Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

21 views

Lecture 12

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- plants any
- Invisible Radiations of Organisms by Otto Rahn
- Weight Loss Psychic Healing
- RO3000 Laminate Data Sheet_ RO3003 , RO3006 , RO3010
- Wireless Charging
- Structural and Dielectric Properties of Lanthanum Substituted Lead ZirconateTitanateFerroelctrics
- Assessment of Instrument Transformers
- Bio Photon
- IJAIEM-2013-06-17-050
- A General Sbend Approximation by Cascading Multiple Sections of Uniformly Curved Waveguides2019Journal of Physics Conference Series
- RT Duroid 6006 6010 Laminate Data Sheet [1]
- B.tech. (Elect. & Communication Engg.)
- Microwaves and Children at School - Barrie Trower Testimony
- Dielectric Materials
- waves unit plan
- Electromagnetic Spectrum Mac
- Heat Transfer Question Bank
- A New Method of Poisoning Us With Radiation_ 'High Efficiency' Light Bulbs - The Health Wyze Report
- Ninth EditionHandbookErrata
- Cell Phones and Wireless Dangers

You are on page 1of 7

For the above problem, we have obtained i = Ae i (t k1x ) (incoming wave),

Energy barrier u

2mE

2

2m( E u )

2

The boundary conditions are applied ( i + r ) x =0 = t |x =0+ , ( i '+ r ') x =0 = t ' |x =0+ ,

The incoming flux term is (note A and k1 can be complex) * i J i = Re i i m * i = Re Ae i (t k1x ) A* (ik1* )ei (t k1 x ) |x =0 m

A Re k1*ei ( k1 k1 ) x |x =0

= =

A Re k1* A k1 ,

2

( )

m where we use the fact that k1 is a real number in the last step. Similarly, we have

Jr = Jt = m

2

C Re k2* .

( )

2

* 2 C Re k2 T = Jt / Ji = . A k1

E E u , E + E u

( )

For E>u, the equation gives reflectivity R 0 in both cases shown below, which is inconsistent with classical mechanics.

When E<u, the equations yield R=1, T=0, which is reasonable from classical viewpoint. However, the wavefunction is t = Ce 0 in this case. The wave will decay rapidly from the barrier and is thus called evanescent wave.

2

it

2 m( u E )

Electromagnetic (EM) waves In this chapter, we will see that the wave reflection, interference, and tunneling phenomena can occur for all the three types of carriers (phonons, electrons, photons) and the descriptions of these phenomena are also similar. An electromagnetic wave in vacuum is characterized by an electric field vector, E , and a magnetic field vector, H . Consider a pair of charged particles placed in an electrical field. The field will attract the positively charged particle in one direction and repel the other particle in the same direction. Consequently, the particles are distorted and form an electrical dipole, whose moment is p = e d (d is the separation distance).

e d

A measure of the capability of the material responding to incoming electric field is the electric polarization per unit volume, or the dipole moment per unit volume, P [C m-2], which is related to the electric field through the electric susceptibility, , P=oE, -12 2 where o is the vacuum electric permittivity, o=8.85x10 [C N-1m-2], and the electric susceptibility is nondimensional. The electric susceptibility describes the extent to which positive and negative charges are displaced in a dielectric material under an applied electric field. The total field inside the medium is measured by the electric displacement, D [Cm-2], which is a superposition of the contributions from the external electric field and the electric polarization, D=oE+P=o(1+)E=E where is called the electrical permittivity of the medium. The electron and ion motion in a medium also induces a magnetic field, which is superimposed onto the external magnetic field. A measure of the total magnetic field inside the medium is called magnetic induction, B (N.s m-1.C-1), B=H where is the magnetic permeability. The propagation of an electromagnetic wave is governed by the following Maxwell equations: B (1) E = t This is the Farady law, which states that a changing magnetic field induces an electric field. D + Je (2) H = t Without the

D term, the above equation is the Ampere law, which says an electric t

oscillation around the ion even though they are not free to move. It is also called displace current. This term is Maxwells contribution. The current density term on the RHS is determined by J e = E , in which is electrical conductivity. (3) D = e Here e is the net charge per unit volume (C m-3). (4) B = 0 It states that there is no magnetic analog of an electric charge as in (3).

2E E 2 E= 2 + where the term Rearranging the Maxwell equations yields t t , 2E E E 2 denotes displacement, while denotes the current. Without , the t t t 2E E equation 2 E= 2 is just a regular wave function. The additional term t t corresponds to damping and is also called dissipation term.

