeying all the way by water, but

had now come back again to its home in the falls of the When we had scrambled up the cliff to the top of the fall, we found the boys lying on their stomachs on the edge of the rocks, and gazing earnestly down into the foamthey beckoned eagerly to us as we ing torrent beneath " If we would look below," they said, " we approached. could ourselves see the monster." Bending as far as possible over the seething mass of water, there became visible in its spray a particularly clear and beautiful rainbow, the violet tone of which, either in the hue itself or its reflection, in the
it

Sagana.

;

pool did not, with a
like

little

imagination, look unlike a snakeof

body

lying in the depths
this

the water.

It

cannot,
is

however, be asserted that
^

particular

resemblance

Named by

us the Kitongi

Falls, in the 307

absence of any definite native name.

308

TALES OF THE RAINBOW
origin
of

necessarily the

the legends, in view of the fact

that there are stated to be

many

such rainbow monsters,

and

they live in lakes as well as in waterfalls.
:

Other information gathered at various times is as follows " The rainbow in the water and the sky is not the animal " When it comes out itself but its picture " (? reflection)

at night

its tail

remains in the water."

Another description
its

stated

:

"

When

the rain comes, the rainbow puts
lies

out of the water and
reflected in the sky
;

on

its

head back and turns red and is
it is

at other times

green.

It eats goats

and

cattle."

A legend was related by yet another authority, which the narrator was careful to explain was " not a rogano but
said to have actually taken place, though he himself could

not vouch for

its truth." The rainbow which lived in the Naivasha came out of the water at night and stole the cattle of the Masai, who lived in a village not far from its borders. When it had done this, not only once but twice,

Lake

of

the young warriors prepared for

its

reception
its

— they
its

made
the
neck.

hot their spears in the

fire

and awaited
is

coming.

Now

only vulnerable part of a rainbow

the back of

more made a descent on the cattle, the young men carefully judged their aim and plunged their spears into his neck behind his head, and the rainbow, being thus wounded, fell dead. After this it is prosaic to be merely told " that if you walk under a rainbow you will die," and that " when the rainbow appears it stops the rain " (a somewhat nice inversion " The people of old days say God put of cause and effect). it there because, if there was very much rain, every one would die." The native last quoted had been brought in contact with In translating the "rogano " the Kikuyn name missionaries. Mukun'ga M'bura has been kept. It will be seen that the monster sometimes figures as a man and sometimes as a snake.
therefore the monster once

When

^

THE GIANT OF THE GREAT WATER
It

309

was naturally

of

the greatest interest on returning

home

to find that similar stories regarding the devouring

propensities of the rainbow,

and

also in

some

cases of

its

connection with a snake, are told by people as widely scattered
as the inhabitants of
also

New

Zealand, Burmah, Dahome, and

by the

Zulus.

THE GIANT OF THE GREAT WATER
Told by an M'KikiJyu employed as Porter
small boy who was herding the goats, came and pointed out to him some long and luxurious grass, and told him to take them there to feed. So he pastured them there that day, and took them there again the day following. Now the next day while the goats were feeding the owner of the pasture appeared, and he said to the boy, " Why are you feeding your goats on my grass ? " And the boy said, "It is not my doing, for my father told me to come here." And he said, " This evening I will go to your father's house and talk to him." Now the owner of the grazing ground was a man very big and tall, and his name was Mukun'ga M'Bura, so in the evening he came to the home of the boy and he said to the father, " Why were your goats eating my grass when you could see I had closed it ? " ^ The father said, " That is my affair." So he said, " As you have done this, I Avill eat you and all your people," to

There was once a
his father

and

which the father
the young

do no such thing." So sharp their swords and got ready their spears, but Mukun'ga M'Bura was too strong for them, and he
shall

replied, "

You

men made

it

See Tylor, Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 294, ed. 1903. had put up the usual signs to show that medicine had been from trespassers (see p. 27 1 ).
^
" i.e.

made

to protect

310

TALES OF THE RAINBOW

ate the father,

and the young men, and the women, and the and then he ate the The house and the barns, so that there was nothing left. only person who escaped was the little boy, who ran away and hid in the grass so that Mukun'ga M'Bura did not see him. Now he made himself a bow and shot wild game, and became very strong and built himself a house and at last he I am said, when he was full grown, " Why do I stay here ? big and strong. Mukun'ga M'Bura, who killed my father and all my people still lives " So he took his sword and made it very sharp, and went to the district where Mukun'ga M'Bura lived, and as he drew near he saw him coming up out of the great water where he lived. He shouted to him, "To-morrow I will comeand And he went back and ate more meat so as to be kill you." stronger than ever. The next day he went again, but Mukun'ga M'Bura was not to be seen but the third day he met him again, and he said, " You have killed all my people, so I will kill you," and Mukun'ga M'Bura was afraid and said to the warrior, " Do not strike me with your sword over the heart or I shall die, but open my middle finger," so the warrior did so, and he said, " Make a big hole, not a little one." And the warrior made a big hole, and out came first the father, whom Mukun'ga M'Bura had eaten, and then the young men, and the women, and the cattle, and the sheep, and the houses, and the food stores just as before. And Mukun'ga M'Bura said,
children, and the oxen, and the goats,
; .
,

;

"

You

will

not

now
for

kill

me

?

"

And

the warrior said, " No, I

you have restored my father, his people and his goods, but you must not again eat them " and he said, " They shall be safe." The warrior and his people went back and rebuilt their
will spare

you

;

homesteads, but the warrior thought to himself, "

Now

this

and strong and very bad. He has eaten many people. He may come again and destroy my father." So he called the young men and asked them to come and

Mukun'ga M'Bura

is

big

y.

J

<

THE GIANT OF THE GREAT WATER
fight

311

Mukun'ga M'Bura with him, and they all made ready for war and went to the home of Mukun'ga M'Bura. He saw them coming and said, " Why are you here to slay me ? Have But the warrior reI not given you back your people ? " phed, "You are very evil you have killed and eaten many people therefore you shall die." Then they all fell upon him and slew him, and cut off his head and hewed his body in pieces. But a big piece separated itself from the rest of the body, which was dead, and went back into the water, and the warrior returned to his home and told his brothers that he had slain Mukun'ga M'Bura, all but one leg " but to-morrow," he said, "I will go into the water and get that leg and burn it." And the mother besought him not to go, but the next day he went, and when he got to the place there was no water to be seen, only cattle and goats, for what remained of Mukun'ga M'Bura had gathered together his children and taken all the water and gone very far, but the beasts he had not taken but left behind. So the warrior went back and brought his people, and they gathered the cattle and goats together, and took them back
;

;

;

to their

own homestead.

;

312

TALES OF THE RAINBOW

THE SNAKE FROM THE GREAT WATER
Told by Mo-s6-Ni, a young Woman, a
Chief
relative of the

N'DuiNi

Two warriors went to look for wives. One was called Wa-du-a and the other Wa-m'wer'-i,^ and as they travelled they saw a girl in the road. Now she was not beautiful, for she had lost one eye, but Wam'wer'i liked her, and the girl also liked Wam'wer'i so he took her to be his wife, and proceeded no further in his search. But Wadtia said, " Why do you take
;

a

girl

who has one eye

missing
as he

?

"

And

he proceeded further

went on his way he saw a young " Do you know any maiden in this boy, and he said to him, countryside ? " And the boy replied, " No, I know of no maiden, except, indeed, the maiden Wa-shu-ma; but she is not to be thought of, for she does not like young men." And Wadtia journeyed again, and he met an old man, and he said, "Can you tell me where I can find a maiden ? " And he said, " There is no girl but Washuma, and she will speak to no man." Again he met an old woman, and she told him the same tale of Washuma, that she would not be wooed by any man. At last, on the eighth day he met a young man, and he yet again spoke of Washuma in the same manner. So Wadua inquired of him where the home of this Washuma might be and he said, " On the opposite hillside, where you see the smoke ascending." So Wadua went that day and slept that night on the road on
his journeys.
;

Now

'

Literally son of the Sun,

and son
312

of the

Moon — common names.

and still he would not but she did not think of milk.SNAKE FROM THE GREAT WATER and after three days he 313 Washuma and was in the shamba. He who can run this distance and he said and return. and came out and went to the storehouse and got " sir-oc'-o " and cooked it. And he sent out. and she came to the house of tarried outside. and its home is in the water. But he would not take it. " If you should hear in the night a great noise. do not go out. 40 And the father said." but he would not and then gruel. and when she brought milk he drank it. " Why ? " Washuma said. and came and gave it to the stranger. youths. offered him more. " it is them a distance. and she said to him." So they ran. so it the snake. and he saw back of the died. Washuma took him by the arm and besought him not to go." Now the father of Washuma returned." And the animal was called Mukun'ga M'bura. and the goats and oxen came in for the night. he who has fell some came for slain the Mukun'ga M'bura. and she went again to the storehouse and took " beans. . the father went out to see the cattle. " Who has done this ? " And the girl told her father. in the And in the morning. . while the girl herself . when the birds began to chirp. when he heard a great noise he got up and took his spear but . and he said. since . Afterwards she came in and cooked food. and he to the youths. when all the young men were gathered set on the dancing green. But he was too strong neck." And he said. So Wadua slept in the house but in the night. he ran and returned and beat all the other . "What shall I give you. and the girl took Wadua into the homestead that he might sleep. " Because a great animal like a snake comes every night and kills and eats the oxen. and he found the dead beast. and he went it out. and took his spear and|stuck nothing. " it is sufficient. but he said. but and some panted hke sheep but when the time Wadua. and he came back to the house and he said for her.

and he did not die. that he might have ' ' . of which the young men wear the feathers. and the water rose to his calf and his knees and his waist. Washuma waited. . and Washiima stayed on the bank and went to the and looked on and Wadua went. described as " a big white and black bird.314 SNAKE FROM THE GREAT WATER . and sheep and goats innumerable and the water had all disappeared. and he put half of them on one side and half of them on the other. ." But the father said. ." ^ It was explained. . and went back and saw Wadua and many others coming out of the water. So Wadua arose I have said to him. you have slain the beast ? " And he said. sheep and goats. But as she went she heard a great noise in the water and she looked round. ^ and Wadua And he divided the returned with the girl to her home. her for his wife. and the other half he gave to the father of Washuma. and when night came she slept there but in the morning she said. and then to his chest and neck and Washuma thought he would be drowned but Wadua eyes. " If a man has asked for my daughter. Fetch the ny-6-ya. . went right under the water and stayed there. that the vanishing of the water had nothing to do with the slaying of Mukun ga M'biira. in answer to a question. " ^ big water. ya nage. . " Surely he is dead " and she turned to go. ^ Nyoya. for they could not be counted for multitude and he took one half for himself. . " I look for a wife give me your daughter.

His great characteristic that he feeds on human flesh. THE STORY OF M'WAM-Bf-A AND THE Told by N'JAR-GE. takes the form of a man. . Now the name of the eldest son was M'wambia. and talks like a man. In the first story it plays the part of fairy " godmother " in the second. it is described as with hair and beard. and the name of the second was also M'wambia. and was covered with hair. from his brother. Son of N'JEN-Gl^ the Chief MuNGifi Once upon a time there was a man who married a wife. to distinguish him . and she bore him a male child and he married a second wife. It fed on shamba produce. it was stated. and fills the role of ogre. and it also ate meat. it was about the size of is an animal which lived in old times a sheep. had four legs.TALES DEALING WITH LEGENDARY ANIMALS The following series of stories deals with two mythical and the I-li-mu. " but is a beast. however." His body is either wholly or in part is invulnerable. . The Ilimu proper. And after a while the first wife died. In one of The N'jenge. and she also bore him a male child. beasts or monsters. either normal or abnormal in shape. . and is called Ilimu. and he was known as M'wambia the Less. the N'jen-ge the stories they are synonymous.

Now an N'jenge came into the snare of M'wambia the Less. but he released it and did not kill it it go free into the Avoods. die . and the two boys returned to the village and said nothing to their father. and ate the food in the fields so the two brothers went into the woods. and he showed him the two snares. . and he went away and left M'wambia Now M'wambia * stayed in the tree for twenty days. and then he took sticks and stuck them into the ground of your brother is dead. and how M'wambia the Elder had let his go. .316 TALES OF LEGENDARY ANIMALS boys were about twelve and ten years. and made the points sharp. and at the end of that time an N'jenge came and is said. animal known N'jenge came from Then M'wambia the Less said to his father. but to the younger he gave a small piece and the younger said. while the mother And he said. and the father took a large piece and gave it to his elder son. . "Come into the woods". with a straight stem. " Why have " you given me a small piece and my brother a big piece ? " Because you have a mother. and M'wambia the Elder made a snare to catch the N'jenge. and told him how he had killed the N'jenge which he had caught. and he chose a tree. the points would run into him and he would in the tree. as . Now the mother of M'wambia the Less went into the fields and gathered sugar-cane. and made him climb up it. tall." around the tree with the points leaning inwards towards the tree. so that if the boy descended or fell down. And the father was very angry and upbraided his elder son. and he released it and killed it and ate it. because the N'jenge was very fat. and M'wambia the Less also made a snare at a little distance away. And an N'jenge also came into the snare of M'wamhe let bia the Elder. and put it into her basket on her back and brought it to the house. " Man'-gi ^ No meaning could be found — simply a name. it Now when the two happened that the the wilds.

" And he said. And and out came M'wambia took some fat to eat and at a big sheep. and the sheep lasted him for food four days and at the end of that time the N'jenge opened his side again and there came out a goat. and the N'jenge said. and he said. one hundred male sheep. one hundred sheep which had borne.M'WAMBfA AND THE Ki-hu-ti ! N'JENGfi 317 " ^ M'wambia. and ten N'jenge came and each took one spike and carried it away and at last the N'jenge came whom M'wambia had set free." away. And he said to him. around the stem and slid to the bottom. And . " Man'gi." And M'wambia went amongst the long grass and jumped twice. . first he could not eat it for he was so weak. spikes . one hundred female goats which had borne. . and M'wambia grew still bigger and stronger. one hundred young sheep who knew their mother. . and N'jenge said. when he heard this. and then next day he ate another leg. and was very sick but afterwards he ate a little. the N'jenge made a hole open in his side. And M'wambia said. and the N'jenge ate too. ^ ? Tree or bush. and then he said. " A goat. one hundred fat male goats. one hundred young goats who knew their mother. " I am not Man'gi. I am And the N'jenge took one spike and carried it the N'jenge. " Go amongst the long grass and jump. and that lasted for food four days. " What would you like to possess ? " And he said. and these lasted three days. and then there came out two goats." and he told him how he had set him free. for M'wambia had grown stronger and bigger and there then came an ox. . "You are not yet strong enough and they ate another ox. carried away all the remaining and M'wambia gradually unloosed the grip of his arms of the tree. . and then a little of the leg." And the N'jenge opened his side and gave him one hundred female goats which had not borne. . " Go and jump again " and he went and jumped four times. one hundred male goats. one hundred sheep which had not borne. " I am M'wambia. .

and she called out. so M'wambia went and tended the goats.318 TALES OF LEGENDARY ANIMALS one hundred fat male sheep. and he sat on a hillside where he could see them all." And she brought a bigger. one hundred cows which had borne. my father and my father's brother ? " She said. As she came to the homestead she called the N'jenge gave . and he asked. " Bring vegetables. And . . " What do you want ? " And he said. And the N'jenge said to M'wambia again. " Women. "What kind of vegetables have you got that you want so large a pot ? " The mother ." said." And the mother said. and at last she saw M'wambia sitting on the hillside herding goats. " Take a bag arid go and get vegetables. and he built a big village for his wives and his oxen and his goats. " I want nothing more. one hundred cows which had not borne. " ? What do you want " And M'wambia replied. one hundred fat oxen. one hundred oxen." So the child went to get the vegetables. But no children were yet born. " That is our M'wambia who was lost. " Bring me the cooking-pot to cook the And her mother brought a little one. " That is not big enough." Then he went to the Gura river." And she said. but could see none and she walked and walked. And then she called out again. And the N'jenge said again. She walked twelve hours. "Yes. "How are they all at home. and she me a big one. for they were many. " They are well " and she saw his village and his wives and cattle and he took a goat and killed it and cut it up and put it into her bag. one hundred calves. Now the mother of M'wambia the Less said to her young daughter. and the girl said. " Do you want the one in which we cook meat ? " and she said." him two hundred goats and two hundred oxen to buy women and M'wambia bought one hundred women. and came to her home. " That is our M'wambia who was lost." And he said nothing. out to her mother." So he spoke to her. .

