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# 2.57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes Fall 2004 Lecture 11 4.1.

1 Photons (continue) First let us continue the discussion of photons. We have 1 n = f ( , T ) = / kBT . e 1 The internal energy is

u = f ( , T ) =
kx ky kz

f ( , T ) D( )d ,

where the density of states (two transverse electromagnetic waves) is 4 k 2 dk 2 D( ) = 2 = 2 3 ; = ck for light. 3 c 2 d L Thus 2 1 u= 2 3 d = u d , 0 0 c exp ( / B T ) 1 in which we define
u = f ( , T ) D ( ) = 2 c3 exp ( 3 / B T ) 1

Recall the Plancks law as c eb , = 5 c2 /1T , (e 1) which has 5 but in u we have 3 . Noticing u =
obtain u =
u and = ck = 2 c / , we

d 2 c u = 2 u , which accounts for the power difference in above two d expressions. Therefore, we have obtained the exact Plancks blackbody radiation law. The radiation intensity, defined as energy flux per unit solid angle and normal area, is calculated as cu I = , 4 where 4 is the full solid angle (for sphere = Area / R 2 = 4 ), c is light speed.

With u = u ( )d =
0

4.1.2 Phonons

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 11

, a which is different from original max. For phonons, we have three polarizations (two transverse, one longitudinal waves). Similar to photons, we have
D() = dN 2 = 3 . Vd 2 2 v D 3

## D max Debye k /a The internal energy is U = f ( T, )

kx ky kz

f ( T, ) D ( ) d
D

3 = 2 2 v D3

exp (
0

3d . / B T ) 1

Note: For one monoatomic chain with N atoms, we have N quantum states. Similarly, for N atoms in a crystal, we have 3N quantum states (three acoustic branches) for phonons. This yields 2 D D 3 D 3 1 3 N / V = 1 = D( )d = d = , 0 0 2 2 v 3 2 2 vD 3 V kx k y kz D from which we can estimate D and the effective lattice constant a = vD

. D

## Define Debye temperature D = / k B . The specific heat is expressed as

N T CV = 9k B V D

3 /T D

x 4 e x dx , 2 ( ex 1)

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 11

in which x =

k BT

At low temperatures, the upper limit of above integration D / T and thus CV T 3 , N while in the high-temperature limit we have constant CV = 3 k B . V

Kx 2 and Note: At high temperatures, in each direction both the harmonic component 2 mv 2 contribute k BT / 2 to the internal energy. Vibrations of one ion kinetic component 2 N in three directions totally contribute k BT , which is consistent with CV = 3 k B . This V result is similar to the ideal gas case. A common Cv-T curve is drawn as following. CV

Cv ~T3

CV const

Temperature In many sources, people use the specific heat per unit mass instead of per unit volume. This normally causes a factor difference. In general, we have Cv ~ 106 J / K m3 . 4.1.3 Electrons In this case, the internal energy per unit volume is U (T ) = 2 Ef ( E , T , ) = Ef ( E , T , )D ( E ) dE ,
kx ky kz Ec

1 e
( E ) / k BT

+1

## included in D(E), the energy dispersion E E c =

2m

(k x2 + k y2 + k z2 ).

DOE E Ec

EEc

2m* 2 2 k = 2m*

(k

2 x

2 + k y + k z2

## E Ec We can use the same idea as phonons to solve , N 2 = f ( E , , T ) V V kx k y kz

= 2 V
0

dk x dk y dk z f (E, , T ) 2 / L 2 / L 2 / L

= f ( E , , T ) D ( E )dE ,

where N is the total number of electrons, and we use density of state to rewrite the summation in an integral form. The chemical potential is solved if N/V is given. The specific heat is derived as u 1 2 N T , Ce = = kB T 2 V Tf in which the Fermi temperature is defined as T f = Note: (1) When we calculate
kx ky kz

Ef kB

## f ( E, , T ) , the energy values within the energy

gap should be excluded and we should not count the corresponding wavevectors. (2) In a semiconductor, the phonons contribute much more to the specific heat than electrons. Electron contribution can only exceed that of the phonon at very low temperatures in the Cv following figure. In the equation k = , there are different specific heat C and 3 velocity v for electrons and phonons. We should also have different mean free paths. (3) For nanostructures, the energy is quantized and the summation should be conducted over the quantum numbers instead of wavevectors, such as quantum dots. (4) All current discussions are based on equilibrium state. We will talk about nonequilibrium problems later.

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 11

10 10 10 10 10 10 10

PHONON

-1

ELECTRON

-2

-3

## 10 100 TEMPERATURE (K)

1,000

in which 12 is the transmissivity, E1 f (T , E1 ) D( E1 ) has the unit J/m3, and q12 has the unit W/m2. Q1->2 1 Q2->1 x Now the question is how to calculate the transmissivity and velocity v. For nanostructures, the interface characteristic length is comparable to wavelength so that the interface is important even in the classic viewpoint. 5.1 Plane waves & their interface reflection Transmission wave Reflection wave Incoming wave x Energy barrier u 2

Chapter 5 Energy transport by waves Consider energy transported between two points. The net energy transfer rate is q12 = q12 q21 = 12 vx E1 f (T , E1 ) D( E1 )dE1 ,

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 11

Recall the above homework problem. Generally we have the wavefunction of the transmitted wave as t (t , x) = e
E i t

( x ) = e i ( t k x x ) ,
2m( E u )
2

in which k x =

## r = Be i (t + k1 x ) (reflected wave), k1 = t = Ce i (t k2 x ) (transmitted wave), k2 =

2mE
2

2m( E u )
2

The boundary conditions are applied ( i + r ) x =0 = t |x =0+ , ( i '+ r ') x =0 = t ' |x =0+ ,

which yields A + B = C ; k1 ( A B ) = k2C 2k1 B k k C or = 1 2 ; = . A k1 + k2 A k1 + k2 The flux term is (note A and k1 can be complex) i J = Re * m * i = Re Ae i (t k1x ) A* (ik1* )ei (t k1 x ) |x =0 m = = m A Re k1*ei ( k1 k1 ) x |x =0 A k1 ,
2 2

m where we use the fact that k1 is a real number in the last step.