DFD, ERD and Use case ER-model

Patient See/se en by Doctors

See/ seen by

Treated in/ house

Wards Associat e



Context level diagram for food ordering system (Level 0) Customer Kitchen 0
Food Order

Customer Order


Food Ordering System

Management Report

Restaurant Manager

2 Generate Customer Report 1.5 Generate Inventory Decrements 1.DFD level 1 of the food ordering system Customer Order 1.1 Receive Customer Order Customer Order 1.4 Generate Goods Sold Increments Goods sold data Receipt .3 Transform Order to Kitchen Format Food Order Customer Order 1.

Complete DFD of a Food ordering system Customer 1.0 Produce Managemen t Reports Daily Inventory Depletion amt Inventory File Daily Goods Sold Amounts Management Reports Restaurant manager .0 Update Inventory File Formatted Inventory Goods Sold File 4.0 Update Goods Sold File Formatted Goods Sold Data Goods Sold Inventory Data 3.0 Customer Order Kitchen Received and Transaction Customer Food Order Food Order Receipt 2.

y The books and magazines are two main entities in this system and they are issued to readers. y The entity relationship between these entities is as follows. . and its issued to readers who work in departments. y The readers belong to departments and they are given unique reader numbers y The books and magazine collections are given unique tickets to keep track of to whom they are issued. magazines.Case Studies Library Management System y This system manages the information of a college library y The library has good collection of books.

Collections # coll_no * Not null Books #book_no *book_name *size *time_publ *year_ publ cost author chief_author comp_auth *lang_no *nation_no *spec_no *coll_no kw_master kw_slave comment Languages #lang_no *lang_name *lang_vn *lang_sys Specialty #spec_no *Spec_name Nations #nation_no *nation_name *nation_vn Department #dept_no *dept_name Readers #reader_no *reader_name *dept_no address birth_date comment B/r book tickets #reader_no *book_no *book_date return_date comment Comment #primary key * not null option .

Collections # coll_no * Not null Magazine Header #magazine_head_no *mag_name *start_year imag_shefl issue_no pub_house *lang_no *nation_no *spec_no *coll_no comment Languages #lang_no *lang_name *lang_vn *lang_sys Specialty #spec_no *Spec_name Nations #nation_no *nation_name *nation_vn Department #dept_no *dept_name Readers #reader_no *reader_name *dept_no address birth_date comment B/r maga tickets #reader_no *mag_head_ no *mag_detl_no borrow_date return_date comment Comment #primary key * not null option .

y Any book that arrives. . y The information about the document suppliers through whom the magazines and books are purchased is stored in the system. entry into the library is dealt with by the system. its payments. y If the is returned then its ticket entries are accordingly updated by the system.y The main information management system can be described by the context level diagram. y The system generated various re[orts that have to be produced for management purpose. y Then the book is ready to be borrowed by the readers. y The readers from various departments are validated and they are issued the book borrowing ticket through the system. y This is validated and maintained by the system.

DFD high level Readers Readers Register Manage readers Looking up documents Readers Doc no return Infor mati on reply Reader no checking / updating Dept/ readers Process/ Borrow/ return ticket Document check Look up docume nts Looking up B/R/ ticket documents B/R ticket Documents suppliers Manage Document s Reports Document supply Report about library system Borrow excess time limit Leader of Institute Departments in institute Readers Reports .

3 register new department Dept/Readers .4 Allocate Reader_no Dept_no Reader information Receive new reader Dept_no New dept allocating Dept/Readers New department Readers 1.Readers DFD (function 1) 1.2 Check Dept_no Reader no Allocate roll_no 1.


DFD (function 2) 2.3 insert new magazine s Magazine information .1 classify new document s Documents Magazines Document suppliers 2.2 insert new books books Books information 2.

home layout Peruse descriptive content Customize safehome Select safe home components Save configuration Log on to safe home assured.com View shopping cart Purchase configuratio n Provide purchase data Recall saved configuration Complete safehome order .


Use Cases for Example ATM System .

In this case I think they are self revealing : y y y Employee Manager Administrator Then we should identify what will they do.Ex1 At first we have to identify all actors. We use generalization between actors as manager has the same use cases as employee and administrator has the same as manager plus he can edit ciphers. . y y y y y y reserve a room review reservation status cancel reservation edit holiday home data edit ciphers login Now we just have to link this together.


General model of publisher's present ordering system Following are the set of DFDs drawn for the General model of publisher's present ordering system. .DFD Example .

First Level DFD .

Second Level DFD .Showing Order Verification & credit check .

Third Level DFD .Elaborating an order processing & shipping .

which is contained in the time sheet. In this DFD there is one basic input data flow. . first the employee's record is retrieved. After total payment is determined. In this system. The basic output is the pay check. From the employee record. using the employee ID. taxes are deducted. These rates and the regular and overtime hours (from the time sheet) are used to complete the payment. To computer the tax deduction. The amount of tax deducted is recorded in the employee and company records. the rate of payment and overtime are obtained. Finally. The amount paid is also recorded in company records. information from the tax rate file is used.Ex 2 An example of a Data Flow Diagram . which originates from the source worker. the weekly time sheet.DFD for a system that pays workers is shown in the figure below. the sink for which is also the worker. the paycheck is issued for the net pay.


Management information is passed to the manager. carbons are used to update accounts and then dumped along with the delivery notes. . When the food is ready. and the order is checked with the customer.Ex 3 Chinese Takeaway The example below is an illustration of the data flow in a takeaway restaurant. At the close of business. the order becomes the delivery note for the driver. The order is taken on a carbon pad. the cost is calculated from the menu. if OK the order is stuck on a pin-board.

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