319 opened the bag and saw the meat. his father and his father's brother. because the N'jenge dead with whom I am one heart. And she after to-morrow you shall come and see him too." And And the she said. and M'wambia the Less and the girl. "Do not tell a lie. M'WAMBiA AND THE N'JENGE . and all the goats and all . " What is this fat but he said to himself. girl said. And when they came to where M'wambia was. and she said. string. and all the family. they saw him sitting on the hill herding goats and there was a river between." And he went And when to another village and there slept for five days. and his relatives had killed it. And he said no word to them." So the next told how she had seen him and his many goods. day they cooked the meat and ate it. and he killed all the women and all the men. while and see if they do their work well. because he had been cruel to his son. and one And he said. and M'wambia took a string and he tied a goat to the end of the ." is lost. and threw it across the river." And she said. and when they came to the M'wambia and saw his many goods. and the day after they all went together to see M'wambia. they stayed there and made their home with him. and the mother and the father's other wife. and he knew that his friend the N'jenge had come to the village while he was away. M'wambia and the day- " I have seen him. And the father took hold of it to go to M'wambia and as he was being pulled across the river he was drowned. " You have stolen a goat. . and he said. on the ground ? " And he looked and saw on the wall the head of N'jenge. he came back to his homestead he saw some fat. " I will go away for a to work in the fields. is "My of luck is gone. And after a while M'wambia said. " I have not stolen it it is from M'wambia.. "I have many men and women in my homestead who do Avork. one to mind the young goats." And he gave his relations work to do one to mind the goats." And he took a stone and a knife and made his knife very sharp. But the others got village of across safely.

not imprisoned in a tree. the buffalo. and the elephant. for the N'jenge in his own was dead. The . then he took the knife and plunged breast. Each asked in turn why M'wambia was thus imprisoned. and. found out that M'wambia had freed the N'jenge and extorted blackmail for preserving silence. The father saw that M'wambia was growing demanding the reason the story came out. M'wambia subsequently went back with the N'jenge to his home and tended his When the family came to see him they were drawn goats. and being told the reason. for i whom : only a grass rope was used. the mongoose. The animals came one by one. in a shape of a part of the food of his elder brother. with the exception of the father. thinner. : The father assisted in setting the snares the children were both the sons of one mother the younger who was named N'jer'-u. . removed the remaining spikes. across the stream with a leather strap. in a different district A similar story was told by the girl Mo-s6-ni. and on The hero was but staked out on the road in the form of a cross with one hundred and ten spikes. differences . instead of a tragic note all The story ends with a prosperous remain at the home of the N'jenge and grow rich. and he was accordingly drowned. a relative of the Chief N'du-i-ni. the lion. the leopard. each pulled Finally the N'jenge appeared himself and out a spike.320 M'WAMBIA AND THE N JENGfi it the cattle. were as follows brother.

and when he comes back he will eat you. " Give me out of . and he was called they got to the house of the N'jenge he took a And when stick and struck with it on the ground. and she ate yet more. and in the road she met an N'jenge. for she was afraid her brother would beat her." And she took off the beads she wore round her neck and arms and gave them to him. very big and his hair was very long.TALES OF LEGENDARY ANIMALS 321 THE STORY OF THE GIRL WHO CUT THE HAIR OF THE N'JENG^ Told by Kar-an'-ja. and the girl ate and then the N'jenge struck again. and when his father was gone he said to her. Then the N'jenge left home and went away on a journey. He was I-li-mu. and the rest of the cows and goats all vanished. and said. and became big and fat. and a hole opened. 41 . And the little girl ran away a long distance. — . and he put them on one side and then he took a strong-smelling stuff and plastered it all over her neck and head. and it came many cows and goats. Now the N'jenge had a child a boy and the boy loved the little girl dearly. and her brother was very angry. your ornaments. let warrior sent his little sister and in bringing the water she the gourd fall and broke it. a young M'kik'dyu in our service Once upon a time a young to fetch water from the river. And the same thing happened again. " You have broken the gourd go away and . " Now fly." . for my father has gone to collect firewood to make a fire. and said. bring me back instead of it the hair of the N'jenge.

. and she was fond of the child. and gave him the hair of the N'jenge as he had asked but not long afterwards a young warrior came to buy the girl for his wife. that little girl had armlets and bracelets. and he looked at her to see if she was the child he had caught. and she said you were not to have them. and then she met the next friend and the same thing happened again and last of all she met Ilimu himself. and came back to her mother's house. and she went away with him to his house." for her mother had also given birth to another boy. for she loved him. thirty goats. and put the hair she cut off in her bag and went on her way. but keep them and let younger brother have them. " Give me the goats " and the mother said. " No. " Are you the little they had all girl of the N'jenge ? " And she said. . and he was persuaded that it was not the same girl. Now Ilimu had collected two friends. But before she went she . " Don't give for my eldest brother the goats. When she came to her home she saw her brother who had been so angry with her. and he said to her. for you were angry with her because she had broken the gourd and told her she . No. I shall not your sister. said to her mother. and as she fled she met on the road the first of these bad N'jenge carrying a bundle of sticks towards the house. So she shaved his beard and cut his hair." And he let her go on. N'jenge like himself. and he said to her. and he gave the purchase money to her mother." For he had a long beard and long hair behind. And when the girl was gone the eldest brother came to the mother and said.322 TALES OF LEGENDARY ANIMALS the girl fled And from the house of the N'jenge. " I want some one to shave my beard and cut my hair. and great feast gone to get firewood to make a fire and have a and eat the girl. and he saw that she had no and he came near and smelt the necklace and no armlets strong-smelling stuff. my he has behaved cruelly to me. for they were paid as the marli of . but her other brother she did not love. " give them to you.

and that the friends saw that he did not for him. and got into the big hole and hid there. the big stone to cover his head." And he took the two friends to a little distance." So the eldest brother went away. and there is the firewood. and only the boy was there and Ilimu feared greatly. and they got more firewood and built an enormous fire. but there is no meat.THE GIRL AND THE N'JENGlfe 323 must go and get the hair of the N'jenge. boy. and the younger brother had the goats. " Run. and the firewood. they found that the girl had fled. went to look come back they and they called him and he did not answer. Now when the N'jenge and his friends got to the house of Ilimu. and moved it and saw the head of Ilimu. for they were two and he was one. one N'jenge on each side." And Ilimu went into the house and dug a big hole in the floor and got a large stone. . and told them to wait there. found the great stone. and said. " Why did you not answer when we called ? " And they took him out. run and hide in the long grass. Now when was the end of the bad N'jenge. so one of them went inside the hut. for he said. and drew . and they roasted him and ate him. " I have brought these friends to my home to eat. and he went back to the house and said to his son.

and he said the same thing and a third and fourth gave the same answer. 33. and he looked at them all and he said. and the last one he ate altogether. ^ I am not aware to what practice this refers. The word employed was se-ni-a. Mother of one of the herds of the Chief N'DufNi Forty went to get firewood.^ Now before they went home all the girls and as they . went to have their came back they met a man on the road. — girls were sorely grieved. so the other teeth adorned. and the two sisters went last. And they met another man. " Those of Wa-shi-shi and Moire-wa-nyi-na " and these two girls were sisters by the same mother. who has one foot and walks with a stick. and the fathers and mothers still said those of Washishi and Moirewanyina. The third day they again all went to the wood for firewood. they met Ilimu. " Do not eat me. and asked him the same question. As they came back single file along the road. . so you cannot hurt him. first girl he came to said. And the . and his other foot comes out at the back of his neck. and Moirewanyina came out safely but when it . and they asked him whose teeth were the most beautiful. And when they got to their homes they asked again. Sec p.324 TALES OF LEGENDARY ANIMALS THE TALE OF THE FORTY GIRLS Told by Nagatuu. eat the next " but of each in turn he took a finger. and they made a big hole by a sacred tree. And his body girls is like iron. and each of the girls went in in turn and came out again. and he has two hands.

and they all woke once more. and she cried out. and sprinkled the to all the fathers and they went to sleep " Your daughters buried me in a hole of the girls and said. and Washishi called out once more. Now shi her small brother kept cows near the tree. because my teeth were more beautiful than theirs. and then he knew it was his sister. one with that of cows. " There is some one crying out near the sacred tree. and they brought her home." And the boy went home and said." So the father and mother and all the relations went and dug out Washishi. Then she got three gourds and with that of goats the house." and drank it. and one . and her clothes were worn out.THE FORTY GIRLS came piled to the turn of Washishi she 325 went of on firewood and earth on top and the others her and buried her in ahve." Now as the other girls returned they had made " medicine. " Do not bring the cows where they will tread on me. and if you do not give me presents they shall die and never wake again. it filled them with milk. and said. and Washiheard the tramping." So they brought her many goats. and she sent . " I have heard Washishi. girls. and her father called all the other girls into and Washishi got the tail of a wild animal and put into the jar of milk from wild animals . Then she put the tail of a cow in the jar of cow's milk and sprinkled them with milk. The next day the boy went again. and she rested many days. She was very thin. one with the milk of wild animals. so that any one who told at home what had happened to Washishi would die.

" and she consented. Ilimu had seized her babe and devoured him. and on the fourth he went a long journey into the wilds and stayed away many months and while he was in the woods he had no food but the food of carrion beasts. " I should like to therefore buy you. And after the end of this long while he returned home. went out to work in her shamba. ' My servant N'jarge. Wanjiru by name. here said this " was not Kikuyu custom. her. and coming to a certain homestead he saw a maiden.^ But when she came to his house he remained with her only three days." The girlrepUed. and a dun one. And Wanjiru was much afraid. and had no clothes to wear. Wanjiru. and he found that his wife had borne him a child during his absence. on dead men. "It is the story. but she herself was poor and neglected. who was translating. and her husband stayed behind in the house also and when she came back she looked round for the babe. went back with him to his home. but the child was nowhere to be seen. and he paid She three oxen for her to her people —a black one. for he lived. and she fled into the woods and climbed up into a tall .326 TALES OF LEGENDARY ANIMALS THE MAN WHO BECAME A HYENA Told by the young Woman Mos6ni his journey to look for A YOUNG man called Ilimu went on a wife. whom he admired greatly so he said to ." . Now one day the wife. for behold. a white one. whilst the mother was at work. . he should have given the marriage portion first. and she left her child in the house. like a hyena.

so Ilimu was unhurt but another cried out. and in time a young warrior again came and saw Wanjiru. so he fell dead. till her four brothers heard the wailings of their dead." and she wailed hke the spirits of the dead. Wanjiru came down from the tree. and they came and saw sister like the spirits of the Wanjiru above and Ilimu below." and a third struck below the arm. and Wanjiru cried aloud.THE MAN-EATER tree. and they and put clothes upon her and ornaments. where Ilimu was as other men. and bought her. but parts again were as that of other men. two on one side of lUmu and two on the other. And she thought to herself. how then has he became changed into a beast The girl went home with her brother." ! . long tail.^ She went home with him and she Hved with him. and her brothers saw that she was thin. N'jarge explained that " this would be done by relations when the intending husband did not know that the marriage price had been previously paid. . " This was a young warrior who came to woo you. Now when Ilimu was dead. and Ilimu in the middle and one struck him with his spear. and ? " killed a sheep 1 " Ng6ma." In this instance there were apparently no relations of the deceased husband to claim the widow. first a band as of iron and then a band again of flesh. for the black ox and the white ox and the dun ox " for for these oxen she had been sold to Ilimu and Ilimu gazed up into the tree and said. miserable." p. Now the body of Ilimu was such that though he looked as other men. " The child is dead.^ and she stayed there for three days. lives in trees" (? squirrel). Described as a "small beast. " I So they remained see a kisambo ^ among the branches. * . iron. ' ' for seven days. and I shall die also. and unclothed. " Alack. . but he hit on a band of iron. ^ Objection being taken to the girl being sold a second time. At last Ilimu came to the foot of the tree. 327 and there she stayed at the top. 240. and his spear turned back. and they said. as contrary to Kikuyu custom. And the brothers of Wanjiru came up. " Strike below the arm. parts of it were as which no spear could touch.

nor of any one else. because be a man and became a beast. I Asked if the girl Wanjiru was not like other each of the warriors whom she wedded ceased to women. it was the work of God. as the tale tells us." 1 See p. the girl narrator replied that " These things happened not because of Wanjiru. and devoured Such is the end first the babe and then the mother Wanjiru. in the days of very long ago. . for God did such things. 40. counted after the manner of the Akikuyu/ a But when the child was still a babe the father child was born. turned from being a man and became a hyena. of the tale.i 328 in THE MAN-EATER two years.

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cu < P •w> -ii M -^ 323 b .

It is. doubtedly in many ways great advantages. watching. than the fact that the women now work in the fields without protection. the fulfil- ment that of a solemn promise to point out to the people is of England all reclaimed land in Kikuyu. but is does not thereby follow that any individual native security of tenure. impossible to take leave of the Akikiiyu without giving some thought to the stupendous change in their environment brought about by the advent of the white man. Kikuyu and to it moment been declared a native reserve.CONCLUSION KIKCYU under the ENGLISH This book has nothing to do with the poHtical state Africa. In the present era a man who has wives to work for 42 . Formerly. Nothing marks in its way more clearly the change from the old regime to the new. ready armed. even in days of comparative peace. The Akikuyn are not unnaturally fearful lest their land It is should be taken from them by the newcomers. and taken from their them their natural responsibility for the defence of homes. is which has at present the This has un- widest bearings. guaranteed The result of British dominion. whether under cultivation private property. it or lying fallow. the abolition of tribal war. a band of their male belongings would always have been seen grouped on some hilltop near at hand. but the fact must be faced that we have thereby deprived the men of the nation of one of the greatest stimulants to exertion. for the slightest signal of distress. urgent request that has for the shall make known their not be given to others. of East however.

Compulsion is none the recommended by philanthropists disguised under the form of increased hut tax. to be attained. to be All he asks is made clearly to understand what the white man's customs . easily satisfied. and therefore. Allowing. but the men can and Their metier is agriculture. either for his is The other and that no wholly limited idle. who is dependent on his labour. He admits that he is the weaker. works continuously without some object small. No man. stances should compulsion be brought to bear. they resent being taken out of their or for own land to act as porters to distant districts. is Even low wages exceed many times is which the only necessary outlay. The wants of the Akikuyu are and the stimulus to effort is accordingly the cost of food. will work when necessity arises. The usual solution offered is that all natives must learn to work. Government work but none of the settlers with whom we came in contact complained of lack of labour. has the drawback that it may result only in added labour on the part of the women. sake or that of others. be they good or bad. . therefore. The Akikuyu are by nature an industrious people. be he black or white. with certain advantages. of how is the situation to be thought argues that under no circumin the position of a child. and must adopt less real. not only are the women always well occupied. unless driven by poverty. but that him without occupation. that the native will not work of his free will to the extent that the own European. The M'kikuyu is the slave of custom. however. is allowed to be These persons would support a reasonable and own amount of well-paid labour. a method which. through the fact that the extinction of war will render monogamy compulsory. if the white man's ways. Regular labour therefore objectless. It time is not yet. holds that the native child.330 KIKUYU UNDER THE ENGLISH is seems certain that matters will eventually adjust themselves. feels met ? One school to be essential.

it must be confessed. It is too early as yet to speak of the effect of Christian missions in Kikuyu. but devoted work is hands being done by emissaries of the Church Missionary Society. In the few instances in which they have shown a desire to copy the white man. It is difficult to suppose that the desire for increase of it luxury will not bring with a drift to the towns. In rare instances ambition rises to a stone house with an iron roof. an attractive one. and be idle. in the instance we saw. was obviously a white elephant. It will be an evil day for the Akikuyu if they also fall under the baneful attraction of the native bazaar in connection with European centres of population. so far. which are eminently unsuitable. of Italian The earliest stations are in the Roman Catholics. yet a third and attractive impelled to labour of his that he is own free will in order to satisfy them. the first acquisitions are European clothes. and a horse to add to their retinue. which may be seen being led. will lies He white and black in East Africa to-day in the fact that the Government There is has never hitherto consistently followed any one line of policy either to white or black. Even those cannot who are not altogether in sympathy with missionary labour may yet feel that if the abandonment of primitive life . to be encouraged to complex ways of civilisation. The Kikuyu chiefs have become rich owing to the practice by which they receive a percentage of the hut tax which they collect in their area. abandon the simple life for the The spectacle of the native inspired with new wants is not. because it Most of the trouble between his essential nature to do so. The black man is neither to be compelled to work nor to be allowed to remain He is to be stimulated to acquire new wants. method of solving the problems connected with native labour. while its owner prefers to walk. The charm which Nairobi had for our Swahili retainers was most striking. a possession which.KIKUYU UNDER THE ENGLISH really are. is 331 then mechanically conform.

There can. and this is therefore the tax payable by the poor man. or by guarding the it is prior claims of the weaker.332 KIKUYU UNDER THE ENGLISH it is be avoided. they desired to do would ever achieve off if combination for a united attempt to throw . and so resent is Three amount demanded by the Protectorate Government. They themselves of things in this respect. Two and a half to four or five rupees is the sum which can be obtained for a month of labour. Is ? there any possibility of a native rising if It seems highly improbable that so. to which unnecessary further to allude. that it be asked how the Akikuyu themselves regard English domination. but also of his best. with hut tax. be no problems which inevitably arise infallible solution for the when civilisation and barbarism meet. How far this is appreciated is a matter of individual attractions for the will tell taste. unwisely dealt with from headquarters. you that some liked the old order while others prefer the new. even sufficient is not unfrequently asked. and that the Englishman should him not only the of his worst. The short-sighted desire of the English authority to destroy the native admini- stration of justice has been dealt with elsewhere. who has one hut only. Tranquillity has naturally greater weak than for the strong. bring with If it at least well that changes should come in connection with a high ideal. and the answer given to many questions will largely depend on whether it is considered that the well-being of the world is best promoted by aiding the progress of the stronger. The question the Akikuyu. It is pleasant to bear witness that. associate it primary answer the is they naturally strongly. the English . British rule but it is quite conceivable that. unfortunately. the native might be inspired to trial of make strength in a way that would issue in terrible tragedy in the case of isolated settlers. The natives are quite willing to admit that they have in rupees per hut return the benefit of security. while most grave errors and delinquencies occur.

KIKUYU UNDER THE ENGLISH rule 333 cannot as a whole be considered as oppressive or tyrannical. Mr. K. and also of the point of view of the black. nor without regard to the well-being of the natives. Much of the heart-burning in East Africa would be obviated by more sympathetic understanding at home of the many hardships which fall to the lot of the white man. R. " sentimentality " At this stage of . Roosevelt has well said that the object he aimed at in the treatment of native races of " brutality " is the avoidance on the on the one hand and development the personal equation is all important for good or for evil the future of the native lies to-day in the hands of those men who are sent by England other. . to represent her in Africa. the British officials.