By solving equations (1)-(5), we obtain the following results for EM waves E(r,t) = Eoexp[-i(t- k r)], k k = 2[(1+)+ie/] = 2, where the first equation has the same form as the foregoing transmitted wave. In vacuum e= =0, the second equation yields 2 k = 0 0 2 , or

0 0

= c0 k ,

in which c0 is the light speed in vacuum. This is familiar energy dispersion relationship for photons. Compared with photons, Maxwell concluded that EM waves were the same kind of wave as light. Here we also define the complex reflective index N as c N= 0 = = r = n + ik , c 0 0 0 where r = /o is called the dielectric constant or dielectric function, the real part of N, n, is the usual refractive index of materials. The imaginary part of N, k, is called the extinction coefficient, measures the damping of the electromagnetic field, which not only arises from the free electrons absorption, but also from the dipole oscillation of bounded electrons and other mechanisms. Note: The r value depends on the wave frequency and is not a constant. Based on N, k = 2 can be rewritten as

2

k =

or

2

c2

2 c0 2

c0 2 c 2

2

c0 2

N2,

k =

N . co

One can prove that the electromagnetic wave is a transverse wave, and that the electrical and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other, i.e., EHk

In the special case that a plane wave is traveling along the x-direction with the electric and magnetic fields pointing to the y- and z-direction, respectively. We also define the Poynting vector S (W/m2) as

S=EH,

which represents the instantaneous energy flux. It oscillates at twice frequency of the electromagnetic field. No electronic devices can measure such a fast signal. What can be measured is the time-averaged Poynting vector that is further expressed as 1 * S = Re E c Hc 2 .

Note: Normally we have , >0, and thus n>0 and the vector S is parallel to the wavevector k, which indicates the energy flows in the propagation direction of the wave. When , <0, the refractive index n should take a negative value. Such media do not exist in nature but has recently been demonstrated in laboratories, are called negative index materials or left handed materials. In these materials, the energy propagation direct is opposite to the phase propagation direction. Here we will consider the more general case of oblique incidence of an electromagnetic wave onto an interface. As shown in the following figure, a plane electromagnetic wave propagates along direction ki (wave vector direction) and meets an interface with norm n . The reflected wave and refracted wave propagates along the kr and kt directions, respectively. We call the plane formed by ki and n as the plane of incidence, and the angle formed between n and ki as the angle of incidence.

Ei Hi k

n1 n2

i

kr

x

Er

x

Et

kt

z When an electric field is parallel to the plane of incidence, its conjugated magnetic field component, in this case pointing out of the paper, is perpendicular to the plane of incidence and is thus always parallel to the interface (refer to the figure). 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 12 5

In the plane wave expression obtained earlier in this lecture, we have k r = ( k sin i , 0, k cos i ) ( x, y, z ) = k ( x sin i + z cos i ) ,

N 2 =N . c0 0 Thus the incident, reflected, and transmitted electric fields can be expressed as, k=

x sin r z cos r E// r exp i t n1 2 o , x sin t + z cos t E// t exp i t n2 2 , o where in the second equation the negative sign before z cos r indicates different propagation direction (upward in the z direction) from the incoming and refraction waves. The subscript // means that the electric field is polarized parallel to the plane of incidence for the sketched TM transverse wave. Note: For EM waves, two transverse vibrating directions exist. In general, the resultant electric field vector will moves around in an ellipse instead of pointing in the same direction all the time. The path of the E vector is like a spiral in this situation.

Assuming there is no net surface charge or current on the interface (z=0), we can apply the continuity boundary condition to the vertical and tangential electric fields, respectively. In the x-direction, the tangential fields give n x sin i n1 x sin r r cos i E// i exp i t 1 + cos r E// r exp i t co co

n x sin t = cos t E// t exp i t 2 co where the above equation is valid only when the exponents are equal because x can take any value. Thus we have

n1 sin i = n1 sin r = n2 sin t which leads to the Snell law for reflection and refraction i=r and n1sini=n2sint, which yield cos i E// i + cos r E// r = cos t E// t . The magnitude of the magnetic field, which is pointing out of the paper, is related to the electric field by n Hy = E // . c o We can write the continuity of the tangential component of the magnetic field as n1E// i n1E// r = n2 E// t . Based on the equations for electric and magnetic fields, we obtain the reflection coefficient, r//, and transmission coefficient, t//, for a TM wave as E n 2 cos i + n1 cos t sin 2 t sin 2 t r// = // r = = E // i n 2 cos i + n1 cos t sin 2 t + sin 2 t ,

t // = E // t 2n1 cos i = E // i n 2 cos i + n1 cos t .

