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Jihoon Choi, Changoo Lee, Hae Won Jung, and Yong Hoon Lee

AbstractA frequency offset compensation method for OFDMFDMA, that can correct offsets after the DFT via circular convolution, is proposed as an alternative to the direct method that corrects frequency offsets by multiplying the complex exponents of the offset estimates before the DFT. In contrast to the direct method whose complexity increases proportional to the number of users, the computational load of the proposed scheme decreases as the number of users increases. It is shown that the proposed method is simpler to implement than the direct method when the number of users is greater than two. Furthermore, the former can outperform the latter, because a frequency offset compensation for one user after the DFT does not affect the data of other users. Computer simulation results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method. Index TermsCarrier synchronization, frequency offset correction, OFDM, OFDM-FDMA.

I. INTRODUCTION UE TO the fact that orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is based on using a number of subcarriers, the frequency division multiple access (FDMA) method that assigns clusters of subcarriers to different users has been recognized as a basic multiple access scheme for OFDM [1][6]. OFDM using such a FDMA method, herein referred to as OFDM-FDMA, is conceptually simple, however, its implementation needs some caution: in particular, OFDM-FDMA not only requires accurate receiver timing and a carrier frequency for each user, but also requires precise synchronization among all users in order to avoid any intercarrier interference (ICI). Synchronization between users is difficult in the uplink communication (from mobile stations to a base station). One approach to overcoming this difficulty is to use a downlink control channel which conveys the estimated synchronization information to each user [2], [3]. An alternative is to achieve synchronization via signal processing at the uplink receiver without the help of a control channel. This paper will be focused on the latter: in particular, an efficient carrier frequency compensation method at the uplink receiver will be developed. Carrier frequency synchronization at the uplink receiver is achieved via frequency offset estimation and correction.

Manuscript received March 27, 2000. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was Dr. N. Van Straleen. J. Choi and Y. H. Lee are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon, 305-701, Korea (e-mail: yohlee@ee.kaist.ac.kr). C. Lee and H. W. Jung are with the Wireless ATM LAN Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Taejon, 305-350, Korea. Publisher Item Identifier S 1089-7798(00)11509-1.

Estimating the frequency offsets for OFDM-FDMA is rather straightforward: the method in [7], which was developed for a single user OFDM, can be applied, as shown in Section II below. In contrast, the direct correction of a frequency offset by multiplying the complex exponents of the estimated offsets beforethediscrete Fourier transform(DFT)tendstorequireheavy computation and may cause some performance degradation. Since the frequency offsets associated with different users are different to each other, an offset correction followed by the DFT should be performed separately for each user. Therefore, the direct frequency compensation for OFDM-FDMA with users requires DFT blocks. Performance degradation in the direct method is caused by the fact that a frequency compensation for one user before the DFT can increase the frequency offsets in the data of other users within the DFT block. In this letter, an alternative signal processing method for frequency offset compensation is developed. This method corrects frequency offsets after the DFT using circular convolution. It is shown that the complexity of the proposed method decreases as the number of users increases and that it is simpler to im. Furthermore, the plement than the direct method when proposed method can outperform direct compensation, because a frequency offset compensation for one user after the DFT does not affect the data of the other users. Throughout this paper, for the sake of simplicity, the number of subcarriers, denoted by , and the number of users, , are assumed to be a power of two. In addition, it is assumed that subcarriers. each user is assigned II. FREQUENCY OFFSET COMPENSATION OFDM-FDMA SYSTEMS

IN

In this section, for the sake of simplicity the frequency offset compensation algorithm will be explained for OFDM-FDMA with two users, however, its complexity will be analyzed for users. A. Estimation Fig. 1 illustrates OFDM-FDMA with two users. Half of the inputs to the inverse DFT (IDFT) are set to zero, because each user occupies half of the subcarriers. To assist frequency offset estimation, a training symbol at the transmitter is shared by the users and is repeated. If the received symbols after the -point DFT ( subcarriers), corresponding to the 1st and 2nd training and symbols are denoted by , respectively, then the maximum likelihood estimate

CHOI et al.: CARRIER FREQUENCY OFFSET COMPENSATION FOR UPLINK OF OFDM-FDMA SYSTEMS

415

Fig. 2. Fig. 1. Transmitters and channels in uplink of OFDM-FDMA with two users.