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I am told— a 335 particularly grateful sight . Fixed Camp. after the barren coast along which we had been saiUng. while first impressions were still fresh. however. as we found . and good houses with pretty My — red roofs — like Ceylon. had subsequently to be abandoned owing to reasons of health. to friends in England.APPENDIX I LETTER DESCRIPTIVE OF EUROPEAN LIFE AMONGST THE AKIKl^YU It is felt that an idea of the conditions of life under which the information in this book was collected. and camping expeditions were restricted. Nyeri. of its dear Friends. The idea of travel farther afield. to making closer acquaintance with our various Akikuyu neighbours. 2^th March 1907. and found luxuriant tropical vegetation. We were only there four or five days. of transport saves much anxiety as to the food supply for a caravan. Only a few necessary alterations have been made. as has been seen. with the exception that a certain number of the loads were subsequently transferred to donkeys. though there are obvious difficulties in connection with it where very hilly or marshy country is concerned. can be best con- veyed by reproducing a circular letter written by request. These expeditions were conducted much after as the journey described the same manner from Nairobi to This last method Nyeri. which is alluded to at its close. We sailed into the beautiful harbour Mombasa on the morning of 11th December.

and and not British soil. There are some pretty bunga- lows in the suburbs (the place has grown enormously in the last few years). which seemed wise. on account of the prevalence of horse sickness. accomplished the twenty-four hours' journey up the Uganda railway to Nairobi with a minimum of the usual discom- We from dust. itself is also Nairobi gum and trees and tin shanties scattered at immense stores kept by Hindoos. S again to the coast to meet two horses which we have imported from Bombay. Hinde. Mr. just been transferred to the sub-commissionership there. We had scarcely. They have proved a great success. 's While we were at Nairobi we just saw S friends. he having. as we were busy during the time we were there at the small hotel. and mosquitoes very trying. unpacking our had to run down goods and getting ready for a start. We made that all our in first camp a few miles from Nairobi. heat. but a circuit of 10 miles for a Avhite population of 600 makes getting about difficult. how- ever. was working order. The European colony of one or two hundred people seem to enjoy life greatly. the Kenya Province. who were passing through on their way to Mombasa. and at very expensive prices. but it grieved British soul to see the red flag of the Sultan of Zanzibar flying above the Government offices. and Mrs. realise this was only a Protectorate. Our which we had got . time to little make many friends. The line traverses first the unhealthy waterless district which so long barred access to the interior. was as high as 13 per cent. to see staff. a few distances. all selling a little of everything of very poor quality. to our great regret.336 CAMP LIFE IN KIKUYU my the damp. though the premium for insurance. from this. in spite of drawbacks . and gradufort ally rises the 5000 or 6000 feet to Nairobi.. such things being practically unprocurable in British East Africa. —the last part is a plain which reminds one of South African veldt. very South African.

'J X Z % t o o: < < o 2 ? 6 3 < a a r: a H 336 a .

u O Si'^^ .

CAMP LIFE together there. by 8 ft. room for little more than a bed and rovv^ of boxes opposite.. stable tents. and if he received orders to see I did not leave the camp during The idea that 's absence. It took a little time to find the best v/eeks way at of packing a months time. indeed tents ! A camp very soon grows it . I have counted twelve or thirteen at a time. and this is a land where there are no charwomen The best servants are the SwahiU. and if they leave or are sent away. not is as follows : least. The two tents can be connected by an awning. and look after the porters). into tAvo tents 6 ft. Swahili also is the language one has to learn. and then we feel we shall be sumptuous one's belongings. a delightin ful person who was brought up an Arab slave household. and la^t. and around (one came the other night out 43 of the long grass to . But it is also a weird place at night. 4 askaris or camp policemen (whose business it is to keep watch in turn day and night. Tent accommodation that all necessarily limited here. by the transport by for porters — no and South African v^aggons. 6 in. one farthest among the fact many is is tribal tongues. especially a-t dusk when the fires come out. and look down with lordly disdain on the Akikuyu among whom we dwell. till one becomes hardened. we have been very lucky on the Headman. or coast race they are Mohammedans. We have now written home for a dining tent. S 's old servant Dosa. to act as groom. 2 stable boys. spring up. going to bed with doors open for ventilation. S I was to have the best tent was received with open derision This allowance of servants is fair. ! . servants^ becomes quite a pretty sight.. and in which IN KIKUYU 387 whole. one gunbearer. but by no means too much they are always apt to become ill. and hearing the cries of the hyenas all etc. pitch the tent. with bathroom annexe. cook. cook's boy. and which carries ! . it is at a moment's notice. ayah for me. under which v\^e often have meals. would emphatically obey them.

to much Our red mutton be ! transferred in due course to the outside of our packages Then came the making up built for the purpose . being most anxious to know where to lay hands on everything. saying." 338 CAMP LIFE IN KIKUYU a leopard had been killed within three yards of the boys' huts)." but then really felt like the nightmares of one's early days. adorned also with and reaching fat. effective. but at last one morning seventy native gentlemen walked into camp in a simple. There was nothing for it but igno- minious flight. alas ! powerless against the only enemy did attempt to enter. When a quarter of a mile from the camp. to lb. sprang up The second night we were under canvas S at 1 a. and then moved camp. the ants are here. is bring the loads to their proper weight of about 50 all is When ready the loads are put out in a row. " It comes when you it are saying prayers. door that S I had such a barricade erected outside my said " no animal not in the furniture removing it business would think of attempting to enter.. We sheltered in the boys' tent till morning. stairs. for we were in the line of march of a body of processional ants. while being bitten all over every second by countless little creatures.m. and knowing that lions and other beasts are quite close. There was some delay about the arrival of our Akikuyu porters from Fort Hall. You hear padding up the You put your head beneath It the clothes. which must have prowled nightly past it. " Run. and household belongings in the stationery box. looked on in agony." I needed no persuasion. and came in legions and battalions. comes and nozzles with it's nose ! My who barricade was. and enviably cool costume of a skin knotted over one shoulder to the knee. There a general . of loads. while " with positive glee put cartridges in with " respectability S clothes. tin boxes of course are but K .

Kenya There Province. pack and turn fire all your things out of the tent. and crowned by It is way of head-dress with a kitchen saucepan. all sorts of and odds and ends of properties. hung round with extremely comic. in the dark. Fort Hall. each trying to get the lightest. while others look like Alice's knight. found to in a hole my cost the other day. but . and the moves really off looking very our friends the Those in authority bear proudly such honorary burdens as the camp lamps and waterewers. lies 60 miles and we did the distance is in five marches. as I much beyond generally impossible. 6 a. now a good road. indeed. and the world but you can imagine when one's house moves every day at 5 a. make the most of the cool hours. S " there is a lion in the way " followed goes in case . one is breakfasting by the remains of the is camp up (it while the tents are being struck. and the men to flag. and down you come eleven o'clock it is is By beginning to get hot. By . IN KIKCYU much like 339 rush and scramble. for ! your horse puts its foot So the pace and distance travelled are not great. in disheartening. my attendant . wonderfully to become so ! many " essentials " cease Then ! " to boot and horse. the sun getting rises and sets here at six o'clock of course generally looks brighter .m." and first.CAMP LIFE procession ants. rather a chilly performance. by his gunbearers then I and provisions.m. one's fellow- view of " the simple it life. the centre of the north-east of Nairobi. in order that the caravan shall not disturb the game. being hindered one day by rain. and then the main body We ride a little ahead. 3 or 4 miles an hour and 15 to 20 miles a day. and everybody glad to finish the day's work. all the year round).m." to find how many of creatures takes to carry the mere necessities of a civilised ! existence for two people The regulation is safari day (British East African for trek) to be called at 5 a. next a few personal goods and of safari. But going it is no use getting far beyond one's porters a walk is .

" though after one leaves the precincts of Nairobi.. whose little brown is huts. no traces of which are to be seen English parkland finally. etc. Hinde when the district was settled . and bringing a sheep as a gift. S always goes by the Swahili name of " B'wana M'refu. Nyeri direction natives). It was delightful to see his welcome they came in headed by the brother of the chief Wombugu. and obtained a fresh supply of porters from a part of the country S knew. Indeed. unless one asphyxiates the natives. brought us to Nyeri. even meal-times were invaded I had a charming Httle native basket brought as a gift of welcome. the number of presents from our own people and others. hens' eggs. later. . one man in charge of S and there is no civilisation between us and Egypt. and fordAt first the country it has all. up. was with Mr. Long. been " taken when S is flat ing rivers often a tremendous difficulty. quite like . ! Then the ground becomes undulating and dotted with trees. the only traces of white occupation are notices warning people not to shoot game. was here before there was only a track. a tin bazaar. 340 CAMP LIFE and uninteresting IN KIKUYU I believe. of course. became quite embarrassing." which — ! being interpreted is Mr. of nothing except the houses of a few officials. over perfectly hill37^ beautiful. bananas. more hilly. itself (if the farthest British outpost north in this one excepts.. bananas and maize plantations. a great friend of his. it consists. very country. We were there two or three days. ! They are very anxious to know how many goats I cost Two days more safari northward again. I believe. like lowland Scotland and very beautiful and itself Fort Hall plain has a wonderful position on the edge of the mountainous district. and native huts. are everywhere. as we went along. and looking over an expanse of . goes through so thickly populated a district that there The road is no land to give to Europeans.

cxxxhi A'.Pl. Porters ready to start 340 a . phot. A'.

DoXKKYS CARRYING LoADS 340 b .Pl. A'. CXXXIIIa A'. phot.

y. u y. \4 340 c .

3-10 d . in the distance the police quarters of the Government station. To the left is the kitchen. K. Our Homestead at Nyeri On leturnins^ after three years' absence. K. phot.Pl. R. cxxxv K. OiR Homestead at Nyeri Sli()\vin<^ tent pitched under grass roof. phot.

the little kitchen-house. and the front part of little verandah. which have been asked to describe. Ten days are pitched to protect which forms a very nice after we got here the boys' huts. and then deserting in five years or less for further virgin soil elsewhere district. some 15 miles off.000 high. On the western horizon. were burnt down. we ourselves on a little plateau some 200 ft. in which we live and our being." floor. rising like a giant ant-hill from the plain. The Government fort. and sometimes a Board of I Works' like official. for if any spark had landed on our roof we should . although some 20 or 30 miles of off. ft. Aberdare Range). roundings are rather bleak. stands on the edge of a broad ravine. Our homestead. with its fine summit peaks and glaciers. and we had an anxious quarter of an hour watching the wind. is still Fifteen miles or so to the eastward the land ally British. and the distant views everywhere are glorious. and the move and have " store " are enclosed hy a quite respectable moat. are the lovely Settima Hills (called by Eurobut there are lovely rides in the peans. covering about an acre of ground. CAMP LIFE and helped a little fort IN KIKUYU 341 to choose the site for the station. " Camp very beautiful. looks a group of thatched farm buildings. down. by the great of snow-clad mass Mount Kenya. building himself as headquarters. are ourselves The only Nyeri white residents at present and the Collector. and then there The immediate suris a fall of as much again to the river. looking like a coastguard station. for those were troublous times. owing to the painful habit of Akikuyu of cutting down all the beautiful forest trees to make them their little patches of cultivation.. only nomin- and no white man is allowed to venture. which were just outside. over 17. while the whole of the eastern horizon is blocked. under heavy penalties. and you would hardly join in the exclamation of the devoted Dosa. The centre- piece is a large barn with a cement under which our tents them in bad weather. It.

but has been very hot lately. unhke South Africa. Building here is a sort of S " Robinson Crusoe " and the erections one made cross between in the garden in one's early youth. the " daily round " has a habit of furnishing much more than " one needs to ask. and uncomfortably warm between one feels nine and four the effects of the elevation but as soon as the sun is gone about 6000 feet and — — we almost always have an Anglo-Saxon fire of sticks on the . and grow vegetables in a tiny garden by the river. any amount of labour. happily. and our evening frocks packed up at The two months we have been here have been very busy. She herseK is an M'kikuyu." There is. with the language I is (I can make myself understood now.. she has once learnt. I hope. I have taken as my ayah the wife of the Swahili groom. and getting things generally in order before the wet weather comes. Dosa. rebuilding. o'clock. When I had shown her six times how to make my bed.342 have been Nairobi OUR HOUSE AT NYERI left in Central Africa with the night-clothes we stood up ! in. so that I have had no time as yet for reading. farinaceous foods. as am able to economise time it by better arrangements. to come. I it is done without a mistake. ! as a deserving institution for the industrial training of natives ! Now. however. including a stone and mud room for 's photographic and other work. or getting on home. which we get from Mutton we can buy here at the not ruinous price of 2|d. but All this is with a very limited vocabulary). per week am new a great authority on how many ounces all of we require of tea. and no glass Altogether.. and beef is even cheaper. impossible to be out between eleven and three . etc. Nyeri peculiarly healthy. We keep milch goats. sorting. sketching. as S says. per lb. plenty of sticks and grass and mud. I felt inclined to ask some of you to have a drawing-room meeting and collect funds for me. but it needs constant oversight to lead the simplest decent existence. and she still looked at it as a strange beast.

and have not been nearer anything exciting yet in these strolls than an hour behind a rhino. the last shed for riding. with grass above our heads.. and it is retreat in live and collect for very disappointing to find that the Pax Britannica has not yet extended there.m. There is only one guise washing shirt. OUR HOUSE AT NYERI verandah floor at night. We intended Kew and the Museum Kenya. As to our future plans. it we can't go far from home the rains are over. and short skirt. sun-helmet. and at other times when it seems good in my eyes. they are vague. 343 which fills us with a mixture of joy and apprehension. After tea file we have often had lovely rides. if we are energetic. but the expense of an armed escort and continual strain.. breakfasting at 6 a. On Sunday we ing camping and sleeping home I in the cool of the evening. means Anyway.. as the roads often become impassable from to ford. S and commourns over the departure of much of the game during the last three years. knicks. take the whole day. long khaki coat. winding single along native or animal tracks. We only look upon ! — — this as a base. in the study of primitive existence (we have been little original heraldry in the designs of native shields) life but this gipsy outdoor after all if grows upon one for its own sake. and interests. the —Your very affectionate friend. which is all new country. mud. and the rivers impossible There doing a is plenty to do in the neighbourhood. puttees. and when we came out to on the slopes of bad weather. in the shade during the heat. but I live in hopes I have been asked to send photos of myself in various guises. Katherine Routledge. . and one lays in nothing but numberless fresh impressions time will not have been wasted. We might get leave till later.

and have settled on the west side of Lake Naivasha. with 200 cattle and 1000 sheep and goats. a district which has for long past been Masai country. as it is still very powerful. who occupy the great plains and sparsely of a wooded nomadic rolling downs which are the feature very small portion of British East Africa. and of which it is not unlikely we may hear more in the future. He derives his position from 1 This article was written in 1904. is a race found in parts of British East Africa and of German East Africa. round. The population of such a manyatta may be roughly put at 100 souls. are a purely pastoral semirace. each much like the top of a covered van.^ This people. which again are united under two great chiefs. 344 . Each clan has series its own or pasture lands. this forming a fold-yard. oblong. The huts are placed end to end.APPENDIX THE MASAf The Masai II which we are beginning to hear something to-day. of Of late a considerable number have succeeded in escaping from German East Africa with their herds. low. rival members of one hereditary ruling family.topped huts The manyatta is a made of wands and plastered with cow-dung. Since then tlie Masai have been removed by the British Government to the plains of Lei-ki-pi-a. and is distributed over these in villages of Manyatta. so as to form a strong circular enclosure perhaps forty yards across. It is governed by one leading man who has finished his military career. into an eastern and a western division. nation. They are divided into septs or clans.

in The warrior wearing. a helmet made mane of a lion killed by him single-handed with spear and shield. after giving public notice that he intended to attack the beast.to starting off to is raid the Akiku\ u. tie is is bv custom entitled to do. as he of the in the foreground command. 34+: .Pl. cxxxvi Masai' Falling in prioi. and arranging for accepted witne-ses to be present.

.

They do not cultivate the soil. nor will they eat the flesh of wild animals or birds. making it spin. . The captured cattle gradually come into view. They marriageable . and stealing is All fighting comes Their greed for cattle insatiable. any form of work whatsoever beyond tending their cattle and raiding. are not hunters. with here and there a guard tending them. The rhythm of the song is marked by slightly throwing the spear vertically up into the air. Nothing more romantic can be pictured than the return of a raiding party. or double the number lost in action. Then the warriors appear in a compact body of regular formation.e. A short time ago some of them made a killed . and everybody was pleased. nor will they do. Everybody rushes out wild with excitement. those who have finished their military service and youths not yet admitted as warriors. raid to steal cattle. i. practically controlled opinion of the other old question. a quarrel arose regarding the distribution of the loot. moving very slowly with measured tread. under the rule of a " legooran " or colonel. however.THE MASAI acknowledged former prowess in the but he is 345 field and present wealth. In another manyatta near at hand. Their whole it. life is spent in breeding incidentally. or exhibit the slightest inclination or aptitude for meeting the changed conditions that the advent of the white man cattle has brought. or trade. Far away behind some undulation of the ground is heard the first faint refrain of the Blood Song. and catch44 . live the warriors and girls not yet marriageable. The Masai do not do. with the result that sixty more were killed in settling this point. Such a manyatta Avould contain children married and women married men. or manu- facture. by themselves. On the road back. still In so doing they had thirty men they were fairly successful as regards plunder. men of the village by the general consensus of on any material .

down till the For it passes or he would certainly kill somebody. and has to be disarmed and held off. each man's shield being placed on edge behind him and maintained by his spear : . nothing is left. with the long.346 ing it THE MASAl again. on the warpath sleep seems absolutely to be laid aside they march and fight all day. this reason an old man always heads the procession as approaches the crowd. With sufficient incentive perform is extraordinary feats of endurance. however large the original amount. in order to give the word to disarm any too excited warrior. no meat is to be had. When driven into the ground butt-end downwards. Clothes they have none. and their arms and ornaments brightly burnished. . and will do. They sit in small circles round a number of fires. it Distance they hardly seem to consider. As the spears are bright as silver. especially if he has failed to kill fit a man. and a picture of manly strength and beauty. Given that meat of eating avail- when : fighting. and eat and sing round the fire all night no sentries are posted or watch kept. Lean. and the blades four feet long. easy. tall. and taciturn. their hair elaborately dressed in a short pigtail. they seem capable an indefinite quantity If. In the manyatta a sheep. on the other hand. they will go without food for an equally indefinite period without a murmur or apparent inconvenience. tireless stride of the bird of their own plains — the ostrich. together with a quantity of milk. they throw back the sun's rays like so many revolving mirrors. is the daily ration of five licking their The girls seem to live by thumbs : they certainly get no meat given to them. rubbed down with mutton fat and red ochre. and every now and again an individual under its influence works himself up to such a pitch of frenzy that he loses all self-control. warriors. but look exceedingly smart and well groomed. gaunt. To cover seems to cost they them no able effort. they move at the walk or the run. The warriors in their song recount what they have done.