Note: (1) For an incident light shown as below (e.g. from air to water), in this case the refraction light will be bended and the object in the second media will looks higher if the observer is in the first media. (2) If n2<0, n1>0, the refraction light will be bended as the right figure. However, in nature no negative-n materials exist.

n1<n2

n1

n2

n2

- plants anyUploaded byParina Fernandes
- Invisible Radiations of Organisms by Otto RahnUploaded byIvan Roca
- Weight Loss Psychic HealingUploaded bySaranjit Kaur
- RO3000 Laminate Data Sheet_ RO3003 , RO3006 , RO3010Uploaded byJuliano Rodrigues Brianeze
- Wireless ChargingUploaded byDevesh Kumar Verma
- Structural and Dielectric Properties of Lanthanum Substituted Lead ZirconateTitanateFerroelctricsUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Assessment of Instrument TransformersUploaded byJohan Hendriks
- Bio PhotonUploaded byYan Kwok
- IJAIEM-2013-06-17-050Uploaded byeditorijaiem
- A General Sbend Approximation by Cascading Multiple Sections of Uniformly Curved Waveguides2019Journal of Physics Conference SeriesUploaded byary
- RT Duroid 6006 6010 Laminate Data Sheet [1]Uploaded bySaravanakumar Sermaraja
- B.tech. (Elect. & Communication Engg.)Uploaded byVenkat Eswarlu B
- Microwaves and Children at School - Barrie Trower TestimonyUploaded byoinotnaissab
- Dielectric MaterialsUploaded byDivya Gautam
- waves unit planUploaded byapi-354515934
- Electromagnetic Spectrum MacUploaded byNeelam Alizeeshan
- Heat Transfer Question BankUploaded byraj
- A New Method of Poisoning Us With Radiation_ 'High Efficiency' Light Bulbs - The Health Wyze ReportUploaded bydoggydog
- Ninth EditionHandbookErrataUploaded byDuvan Trilleras
- Cell Phones and Wireless DangersUploaded bysalmaankhwaja
- Capacitor WaUploaded byMd Rizwan Ahmad
- Dielectric and ElectricalUploaded byjose miranda
- QuestionsUploaded bySakthidasan Sankaran
- 0625_y03_sw_9Uploaded byzahra
- FrequencyUploaded byahmedsarwar
- Reviewer for Science 10Uploaded bypia guiret
- 9910019Uploaded byMohamed IBrahim
- Batra 1972Uploaded byDasikaPushkar
- scenihr_o_019Uploaded byacethi8855
- 4_166438761633153044.pdfUploaded byAbdulrazzaqAL-Maliky

- 41.basicUploaded bycaptainhass
- Taking Birth Control Pills to Fight AcneUploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 23Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 22Uploaded bycaptainhass
- 32.basicUploaded bycaptainhass
- 31.basicUploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 21Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 20Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 19Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 18Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 17Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 16Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 15Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 14Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 13Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 11Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 10Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 9Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 8Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 7Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 6Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 5Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 4Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 3Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 2Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 1Uploaded bycaptainhass
- Lecture 24Uploaded bycaptainhass
- L-44(GDR)(ET) ((EE)NPTEL)Uploaded byyashaswiyellapragada
- StartersUploaded bySri Jai Priya

- The Fisherman and His Soul-Oscar WildeUploaded byChaliq Cee
- EDEL453 Spring2013 BrittiniMROZEK Unit 4 Civics DAY 5 (1)Uploaded bymrozekb
- The consulting processUploaded byRidhiRabra
- Beis Moshiach #621Uploaded byBoruch Brandon Merkur
- 1-s2.0-0272494495900063-mainUploaded byAlberto Rico
- 72. JUSMAG-vs-NLRCUploaded byKling King
- Bjork Essay EditedUploaded byCR Wikeley
- p2(567)Uploaded byPilar Aguilar Malpartida
- 1707Uploaded byJunaid Naseer
- [Architecture eBook] Luis Barragan the Architect of the Mexican Garden of EdenUploaded byRocio Y?
- Temples in ChUploaded byHari Krishnan
- Hyper ConeUploaded byKarl PI Onehundred Group-Five
- o f f i c i a l p uUploaded byjamiebraman
- 7. Rhythmic Wave DiagramsUploaded byCameron Gardner
- Fichamento - Pensamento Selvagem - Levi-StraussUploaded byLucas Cunha
- web2 0Uploaded byapi-259098071
- Anglo Continental Teacher Training 2014Uploaded byJoins 세계유학
- Thesis vs ReportUploaded byPiyush
- Rainer J. Kaus Plea for tolerance — Lion Feuchtwanger’s novel The Jewess of ToledoUploaded byismetjaku
- PA_reportUploaded byNYTX
- BP-FinalUploaded byPratik Bhagat
- AspiraUploaded byYork Daily Record/Sunday News
- Perak English Partial Answer WMUploaded byJoanne Ngau
- Job BurnoutUploaded bygalih trias farobi
- 65b34separation of PowersUploaded byshrey narula
- Staniloae1Uploaded bystjeromes
- 1-1-1 ENGLISH COREUploaded bydevipreethi
- Ibn Hazms Controversy With ChristiansUploaded byislamicthinker
- ChapterI Introduction to Economics.Uploaded byVirencarpediem
- Amnesia DisociativaUploaded byW Andrés S Medina