(1)

Fig. 3. Frequency offset compensation after DFT (proposed).

and are the frequency offsets normalized by the where subcarrier spacing. B. Correction The frequency offsets can be corrected before the DFT, as shown in Fig. 2. In this structure, which will be referred to as the direct method, two -point DFT blocks are employed and is pre-multiplied for the frequency offset correcfor user , . After tion of the received sequence the DFT for each user, only the data recovered from the subcarriers associated with the user are retained and the rest are discarded. It should be noted that after the pre-multification of , the frequency offset of the th users data for , becomes which is close to zero when ; may be larger than when . This however, fact tends to cause some performance degradation. The number of complex multiplications for this compensator is given by . Obviously, the complexity increases as the number of users grows. Accordingly, in an attempt to reduce the computational load, frequency offset correction after the DFT is considered. Again referring to Fig. 2, if the output of the th DFT is denoted by , then

where ; and

denotes the -point DFT; represents the -point circular convolution; which can be rewritten as

(3) using (2) is more complex than the calThe calculation of culation in Fig. 2 because a circular convolution generally requires a much heavier computation than the DFT. To reduce in (2) is rethe computational load, for user 1, placed with for user 2. The use of and instead of is justified by the fact that each user only occupies one half of the subcarriers (Fig. 1). Futhercan be approximated by more,

(4) is the number of nonzero elements in . It is aswhere is justified besumed that is an odd number. The use of in (3) are close to zero unless is close cause the values of . Using and , Fig. 2 is modified as to zero or in the structure in Fig. 3, which is the proposed method. In this method, the frequency offset compensation for one user does

(2)

416

NUMBER

OF

complexity of the proposed method decreases as the number of users increases. The proposed method with is the . simplest when III. SIMULATION RESULTS To compare the performances of the direct and the proposed method, computer simulations were performed for OFDM-FDMA. In the simulation, the following system parameters were assumed: DQPSK signaling with a rate of 25 Mbaud, , cyclic prefix duration of 12, and 1/2 convolutional code with constraint length of 5. The number of users was 4. The channel was a frequency selective Rayleigh fading model with an exponentially decaying delay profile. The root mean square delay spread was assumed to be 50 ns, and the maximum mobile speed was 5 km/h. Fig. 4 shows the bit error rate (BER) of the compensators when the frequency offsets , , , and . As were expected, the performance of the OFDM-FDMA system was significantly improved by employing the compensators. The direct and proposed compensators acted in a similar manner dB. However, for dB the when proposed method performed better than the direct method. and The performances of the proposed method when , were almost comparable. Therefore, the use of the . proposed method is recommended with IV. CONCLUSION

N = 64 and P

= 4 ( =

not influence the data of the other users. The number of complex multiplications required by the compensator can be given by

A frequency offset compensation method for OFDM-FDMA was proposed. This method corrects frequency offsets after the DFT, and is able to outperform the direct method which compensates offsets before the DFT. It was shown that the computational complexity of the proposed method decreases as the number of users increases, plus the proposed method is simpler to implement than the direct method when the number of users is greater than two. REFERENCES

[1] L. Wei and C. Schlegel, Synchronization requirements for multi-user OFDM on satellite mobile and two-path Rayleigh fading channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 887895, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995. [2] M. Wahlqvist, R. Larsson, and C. stberg, Time synchronization in the uplink of an OFDM system, in Proc. IEEE 46th Veh. Technol. Conf., Atlanta, GA, 1996, pp. 15691573. [3] J. J. van de Beek, P. O. Brjesson, M. L. Boucheret, D. Landstrm, J. M. Arenas, P. dling, C. stberg, M. Wahlqvist, and S. K. Wilson, A time and frequency synchronization scheme for multiuser OFDM, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 19001914, Nov. 1999. [4] H. Rohling and R. Grnheid, Performance comparison of different multiple access schemes for the downlink of an OFDM communication system, in Proc. IEEE 47th Veh. Technol. Conf., Phoenix, AZ, 1997, pp. 13651369. [5] N. R. Sollenberger and L. J. Cimini Jr., Receiver structures for multiple access OFDM, in Proc. IEEE 49th Veh. Technol. Conf., Houston, TX, 1999, pp. 468472. [6] C. Y. Wong, R. S. Cheng, K. B. Letaief, and R. D. Murch, Multiuser OFDM with adaptive subcarrier, bit, and power allocation, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 17471757, Oct. 1999. [7] P. H. Moose, A technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing frequency offset correction, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, pp. 29082914, Oct. 1994.

where represents the multiplications required by the DFT block (in case that the fast Fourier transthe form is used). It is interesting to note that for a given computational complexity of the proposed method decreases as the number of users increases. This is because the number of increases linearly with . zeros in Table I compares the complexity of the direct method and the proposed method for certain values of , , and . For ), the direct method is the simplest, however, two users ( , whereas the it becomes the most complex one when

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