Time and place is specified and no quarter given. and children. when fighting with other nations. he loves for its own sake.nor will he learn to swim. or. Old men. And then they are gone again. they drive before them for great distances losing but few from exhaustion. is Nor will they cross a river : the smallest unwadeable will turn an army. all alike are speared. for the possession of the sur- viving cattle. women. 347 open they are splendid but become absolutely useless if confronted by an of the plains. more accurately speaking. they exterminated the herds. but each man fights independently. The Masai is certainly by nature a brave man fighting. . Masai raiding is a sudden irresistible rush delivered at a point far removed from the base of the raiders. No Masai can s\vim. no quarter is given. Famine and disease followed to fell on one another. as suddenly as they came. Once resistance is broken they sweep along. the taking of stream that : life in war. the result of a pitched battle in other words. though its military advantage is obvious to him. This point is quite characteristic of the unadaptable character of these people. the eastern lay clans against those of the west. the herdsmen. Similarly. A few years ago the rinderpest broke out and almost Starving. kilhng the fugitives and rounding up the cattle from the places where they have been concealed. The captured with excellent cattle skill. They advance to the attack in a body. the sick and the wounded.THE MASAf Essentially fighters. and all adjoining nations are expert swimmers. One day more than a thousand dead : on the Arthi plain. for no other motive than the satisfaction of taking life. the result of a thousand simultaneous duels spear against shield and spear —shield and —for such is Masai battle. and he is quite willing to stake his own life for the fun of the thing and the chance of distinction and plunder. in the men enemy in cover.

for he knows that he of the will thus be sure The tribal life and custom white Masai is such that all him and in his train cannot but have the effect of making that which was already bad infinitely worse. The Masai is by nature greed personified sulky. town.^ The least exposure . I believe. or beast. Since we have arrived. is unreliable. — ' The King's African panies on these grounds. or Government post." i.e. we have ensured its To-day. the only wonder is how the race survived its mistaken moral system. bigger than a mastiff and quite as powerful) he utters his dreadful blood-curdling cry. an arch liar absolutely devoid As a of the sense of gratitude or the spirit of hospitality.. and vindictive a born thief. near railway station. . which means "I have found. one : heave of the powerful shoulders. a form of hyena. ization. Yet it is impossible to see any way in which our Government could attempt to intervene to save the Masai from their own folly and its inevitable result.348 THE MAS At Their . R. even if it were possible or politic to try and preserve the race. Rifles have. is a sink of iniquity. a Masai manyatta near " civildefinite destruction. morally everybody in its neighbourhood. There are no prisoners or wounded of the enemy. morose. — Then comes in the inky darkness of the equatorial night the hit'-ti (the hit'-ti is . The brute always begins in this way on man of his victim. and only of use for fighting under soldier he certain limited and special conditions. —W. corrupted by and corrupting physically and the evils that the brings with man Here things are done without public and private disapproval that are punished by death by the neighbouring nations. S. own wounded are left absolutely as they fall no man delays a moment to help another he lies where he falls till sundown. now disbanded their Masai com- ." as he walks round and round his victim. and the wounded man is completely disembowelled. Then he rushes in one snap of the strong jaws. Before the white man came on the scene. 1909.

intelligent race must exhibit if it is to survive. His old enemies and victims. and of a system of absolute isolation. His existence depends on tion cannot grind up in her mill. the possession of those wide stretches of grazing lands which are the very first thing that the white man must and will previously. his environment must now inevitably completely change. How. and the Masai will remain but a name. and if you put him into clothes he dies in consequence. are displaying in a marked degree those qualities that a native Hard-working. the M'kikuyu is the coming man under the altered conditions of to-day.— THE MASAi to cold or wet kills 349 him . The isolation that brought him into being has ceased to be. in particular. The product of special surroundings — . appropriate. then. but he cannot change. the Akikuyu. in addition to not being able to fight For any form of manual labour he is mentally He is material that civilisadisinclined and physically unfit. can he survive ? The nations that he formerly drove back into the forest the Akikujni and the Akam'ba will now rapidly creep out again and re-occupy the country under the aegis of the white man. peaceful and prolific. and adaptable. Change has come. whose purpose they serve.

ornamental quills. due to ointment. projected at an acute angle with the side The whole of the head. or. Each curl was then lengthened by having string plaited into Partings it. shoulders. whilst over the back it was brought to a point between the shoulder-blades. were then formed and the cords of each area brought together according to the style of hairdressing to be adopted. Small bone ornaments were attached to the hair at that part where baldness usually first appears. whilst. from three to five inches in length. and upper part of the back was of a bright brick red. From the lobes of the ears depended various ornaments. or two bands continued the sides of a V. Some of the performers had 360 . from the upper part of short cape. forming a Y. with its concave border directed outwards. The prominence of the buttock was emphasised by two crescentic bands of colour. by the design of a young moon. but did not wear the and usual form of clothing for men. thus forming with it the letter X. breast. face. so that it should have a length of six to nine inches.APPENDIX ATTIRE III WORN BY WARRIORS WHEN PERFORMING A SPECTACULAR DANCE The following is a description of the attire of tlie performers Those taking at a dance for warriors at the Chief Munge's. of the head. and serrated. part were all very similarly adorned. From this point either one band of colour was produced downwards along the spine. the only the periphery of the cartilage. and to some of the shorter cords falling over the forehead. The line of pigment (sa-si) had a sharply defined crescentic border. Their naturally short hair was divided into many little curls. in some cases.

slightly split open for its entire length. Where the face was all whitened the effect was ghastly rather than quaint. to the lower border of which 4 in. Round the waist was worn the mu-ni-6-ro. To do so is amongst the Akikuyu most unusual. Just below each knee. backwards. cxv. The rest of their bodies and limbs were ungreased. the equivalent of the fig leaf of modern art. At the attached by horizontal straps above and below. In others the white pigment took the form of an oval patch embracing the nose. Armlets and bracelets of brass or copper wire as thick as a lead pencil also were commonly worn. exactly like a white-nosed monkey. coated with pigment. with its extremities produced to a sharper point. Fig. in order the better to take the white pigment (mu-ni-o) with The limbs are which an effect. The most usual armlets were made of a leather strap em- Pi. and extending some 6 in. . xxix. ornamented with blue and white china beads. and thence brought to a point on the chin. This last had an indescribably funny effect making the man. from the lower border of Avhich depended a fringe of fine chain. generally Necklaces of some sort were invariably worn of trade beads. Beneath the mu-ni-6-ro in the middle line was tucked a small bunch of herbage. consisting of a strap 1| in. and chin. coils of a cord so woven with the fingers as to produce a — : succession of closely woven knots. '^' ' Pi. lengths of fine steel chain were applied as closely as they could be set. and the pattern produced in rehef in consequence of the finger-tips removing the remainder. Lengthways down the outside of the right thigh came the highly ornamented leather support of the dancing bell. Pi. i. This is known as lun-oi-o.i. Pi. with one touch. xx. mouth. As these roll along the length of the cylinder a considerable amount of clanging noise is made. broidered with beads. In its interior are iron bullets. cix. Fig. bottom of the vertical strap was attached horizontally the This was about the size and shape of a large banana bell. as of tattooing. wide.WARRIORS' DANCING ATTIRE 351 a shield-shaped mark of a snow white pigment extending in a horizontal line across the forehead. but sometimes of beads carved from the scented Some wore as a necklace many root of a rush (ki-ra-go). is obtained.

352
is

WARRIORS' DANCING ATTIRE

a peculiar ornament made of the skin of the Colobus monkey. is so cut that the upper border is formed of the black fur of the back, whilst the long white hair of the belly extends to the middle of the man's calf. Round each ankle is a somewhat similar ornament made of the short black fur only. This, however, only extends some Below this again comes usually a 3 in. behind the ankle. strap, to which are attached six or eight bells similar in design to the foregoing, but only about the size of a broad bean These little bells have no clappers, but jingle together. seed. Each man carried a bow in his left hand, and a sword In his left hand he carried (simi) in his belt on the right hip. his juguma a piece of heavy wood about 18 in. long, fashioned so as to have a head the shape and size of a lemon at the extremity of a stem the diameter of the little finger.

The skin

APPENDIX
BY PROFESSOR GOWLAND,

IV
AKIKT^^YU

THE SMELTING OF IRON ORE BY THE

F.R.S., A.R.S.M.

The account
interest

of the operation of smelting iron ore

is

of great

both to the metallurgist and the archaeologist.
of the ore

The preliminary preparation
of the earthy material

by the process

of

washing the iron-bearing decomposed rock, in order to get rid

and concentrate the iron mineral itself, is an ingenious one, and has not been described before. It has its parallel, however, in the washing of argentiferous and auriferous material on the " planilla " in Mexico. The primitive method of smelting employed by the Akikuyu is analogous to those that were practised in Europe and elsewhere in early times, and is based on the same principles, namely,
the reduction of the ore to metallic iron

when exposed
is

to a high

temperature in alternate layers with charcoal. The temperature
obtained by the use of the rude bellows
not sufficiently high
to produce iron in the form of pig or cast-iron, so that the small

masses

of resulting metal, which are technically termed " blooms," are wrought iron of a steely character. The furnace

or hearth

is much shallower than those of which remains have been found of the early iron age to the north of the Pyrenees and in the upper basin of the Danube, or those which are still in use in remote parts of India and in Japan. It resembles more

those representing the earliest period of iron smelting, remains
of

which have been unearthed in Kordofan, and
is

of

which the

Catalan furnace
45

the

modern

type.

354

SMELTING OF IRON ORE

ANOTHER EARLY FORM OF CATALAN HEARTH

We are greatly indebted to Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., for his kindness
in placing at our disposal the following original matter.

It

a sketch inscribed by the late Sir Lowthian Bell as having been drawn for him by Captain Grant " immediately The date is after his return from discovery of Nyanza Lake."
consists of

not given, but was presumably 1863, at Avhich time he speaks
of

having received the hospitality of Sir Lowthian.

Grant

returned from his expedition with Speke in the spring of that
year,

and the

visit is believed to

have been paid on the occasion

of the meeting of the British Association in Newcastle,

which
is

took place in the following August.

With the drawing
;

explanatory note, apparently supphed later

it is

an accompanied

by a covering

letter

dated July 1878.

FIRST AOE OF IRON MAKING.

The foregoing

are here published as being the observations

made by
of

that distinguished traveller concerning the

method

working iron adopted by a people situated at no great

distance from the Akikuyn.

Note

affixed to letter
:

on back

of sketch, written

on separate

sheet of similar paper

(Uc£^t-rttt^<:;

erf l^(i'^y^=^'^^^^^<^^

'-

"Seen at work in the countries of the Unyaniezi and Bagweh (? 4° to 6°S. lat., and 32° and 33° E. long.) in 1861 outside the village, or in forests one to three miles from habitations. " I did not observe the quantity of iron made daily, but would say that four men might turn out a dozen pounds weight in one day. I have no specimen of the ore.
J.

A. G."

355

356

SMELTING OF IRON ORE

19th July 1878.

My dear Mr, Lowthian Bell, I am in a hotel here without any African notes or maps, and as I do not wish you to think that I take no interest in your queries I answer at once. But if you want the note made on better paper or of a different size, let me know and you shall have what you want. Men go through Africa with their eyes shut to this particular
wealth.

They record that

natives

make

all their

simple tools

;

but they stop without further inquiry, because there is not an opened-up mine in the whole of Central Africa, not even a pit dug to give the traveller cause for inquiring its purpose. AH, But to give as far as I know, is got from the surface ore. you some idea of the general abundance of ore a man who knows the country well, and has been there five years, told me three weeks ago that he could make the iron posts of a telegraph line in Central Africa if he got the order and also that he could complete twelve hundred miles of line, having native-made posts of iron, in two years. Such is his opinion of native work-

;

men and native ore. He may have some

specimens.

Please ask him.

— Holm-

wood, H.B.M. Consul for Zanzibar, The Albany, Piccadilly. Use my name. He has a jfine collection of native-made spears and knives,

and takes

interest in iron, gold, and ivory works. Believe me, with a lively recollection of your hospitality in 1863, yours very truly,

(Signed)

J. A.

Grant.

Marine Hotel, Nairn, N.B.

APPENDIX V
THE PLACE OF KIKT^YU THOUGHT IN THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RELIGIONS
The
statements regarding the religious thought and ceremonies
of the

Akikuyu, given in the

text, are

simply a record of

field

observations.
bearing,

Any

estimation of their meaning, value, or

was not only outside our province and capacity, but would also have been undesirable.
These garnered facts we submitted to Mr. R. R. Marett, Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, with the request that he would be so good as to examine and weigh them. He has

most kindly acceded, and in the following article shows wherein their interest lies from the standpoint of the comparative study of reUgions.

be added that Mr. Marett attaches so much importance to the necessity of encouraging strict m.ethod in observation, that he has declined to alter the remarks
It should

with which he prefaces his notes.
the strength of but a hasty glance at some not all of the proof-sheets containing the sections that relate to religion, magic,

On

petent, to pass

should not venture, were I indeed otherwdse comjudgment on the work of Mr. and Mrs. Routledge Of as it bears more specially on the comparative study of religions. this much, however, I can be sure on cursory inspection, that they have set forth their facts in the right way. In the first place, they are always careful to distinguish what they have observed with their own eyes from what has come by hearsay. If the Royal Anthro-

and

folk-lore,

I

358

STUDY OF RELIGIONS

—as
it

pological Institute were to present a special decoration

well

might do to every traveller who obeyed this golden rule, the number of their awards in each year would, I am afraid, prove uncommonly small. Secondly, it is of a piece with this respect of theirs for the directly given that, when the authors have enjoyed more than one opportunity of watching a rite performed, or hearing a story told, they have preferred in making their report to incur the charge of repetition, rather than to concoct some generalised version, thereby conceaUng the divergencies that are almost certain to have occurred. These divergencies, small and unessential as they may appear to the uninitiated, tell a tale of which the psychologist would fain lose no single syllable. The savage, as compared with civilised man, is doubtless the slave of social use and wont, handing on what he has received with little or no conscious effort to modify and improve. Nevertheand less, primitive custom is subject to a more or less steady drift the causes of this drift lie partly in an individual reaction upon tradition, which, I feel certain, might be illustrated abundantly by workers in the field, would they but set down genuine particulars
;

in

their note-books

instead of pseudo-universals.

Thirdly,

let

me

commend
met with
of

the practice of furnishing the
cases in which others were

name
this

and, so to speak, the
I

address of native informants whenever possible.

have personally
led to seek

by

means

and
If

obtain all-important material for checking and revising the statements
the
original

observer.

But enough concerning method.

I

venture to praise the authors for the care they display in this respect, it is with the practical object of inducing others to follow their example.
so

many and

The problems that beset the comparative study of complex, that it would take a bold man
their

religions are

to say which

of them, in virtue of

logical precedence over the rest.

fundamental character, are entitled to Anyone, however, who approaches

the subject from the psychological side, will be inclined, I think, to
agree

questions stand out
is,

of

of primary interest and significance, two by themselves. The first of these questions whether the animism of Dr. Tylor provides an all-sufficient account primitive religion ? The second is, whether primitive religion and

that,

in

respect

primitive magic have something, or nothing, in
refrain

common

?

I

cannot

from considering very
sort
of

briefly

what Mr. and Mrs. Routledge
is

have to say

in regard to these cardinal issues.

A

three-cornered fight

being waged at the present

STUDY OF RELIGIONS moment between animism — the ghost-theory compendiously term — and two adversaries, neither
it

359
one might
claims

of religion, as of

whom

which the Tylorian doctrine The one adversary is Mris prepared to sweep into its net entire. Lang's contention that some gods neither now are, nor at any previous time in their history have been, conceived as ghost-Uke beings, but from first to last wear the character of " magnified non-natural men." This view may be named " anthropomorphic theism." The other adversary is known on the Continent as " dynamism," but in this country has managed to exist so far without any distinctive title,

any more than a portion

of the territory

unless

it

be that of " the pre-animistic theory."

This hypothesis

supposes that the objects of religious and magico-religious interest Here is something more than ordinarily are always primarily powers.
powerful, which therefore ought to be treated with respect
root-idea.

— that

is

the

Now

since the idea in question applies pre-eminently to

it

a ghost, or again to a Medicine-Man, especially when apotheosised, is very likely that powers originally dissimilar, for example an
or a lucky stone, or the thmiderstorm that

uncanny animal,
two types.

makes

things grow, mil in time be assimilated to one or the other of these

But

(if

the hypothesis be sound) there

is

no necessity

that they should be so conceived. The power may be thought of as this mysterious animal, this lucky stone just the concrete agency

;

or else, more abstractly, as the mystery in the animal, the luck in the stone, that is, as a more or less independent, because transmissible,
force.

How,

then,

do

the

facts collected

help us to

adjudicate between these rival theories
all

by Mr. and Mrs. Routledge ? It must be
Akikuyu
is

confessed that, on the surface at

events, they appear to strengthen
of the
is

the case for animism.

The N''g6-ma

a typical
It
is

anima

{not animus, the equivalent of which

the N''gor'o).

like the

wind, being invisible and making a whirring sound.

A
is

dead man's
a convenient

Wgdma may
method

temporarily enter a living
it

man

;

just as your breath

passes out of your body, so

may pass into
;

mine.

Here

though, be it noted, disease starts by being mysterious and portentous on its own account. I have a bad night because my father's spirit, being in need of an offering of fat,
of explaining disease

puts a strain on
possession
-

my
is
;

filial

theory

affection by taking possession of me. This not unnaturally extended to the case of the

Ta-tu caterpillar

for it

relation might wish to do.

comes into the house, just as a deceased Then we pass on, vnth. ever more strain

360

STUDY OF RELIGIONS

upon the ghost- theory, to the cases of the hyena, the kite, the mongoose, Mu-gu-mu tree, and the elephant's skull. We may suspect originally independent powers to have been reconstrued in terms of ghost human ghost, too, it would appear, though it was more natural to have supposed the elephant's skull to serve as a home for an elephant's The instance of the mongoose is especially instructive. We ghost. detect animism in the very act of supervening on the pre- animistic. Some native theologians assert that the mongoose contains a spirit, but others hold that it does not, but means instead " good luck." The snake, meanwhile, would seem to be simply unlucky. N'gSma The uncanny beast can spoil your is no longer in question at all. projected journey none the less. Call it religion, or call it mere superstition, you must find room for this class of fact in one and the same theoretic context with the facts about N'gSma. To draw the line above the former and below the latter would be arbitrary in the extreme. Mr. and Mrs. Routledge were led by a sound instinct when they made one group of these animistic and non-animistic behefs. Let us pass from the lower to the upper end of the scale, and consider So far, at any N'gai, or Eng-A'i, as Mr. Hollis would have us write it. rate, as the name goes, this Supreme Being has been borrowed from the Masai. With them he would seem to be, nowadays at any rate, just the sort of " magnified non-natural man " that Mr. Lang is in search of though let us not forget that the word Eng-A'i simply means " The Rain." However, this is hardly the place in which to consider the Masai prototype. The Kikuyu ectype would seem to have been
the sacred

;

assimilated to the
invisible.

Wgdma
it

pattern, in so far as he

is

likewise said to be

Meanwhile,

appears that not only the rain, but also the

moon, and the lightning are " in a sense worshipped." I understand from the authors that they do not wish this general statement to be pressed, as it rests on scattered indications which stand in need
sun, the
of further verification. It
is

better, then, to take note in this connection

of particular facts, such as, firstly, that the

Medicine-Man prays

for aid

indifferently to N^gai, to the sun, or to

Mount Kenya, and

explains

(possibly in answer to a leading question) that it is " all the same thing " secondly, that N'gai is " localised " on another mountain as
;

Kenya, and in sacred trees besides. Here it is possible to what Max Miiller would have termed a " henotheistic " process, the individual traits of various beings capable of possessing a godhead of their own as the sun, for instance, does amongst the Nandi passing by absorption into the supereminent personality of the rain-god of the
well as on

discern

-

STUDY OF RELIGIONS
Masai.

361

Yet

it is

his personality in being transferred

perhaps more probable that N'qai has lost most of from one people to another, and has
for

mystically potent for the sacred Let us not forget the statement of Joseph Thomson {Masai Land, 445), that even the Masai could speak of Thomson himself, of his lamp, and so on, as N'gai, in virtue of their strangeness and incomprehensibility. After hearing from Mr. Hollis that he had himself come across nothing of the kind among the Masai, I was disposed to think that Thomson had simply misunderstood what
is

become a vague term

whatever

ness of a sacred tree, for instance.

was said

to

him

(cf.

evidence, however,

The Threshold of Religion, xviii.). The Akikuyu makes me doubt whether, after all, the anthropo-

morphic character of N'gai might not, with the less theologicallyminded, at all events, become lost in vagueness, so far as to allow a merely generic sense to attach to the term. " All the same thing," as quoted by Mr. and Mrs. Routledge, may possibly indicate synthesis but it is just as likely perhaps more likely to indicate confusion. It may be worth while to recall here that Mr. H. R. Tate, in Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxxiv. 263, speaks of no less than three gods two good and one bad to whom the Akikilyu give the name of N^gai

;

;

though, to judge by his brief account, they are definite deities with
highly specialised functions.
facts are likely to shed light, that I
first problem on which the new must be very brief regarding the second, namely, the question of the relation of religion to magic. One The thing, I think, comes out very clearly in the Kikuyu evidence. medicine-man is not cut off by his profession from dealings with N^gai, but, on the contrary, is essentially a " Man of God " {M'&n-du mu-gu, where mil-gu has probably much the same sense as the Polynesian mana, namely, supernatural power or " virtue "). Nor can it be argued that here we have but the survivals of a former '" Age of Magic," which are being rapidly obliterated by the development of religion, with its prayer and sacrifice directed towards a personal God. On the contrary, magic, as represented by the art of the Medicine-Man, shows signs of

I

have said so much about the

gaining ground at the expense of that " State religion " to which belongs " the most solemn service, the sacrifice to Wgaiy This nominally Supreme Being sends the Medicine-Man his " call," gives

him

and assists him to exercise them. This does not, howMedicine-Man from assuming that tone of autonomy which some regard as in itself enough to differentiate magic utterly and finally from anything that deserves the name of religion. " I
his powers,

ever, prevent the

46

362

STUDY OF RELIGIONS
;

drive uncleanness away from tliis homestead," he can say, or " I have purged your sin " yet N'gai is, in theory, at the back of it all. So

much

is this

the case, that his power derived from

Wgai

enables the

merely to protect from evil, but likewise to bring evil about. If we were to press this statement, we might even venture on the deduction that o-rd-gi, black magic, ultimately proceeds from N''gai. We may doubt, however, if the Kikuyu correlation of magic and religion would go so far as that. Power to curse as well as to bless may, indeed, be entrusted by Wgai to his human vice-gerents to be used for such purposes as are approved by society. But when a man practises the genuine black magic, that
is,

Medicine- Man to manufacture charms, not

and

the sin of witchcraft, he surely puts himself beyond the social pale, is on a par with those " irregular practitioners " who, we are told,

So far, then, as N^gai stands for religion, there is probably a non-religious or even anti-religious, since anti-social, magic, namely o-rd-gi. On the other hand, so long as the Medicine-Man uses
are poisoned.
his

power

for social good, that

power

is

of N'gai, or, in other words, has
is

religious significauce, despite the fact that it

essentially a

power of

To make constraint or dependence on one's own will, the mark of magic, and conciliation, or dependence on the will of God, the mark of religion, is thus to set up an arbitrary
constraint autonomously exerted.
distinction, in place of that

which corresponds naturally to native
our business as anthropologists not
is

theory and practice.
find out

After

all,

to

how the Akikuyu think,

how they ought to

think.

R. R. Marett.

Exeter College, Oxford,
5th

November 1909.

:

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS ON BRITISH EAST AFRICA WHICH ALLUDE TO THE KIKU'YU PEOPLE AND COUNTRY
Thomson, Joseph. Through Masai Land, being the Narrative of the Royal Geographical Society's Expedition to Mount Kenia and Lake Victoria Nyanza, 1883-1884. 8vo. Maps and Illustrations. London Low & Co., 1885.
:

Contains

notes

on

the Akikuyu,

whose

country the

ex-

pedition skirted.

Teleki, Count Samuel.
a
narrative
2

by

Lieut.

Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie L. von Hohnel. (English Transla;

tion).

vols.

8vo.

Maps

and

Illustrations.

London
1

Longmans & The first

Co., 1894.

traverse of Kikuyu, which

is

described in volume

(pp. 284-361).

Peters, Dr. Carl.
of the

New Light on Dark Africa, being the Narrative German Emin Pasha Expedition. (English Translation.) Royal 8vo. Map and Illustrations. London Ward, Lock, &
:

Co., 1891.

A

brief

account of the Kikuyu country

is

given, with notes

on

the people.

Two Journeys in British East Africa, Proceedings Royal Geographical Society (New Series), vols. 13 (1891), with Maps. pp. 193-208, and 14 (1892), pp. 513-533 Each of the expeditions came in contact with the Akikuyu, the second visiting Mount Kenia. LuGARD, Capt. F. D. The Rise of our East African Empire early efforts in Nyasaland and Uganda. 2 vols. 8vo. Maps and IllusGedge, Ernest.
of the
;
:

trations.

London

:

Blackwood

&

Sons, 1893.
I.

Narrates at first hand the history of the relations with the tribe.

B. E. A. Company's

HoBLEY,

C.

W.

People, Places, and Prospects in British East Africa,

Geographical Journal, vol. 4 (1894), pp. 97-123. Includes observations on Kiku3'u.

Gregory,

J.

W.

The Great Rift

Valley, being the Narrative of a

8vo. Peter.. Fauna and Flora. Contains notes on the natives. In Wildest Africa : MacQueen. : : : : A standard work. Illustrations. 8vo. 36-39 Brief travel-notes. 1896. A Journey to the Summit of graphical Journal. Page & Co. 1896. Major P. L. 24-49. Soldiering and Surveying East Africa. Boston PAPERS AND NOTES WHICH SPECIALLY DEAL WITH THE AKIKUYU Crawshay. London Hurst & Blackett. 21 (1903). 1904. Mount Kenya. 20 (1902). Capt. pp. . Map and Illustrations. Maps and London A. R. H. Sir Charles. 1897. Scott. Illustrations. The record an expedition through Kikuyu to Galla-Land. G.. Mackinder. Maps and Illustrations. Powell-Cotton. The expedition secured good photographs. vol. : 8vo. without special reference to the people. in British London : Chapter IX. Maps and Illustrations. Geowith Maps and . London J. 453-486 Illustrations. Arnold. : An able. a. Dickson. Kikuyu Notes on the Country. Geographical Journal. Arnold. : 8vo. The Eastern Borderlands . with a few native words. of An Ivory Trader in North Kenia. In Unknown Africa a narrative of twenty months' travel and sport. of this standard work includes a description of the AMkuyu. pp. London E. Major Richard. Map and Illustrations. H. graphical Journal. Arkell-Hardwick. Murray. Mainly a sportsman's narrative. deals with operations in Kikuyu. Eliot. Elliot. The author crossed the Kikuyu region. of Kikuyu. the record of a hunting and exploration trip. People. correct. 8vo. 1891-1894. 8vo. vol.. Macdonald. but includes an illustrated description of the Akikuyu. Maps and Illustrations. G. 8vo.Africa. 15 (1900). One of the best descriptions of the region and people. D. J. F. 1905. Innes & Co. 1909. 1903. The East Africa Protectorate. pp. Geo- with Maps. vol.: 364 BIBLIOGRAPHY Journey to Mount Kenya and Lake Baringo. L. and sympathetic account. Major J. Maps and Part III. B. London Longmans & Co. A Naturalist in Mid.

255-265. McGregor. vocabulary. W. Illustrations.K. London S.Kikuyu Vocabulary. (^'^ . Kikuyu Medicines. the Akikuyu. 1905. Clay & Sons). 1905. "W. Retemno rea Yohana (Tentative edition of St. Vocabularies of the Kamba and Kikuyu : Languages Press. Idem.BIBLIOGRAPHY 365 Tate. 8vo. C. H. with . Man. with Sketch-map and Illustrations Further Notes on the Kikuyu Tribe. 1904. Man." Contain information about Snake . Kikuyu and its People. 8vo. Wallace. R. 1906 . KIKUYU VOCABULARIES AND GRAMMAR Hemery. and phrase-book. A. K. English Kikuyu Handbook.. John in Gekikuyu). Man.C. 78. 8 (1908). Notes on the Origin and History of the Kikuyu and Dorobo Tribes. See " British East Africa. Hinde. S. 1903. 1904 and A Grammar of the Kikuyu Language. W. 1904. Hildegarde. Proceedings. 8vo. vol. vol. 1903. Cr. Church Missionary Review.worship as reported by A. Jan. A short vocabulary accompanies the first paper. Fc. 136-139. HoBLEY. Notes on M. 1906. DuNDAS. No. Cambridge University McGregor. 1906. Kenia Province. pp. pp. Notes on the Kikuyu and Kamba Tribes of British East Africa. 130-148. 54. London (printed by R. 8vo. Journal of the Anthropological Institute. London : Triibner. McGregor. a.P. No. 34 and (1904). Contains grammar. 8vo. 1909. C. Fc. English. London British and Foreign Bible Society. of East Africa. pp. : . R. A.

.

. to be KO-CHI-A-RU'-O. " Ke-hu-ru'-ta. ornamental) Bead. . Mu-hun'-i-o..... lu-gu'-chi-o. woman . . Mu-ga'-si. Mtj-len'-ga. Anvil (stone) Apron (ornamental) (woman's) . . .... N'gu'-gtj. 367 .. Ke'-RI. of wire for medicine Bag Banana. a choice variety . Mu-KU-NUN'-G0. to be of a goat. Band (embroidered. part iron. Ky-u'-go... . . U'-TA. N'go'-zo. Ta'-tu. Kl'-HE. Ma-htjn'-gu. MU-HU'-TI.... . ... N'gi-ri'-a.. Mwa'-ttj. GlN-Gl'-RI. Mu'-ra... big. . a kind of . . Ki-chan'-go. N'JU'-RU. . N'gu'-o. Born again. a rare form of . „ " (smith's). Ki-chan'-go. GiN-Gl'-RI. Mt-ktjm-ba'-ti. Mu-i-nor'-o. . . Chain. cloak of Caterpillar Cattle boma .. Mu-Hl'-GA. . Ko-chi-a-ru'-o M'bor'-i. Mon'-do. . Bow.. fine wire Ka'-he.. GLOSSARY Ankle bell Anklet Ant-bear . . . .. a form of „ . wooden slips closing of mouth Bird-scare Boma „ n. Ke-hu-ru'-ta.. Beads made of a scented wood Bee-box or hive Beetle... Armlet of ivory of brass wire .. Ltr-Gi'-Li. . . Boy.. Si'-RA.. part brass wire whipped with Brass. Mwan'-go. . Ki-ni-a'-ta. uncircumcised „ small „ Bracelet. the metal Bull-roarer Cape of man. . Ki-len-ge'-ri.. . a valued form of Bell for ankle Bellows used by blacksmith .. n.

by women by boys „ by boys only „ by men and women together „ .368 Chain. special dying . I-li'-ma. prior to circumcision Dish. .. Ma-hun'-gu. . Dance. for smelting iron) Curse. „ „ . N'du'-mo. I-KEN-l'-A. Ki-ba'-ta. . . Ron-i-or'-i. formed by wire . n first step . .. Ko-TA-HI-Kl'. Ki-lin-gi'-ti. Ngo'-me. Ke-ra'-si. Ke-chu'-ki-a Keo-na'-no. Mtjn'-du-a.. . of women part of woman's . lined earthenware. Ma-ka'-ra. Mu'-TI WA Gn'-TTJ* Mi-in'-do.. of grass. . Kl-HU'-LI. wiredrawer's (complete) .. Expel. Mu-ZU'-RU. . loose links of Charcoal Chest or thorax .. Lu'-hi-er. . Ro'-GA. N'gu'-o. Ke-chu'-i. . . GO-SO-REl'-I. Mu-ni-e'-ki. ..A. . .. n Dress of men... . . TA-ni-KA'->fI-A.. Mi-ni-a'-ka. Mu-GOl'-O.. stem worn in cartilage worn in lobe worn in lobe . Ngi'-la. „ by warriors only by women . Mo-ran'-ja. Crucible (hole in ground. to . Gu'-TU. spiral of „ „ „ . Copper. . GLOSSARY . Clamp. Mbe'-gu. Mam-bu'-ra. . „ „ . like a stick . N'goi'-i-sa. made .. a bar of Collar worn by boys Collarette. „ quill Ear-rings for expanding the cars Elder. n. part of d.. n. n Exorcism by a Medicine-Man Nde'-be. • »» >> Drinking horn Ear cylinder „ ornament . Clay. . Ga-zt'-ka. . Chu'-ma. Mtr-GA-Bu'-RU.. the cartilage of the the lobe of the . . .. Ki-a'-ma. Hu-LA-HU'-LI. . Chew „ (bark).. a form of.. n ... . Ke-boi'-i-a. 5> • • Mwan'-go.. .... Ru'-GA.. Counter in lot-casting Crowbar. Ku-i-ne-ne'-ra. ... Ge-ti'-ro. N'di'-ri. . . Kl-RU'-ME. Du-ge'-ra. N'gob'-i-o. Ku-TA-KU'-KA.. name of part €laws .

.. Medicine -Man Mun'-du Gon'-df.. I-kum'-bi U'-TA. . wiredrawer's Man. U-lin'-ei.. special temporary circumcision Ki-kan'-da. Ml-CHl'-NO. Go-SO-REl'-I. possessor of whiteness). ceremonially Mwi-ne-nya'-ga {i. circumcision „ little Glass paper (natural) God . Gourd. a form of Ki-ee-nya'-ga. n. a form of . not yet circumcised . Mwa-na'-ke. Ka'-hi-ytj. special. Fire stick. Hut. Mwa'-ttj. . Hammer. Moi-re'-tu. the upper the lower „ Garter . Mwa'-no. big. . 47 .. . Kenya. Mu-i-nor'-o. Mtr-Hi'-Ro. Ke-li'-ha. Kl-Hu'-LI. ..GLOSSARY Fence . Head band fringe . drinking Lu'-hi-er. pig of iron Mu-san'-ga.. (young warrior) of middle age . or knee-band (wide) . . Finger ring Kj-chu'-hi.. „ big.e. Ki-Ho-HO (from plant Ki-hin-ga). Mtj-reist'-ga or Mu-ein'-ga. Lot bottle Mallet. 369 Lu-Gi'-Li. Ka-gu'-mo. Medicines Ir-a. Granary Guage. for lot-casting Mwa'-no. .. Mu-than'-ga. . Girdle worn by boys dancing prior to circumcision ceremony Girl. Horn. Kj-ka'-ma. having undergone Ka-ee'-go. M'zur'-i. /'Chem'-be (compounded). Mount EJiife. Mu-GA-EU'-ETJ. . Lad Lead. Thi'-ra. Mboo'-thit.. Mu-than'-ga. Mu-Ku'-o. Iron ore „ the metal „ wire . Je'-ka. the metal Kl'-HE. {fl. worn by boys prior to circumcision ceremony Hive or bee-box Hole I-Ll'-MA. Ki-Ri'-Gcr. Mu'-gxt. Kan-u'-gu. n. wiredrawer's Ma-). JU-GU'-MA. Ngai'. Head-dress. Leg ornament Lever. on . dish . n.

body worn on upper arm or below knee by men only Gu-gu'-to. Si-ar'-i. Nozzle (wooden) of bellows used by smiths (earthenware) of smith's „ bellows Opening Ore of iron Ornament.370 GLOSSARY Kjn-or'-i-a.. Cf.. . Kl-TA-RTj'-RU. Ger'-u-a. Lu-Gl'-LI.. Ma-li-gi-ri'-gi. M'btt'-ru. N'oi'-o. Mu-Hl'-NI-O.. Poison . Mole Mole-trap Hu'-KO. . U-then'-gi.. . O'-MU (from plant Mtan'-da). Ma-li-li'-chu-a.. Pound for cattle toilet grease Mro'-oi. Mang-oi'-o. n. N'gi'-ta. I-Ll'-MA. Mu-CHAN-JA Mu-KA. n. Ma-rei-me'-li. Bu'-Gi. Poisoner. Lu-su-KO (from plan tMu-HU-Ku'-BA). .. RU-SU'-KU. U-RO'-GI. Ki-ban'-di. Necklace a form of child's .. of plaited string form of Neck ornament boy's . Dl-Gl'-SU.. Medicines (continued) Mu-KU-RU'-KA. Ki-n'gna'-ta. to Platter. Mu-san'-ga. (colour red „ unknown) „ white Mun'-i-o... form of of copper . Palisade Peel bark. N'gi'-ri. Mwi'-TI-A. boy's „ „ „ „ in metal of uncircumcised boys . Mui-na'-ka. of uncircumcised boys „ „ only small triangular worn diagonally across . Mu-KO-SHO. .. Ky-u'-go.. Lu-Ll'-GI. Ku-nor'-a. Ki-ban'-di. Mu-RU-RI. Sa'-si. Ma-li-li'-chtt-a. Lu-su'-KO. Paint. Pot to hold . Ki-hem'-be. MU-KU'-YU. . . Mbb-u'-ki. Ngon'-dtj...

GLOSSARY Rainbow. n 371 .

Si'-RA. Medicinal. Medicinal. Used for beads. the action of Wire. Used Used Used in ceremonial. Cf. Mtj-chu'-gu Mu-oi-0 Mtj-gu'-mu . . in firemaking and sacrifice. Used in firemaking. lu-gu'-chi-o. Used in firemaking. cine-Man. Cf. n. V. for beads. (continued) GLOSSARY — Used Used in sacrifice. Medicinal. Waist . Used for charcoal. Cf. Sacred. Medicinal. . Ki-hin'-ga . etc. for string for string Medi- MON-DU-A MON-DU'-E Mtan'-da Mbo-go. Mu-HF-KU-EA Mu-I-GOl'-A Mij-iM-BAi N'gu'-ru Mu-ke'-o Mu-koi'-i-go Used in sacrifice. Ko-ta-hi'-ka. . as sandpaper. Used in firemaking. Vernonia Sp. making. Used in firemaking. Ki-a-ma.372 Trees. ornament of women Winnowing. Used for string making. Used in sacrifice. ceremonial Vice. Medicinal.. Mtt-ho'-ti Used for firemaking. Used in firemaking. . Staff of Kaima made from. making. part of a Medicinal. Used for string making. Nen-gu-hu'-ha. used for firemaking. Ke-ra'-si. in sacrifice. Vomit. Staff of Kiama made from. Ma-tu'-ra N'gu'-ru Mli-ga'-ki Used for official handkerchief. Used for string making. Kl-RA-GO Ma-li-li'-chua Scented leaves. Staff of Mu-nder-en'-du Mu-re'-vu Mu-rin'-ga Mu-EU-RI Mu-ta'-zi Mu-te'-i Kiama made from. n. Used in firemaking. Blossom scarlet. . . . Mu-tha'-qua Mu-Tl'-GI Mwi'-TI-A Used Used N'gon'-du Ni-u-Gu'-o Ru-GU'-TU Uncleanness. „ Vulture . MU-KO-SHO Mu-KUN-GU-GU Mu-Ku'-o Mu-KU-RU'-KA Mu-KU'-YU Mu-Ll'-KA Mu-lin'-da N'gu-ru'-e Mu-LIN-DI-KI Used Used for traps. fringed Mu-i-nor'-o. Tha'-hu. N'db'-ri. Used in firemaking. Mu-chan'-ja Mu'-ka Mu-cha'-sa . Medicinal. Ta-hi'-ka. art.. belt. Medicinal. Used for string making.

U-RO'-GI. to draw fine „ Wiredrawer's clamp. Crucible (hole in ground. Chem'-be Cho-cho A compounded Plant used in medicine. A medicine. betrothed married „ „ middle aged „ . Ornamental band worn diagonally across body at circumcision dance. Bu-GI . YA N'dO-ME YA N'GA-RA . Hu-KO Hu-LA-HU'-LI small burrowy animal. worn in the The metal lead. Ma-HIGA) I-KEN-l'-A I-KEN-I-I {pi. The blade of a spear. Ma) . . MWA-NA-MU'-KE. Woman. Cf. Cf. . Mu-Hl'-KI. Dance performed by women. part of Witchcraft Wizard. Ma) . A HU-RA-HU'-LI I-GAN-GA I-Hl'-GA (pZ. Spiral of wire worn in cartilage of ear. Hu-la-hu'-U. N'JU'-GU. Ma). Slag in iron smelting. sacrifice. tab of lead ear. Ke-ka'-si. Je'-ka Lower fire stick. The arm hole of a dancing shield. Mu-hi'-ga. lobe of the Gon'-du GU-GU-TO medicine. 373 KU-GU'-CHI-A.GLOSSARY Wire. Snake worship. young. for smelting iron). Chu-ma Ga-zi'-ka Ge-ti'-ro GiN-GI-RI Go-SO-REl'-I Stick-like ornament lage of ear. Ma) . Collarette worn by women. lined earthenware. . Small reniform bells worn around A A ankle. Mro'-gi. that feeds on sweet potatoes. I-KTJM-BI [pi. A I-LI-MA I-LI-MA I-LI-MA I-LI-MA Ir'-a I-Ti-MU A hole. size of rat. Al-TWi'-KA A religious cult. [pi. large thatched basket on legs forming a granary. Ornament in metal. Mu-TI-Ml'-A. A disc of shell forming part of a breast ornament. A stone. The lobe of the ear. Cattle bell. The central hole in a dancing shield. an anvil. worn in carti- Loose links of chain. ?i. Gu-tu {fl.

Kl-Ru'-ME Kl-TA-RU'-RU KO-CHI-A-RE-I-RU'-O m'BOR'- Ko-CHI -A-RU'-O KE'-RI Ko-ta-hi'ka. A form of tree (? Vernonia Sp. Ru-gu-tu. Name of a tree used in medicine. lit. Cf Ka'-hee Ka'-hi-yu Kan-u'-gu Ka-re'-go Ke-boy-i-a Ke-chu'-i Ke-chu'-ki-a . . Ko-TA-Hi-Ki'-A (causative) Ku-GU-CHl'-A Ku-i-ne-me'-ra . Name of a tree used in medicine. A spiral of fine wire forming ring for finger. A mole trap. . n. Kl-Gu'-THA Kl'-HEE (pi. Ki-ra'-go A medicine. Iron. Ki-lan'-gi kya Am-ba' Ki-len-ge'-ri Kl-LIN-Gl'-TI Snuff bottle. An ornament worn on upper arm leg of or men only. Embroidered band. A large platter. " To be born of a goat.374 Ka-gu'-mo Ka-gu'-tu . A A of which the root is Ki-re-nya'-ga Kl-Rl'-GU made into beads. Spectacular dance by warriors only. A ring ornament of the ear lobe. . (2) armlet of. Medicine made from ashes of the Ki-hin-ga tree. v. to draw. (fine iron). A big boy uncircumcised. Popular social dance of men and women Ke-hu-ru'-ta Ke-li'-ha Ke-o-na'-no Ke-ra'-si Ki-a'-ma Ki-ban'-di Ki-ba'-ta together. Half gourds used as dishes. A Kl-CHAI!^'-GO. To draw wire . A pig of iron. A dance by warriors and young women together. A dance by men and women together. A dance by boys only. Fire. Name of part of wire-drawer's clamp. A bull -roarer. A small boy. Mount Kenya. GLOSSARY A medicine. Ornament worn in lobe of ear. Brass: (1) the metal. by A temporary hut occupied youths after circumcision. An elder. the metal. . Cf. A little girl. A sling. . Name of a tree. Kl-HU'-LI Ki-ka'-ma Kl-KAI5'-DA . A form of knife." To be born again. I'-HEE) Ki-hem'-be Ki-hin'-ga Kl-HO'-HO . n. big girl not yet circumcised. Kl-CHU'-Hl . dying curse invoked by a father for disobedience. A hammer.). (3) earings of. boy's neck ornament. To vomit. Chain Ki-n'gna'-ta Ki-ni-a'-ta Kin-or'-i-a . . A scented rush. To expel. .

To roll (twine). made from its leaves. . A form of gourd.GLOSSARY Ku-nor'-a KU-O-GO'-SA Ktj-ta-nu'-ka Ky-u'-GO Li-tjm'-ba Lu-Gl'-LI . A scented plant. Ma-li-gi-ri'-gi Ma-li-li'-chu-a ku'-ra tree. Claws of the ant-bear. Fire. Cf. The dance or festival of circumcision. An ornament worn in lobe of Bellows (smith's). Lowest official rank. A bag. A MON-DU'-E Mo'-RA Mo-ran'-ja M'ro'-gi . Wire. Si-ra. A tree used in initiation of Medicine- Man. Counters in lot-casting. n. To chew (bark). when circumcision has Mon'-do Mond'-tj-a. The lowest of the three parts of . Moi-re'-tu {pi. Mtr-CHi-NO Mu-CHU'-GTT Mu-GA-KU'-RTJ . Nozzle (wooden) of bellows used by smiths. Arbutilon Sp. Necklace. been undergone. . Name of a fibre plant. An ornament worn by boys only. Name of a tree. Ru-su'-ko. Plant. Cf. Charcoal for blacksmith's work. Vernonia Sp. Tongs used by blacksmith. Name of a pigment. A Medicine-Man's bag. . which a spear consists. of a medicinal plant. A crowbar. A medicine. Winnowed Bracelet wire. also necklaces Mam-bu'-ra . Cf. Fire. Mang-oi'-o Ma-rei-me'-li Ma-tit-ra Ngu'-rtj Mbe'-gtt A form of necklace. Cf. Mi-ha'-to Mi-in'-do Ml-KUM-BA-TI Mli-ga'-ri . sand. Mu-CHAN-JA Mu'-KA Mu-cha'-sa . ear. Seed. Wizard. Plant. Drinking horn. of whose herbage Kiama's handkerchief is made. . String. Stockade enclosing homestead. A little girl's necklace. Cf. Ai) A big girl. uncircumcised Shrub Mboo'-thu Mbu'-rtj Mbr-tj'-ki . . 375 To peel bark. slips Wooden closing mouth of. O'-mu. A wide knee -band. Plant. Cf. Mtan'-da Mbo-go Name Poisoner. satchel containing medicine. every Kikuyu Ltr-Gu'-CHi-o —iron wire edged with brass made from Lu'-HI-ER Ltr-Li'-Gi Lu-su'-KO A medicine Mu-hu- Ma-hun'-gu Ma-ka'-ra . a growing stockade.

{pi. of the tree of which the trap Ivi-hem-be is made. plant. A . worn in cartilage of Mun'-i-o A . String. Mu-I-GOl'-A . . Bridelia micrantha. Name of a tree. String. Cf. MtTN'-Dtr Mit'-gu A bar of clay ready to A Medicine-Man. Cf. Name of a tree. A Mu-HTJ-KU'-RA Mu-hun'-i-o . . forest tree with scarlet blossoms. Mtj-lin'-da Ngu-ru'-e Mu-LIN-Dl'-KI Cf. Fire. Mu-ni-a'-ka. Grass stem ear. n. Cf p. Cf. (? VernoniaSp. Plant. and waist bands. medicine. The name Mu-KF-RU'-KA Mu-KU'-YU . The sacred tree of Kikuyu. Mu-kun'-ga wa Mbu-ea Mu-KUN-GU'-GU Mtt-ku-nun'-gu Mu-Ku'-o Rainbow. Cf. be worked. Bellows used by blacksmith. Mu'-RA Mtr-RENO'-A Mu-ke'-vt7 . Plant. Bracelet whipped with iron wire. . Mu-ni-e'-ki . Plant. Iron Smelting. Iron wire. Armlet of iron wire. Plant used in sacrifice. Name of a tree used in medicine. Ml) Spear. Cf Plant. 98a. Wood made into beads. String. form of chain : applied to head A neck ornament. young woman when betrothed also a bride until a mother. Anvils (stones). (2) solo and chorus (3) the phonograph. white pigment used for painting dancing shields. A Mu-len'-ga Mu-Ll'-KA . Plant. boys prior to of circumcision. Fire. Also from it are made large trays. A head-dress worn by ceremony A A A Mtj-ke'-o Mtj-koi-i'-go Mtt-ko'-sho MIT-KU'-HA Mu-Ku'-Ki. three woods from which be made Kiama's staff of Mun'-du-a . Mf-nder-en'-du One of may ofi&ce. 376 Mu-ga'-si Mu-Gi'-o GLOSSARY kind of bead.. A wiredrawer's tool. . n. A medicine. . (1) A mixed dance. Mu-Hl'-NI-O Mu-Hl'-RO MtT-HO'-TI . Name of a tree. Mu-IM-BAl' N'Gu'Mu-i-nob'-o . Cf Fire. A Mu-GOl'-O . Cf. Cf. MU-GU'-MU Mu-Hl'-GA Mir-Hi'-Ki . A medicine. A tree of which the leaves form a natural glass paper.) Plant. A rare form of pale green bead. plant used at sacrifice. String. dark blue. Copper. Mull. Fire. Arg.

N'dun'-du dance performed by women only. Mwi'-TI-A M'zur'-i M'zur'-i a Bou'-i M'zur'-i a Ki-a-na medicine. sing. Fire. A young woman on becoming pregAn nant. Mu-ti-mi'-a A woman when aged. Lowest official rank in Karuri's district. . A dance by warriors only. Name of a tree. An ornamental band worn around the upper part of the calf of leg. i. The cartilage of the ear. 48 . ready for smelting.GLOSSARY Mtj-rin'-ga . of trap Ki-hem'-be (2) a barrel to store honey (not hive). Sacrifice. Plant. middle- Mtt'-ti wa gu'-ttj Mu-Zl'-RU wood worn in the ear. A wand carried by each boy when dancing. A woman's skirt. Plant (? Vemonia Sp. white-headed old man. Mwan'-go Mwa'-no Mwa'-txt . with a house of her own. Mu'-Ti . An ornamental shield worn on the shoulder when dancing. 377 Mu-rin'-ga Mtj-ru-ei Mu-san'-ga Mu-ta'-zi . Mu-zu'-RU . Cylinder of (1) Elastic be made elder's staff of office. A tottering. One of three woods from which the staff of a Kiama may be made.e. Name of a tree. A . MXT-Tl'-GI The wooden junction or grasp of the two iron halves of a spear. one of her children has been circumcised. a box. ceremony. Mwi-ne-nya'-ga . for expanding the lobes of the N'di-gi-sxj. Lot-gourd. Man of late middle life needing a stick. n. wand forming spring . and pi N'di-ri N'do'-me N'dor-oo'-si small earthenware pot to hold grease for personal adornment. mu-than-ga Mu-tha'-qua Mu-te'-i Iron wire. apron. A form of bee-hive placed in trees. A young man who has been circumcised. A warrior. Cf. A Nde'-be N'dbr'-i. Cf. N'du-ge'-ra N'dtj'-mo . prior to circumcision A A vulture. A medicine. Fire. Nen-gu-hu'-ha The action of winnowing. Mwa-na'-ke mwa-na-mu'-ke . . The father of a circumcised child.). Rings ear. Cf. Washed iron ore sand. One of three woods from which may . A plant used in sacrifice. Ceremonial name for God.

^ Kolbe). used in war. Cf. : Vomit. A A red pigment. Necklace of pleated string. medicine made from the ashes of the feathers of the rhinoceros bird. Hl-YO) Ron-i-or'-i {fl. An ivory armlet worn by men only.). . O'-MU Medicine made from roots of a tree called Mtan'-da Mbo-go. Si'-RA . Cf. . GLOSSARY A shield. small triangular ornament mad© of bone. Ro-ga'-no {fl. Soup. Ro'-GA A tendon Folk .: 378 N'ga'-o N'ger-tj'-a N'gi'-bi . also name of a part of the wiredrawer's clamp. N'JA-NO YA N'dO N'JU'-GIX Serrated bands on inner aspect of Nju-gu'-ma N'JU'-RU N'oi'-o . N'gor'-o N'go'-tho N'go'-zo N'gu'-gu N'gu'-o Nl-TJ-Gu'-O . dancing shield. Name of a tree. N'ga-no) Ro'-HIYO {fil. Anklet of copper wire. A form of tree (? Vernonia Sp. tales. Fine wire used to make Mi-chi'-no. of a part of wiredrawer's clamp. Fire. front only. The soul in life. by . Fire. The spirit. An ivory armlet worn by men only. . Nozzle A A N'gi-ki'-a (earthenware) of smith's bellows. Ka-g^-tu. A medicine. A dance by boys. Ear quills. A kind of banana that is ripened in a jar. A form of tree. Club. Ornamented one in women Ta-HI'-KA. A medicine. N'go'-ma N'go'-me Name N'gon-du N'gor'-i-o . The chest or thorax. A wooden mallet used by wiredrawer. The only garment worn by males. Upper garment of females. rare beetle (Megaspis Glabripennis. The wiredrawer's clamp. . broth. Ny-or'-i) Ru'-QA RU-GU'-TU RtJ-SU'-KU Sa'-si Si-ar'-i . apron two worn one behind. A sword. A pleated fibre necklace. N'gi'-ta N'gnoi'-o N'goi'-i-sa Collar . 11. Cf. worn by boys.

A medicine. Girdle worn by boys dancing prior to circumcision ceremony. Ceremonial by a Medicine- Tha'-hu Species of caterpillar. uncleanness. Witchcraft. Illness resulting from ceremonial un- Thi'-ra cleanness. A . A wiredrawer's tool. A bow. medicine. U-lin'-di Upper fire stick. U'-MU .GLOSSARY Ta-hi-ka'-ni-a Ta'-ttj 379 of evil The expulsion Man. Poison. U-Eo'-ai U'-TA U-then'-gi .

.

315. 141. 174. 139. 254. see Asi. 283. imitate Masai arms and dress. Akikujai. superstitions. 1. penalty for. played by mothers at initiation. system of reckoning. 170. rendered sacred by testament. medicine to prevent seizure by. 88. 2. Armlets. Animism. territory. 338. Anointing. Akamba. Tylor's theory 358. various kinds of. relations with Masai. 165. 253. at snake festival. fiistory and origin of. for string. 226. 170. of neophytes. 147. 163. 124. 307. 39. 56. 283. 297. 56. Banana grove.. Arms.Man's 4. 2. Administration. Bead ornaments worn cision. leaf clothing. 203. 88. Animal food.. 160. seeds for petticoats. Bathing before circumcision. 148. 43. Assault. Arable land. stories. 106. 81. after circum- . ff.stoppers of Medicine . 341. 305. 38 ff. Agriculture. 140. 189. impossibility of computing. Bachelor hut. Bananas. related to Akamba. 58. Arum lily. Bamboo horns. 42. 33. Art. Amulets. 12. 226. original inhabitants of Askari. leaf . original inhabitants of Kikuyu. see Weapons. made of stone. Asi. Age. 16. terms expressing men's. 12. of papyrus after child- used as salt. 57. Kikuvu view as to God of. 349. 123. at initiation. method of carrying. 351. 35. territory of. isolation of. Avoidance of djang man. 3. 159. 89. 200. method of explaining. 3. 5. Attire. 299. future of. 241. 77. gourds. 381 Bead money. 12. 283. INDEX Abandonment of dead person's hut. Applause. Animals as abode of soul. 11. 106. 242. colour of. see Charms. 112. 297 and n. see Dress. value of. marriage. Arrow used in blood drawing. legend as to reason. 216. 34. method Bark used See also Ornaments. Armlet of maize worn at maize dance. 1. Agumba. 119. Ants. 242. 242. Antidote. 12. 303. of children. 57. 326. 89. 10. Akikuyu name of. of people fatally ill. teeth"filing. Anklets. 52 roots gathei'ed by mother Ash birth. 49. 108 Arts. 253. 99. Akieki. 182. Babies. opposition to Dr. 13. criminal. 118. 3. method of cooking. 138. Kikuyu. 189. Anvils. J>63. of. origin. 25. Aberdare Range. Apron. bee-boxes. 7. 312. 197. method of giving. 237. terms expressing women's. 183. 56. 140. Barter. division of. 145. 301. 2. same origin as Akikuyu. 66 fl. 279. of cooking. 15. tubes.

painting at charming. Branding of bee-boxes. 45. painting. lends picture of Catalan hearth. 283. from J. 174. Broom at purification. Caterpillar as abode of soul. 258. drawing. to old home. 176. 175. painting. from cattle. Bellows. dancing. 57. 252. 88. 85. 352. method nozzle of use. 179. 190. Sir Hugh. against wounding. drinking. 176. of sacrifice. 258. 45. painting. 104. Camp. 263. 39. legend as to reason for. 207. 150. 133. how marked. Character. weight and size of. 175. branding. dances of uncircumcised. 203. method of manufacture. 109. 174. 124. 241. collected. drinking after a burial. 86. 112. 206. reserved as mark of honour. unlucky. 172. 64. 156. Bird scaring. 259. against a stranger. Akikuyu. 354. ality. drinking after circumcision. Sir Lowthian. purification after a. at sacrifice. initiation dance. goat and cow. Catalan hearth. Chain.382 INDEX Boundaries. 262. on cattle. Bridge-building. 158. 351. 154. compound. Ceremonies. 206. on resumption of matrimonial life. 271. 356. 172. 117. 157. 88. of blood brotherhood. 125. . Charcoal used in smelting. 205. Charms. 272. for. Betrothal. feasts after a. Boys. 353. A. 230. of elders at boys' dance. 88. 162. 44. 8. of reception into a fresh district. 269. 172. day after. Bells at ankles. Masai. 355. 172. 350. 269. 87. 170. 183. 157. 23. 43. contracted. 85. Bodyguard of chief. 160. 35. Beating of boy at initiation ceremony. 235. at purification. 354. reason Castor oil tree. 151. models at. Beer. presents. Boy. Beans. 108. as abode of soul. 203. method of. 132. 172. powder for. medicine to protect. Cattle. 250. ceremony of second. Grant. 83. 109. manufacture of. blood drawing. Breach of promise cases. 127. 295. 168. 345. Bride. child's nation- Blood brotherhood. dispute as to. 91. drawing. Bees. 133. 95. scale of remuneration of. 263. at marriage ceremony. Birth. 71. 156. Burial. 212. feast at. 84. 270. visit of. drinking at maniage. from forehead. 271 ff. 8. at making of iron articles. of cattle. 265. 180. 253. 278. 2S0. to ensure child taking mother's milk. 58. as food. 62. letter to. 292. customs. 91. 200. beating Asi. 232. Ceremonial dances. to ensure eloquence. Blacksmith. 56. 135. of. 103. staff of. method of cooking. method. method of wearing. as drink offering. Bracelets. 97. Birds. 123. Belt. Bell. 176. 126. 176. 166. 39. 139. Bell dancing. tabus after. Carrying babies. customs. 242. 260. Akikuyu ideas of. 63. 94. 252. 58. 54. 345. method loads. 147. dancing. Bone pointing. for old women. Chain-making. 93. 41. 35. power of curse of. blood. of. at initiation. Body painting. 50. blown over neophytes. drinking after sacrifice. Song. 269. at initiation of Medicine-Man. Castration. initiation. tools of. 85. 354. Brotherhood. Beauty. Ceremony at making of acknowledging of iron articles. source of wealth.S medicine to protect crops. 149. 162. 150. Bee-boxes. 87. 172. 171. beer-drinking after. Masai greed foi. 337. ratio of sexes. effect of.

power of. Hinde on names of. Combination for miUtary purposes. cases referred to. 22. initiation dance. models at. 163. at marriage ceremony. Copper chain. Headmen. names of. Compound for cattle. 5. 197. 30. 256. numbers of. Children. 272. 350. power of. Colours. 10. Clothing. 95. 179. 218. 10. Chieftainship. 7. 178 fire at. Circumcision. 126. 117. 171. mixed. Collars. 151. 179 n. pellets used in hair-dressing. Curse of a smith. 164. Collar of iron wire as wedding present. as iron miners. ceremony of acknowledging nationality of. 97. 131. 196. from birds. 217. objection to carrying out. Cultivation. 232. 11. 180 ff. 276. names of. 166. 84. 207. 82. 94. 41. Chivalry shown by chiefs. 84. 84. judicial position of. 39 ff. Akikuyu. Agumba. of. 163. 20. 196. 124. initiation. rank. not indulged in by married women. protected by bellows nozzle. Cowtail stopper of Jledicine-Man'a gourds. Childbirth. 198 Councils. Com. Commerce. 78. 3. mixed. 164. great initiation. 59. Cow bells. naming position of. 156.. Coins. 51. no " uncleannesa " at. 272. 139. 131. 78. to kill. of men and women together. of men only. 112. 330. 149. 163. Chief's bodyguard. 76. 84. done by women. 235. on hut-roof. worn by women. 157. • no iU effects after. Compensation. 139. 279. 158. made by mother. 79. of. postpones initiation ceremonies. 98. 66 ff. Cooking. by natives. ff. 171. Clans. 153. 109. Council of elders. refusal of. forbidden to witness sacrifice. Chronology. 196. bamboo horns played at. 171. 253. 39. 185. dress worn at. 20. 147. 128. names of annual. Kafir. 53. 108. goats used as. implement employed. Cloak. time of convalescence. used for hut walls. protection of. 147. of women. 95. Crops. 97. Custom. 42. 169. by whom performed. 167. to protect neophyte. Curses. 165. 84. Crafts. 21. 112. in grave. 254. 273 ff. Crawford. method of cooking. method of drying for pottery. Cleanliness of huts. 197. 106. 187. 33. at divorce. Counters. 91. owTiership. 383 political. 68. Dr. 156. 22. position of. 162. cited. Clan prohibited to set as circumcisors. 207. Chief. 133. medicine for. cord for binding leaves at. Classes. . methods of sacrifice. 16. 185. Combination. Corpse. 197. Clay lining for crucible. 150. of Medicine-Man. in justice. 187. at great initiation dances. Contracted burial. Dances. defilement from. watching of. 112. 207. Crucible. Currency. importance of. 158. 258. 20. 254. used in pottery. 15. see Dress. 274. 155. 169. 9. feast at. of uncircumcised boys. Communal houses. 200.INDEX Charms to injure enemies. 11. distinctive marks of. position of. 197. ff. 163. 179. which do not work for warriors. 188. 173. 21. 127. illegitimate. on completion of maize harvest. 121. work of. Cord. iron. festivals. 164. 279. failure of. Clamp used in wire-drawing. 118. manufacture of. See also Chiefs. property of. Cowrie ornament. lands of. Counter charming. aversion to touching.

243. Estate. Enclosure of homestead. 180. 111. 256. 32'. for purification. 27. 46. on native justice. movements in. round homestead. 111. 137. 144. Depilation. 33. after circumcision. 248. 98. 108. 198. 335 ff. offerings 242. 143. Draw-plate. by lot. 189. Defilement. 266. 113. 225. offerings to. Debt.. 263. procedure regarding. . 216. 3 w. of property. Ear-ring. 273. description of. Door of hut. 157. Feast at blood brotherhood ceremony. 262. 161. Drink. 30. 93. Doll exhibited at initiation. Dyes. 176. Kiama's. Debate. Dice. 61. offering. 26. 109. Families. 172. 166. 236. at childbirth. 332. Disease caused by malignant spirit. 156. 32. rate Extemporising. 3G. women's. effect of. 346. Elders at maize dance. Face painting. Divorce. 50. division of. 202. Elephant's skull. 158. of women. Fallow land. conception of. see Shamba. results of. Family life. one reason for respect for old age. festival on reception into new 177. 235. parties. Dumo song. piercing. in. Departed. to initiation. 200 ff. 156. 117 ff. 135. 259. 136. collection of. 147. 207. Deathrate. after circumcision. 205. 235. 198 ff. 241. Akikuyu views of. at purification. 271. for teaching dancing boy. 140. teach morality. abode of. Ear mutilating as identification marks of sheep and goats. Mr. Fees. Design. Drinking after sacrifice. Evil eye. 99. 350. 32. payment for cultivating. See also Beer. 219. 266 S. at trials. at initiation of Medicine-Man. Expansion of Akikuyu people. 350. Pear. 140 . 250. European life. 227. of Medicine-man.. of informer. 158. size of. 189. Excavations on Agumba hut sites. Entail of land. initiation into ranks of. 210. 227. 140. Divination. 26. dwelling-place of. Dead. wire drawing. power of. 228. character of. used for anointing head. Eldest son. 189. distension of. disposal of the. See also Medicine. district. 262. 255. boy. 265. dress of women. Fat. 34. 172. Deity. at initiation of Medicine-man. 333. 232 ff. 36. 121. causes of. defilement from. 27. libation of. right to sacrifice belongs tp. 232. at initiation dance. 196. Dying man. Drugs of Medicine-man. 190. 205. Dancing bell. 33. 157. 259. Endurance. 198. 280. 203. Festival of the young men. council of. plants placed in. offering to spirit. 139 ff. 198. 106. 228. pots destroyed at. Dentistry. Eggs forbidden as food. 35. 165 ^ rupture of. Division of ox at feast. Dress. 62.384 Dances previous rythmical movements INDEX Ear ornaments. 31. system. 21. Exchange. Feathers in hair. of warriors. 243. at harvest dance. 137. 219. sacred. 168. 117. 259. 31. 108. 265. 108. see Lots. 234. portion of. 4. shields. 33. Decoration. Drunkenness. 70. of. Death. Decentralisation of government. 178. avoidance of. 351. power of voluntary.). Masai. 254. English rule. on seeing. 253. 240. 63. Dundas. 39. Feasts after a burial. Entrails of sacrifice. 233. 155. medium of. 139. Ear-lobe. 7. perform purification and ordeal trial. 109. 31.

. drill. Kiama. 9. 84. Folklore. religious duties. Moranja. 44. See also Fireclay lining of crucible. none used. at marriage ceremony. Hair. 74 ff. treatment of. 74. Hat. sacred. 192. skin clothing. 197. 150. age when practised by bovs. defilement from digging. Fish forbidden as food. Akikuyu. method ff. by lot. 359 ff. duties of. 3. 30. invisible. 110. Fire. God as abode of spirit. Future. 128. rattles. Firing of pottery. names of Akikuyu. Gourds. 9. kinds of. Forest. 226. 21. 50. bells. Grave. 77. 346. 253. diggers of. as unit of value. Njama. of. see Shaving. 285 £f. 112. for cooldng. women. 56. Folk tales. 171. Fuel. also Ceremonies. 47. Fines for murder. of making. Fighting. Fireplace of hut. dedication of. sleep in huts. Flux. Gourd. 239. 76. 54. Generations. 77. Grades in official rank. Gruel. 171. 7. ornaments. 60. 49 . Fruit. foreteUing of. Genealogies. method of using. 353. of dancing boy. 20. 211. life. 26. 74. 350. 50. 291. 140. 34. (N'gai). 51. native. 70. Government. letter to Sir L. site of. belief in. See also Banana. of Medicine-]\ran. Hair-dressing. 283. invisible. Masai. no sanctity in. 10. eats sacrifice. do not bear at new moon. INDEX Festival of snake worship. method of making. Game. decorated. 7G. herding. 147. 40. 140. Grindstones. 102. synonyms for. Flour. 118. 51. Hammer. 278. 49. 203. 254. 283. 354 Sketch of Catalan hearth. 234. Grain. find... 284. Fort Hall. Girdle. 109. towards men. 385 See Goat. 47. See also Spirits. time taken in. 26. Lot-. Goat. carried about. 12. trial time of. Flocks kept in huts. 50. position of wealthy in. regarding detention of. Grant. Prof. new stones necessary. 354. 27. 347. 234. 237. 283 ff. 226. 74. 266 life. 1. of. Gowland. 60. 26. Fowls. 155. used at sacrifice. 54. Frame-work of huts. shape of. local distinctions in. 242. of Geographical features of Akikuyu country. frustrates spirits. why not kept. 185. on iron smelting. 254. Head men. no tradition as to origin stick. Groves. dwelling of. peculiar character of. old style dress. 90. 76. 112. 226. Feasts. 62. Food. 340. Habitat. 266. Head shaving. 92. 30. 203. 27. 42. 198. patriarchal. denudation of. Guests. character of. legend as to origin of. 38. 247. Ghosts.. dance on completion of maize. See also Head- Head-dress. Gourd of. 255. Fire-making. 257. 1 Masai. 188. wife has lien on. 196. 291. 226. Bell. 253. 360. 20. Masai. 109. absence supposed beneficial effect of long. J. Harvest. 171. 89. 74. 142. 77. 67. medicine to Games. Grid. 210. scarcity of. Gourd. 171. 226. Akikuyu. 204. furniture. trial concerning killing of a. 89. 338. old style of. 64. 49. 124. 198. 246. attitude of. restrictions. A. 3G0. 350. ff.

82 tf. Iron. sites.umba. 155. 81. Catalan. 85. 182.. Hut. Judicial functions. 258. 270. abandonment dress at. 204. 138. employed for circumcision. 246. 138. 20. Masai. Kikuyu workings. property in. 315 Illness. 242. Hottentots. purity of. 40. 166. 84. 79. purification of. extracted by water. also 145. Allen. medicine Infanticide. 143. 159. 164. 149. secretiveness as to. musical. objects manufactured 82. 113. 112. in folktales. 149. 23. . method adopted. age of girls. Honey. 47. worn by women. tax. 79. 198. 277. 203 ff. of spirits. of dead person. Jigger. 211. 60. details of. washing. Hindoos. History of Aldkuyu. 242. Hearth. 83. 112. position of. gathering ceremonies. 237. 155. present sites of Agumba. used in festival of snake. 81. 66 ff. 264. burrowing. Intoxication. great. removal of dead. 149. 62. Hyena as abode of soul. piled on grave. Head men. Houses. 81 n. 82. 241. 3 n. workings. of. ceremonies. 242. smelting. 150. folktale as to limp of the. name of. 3. 4. Howe. 6. 155. 80. effect of. used by A2. Informer. 158. 156. 140. of Medicine-man. 119. 169. 117. excavation on Agumba. Horns. 4. dance prior girls' to. 170. 197. ceremonies. wire. 336. choice of site of. 353. of persons afflicted with fatal. 157. Agumba. mining. prohibitions against working. 210. on Kikuyu medicines. 80. collar of. 117. 321 ff. of mountains. method. 237. Implements. 80. 3. on Clans. powers. 279. of. efficacy of Kikuyu. Infants. Jumping. size of. number of. 47. administered by spirits. 86. 81. 124. played at circumcision.. 142. trial concerning. sense of. 169. on Kikuyu iron. 196. import of. 122. position of. 117. 131. abandonment obsidian. 196. 171. Household duties of women. method employed. 266. 266. as a scavenger. Image at maize dance. method of building. as abode of spirit. for secret society neophytes. J. special entrance made after a death. lot casting in cases of. Inheritance. Agumba. 332. Huts. prohibition to enter at childbirth. Intervals. 190. 58. 165. 200. See Fireplace. procedure. 199. women's share in ceremonies Instruments. 87. universality of its use. Hobley. 81. unit of family life. Homestead. 168. 6. W. 83. 263. 354. dance. 56. See also Homestead. 147. ff. 3. 112. 2. 170. age of. 330. 203. Hospitality. time taken.386 348. on death of father. 353. on origin of Akikuyn. perpetual use of. 170. Akikuyu. destruction of. cooking furniture of. 4. separate one for wives. 22 n. Ilimu. Impotency. 148. 154. tax. ceremonies not held if crops fail. 117. result of. Mr. 112. fee to. of dead person's. 12. age of boys. washins. mythical animals. 22. date of. Justice. 92 ff. agricultural. bad results of. for. 251. 155. trade in. 303. 154. into elders. C. rattles. cases where practised. Mr. musical. 218. INDEX Infanticide. 117. Invocation. Initiation.

method of cooking. 341. produce. Kenya. and n. 157.. 12. habitat. breach of promise. dance on completion manner method of sowing. Manners. 226. 55. 199. 202. Lang. story of the. 172. members attending. 359. 33. method roots gathered birth. 226. on snake worship. Lily. name Kiama for. 212. 283. 326. Moimt. 242. 77. 326. character. 105. 249 ff. 220. Labour. wages. 1. Market. Meal. ceremony. Akikuyu view as to god of. sheath. 283. 22. grade. Meat not cooked by women.. 61. dedication of. Markets. 264. 160. 229. of at initiation. 226. worshipped as manifestation of God. by capture. 125. 267. 209. 201. method of carrying. 198. Mount. 258. customs. harvest. 53. 254. Kinangop. 266. site of. 23. 121. 269. Land. greasing of. charm for. a secret charm. Lashings. 1. Marrow. 196. Manufacture of charms. 189. 125. 42. 236. of. face painting. 19. Magnetite. importance Marriage age. Keloids. Lots. 361. 202. %news regarding God. 30. 12. 352. 327. Lightning. 5. 153. 233. for. 61. to protect neophyte. views regarding future life. 35. ]\Iarett. arum. 347. 154. original condition of country. 283. 159.. 258. 280. when held. 12. Leg ornaments. cited. bond of political union. nature of. 344 ff. 226. 240. 238. 103. 203. 267. 268. Lot-gourd of Medicine-Man. arum. regxilations. Masai. 357. 273 ff. Marks placed on neophytes. 53. 123. 349. Ki-tha-si. 347. 188. for. head-dress. 361. Mr.INDEX Kafir corn. of string. 202. . 41. 127. Medicine. 62. Masai unfitness problems. 266 ff. 387 of. 35. method of cooking. take part in sacrifice. 43. 349. 287. life and character. casting of. meaning of word. of fat. pattern of body painting. 20. property in. 130. 106. to religion. 225. material employed for hut. 286. 287. interpretation of. 361. of cooking. measures 34 and Libation. 99. Length. 81. 121. M'Gregor. between Asi and Agumba. weight of. ultimate extinction of. 241. 235. 67. 101. 266. bones cracked Masai. 348. feast. 266. I\Ir. of spear. relation of. of cooking. 105. 266. at dance. 83. 142. on totems. 55. 2. Medicine-Man. 1. Meals. 332. 326. Leaves of sacred tree. on thought in the comparative study of religions. 52. gourd. price. 105. 131. 105. home of God (N'gai). maize Manioc. freedom of choice. 219. 147. amount of sustenance value of. relations with Akikuyu. Man-eater. 197. restitution of.. 23. medicine to cure. 124. Leather garments. place of Kikuyu Mr. 236. Kikuyu country. 278. in. divination by. 53. home of God (N'gai). dress formed of. 128. 351. 226. 253. 330. Life. Lugs on pots. 207. 106 ff. Madness. 130. 39. 22 n. combination against. Akikuyu. of pottery. under the English. code of. invocation of. unsanctity of. invocation of. legend as to flocks of. 225. 211. Luck. 234. 92. 210. Magic. 245. n. price. 1. early inhabitants of. 329. 124. Maize. by mother after child- Loads carried by women.

150. . 63. 236. 330. lllff. INDEX Munge. Agumba. 33. 229. 54. effect of. ensure child taking N'gai (God). commandment against. 44. See also Currency. performs purification and ordeal. 212. beliefs regarding. Medicines. 213. 202. as medicine to protect crops. 256. Midwives. 204. to dead. 249. 182. N'jama grade. 200. 228. fee of. 35. C. 340. 242. Origin of Akikuyu. 208. take part in sacrifice. Offerings. trial for. 348. shields. take part in sacrifice. unlucky. 133. 185. 154. 255 fE. see Beer. 85. Mythical animals. 231. Asi. no journeys taken or sacrifices method N'goma. 203. 242. 232. 108. gifts Mukunga M'bura. 283. of cooking. dancing of child's.. 335. importance of good. 226. hut for. initiation. 27. 310. 245. 249. 284. Masai. 202. 235. societies. 125. Names of children. N'dorobo. 47. Naivasha. 315 £f. 209. Musical instruments. 227. Models of human form. 124. teaching of. 138. legend regarding. 228. 200. 251. 359. homestead of. legend as to. Men and women. 104 n. the chief. Murder. 255. 152. 250. Milk. 336. 12. 5. 277. powers of. 199. 233. method of carrjdng loads. varieties of. 108. home of rainbow. 264. 231. 210. 315 ff. 6. difficulties in way of establishing. charm to mother's. number of. Agumba. 236. 274. 6. 236. 20. 260. 108. attempts at. Men. 250. 4. 150. purification of. Dr. 3. 212. 3. of. 212. 256. 236. 233. honesty of. 311. lucky and unlucky. at purification. 265. 172. Mother-in-law. 2. word of Masai origin. Mic-Macs of Newfoundland. 308. huts for. 106. to bride. ceremonial. Lake. status of. 258. 201. 308. 229. 232. Nairobi. 242.. Monogamy. See God. 335. Morals. 149. Money. as purifier. 331. dances of. 158. 247. Akikuyu. Offences. 176. 220. fee to. respect paid to. 230. 234. at " dead. 313. 5. 137." 284. Mortars for beer making. 91. N'johi. S. 227. 342. 235. 180 ff. dances of. grinding. 229. 112. 198. 171. 197. 333. 150. 202. 283. drink. 134. 189. 207. ceremony of acknowledg- ment N'dome. 134. on passing elephant's skull. 207. Millet. 250. Myers. on crossing a river. 119. 307. 245. 251. 230. functions of. 10. 241. due to poverty. from plants. legend as to. in trial by ordeal. Akikuyu. 309. Ochre for anointing head. Officials. stories dealing with. 272. mythical animal. 255. Medicine-]\Ien. 106. Moranja grade. Nationahty. 263. 233. 113. see Bachelor hut. 12. Neophytes to secret 237. 233. Missions. fine. Obsidian implements. trial by. Neck ornaments. 202. will result from abolition of tribal war. position of. 199. ModelUng. 360. Mongoose. Numbers. position of. Music. Nyeri. Ordeals. Moon. 203. N'jenge. Ordeal. pottery. Mombasa. 235. worshipped as manifestation of God.388 Medicine-Man as diviner. 23. 138. Old women. made phases of. Nozzle of bellows. 228. Morality. Migrations. keeping of. on Eakuyu music. Milking. 314. 199. see Folk Tales. of bellows. 54. 212. Order. 149. 197 n. Myths.

Placenta. 350. Ornamentation of body. at initiation of Medicine-Man. 33. for initiation dance. 195. firing of. Prices. 35. at purification. 321. Pain. 87. 257. antidote. 149. 261. 181. 259. 253. 133. method of manufacture. 95. Pits. Porters. native. where made. 156. value of. 54. at initiation. Protective markings on cattle. 95. 45. 344. see N'jama. 102. 4. 280. to visitors. 252. Ownership established by cultivation. 226. 181. See also Restrictions. 202. 209 ff. to barber after circumcision. 73. similarity to that of early Britain. Painting body. 272. 20. 110. ear. 155. grinding. Pasturage. of leg. material employed. 150. 85. 125. 147 n. 140. at drinking partj'. 14. division of. 21. gathered at sacrifice. Pregnancy. Polygamy. 108. 172. 97. 344. sweet. 260. 99. Priestly character of . 45. for neck. immunity from. Pictorial art unknown. 230. 262. 233 n. Petticoat. Prayer. at feast. 41. 202. 253. 389 Population.350. sacrifice in case of. 63. 302. Plank for hut walls.. Possession. settled. ceremonies connected with. 33. Tabu. 68. 4. 144. 235. at initiation of Medicine-Man. 195. method of cooking. face.INDEX Organisation. Pantomimic dance. 34. medicine for. arm. Physical characteristics. hut. 165. 230. 30. Pottery. 149. 265. Pestles for beer making. 3. 246. 98. Pharmacy. in land. 42. 27. Presents. 147. 140. 262. of irregular Medicine-Man. 34. Produce. 183. at purification. division 6. 121. 252. made by women. 121. Potato. 35. 98. Powder for marking body. after circumcision. Political organisation. 126. 256. 100. Ornament of clothing. rights of women in. 262. articles made of. Pollution of rivers. customs as to use of. 66. medicine for. Prohibitions. 146. ff. 166. chains as. Sugar Cane. Penalties. 131. used for teeth. 227. nozzle of bellows. 263. 143. 162 ff. Agumba. Agumba. Plants. 258. 154. Poisoning. 235. 232. 91. 143 ff. 22. see Pigments. at betrothal. 166. 329. 248. 256 after a burial.iron. See also Lily. 102. 98. 350. etiquette of. 139. 59. 99. worn after circumcision. Patriarchal government. 35. manufacture. Property. stages in. used for painting at purification. 215. Purification. at trial. 197. Manioc. of garments. 253. Papyrus ash used as salt. 351. Pig. Poison. 3. Ox. 270. 97. initiation dance. Potato. 97. 253. disposal of. writing. 156. Picture rattles. Ornaments.Medicine-Man. in hair. 13. 246. war. 106 ff. 52. 231. 236. 280. 180. waist. to boy at age of five. market. owned by women. 109. gathered by mother after childbirth. 38. 32. 241. 255. Paint. 272. 106. 202. 109. Akikuyu. 58. 208. 279. at death. Masai villages. by Medicine-Man. political. 227. PoUce. Posts. of women. 350. 31. Peace. 265. at wedding. Pots destroyed at death. Pigments. 338. and disposal of. 34. ..

as charm. 229 ff. 140. 35. 145. marital. of mother's head at initiation. trade in. 261. 82. 212. effect of. 258. Roof of huts. 275. medicine to ensure a. 309. Seduction. 347. 211. Ranks. 97. 130. of value. 264. 361. 121. folktale regarding bringing of. 347. Sand. Shamba. Purifiction of carriers of a dead body. 313. 15. Revenge. ceremony of. 207. 35. ceremony of. on vegetation. 265. Second birth. Masai. 204. 204. charm name used Raid?. Rindeipest. 204. Sheep. 227. 147. 197.. right to. 159. 59. 198. 79. for God in. penalty for. as bond of union in clan. Scarification. on death of sand tunnellers. 169. Marett on Akikuyu. Rings of wire. 307 ff. See also Grades. Mr. 211. Railway. of mother. women take no part in. used in ordeal. division of ox between different. iron washed from. 326. 108. 249. of bride. Sin. to Magic. Quills as ear ornaments. 307personified as a man or a snake. stories. 276. folktales concerning the. 226. for chief. Religious duties of grades.390 INDEX Sacrifice. Shields. two sides to. procedure regarding. 237. Uganda. 44. fire at. 189. 203. in to injure enemies. beliefs concerning. 203. Ratio of sexes. Riddles. Rainfall. 147. Sizing iron. 227. 93. of mother and hut at childbirth. worshipped as manifestation of God. 58. 308. Sale. 109. 20. of village. division of. 271. on reception into a new district. 254. 26. Singing. 241. Regents. dancing. 137. 287. at lot-casting. women as. 35. Religion. 275. offerings on crossing a. at initiation of Medicine-Man. 147. 113. 229. Rebirth. Servants. 258. 77. 233 n. 138. earth. belongs to Elders. Scale. musical. initiation dance. of midwives. Secret societies. personified as a monster. of women. 202. 234. 177. 188. from papyrus ash. 141. 234. 111. See also Sacrifice. 185. 277. 256. regarding purchase of a. 114. Second sight. Shaving. trial trial Rainbow. Reaping. 147. Seclusion of Medicine-Man. 265. 279. 148. regarding inheritance of. Rising. possibility of native. kind used for sacrifice. 242. 192. Rain. 147. 58. 156. passim. 148. at dances. relation of. 225 ff. 219. Sandals. 7. 151. 172. 284. 345. 337. Salt. 307. 42. wire drawing. after childbirth. 226. after a burial. 148. 112. Raiment. 135. 49. 214. picture. 138. extracted by tunnelling. at purification. in charm to injure enemies. childbirth. food. as sign of status. 69. Masai warriors'. vines used for. Seasons. Sexes. Restrictions. 99. 299. 227. distribution of. Ration. Riveting of chain. 165. of father after childbirth. 40. cost of. after childbirth. method of. at childbirth. 203. after sacrifice. Shrubs made into broom at purification. 151. 336. Sacrifice. after circumcision. 263. Rope. see Dress. official. 98. visit of mother to. eaten by God. 200 ff. 144. 68. 135. 345. River. Rattles. 346. 252. See also Tabu. ratio of. not offered at new moon. Skull. Rhythm. poison Resurrection of victim of (folktale). 31. 357. . 258. 203. duties of. 336.

240. from sacred . filing. Slaughter of sheep or goat. 32. 131. ideas regarding. offering on passing elephant's. 93. 77. used in string making. 78. 3. 361. transmigration. commandment against. 270. manner of . polishing. Soul. 284. Streams. . H. of. 172. 69. 280. Staff. in Kikuyu. 279. 92. terms expressing. 253. rainbow personifled as sacred. 58. 113. 237. Somali. 91. 85. 280. Sword used in fire-making. 79. 25. of cattle. 16. superstition regarding. 180. Sponsor at circumcision. 241. 32. 4. Sling for carrying loads. Souls. State and religion. Sowing. cure for. 258. invocation of. 201. 233. time of. Totems. 197. Akikuyu. 86. 75. Status. 242. story of. 13. 240. Spear. 230. Stone implements. makers of. method employed.^tree. 15. abode of malignant. 245. gourds. 43. 88. 9. 208. Speeches at drinking party. in iron. 248. ills ascribed to. medicine to prevent. 277. 50. cause of disease. see Blacksmiths. 103. 202. Song. importance at initiation. Tate. food. at initiation. n. 170. 24. 71. Swimming. Theft. administer justice. 32. 40. in connection with religion. conception of. conception of. at sacrifice. 53. manufacture of. Suspension bridges. worshipped as manifestation of God. Sugar cane. 178 «. at drinking party. 202. 284. 227. blood. as sign of office. 254. at charming. used by Medicine-IMan.50. native. Spirit. 62. 32. 241. 77.. 43. Stature. of men. 324. trial for. Songs. Spitting as a charm for luck. carried by neophytes at initiation dance. invasion of Kikuyu. Smoke. of. Masai. 141. 253. procedure regarding. Tobacco. worship. 160. husband of moon. 204. 49. 241. of. primitive form of. 320. Kikuyu view as to God of. musical. 227. 346. Tools of blacksmith. 241. 113. medicine for. 71. 78. 228. 77. adorning of. Sterility. Swahili. Tongs. 308. Thatching of huts. 202. filing not practised by Akikuyu. uprising against. 160. 161. Masai inability. 312. Stoppers of Medicine-Man's 253. 16. 22 and Trade. 79. Suicide. 226. connected with degrees of fineness of. 242. Sun. 79. 263. abode of. powder frustrated by fire. Masai. Stars. Surgery. 88. of women. manufacture Masai. quoted. 163. removal. peace. Snake. drink offerings to. Time. 209. Agumba. 81. Snuff. of honey.INDEX Skull. of. at purification. Smiths. 345. children of moon. 203. 210. 23. 94. Tabu. 83. 391 Slavery. value of. of dead person's property. 15. objects 77. 181. 261. in tobacco. Teeth. terms expressing. made of. 243. making of. 43. Stones for fireplace. Tendons. 43. 242. 78. 240. Smelters of iron. 198. fracture of. on hand as sign of peace. penalties for. 239. Akikuyu. method of extracting from carcase. juice used to make beer. for. 32. R. 238. 226. 19. 21. 78. 347. 14. Spirits. 242. number String. Smelting. 216. 353. after a burial. 172. a. Mr. price for making. 68. 135.

35. 112. sacred. 187. Weldina: of iron. 167. Edinburgh . 253. Wives. Masai. sacred. Kikuyu agricultural. 277. fat poured on. numbers. 234. 213. 232. 70. respect paid to old. Wounds. Akikuyu. 122. Viscera of sacrifice. respect paid to. Masai. separate houses for. sacred. 336. \ Wages War. 209 fE. Writing. at husband's death. result of. Warriors at dance. Tylor. unlucky. 324. 59. Woodland. 233. Uganda Railway. 255. 147. of sacrifice. 38. trial regarding. Dr. 264. 79. 151. forbidden to witness sacrifices. work of. 98. 60. as abode of soul. Printed by Morrison & Qiub Limited. 117. number passing of. position of. 76. sacred. 159. Urine as medicine. 68. property retained by. 329. methods of. 230. none at childbirth. at dance. 158. Kikuyu. 120. 104. owners of property. Wire. on dancing gourd. 232. Wealth.392 Trade routes. length of. Wounding. 332. Uncleanness. healing of. attitude assumed at work. Akikuyu. Washing. Villages. 172. 28. Vice. 358. Wergilds.. 40. 242. 13. Vines used for rope. mixed dancing not indulged in by married. of origin. Weight of loads. 87. Witchcraft. of labour. belief in. 200. Wattle hurdle as door of hut. Watthng for hut walls. 99. 325. killing of. 46^ Value. charge of death by. 350. 185. 68. 92. Weapons. 257. picture. initiation dance near. Agumba. cause of. Trespass. 142. 239. sacred. Trials. 232. present at drinking party. Unlucky day. 181. shave heads of circumcised boys. 212. Widow. drawn from iron. 106 ff. 94. 213. byordeal. 110. decorated. felling of. 169. 82. influence of. dances of men and. practical absence of. used to cleanse vessels. 241. Tribal life. boy's Waist ornaments. dress worn by. 13. 344. scarcity of. Trees from wMch bark for string taken. Walls of hut. 134. 352. 139. Year. home 16. 151. results of abolition of. of. killing of. at initiation dance. 52. forbidden to see men eat meat. 44. 229. Masai. 14. opposition to his theory of animism. 274. INDEX Warfare. Tree. Traditions. 145. purchase of. 75. Translation of Medicine-Man. 187. Trough for salt earth. 205. 353. 227. 73. Transmigration of souls. Wood for Wooden Women. dances of. 92. 14. Wii-e-drawing. 213. 21. penalty for. method of. Triplets. 41. cited. 3. 204. 77. of God. 4. 212. Tunnelling sand. 82 ff. 151. dress of. stronger than men. sacred. 272. 3. as iron miners. 15. hand. 215. 117. ordeal. War-pits. 121. 87. ornaments. Vegetable foods. of. at sacrifice. 142. bells. unlucky. 109. 41. 256. 6. as pottery makers. fire drills. 348. 87. 121. tribal. Water-carrying. Twins. 347. 144. for dangers of. at initiation of Medicine-Man. 226. 32. goat as unit Values. 104. 44. 341. sacred. 35. Warfare. rings.. Masai. iron. 15. 59. as sacrifice. 13. 235. Masai. 74. 151. ]3<S.

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